WorldWideScience

Sample records for detect plant diseases

  1. Detection of plant leaf diseases using image segmentation and soft computing techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Vijai; Misra, A.K

    Agricultural productivity is something on which economy highly depends. This is the one of the reasons that disease detection in plants plays an important role in agriculture field, as having disease in plants are quite natural...

  2. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  3. Detection of Disease Symptoms on Hyperspectral 3d Plant Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, Ribana; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Dupuis, Jan; Kuhlmann, Heiner; Plümer, Lutz

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the benefit of combining hyperspectral images information with 3D geometry information for the detection of Cercospora leaf spot disease symptoms on sugar beet plants. Besides commonly used one-class Support Vector Machines, we utilize an unsupervised sparse representation-based approach with group sparsity prior. Geometry information is incorporated by representing each sample of interest with an inclination-sorted dictionary, which can be seen as an 1D topographic dictionary. We compare this approach with a sparse representation based approach without geometry information and One-Class Support Vector Machines. One-Class Support Vector Machines are applied to hyperspectral data without geometry information as well as to hyperspectral images with additional pixelwise inclination information. Our results show a gain in accuracy when using geometry information beside spectral information regardless of the used approach. However, both methods have different demands on the data when applied to new test data sets. One-Class Support Vector Machines require full inclination information on test and training data whereas the topographic dictionary approach only need spectral information for reconstruction of test data once the dictionary is build by spectra with inclination.

  4. Using Deep Learning for Image-Based Plant Disease Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sharada P; Hughes, David P; Salathé, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Crop diseases are a major threat to food security, but their rapid identification remains difficult in many parts of the world due to the lack of the necessary infrastructure. The combination of increasing global smartphone penetration and recent advances in computer vision made possible by deep learning has paved the way for smartphone-assisted disease diagnosis. Using a public dataset of 54,306 images of diseased and healthy plant leaves collected under controlled conditions, we train a deep convolutional neural network to identify 14 crop species and 26 diseases (or absence thereof). The trained model achieves an accuracy of 99.35% on a held-out test set, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the approach of training deep learning models on increasingly large and publicly available image datasets presents a clear path toward smartphone-assisted crop disease diagnosis on a massive global scale.

  5. Using Deep Learning for Image-Based Plant Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sharada P.; Hughes, David P.; Salathé, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Crop diseases are a major threat to food security, but their rapid identification remains difficult in many parts of the world due to the lack of the necessary infrastructure. The combination of increasing global smartphone penetration and recent advances in computer vision made possible by deep learning has paved the way for smartphone-assisted disease diagnosis. Using a public dataset of 54,306 images of diseased and healthy plant leaves collected under controlled conditions, we train a deep convolutional neural network to identify 14 crop species and 26 diseases (or absence thereof). The trained model achieves an accuracy of 99.35% on a held-out test set, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the approach of training deep learning models on increasingly large and publicly available image datasets presents a clear path toward smartphone-assisted crop disease diagnosis on a massive global scale. PMID:27713752

  6. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, immunofluorescence (IF, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, flow cytometry (FCM and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases.

  7. Detection of diseased plants by analysis of volatile organic compound emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Wildt, J.; Kappers, I.F.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Hofstee, J.W.; Henten, van E.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the detection of diseased plants by analysis of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. It includes an overview of studies that report on the impact of infectious and noninfectious diseases on these emissions and discusses the specificity of disease-induced emissions. The

  8. Detection of diseased plants by analysis of volatile organic compound emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Wildt, J.; Kappers, I.F.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Hofstee, J.W.; Henten, van E.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the detection of diseased plants by analysis of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. It includes an overview of studies that report on the impact of infectious and noninfectious diseases on these emissions and discusses the specificity of disease-induced emissions. The r

  9. Automatic detection of diseased tomato plants using thermal and stereo visible light images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-e-Ahmed Raza

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely detection of plant diseases can help mitigate the worldwide losses experienced by the horticulture and agriculture industries each year. Thermal imaging provides a fast and non-destructive way of scanning plants for diseased regions and has been used by various researchers to study the effect of disease on the thermal profile of a plant. However, thermal image of a plant affected by disease has been known to be affected by environmental conditions which include leaf angles and depth of the canopy areas accessible to the thermal imaging camera. In this paper, we combine thermal and visible light image data with depth information and develop a machine learning system to remotely detect plants infected with the tomato powdery mildew fungus Oidium neolycopersici. We extract a novel feature set from the image data using local and global statistics and show that by combining these with the depth information, we can considerably improve the accuracy of detection of the diseased plants. In addition, we show that our novel feature set is capable of identifying plants which were not originally inoculated with the fungus at the start of the experiment but which subsequently developed disease through natural transmission.

  10. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the

  11. Fungal disease detection in plants: Traditional assays, novel diagnostic techniques and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Monalisa; Ray, Asit; Dash, Swagatika; Mishra, Abtar; Achary, K Gopinath; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Singh, Shikha

    2017-01-15

    Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the "gold standard" in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant Diseases & Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Sherm

    2008-01-01

    This course discusses the use of chemicals for plant disease control. Specifically, pesticides that can be used both in commercial or home/yard sitautions. This course also teaches how to determine plant diseases that may have caused a plant to die.

  13. Multicolor Fluorescence Imaging as a Candidate for Disease Detection in Plant Phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bueno, María L.; Pineda, Mónica; Cabeza, Francisco M.; Barón, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The negative impact of conventional farming on environment and human health make improvements on farming management mandatory. Imaging techniques are implemented in remote sensing for monitoring crop fields and plant phenotyping programs. The increasingly large size and complexity of the data obtained by these techniques, makes the implementation of powerful mathematical tools necessary in order to identify informative parameters and to apply them in precision agriculture. Multicolor fluorescence imaging is a useful approach for the study of plant defense responses to stress factors at bench scale. However, it has not been fully applied to plant phenotyping. This work evaluates the possible application of multicolor fluorescence imaging in combination with thermography for the particular case of zucchini plants affected by soft-rot, caused by Dickeya dadantii. Several statistical models -based on logistic regression analysis (LRA) and artificial neural networks (ANN)- were obtained for the experimental system zucchini-D. dadantii, which classify new samples as “healthy” or “infected.” The LRA worked best in identifying high dose-infiltrated leaves (in infiltrated and non-infiltrated areas) whereas ANN offered a higher accuracy at identifying low dose-infiltrated areas. To assess the applicability of these results to cucurbits in a more general way, these models were validated for melon infected by the same pathogen, achieving accurate predictions for the infiltrated areas. The values of accuracy achieved are comparable to those found in the literature for classifiers identifying other infections based on data obtained by different techniques. Thus, MCFI in combination with thermography prove useful at providing data at lab scale that can be analyzed by machine learning. This approach could be scaled up to be applied in plant phenotyping. PMID:27994607

  14. Multicolor fluorescence imaging as a candidate for disease detection in plant phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Pérez-Bueno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of conventional farming on environment and human health make improvements on farming management mandatory. Imaging techniques are implemented in remote sensing for monitoring crop fields and plant phenotyping programs. The increasingly large size and complexity of the data obtained by these techniques, makes the implementation of powerful mathematical tools necessary in order to identify informative parameters and to apply them in precision agriculture.Multicolor fluorescence imaging is a useful approach for the study of plant defense responses to stress factors at bench scale. However, it has not been fully applied to plant phenotyping. This work evaluates the possible application of multicolor fluorescence imaging in combination with thermography for the particular case of zucchini plants affected by soft rot, caused by Dickeya dadantii. Several statistical models -based on logistic regression analysis (LRA and artificial neural networks (ANN- were obtained for the experimental system zucchini-D. dadantii, which classify new samples as healthy or infected. The LRA worked best in identifying high dose-infiltrated leaves (in infiltrated and non-infiltrated areas whereas ANN offered a higher accuracy at identifying low dose-infiltrated areas. To assess the applicability of these results to cucurbits in a more general way, these models were validated for melon infected by the same pathogen, achieving accurate predictions for the infiltrated areas. The values of accuracy achieved are comparable to those found in the literature for classifiers identifying other infections based on data obtained by different techniques. Thus, MCFI in combination with thermography prove useful at providing data at lab scale that can be analyzed by machine learning. This approach could be scaled up to be applied in plant phenotyping.

  15. Detection and measurement of plant disease symptoms using visible-wavelength photography and image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease assessment is required for many purposes including predicting yield loss, monitoring and forecasting epidemics, judging host resistance, and for studying fundamental biological host-pathogen processes. Inaccurate and/or imprecise assessments can result in incorrect conclusions or actions. Im...

  16. Light-Weight Multispectral Uav Sensors and Their Capabilities for Predicting Grain Yield and Detecting Plant Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebiker, S.; Lack, N.; Abächerli, M.; Läderach, S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of new light-weight multispectral sensors for micro UAV and their application to selected tasks in agronomical research and agricultural practice. The investigations are based on a series of flight campaigns in 2014 and 2015 covering a number of agronomical test sites with experiments on rape, barley, onion, potato and other crops. In our sensor comparison we included a high-end multispectral multiSPEC 4C camera with bandpass colour filters and reference channel in zenith direction and a low-cost, consumer-grade Canon S110 NIR camera with Bayer pattern colour filters. Ground-based reference measurements were obtained using a terrestrial hyperspectral field spectrometer. The investigations show that measurements with the high-end system consistently match very well with ground-based field spectrometer measurements with a mean deviation of just 0.01-0.04 NDVI values. The low-cost system, while delivering better spatial resolutions, expressed significant biases. The sensors were subsequently used to address selected agronomical questions. These included crop yield estimation in rape and barley and plant disease detection in potato and onion cultivations. High levels of correlation between different vegetation indices and reference yield measurements were obtained for rape and barley. In case of barley, the NDRE index shows an average correlation of 87% with reference yield, when species are taken into account. With high geometric resolutions and respective GSDs of down to 2.5 cm the effects of a thrips infestation in onion could be analysed and potato blight was successfully detected at an early stage of infestation.

  17. Validation of Plant Virus Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadewijk, van A.R.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Verbeek, M.; Verhoeven, J.Th.J.

    2011-01-01

    Validation of test methods is required for laboratories seeking ISO 17025 accreditation. Recently developed manuals help choosing relevant performance characteristics to be studied for qualitative tests common in plant virus detection. For routine testing in certification schemes additional

  18. Signaling in Plant Disease Resistance and Symbiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songzi Zhao; Xiaoquan Qi

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between plants and microbes result in plant disease and symbiosis. The former causes considerable economic damage in modern agriculture, while the latter has produced great beneficial effects to our agriculture system. Comparison of the two interactions has revealed that a common panel of signaling pathways might participate in the establishment of the equilibrium between plant and microbes or its break-up. Plants appear to detect both pathogenic and symbiotic microbes by a similar set of genes. All symbiotic microbes seem to produce effectors to overcome plant basal defenses and it is speculated that symbiotic effectors have functions similar to pathogenic ones. Signaling molecules, salicylic acid (SA),jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET), are involved in both plant defense and symbiosis. Switching off signals contributing to deterioration of disease symptom would establish a new equilibrium between plant and pathogenic microbes. This would facilitate the development of strategies for durable disease resistance.

  19. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  20. Silicon in plant disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ampélio Pozza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available All essential nutrients can affect the incidence and severity of plant diseases. Although silicon (Si is not considered as an essential nutrient for plants, it stands out for its potential to decrease disease intensity in many crops. The mechanism of Si action in plant resistance is still unclear. Si deposition in plant cell walls raised the hypothesis of a possible physical barrier to pathogen penetration. However, the increased activity of phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidases and peroxidases in plants treated with Si demonstrates the involvement of this element in the induction of plant defense responses. The studies examined in this review address the role of Si in disease control and the possible mechanisms involved in the mode of Si action in disease resistance in plants.

  1. Disease cycle approach to plant disease prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolf, Erick D; Isard, Scott A

    2007-01-01

    Plant disease cycles represent pathogen biology as a series of interconnected stages of development including dormancy, reproduction, dispersal, and pathogenesis. The progression through these stages is determined by a continuous sequence of interactions among host, pathogen, and environment. The stages of the disease cycle form the basis of many plant disease prediction models. The relationship of temperature and moisture to disease development and pathogen reproduction serve as the basis for most contemporary plant disease prediction systems. Pathogen dormancy and inoculum dispersal are considered less frequently. We found extensive research efforts evaluating the performance of prediction models as part of operation disease management systems. These efforts appear to be greater than just a few decades ago, and include novel applications of Bayesian decision theory. Advances in information technology have stimulated innovations in model application. This trend must accelerate to provide the disease management strategies needed to maintain global food supplies.

  2. Global Disease Detectives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-21

    This podcast documents U.S. efforts to prevent, detect, and control emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS and pandemic influenza.  Created: 9/21/2010 by CDC Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 9/21/2010.

  3. Application of plant impedance for diagnosing plant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huirong; Jiang, Xuesong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Biological cells have components acting as electrical elements that maintain the health of the cell by regulation of the electrical charge content. Plant impedance is decided by the state of plant physiology and pathology. Plant physiology and pathology can be studies by measuring plant impedance. The effect of Cucumber Mosaic Virus red bean isolate (CMV-RB) on electrical resistance of tomato leaves was studied by the method of impedance measurement. It was found that the value of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB was smaller than that in sound plant leaves. This decrease of impedances in leaf tissue was occurred with increased severity of disease. The decrease of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB could be detected by electrical resistance detecting within 4 days after inoculation even though significant visible differences between the control and the infected plants were not noted, so that the technique for measurement of tomato leaf tissue impedance is a rapid, clever, simple method on diagnosis of plant disease.

  4. Disease Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sekhwal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed effective mechanisms to recognize and respond to infections caused by pathogens. Plant resistance gene analogs (RGAs, as resistance (R gene candidates, have conserved domains and motifs that play specific roles in pathogens’ resistance. Well-known RGAs are nucleotide binding site leucine rich repeats, receptor like kinases, and receptor like proteins. Others include pentatricopeptide repeats and apoplastic peroxidases. RGAs can be detected using bioinformatics tools based on their conserved structural features. Thousands of RGAs have been identified from sequenced plant genomes. High-density genome-wide RGA genetic maps are useful for designing diagnostic markers and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL or markers associated with plant disease resistance. This review focuses on recent advances in structures and mechanisms of RGAs, and their identification from sequenced genomes using bioinformatics tools. Applications in enhancing fine mapping and cloning of plant disease resistance genes are also discussed.

  5. Disease Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhwal, Manoj Kumar; Li, Pingchuan; Lam, Irene; Wang, Xiue; Cloutier, Sylvie; You, Frank M

    2015-08-14

    Plants have developed effective mechanisms to recognize and respond to infections caused by pathogens. Plant resistance gene analogs (RGAs), as resistance (R) gene candidates, have conserved domains and motifs that play specific roles in pathogens' resistance. Well-known RGAs are nucleotide binding site leucine rich repeats, receptor like kinases, and receptor like proteins. Others include pentatricopeptide repeats and apoplastic peroxidases. RGAs can be detected using bioinformatics tools based on their conserved structural features. Thousands of RGAs have been identified from sequenced plant genomes. High-density genome-wide RGA genetic maps are useful for designing diagnostic markers and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) or markers associated with plant disease resistance. This review focuses on recent advances in structures and mechanisms of RGAs, and their identification from sequenced genomes using bioinformatics tools. Applications in enhancing fine mapping and cloning of plant disease resistance genes are also discussed.

  6. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  7. Optical Inspection and Morphological Analysis of Diospyros kaki Plant Leaves for the Detection of Circular Leaf Spot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchire Eranga Wijesinghe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using the bio-photonic imaging technique to assess symptoms of circular leaf spot (CLS disease in Diospyros kaki (persimmon leaf samples was investigated. Leaf samples were selected from persimmon plantations and were categorized into three groups: healthy leaf samples, infected leaf samples, and healthy-looking leaf samples from infected trees. Visually non-identifiable reduction of the palisade parenchyma cell layer thickness is the main initial symptom, which occurs at the initial stage of the disease. Therefore, we established a non-destructive bio-photonic inspection method using a 1310 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT system. These results confirm that this method is able to identify morphological differences between healthy leaves from infected trees and leaves from healthy and infected trees. In addition, this method has the potential to generate significant cost savings and good control of CLS disease in persimmon fields.

  8. Optical Inspection and Morphological Analysis of Diospyros kaki Plant Leaves for the Detection of Circular Leaf Spot Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-08-12

    The feasibility of using the bio-photonic imaging technique to assess symptoms of circular leaf spot (CLS) disease in Diospyros kaki (persimmon) leaf samples was investigated. Leaf samples were selected from persimmon plantations and were categorized into three groups: healthy leaf samples, infected leaf samples, and healthy-looking leaf samples from infected trees. Visually non-identifiable reduction of the palisade parenchyma cell layer thickness is the main initial symptom, which occurs at the initial stage of the disease. Therefore, we established a non-destructive bio-photonic inspection method using a 1310 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. These results confirm that this method is able to identify morphological differences between healthy leaves from infected trees and leaves from healthy and infected trees. In addition, this method has the potential to generate significant cost savings and good control of CLS disease in persimmon fields.

  9. Engineering disease resistance in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.H.H.V.

    2007-01-01

    The genetic engineering of plants for increased pathogen resistance has engaged researchers and companies for decades. Until now, thenumberof crops with genetically engineered disease resistance traits which have entered the market are limited to products displaying virus an

  10. Plant disease diagnostic capabilities and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sally A; Beed, Fen D; Harmon, Carrie Lapaire

    2009-01-01

    Emerging, re-emerging and endemic plant pathogens continue to challege our ability to safeguard plant health worldwide. Further, globalization, climate change, increased human mobility, and pathogen and vector evolution have combined to increase the spread of invasive plant pathogens. Early and accurate diagnoses and pathogen surveillance on local, regional, and global scales are necessary to predict outbreaks and allow time for development and application of mitigation strategies. Plant disease diagnostic networks have developed worldwide to address the problems of efficient and effective disease diagnosis and pathogen detection, engendering cooperation of institutions and experts within countries and across national borders. Networking maximizes impact in the face of shrinking government investments in agriculture and diminishing human resource capacity in diagnostics and applied pathology. New technologies promise to improve the speed and accuracy of disease diagnostics and pathogen detection. Widespread adoption of standard operating procedures and diagnostic laboratory accreditation serve to build trust and confidence among institutions. Case studies of national, regional, and international diagnostic networks are presented.

  11. PLANT ISOFLAVONES: BIOSYNHTESIS, DETECTION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Naumenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological properties, chemical structures and biosynthesis pathways of plant isoflavones, especially soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein are reviewed. The structures of isoflavones, and their aglicone and glucosides (glycosides forms as well as isoflavone biosynthesis pathways are described. General information about the advanced methods for the detection of isoflavones and their conjugates are considered. The importance of the profiling of isoflavones, flavonoids and their conjugates by means of analytical tools and methods to dissolve some questions in biology and medicine is discussed. The review provides data on the major isoflavone content in some vegetable crops and in the tissues of different soybean varieties. Health benefits and treatment or preventive properties of isoflavones for cancer, cardiovascular, endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders are highlighted. The mechanisms that may explain their positive biological effects are considered. The information on the application of advanced technologies to create new plant forms producing isoflavonoids with a predicted level of isoflavones, which is the most favorable for the treatment is given. The possibilities to use the metabolic engineering for the increasing of accumulation and synthesis of isoflavones at the non-legume crops such as tobacco, Arabidopsis and maize are considered. The examples how the plant tissues, which are not naturally produced of the isoflavones, can obtain potential for the synthesis of biologically active compounds via inducing of the activity of the introduced enzyme isoflavon synthase, are given. Specific biochemical pathways for increasing the synthesis of isoflavone genistein in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues are discussed. It is concluded that plant genetic engineering which is focused on modification of the secondary metabolites contain in plant tissues, enables to create the new crop varieties with improved agronomic properties and

  12. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  13. Global Disease Detectives in Kibera

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-06

    In partnership with our disease detectives, urban poor open their homes to the world to prevent and control emerging diseases.  Created: 12/6/2010 by CDC Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 12/6/2010.

  14. Early Detection of Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to detect disease outbreaks early is important in order to minimize morbidity and mortality through timely implementation of disease prevention and control measures. Many national, state, and local health departments are launching disease surveillance systems with daily analyses of hospital emergency department visits, ambulance dispatch calls, or pharmacy sales for which population-at-risk information is unavailable or irrelevant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We propose a pr...

  15. Using photosynthesis to detect plant stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Two Stennis Space Center scientists use a photosynthesis measuring system on a pine tree at the Harrison County Experimental Forest about 15 miles north of Gulfport, Miss. The scientists have discovered a new method of detecting plant stress.

  16. Microbially produced phytotoxins and plant disease management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbially produced phytotoxins and plant disease management. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Pathogenic fungi and bacteria often damage their host (plants) tissues by producing toxic metabolites, which induced various symptoms ...

  17. Climate change: potential impact on plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S; Tiedemann, A V; Teng, P S

    2000-06-01

    Global climate has changed since pre-industrial times. Atmospheric CO(2), a major greenhouse gas, has increased by nearly 30% and temperature has risen by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C. The intergovernmental panel on climate change predicts that with the current emission scenario, global mean temperature would rise between 0.9 and 3.5 degrees C by the year 2100. There are, however, many uncertainties that influence these predictions. Despite the significance of weather on plant diseases, comprehensive analysis of how climate change will influence plant diseases that impact primary production in agricultural systems is presently unavailable. Evaluation of the limited literature in this area suggests that the most likely impact of climate change will be felt in three areas: in losses from plant diseases, in the efficacy of disease management strategies and in the geographical distribution of plant diseases. Climate change could have positive, negative or no impact on individual plant diseases. More research is needed to obtain base-line information on different disease systems. Most plant disease models use different climatic variables and operate at a different spatial and temporal scale than do the global climate models. Improvements in methodology are necessary to realistically assess disease impacts at a global scale.

  18. Ozone damage detection in cantaloupe plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Thomas, C. E.; Bowen, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Ozone causes up to 90 percent of air pollution injury to vegetation in the United States; excess ozone affects plant growth and development and can cause undetected decrease in yields. Laboratory and field reflectance measurements showed that ozone-damaged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) leaves had lower water contents and higher reflectance than did nondamaged leaves. Cantaloupe plants which were lightly, severely, and very severely ozone-damaged were distinguishable from nondamaged plants by reflectance measurements in the 1.35- to 2.5 micron near-infrared water absorption waveband. Ozone-damaged leaf areas were detected photographically 16 h before the damage was visible. Sensors are available for use with aircraft and spacecraft that possibly could be used routinely to detect ozone-damaged crops.

  19. Ozone damage detection in cantaloupe plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausman, H.W.; Escobar, D.E.; Rodriguez, R.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Bowen, R.L.

    1978-04-01

    Ozone causes up to 90 percent of air pollution injury to vegetation in the United States; excess ozone affects plant growth and development and can cause undetected decrease in yields. Laboratory and field reflectance measurements showed that ozone-damaged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) leaves had lower water contents and higher reflectance than did nondamaged leaves. Cantaloupe plants which were lightly, severely, and very severely ozone-damaged were distinguishable from nondamaged plants by reflectance measurements in the 1.35 to 2.5-..mu..m near-infrared water absorption waveband. Ozone-damaged leaf areas were detected photographically 16 h before the damage was visible. Sensors are available for use with aircraft and spacecraft that possibly could be used routinely to detect ozone-damaged crops. 21 references, 3 figures.

  20. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  1. Plant-microbe interactions and the new biotechnological methods of plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, E; Bonaterra, A; Badosa, E; Francés, J; Alemany, J; Llorente, I; Moragrega, C

    2002-12-01

    Plants constitute an excellent ecosystem for microorganisms. The environmental conditions offered differ considerably between the highly variable aerial plant part and the more stable root system. Microbes interact with plant tissues and cells with different degrees of dependence. The most interesting from the microbial ecology point of view, however, are specific interactions developed by plant-beneficial (either non-symbiotic or symbiotic) and pathogenic microorganisms. Plants, like humans and other animals, also become sick, but they have evolved a sophisticated defense response against microbes, based on a combination of constitutive and inducible responses which can be localized or spread throughout plant organs and tissues. The response is mediated by several messenger molecules that activate pathogen-responsive genes coding for enzymes or antimicrobial compounds, and produces less sophisticated and specific compounds than immunoglobulins in animals. However, the response specifically detects intracellularly a type of protein of the pathogen based on a gene-for-gene interaction recognition system, triggering a biochemical attack and programmed cell death. Several implications for the management of plant diseases are derived from knowledge of the basis of the specificity of plant-bacteria interactions. New biotechnological products are currently being developed based on stimulation of the plant defense response, and on the use of plant-beneficial bacteria for biological control of plant diseases (biopesticides) and for plant growth promotion (biofertilizers).

  2. Combating plant diseases--the Darwin connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollomon, Derek W; Brent, Keith J

    2009-11-01

    Although Darwin knew of plant diseases, he did not study them as part of his analysis of natural selection. Effective plant disease control has only been developed after his death. This article explores the relevance of Darwin's ideas to three problem areas with respect to diseases caused by fungi: emergence of new diseases, loss of disease resistance bred into plants and development of fungicide resistance. Darwin's concept of change through natural or artificial selection relied on selection of many small changes, but subsequent genetic research has shown that change can also occur through large steps. Appearance of new diseases can involve gene duplication, transfer or recombination, but all evidence points to both host plant resistance and fungicide susceptibility being overcome through point mutations. Because the population size of diseases such as rusts and powdery and downy mildews is so large, all possible point mutations are likely to occur daily, even during moderate epidemics. Overcoming control measures therefore reflects the overall fitness of these mutants, and much resource effort is being directed towards assessment of their fitness, both in the presence and in the absence of selection. While recent developments in comparative genomics have caused some revision of Darwin's ideas, experience in managing plant disease control measures clearly demonstrates the relevance of concepts he introduced 150 years ago. It also reveals the remarkable speed and the practical impact of adaptation in wild microorganism populations to changes in their environment, and the difficulty of stopping or delaying such adaptation.

  3. A Review of Detection Methods for the Plant Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-jong Ju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The early and accurate detection of plant viruses is an essential component to control those. Because the globalization of trade by free trade agreement (FTA and the rapid climate change promote the country-tocountry transfer of viruses and their hosts and vectors, diagnosis of viral diseases is getting more important. Because symptoms of viral diseases are not distinct with great variety and are confused with those of abiotic stresses, symptomatic diagnosis may not be appropriate. From the last three decades, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, developed based on serological principle, have been widely used. However, ELISAs to detect plant viruses decrease due to some limitations such as availability of antibody for target virus, cost to produce antibody, requirement of large volume of sample, and time to complete ELISAs. Many advanced techniques allow overcoming demerits of ELISAs. Since the polymerase chain reaction (PCR developed as a technique to amplify target DNA, PCR evolved to many variants with greater sensitivity than ELISAs. Many systems of plant virus detection are reviewed here, which includes immunological-based detection system, PCR techniques, and hybridization-based methods such as microarray. Some of techniques have been used in practical, while some are still under developing to get the level of confidence for actual use.

  4. Thirteen challenges in modelling plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The underlying structure of epidemiological models, and the questions that models can be used to address, do not necessarily depend on the identity of the host. This means that certain preoccupations of plant disease modelers are similar to those of modelers of diseases in animals and humans. Howeve...

  5. Induced disease resistance signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.W.M.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    To protect themselves from disease, plants have evolved sophisticated inducible defense mechanisms in which the signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene often play crucial roles. Elucidation of signaling pathways controlling induced disease resistance is a major objective in resea

  6. Bespoke microbiome therapy to manage plant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali eGopal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biological technologies are revealing that the microbiome, located in gut and rhizosphere, is responsible for maintaining the health of human beings and plants, respectively. Within the complete microbiome a ‘core-microbiome’ exists that plays the pivotal role. Recent studies in medicine have shown that an artificial mixture of bacteria representing the core gut microbiome of healthy person when transferred into gut of diseased person results in re-establishment of normal microflora in the latter leading to alleviation from diseased condition. In agriculture, plant disease management has been achieved through transfer of microbiome by mixing disease suppressive soils with disease conducive soils. However, the exact practice of transferring artificially cultivated core-microbiome as in medicine has not thus far been attempted in plant disease management. Nonetheless, as the gut and rhizosphere microbiome are known to share many common traits, there exists a good scope for accomplishing similar studies in agriculture. Based upon the information in microbiome studies of gut and rhizosphere, we propose that tailor-made core-microbiome transfer therapy can become a viable strategy for management of plant diseases in future.

  7. RNA silencing and plant viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Bo; Masuta, Chikara; Smith, Neil A; Shimura, Hanako

    2012-10-01

    RNA silencing plays a critical role in plant resistance against viruses, with multiple silencing factors participating in antiviral defense. Both RNA and DNA viruses are targeted by the small RNA-directed RNA degradation pathway, with DNA viruses being also targeted by RNA-directed DNA methylation. To evade RNA silencing, plant viruses have evolved a variety of counter-defense mechanisms such as expressing RNA-silencing suppressors or adopting silencing-resistant RNA structures. This constant defense-counter defense arms race is likely to have played a major role in defining viral host specificity and in shaping viral and possibly host genomes. Recent studies have provided evidence that RNA silencing also plays a direct role in viral disease induction in plants, with viral RNA-silencing suppressors and viral siRNAs as potentially the dominant players in viral pathogenicity. However, questions remain as to whether RNA silencing is the principal mediator of viral pathogenicity or if other RNA-silencing-independent mechanisms also account for viral disease induction. RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants as well as in animals. Further understanding of the role of RNA silencing in plant-virus interactions and viral symptom induction is likely to result in novel anti-viral strategies in both plants and animals.

  8. The Role of Image Enhancement in Citrus Canker Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Padmavathi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing is employed in numerous areas of biology to identify and analyse problems. This approach aims to use image processing techniques for citrus canker disease detection through leaf inspection. Citrus canker is a severe bacterium-based citrus plant disease. The symptoms of citrus canker disease typically occur in the leaves, branches, fruits and thorns. The leaf images show the health status of the plant and facilitate the observation and detection of the disease level at an early stage. The leaf image analysis is an essential step for the detection of numerous plant diseases. The proposed approach consists of two stages to improve the clarity and quality of leaf images. The primary stage uses Recursively Separated Weighted Histogram Equalization (RSWHE, which improves the contrast level. The second stage removes the unwanted noise using a Median filter. This proposed approach uses these methods to improve the clarity of the images and implements these methods in lemon citrus canker disease detection.

  9. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Fuentes; Sook Yoon; Sang Cheol Kim; Dong Sun Park

    2017-01-01

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using ...

  10. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  11. RAPD-based detection of genomic instability in cucumber plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... ferent properties inherent in each marker system influen- ce their effectiveness ... detect somaclonal variation in somatic embryo-derived plants from two ... plant of cultivar Profito are represented in lanes 2 and 3 in. OPG-14.

  12. Selection and Assessment of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria for Biological Control of Multiple Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Newman, Molli; McInroy, John A; Hu, Chia-Hui; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2017-08-01

    A study was designed to screen individual strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for broad-spectrum disease suppression in vitro and in planta. In a preliminary screen, 28 of 196 strains inhibited eight different tested pathogens in vitro. In a secondary screen, these 28 strains showed broad spectrum antagonistic activity to six different genera of pathogens, and 24 of the 28 strains produced five traits reported to be related to plant growth promotion, including nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production, and biofilm formation. In advanced screens, the 28 PGPR strains selected in vitro were tested in planta for biological control of multiple plant diseases including bacterial spot of tomato caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, bacterial speck of tomato caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, damping-off of pepper caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. In all, 5 of the 28 tested strains significantly reduced three of the four tested diseases, and another 19 strains showed biological control to two tested diseases. To understand the observed broad-spectrum biocontrol capacity, antiSMASH was used to predict secondary metabolite clusters of selected strains. Multiple gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites, e.g., bacillibactin, bacilysin, and microcin, were detected in each strain. In conclusion, selected individual PGPR strains showed broad-spectrum biocontrol activity to multiple plant diseases.

  13. iPathology: Robotic Applications and Management of Plants and Plant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Ampatzidis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of new technologies and the changing landscape of the online world (e.g., Internet of Things (IoT, Internet of All, cloud-based solutions provide a unique opportunity for developing automated and robotic systems for urban farming, agriculture, and forestry. Technological advances in machine vision, global positioning systems, laser technologies, actuators, and mechatronics have enabled the development and implementation of robotic systems and intelligent technologies for precision agriculture. Herein, we present and review robotic applications on plant pathology and management, and emerging agricultural technologies for intra-urban agriculture. Greenhouse advanced management systems and technologies have been greatly developed in the last years, integrating IoT and WSN (Wireless Sensor Network. Machine learning, machine vision, and AI (Artificial Intelligence have been utilized and applied in agriculture for automated and robotic farming. Intelligence technologies, using machine vision/learning, have been developed not only for planting, irrigation, weeding (to some extent, pruning, and harvesting, but also for plant disease detection and identification. However, plant disease detection still represents an intriguing challenge, for both abiotic and biotic stress. Many recognition methods and technologies for identifying plant disease symptoms have been successfully developed; still, the majority of them require a controlled environment for data acquisition to avoid false positives. Machine learning methods (e.g., deep and transfer learning present promising results for improving image processing and plant symptom identification. Nevertheless, diagnostic specificity is a challenge for microorganism control and should drive the development of mechatronics and robotic solutions for disease management.

  14. Early detection of contagious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  15. Screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Skaaby, Tea; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about temporal associations for screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease is limited. The objective of this study was to determine if screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy was associated with development of cardiovascular disease. A cohort study of three...... randomly selected groups from the general population of Copenhagen was performed. Participants (n = 5928) were examined 1982-1992 and underwent abdominal ultrasound examination to detect gallstone disease and were not informed of their gallstone status. Participants were followed up for occurrence...... of cardiovascular disease through nationwide registers until December 2014. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed including traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and apolipoprotein E genotype. Gallstone disease was identified in 10% (591/5928) of participants at baseline of whom 6.8% had...

  16. SVM and ANN Based Classification of Plant Diseases Using Feature Reduction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Pujari, Jagadeesh D.; Rajesh Yakkundimath; Abdulmunaf. Syedhusain. Byadgi

    2016-01-01

    Computers have been used for mechanization and automation in different applications of agriculture/horticulture. The critical decision on the agricultural yield and plant protection is done with the development of expert system (decision support system) using computer vision techniques. One of the areas considered in the present work is the processing of images of plant diseases affecting agriculture/horticulture crops. The first symptoms of plant disease have to be correctly detected, identi...

  17. Detection and Diagnostics of Plant Pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gullino, M.L.; Bonants, P.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This book is part of the Plant Pathology in the 21st Century Series, started in the occasion of the IX International Congress of Plant Pathology, Torino, 2008. In conjunction with the Xth International Congress of Plant Pathology, held in Beijing in August 2013. Although deriving from a Congress, th

  18. Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sunayna; Kumar, Puneet; Malik, Jai

    2013-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, including chorea and dystonia, emotional disturbances, memory, and weight loss. The medium spiny neurons of striatum and cortex are mainly effected in HD. Various hypotheses, including molecular genetics, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, metabolic dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Despite no treatment is available to fully stop the progression of the disease, there are treatments available to help control the chorea. The present review deals with brief pathophysiology of the disease, plants and phytochemicals that have shown beneficial effects against HD like symptoms. The literature for the current review was collected using various databases such as Science direct, Pubmed, Scopus, Sci-finder, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database with a defined search strategy.

  19. Control effect of lanthanum against plant disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yajia; WANG Yan; WANG Fubin; LIU Yuming; CUI Jianyu; HU Lin; MU Kangguo

    2008-01-01

    Effect of La on emergence, growth and development of Isatis indigotica Fort and Festuca arundinacea seedlings was researched by pot experiments of inoculating Rhizoctonia solani and with the mixture of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani in disinfected soil after the seeds were soaked in the solution with different concentrations of La3+. The results indicated that infection rate decreased and there were significant disease controlling effects on seed rot, bud rot and root rot caused by pathogenic fungi when the seeds were soaked by La3+. Thus, the rates of emergence of Isatis indigotica Fort. And turfgrass Festuca arundinacea were increased. When La3+ concentration was in a proper range, the growth and development of plant seedlings were promoted. Spraying La on rice plants showed a significant controling effect on Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, the EC50 of La3+ performed 128.7 and 128.1 mg/L at 1 and 7 d after spraying La in rice plants, respectively. The EC50ofLa3+ performed in vivo (in rice plant) was lower than that in vitro (171.9 mg/L).

  20. Heart Disease Detection Using Wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    González S., A.; Acosta P., J. L.; Sandoval M., M.

    2004-09-01

    We develop a wavelet based method to obtain standardized gray-scale chart of both healthy hearts and of hearts suffering left ventricular hypertrophy. The hypothesis that early bad functioning of heart can be detected must be tested by comparing the wavelet analysis of the corresponding ECD with the limit cases. Several important parameters shall be taken into account such as age, sex and electrolytic changes.

  1. Biomedical sensors for disease detection made simple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuis, Djuke

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Korea have succeeded in making a new protein detection platform, using low-cost plastic and paper substrates. Their work could help reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of infectious disease diagnosis....

  2. Biomedical sensors for disease detection made simple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuis, Djuke

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Korea have succeeded in making a new protein detection platform, using low-cost plastic and paper substrates. Their work could help reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of infectious disease diagnosis....

  3. Metal Hyperaccumulation Armors Plants against Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen; Davis, Calum A. R.; Rico, Arantza; Fang, Fang; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Preston, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the ‘elemental defense’ hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm). Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose–response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead–zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants. PMID:20838462

  4. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fones

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm. Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose-response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead-zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants.

  5. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen; Davis, Calum A R; Rico, Arantza; Fang, Fang; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2010-09-09

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm). Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose-response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead-zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants.

  6. Stochastic spatial models of plant diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D H

    2001-01-01

    I present three models of plant--pathogen interactions. The models are stochastic and spatially explicit at the scale of individual plants. For each model, I use a version of pair approximation or moment closure along with a separation of timescales argument to determine the effects of spatial clustering on threshold structure. By computing the spatial structure early in an invasion, I find explicit corrections to mean field theory. In the first chapter, I present a lattice model of a disease that is not directly lethal to its host, but affects its ability to compete with neighbors. I use a type of pair approximation to determine conditions for invasions and coexistence. In the second chapter, I study a basic SIR epidemic point process in continuous space. I implement a multiplicative moment closure scheme to compute the threshold transmission rate as a function of spatial parameters. In the final chapter, I model the evolution of pathogen resistance when two plant species share a pathogen. Evolution may lead...

  7. Climate change and plant disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, S M; Scherm, H; Chakraborty, S

    1999-09-01

    ▪ Abstract  Research on impacts of climate change on plant diseases has been limited, with most work concentrating on the effects of a single atmospheric constituent or meteorological variable on the host, pathogen, or the interaction of the two under controlled conditions. Results indicate that climate change could alter stages and rates of development of the pathogen, modify host resistance, and result in changes in the physiology of host-pathogen interactions. The most likely consequences are shifts in the geographical distribution of host and pathogen and altered crop losses, caused in part by changes in the efficacy of control strategies. Recent developments in experimental and modeling techniques offer considerable promise for developing an improved capability for climate change impact assessment and mitigation. Compared with major technological, environmental, and socioeconomic changes affecting agricultural production during the next century, climate change may be less important; it will, however, add another layer of complexity and uncertainty onto a system that is already exceedingly difficult to manage on a sustainable basis. Intensified research on climate change-related issues could result in improved understanding and management of plant diseases in the face of current and future climate extremes.

  8. Acoustic detection of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmlow, John; Rahalkar, Ketaki

    2007-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs when the arteries to the heart (the coronary arteries) become blocked by deposition of plaque, depriving the heart of oxygen-bearing blood. This disease is arguably the most important fatal disease in industrialized countries, causing one-third to one-half of all deaths in persons between the ages of 35 and 64 in the United States. Despite the fact that early detection of CAD allows for successful and cost-effective treatment of the disease, only 20% of CAD cases are diagnosed prior to a heart attack. The development of a definitive, noninvasive test for detection of coronary blockages is one of the holy grails of diagnostic cardiology. One promising approach to detecting coronary blockages noninvasively is based on identifying acoustic signatures generated by turbulent blood flow through partially occluded coronary arteries. In fact, no other approach to the detection of CAD promises to be as inexpensive, simple to perform, and risk free as the acoustic-based approach. Although sounds associated with partially blocked arteries are easy to identify in more superficial vessels such as the carotids, sounds from coronary arteries are very faint and surrounded by noise such as the very loud valve sounds. To detect these very weak signals requires sophisticated signal processing techniques. This review describes the work that has been done in this area since the 1980s and discusses future directions that may fulfill the promise of the acoustic approach to detecting coronary artery disease.

  9. The role of ethylene perception in plant disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraats, Bart Peter Johan

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that is involved in responses of the plant to various stress situations, such as pathogen attack. The role of ethylene in plant-pathogen interactions seems to be diverse. Exposure of plants to ethylene can induce disease resistance, but treatment with ethylene during

  10. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  11. Climate change effects on plant disease: Genomes to ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.; Dendy, S.P.; Frank, E.E.; Rouse, M. N.; Travers, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have reviewed the potential effects of climate change on plant disease, considering processes within plants as well as larger scale processes. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  12. Climate change effects on plant disease: Genomes to ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.; Dendy, S.P.; Frank, E.E.; Rouse, M. N.; Travers, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have reviewed the potential effects of climate change on plant disease, considering processes within plants as well as larger scale processes. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  13. DISEASE DETECTION FROM FIELD SPECTROMETER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Tawfik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Oil palm plants have been planted in large scale of areas. Ganoderma disease has been recognized and diagnosed in oil palm plants to infect almost half of the oil palm plants in Malaysia. To deal with this problem, the use of vegetation indices analysis on hyper spectral field data we will examine the ability of this data in discrimination between Ganoderma disease stages in oil palm plants which will be helpful in control the spread of the diseases. By using vegetation indices the oil palm plants could be classified into 1 (T1 healthy, 2 (T2 semi healthy and 3 (T3 severe damage plant classes accurately. The results showed that the best vegetation index is the Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio (MSR705 among the vegetation indices to discriminate between oil palm health stages. It was realized that the modification that was applied to the Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio (MSR705 index of Narrowband greenness VIs has been exhibited an acceptable results in differentiate between the oil palm plant stage 1 (T1 healthy and stage 2 (T2 semi healthy. ABSTRAK: Tanaman kelapa sawit ditanam secara meluas.  Penyakit ganoderma dikenali dan didiagnosikan menjangkiti hampir separuh tanaman kelapa sawit di Malaysia. Untuk mengawal penyakit ini daripada merebak, analisis indeks tanaman dijalankan ke atas data kawasan spektrum melampau di mana keupayaan data ini diuji dalam membezakan peringkat-peringkat penyakit Ganoderma terhadap tanaman kelapa sawit. Dengan menggunakan indeks tanaman, kelapa sawit dapat diklasifikasikan kepada 1 (T1 sihat, 2 (T2 separa sihat dan 3 (T3 rosak; kelas tanaman dengan tepat. Keputusan menunjukkan indeks tanaman terbaik sebagai Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio (MSR705 yang merupakan indeks tanaman dalam membezakan peringkat kesihatan kelapa sawit. Adalah didapati pengubahsuaian terhadap indeks Modified Red Edge Simple Ratio (MSR705 yang juga indeks Jalur Sempit Hijau VI telah memberikan keputusan yang munasabah dalam

  14. The identification and remote detection of alien invasive plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kabir Peerbhay

    This paper reviews remote sensing techniques that have been used in ... plant substrates, soil properties, the microclimate, water relations, density and height of vegetation ... the distribution of alien plant invader propagules in support of controlling the spread of alien .... Additionally, a precise weed detection system.

  15. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative

  16. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative spra

  17. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative spra

  18. Can Plant Microbiome Studies Lead to Effective Biocontrol of Plant Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jeffrey G

    2017-03-01

    In this review, the wisdom and efficacy of studies seeking disease attenuating microbes and microbiomes only in healthy plant communities is questioned and an alternative view is posited, namely that success in biocontrol of crop diseases may also come from studies of microbiota, or at least individual species isolates, associated with diseased plants. In support of this view, I summarize the current extensive knowledge of the biology behind what is probably the most successful biocontrol of a plant disease, namely the biocontrol of crown gall of stone fruit using non-pathogenic Rhizobium rhizogenes K84, in which the biocontrol agent itself came from a diseased plant.

  19. Biomarkers for early detection of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    The existence of an effective biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer disease would facilitate improved diagnosis and stimulate therapeutic trials. Multidisciplinary clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is time consuming and expensive and relies on experts who are rarely available outside of specialty clinics. Thus, many patients do not receive proper diagnosis until the disease has progressed beyond stages in which treatments are maximally effective. In the clinical trial setting, rapid, cost-effective screening of patients for Alzheimer disease is of paramount importance for the development of new treatments. Neuroimaging of cortical amyloid burden and volumetric changes in the brain and assessment of protein concentrations (eg, β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau) in cerebrospinal fluid are diagnostic tools that are not widely available. Known genetic markers do not provide sufficient discriminatory power between different forms of dementia to be useful in isolation. Recent studies using panels of biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment have been promising, though no such studies have been cross-validated in independent samples of subjects. The ideal biomarker enabling early detection of Alzheimer disease has not yet been identified.

  20. Molecular inversion probe: a new tool for highly specific detection of plant pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yih Lau

    Full Text Available Highly specific detection methods, capable of reliably identifying plant pathogens are crucial in plant disease management strategies to reduce losses in agriculture by preventing the spread of diseases. We describe a novel molecular inversion probe (MIP assay that can be potentially developed into a robust multiplex platform to detect and identify plant pathogens. A MIP has been designed for the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and the proof of concept for the efficiency of this technology is provided. We demonstrate that this methodology can detect as little as 2.5 ng of pathogen DNA and is highly specific, being able to accurately differentiate Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans from other fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and even pathogens of the same species such as Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. The MIP assay was able to detect the presence of the pathogen in infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants as soon as the tissues contained minimal amounts of pathogen. MIP methods are intrinsically highly multiplexable and future development of specific MIPs could lead to the establishment of a diagnostic method that could potentially screen infected plants for hundreds of pathogens in a single assay.

  1. Understanding plant immunity as a surveillance system to detect invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David E; Mesarich, Carl H; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2015-01-01

    Various conceptual models to describe the plant immune system have been presented. The most recent paradigm to gain wide acceptance in the field is often referred to as the zigzag model, which reconciles the previously formulated gene-for-gene hypothesis with the recognition of general elicitors in a single model. This review focuses on the limitations of the current paradigm of molecular plant-microbe interactions and how it too narrowly defines the plant immune system. As such, we discuss an alternative view of plant innate immunity as a system that evolves to detect invasion. This view accommodates the range from mutualistic to parasitic symbioses that plants form with diverse organisms, as well as the spectrum of ligands that the plant immune system perceives. Finally, how this view can contribute to the current practice of resistance breeding is discussed.

  2. Review of Studies on Rare Earth against Plant Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕康国; 张文吉; 崔建宇; 张福锁; 胡林

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural application of rare earth (RE) has been generalized for several decades, and it is involved in crops, vegetables and stock raising in China. However, all the researches on RE mainly focus on the fields such as plant physiological activity, physiological and biochemical mechanism, sanitation toxicology and environmental security. Plant protection by using RE and the induced resistance of plant against diseases were summarized. The mechanism of rare earth against plant disease is highlighted, which includes following two aspects. First, RE elements can control some phytopathogen directly and reduce its virulence to host plant. Another possibility is that RE elements can affect host plant and induce the plant to produce some resistance to disease.

  3. Plant Disease Control by the Use of Chemicals. MP-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, William D.; Bridgmon, George H.

    This document has been prepared as a reference manual providing information regarding plant diseases. The text concerns itself with the identification and development of infectious and non-infectious diseases and associated control measures. An appendix includes a glossary of plant pathological terms and a bibliography. (CS)

  4. Steigerwald - Invasive Plant Detection, Control, and Replacement with Native Plants 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would maintain and expand annual invasive plant survey, control, and monitoring on Steigerwald Lake NWR. Early detection surveys, rapid response, large...

  5. Steigerwald - Invasive Plant Detection, Control, and Replacement with Native Plants 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project would maintain and expand annual invasive plant survey, control, & monitoring on Steigerwald Lake NWR. Early detection surveys, rapid response,...

  6. Associations between Mycobacterium ulcerans and aquatic plant communities of West Africa: implications for Buruli ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Mollie; Williamson, Heather; Benbow, M Eric; Kimbirauskas, Ryan; Quaye, Charles; Boakye, Daniel; Small, Pamela; Merritt, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies have associated Buruli ulcer (BU) disease with disturbed aquatic habitats; however, the natural reservoir, distribution, and transmission of the pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, remain unknown. To better understand the role of aquatic plants in the ecology of this disease, a large-scale survey was conducted in waterbodies of variable flow throughout three regions of Ghana, Africa. Our objectives were to characterize plant communities and identify potential relationships with M. ulcerans and other mycolactone-producing mycobacteria (MPM). Waterbodies with M. ulcerans had significantly different aquatic plant communities, with submerged terrestrial plants identified as indicators of M. ulcerans presence. Mycobacterium ulcerans and MPM were detected on 14 plant taxa in emergent zones from both lotic and lentic waterbodies in endemic regions; however, M. ulcerans was not detected in the non-endemic Volta region. These findings support the hypothesis that plants provide substrate for M. ulcerans colonization and could act as potential indicators for disease risk. These findings also suggest that M. ulcerans is a widespread environmental bacteria species, but that it is absent or reduced in regions of low disease incidence. A better understanding is needed regarding the mechanistic associations among aquatic plants and M. ulcerans for identifying the mode of transmission of BU disease.

  7. Plant Diseases and Management Approaches in Organic Farming Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, A H C; Finckh, M R

    2016-08-04

    Organic agriculture has expanded worldwide. Numerous papers were published in the past 20 years comparing plant diseases in organic and conventional crops. Root diseases are generally less severe owing to greater soil health, whereas some foliar diseases can be problematic in organic agriculture. The soil microbial community and nitrogen availability play an important role in disease development and yield. Recently, the focus has shifted to optimizing organic crop production by improving plant nutrition, weed control, and plant health. Crop-loss assessment relating productivity to all yield-forming and -reducing factors would benefit organic production and sustainability evaluation.

  8. Application of multispectral systems for the diagnosis of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Guolong; Luo, Yongdao; Liang, Minyong

    2008-03-01

    Multispectral imaging technique combines space imaging and spectral detecting. It can obtain the spectral information and image information of object at the same time. Base on this concept, A new method proposed multispectral camera system to demonstrated plant diseases. In this paper, multispectral camera was used as image capturing device. It consists of a monochrome CCD camera and 16 narrow-band filters. The multispectral images of Macbeth 24 color patches are captured under the illumination of incandescent lamp in this experiment The 64 spectral reflectances of each color patches are calculated using Spline interpolation from 400 to 700nm in the process. And the color of the object is reproduced from the estimated spectral reflectance. The result for reproduction is contrast with the color signal using X-rite PULSE spectrophotometer. The average and maximum ΔΕ * ab are 9.23 and 12.81. It is confirmed that the multispectral system realizes the color reproduction of plant diseases from narrow-band multispectral image.

  9. Detection of viruses using discarded plants from wild mountain gorillas and golden monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley Evans, Tierra; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Barry, Peter A; Ssebide, Benard Jasper; Kinani, Jean Felix; Nizeyimana, Fred; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Byarugaba, Denis K; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Cranfield, Michael R; Mazet, Jonna A K; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-11-01

    Infectious diseases pose one of the most significant threats to the survival of great apes in the wild. The critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is at high risk for contracting human pathogens because approximately 60% of the population is habituated to humans to support a thriving ecotourism program. Disease surveillance for human and non-human primate pathogens is important for population health and management of protected primate species. Here, we evaluate discarded plants from mountain gorillas and sympatric golden monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis kandti), as a novel biological sample to detect viruses that are shed orally. Discarded plant samples were tested for the presence of mammalian-specific genetic material and two ubiquitous DNA and RNA primate viruses, herpesviruses, and simian foamy virus. We collected discarded plant samples from 383 wild human-habituated mountain gorillas and from 18 habituated golden monkeys. Mammalian-specific genetic material was recovered from all plant species and portions of plant bitten or chewed by gorillas and golden monkeys. Gorilla herpesviral DNA was most consistently recovered from plants in which leafy portions were eaten by gorillas. Simian foamy virus nucleic acid was recovered from plants discarded by golden monkeys, indicating that it is also possible to detect RNA viruses from bitten or chewed plants. Our findings show that discarded plants are a useful non-invasive sampling method for detection of viruses that are shed orally in mountain gorillas, sympatric golden monkeys, and potentially other species. This method of collecting specimens from discarded plants is a new non-invasive sampling protocol that can be combined with collection of feces and urine to evaluate the most common routes of viral shedding in wild primates. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1222-1234, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Evolutionary Ecology of Plant Disease: A Phylogenetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregory S; Parker, Ingrid M

    2016-08-04

    An explicit phylogenetic perspective provides useful tools for phytopathology and plant disease ecology because the traits of both plants and microbes are shaped by their evolutionary histories. We present brief primers on phylogenetic signal and the analytical tools of phylogenetic ecology. We review the literature and find abundant evidence of phylogenetic signal in pathogens and plants for most traits involved in disease interactions. Plant nonhost resistance mechanisms and pathogen housekeeping functions are conserved at deeper phylogenetic levels, whereas molecular traits associated with rapid coevolutionary dynamics are more labile at branch tips. Horizontal gene transfer disrupts the phylogenetic signal for some microbial traits. Emergent traits, such as host range and disease severity, show clear phylogenetic signals. Therefore pathogen spread and disease impact are influenced by the phylogenetic structure of host assemblages. Phylogenetically rare species escape disease pressure. Phylogenetic tools could be used to develop predictive tools for phytosanitary risk analysis and reduce disease pressure in multispecies cropping systems.

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of the neuroprotective plant adaptogen in neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson's disease as an example).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, E V; Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I A; Poleshchuk, V V; Kucheryanu, V G; Il'enko, V A; Bocharova, O A

    2010-11-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of the plant neuroprotector Phytomix-40 in Parkinson's disease was demonstrated. This preparation consists of the components from extracts of 40 plants, including some adaptogens (ginseng, eleutherococcus, Rhodiola rosea, etc.). The preparation normalized immune, antioxidant, and hormonal parameters in patients. The neuroprotective plant adaptogen can be used in complex therapy for Parkinson's disease for improving its efficacy.

  12. Molecular communications between plant heat shock responses and disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, Hye Sup; Kwon, Chian

    2012-08-01

    As sessile, plants are continuously exposed to potential dangers including various abiotic stresses and pathogen attack. Although most studies focus on plant responses under an ideal condition to a specific stimulus, plants in nature must cope with a variety of stimuli at the same time. This indicates that it is critical for plants to fine-control distinct signaling pathways temporally and spatially for simultaneous and effective responses to various stresses. Global warming is currently a big issue threatening the future of humans. Reponses to high temperature affect many physiological processes in plants including growth and disease resistance, resulting in decrease of crop yield. Although plant heat stress and defense responses share important mediators such as calcium ions and heat shock proteins, it is thought that high temperature generally suppresses plant immunity. We therefore specifically discuss on interactions between plant heat and defense responses in this review hopefully for an integrated understanding of these responses in plants.

  13. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fones, Helen; Davis, Calum A R; Rico, Arantza; Fang, Fang; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2010-01-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate...

  14. Hepatitis disease detection using Bayesian theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseleno, Andino; Hidayati, Rohmah Zahroh

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents hepatitis disease diagnosis using a Bayesian theory for better understanding of the theory. In this research, we used a Bayesian theory for detecting hepatitis disease and displaying the result of diagnosis process. Bayesian algorithm theory is rediscovered and perfected by Laplace, the basic idea is using of the known prior probability and conditional probability density parameter, based on Bayes theorem to calculate the corresponding posterior probability, and then obtained the posterior probability to infer and make decisions. Bayesian methods combine existing knowledge, prior probabilities, with additional knowledge derived from new data, the likelihood function. The initial symptoms of hepatitis which include malaise, fever and headache. The probability of hepatitis given the presence of malaise, fever, and headache. The result revealed that a Bayesian theory has successfully identified the existence of hepatitis disease.

  15. Detecting ingested plant DNA in soil-living insect larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Karin; Wallinger, Corinna; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Traugott, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Although a significant proportion of plant tissue is located in roots and other below-ground parts of plants, little is known on the dietary choices of root-feeding insects. This is caused by a lack of adequate methodology which would allow tracking below-ground trophic interactions between insects and plants. Here, we present a DNA-based approach to examine this relationship. Feeding experiments were established where either wheat (Triticum aestivum) or maize (Zea mays) was fed to Agriotes larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae), allowing them to digest for up to 72 h. Due to the very small amount of plant tissue ingested (max = 6.76 mg), DNA extraction procedures and the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) had to be optimized. Whole-body DNA extracts of larvae were tested for the presence of both rbcL and trnL plastid DNA using universal primers. Moreover, based on cpDNA sequences encoding chloroplast tRNA for leucine (trnL), specific primers for maize and wheat were developed. With both, general and specific primers, plant DNA was detectable in the guts of Agriotes larvae for up to 72 h post-feeding, the maximum time of digestion in these experiments. No significant effect of time since feeding on plant DNA detection success was observed, except for the specific primers in maize-fed larvae. Here, plant DNA detection was negatively correlated with the duration of digestion. Both, meal size and initial mass of the individual larvae did not affect the rate of larvae testing positive for plant DNA. The outcomes of this study represent a first step towards a specific analysis of the dietary choices of soil-living herbivores to further increase our understanding of animal-plant feeding interactions in the soil.

  16. [RNA silencing and viral disease induction in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara

    2012-06-01

    RNA silencing plays an important role in plant resistance against viruses. As a counter-defense against RNA silencing, plant viruses have evolved RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs). RNA silencing is likely to play a major role in disease development. For example, RSSs have been found to disturb the gene expression controlled by miRNAs in plant tissue and organ development, resulting in plant malformation. Mosaic symptoms, which are typical in virus-infected plants, are actually a consequence of local arms race between host RNA silencing and viral RSSs. In addition, recent studies revealed that viral siRNAs could induce RNA silencing even against a certain host gene and thus a disease symptom through a complementary (homologous) sequence coincidentally found between virus and host gene. RNA silencing is the principal mediator of viral pathogenicity and disease induction and therefore should be exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants as well as in animals.

  17. Pregnancy detecting plants used in Remo and Ijebu areas of Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred-Jaiyesimi, Adediwura; Taiwo, Jolaade

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Background: Plants and plants extracts are employed in cultures for religious purposes, as beauty therapies, in the detection and management/treatment of diseases. Materials and Methodology: In this study, an ethnobotanical studies of plants used in detecting pregnancy in Ijebu and Remo areas of Ogun State were carried out using semi-structured to obtain demographic data, local names of plants, the morphological parts used. Furthermore, a phytochemical analysis of two of the identified plants was performed. Topical and urine tests of plants in detecting pregnancy were designed to mimic procedures used in traditional medicine for detecting pregnancy. Results: Five plant species were identified belonging to the families Araceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Rubiaceae in the survey. The identified plants had the use value (UV) of 0.25 (Culcasia scandens), 0.17 (Ipomoea mauritiana), Boerhavia diffusa while Launea taraxacifolia and Chassalia kolly had the UV of 0.08, respectively. B. diffusa L, C. kolly (Schumach) Hepper tested positive for the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. The onset and duration of symptoms of both B. diffusa and C. kolly leaves at 2000 and 1000 mg were dose-dependent. The hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of B. diffusa and C. kolly exhibited pruritus and restlessness in the in vivo model while the urine of pregnant women caused black spots on the leaves of L. taraxacifolia (Willd) Amin Ex. C. Jeffrey. Conclusion: This study reports a rare knowledge of using plants in detecting pregnancy in the Remo and Ijebu areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. PMID:28163967

  18. Innovative tools for detection of plant pathogenic viruses and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María M; Bertolini, Edson; Olmos, Antonio; Caruso, Paola; Gorris, María Teresa; Llop, Pablo; Penyalver, Ramón; Cambra, Mariano

    2003-12-01

    Detection of harmful viruses and bacteria in plant material, vectors or natural reservoirs is essential to ensure safe and sustainable agriculture. The techniques available have evolved significantly in the last few years to achieve rapid and reliable detection of pathogens, extraction of the target from the sample being important for optimising detection. For viruses, sample preparation has been simplified by imprinting or squashing plant material or insect vectors onto membranes. To improve the sensitivity of techniques for bacterial detection, a prior enrichment step in liquid or solid medium is advised. Serological and molecular techniques are currently the most appropriate when high numbers of samples need to be analysed. Specific monoclonal and/or recombinant antibodies are available for many plant pathogens and have contributed to the specificity of serological detection. Molecular detection can be optimised through the automatic purification of nucleic acids from pathogens by columns or robotics. New variants of PCR, such as simple or multiplex nested PCR in a single closed tube, co-operative-PCR and real-time monitoring of amplicons or quantitative PCR, allow high sensitivity in the detection of one or several pathogens in a single assay. The latest development in the analysis of nucleic acids is micro-array technology, but it requires generic DNA/RNA extraction and pre-amplification methods to increase detection sensitivity. The advances in research that will result from the sequencing of many plant pathogen genomes, especially now in the era of proteomics, represent a new source of information for the future development of sensitive and specific detection techniques for these microorganisms.

  19. Plant Polyphenols as Dietary Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanti Bhooshan Pandey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health.

  20. Monitoring invasive pathogens in plant nurseries for early-detection and to minimise the probability of escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Chavez, Vasthi; Parnell, Stephen; VAN DEN Bosch, Frank

    2016-10-21

    The global increase in the movement of plant products in recent years has triggered an increase in the number of introduced plant pathogens. Plant nurseries importing material from abroad may play an important role in the introduction and spread of diseases such as ash dieback and sudden oak death which are thought to have been introduced through trade. The economic, environmental and social costs associated with the spread of invasive pathogens become considerably larger as the incidence of the pathogen increases. To control the movement of pathogens across the plant trade network it is crucial to develop monitoring programmes at key points of the network such as plant nurseries. By detecting the introduction of invasive pathogens at low incidence, the control and eradication of an epidemic is more likely to be successful. Equally, knowing the likelihood of having sold infected plants once a disease has been detected in a nursery can help designing tracing plans to control the onward spread of the disease. Here, we develop an epidemiological model to detect and track the movement of an invasive plant pathogen into and from a plant nursery. Using statistical methods, we predict the epidemic incidence given that a detection of the pathogen has occurred for the first time, considering that the epidemic has an asymptomatic period between infection and symptom development. Equally, we calculate the probability of having sold at least one infected plant during the period previous to the first disease detection. This analysis can aid stakeholder decisions to determine, when the pathogen is first discovered in a nursery, the need of tracking the disease to other points in the plant trade network in order to control the epidemic. We apply our method to high profile recent introductions including ash dieback and sudden oak death in the UK and citrus canker and Huanglongbing disease in Florida. These results provide new insight for the design of monitoring strategies at key

  1. Characterizing zoonotic disease detection in the United States: who detects zoonotic disease outbreaks & how fast are they detected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    There have been many calls for improved detection of zoonoses; research has not yet characterized zoonotic disease detection in the United States, in humans or animals. This research reviewed "who detects" zoonotic disease outbreaks and "how fast" they are detected. Definitions were operationalized based on existing literature and current practice. An outbreak database was created from publicly available records: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports and ProMed-Mail. Univariate and bivariate statistics--including chi-square tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Dunn's method were used for analysis. From an n = 101, results showed that laboratories (human health) detected 32.7% (n = 33) of the outbreaks; physicians/clinicians (human health) detected 18.8% (n = 19). The median time to was 13 days; mean was 31.7 (range = 0-492). There was a relationship between the type of the entity (laboratory, practitioner, or state agency) and how fast the outbreak was detected; state agencies were slower in detection. There was also a significant relationship between how fast an outbreak was detected and whether the outbreak occurred in multiple regions. This research provides important empirical evidence regarding U.S. zoonotic disease outbreak detection, highlighting the difficulty in rapid detection of multi-state outbreaks and the need for rapid, sensitive diagnostic testing and astute practitioners.

  2. Metal Hyperaccumulation Armors Plants against Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Fones; Calum A. R. Davis; Arantza Rico; Fang Fang; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Preston, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulation plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a...

  3. Climate change effects on plant disease: genomes to ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Dendy, S P; Frank, E E; Rouse, M N; Travers, S E

    2006-01-01

    Research in the effects of climate change on plant disease continues to be limited, but some striking progress has been made. At the genomic level, advances in technologies for the high-throughput analysis of gene expression have made it possible to begin discriminating responses to different biotic and abiotic stressors and potential trade-offs in responses. At the scale of the individual plant, enough experiments have been performed to begin synthesizing the effects of climate variables on infection rates, though pathosystem-specific characteristics make synthesis challenging. Models of plant disease have now been developed to incorporate more sophisticated climate predictions. At the population level, the adaptive potential of plant and pathogen populations may prove to be one of the most important predictors of the magnitude of climate change effects. Ecosystem ecologists are now addressing the role of plant disease in ecosystem processes and the challenge of scaling up from individual infection probabilities to epidemics and broader impacts.

  4. Salivary biomarkers for detection of systemic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilminie Rathnayake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Analysis of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva could offer an attractive opportunity for the diagnosis of different systemic conditions specifically in epidemiological surveys. The aim of this study was to investigate if certain salivary biomarkers could be used for detection of common systemic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 1000 adults living in Skåne, a county in the southern part of Sweden, was invited to participate in a clinical study of oral health. 451 individuals were enrolled in this investigation, 51% women. All participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire, history was taken, a clinical examination was made and stimulated saliva samples were collected. Salivary concentrations of IL-1β, -6, -8, TNF-α, lysozyme, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were determined using ELISA, IFMA or Luminex assays. RESULTS: Salivary IL-8 concentration was found to be twice as high in subjects who had experience of tumour diseases. In addition, IL-8 levels were also elevated in patients with bowel disease. MMP-8 levels were elevated in saliva from patients after cardiac surgery or suffering from diabetes, and muscle and joint diseases. The levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and MMP-8, as well as the MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio were higher in subjects with muscle and joint diseases. CONCLUSION: Biomarkers in saliva have the potential to be used for screening purposes in epidemiological studies. The relatively unspecific inflammatory markers used in this study can not be used for diagnosis of specific diseases but can be seen as markers for increased systemic inflammation.

  5. Detection of proteolytic signatures for Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordal, Peter Lüttge; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Winge, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate if idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is associated with distinct proteolytic signatures relative to non-neurodegenerative controls (NND) and patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Materials & methods: A subtiligase-based N-terminomics screening method was exploited...... = 11) and MSA (n = 18) samples. Results: The discovery screen detected 300 N-termini for 156 proteins. Selected reaction monitoring analysis revealed that two of these peptides differentiate IPD from NND while three peptides differentiate IPD from MSA. Conclusion: IPD is associated with distinct...

  6. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadifar, F.; Wayayok, A.; Shattri, M.; Shafri, H.

    2014-06-01

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application.

  7. Market Disease Pathogens Detection of Imported Fruits in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Teng-fei; YANG Bo; YU Yue; WANG Yi-wen; LIU Yi; XU Zhen; LIU Yan; ZHU Pin-kuan; ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Zai-bao; Toyoda Hideyoshi; XU Ling

    2009-01-01

    A tremendous amount of imported fresh fruits has been delivered to Shanghai markets,increasing the risk of invasion by harmful plant pathogens.Therefore,it is important to establish an effective detection and supervision system to survey the outbreak of the market diseases of the imported fruits during marketing.The samples were regularly surveyed in different markets to examine varieties,prices,localities,selling conditions,and diseases of the imported fruits from 2004 to 2008.The survey showed that 58 species of 30 different fruits were imported to Shanghai from 16 countries with more expensive price.The larger products were bananas,grapes,apples,and oranges.During the investigation,we found that the imported fruits frequently brought about the relatively serious market diseases.On the basis of morphology and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) analysis,151 isolates of 15 fungi genera,which shown to be pathogenic afcer the inoculation assay.were finally identified.Among the identified fungi,Alternaria was the most frequent one with the highest detection rate (47.68%),followed by Penicillium (14.57%) and Fusarium (11.92%),respectively.Additionally,Pestalotiopsis microspora (detected in grapes Red-Globe coming from the USA) and Botrytis sp.(detected in black-plums coming from the USA)were first reported in China market.The present study summarized the selling situation of the imported fruits in Shanghai markets and constructed a library of the pathogens detected in the imported fruits during the selling period.The results obtained are useful to offer technical parameters for Chinese quarantine in order to prevent an invasion of the foreign harmful micro-organisms.

  8. Non-smooth plant disease models with economic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Xiao, Yanni; Smith, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    In order to control plant diseases and eventually maintain the number of infected plants below an economic threshold, a specific management strategy called the threshold policy is proposed, resulting in Filippov systems. These are a class of piecewise smooth systems of differential equations with a discontinuous right-hand side. The aim of this work is to investigate the global dynamic behavior including sliding dynamics of one Filippov plant disease model with cultural control strategy. We examine a Lotka-Volterra Filippov plant disease model with proportional planting rate, which is globally studied in terms of five types of equilibria. For one type of equilibrium, the global structure is discussed by the iterative equations for initial numbers of plants. For the other four types of equilibria, the bounded global attractor of each type is obtained by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. The ideas of constructing Lyapunov functions for Filippov systems, the methods of analyzing such systems and the main results presented here provide scientific support for completing control regimens on plant diseases in integrated disease management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant disease management in organic farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, Ariena H C; Gamliel, Abraham; Finckh, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming (OF) has significantly increased in importance in recent decades. Disease management in OF is largely based on the maintenance of biological diversity and soil health by balanced crop rotations, including nitrogen-fixing and cover crops, intercrops, additions of manure and compost and reductions in soil tillage. Most soil-borne diseases are naturally suppressed, while foliar diseases can sometimes be problematic. Only when a severe disease outbreak is expected are pesticides used that are approved for OF. A detailed overview is given of cultural and biological control measures. Attention is also given to regulated pesticides. We conclude that a systems approach to disease management is required, and that interdisciplinary research is needed to solve lingering disease problems, especially for OF in the tropics. Some of the organic regulations are in need of revision in close collaboration with various stakeholders.

  10. Identification and Classification of Leaf Diseases in Turmeric Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandhini M,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease identification is the most important sector in agriculture. Turmeric is one of the important rhizomatous crops grown in India. The turmeric leaf is highly exposed to diseases like rhizome rot, leaf spot, and leaf blotch. The identification of plant diseases requires close monitoring and hence this paper adopts technologies to manage turmeric plant diseases caused by fungi to enable production of high quality crop yields. Various image processing and machine learning techniques are used to identify and classify the diseases in turmeric leaf. The dataset with 800 leaf images of different categories were pre-processed and segmented to promote efficient feature extraction. Machine learning algorithms like support vector machine, decision tree and naïve bayes were applied to train the model. The performance of the model was evaluated using 10 fold cross validation and the results are reported.

  11. Parkinson's disease detection based on dysphonia measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-04-01

    Assessing dysphonic symptoms is a noninvasive and effective approach to detect Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different dysphonia measurements on PD detection by support vector machine (SVM). Seven categories of dysphonia measurements are considered. Experimental results from ten-fold cross-validation technique demonstrate that vocal fundamental frequency statistics yield the highest accuracy of 88 % ± 0.04. When all dysphonia measurements are employed, the SVM classifier achieves 94 % ± 0.03 accuracy. A refinement of the original patterns space by removing dysphonia measurements with similar variation across healthy and PD subjects allows achieving 97.03 % ± 0.03 accuracy. The latter performance is larger than what is reported in the literature on the same dataset with ten-fold cross-validation technique. Finally, it was found that measures of ratio of noise to tonal components in the voice are the most suitable dysphonic symptoms to detect PD subjects as they achieve 99.64 % ± 0.01 specificity. This finding is highly promising for understanding PD symptoms.

  12. Northwest forest plants defeat pests and diseases!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha Vizcarra; Rick Kelsey; Joe. Karchesy

    2017-01-01

    Societies use biologically active chemicals as medicines and pesticides to protect human and agricultural health. But widespread use of synthetic compounds raises concerns about their safety, and resistance development in targeted pests.To find safer alternatives, scientists turned to native plants and trees in Pacific Northwest forests...

  13. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes an apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment. It comprises: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  14. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-12-31

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  15. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  16. Red/near-infrared reflectance sensor system for detecting plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bargen, Kenneth; Meyer, George E.; Mortensen, David A.; Merritt, Steven J.; Woebbecke, David M.

    1993-05-01

    Growing plants, soil types, and surfaces and residues on a soil surface have distinct natural light reflectances. These reflectance characteristics have been determined using current spectroradiometry technology. Detection of plants is possible based upon the distinct reflectance characteristics of plants, soil, and residues. An optical plant reflectance sensor was developed which utilizes a pair of red and near infrared sensitive photodetectors to measure the radiancy from the plant and soil. Another pair of sensors measures radiancy from a highly radiant reference surface to accommodate varying intensities of the natural light. The ratio of the target and reference radiancies is the target reflectance. Optical filters were used to select the spectral bandwidth sensitivities for the red and NIR photodetectors. The reflectance values were digitized for incorporation into a normalized difference index in order to provide a stronger indication that a live plant is present within the field of view of the sensor. This sensor system was combined with a microcontroller for activating a solenoid controlled spray nozzle on a single unit prototype spot agricultural sprayer.

  17. Parkinson Disease Detection from Speech Articulation Neuromechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gómez-Vilda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research described is intended to give a description of articulation dynamics as a correlate of the kinematic behavior of the jaw-tongue biomechanical system, encoded as a probability distribution of an absolute joint velocity. This distribution may be used in detecting and grading speech from patients affected by neurodegenerative illnesses, as Parkinson Disease.Hypothesis: The work hypothesis is that the probability density function of the absolute joint velocity includes information on the stability of phonation when applied to sustained vowels, as well as on fluency if applied to connected speech.Methods: A dataset of sustained vowels recorded from Parkinson Disease patients is contrasted with similar recordings from normative subjects. The probability distribution of the absolute kinematic velocity of the jaw-tongue system is extracted from each utterance. A Random Least Squares Feed-Forward Network (RLSFN has been used as a binary classifier working on the pathological and normative datasets in a leave-one-out strategy. Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted to estimate the influence of the stochastic nature of the classifier. Two datasets for each gender were tested (males and females including 26 normative and 53 pathological subjects in the male set, and 25 normative and 38 pathological in the female set.Results: Male and female data subsets were tested in single runs, yielding equal error rates under 0.6% (Accuracy over 99.4%. Due to the stochastic nature of each experiment, Monte Carlo runs were conducted to test the reliability of the methodology. The average detection results after 200 Montecarlo runs of a 200 hyperplane hidden layer RLSFN are given in terms of Sensitivity (males: 0.9946, females: 0.9942, Specificity (males: 0.9944, females: 0.9941 and Accuracy (males: 0.9945, females: 0.9942. The area under the ROC curve is 0.9947 (males and 0.9945 (females. The equal error rate is 0.0054 (males and 0.0057 (females

  18. POSSIBILITY OF PLANTS ACTIVE PARTS USAGE FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  19. SVM and ANN Based Classification of Plant Diseases Using Feature Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh D.Pujari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computers have been used for mechanization and automation in different applications of agriculture/horticulture. The critical decision on the agricultural yield and plant protection is done with the development of expert system (decision support system using computer vision techniques. One of the areas considered in the present work is the processing of images of plant diseases affecting agriculture/horticulture crops. The first symptoms of plant disease have to be correctly detected, identified, and quantified in the initial stages. The color and texture features have been used in order to work with the sample images of plant diseases. Algorithms for extraction of color and texture features have been developed, which are in turn used to train support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural network (ANN classifiers. The study has presented a reduced feature set based approach for recognition and classification of images of plant diseases. The results reveal that SVM classifier is more suitable for identification and classification of plant diseases affecting agriculture/horticulture crops.

  20. The Plant Detectives: innovative undergraduate teaching to inspire the next generation of plant biologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Beckmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Encouraging more students to embrace plant science research is an urgent global priority. We have evolved a second year undergraduate course from a standard lecture/practical format into an innovative research-led learning design that gives students hands-on experience of cutting-edge plant science research and specialist instrumentation. By making tangible the links between plant genetics, biochemistry, physiology and function, the active learning curriculum extends students to their limits, and gives them insights into the multi-faceted nature of plant science research. Using genetically-mapped mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, we challenge our students to apply their conceptual learning immediately to identify 'unknown' genetic mutations affecting plant form and function. By exposing students early in their student careers to the challenges, rigours and excitement of plant science research, we have helped them grow quickly into astute researchers who truly deserve the title 'Plant Detectives'. Many have become motivated to continue their studies as plant biologists in research-focused honours (pre-doctoral and doctoral programs.

  1. Embedded mobile farm robot for identification of diseased plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadistap, S. S.; Botre, B. A.; Pandit, Harshavardhan; Chandrasekhar; Rao, Adesh

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a mobile robot used in farms for identification of diseased plants. It puts forth two of the major aspects of robotics namely automated navigation and image processing. The robot navigates on the basis of the GPS (Global Positioning System) location and data obtained from IR (Infrared) sensors to avoid any obstacles in its path. It uses an image processing algorithm to differentiate between diseased and non-diseased plants. A robotic platform consisting of an ARM9 processor, motor drivers, robot mechanical assembly, camera and infrared sensors has been used. Mini2440 microcontroller has been used wherein Embedded linux OS (Operating System) is implemented.

  2. Optical detection dental disease using polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Matthew J. (Livermore, CA); Colston, Jr., Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Sathyam, Ujwal S. (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Fried, Daniel (San Francisco, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A polarization sensitive optical imaging system is used to detect changes in polarization in dental tissues to aid the diagnosis of dental disease such as caries. The degree of depolarization is measured by illuminating the dental tissue with polarized light and measuring the polarization state of the backscattered light. The polarization state of this reflected light is analyzed using optical polarimetric imaging techniques. A hand-held fiber optic dental probe is used in vivo to direct the incident beam to the dental tissue and collect the reflected light. To provide depth-resolved characterization of the dental tissue, the polarization diagnostics may be incorporated into optical coherence domain reflectometry and optical coherence tomography (OCDR/OCT) systems, which enables identification of subsurface depolarization sites associated with demineralization of enamel or bone.

  3. Fault Detection in Coal Mills used in Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    In order to achieve high performance and efficiency of coal-fired power plants, it is highly important to control the coal flow into the furnace in the power plant. This means suppression of disturbances and force the coal mill to deliver the required coal flow, as well as monitor the coal mill...... in order to detect faults in the coal mill when they emerge. This paper deals with the second objective. Based on a simple dynamic model of the energy balance a residual is formed for the coal mill. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate this residual. The estimated residual is following...... tested on measured data of a fault in a coal mill, it can hereby be concluded that this residual is very useful for detecting faults in the coal mill....

  4. Medicinal Plants Targeting Cardiovascular Diseases in View of Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Zahra; Nami, Saeed Reza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a spectrum of diseases involving the heart and blood vessels, and the first cause of mortality worldwide. Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years to treat CVD. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), there is a special focus on heart diseases. Avicenna, a Persian physician of the eleventh century compiled a book devoted to this field named "The treatise on cardiac drugs" which is a compendium of TPM knowledge on CVD. Avicenna mentioned 50 cardiovascular active plants and described their therapeutic effects in the treatment of CVDs. Here, we perform a detailed search in scientific databases to verify the cardiovascular activities of the medicinal plants suggested by Avicenna. Also, we discussed cardiovascular activities of a number of the most important suggested plants as well as their efficacy in clinical studies. Major bioactive compounds identified from these plants are also discussed. Pharmacological studies have revealed that the majority of these plants are effective in cardiovascular health with various mechanisms. Among them, Crocus sativus L., Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, Punica granatum L., Ocimum basilicum L., Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, Melissa officinalis L. and Phyllanthus emblica L. have proved to be more effective. The above-mentioned plants can be rich sources for developing new and effective pharmaceuticals for the treatment of CVDs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Silicon control of bacterial and viral diseases in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakr Nachaat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon plays an important role in providing tolerance to various abiotic stresses and augmenting plant resistance against diseases. However, there is a paucity of reports about the effect of silicon on bacterial and viral pathogens of plants. In general, the effect of silicon on plant resistance against bacterial diseases is considered to be due to either physical defense or increased biochemical defense. In this study, the interaction between silicon foliar or soil-treatments and reduced bacterial and viral severity was reviewed. The current review explains the agricultural importance of silicon in plants, refers to the control of bacterial pathogens in different crop plants by silicon application, and underlines the different mechanisms of silicon-enhanced resistance. A section about the effect of silicon in decreasing viral disease intensity was highlighted. By combining the data presented in this study, a better comprehension of the complex interaction between silicon foliar- or soil-applications and bacterial and viral plant diseases could be achieved.

  6. Snapshot imaging Fraunhofer line discriminator for detection of plant fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta Roy, S.; Kudenov, M. W.

    2015-05-01

    Non-invasive quantification of plant health is traditionally accomplished using reflectance based metrics, such as the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI). However, measuring plant fluorescence (both active and passive) to determine photochemistry of plants has gained importance. Due to better cost efficiency, lower power requirements, and simpler scanning synchronization, detecting passive fluorescence is preferred over active fluorescence. In this paper, we propose a high speed imaging approach for measuring passive plant fluorescence, within the hydrogen alpha Fraunhofer line at ~656 nm, using a Snapshot Imaging Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (SIFOLD). For the first time, the advantage of snapshot imaging for high throughput Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) is cultivated by our system, which is based on a multiple-image Fourier transform spectrometer and a spatial heterodyne interferometer (SHI). The SHI is a Sagnac interferometer, which is dispersion compensated using blazed diffraction gratings. We present data and techniques for calibrating the SIFOLD to any particular wavelength. This technique can be applied to quantify plant fluorescence at low cost and reduced complexity of data collection.

  7. Detection of potential transgenic plant DNA recipients among soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Jean-Michel; Bernillon, Dominique; Kay, Elizabeth; Faugier, Aurélie; Rybalka, Oleksandra; Dessaux, Yves; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

    2007-01-01

    The likelihood of gene transfer from transgenic plants to bacteria is dependent on gene number and the presence of homologous sequences. The large number of transgene copies in transplastomic (transgenes contained in the chloroplast genome) plant cells as well as the prokaryotic origin of the transgene, may thus significantly increase the likelihood of gene transfer to bacteria that colonize plant tissues. In order to assess the probability of such transfer, the length of homologous DNA sequences required between the transgene and the genome of the bacterial host was assessed. In addition, the probability that bacteria, which co-infect diseased plants, are transformable and have sequences similar to the flanking regions of the transgene was evaluated. Using Acinetobacter baylyi strain BD143 and transplastomic tobacco plants harboring the aadA gene (streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance), we found that sequences identical to the flanking regions containing as few as 55 nucleotides were sufficient for recombination to occur. Consequently, a collection of bacterial isolates able to colonize tobacco plant tissue infected by Ralstonia solanacearum strain K60 was obtained, screened for DNA sequence similarity with the chloroplastic genes accD and rbcL flanking the transgene, and tested for their ability to uptake extracellular DNA (broad host-range pBBR1MCS plasmids) by natural or electro-transformation. Results showed that among the 288 bacterial isolates tested, 8% presented DNA sequence similarity with one or both chloroplastic regions flanking the transgene. Two isolates, identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Acinetobacter sp., were able to integrate exogenous plasmid DNA by electro-transformation and natural transformation, respectively. Our data suggest that transplastomic plant DNA recipients might be present in soil bacterial communities.

  8. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: diseases in hardwood tree plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut

    2006-01-01

    Hardwood trees planted for timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation are susceptible to damage or even death by various native and exotic fungal or bacterial diseases. Establishment, growth, and the quality of the trees produced can be affected by these disease...

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Alien Plant Species Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, P.; Müllerová, J.; Bartaloš, T.; Brůna, J.

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms) by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV). We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid). Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded). The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  10. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES FOR ALIEN PLANT SPECIES DETECTION AND MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dvořák

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV. We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid. Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded. The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  11. Probiotic Diversity Enhances Rhizosphere Microbiome Function and Plant Disease Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jie; Wei, Zhong; Friman, Ville Petri; Gu, Shao-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Eisenhauer, Nico; Yang, Tian-jie; Ma, Jing; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-chun; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial communities associated with plant roots play an important role in the suppression of soil-borne pathogens, and multispecies probiotic consortia may enhance disease suppression efficacy. Here we introduced defined Pseudomonas species consortia into naturally complex microbial communities and measured the importance of Pseudomonas community diversity for their survival and the suppression of the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in the tomato rhizosphere microbiome. The ...

  12. Plant-pathogen interactions: toward development of next-generation disease-resistant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Rookes, James; Mantri, Nitin L; Cahill, David M

    2017-03-01

    Briskly evolving phytopathogens are dire threats to our food supplies and threaten global food security. From the recent advances made toward high-throughput sequencing technologies, understanding of pathogenesis and effector biology, and plant innate immunity, translation of these means into new control tools is being introduced to develop durable disease resistance. Effectoromics as a powerful genetic tool for uncovering effector-target genes, both susceptibility genes and executor resistance genes in effector-assisted breeding, open up new avenues to improve resistance. TALENs (Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases), engineered nucleases and CRISPR (Clustered Regulatory Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 systems are breakthrough and powerful techniques for genome editing, providing efficient mechanisms for targeted crop protection strategies in disease resistance programs. In this review, major advances in plant disease management to confer durable disease resistance and novel strategies for boosting plant innate immunity are highlighted.

  13. Plant-Derived Natural Products for Parkinson's Disease Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, T; Vinayagam, J; Singh, R; Jaisankar, P; Mohanakumar, K P

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products have made their own niche in the treatment of neurological diseases since time immemorial. Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, has no cure and the treatment available currently is symptomatic. This chapter thoughtfully and objectively assesses the scientific basis that supports the increasing use of these plant-derived natural products for the treatment of this chronic and progressive disorder. Proper considerations are made on the chemical nature, sources, preclinical tests and their validity, and mechanisms of behavioural or biochemical recovery observed following treatment with various plants derived natural products relevant to PD therapy. The scientific basis underlying the neuroprotective effect of 6 Ayurvedic herbs/formulations, 12 Chinese medicinal herbs/formulations, 33 other plants, and 5 plant-derived molecules have been judiciously examined emphasizing behavioral, cellular, or biochemical aspects of neuroprotection observed in the cellular or animal models of the disease. The molecular mechanisms triggered by these natural products to promote cell survivability and to reduce the risk of cellular degeneration have also been brought to light in this study. The study helped to reveal certain limitations in the scenario: lack of preclinical studies in all cases barring two; heavy dependence on in vitro test systems; singular animal or cellular model to establish any therapeutic potential of drugs. This strongly warrants further studies so as to reproduce and confirm these reported effects. However, the current literature offers scientific credence to traditionally used plant-derived natural products for the treatment of PD.

  14. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    Full Text Available The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect, and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect. Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  15. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  16. The impact of transition metals on bacterial plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen; Preston, Gail M

    2013-07-01

    Metals play essential roles in many biological processes but are toxic when present in excess. This makes their transport and homoeostatic control of particular importance to living organisms. Within the context of plant-pathogen interactions the availability and toxicity of transition metals can have a substantial impact on disease development. Metals are essential for defensive generation of reactive oxygen species and other plant defences and can be used directly to limit pathogen growth. Metal-based antimicrobials are used in agriculture to control plant disease, and there is increasing evidence that metal hyperaccumulating plants use accumulated metal to limit pathogen growth. Pathogens and hosts compete for available metals, with plants possessing mechanisms to withhold essential metals from invading microbes. Pathogens, meanwhile, use low-metal conditions as a signal to recognise and respond to the host environment. Consequently, metal-sensing systems such as fur (iron) and zur (zinc) regulate the expression of pathogenicity and virulence genes; and pathogens have developed sophisticated strategies to acquire metal during growth in plant tissues, including the production of multiple siderophores. This review explores the impact of transition metals on the processes that determine the outcome of bacterial infection in plants, with a particular emphasis on zinc, iron and copper. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PCR detection of huanglongbing pathogen in different parts of citrus plants in the field and analysis of the cause of the disease%田间柑橘植株不同部位黄龙病菌的PCR检测及发病原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿连明; 范国成; 胡秀荣; 张利平; 黄振东; 陈国庆

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]Understanding the distribution of pathogen in plants laid the foundation for further studies on its diffusion in plants, and clarifying the reason for disease occurrence could provide reference for effective control of the disease.[Method]Citrus huanglongbing in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, was investigated, and the pathogen in different plants and different parts of the same plant, was detected by conventional and nested PCR.[Result]It showed that the pathogen was present in leaves with or without symptoms and in branches in one orchard, but not in surrounding plants.In the other orchards, the pathogen was present in leaves, branches, main trunk, rootstock, and also in surrounding plants with symptoms.[Conclusion]It indicated that the causes of the disease in the two plants were different.One might be infected by citrus psylla, while the other by grafting.%[目的]了解黄龙病菌在柑橘植株不同部位的分布,为深入研究病菌在植株体内的扩散情况莫定基础;明确病害的发生原因为有效防控该病害提供借鉴.[方法]调查浙江省台州市柑橘黄龙病(huanglongbing,HLB)的发生情况,通过常规和巢式PCR,检测了发病情形不同的两个果园内柑橘病株不同部位及不同植株中的黄龙病菌,并对其发病原因进行分析.[结果]发现一果园内病株的无症状叶片、有症状叶片和枝条中均含有黄龙病菌,而其周围植株不含病菌;另一果园内病株的有症状叶片、枝条、主干和砧木中均含有黄龙病菌,而其周围植株也含菌.[结论]分析认为这两种果园内柑橘植株发病原因不同,一种可能为通过携带黄龙病菌的柑橘木虱所感染,另一种可能为嫁接过程中通过带菌的接穗感染.

  18. Using transgenic plants and modified plant viruses for the development of treatments for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Hwei-San; Green, Brian J; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2017-08-08

    Production of proteins in plants for human health applications has become an attractive strategy attributed by their potentials for low-cost production, increased safety due to the lack of human or animal pathogens, scalability and ability to produce complex proteins. A major milestone for plant-based protein production for use in human health was achieved when Protalix BioTherapeutics produced taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso(®)) in suspension cultures of a transgenic carrot cell line for the treatment of patients with Gaucher's disease, was approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration in 2012. In this review, we are highlighting various approaches for plant-based production of proteins and recent progress in the development of plant-made therapeutics and biologics for the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulation of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis in Engineered Plants for Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Cordelier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. Starting in the 1950’s, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. Genetic manipulation of phytoalexins has been investigated to increase the disease resistance of plants. The first example of a disease resistance resulting from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant has concerned a phytoalexin from grapevine which was transferred to tobacco. Transformations were then operated to investigate the potential of other phytoalexin biosynthetic genes to confer resistance to pathogens. Unexpectedly, engineering phytoalexins for disease resistance in plants seem to have been limited to exploiting only a few phytoalexin biosynthetic genes, especially those encoding stilbenes and some isoflavonoids. Research has rather focused on indirect approaches which allow modulation of the accumulation of phytoalexin employing transcriptional regulators or components of upstream regulatory pathways. Genetic approaches using gain- or less-of functions in phytoalexin engineering together with modulation of phytoalexin accumulation through molecular engineering of plant hormones and defense-related marker and elicitor genes have been reviewed.

  20. Detection of bacterial infection of agave plants by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Martinez, Jesus; Flores-Hernandez, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, Fernando

    2002-05-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul were inoculated with Erwinia carotovora, the causal agent of stem soft rot. We investigated the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of agave plants to determine whether LIF can be used as a noninvasive sensing tool for pathological studies. The LIF technique was also investigated as a means of detecting the effect of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor beta-hydroxyethylhydrazine as a bactericide against the pathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora. A He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm was used as the excitation source, and in vivo fluorescence emission spectra were recorded in the 660-790-range. Fluorescence maxima were at 690 and 740 nm. The infected plants that were untreated with the bactericide showed a definite increase in fluorescence intensity at both maxima within the first three days after infection. Beginning on the fifth day, a steady decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed, with a greater effect at 740 than at 690 nm. After 30 days there was no fluorescence. The infected plants that had been treated with the bactericide showed no significant change in fluorescence compared with that of the uninfected plants. The ratio of fluorescence intensities was determined to be F 690 nm/F 740 nm for all treatments. These studies indicate that LIF measurements of agave plants may be used for the early detection of certain types of disease and for determining the effect of a bactericide on bacteria. The results also showed that fluorescence intensity ratios can be used as a reliable indicator of the progress of disease.

  1. Genome-Editing Technologies for Enhancing Plant Disease Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfo, Giuseppe; Iovieno, Paolo; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for agricultural science in the 21st century is to improve yield stability through the progressive development of superior cultivars. The increasing numbers of infectious plant diseases that are caused by plant-pathogens make it ever more necessary to develop new strategies for plant disease resistance breeding. Targeted genome engineering allows the introduction of precise modifications directly into a commercial variety, offering a viable alternative to traditional breeding methods. Genome editing is a powerful tool for modifying crucial players in the plant immunity system. In this work, we propose and discuss genome-editing strategies and targets for improving resistance to phytopathogens. First of all, we present the opportunities to rewrite the effector-target sequence for avoiding effector-target molecular interaction and also to modify effector-target promoters for increasing the expression of target genes involved in the resistance process. In addition, we describe potential approaches for obtaining synthetic R-genes through genome-editing technologies (GETs). Finally, we illustrate a genome editing flowchart to modify the pathogen recognition sites and engineer an R-gene that mounts resistance to some phylogenetically divergent pathogens. GETs potentially mark the beginning of a new era, in which synthetic biology affords a basis for obtaining a reinforced plant defense system. Nowadays it is conceivable that by modulating the function of the major plant immunity players, we will be able to improve crop performance for a sustainable agriculture. PMID:27990151

  2. Sweet smells prepare plants for future stress: airborne induction of plant disease immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min; Heil, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Plants require protection against a wide range of attackers such as insects and pathogens. The adequate plant defense responses are regulated via sophisticated signal cascades, which are activated following the perception of specific cues of the attackers. Plants might, however, gain a significant fitness advantage when pre-empting enemy attack before it actually occurs. Monitoring cues from attacked neighbors can permit plants to reach this goal. We have recently found airborne disease resistance against a bacterial pathogen in uninfected lima bean plants when these were located close to conspecific, resistance-expressing neighbors. The emitters could be chemically induced with benzothiadiazole or biologically with an avirulent pathogen. Unexpectedly, receiver plants, although expressing a functioning resistance, did not show reduced growth rates, which represent a common side-effect of directly induced pathogen resistance. Nonanal was identified as an active volatile and, rather than directly inducing full resistance, primed defense gene expression, which became fully activated only when the plants were subsequently challenged by a virulent pathogen. Priming by airborne signals allows for a more efficient and less costly preparation of plants for future attack and airborne signaling can affect resistance against both major groups of plant enemies: herbivores and pathogens.

  3. Achieving sustainable plant disease management through evolutionary principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Plants and their pathogens are engaged in continuous evolutionary battles and sustainable disease management requires novel systems to create environments conducive for short-term and long-term disease control. In this opinion article, we argue that knowledge of the fundamental factors that drive host-pathogen coevolution in wild systems can provide new insights into disease development in agriculture. Such evolutionary principles can be used to guide the formulation of sustainable disease management strategies which can minimize disease epidemics while simultaneously reducing pressure on pathogens to evolve increased infectivity and aggressiveness. To ensure agricultural sustainability, disease management programs that reflect the dynamism of pathogen population structure are essential and evolutionary biologists should play an increasing role in their design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. RNAi: A Novel Approach for Plant Disease Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shahnawaz

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... Silencing specific genes by RNAi is a desirable natural solution ... applications of this novel technology in plant disease management for sustainable ... Further study of genetic host ... process of co-evolution, though therapeutic tools based ..... technology, it would be feasible to create a new biological.

  5. EFFECT OF SALINITY ON VIRAL DISEASE SPREAD IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldakimova N.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is an important factor affecting the quality and quantity of crop yields. The total area of the world’s land exposed salinity increased to 15% in 2011 compared to 7% in 2001. In addition, crops are susceptible to disease, which strongly affects the yield. Thus, viral diseases reduce crop yield, sometimes up to 80-100%, for example Eggplant mottled crinkle virus (EMCV can infect up to 100% yield of eggplant. Taken together, these two stress factors can cause enormous economic damage to agriculture. Despite of the importance, the effect of salinity on plant virus disease has not been well studied.In our study, we investigated the effect of high concentrations of salt (150mM NaCl on the systemic viral disease caused by EMCV. The virus causes the systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana. Systemic accumulation of virus at high concentrations of NaCl was drastically reduced. In the plants exposed to salt stress (100mM and 150mM NaCl for 21 days before infection systemic symptoms were significantly delayed. The relationship between plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress factors may indicate the existence of universal defensive pathways of plant adaptation to unfavorable conditions.

  6. Probiotic Diversity Enhances Rhizosphere Microbiome Function and Plant Disease Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities associated with plant roots play an important role in the suppression of soil-borne pathogens, and multispecies probiotic consortia may enhance disease suppression efficacy. Here we introduced defined Pseudomonas species consortia into naturally complex microbial communities and measured the importance of Pseudomonas community diversity for their survival and the suppression of the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in the tomato rhizosphere microbiome. The survival of introduced Pseudomonas consortia increased with increasing diversity. Further, high Pseudomonas diversity reduced pathogen density in the rhizosphere and decreased the disease incidence due to both intensified resource competition and interference with the pathogen. These results provide novel mechanistic insights into elevated pathogen suppression by diverse probiotic consortia in naturally diverse plant rhizospheres. Ecologically based community assembly rules could thus play a key role in engineering functionally reliable microbiome applications.

  7. Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjhu, Rajesh Kumar; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Maity, Hindol; Dowarha, Deepu; Devadiga, Santhosha; Nag, Snehlata; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-12-01

    Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules. These herbal sources have been reported individually or in combinations across a large number of citations studied. Activities against rabies virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Chandipura virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Enterovirus, Influenza A/H1N1 and other influenza viruses were discovered during the literature search. This review includes all such plant species exhibiting antiviral properties. The review also encompasses composition and methodologies of preparing various antiviral formulations around the globe. An elaborate section on the formulations filed for patent registration, along with non-patented formulations, has also been included in this article. To conclude, herbal sources provide researchers enormous scope to explore and bring out viable alternatives against viral diseases, considering non-availability of suitable drug candidates and increasing resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging and re-emerging viral diseases.

  8. A comparative analysis of machine learning approaches for plant disease identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat ur Rahman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problems to leaf in plants are very severe and they usually shorten the lifespan of plants. Leaf diseases are mainly caused due to three types of attacks including viral, bacterial or fungal. Diseased leaves reduce the crop production and affect the agricultural economy. Since agriculture plays a vital role in the economy, thus effective mechanism is required to detect the problem in early stages. Methods: Traditional approaches used for the identification of diseased plants are based on field visits which is time consuming and tedious. In this paper a comparative analysis of machine learning approaches has been presented for the identification of healthy and non-healthy plant leaves. For experimental purpose three different types of plant leaves have been selected namely, cabbage, citrus and sorghum. In order to classify healthy and non-healthy plant leaves color based features such as pixels, statistical features such as mean, standard deviation, min, max and descriptors such as Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG have been used. Results: 382 images of cabbage, 539 images of citrus and 262 images of sorghum were used as the primary dataset. The 40% data was utilized for testing and 60% were used for training which consisted of both healthy and damaged leaves. The results showed that random forest classifier is the best machine method for classification of healthy and diseased plant leaves. Conclusion: From the extensive experimentation it is concluded that features such as color information, statistical distribution and histogram of gradients provides sufficient clue for the classification of healthy and non-healthy plants.

  9. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  10. Statistical Methods for Quantitatively Detecting Fungal Disease from Fruits’ Images

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeesh D. Pujari; Yakkundimath, Rajesh Siddaramayya; Byadgi, Abdulmunaf Syedhusain

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have proposed statistical methods for detecting fungal disease and classifying based on disease severity levels.  Most fruits diseases are caused by bacteria, fungi, virus, etc of which fungi are responsible for a large number of diseases in fruits. In this study images of fruits, affected by different fungal symptoms are collected and categorized based on disease severity. Statistical features like block wise, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray level runlength matr...

  11. Expression of Cryptogein in tobacco plants exhibits enhanced disease resistance and tolerance to salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Donghua; CHEN Xujun; WU Kunlu; GUO Zejian

    2004-01-01

    Cryptogein (Crypt), an elicitin secreted from Phytophthora cryptogea, was used for genetic engineering of biotic and abiotic resistance plants. We generated transgenic tobacco plants harboring a rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) promoter and Crypt fusion gene (PAL::Crypt) or the mutated Crypt (mutation of the lysine at the position 13 to valine) under the control CaMV35S promoter (CaMV35S::CryK13V). T2 progeny of the transgenic plants showed significantly enhanced disease resistance to pathogens of fungal Phytophthora parasitica var nicotiana (Ppn) and Alternaria alternata, and bacterial Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci. The amount of mRNA accumulation of Crypt and CryK13V was quite low in the transgenic lines analyzed by Northern blot, and was detected by a reverse transcription PCR method. Plants harboring PAL::Crypt construct showed faster and stronger induction of PR-1a gene after Ppn inoculation than that in the wild-type plants. The results suggested that the inducible PAL promoter could rapidly respond to pathogen attack and efficiently suppress the pathogen infection. Furthermore, the enhanced tolerance to salt stress in both of the Crypt and CryK13V expressing tobacco plants was also observed compared with that in the control plants. The constitutive expression of PR and transcription factor genes in the transformants was probably associated with the salt tolerance. The above observations suggested that a cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stresses existed in tobacco plants.

  12. Real-time PCR for detection and quantification of fungal and oomycete tomato pathogens in plant and soil samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, B.; Brouwer, M.; Vanachter, A.C.R.C.; Cammue, B.P.A.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although new, rapid detection and identification technologies are becoming available more and more for various plant pathogens, pathogen quantification remains one of the main challenges in the disease management of many crops. Currently, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most straigh

  13. Real-time PCR for detection and quantification of fungal and oomycete tomato pathogens in plant and soil samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, B.; Brouwer, M.; Vanachter, A.C.R.C.; Cammue, B.P.A.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although new, rapid detection and identification technologies are becoming available more and more for various plant pathogens, pathogen quantification remains one of the main challenges in the disease management of many crops. Currently, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most straigh

  14. The role of plant disease in the development of controlled ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Plant diseases could be important factors affecting growth of higher plants in Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Disease control, therefore, will be needed to maintain healthy plants. The most important controls should be aimed at preventing the introduction, reproduction and spread of pathogens and preventing plant infection. An integrared ease control program will maximize that approach. In the design and operation of CELSS, plant disease should be considered an important aspect of plant growth. The effects of plant diseases are reviewed and several disease control measures are discussed.

  15. Molecular detection of Erwinia psidii in guava plants under greenhouse and field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudênia Ferreira da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Erwinia psidii causes bacterial blight of guava ( Psidium guajava , an important disease of this crop in Brazil. The pathogen affects branches and twigs of guava trees, reducing yield significantly. Bacterial dissemination often occurs through contaminated but asymptomatic propagating plant material. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the use of BIO-PCR and conventional PCR to detect E. psidii in inoculated guava plants grown in a greenhouse and in symptomatic and asymptomatic trees from guava orchards. Erwinia psidii strain IBSBF 1576 was inoculated (107CFU mL-1 into young guava shoots and plant tissue was analysed at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days after inoculation. Symptoms were observed after 5 days and all inoculated shoots were PCR positive at all times, by both BIO-PCR and conventional PCR. Under natural infection conditions, 40 samples were tested by BIO-PCR from each of three guava orchards, 20 showing symptoms and 20 asymptomatic. PCR was positive for 58 out of 60 symptomatic samples (96.7% and for 6.7% of asymptomatic samples, showing that the method can be used to detect the pathogen at early stages of infection. This PCR method may be used as a diagnostic tool to assess bacterial survival, dissemination and disease outbreaks.

  16. Indigenous bacteria may interfere with the biocontrol of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Nobutaka; Akutsu, Katsumi

    2009-06-01

    Prodigiosin is a reddish antibiotic pigment that plays an important role in the biocontrol of plant diseases by the bacterium Serratia marcescens. However, its activity is unstable under agricultural conditions; further, it can be degraded by various environmental factors. To examine the effect of epiphytic microbes on the stability of prodigiosin used for biological control processes, we collected a total of 1,280 bacterial isolates from the phylloplane of cyclamen and tomato plants. Approximately 72% of the bacterial strains isolated from the cyclamen plants and 66% of those isolated from the tomato plants grew on minimal agar medium containing 100 μg ml-1 prodigiosin. Certain isolates obtained from both plant species exhibited prodigiosin-degrading activity. We compared the 16S rRNA gene sequences derived from the isolates with sequences in a database. The comparison revealed that the sequences determined for the prodigiosin-degrading isolates were homologous to those of the genera Pseudomonas, Caulobacter, Rhizobium, Sphingomonas, Janthinobacterium, Novosphingobium, and Rathayibacter. These results indicate that indigenous epiphytic microorganisms may interfere with the interaction between plant pathogens and biocontrol agents by degrading the antibiotics produced by the agents.

  17. Phytoplasma detection in tissue culture of Gladiolus plants grown under various conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kamińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To test whether phytoplasmas are sensitive to temperature, phytoplasma affected micropropagated gladiolus plants were grown under varying conditions of media content and temperature, in the presence or absence of light. PCR analysis indicated that phytoplasma detection was more successful in plants grown at low temperatures. Plants kept from one to three months at reduced temperature tended to have higher titre of phytoplasma than the plants maintained in stable 20oC high temperature. The best detection was in plants grown on medium containing kinetin+NAA and in the presence of light. In those plants phytoplasmas were detected in direct PCR after one month of culture.

  18. Plant Resistance to Virus Diseases through Genetic Engineering: Can a Similar Approach Control Plant-parasitic Nematodes?

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann-Philipp, Ulrich; Beachy, Roger N.

    1993-01-01

    Genetically engineered resistance against plant virus diseases has been achieved by transforming plants with gene constructs that encode viral sequences. Several successful field trials of virus-resistant transgenic plants have been carried out. Specific features of virus infection make it possible to interfere with different steps of the infection and disease cycle by accumulating products of chimeric genes introduced into transgenic plants. In this paper we describe the most common methods ...

  19. Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana; Whelan, Julia S

    2008-01-01

    The increasingly diverse U.S. immigrant populations and the growing use of medicinal herbs create a need for health care professionals to expand their knowledge in this area. This is a review of tropical plants, Annona Muricata, Artemisia absinthium, Cinchona officinalis, Illicium verum, Momordica charantia, Opuntia streptacantha, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Tabebuia avellanedae (impetiginosa), commonly used by Latino and Haitian populations for the treatment of infectious disease. All the eight plants discussed here have one or more of the following: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, or antiparasitic properties. All of these plants are primarily known and used in the tropical region, but they are also readily available for purchase in the United States, specifically in the ethnic markets. This review discusses their traditional uses, chemical constituents, proven scientific evidence, and toxicities.

  20. Plant phosphates, phytate and pathological calcifications in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buades Fuster, Juan Manuel; Sanchís Cortés, Pilar; Perelló Bestard, Joan; Grases Freixedas, Félix

    Phytate, or myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (InsP6), is a naturally occurring phosphorus compound that is present in many foods, mainly legumes, whole grains and nuts. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have cardiovascular disease mortality up to 30times higher than the general population. Vascular calcifications (VCs) directly contribute to overall morbidity and mortality, especially in CKD. In part, this high mortality is due to elevated levels of phosphorus in the blood. Therefore, control of dietary phosphorus is essential. Dietary phosphorus can be classified according to its structure in organic phosphorus (plant and animal) and inorganic (preservatives and additives). Plant-phosphorus (legumes and nuts), mainly associated with InsP6, is less absorbable by the human gastrointestinal tract as the bioavailability of phosphorous from plant-derived foods is very low. Recent data indicate that restriction of foods containing plant phosphates may compromise the adequate supply of nutrients that have a beneficial effect in preventing cardiovascular events, such as InsP6 or fibre found in legumes and nuts. Experimental studies in animals and observational studies in humans suggest that InsP6 can prevent lithiasis and VCs and protect from osteoporosis. In conclusion, we need prospective studies to elucidate the potential benefits and risks of phytate (InsP6) through the diet and as an intravenous drug in patients on haemodialysis.

  1. Specific and Sensitive Isothermal Electrochemical Biosensor for Plant Pathogen DNA Detection with Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles as Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Han Yih; Wu, Haoqi; Wee, Eugene J. H.; Trau, Matt; Wang, Yuling; Botella, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    Developing quick and sensitive molecular diagnostics for plant pathogen detection is challenging. Herein, a nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of plant pathogen DNA on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes. This 60 min assay relied on the rapid isothermal amplification of target pathogen DNA sequences by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) followed by gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical assessment with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Our method was 10,000 times more sensitive than conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/gel electrophoresis and could readily identify P. syringae infected plant samples even before the disease symptoms were visible. On the basis of the speed, sensitivity, simplicity and portability of the approach, we believe the method has potential as a rapid disease management solution for applications in agriculture diagnostics.

  2. Identification of viral and phytoplasmal agents responsible for diseases affecting plants of Gaillardia Foug. in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardia plants exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at botanical gardens and floriculture farms in Lithuania. Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated from diseased plants exhibiting symptoms characterized stunting, color breaking and malformation of flo...

  3. Can plants serve as a vector for prions causing chronic wasting disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jay; Gilroyed, Brandon H; Reuter, Tim; Dudas, Sandor; Neumann, Norman F; Balachandran, Aru; Kav, Nat N V; Graham, Catherine; Czub, Stefanie; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    Prions, the causative agent of chronic wasting disease (CWD) enter the environment through shedding of bodily fluids and carcass decay, posing a disease risk as a result of their environmental persistence. Plants have the ability to take up large organic particles, including whole proteins, and microbes. This study used wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to investigate the uptake of infectious CWD prions into roots and their transport into aerial tissues. The roots of intact wheat plants were exposed to infectious prions (PrP(TSE)) for 24 h in three replicate studies with PrP(TSE) in protein extracts being detected by western blot, IDEXX and Bio-Rad diagnostic tests. Recombinant prion protein (PrP(C)) bound to roots, but was not detected in the stem or leaves. Protease-digested CWD prions (PrP(TSE)) in elk brain homogenate interacted with root tissue, but were not detected in the stem. This suggests wheat was unable to transport sufficient PrP(TSE) from the roots to the stem to be detectable by the methods employed. Undigested PrP(TSE) did not associate with roots. The present study suggests that if prions are transported from the roots to the stems it is at levels that are below those that are detectable by western blot, IDEXX or Bio-Rad diagnostic kits.

  4. Detection of arousals in Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul

    2011-01-01

    suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 8 patients...

  5. Screening techniques for detecting chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, PE; Gansevoort, RT

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of review As patients with impaired kidney function are at increased risk not only for progressive renal function loss, but also for cardiovascular disease, it is of importance to have accurate techniques to screen patients for the presence of an impaired kidney function. Recent findings Glo

  6. Penstock failure detection system at the "Valsan" hydro power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, A. M.; Coşoiu, C. I.; Alboiu, N.; Hlevca, D.; Tataroiu, R.; Popescu, O.

    2012-11-01

    "Valsan" is a small Hydro Power Plant, 5 MW, situated at about 160 km north of Bucharest, Romania, on the small "Valsan" river in a remote mountainous area. It is equipped with a single Francis turbine. The penstock is located in the access shaft of the HPP. "Hidroelectrica", the Romanian company that operates the HPP, was trying to implement a remote penstock failure detection system. Starting from a classic hydraulic problem, the authors of the paper derived a method for failure detection and localization on the pipe. The method assumes the existence of 2 flow meters and 2 pressure transducers at the inlet and outlet of the pressurized pipe. Calculations have to be based on experimental values measured in a permanent regime for different values of the flow rate. The method was at first tested on a pipe, in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest. Pipe failure was modelled by opening of a valve on a tee branch of the analyzed pipe. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with theoretical ones. The penstock of the "Valsan" HPP, was modelled in EPANET, in order to: i) test the method at a larger scale; ii) get the right flow and pressure transducers that are needed to implement it. At the request of "Hidroelectrica" a routine that computes the efficiency of the turbine was added to the monitoring software. After the system was implemented, another series of measurements were performed at the site in order to validate it. Failure was modelled by opening an existing valve on a branch of the penstock. Detection of the failure was correct and almost instantaneous, while failure location was accurate within 5% of the total penstock length.

  7. Oral Fluids that Detect Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Joseph D.; Sneed, J. Darrell; Steinhubl, Steven R; Kolasa, Justin; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; McDevitt, John T.; Campbell, Charles L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the utility of oral fluids for assessment of coronary and cardiovascular (CVD) health. Study Design Twenty-nine patients with pre-existing CVD disease underwent an invasive cardiac procedure (alcohol septal ablation or percutaneous coronary intervention) and provided unstimulated whole saliva (UWS), sublingual swabs (LS), gingival swabs (GS) and serum at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 hr. Concentrations of 13 relevant biomarkers were determined and correlated with levels in serum and the oral fluids. Results Concentrations of the majority of biomarkers were higher in UWS than LS and GS. Coronary and CVD disease biomarkers in UWS correlated better with serum than LS and GS based on group status and measures of time effect. Seven biomarkers demonstrated time effect changes consistent with serum biomarkers, including C-reactive protein and troponin I. Conclusions Changes in serum biomarker profiles are reflected in oral fluids suggesting that oral fluid biomarkers could aid in the assessment of cardiac ischemia/necrosis. PMID:22769406

  8. Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunayna Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington′s disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, including chorea and dystonia, emotional disturbances, memory, and weight loss. The medium spiny neurons of striatum and cortex are mainly effected in HD. Various hypotheses, including molecular genetics, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, metabolic dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Despite no treatment is available to fully stop the progression of the disease, there are treatments available to help control the chorea. The present review deals with brief pathophysiology of the disease, plants and phytochemicals that have shown beneficial effects against HD like symptoms. The literature for the current review was collected using various databases such as Science direct, Pubmed, Scopus, Sci-finder, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database with a defined search strategy.

  9. Soybean charcoal rot disease fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in Mississippi produces the phytotoxin (-)-botryodiplodin but no detectable phaseolinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mohammad; Shier, W Thomas; Abbas, Hamed K; Tonos, Jennifer L; Baird, Richard E; Sciumbato, Gabriel L

    2007-01-01

    Research on charcoal rot disease in soybeans, and approximately 500 other plant diseases caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, has been severely hampered by unavailability of phaseolinone (1), an eremophilane sesquiterpenoid phytotoxin proposed to facilitate initial infection. Phytotoxin produced in cultures of disease-causing M. phaseolina isolated in Mississippi, and purified in a manner similar to that reported for 1, was shown to be (-)-botryodiplodin (2), a readily synthesized mycotoxin previously isolated from Botryodiplodia theobromae cultures. Phaseolinone was not detected, suggesting that 2 may be the phytotoxin that facilitates infection. The availability of 2 should facilitate studies on its role in plant disease.

  10. Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alan Bezerra; Alves, Daniela Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Ana Livya Moreira; dos Santos, Leonardo Hunaldo; de Menezes, Jane Eire Silva Alencar

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed analyzing the inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and acetylcholinesterase inhibition using qualitative and quantitative tests. The combination of better acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities pointed out six species, in descending order, as the best potential sources of therapeutic agents against AD: Hancornia speciosa > Myracrodruon urundeuva > Copaifera langsdorffii > Stryphnodendron coriaceum > Psidium guajava > Mangifera indica. Besides, the phenolic compounds in the species probably contribute to these activities. However, further pharmacological studies to assess the specific applications of these plants against AD are required to confirm these results. PMID:28316633

  11. Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penido, Alexandre Batista; De Morais, Selene Maia; Ribeiro, Alan Bezerra; Alves, Daniela Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Ana Livya Moreira; Dos Santos, Leonardo Hunaldo; de Menezes, Jane Eire Silva Alencar

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed analyzing the inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and acetylcholinesterase inhibition using qualitative and quantitative tests. The combination of better acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities pointed out six species, in descending order, as the best potential sources of therapeutic agents against AD: Hancornia speciosa > Myracrodruon urundeuva > Copaifera langsdorffii > Stryphnodendron coriaceum > Psidium guajava > Mangifera indica. Besides, the phenolic compounds in the species probably contribute to these activities. However, further pharmacological studies to assess the specific applications of these plants against AD are required to confirm these results.

  12. Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Batista Penido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed analyzing the inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and acetylcholinesterase inhibition using qualitative and quantitative tests. The combination of better acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities pointed out six species, in descending order, as the best potential sources of therapeutic agents against AD: Hancornia speciosa > Myracrodruon urundeuva > Copaifera langsdorffii > Stryphnodendron coriaceum > Psidium guajava > Mangifera indica. Besides, the phenolic compounds in the species probably contribute to these activities. However, further pharmacological studies to assess the specific applications of these plants against AD are required to confirm these results.

  13. Understanding Parkinson's disease: detection and early disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, L A

    2000-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, debilitating, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuronal loss within the basal ganglia and insufficient levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Symptoms include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of voluntary movement), and postural disturbances. Exact cause is unknown, but theories surrounding environmental or endogenous toxicities have been suggested. Differential diagnoses include genetic and other neurologic disorders that may share symptoms similar to those seen in PD. Clinical progression has been categorized into three phases of the disease: early, nonfluctuating, and fluctuating. Medications generally offer good symptom relief during the early and nonfluctuating phases of the disease. Classifications of anti-PD medications include anticholinergics, dopamine agonists, amantadine, MAO-B inhibitors, levodopa-carbidopa, and Catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors. Surgical intervention may be an option for select patients whose conditions are not well controlled though medical management strategies. Primary care providers often can manage patients in the early stage of PD, but later stages require expert neurologic management. Patient/family education and anticipatory guidance is imperative.

  14. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  15. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major. The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  16. Management of pests and diseases of tropical sericultural plants by using plant-derived products:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R T Gahukar

    2015-01-01

    Host plants of domesticated silkworms in tropical countries are attacked by an array of insect pests, disease pathogens and nematodes. In order to reduce resulting plant damage, chemicals have been extensively used. In recent years, products extracted/isolated from 47 plant species have been tested as replacements for or to minimize the use of hazardous chemicals. Bioefficacy of the extract in water or chemical solvent, crude seed/leaf oil, and cake is discussed, and integrated management of major and occasional pests and plant diseases is proposed in sericultural plants in order to produce chemical-free foliage.

  17. Detecting Disease in Radiographs with Intuitive Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Jaeger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues in favor of a specific type of confidence for use in computer-aided diagnosis and disease classification, namely, sine/cosine values of angles represented by points on the unit circle. The paper shows how this confidence is motivated by Chinese medicine and how sine/cosine values are directly related with the two forces Yin and Yang. The angle for which sine and cosine are equal (45° represents the state of equilibrium between Yin and Yang, which is a state of nonduality that indicates neither normality nor abnormality in terms of disease classification. The paper claims that the proposed confidence is intuitive and can be readily understood by physicians. The paper underpins this thesis with theoretical results in neural signal processing, stating that a sine/cosine relationship between the actual input signal and the perceived (learned input is key to neural learning processes. As a practical example, the paper shows how to use the proposed confidence values to highlight manifestations of tuberculosis in frontal chest X-rays.

  18. [Horticultural plant diseases multispectral classification using combined classified methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-Ning; Yang, Wei-Ping; Hou, De-Dong; Liao, Ning-Fang

    2010-02-01

    The research on multispectral data disposal is getting more and more attention with the development of multispectral technique, capturing data ability and application of multispectral technique in agriculture practice. In the present paper, a cultivated plant cucumber' familiar disease (Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is the research objects. The cucumber leaves multispectral images of 14 visible light channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation and illumination environment, and 210 multispectral data samples which are the 16 bands spectral reflectance of different cucumber disease were obtained. The 210 samples were classified by distance, relativity and BP neural network to discuss effective combination of classified methods for making a diagnosis. The result shows that the classified effective combination of distance and BP neural network classified methods has superior performance than each method, and the advantage of each method is fully used. And the flow of recognizing horticultural plant diseases using combined classified methods is presented.

  19. Detecting Disease Biomarkers Using Nanocavities and Nanoparticle Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, Robert J; Mallon, Colm; Devadoss, Anitha; Keyes, Tia E, E-mail: robert.forster@DCU.ie [National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    The convergence of electrochemistry, materials, photonics and biomedical science at the nanoscale opens up significant opportunities for developing advanced sensors. In this contribution, we present examples of our use of nanometer dimensioned electrodes, nanocavities and nanoparticle-metallopolymer composites to create high sensitivity detection platforms and materials for detecting proteins and nucleic acids. The application of these approaches in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers such as neuroblastoma, as well as point-of-care detection of infectious disease, will be discussed.

  20. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  1. Scintigraphic detection of inflammatory heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morguet, A.J. (Dept. of Cardiology and Pulmonology, Centre of Internal Medicine, Georg August Univ., Goettingen (Germany)); Munz, D.L. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Centre of Radiology, Georg August Univ., Goettingen (Germany)); Kreuzer, H. (Dept. of Cardiology and Pulmonology, Centre of Internal Medicine, Georg August Univ., Goettingen (Germany)); Emrich, D. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Centre of Radiology, Georg August Univ., Goettingen (Germany))

    1994-07-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the heart encompass myocarditis, endocarditis and pericarditis. This paper discusses the diagnostic potential of scintigraphy in these entities. In myocarditis, indium-111 antimyosin Fab imaging can visualize active myocyte damage and thus contribute substantially to the diagnosis. Antimyosin uptake is also seen in a large subset of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, indicating ongoing myocyte injury in these cases. In endocarditis, immunoscintigraphy using monoclonal technetium-99m-labelled antigranulocyte antibodies provides useful diagnostic information in patients with equivocal echocardiographic findings. Immunoscintigraphy seems to indicate the floridity of the inflammatory process in endocarditis and may be used to monitor antibiotic therapy. In pericarditis, the clinical value of scintigraphy has not been convincingly demonstrated. (orig.)

  2. Detection of coronary artery disease with MCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, B; Van Leeuwen, P

    2004-11-30

    The diagnosis of cardiac ischemia related to coronary artery disease (CAD) is a clinical challenge. Despite many methods clinically available, the predictive value of each is still limited. Magnetocardiography (MCG) offers new insights in the electrogenesis of the disease. In the last decade a number of studies using biomagnetometers have dealt with the identification of CAD patients using coronary angiography as a gold standard. As the availability of these systems is limited, studies have focused either on exercise-induced ischemia or on chronic ischemia and the infarct scar at rest. Different parameters have been developed based on signal morphology, time intervals, source parameters or magnetic field map analysis. Concerning signal morphology, main work concentrates on ST-depression, ST-T signal amplitude as well as QRS and ST-T integrals. Dealing with time intervals, most studies focus on the QT interval. The evaluation of of QT dispersion spatially in the MCG, reflecting regional heterogeneity of repolarization, improved the identification of CAD patients. Besides the calculation of the equivalent current dipole during de- and repolarization, parameters of the magnetic field orientation were used to identify CAD patients and localize exercise-induced ischemic regions. Heart rate adjusted alteration in the magnetic field orientation allowed the quantification of ischemia-induced changes in MCG. The estimation of current density (CDV) further enabled to separate healthy subjects from CAD patients at rest. In the course of interventional therapy CDV maps returned toward that of healthy subjects.Thus, there is justification for routine clinical use of the MCG in the diagnosis of CAD.

  3. PLANT EVOLUTION. Convergent evolution of strigolactone perception enabled host detection in parasitic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Caitlin E; Bythell-Douglas, Rohan; Neumann, Drexel; Yoshida, Satoko; Whittington, Bryan; Westwood, James H; Shirasu, Ken; Bond, Charles S; Dyer, Kelly A; Nelson, David C

    2015-07-31

    Obligate parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae germinate after sensing plant hormones, strigolactones, exuded from host roots. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the α/β-hydrolase D14 acts as a strigolactone receptor that controls shoot branching, whereas its ancestral paralog, KAI2, mediates karrikin-specific germination responses. We observed that KAI2, but not D14, is present at higher copy numbers in parasitic species than in nonparasitic relatives. KAI2 paralogs in parasites are distributed into three phylogenetic clades. The fastest-evolving clade, KAI2d, contains the majority of KAI2 paralogs. Homology models predict that the ligand-binding pockets of KAI2d resemble D14. KAI2d transgenes confer strigolactone-specific germination responses to Arabidopsis thaliana. Thus, the KAI2 paralogs D14 and KAI2d underwent convergent evolution of strigolactone recognition, respectively enabling developmental responses to strigolactones in angiosperms and host detection in parasites. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries.

  5. Histopathological Observation of Lymphocystis Disease and Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) Detection in Cultured Diseased Sebastes schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lymphocystis nodules occurring in the cultured sting fish Sebastes schlegeli were observed under light and electron microscope. Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in the tissues of diseased fish was detected with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Results showed that lymphocystis cells had overly irregular nuclei, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies with virions budding from the surface, and hyaline capsules outside the cell membrane. Numerous virus particles about 200 nm in diameter scattered in the cytoplasm, electron-dense particles 70-80nm in diameter filled in perinuclear cisterna, and membrane-enveloped particles with electron-dense core of 70-80 nm appeared around cellular nucleus. IFAT using monoclonal antibody against LCDV from Paralichthys olivaceus revealed that specific green fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells, epithelium of stomach, gill lamellae, and muscular fibers under epidermis of S. schlegeli, just as that in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells of P. olivaceus, suggesting the presence of LCDV in these tissues.

  6. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  7. Developing Two Spectral Disease Indices for Detection of Wheat Leaf Rust (Pucciniatriticina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Ashourloo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spectral vegetation indices (SVIs have been widely used to detect different plant diseases. Wheat leaf rust manifests itself as an early symptom with the leaves turning yellow and orange. The sign of advancing disease is the leaf colour changing to brown while the final symptom is when the leaf becomes dry. The goal of this work is to develop spectral disease indices for the detection of leaf rust. The reflectance spectra of the wheat’s infected and non-infected leaves at different disease stages were collected using a spectroradiometer. As ground truth, the ratio of the disease-affected area to the total leaf area and the fractions of the different symptoms were extracted using an RGB digital camera. Fractions of the various disease symptoms extracted by the digital camera and the measured reflectance spectra of the infected leaves were used as input to the spectral mixture analysis (SMA. Then, the spectral reflectance of the different disease symptoms were estimated using SMA and the least squares method. The reflectance of different disease symptoms in the 450~1000 nm were studied carefully using the Fisher function. Two spectral disease indices were developed based on the reflectance at the 605, 695 and 455 nm wavelengths. In both indices, the R2 between the estimated and the observed was as highas 0.94.

  8. Monitoring of lipoxygenase-related plant emission for early detection of drought stress in greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takayama, K.; Jansen, R.M.C.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Early detection of plant stress is a key to effective plant management for crop production. Drought stress is a common abiotic stress in crop production and early detection of drought stress allows us to improve water usage effi ciency and crop quality by demandbased irrigation. This study demonstra

  9. Traditional used Plants against Cognitive Decline and Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Peter Eckert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by progressive memory deficits, impaired cognitive function, and altered and inappropriate behavior. Aging represents the most important risk factor for AD and the global trend in the phenomenon of population aging has dramatic consequences for public health, healthcare financing and delivery systems in the word and, especially in developing countries. Mounting evidence obtained in in vitro and in vivo studies, suggests that various traditionally used plants in Asia, India and Europe significantly affect key metabolic alterations culminating in AD-typical neurodegeneration. The present article aims to bring the reader up-to-date on the most recent studies and advances describing the direct and indirect activities of traditional used plants and its constituents possibly relieving features of AD. A variety of traditional used plants and its extracts exerted activities on AD related drug targets including AChE activity antioxidative activity, modulation of Aβ-producing secretase activities, Aβ-degradation, heavy metal chelating, induction of neurotrophic factors and cell death mechanisms. Although pre-clinical investigations identified promising drug candidates for AD, clinical evidences are still pending.

  10. Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium in power-plant cooling systems: Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.; Gough, S.B.; Tyndall, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1983-06-01

    A survey was undertaken of the distribution, density, viability, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) in power plant cooling systems. Water samples were collected during each of the four seasons at various locations within each of nine power plants and from ambient waters at each site. Measurements of a number of physical and chemical characteristics were made, and Legionella profiles (density, viability, and infectivity for guinea pigs) were obtained. Legionella were detected in nearly all samples. Water from closed-cycle cooling systems frequently had lower densities of Legionella than the ambient water. Nonetheless, infectious Legionella, as defined by their isolation from inoculated guinea pigs, were significantly more likely to be found in samples from the plant-exposed water of closed-cycle plants than in samples from once-through plants or in ambient samples. A new species (L. oakridgensis) was initially isolated from two of the sites, and it has since been found to have a widespread distribution. Two other organisms found to cause illness in guinea pigs may also be new species. Phase II of the project involves investigating possible cause/effect relationships between physicochemical variables and Legionella. This work may contribute toward eventual control techniques for this pathogen.

  11. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants...

  12. Plant DNA Detection from Grasshopper Guts: A Step-by-Step Protocol, from Tissue Preparation to Obtaining Plant DNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Avanesyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A PCR-based method of identifying ingested plant DNA in gut contents of Melanoplus grasshoppers was developed. Although previous investigations have focused on a variety of insects, there are no protocols available for plant DNA detection developed for grasshoppers, agricultural pests that significantly influence plant community composition. Methods and Results: The developed protocol successfully used the noncoding region of the chloroplast trnL (UAA gene and was tested in several feeding experiments. Plant DNA was obtained at seven time points post-ingestion from whole guts and separate gut sections, and was detectable up to 12 h post-ingestion in nymphs and 22 h post-ingestion in adult grasshoppers. Conclusions: The proposed protocol is an effective, relatively quick, and low-cost method of detecting plant DNA from the grasshopper gut and its different sections. This has important applications, from exploring plant “movement” during food consumption, to detecting plant–insect interactions.

  13. Use of media and public-domain Internet sources for detection and assessment of plant health threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hartley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Event-based biosurveillance is a recognized approach to early warning and situational awareness of emerging health threats. In this study, we build upon previous human and animal health work to develop a new approach to plant pest and pathogen surveillance. We show that monitoring public domain electronic media for indications and warning of epidemics and associated social disruption can provide information about the emergence and progression of plant pest infestation or disease outbreak. The approach is illustrated using a case study, which describes a plant pest and pathogen epidemic in China and Vietnam from February 2006 to December 2007, and the role of ducks in contributing to zoonotic virus spread in birds and humans. This approach could be used as a complementary method to traditional plant pest and pathogen surveillance to aid global and national plant protection officials and political leaders in early detection and timely response to significant biological threats to plant health, economic vitality, and social stability. This study documents the inter-relatedness of health in human, animal, and plant populations and emphasizes the importance of plant health surveillance.

  14. Detecting Lyme disease using antibody-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Jennifer; Lerner, Mitchell; Goldsmith, Brett; Brisson, Dustin; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2011-03-01

    We combine antibodies for Lyme flagellar protein with carbon nanotube transistors to create an electronic sensor capable of definitive detection of Lyme disease. Over 35,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported in the United States each year, of which more than 23 percent are originally misdiagnosed. Rational design of the coupling of the biological system to the electronic system gives us a flexible sensor platform which we can apply to several biological systems. By coupling these antibodies to carbon nanotubes in particular, we allow for fast, sensitive, highly selective, electronic detection. Unlike antibody or biomarker detection, bacterial protein detection leads to positive identification of both early and late stage bacterial infections, and is easily expandable to environmental monitoring.

  15. Molecular farming of human cytokines and blood products from plants: challenges in biosynthesis and detection of plant-produced recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Nicolau B; Vianna, Giovanni R; da Almeida Lima, Thaina; Rech, Elíbio

    2014-01-01

    Plants have emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional mammalian cell cultures or microbial cell-based systems system for the production of valuable recombinant proteins. Through recombinant DNA technology, plants can be engineered to produce large quantities of pharmaceuticals and industrial proteins of high quality at low costs. The recombinant production, by transgenic plants, of therapeutic proteins normally present in human plasma, such as cytokines, coagulation factors, anticoagulants, and immunoglobulins, represents a response to the ongoing challenges in meeting the demand for therapeutic proteins to treat serious inherited or acquired bleeding and immunological diseases. As the clinical utilization of fractionated plasma molecules is limited by high production costs, using recombinant biopharmaceuticals derived from plants represents a feasible alternative to provide efficient treatment. Plant-derived pharmaceuticals also reduce the potential risks to patients of infection with pathogens or unwanted immune responses due to immunogenic antigens. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in molecular farming of cytokines. We also examine the technological basis, upcoming challenges, and perspectives for the biosynthesis and detection of these molecules in different plant production platforms.

  16. Effects of actinobacteria on plant disease suppression and growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhang, Lixin; Suh, Joo-Won

    2013-11-01

    Biological control and plant growth promotion by plant beneficial microbes has been viewed as an alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Bacteria and fungi that are naturally associated with plants and have a beneficial effect on plant growth by the alleviation of biotic and abiotic stresses were isolated and developed into biocontrol (BCA) and plant growth-promoting agents (PGPA). Actinobacteria are a group of important plant-associated spore-forming bacteria, which have been studied for their biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and interaction with plants. This review summarizes the effects of actinobacteria as BCA, PGPA, and its beneficial associations with plants.

  17. Detection of Huanglongbing disease using differential mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Pasamontes, Alberto; Peirano, Daniel J; Zhao, Weixiang; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Fiehn, Oliver; Ehsani, Reza; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-03-04

    The viability of the multibillion dollar global citrus industry is threatened by the "green menace", citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing, HLB), caused by the bacterial pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter. The long asymptomatic stage of HLB makes it challenging to detect emerging regional infections early to limit disease spread. We have established a novel method of disease detection based on chemical analysis of released volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that emanate from infected trees. We found that the biomarkers "fingerprint" is specific to the causal pathogen and could be interpreted using analytical methods such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometry (GC/DMS). This VOC-based disease detection method has a high accuracy of ∼90% throughout the year, approaching 100% under optimal testing conditions, even at very early stages of infection where other methods are not adequate. Detecting early infection based on VOCs precedes visual symptoms and DNA-based detection techniques (real-time polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR) and can be performed at a substantially lower cost and with rapid field deployment.

  18. Detection of interstitial lung disease in PA chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loog, Marco; van Ginneken, Bram; Nielsen, Mads

    2004-05-01

    A computer-aided diagnosis scheme for the detection of interstitial disease in standard digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs is presented. The detection technique is supervised-manually labelled data should be provided for training the algorithm-and fully automatic, and can be used as part of a computerized analysis scheme for X-ray lung images. Prior to the detection, a segmentation should be performed which delineates the lung field boundaries. Subsequently, a quadratic decision rule is employed for every pixel within the lung fields to associate with each pixel a probabilistic measure indicating interstitial disease. The locally obtained per-pixel probabilities are fused to a single global probability indicating to what extent there is interstitial disease present in the image. Finally, a threshold on this quantity classifies the image as containing interstitial disease or not. The probability combination scheme presented utilizes the quantiles of the local posterior probabilities to fuse the local probability into a global one. Using this nonparametric technique, reasonable results are obtained on the interstitial disease detection task. The area under the receiver operating characteristic equals 0.92 for the optimal setting.

  19. Optimising and communicating options for the control of invasive plant disease when there is epidemiological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Stutt, Richard O J H; DeSimone, R Erik; Gottwald, Tim R; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2015-04-01

    Although local eradication is routinely attempted following introduction of disease into a new region, failure is commonplace. Epidemiological principles governing the design of successful control are not well-understood. We analyse factors underlying the effectiveness of reactive eradication of localised outbreaks of invading plant disease, using citrus canker in Florida as a case study, although our results are largely generic, and apply to other plant pathogens (as we show via our second case study, citrus greening). We demonstrate how to optimise control via removal of hosts surrounding detected infection (i.e. localised culling) using a spatially-explicit, stochastic epidemiological model. We show how to define optimal culling strategies that take account of stochasticity in disease spread, and how the effectiveness of disease control depends on epidemiological parameters determining pathogen infectivity, symptom emergence and spread, the initial level of infection, and the logistics and implementation of detection and control. We also consider how optimal culling strategies are conditioned on the levels of risk acceptance/aversion of decision makers, and show how to extend the analyses to account for potential larger-scale impacts of a small-scale outbreak. Control of local outbreaks by culling can be very effective, particularly when started quickly, but the optimum strategy and its performance are strongly dependent on epidemiological parameters (particularly those controlling dispersal and the extent of any cryptic infection, i.e. infectious hosts prior to symptoms), the logistics of detection and control, and the level of local and global risk that is deemed to be acceptable. A version of the model we developed to illustrate our methodology and results to an audience of stakeholders, including policy makers, regulators and growers, is available online as an interactive, user-friendly interface at http://www.webidemics.com/. This version of our model

  20. Optimising and communicating options for the control of invasive plant disease when there is epidemiological uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik J Cunniffe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although local eradication is routinely attempted following introduction of disease into a new region, failure is commonplace. Epidemiological principles governing the design of successful control are not well-understood. We analyse factors underlying the effectiveness of reactive eradication of localised outbreaks of invading plant disease, using citrus canker in Florida as a case study, although our results are largely generic, and apply to other plant pathogens (as we show via our second case study, citrus greening. We demonstrate how to optimise control via removal of hosts surrounding detected infection (i.e. localised culling using a spatially-explicit, stochastic epidemiological model. We show how to define optimal culling strategies that take account of stochasticity in disease spread, and how the effectiveness of disease control depends on epidemiological parameters determining pathogen infectivity, symptom emergence and spread, the initial level of infection, and the logistics and implementation of detection and control. We also consider how optimal culling strategies are conditioned on the levels of risk acceptance/aversion of decision makers, and show how to extend the analyses to account for potential larger-scale impacts of a small-scale outbreak. Control of local outbreaks by culling can be very effective, particularly when started quickly, but the optimum strategy and its performance are strongly dependent on epidemiological parameters (particularly those controlling dispersal and the extent of any cryptic infection, i.e. infectious hosts prior to symptoms, the logistics of detection and control, and the level of local and global risk that is deemed to be acceptable. A version of the model we developed to illustrate our methodology and results to an audience of stakeholders, including policy makers, regulators and growers, is available online as an interactive, user-friendly interface at http://www.webidemics.com/. This version

  1. Novel diagnosis for citrus stubborn disease by detection of a spiroplasma citri-secreted protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinxia; Pagliaccia, Deborah; Morgan, Robyn; Qiao, Yongli; Pan, Songqin; Vidalakis, Georgios; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-02-01

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD), first identified in California, is a widespread bacterial disease found in most arid citrus-producing regions in the United States and the Mediterranean Region. The disease is caused by Spiroplasma citri, an insect-transmitted and phloem-colonizing bacterium. CSD causes significant tree damage resulting in loss of fruit production and quality. Detection of CSD is challenging due to low and fluctuating titer and sporadic distribution of the pathogen in infected trees. In this study, we report the development of a novel diagnostic method for CSD using an S. citri-secreted protein as the detection marker. Microbial pathogens secrete a variety of proteins during infection that can potentially disperse systemically in infected plants with the vascular flow. Therefore, their distribution may not be restricted to the pathogen infection sites and could be used as a biological marker for infection. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we identified a unique secreted protein from S. citri that is highly expressed in the presence of citrus phloem extract. ScCCPP1, an antibody generated against this protein, was able to distinguish S. citri-infected citrus and periwinkle from healthy plants. In addition, the antiserum could be used to detect CSD using a simple direct tissue print assay without the need for sample processing or specialized lab equipment and may be suitable for field surveys. This study provides proof of a novel concept of using pathogen-secreted protein as a marker for diagnosis of a citrus bacterial disease and can probably be applied to other plant diseases.

  2. Detection of air pollutant effects by means of bioindicators. [Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, R.

    Two procedures of bioindication of air pollution are in practice: the 'passive monitoring' and the 'active monitoring'. In the case of passive monitoring in natural vegetation plant association alterations are assessed, or in single plants (also in cultivated plants) visible or subtle injuries are appraised (reaction indicators); the estimation of pollutant accumulation in plant material is done with accummulation indicators. For the 'active monitoring' mostly the same methods are used as in the passive monitoring - but test plants are exposed to air pollution under highly standardized conditions. Bioindicators allow in some way to recognize level and type of air pollution, its dissemination in space and time and its effects on parts of the burdened ecosystems. Complex air pollution types are indicated by plants susceptible generally to pollution and not to specific pollutants as in some manner lichens. These plants are used in landscape and urban planning processes regarding air quality demands. In this paper several procedures and the applicability of bioindication are presented.

  3. Multichannel waveguides for the simultaneous detection of disease biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Price, Dominique Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The sensor team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor that has previously been used for the detection of biomarkers associated with diseases such as tuberculosis, breast cancer, anthrax and influenza in complex biological samples (e.g., serum and urine). However, no single biomarker can accurately predict disease. To address this issue, we developed a multiplex assay for the detection of components of the Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin on single mode planar optical waveguides with tunable quantum dots as the fluorescence reporter. This limited ability to multiplex is still insufficient for accurate detection of disease or for monitoring prognosis. In this manuscript, we demonstrate for the first time, the design, fabrication and successful evaluation of a multichannel planar optical waveguide for the simultaneous detection of at least three unknown samples in quadruplicate. We demonstrate the simultaneous, rapid (30 min), quantitative (with internal standard) and sensitive (limit of detection of 1 pM) detection of protective antigen and lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis in complex biological samples (serum) using specific monoclonal antibodies labeled with quantum dots as the fluorescence reporter.

  4. Medical radar considerations for detecting and monitoring Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonny; Narayanan, Ram M.; Messaris, Evangelos

    2014-05-01

    Crohn's disease is a condition that causes inflammation and associated complications along any section of the digestive tract. Over the years, numerous radiological and endoscopic methods as well as the use of ultrasound have been developed to examine and diagnose inflammatory bowel disorders such as Crohn's disease. While such techniques have much merit, an alternative medical solution that is safe, non-invasive, and inexpensive is proposed in this paper. Reflections from electromagnetic signals transmitted by an ultra-wide band (UWB) radar allow for not only range (or extent) information but also spectral analysis of a given target of interest. Moreover, the radar cross-section (RCS) of an object measures how detectable the electromagnetic return energy of such an object is to the radar. In the preliminary phase of research, we investigate how disparities in the dielectric properties of diseased versus non-diseased portions of the intestines can aid in the detection of Crohn's disease. RCS analysis from finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method simulations using a simple 3D model of the intestines are presented. The ultimate goal of our research is to design a UWB radar system using a suitable waveform to detect and monitor Crohn's disease.

  5. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alvaro; Yoon, Sook; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Dong Sun

    2017-09-04

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN), Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN), and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD), which for the purpose of this work are called "deep learning meta-architectures". We combine each of these meta-architectures with "deep feature extractors" such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet). We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant's surrounding area.

  6. An Invasive Plant Inventory and Early Detection Prioritization Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2010-2013, Utah State University partnered with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to conduct invasive plant prioritization workshops and inventories on...

  7. Detection of vibrations in equipment and plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, E.U.; Hartermann, R.U. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Apparatetechnik und Anlagenbau)

    1979-05-01

    A survey of recent experimental investigations in the field of flow-induced vibrations is based on selected examples of cylindrical structures in transverse and axial flow. During recent years, great efforts have been undertaken in order to comply with stringent safety standards required especially for nuclear power plants. With regard to plant design and construction of plant assemblies, however, there is a lack of experimental work in which the main parameters were varied systematically. It is consequently very difficult to develop semi-empirical models for the calculations in this field. Another problem is that the behaviour of the structure is often investigated in isolation, i.e., without consideration of the influence of the whole plant on the structure of interest.

  8. Determination of plant height for weed detection in stereoscopic images

    OpenAIRE

    Piron, Alexis; Leemans, Vincent; Kleynen, Olivier; Destain, Marie-France

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold. The first goal was to acquire high accuracy stereoscopic images of small-scale field scenes, the second to examine the potential of plant height as a discriminant factor between crop and weed, within carrot rows. Emphasis was put on how to determine actual plant height taking into account the variable distance from camera to ground and ground irregularities for in-field measurements. Multispectral stereoscopic images were taken over a period o...

  9. Detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus Associated with Yellow Mosaic Disease of Jute (Corchorus capsularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Palit, Paramita; Paul, Sujay; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Roy, Anirban

    2012-06-01

    Yellow mosaic disease, caused by a whitefly transmitted New World Begomovirus, named Corchorus golden mosaic virus (CoGMV), is emerging as a serious biotic constraint for jute fibre production in Asia. For rapid and sensitive diagnosis of the Begomovirus associated with this disease, a non-radiolabelled diagnostic probe, developed against the DNA A component of the east Indian isolate of CoGMV, detected the presence of the virus in infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies following Southern hybridization and nucleic acid spot hybridization tests. Presence of the virus was also confirmed when polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using virus-specific primers on DNA templates isolated from infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies.

  10. Hyperspectral remote sensing applications for monitoring and stress detection in cultural plants: viral infections in tobacco plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Petrov, Nikolai; Maneva, Svetla

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal the presence of viral infections in two varieties of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) as well as to discriminate the levels of the disease using hyperspectral leaf reflectance. Data sets were collected from two tobacco cultivars, Xanthi and Rustica, known as most widespread in Bulgaria. Experimental plants were grown in a greenhouse under controlled conditions. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf plants of cultivar Xanthi were inoculated with Potato virus Y (PVY) while the Rustica plants were inoculated with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). These two viruses are worldwide distributed and cause significant yield losses in many economically important crops. In the course of time after inoculation the concentration of the viruses in plant leaves was assessed by erological analysis via DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR techniques. Hyperspectral reflectance data were collected by a portable fibreoptics spectrometer in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm). As control plants healthy untreated tobacco plants were used. The significance of the differences between reflectance spectra of control and infected leaves was analyzed by means of Student's t-criterion at pred (640-680 nm), red edge (690-720 nm) and near infrared (720-780 nm) spectral ranges. Changes in SRC were found for both viral treatments and comparative analysis showed that the influence of PVY was stronger. The discrimination of disease intensity was achieved by derivative analysis of the red edge position.

  11. Detection of occult disease in tissue donors by routine autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, J; Fresno, M F; Escudero, D; Seco, M; González, M; Peces, R

    1998-01-01

    The transmission of infectious and neoplastic diseases is a potential risk of tissue allografting. In this study, we analyzed the occurrence of occult disease in tissue donors as detected by standard screening and autopsy. Whereas 18% of the potential donors initially evaluated were eliminated on the basis of their medical and social histories, laboratory screening and autopsy revealed that an additional 9% of tissue donors had undetected, transmissible disease that prohibited tissue donation. This report emphasizes once again the risk of occult disease being transplanted with grafts and the need for autopsy to reduce the likelihood of this occurring. If donor selection, appropriate screening tests, and autopsy are carefully carried out, the risk of transmitting diseases from tissue allografts can be kept to a minimum.

  12. Detection of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Linda; Lightner, Donald; Pantoja, Carlos; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia

    2014-08-21

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has also been referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS), initially emerged as a destructive disease of cultured shrimp species in Asia in 2009. The pathogen associated with the disease, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, subsequently spread to the Western Hemisphere and emerged in Mexico in early 2013. The spread to the Western Hemisphere is a major concern to shrimp producers in the region. To date, the only peer-reviewed published method for determining whether mortalities are due to AHPND is through histological examination. A novel PCR detection method was employed to assess samples from Mexico in order to confirm the presence of the pathogen in this country. This manuscript details the detection methods used to confirm the presence of AHPND in Mexico. Both immersion and per os challenge studies were used to expose the Penaeus vannamei to the bacteria in order to induce the disease. Histological analysis confirmed AHPND status following the challenge studies. Also provided are the details of the molecular test by PCR that was used for screening candidate V. parahaemolyticus isolates. A rapid PCR assay for detection of AHPND may help with early detection and help prevent the spread of AHPND to other countries.

  13. PCR-Based detection of the causal agent of watermark disease in willows (Salix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauben; Steenackers; Swings

    1998-10-01

    The watermark disease, caused by Brenneria salicis (formerly Erwinia salicis), is of significant concern wherever tree-forming willows are grown or occur naturally. The movement of infected, asymptomatic cuttings is a major cause of pathogen dispersal. A reliable and sensitive diagnostic procedure is necessary for the safe movement of willow planting material. We derived primers from the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of B. salicis for the development of a PCR to detect this pathogen. One set of primers, Es1a-Es4b, directed the amplification of a 553-bp fragment from B. salicis genomic DNA as well as B. salicis cells. PCR products were not observed when genomic DNA was tested for 27 strains of other, related plant-associated bacteria. Genomic fingerprinting by amplification fragment length polymorphism of B. salicis strains, originating from four different countries, and related Brenneria, Pectobacterium, and Erwinia strains revealed a very high similarity among the B. salicis genomes, indicating that the spread of the pathogen is mainly due to the transportation of infected cuttings. The PCR had to be preceded by a DNA extraction in order to detect the pathogen in the vascular fluid of willows. The minimum number of cells that could be detected from vascular fluid was 20 CFU/ml. The PCR assays proved to be very sensitive and reliable in detecting B. salicis in willow plant material.

  14. Optimal sampling strategies for detecting zoonotic disease epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jake M; Langebrake, Jessica B; Cannataro, Vincent L; Garcia, Andres J; Hamman, Elizabeth A; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W

    2014-06-01

    The early detection of disease epidemics reduces the chance of successful introductions into new locales, minimizes the number of infections, and reduces the financial impact. We develop a framework to determine the optimal sampling strategy for disease detection in zoonotic host-vector epidemiological systems when a disease goes from below detectable levels to an epidemic. We find that if the time of disease introduction is known then the optimal sampling strategy can switch abruptly between sampling only from the vector population to sampling only from the host population. We also construct time-independent optimal sampling strategies when conducting periodic sampling that can involve sampling both the host and the vector populations simultaneously. Both time-dependent and -independent solutions can be useful for sampling design, depending on whether the time of introduction of the disease is known or not. We illustrate the approach with West Nile virus, a globally-spreading zoonotic arbovirus. Though our analytical results are based on a linearization of the dynamical systems, the sampling rules appear robust over a wide range of parameter space when compared to nonlinear simulation models. Our results suggest some simple rules that can be used by practitioners when developing surveillance programs. These rules require knowledge of transition rates between epidemiological compartments, which population was initially infected, and of the cost per sample for serological tests.

  15. Rapid Detection and Characterization of Emerging Foreign Animal Disease Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    To best safeguard human and animal health requires early detection and characterization of disease events. This must include effective surveillance for emerging infectious diseases. Both deliberate and natural outbreaks have enormous economic and public health impacts, and can present serious threats to national security. In this project, we developed novel next generation detection technologies to protect the agricultural economy and biosecurity. The first technology is a multiplexed assay to simultaneously detection 10 swine viral and bacterial pathogens. The second one is the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) which can detect more than 10,000 microbial species including 4219 viruses, 5367 bacteria, 265 fungi, 117 protozoa and 293 archaea. We analyzed a series of swine clinical samples from past disease events to demonstrate the utility of the assays for faster and cheaper detection of emerging and foreign animal disease pathogens, and their utility as s routine diagnosis and surveillance tool. A second goal of the study is to better understand mechanisms of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection in pigs to aid the development of countermeasures and diagnostics. There is no vaccine available for ASF. ASF outbreak is on the rise on several European countries. Though ASF is not currently in the U.S., a potential outbreak in the U.S. would be detrimental to the swine industry and the US agricultural economy. We pursued a genome-wide approach to characterize the pig immune responses after ASFV infection. We used RNA sequencing and bioinformatics methods to identify genes and pathways that are affected during ASF infection. We have identified a list of most differentially expressed genes that are in the immune response pathways.

  16. Cost-effective control of plant disease when epidemiological knowledge is incomplete: modelling Bahia bark scaling of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Laranjeira, Francisco F; Neri, Franco M; DeSimone, R Erik; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2014-08-01

    A spatially-explicit, stochastic model is developed for Bahia bark scaling, a threat to citrus production in north-eastern Brazil, and is used to assess epidemiological principles underlying the cost-effectiveness of disease control strategies. The model is fitted via Markov chain Monte Carlo with data augmentation to snapshots of disease spread derived from a previously-reported multi-year experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests strongly supported the fit of the model, even though the detailed etiology of the disease is unknown and was not explicitly included in the model. Key epidemiological parameters including the infection rate, incubation period and scale of dispersal are estimated from the spread data. This allows us to scale-up the experimental results to predict the effect of the level of initial inoculum on disease progression in a typically-sized citrus grove. The efficacies of two cultural control measures are assessed: altering the spacing of host plants, and roguing symptomatic trees. Reducing planting density can slow disease spread significantly if the distance between hosts is sufficiently large. However, low density groves have fewer plants per hectare. The optimum density of productive plants is therefore recovered at an intermediate host spacing. Roguing, even when detection of symptomatic plants is imperfect, can lead to very effective control. However, scouting for disease symptoms incurs a cost. We use the model to balance the cost of scouting against the number of plants lost to disease, and show how to determine a roguing schedule that optimises profit. The trade-offs underlying the two optima we identify-the optimal host spacing and the optimal roguing schedule-are applicable to many pathosystems. Our work demonstrates how a carefully parameterised mathematical model can be used to find these optima. It also illustrates how mathematical models can be used in even this most challenging of situations in which the underlying epidemiology is ill-understood.

  17. Understanding plant immunity as a surveillance system to detect invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook III, D.E.; Mesarich, C.H.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Various conceptual models to describe the plant immune system have been presented. The most recent paradigm to gain wide acceptance in the field is often referred to as the zigzag model, which reconciles the previously formulated gene-for-gene hypothesis with the recognition of general elicitors in

  18. Detection of pre-symptomatic rose powdery-mildew and gray-mold diseases based on thermal vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M.; Minaei, S.; Safaie, N.

    2017-09-01

    Roses are the most important plants in ornamental horticulture. Roses are susceptible to a number of phytopathogenic diseases. Among the most serious diseases of rose, powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa var. rosae) and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) are widespread which require considerable attention. In this study, the potential of implementing thermal imaging to detect the pre-symptomatic appearance of these fungal diseases was investigated. Effects of powdery mildew and gray mold diseases on rose plants (Rosa hybrida L.) were examined by two experiments conducted in a growth chamber. To classify the healthy and infected plants, feature selection was carried out and the best extracted thermal features with the largest linguistic hedge values were chosen. Two neuro-fuzzy classifiers were trained to distinguish between the healthy and infected plants. Best estimation rates of 92.55% and 92.3% were achieved in training and testing the classifier with 8 clusters in order to identify the leaves infected with powdery mildew. In addition, the best estimation rates of 97.5% and 92.59% were achieved in training and testing the classifier with 4 clusters to identify the gray mold disease on flowers. Performance of the designed neuro-fuzzy classifiers were evaluated with the thermal images captured using an automatic imaging setup. Best correct estimation rates of 69% and 80% were achieved (on the second day post-inoculation) for pre-symptomatic appearance detection of powdery mildew and gray mold diseases, respectively.

  19. Recent developments in pathogen detection arrays: implications for fungal plant pathogens and use in practica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The failure to adequately identify plant pathogens from culture-based morphological techniques has led to the development of culture-independent molecular approaches. Increasingly, diagnostic laboratories are pursuing fast routine methods that provide reliable identification, sensitive detection, an

  20. Detection and plant monitoring programs: lessons from an intensive survey of Asclepias meadii with five observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Helen M; Reed, Aaron W; Kettle, W Dean; Slade, Norman A; Bodbyl Roels, Sarah A; Collins, Cathy D; Salisbury, Vaughn

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring programs, where numbers of individuals are followed through time, are central to conservation. Although incomplete detection is expected with wildlife surveys, this topic is rarely considered with plants. However, if plants are missed in surveys, raw count data can lead to biased estimates of population abundance and vital rates. To illustrate, we had five independent observers survey patches of the rare plant Asclepias meadii at two prairie sites. We analyzed data with two mark-recapture approaches. Using the program CAPTURE, the estimated number of patches equaled the detected number for a burned site, but exceeded detected numbers by 28% for an unburned site. Analyses of detected patches using Huggins models revealed important effects of observer, patch state (flowering/nonflowering), and patch size (number of stems) on probabilities of detection. Although some results were expected (i.e. greater detection of flowering than nonflowering patches), the importance of our approach is the ability to quantify the magnitude of detection problems. We also evaluated the degree to which increased observer numbers improved detection: smaller groups (3-4 observers) generally found 90 - 99% of the patches found by all five people, but pairs of observers or single observers had high error and detection depended on which individuals were involved. We conclude that an intensive study at the start of a long-term monitoring study provides essential information about probabilities of detection and what factors cause plants to be missed. This information can guide development of monitoring programs.

  1. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Fuentes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN, Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN, and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD, which for the purpose of this work are called “deep learning meta-architectures”. We combine each of these meta-architectures with “deep feature extractors” such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet. We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant’s surrounding area.

  2. Fluorescence techniques to detect and to assess viability of plant pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, L.G.

    2001-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria cause major economic losses in commercial crop production worldwide every year. The current methods used to detect and to assess the viability of bacterial pathogens and to test seed lots or plants for contamination are usually based on plate assays or on serological techni

  3. Detection of regulated herbs and plants in plant food supplements and traditional medicines using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2017-08-05

    The identification of a specific toxic or regulated plant in herbal preparations or plant food supplements is a real challenge, since they are often powdered, mixed with other herbal or synthetic powders and compressed into tablets or capsules. The classical identification approaches based on micro- and macroscopy are therefore not possible anymore. In this paper infrared spectroscopy, combined with attenuated total reflectance was evaluated for the screening of plant based preparations for nine specific plants (five regulated and four common plants for herbal supplements). IR and NIR spectra were recorded for a series of self-made triturations of the targeted plants. After pretreatment of the spectral data chemometric classification techniques were applied to both data sets (IR and NIR) separately and the combination of both. The results show that the screening of herbal preparations or plant food supplements for specific plants, using infrared spectroscopy, is feasible. The best model was obtained with the Mid-IR data, using SIMCA as modelling technique. During validation of the model, using an external test set, 21 of 25 were correctly classified and six of the nine targeted plants showed no misclassifications for the selected test set. For the other three a success rate of 50% was obtained. Mid-IR combined with SIMCA can therefore be applied as a first step in the screening of unknown samples, before applying more sophisticated fingerprint approaches or identification tests described in several national and international pharmacopoeia. As a proof of concept five real suspicious samples were successfully screened for the targeted regulated plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Heng-mu; WANG Hua-di; YANG Jian; Michael J. ADAMS; CHEN Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurrence and spread in the province.

  5. Nitric oxide production by necrotrophic pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the host plant in charcoal rot disease of jute: complexity of the interplay between necrotroph-host plant interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin Subhra Sarkar

    Full Text Available M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction.

  6. Nitric oxide production by necrotrophic pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the host plant in charcoal rot disease of jute: complexity of the interplay between necrotroph-host plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2',7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction.

  7. Nitric Oxide Production by Necrotrophic Pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and the Host Plant in Charcoal Rot Disease of Jute: Complexity of the Interplay between Necrotroph–Host Plant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Biswas, Pranjal; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    M. phaseolina, a global devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen causes charcoal rot disease in more than 500 host plants. With the aim of understanding the plant-necrotrophic pathogen interaction associated with charcoal rot disease of jute, biochemical approach was attempted to study cellular nitric oxide production under diseased condition. This is the first report on M. phaseolina infection in Corchorus capsularis (jute) plants which resulted in elevated nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and S nitrosothiols production in infected tissues. Time dependent nitric oxide production was also assessed with 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2′,7′-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate using single leaf experiment both in presence of M. phaseolina and xylanases obtained from fungal secretome. Cellular redox status and redox active enzymes were also assessed during plant fungal interaction. Interestingly, M. phaseolina was found to produce nitric oxide which was detected in vitro inside the mycelium and in the surrounding medium. Addition of mammalian nitric oxide synthase inhibitor could block the nitric oxide production in M. phaseolina. Bioinformatics analysis revealed nitric oxide synthase like sequence with conserved amino acid sequences in M. phaseolina genome sequence. In conclusion, the production of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species may have important physiological significance in necrotrophic host pathogen interaction. PMID:25208092

  8. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important fungal disease in rice which infects the plant during the rice growing season from the nursery period up to farm growth stage and productivity phase. The later the disease is diagnosed the higher the amount of chemicals is needed for treatment. Due to high costs and harmful environmental impacts of chemical toxins, the accurate early detection and treatment of plant disease is seemed to be necessary. In general, observation with the naked eye is used for disease detection. However, the results are indeed depend on the intelligence of the person performing the operation. So usually the accurate determination of the severity and progression of the disease can’t be achieved. On the other side, the use of experts for continuous monitoring of large farms might be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Thus, investigating the new approaches for rapid, automated, inexpensive and accurate plant disease diagnosis is very important. Machine vision and image processing is a new technique which can capture images from a scene of interest, analyze the images and accurately extract the desired information. Studies show that image processing techniques have been successfully used for plant disease detection. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of image processing techniques for diagnosing the rice blast and rice brown spot. Materials and Methods: The samples of rice leaf infected by brown spot and rice blast diseases were collected from rice fields and

  9. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  10. Plant uptake of pharmaceutical chemicals detected in recycled organic manure and reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Shinohara, Ryota; Nomiyama, Kei

    2012-10-17

    Land application of recycled manure produced from biosolids and reclaimed wastewater can transfer pharmaceutical chemicals to terrestrial environments, giving rise to potential accumulation of these residues in edible plants. In this study, the potential for plant uptake of 13 pharmaceutical chemicals, and the relation between the accumulation features within the plant and the physicochemical properties were examined by exposing pea and cucumber to an aqueous solution containing pharmaceutical chemicals. Ten of 13 compounds tested were detected in plant leaves and stems. Comparison of the plant uptake characteristics and the octanol-water partition coefficient of pharmaceutical chemicals showed that compounds with an intermediate polarity such as carbamazepine and crotamiton could be easily transported to plant shoots. Moreover, these results suggest the possibility of highly hydrophilic pharmaceutical chemicals such as trimethoprim and sulfonamides to be accumulated in plant roots owing to their low permeability in root cell membranes.

  11. Candidate gene markers for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus for detecting citrus greening disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame

    2013-06-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter bacterium, vectored by the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and Trioza erytreae Del Guercio. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection. The aim of this study was to develop effective gene-specific primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction based method for quick screening of HLB disease. Thirty-two different gene-specific primer pairs, across the Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus genome, were successfully developed. The possibility of these primer pairs for cross-genome amplification across 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' and 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus' were tested. The applicability of these primer pairs for detection and differentiation of Ca Liberibacter spp. is discussed.

  12. Candidate gene markers for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus for detecting citrus greening disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao; Mike Irey; Stephen M Garnsey; Siddarame Gowda

    2013-06-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter bacterium, vectored by the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and Trioza erytreae Del Guercio. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection. The aim of this study was to develop effective gene-specific primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction based method for quick screening of HLB disease. Thirty-two different gene-specific primer pairs, across the Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus genome, were successfully developed. The possibility of these primer pairs for cross-genome amplification across `Ca. Liberibacter africanus’ and `Ca. Liberibacter americanus’ were tested. The applicability of these primer pairs for detection and differentiation of Ca Liberibacter spp. is discussed.

  13. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  14. Some plants described by Pliny for the treatment of renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis Tortora, M

    1994-01-01

    Pliny the Elder described medicinal plants in books XX-XXVII of Naturalis Historia, reporting the therapeutic properties and preparations of the plants for use in different parts of the body. An exhibition of 20 plants chosen from those indicated for renal diseases is described.

  15. Model analysis for plant disease dynamics co-mediated by herbivory and herbivore-borne phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takefumi; Yamanaka, Takehiko; Urano, Satoru

    2012-08-23

    Plants are subject to diseases caused by pathogens, many of which are transmitted by herbivorous arthropod vectors. To understand plant disease dynamics, we studied a minimum hybrid model combining consumer-resource (herbivore-plant) and susceptible-infected models, in which the disease is transmitted bi-directionally between the consumer and the resource from the infected to susceptible classes. Model analysis showed that: (i) the disease is more likely to persist when the herbivore feeds on the susceptible plants rather than the infected plants, and (ii) alternative stable states can exist in which the system converges to either a disease-free or an endemic state, depending on the initial conditions. The second finding is particularly important because it suggests that the disease may persist once established, even though the initial prevalence is low (i.e. the R(0) rule does not always hold). This situation is likely to occur when the infection improves the plant nutritive quality, and the herbivore preferentially feeds on the infected resource (i.e. indirect vector-pathogen mutualism). Our results highlight the importance of the eco-epidemiological perspective that integration of tripartite interactions among host plant, plant pathogen and herbivore vector is crucial for the successful control of plant diseases.

  16. Porous silicon biosensor for the detection of autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Andrew O.; Szili, Endre J.; Reed, Joanne H.; Gordon, Tom P.; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2007-12-01

    Advances in porous silicon (pSi) technology have led to the development of new sensitive biosensors. The unique optical properties of pSi renders the material a perfect candidate for optical transducers exploiting photoluminescence or white light interference effects. The ability of biosensors exploiting these transduction mechanisms to quickly and accurately detect biological target molecules affords an alternative to current bioassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Here, we present a pSi biosensor that was developed to detect antibodies against the autoimmune protein La. This protein is associated with autoimmune diseases including rheumatic disorders, systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjogren's syndrome (SS). A fast and sensitive detection platform such as the one described here can be applied to the rapid diagnosis of these debilitating autoimmune diseases. The immobilisation of the La protein onto pSi films gave a protein receptor-decorated sensor matrix. A cascade of immunological reactions was then initiated to detect anti-La antibody on the functionalised pSi surface. In the presence of o-phenylenediamine (OPD), horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/H IIO II catalysed the formation of an oxidised radical species that accelerated pSi corrosion. pSi corrosion was detected as a blue-shift in the generated interference pattern, corresponding to a decrease in the effective optical thickness (EOT) of the pSi film. Compared to an ELISA, the pSi biosensor could detect the anti-La antibody at a similar concentration (500 - 125 ng/ml). Furthermore, we found that the experimental process can be significantly shortened resulting in detection of the anti-La antibody in 80 minutes compared to a minimum of 5 hours required for ELISA.

  17. REM behaviour disorder detection associated with neurodegenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sorensen, Gertrud; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal skeleton muscle activity during REM sleep is characterized as REM Behaviour Disorder (RBD), and may be an early marker for different neurodegenerative diseases. Early detection of RBD is therefore highly important, and in this ongoing study a semi-automatic method for RBD detection...... is proposed by analyzing the motor activity during sleep. Method: A total number of twelve patients have been involved in this study, six normal controls and six patients diagnosed with Parkinsons Disease (PD) with RBD. All subjects underwent at least one ambulant polysomnographic (PSG) recording. The sleep...... recordings were scored, according to the new sleep-scoring standard from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, by two independent sleep specialists. A follow-up analysis of the scoring consensus between the two specialists has been conducted. Based on the agreement of the two manual scorings...

  18. REM Behaviour Disorder Detection Associated with Neurodegerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal skeleton muscle activity during REM sleep is characterized as REM Behaviour Disorder (RBD), and may be an early marker for different neurodegenerative diseases. Early detection of RBD is therefore highly important, and in this ongoing study a semi-automatic method for RBD detection...... is proposed by analyzing the motor activity during sleep. Method: A total number of twelve patients have been involved in this study, six normal controls and six patients diagnosed with Parkinsons Disease (PD) with RBD. All subjects underwent at least one ambulant polysomnographic (PSG) recording. The sleep...... recordings were scored, according to the new sleep-scoring standard from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, by two independent sleep specialists. A follow-up analysis of the scoring consensus between the two specialists has been conducted. Based on the agreement of the two manual scorings...

  19. Ethnomedicinal plants used in the treatment of skin diseases in Hyderabad Karnataka region, Karnataka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivakumar Singh Policepatel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To document traditional medicinal plants knowledge used in treating skin diseases at Hyderabad Karnataka Region.Methods:gathered from traditional herbal healers and other villagers through interviews.Results:A total of 60 plants species belonging to 57 genera and 34 families were found useful The information on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases was and herewith described them along with the method of drug preparation, mode of administration, probable dosage and duration of treatment. Several new findings on the traditional rural practices were reported.Conclusions:The present study revealed that the Hyderabad Karnataka rural people is primarily dependent on medicinal plants for treating skin diseases.

  20. Outbreak detection algorithms for seasonal disease data: a case study using ross river virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatton Michelle L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of outbreaks is an important part of disease surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed for detecting outbreaks, few have been specifically assessed against diseases that have distinct seasonal incidence patterns, such as those caused by vector-borne pathogens. Methods We applied five previously reported outbreak detection algorithms to Ross River virus (RRV disease data (1991-2007 for the four local government areas (LGAs of Brisbane, Emerald, Redland and Townsville in Queensland, Australia. The methods used were the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS C1, C2 and C3 methods, negative binomial cusum (NBC, historical limits method (HLM, Poisson outbreak detection (POD method and the purely temporal SaTScan analysis. Seasonally-adjusted variants of the NBC and SaTScan methods were developed. Some of the algorithms were applied using a range of parameter values, resulting in 17 variants of the five algorithms. Results The 9,188 RRV disease notifications that occurred in the four selected regions over the study period showed marked seasonality, which adversely affected the performance of some of the outbreak detection algorithms. Most of the methods examined were able to detect the same major events. The exception was the seasonally-adjusted NBC methods that detected an excess of short signals. The NBC, POD and temporal SaTScan algorithms were the only methods that consistently had high true positive rates and low false positive and false negative rates across the four study areas. The timeliness of outbreak signals generated by each method was also compared but there was no consistency across outbreaks and LGAs. Conclusions This study has highlighted several issues associated with applying outbreak detection algorithms to seasonal disease data. In lieu of a true gold standard, a quantitative comparison is difficult and caution should be taken when interpreting the true positives, false positives

  1. On the political economy of plant disease epidemics : capita selecta in historical epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Food security has been and always will be a human concern. Food security has always been fragile, threatened by a variety of factors including plant disease epidemics. Several plant disease epidemics of the past lead to questions like: What happened? How did people deal with these epidemics? What we

  2. Implementation of microfluidic sandwich ELISA for superior detection of plant pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numrin Thaitrong

    Full Text Available Rapid and economical screening of plant pathogens is a high-priority need in the seed industry. Crop quality control and disease surveillance demand early and accurate detection in addition to robustness, scalability, and cost efficiency typically required for selective breeding and certification programs. Compared to conventional bench-top detection techniques routinely employed, a microfluidic-based approach offers unique benefits to address these needs simultaneously. To our knowledge, this work reports the first attempt to perform microfluidic sandwich ELISA for Acidovorax citrulli (Ac, watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV screening. The immunoassay occurs on the surface of a reaction chamber represented by a microfluidic channel. The capillary force within the microchannel draws a reagent into the reaction chamber as well as facilitates assay incubation. Because the underlying pad automatically absorbs excess fluid, the only operation required is sequential loading of buffers/reagents. Buffer selection, antibody concentrations, and sample loading scheme were optimized for each pathogen. Assay optimization reveals that the 20-folds lower sample volume demanded by the microchannel structure outweighs the 2- to 4-folds higher antibody concentrations required, resulting in overall 5-10 folds of reagent savings. In addition to cutting the assay time by more than 50%, the new platform offers 65% cost savings from less reagent consumption and labor cost. Our study also shows 12.5-, 2-, and 4-fold improvement in assay sensitivity for Ac, WSMoV, and MYSV, respectively. Practical feasibility is demonstrated using 19 real plant samples. Given a standard 96-well plate format, the developed assay is compatible with commercial fluorescent plate readers and readily amendable to robotic liquid handling systems for completely hand-free assay automation.

  3. Plant alkaloids as drug leads for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yu Pong; Or, Terry Cho Tsun; Ip, Nancy Y

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative illness associated with dementia and is most prevalent among the elderly population. Current medications can only treat symptoms. Alkaloids are structurally diverse and have been an important source of therapeutics for various brain disorders. Two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for AD, galantamine and rivastigmine, are in fact alkaloids. In addition, clinical trials of four other extensively studied alkaloids-huperzine A, caffeine, nicotine, and indomethacin-have been conducted but do not convincingly demonstrate their clinical efficacy for AD. Interestingly, rhynchophylline, a known neuroprotective alkaloid, was recently discovered by in silico screening as an inhibitor of EphA4, a novel target for AD. Here, we review the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD, current treatment strategies, and therapeutic potential of several selected plant alkaloids in AD, highlighting their various drug targets and the key supportive preclinical and clinical studies. Future research should include more rigorous clinical studies of the most promising alkaloids, the further development of recently discovered candidate alkaloids, and the continual search for new alkaloids for relevant drug targets. It remains promising that an alkaloid drug candidate could significantly affect the progression of AD in addition to providing symptomatic relief.

  4. Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Richard John

    2016-01-01

    Thesis submitted to the University of Manchester by Richard Macey for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy entitled “Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists”, February 2016.Many adult patients that attend NHS dental practices on a regular basis are asymptomatic and do not need any further treatment other than a routine dental examination (“check-up”). As the oral health of the adult population is predicted to improve further, using the General Dental Practitioner to und...

  5. Cure of Psoriasis and Arthritis when Addison's Disease Was Detected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marcus

    2010-06-01

    INTRODUCTION: Corticoid therapy is well-known to improve the symptoms of psoriasis. Addison's disease is an autoimmune disease which leads to a loss of cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This case report describes a patient with wide-spread psoriasis for 34 years who was cured when Addison's disease was detected and substitution to reach normal biological cortisol levels was introduced. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old man was diagnosed with Addison's disease. He had been tired for several years and had had difficulties in continuing his work. His brother had Addison's disease and recommended him to make a screen for the disease. Synacthen test diagnosed Addison's disease with a clear deficiency of cortisol production. After substitution with hydrocortisone the patient's constitution improved rapidly and he felt no longer tired during work. At the same time, all skin lesions of psoriasis disappeared as well as aches in several joints, both symptoms having been present for a couple of decades. Previously, salves of cortisol had been used to reduce the symptoms of psoriasis, but now, 1-2 years later, after the treatment of Addison's disease, no symptoms in the skin or joints have reoccurred. CONCLUSIONS: This report illustrates that Addison's disease, although a rare condition, should be kept in mind before treatment of psoriasis is started. Especially if other symptoms such as fatigue are present, a screening test of serum cortisol in the morning should be liberally made. The report also illustrates a need of examining corticoid levels in patients with psoriasis compared to the general population.

  6. System for In-Situ Detection of Plant Exposure to Trichloroethylene (TCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark D. (Inventor); Anderson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Newman, Lee A. (Inventor); Keith, Amy G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A system detects a plant's exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) through plant leaf imaging. White light impinging upon a plant's leaf interacts therewith to produce interacted light. A detector is positioned to detect at least one spectral band of the interacted light. A processor coupled to the detector performs comparisons between photonic energy of the interacted light at the one or more spectral bands thereof and reference data defining spectral responses indicative of leaf exposure to TCE. An output device coupled to the processor provides indications of the comparisons.

  7. Nitroaromatic detection and infrared communication from wild-type plants using plant nanobionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Hao; Giraldo, Juan P.; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Koman, Volodymyr B.; Sinclair, Rosalie; Lew, Tedrick Thomas Salim; Bisker, Gili; Liu, Pingwei; Strano, Michael S.

    2017-02-01

    Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors--single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal--embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. As contaminant nitroaromatics are transported up the roots and stem into leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll, resulting in relative changes in emission intensity. The real-time monitoring of embedded SWCNT sensors also allows residence times in the roots, stems and leaves to be estimated, calculated to be 8.3 min (combined residence times of root and stem) and 1.9 min mm-1 leaf, respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of living, wild-type plants to function as chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances.

  8. Nitroaromatic detection and infrared communication from wild-type plants using plant nanobionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Hao; Giraldo, Juan P.; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Koman, Volodymyr B.; Sinclair, Rosalie; Lew, Tedrick Thomas Salim; Bisker, Gili; Liu, Pingwei; Strano, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors--single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal--embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. As contaminant nitroaromatics are transported up the roots and stem into leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll, resulting in relative changes in emission intensity. The real-time monitoring of embedded SWCNT sensors also allows residence times in the roots, stems and leaves to be estimated, calculated to be 8.3 min (combined residence times of root and stem) and 1.9 min mm-1 leaf, respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of living, wild-type plants to function as chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances.

  9. Genetically modified plants and food hypersensitivity diseases: usage and implications of experimental models for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Vanessa E; Hogan, Simon P

    2006-08-01

    The recent advances in biotechnology in the plant industry have led to increasing crop production and yield that in turn has increased the usage of genetically modified (GM) food in the human food chain. The usage of GM foods for human consumption has raised a number of fundamental questions including the ability of GM foods to elicit potentially harmful immunological responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. To assess the safety of foods derived from GM plants including allergenic potential, the US FDA, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), and the EU have developed approaches for evaluation assessment. One assessment approach that has been a very active area of research and debate is the development and usage of animal models to assess the potential allergenicity of GM foods. A number of specific animal models employing rodents, pigs, and dogs have been developed for allergenicity assessment. However, validation of these models is needed and consideration of the criteria for an appropriate animal model for the assessment of allergenicity in GM plants is required. We have recently employed a BALB/c mouse model to assess the potential allergenicity of GM plants. We have been able to demonstrate that this model is able to detect differences in antigenicity and identify aspects of protein post-translational modifications that can alter antigenicity. Furthermore, this model has also enabled us to examine the usage of GM plants as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic diseases. This review discusses the current approaches to assess the allergenic potential of GM food and particularly focusing on the usage of animal models to determine the potential allergenicity of GM foods and gives an overview of our recent findings and implications of these studies.

  10. [Epidemiologic research on asbestos related disease in ENEL SpA electricity production plant maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachetta, R; Pira, E; Maroni, M; Bosio, D; Di Prisco, M L

    2003-01-01

    Since many years research programs have been set up to study the relationship between asbestos occupational exposure and development of asbestos-related lung diseases in electricity production plants workers. In the year 2000 a new study of asbestos-related lung abnormalities prevalence in italian geothermal and idrothermal power plant maintenance workers was planned. The cohort comprised 3891 subjects. To meet the criteria, only workers in service for at least six months before 1990 and still in service at power plants in May 2000 were included in the study; chest X-rays were taken and made anonymous. Independent reading of X-rays was made by two groups of specialists, and a third reading of selected discordant readings X-rays was made by another group of specialists. A further diagnostic protocol (including HRCT) was planned when two out of three readings showed the presence of asbestos related lung abnormalities. The analysis was made on 3063 subjects (78.7% of the cohort). The number of asbestos-related abnormalities in two out of three X-ray readings was 122 (4%). The further diagnostic protocol, that included occupational and pathological anamnesis and HRCT, confirmed an asbestos-related occupational lung abnormalities in 41 cases (1.3% out of 3063 subjects). The prevalence of asbestos-related lung abnormalities among 3063 power plant maintenance workers was 1.3%. If all the cases of lung abnormalities so far detected (data are still provisional) had developed only in the power plant environment, and not in previous working activities, the prevalence of lung abnormalities would be extremely low. These data support the evidence of limited exposure levels to asbestos in this working environment And bears witness to the success of preventive measures to control this specific risk.

  11. Detection And Identification Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, J. A.; Ouaret, N.; Gardner, J. W.; Nwokolo, C.; Bardhan, K. D.; Arasaradnam, R. P.

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammation of the lining of the human bowel and a major health issue in Europe. IBD carries with it significant morbidity from toxic treatment, surgery and a risk of developing bowel cancer. Thus there is a need for early identification of the disease using non-invasive tests. Present diagnostic techniques are based around invasive tests (i.e. endoscopy) and laboratory culture; the latter is limited as only 50% of the gut bacteria can be identified. Here we explore the use of an e-nose as a tool to detect and identify two IBDs (i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) & Ulcerative Colitis (UC)) based on headspace analysis from urine samples. We believe that the gut bacterial flora is altered by disease (due to fermentation) that in-turn modulates the gas composition within urine samples. 24 samples (9 CD, 6 UC, 9 controls) were analysed with an in-house e-nose and an Owlstone IMS instrument. Data analysis was performed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA and principal components analysis (PCA). Using the e-nose, LDA separates both disease groups and control, whilst PCA shows a small overlap of classes. The IMS data are more complex but shows some disease/control separation. We are presently collecting further samples for a larger study using more advanced data processing methods.

  12. Impacts of climate change on plant diseases – opinions and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Pautasso, Marco; Döring, Thomas F.; Garbelotto, M.; Pellis, L; Jeger, MJ

    2012-01-01

    There has been a remarkable scientific output on the topic of how climate change is likely to affect plant diseases in the coming decades. This review addresses the need for review of this burgeoning literature by summarizing opinions of previous reviews and trends in recent studies on the impacts of climate change on plant health. Sudden Oak Death is used as an introductory case study: Californian forests could become even more susceptible to this emerging plant disease, if spring precipitat...

  13. Edge effects, not connectivity, determine the incidence and development of a foliar fungal plant disease.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brenda, L.; Haddad, Nick, M.

    2011-08-01

    Using a model plant-pathogen system in a large-scale habitat corridor experiment, we found that corridors do not facilitate the movement of wind-dispersed plant pathogens, that connectivity of patches does not enhance levels of foliar fungal plant disease, and that edge effects are the key drivers of plant disease dynamics. Increased spread of infectious disease is often cited as a potential negative effect of habitat corridors used in conservation, but the impacts of corridors on pathogen movement have never been tested empirically. Using sweet corn (Zea mays) and southern corn leaf blight (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) as a model plant-pathogen system, we tested the impacts of connectivity and habitat fragmentation on pathogen movement and disease development at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. Over time, less edgy patches had higher proportions of diseased plants, and distance of host plants to habitat edges was the greatest determinant of disease development. Variation in average daytime temperatures provided a possible mechanism for these disease patterns. Our results show that worries over the potentially harmful effects of conservation corridors on disease dynamics are misplaced, and that, in a conservation context, many diseases can be better managed by mitigating edge effects.

  14. Advanced conceptual design report: T Plant secondary containment and leak detection upgrades. Project W-259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hookfin, J.D.

    1995-05-12

    The T Plant facilities in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were constructed in the early 1940s to produce nuclear materials in support of national defense activities. T Plant includes the 271-T facility, the 221-T facility, and several support facilities (eg, 2706-T), utilities, and tanks/piping systems. T Plant has been recommended as the primary interim decontamination facility for the Hanford site. Project W-259 will provide capital upgrades to the T Plant facilities to comply with Federal and State of Washington environmental regulations for secondary containment and leak detection. This document provides an advanced conceptual design concept that complies with functional requirements for the T Plant Secondary Containment and Leak Detection upgrades.

  15. Biomarker detection of global infectious diseases based on magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinelli, Soledad; Martí, Mercè; Alegret, Salvador; Pividori, María Isabel

    2015-09-25

    Infectious diseases affect the daily lives of millions of people all around the world, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths, mostly in the developing world. Although most of these major infectious diseases are treatable, the early identification of individuals requiring treatment remains a major issue. The incidence of these diseases would be reduced if rapid diagnostic tests were widely available at the community and primary care level in low-resource settings. Strong research efforts are thus being focused on replacing standard clinical diagnostic methods, such as the invasive detection techniques (biopsy or endoscopy) or expensive diagnostic and monitoring methods, by affordable and sensitive tests based on novel biomarkers. The development of new methods that are needed includes solid-phase separation techniques. In this context, the integration of magnetic particles within bioassays and biosensing devices is very promising since they greatly improve the performance of a biological reaction. The diagnosis of clinical samples with magnetic particles can be easily achieved without pre-enrichment, purification or pretreatment steps often required for standard methods, simplifying the analytical procedures. The biomarkers can be specifically isolated and preconcentrated from complex biological matrixes by magnetic actuation, increasing specificity and the sensitivity of the assay. This review addresses these promising features of the magnetic particles for the detection of biomarkers in emerging technologies related with infectious diseases affecting global health, such as malaria, influenza, dengue, tuberculosis or HIV.

  16. Congenital heart disease and chromossomopathies detected by the karyotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Trevisan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between congenital heart defects and chromosomal abnormalities detected by the karyotype.DATA SOURCES: Scientific articles were searched in MEDLINE database, using the descriptors "karyotype" OR "chromosomal" OR "chromosome" AND "heart defects, congenital". The research was limited to articles published in English from 1980 on.DATA SYNTHESIS: Congenital heart disease is characterized by an etiologically heterogeneous and not well understood group of lesions. Several researchers have evaluated the presence of chromosomal abnormalities detected by the karyotype in patients with congenital heart disease. However, most of the articles were retrospective studies developed in Europe and only some of the studied patients had a karyotype exam. In this review, only one study was conducted in Latin America, in Brazil. It is known that chromosomal abnormalities are frequent, being present in about one in every ten patients with congenital heart disease. Among the karyotype alterations in these patients, the most important is the trisomy 21 (Down syndrome. These patients often have associated extra-cardiac malformations, with a higher risk of morbidity and mortality, which makes heart surgery even more risky.CONCLUSIONS: Despite all the progress made in recent decades in the field of cytogenetic, the karyotype remains an essential tool in order to evaluate patients with congenital heart disease. The detailed dysmorphological physical examination is of great importance to indicate the need of a karyotype.

  17. Specific PCR detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani: a causal agent of Fusarium wilt on radish plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Hwang, S-M; Lee, J H; Oh, M; Han, J W; Choi, G J

    2017-08-01

    Fusarium oxysporum, a causal agent of Fusarium wilt, is one of the most important fungal pathogens worldwide, and detection of F. oxysporum DNA at the forma specialis level is crucial for disease diagnosis and control. In this study, two novel F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani (For)-specific primer sets were designed, FOR1-F/FOR1-R and FOR2-F/FOR2-R, to target FOQG_17868 and FOQG_17869 ORFs, respectively, which were selected based on the genome comparison of other formae speciales of F. oxysporum including conglutinans, cubense, lycopersici, melonis, and pisi. The primer sets FOR1-F/FOR1-R and FOR2-F/FOR2-R that amplified a 610- and 425-bp DNA fragment, respectively, were specific to For isolates which was confirmed using a total of 40 F. oxysporum isolates. From infected plants, the FOR2-F/FOR2-R primer set directly detected the DNA fragment of For isolates even when the radish plants were collected in their early stage of disease development. Although the loci targeted by the For-specific primer sets were not likely involved in the pathogenesis, the primer set FOR2-F/FOR2-R is available for the determination of pathogenicity of radish-infecting F. oxysporum isolates. This study is the first report providing novel primer sets to detect F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani. Because plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum has been classified into special forms based on its host specificity, identification of F. oxysporum usually requires a pathogenicity assay as well as knowledge of the morphological characteristics. For rapid and reliable diagnosis, this study provides PCR primer sets that specifically detect Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (For) which is a devastating pathogen of radish plants. Because one of the primer sets directly detected the DNA fragment of For isolates from infected plants, the specific PCR method demonstrated in this study will provide a foundation for integrated disease management practices in commodity crops. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofowora, Abayomi; Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Onayade, Adedeji

    2013-08-12

    Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in tackling the diseases of public health importance, with particular emphasis on the current strategic approaches to disease prevention. A comparison is drawn between the 'whole population' and 'high-risk' strategies. The usefulness of the common-factor approach as a method of engaging other health promoters in propagating the ideals of medicinal plants is highlighted. The place of medicinal plants in preventing common diseases is further examined under the five core principles of the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. Medicinal plants play vital roles in disease prevention and their promotion and use fit into all existing prevention strategies. However, conscious efforts need to be made to properly identify, recognise and position medicinal plants in the design and implementation of these strategies. These approaches present interesting and emerging perspectives in the field of medicinal plants. Recommendations are proposed for strategising the future role and place for medicinal plants in disease prevention.

  19. Detecting Disease Outbreaks in Mass Gatherings Using Internet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Cox, Ingemar J; McKendry, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as music festivals and religious events, pose a health care challenge because of the risk of transmission of communicable diseases. This is exacerbated by the fact that participants disperse soon after the gathering, potentially spreading disease within their communities. The dispersion of participants also poses a challenge for traditional surveillance methods. The ubiquitous use of the Internet may enable the detection of disease outbreaks through analysis of data generated by users during events and shortly thereafter. Objective The intent of the study was to develop algorithms that can alert to possible outbreaks of communicable diseases from Internet data, specifically Twitter and search engine queries. Methods We extracted all Twitter postings and queries made to the Bing search engine by users who repeatedly mentioned one of nine major music festivals held in the United Kingdom and one religious event (the Hajj in Mecca) during 2012, for a period of 30 days and after each festival. We analyzed these data using three methods, two of which compared words associated with disease symptoms before and after the time of the festival, and one that compared the frequency of these words with those of other users in the United Kingdom in the days following the festivals. Results The data comprised, on average, 7.5 million tweets made by 12,163 users, and 32,143 queries made by 1756 users from each festival. Our methods indicated the statistically significant appearance of a disease symptom in two of the nine festivals. For example, cough was detected at higher than expected levels following the Wakestock festival. Statistically significant agreement (chi-square test, Pfestival. Conclusions Our work shows the feasibility of creating a public health surveillance system for mass gatherings based on Internet data. The use of multiple data sources and analysis methods was found to be advantageous for rejecting false positives. Further

  20. Detection and monitoring of invasive exotic plants: a comparison of four sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor exotic invasive plants is likely to vary depending on the sampling method employed. Methods with strong qualitative thoroughness for species detection often lack the intensity necessary to monitor vegetation change. Four sampling methods (systematic plot, stratified-random plot, modified Whittaker, and timed meander) in hemlock and red...

  1. [Disease resistance signal transfer between roots of different tomato plants through common arbuscular mycorrhiza networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-Jun; Song, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Ren-Sen; Wang, Rui-Long; Wei, Xiao-Chen; Ye, Mao; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) are the underground conduits of nutrient exchange between plants. However, whether the CMNs can serve as the underground conduits of chemical communication to transfer the disease resistance signals between plants are unknown. By inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae to establish CMNs between 'donor' and 'receiver' tomato plants, and by inoculating Alternaria solani, the causal agent of tomato early blight disease, to the 'donor' plants, this paper studied whether the potential disease resistance signals can be transferred between the 'donor' and 'receiver' plants roots. The real time RT-PCR analysis showed that after inoculation with A. solani, the AMF-inoculated 'donor' plants had strong expression of three test defense-related genes in roots, with the transcript levels of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX) and chitinase (PR3) being significantly higher than those in the roots of the 'donor' plants only inoculated with A. solani, not inoculated with both A. solani and AMF, and only inoculated with AMF. More importantly, in the presence of CMNs, the expression levels of the three genes in the roots of the 'receiver' plants were significantly higher than those of the 'receiver' plants without CMNs connection, with the connection blocking, and with the connection but the 'donor' plants not A. solani-inoculated. Compared with the control (without CMNs connection), the transcript level of the PAL, LOX and PR3 in the roots of the 'receiver' plants having CMNs connection with the 'donor' plants was 4.2-, 4.5- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. In addition, the 'donor' plants activated their defensive responses more quickly than the 'receiver' plants (18 and 65 h vs. 100 and 140 h). These findings suggested that the disease resistance signals produced by the pathogen-induced 'donor' tomato plant roots could be transferred to the 'receiver' plant roots through CMNs.

  2. Adaptive detection of volunteer potato plants in sugar beet fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.; Hofstee, J.W.; Henten, van E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Volunteer potato is an increasing problem in crop rotations where winter temperatures are often not cold enough to kill tubers leftover from harvest. Poor control, as a result of high labor demands, causes diseases like Phytophthora infestans to spread to neighboring fields. Therefore, automatic det

  3. Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori R Shapiro

    Full Text Available Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant

  4. Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lori R; Salvaudon, Lucie; Mauck, Kerry E; Pulido, Hannier; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila) at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA) in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant quality for (and

  5. A combination of baiting and different PCR formats, including measurement of real-time quantitative fluorescence, for the detection of Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.J.M.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Hooftman, R.; Cooke, D.E.L.; Guy, D.C.; Duncan, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae, the cause of strawberry red stele disease, is a quarantine pathogen in Europe. Detecting low levels of infection requires sensitive and specific methods. In the past, Dutch and English inspection services have used bait plants to test strawberry propagation stocks destined fo

  6. Multiplex autoantibody detection for autoimmune liver diseases and autoimmune gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlocht, Joris; van der Cruys, Mart; Stals, Frans; Bakker-Jonges, Liesbeth; Damoiseaux, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Autoantibody detection for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is traditionally performed by IIF on a combination of tissues. Multiplex line/dot blots (LIA/DIA) offer multiple advantages, i.e. automation, objective reading, no interfering reactivities, no coincidental findings. In the current study we evaluated automated DIA (D-Tek) for detecting autoantibodies related to autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We tested samples of the Dutch EQC program and compared the results with the consensus of the participating labs. For the autoimmune liver diseases and AIG, respectively, 64 and 36 samples were tested. For anti-mitochondrial and anti-smooth muscle antibodies a concordance rate of 97% and 88% was observed, respectively. The concordance rate for anti-parietal cell antibodies was 92% when samples without EQC consensus (n=15) were excluded. For antibodies against intrinsic factor a concordance of 96% was observed. For all these antibodies discrepancies were identified that relate to the different test characteristics and the preponderance of IIF utilizing labs in the EQC program. In conclusion, we observed good agreement of the tested DIA blots with the consensus results of the Dutch EQC program. Taken together with the logistic advantages these blots are a good alternative for autoantibody detection in the respective diseases. A large prospective multicenter study is warranted to position these novel tests further in the whole spectrum of assays for the detection of these antibodies in a routine autoimmune laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Education, individual time preferences, and asymptomatic disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younoh; Radoias, Vlad

    2016-02-01

    Asymptomatic conditions such as hypertension are generally hard to diagnose, absent routine medical examinations. This is especially problematic in developing countries, where most citizens do not engage in routine examinations due to limited economic resources. We study the roles of education and individual time preferences in asymptomatic disease detection and management. Using discrete choice models on a sample of 4209 hypertensive Indonesian adults surveyed between November 2007 and April 2008, we find that both education and individual time preferences play important roles. However, the effects are different for people in good health than they are for people in bad health. Education does not seem to matter for disease detection when respondents are in good general health, and its effects on disease management vary largely in magnitudes between these groups. In terms of disease detection, more educated respondents have a higher probability of being diagnosed, but only conditional on being in poor general health. Time preferences, on the other hand, matter for respondents in good general health, but the effect is not significant for those in bad health. More impatient respondents that are in good health have a higher probability of being under-diagnosed because they are more likely to forgo routine physicals. The findings point to two distinct channels through which education can affect health, and suggest that different types of policies need to be implemented, in order to reach the entire population. Traditional programs that stimulate education and improve the socio-economic status of individuals in developing countries are helpful, but they do not address the whole problem. Besides its more usual positive effects, education can also negatively affect the health of asymptomatic patients, because it reflects a higher opportunity cost of engaging in preventative health screenings.

  8. Highly Sensitive and Practical Detection of Plant Viruses via Electrical Impedance of Droplets on Textured Silicon-Based Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrico, Marianna; Ambrico, Paolo Francesco; Minafra, Angelantonio; De Stradis, Angelo; Vona, Danilo; Cicco, Stefania R.; Palumbo, Fabio; Favia, Pietro; Ligonzo, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of plant virus infections before the disease symptoms appearance may represent a significant benefit in limiting disease spread by a prompt application of appropriate containment steps. We propose a label-free procedure applied on a device structure where the electrical signal transduction is evaluated via impedance spectroscopy techniques. The device consists of a droplet suspension embedding two representative purified plant viruses i.e., Tomato mosaic virus and Turnip yellow mosaic virus, put in contact with a highly hydrophobic plasma textured silicon surface. Results show a high sensitivity of the system towards the virus particles with an interestingly low detection limit, from tens to hundreds of attomolar corresponding to pg/mL of sap, which refers, in the infection time-scale, to a concentration of virus particles in still-symptomless plants. Such a threshold limit, together with an envisaged engineering of an easily manageable device, compared to more sophisticated apparatuses, may contribute in simplifying the in-field plant virus diagnostics. PMID:27869726

  9. Detection of specific IgE antibodies in parasite diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza-Atta M.L.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of Th1 or Th2 cells is associated with production of specific immunoglobulin isotypes, offering the opportunity to use antibody measurement for evaluation of T cell function. Schistosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis are diseases associated with Th2 activation. However, an IgE response is not always detected in these patients. In the present study we evaluated specific IgE antibodies to S. mansoni and L. chagasi antigens by ELISA after depletion of serum IgG with protein G immobilized on Sepharose beads or RF-absorbent (purified sheep IgG antibodies anti-human IgG. In schistosomiasis patients, specific IgE to SWAP antigen was demonstrable in only 10 of 21 patients (48% (mean absorbance ± SD = 0.102 ± 0.195 when unabsorbed serum was used. Depletion of IgG with protein G increased the number of specific IgE-positive tests to 13 (62% and the use of RF-absorbent increased the number of positive results to 20 (95% (mean absorbances ± SD = 0.303 ± 0.455 and 0.374 ± 0.477, respectively. Specific IgE anti-L. chagasi antibodies were not detected in unabsorbed serum from visceral leishmaniasis patients. When IgG was depleted with protein G, IgE antibodies were detected in only 3 (11% of 27 patients, and the use of RF-absorbent permitted the detection of this isotype in all 27 visceral leishmaniasis sera tested (mean absorbance ± SD = 0.104 ± 0.03. These data show that the presence of IgG antibodies may prevent the detection of a specific IgE response in these parasite diseases. RF-absorbent, a reagent that blocks IgG-binding sites and also removes rheumatoid factor, was more efficient than protein G for the demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  10. Detection and prevalence of Capnocytophaga in periodontal Health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa S Pudakalkatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context/Background: Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease, in which bacteria play a major role. Capnocytophaga species form a part of human oral flora both in health and disease. They have been implicated as putative periodontal pathogens, and yet, they are less understood members of plaque flora. No studies have been conducted on the association of Capnocytophaga species with periodontal diseases in India. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Capnocytophaga species in patients with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis using culture method. Methods: Forty patients each with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis were selected. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from all the patients using sterile curettes and transferred to transport medium and sent to the laboratory. The plaque samples were inoculated on blood agar and trypticase-blood-bacitracin-polymyxin agar to grow Capnocytophaga species. Later, Gram-staining and microscopy were done to confirm the presence of Capnocytophaga in each sample. The prevalence of Capnocytophaga species was statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Capnocytophaga was detected in 21 (52.50% samples out of 40 samples of gingivitis group, 11 (27.50% samples of healthy group, and 12 (30% samples of periodontitis group. Conclusions: Capnocytophaga is more prevalent in gingivitis compared to healthy periodontium and periodontitis. Capnocytophaga has the potential to cause periodontal disease, but as it is less competitive in the periodontal pocket, it is usually overgrown by other rapidly growing bacteria.

  11. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Patel, Nikkita G; Morales, Francisco J; Epstein, Paul R; Daszak, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the anthropogenic introduction of parasites, although severe weather events are also important drivers of disease emergence. Much is known about crop plant EIDs, but there is little information about wild-plant EIDs, suggesting that their impact on conservation is underestimated. We conclude with recommendations for improving strategies for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs.

  12. Q-bank, a database with information for identification of plant quarantine plant pest and diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.J.M.; Edema, M.J.; Robert, V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the database Q-bank (www.q-bank.eu). This freely accessible database contains data on plant pathogenic quarantine organisms to allow fast and reliable identification. Development of accurate identification tools for plant pests is vital to support European Plant Health Policies.

  13. Saliva: an emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T

    2009-08-01

    The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor posttreatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future.

  14. Protection of Vine Plants against Esca Disease by Breathable Electrospun Antifungal Nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Viola; Molnar, Melanie; Wang, Hui; Reich, Steffen; Agarwal, Seema; Fischer, Michael; Greiner, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The harmful Esca disease in vine plants caused by wood-inhabiting fungi including Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch) is spreading all across the world. This disease leads to poor vine crops and a slow decline or to a sudden dieback of the vine plants. The pruning wounds of vine plants are the main entry point for Pch. While model experiments with aerosol particles recommend electrospun nonwovens as a suitable barrier to block Pch, tests with living spores show clearly that only electrospun fibrous nonwovens do not prevent Pch invasion. However it is found, that with antifungal additives electrospun nonwovens could be applied successfully for blocking of Pch to infect the substrate. Thereby, a highly useful concept for the protection of vine plants against Esca disease is provided which could also serve as a concept for related plant diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Late Detection of Critical Congenital Heart Disease Among US Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Ailes, Elizabeth; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Oster, Matthew E.; Olney, Richard S.; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Fixler, David E.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for Newborns in the United States in 2011. Many states have recently adopted or are considering requirements for universal CCHD screening through pulse oximetry in birth hospitals. Limited previous research is directly applicable to the question of how many US infants with CCHD might be identified through screening. OBJECTIVES To estimate the proportion of US infants with late detection of CCHD (>3 days after birth) based on existing clinical practice and to investigate factors associated with late detection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Descriptive and multivariable analysis. Data were obtained from a multisite population-based study of birth defects in the United States, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). We included all live-born infants with estimated dates of delivery from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2007, and nonsyndromic, clinically verified CCHD conditions potentially detectable through screening via pulse oximetry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The main outcome measure was the proportion of infants with late detection of CCHD through echocardiography or at autopsy under the assumption that universal screening at birth hospitals might reduce the number of such late diagnoses. Secondary outcome measures included prevalence ratios for associations between selected demographic and clinical factors and late detection of CCHD. RESULTS Of 3746 live-born infants with nonsyndromic CCHD, late detection occurred in 1106 (29.5% [95%CI, 28.1%–31.0%]), including 6 (0.2%) (0.1% –0.4%) first receiving a diagnosis at autopsy more than 3 days after birth. Late detection varied by CCHD type from 9 of 120 infants (7.5%[95%CI, 3.5%–13.8%]) with pulmonary atresia to 497 of 801 (62.0% [58.7%–65.4%]) with coarctation of the aorta. In multivariable analysis, late detection varied significantly by CCHD type and study site, and infants with

  16. Genetic Engineering for Disease Resistance in Ornamental Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This symposium is intended to facilitate communication between researchers in Hungary, Romania, and other countries who are interested in micropropagation of ornamental plants. Some of the work that has been done in the Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit that involves micropropagation is descr...

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VARIOUS STATISTICAL CLASSIFIERS IN DETECTING THE DISEASED CITRUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHEER REDDY BANDI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits are in lofty obligation because the humans consume them daily. This research aims to amend citrus production, which knows a low upshot bourgeois on the production and complex during measurements. Nowadays citrus plants grappling some traits/diseases. Harm of the insect is one of the major trait/disease. Insecticides are not ever evidenced effectual because insecticides may be toxic to some gracious of birds. Farmers get outstanding difficulties in detecting the diseases ended open eye and also it is quite expensive.Machine vision and Image processing techniques helps in sleuthing the disease mark in citrus leaves and sound job. In this search, Citrus leaves of four classes like Normal, Greasy spot, Melanose and Scab are collected and investigated using texture analysis based on the Color Co-occurrence Method (CCM to take Hue, Saturation and Intensity (HSI features. In the arrangement form, the features are categorised for all leafage conditions using k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN, Naive Bayes classifier (NBC, Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA classifier and Random Forest Tree Algorithm classifier (RFT. The experimental results inform that proposed attack significantly supports 98.75% quality in automated detection of regular and struck leaves using texture psychotherapy based CCM method using LDA formula. Eventually all the classifiers are compared using Earphone Operative Characteristic contour and analyzed the performance of all the classifiers.

  18. Roles of small RNAs in plant disease resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Hai Huang

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between plants and pathogens represents a dynamic competition between a robust immune system and efficient infectious strategies. Plant innate immunity is composed of complex and highly regulated molecular networks, which can be triggered by the perception of either conserved or race-specific pathogenic molecular signatures. Smal RNAs are emerging as versatile regulators of plant development, growth and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. They act in different tiers of plant immunity, including the pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered and the effector-triggered immunity. On the other hand, pathogens have evolved effector molecules to suppress or hijack the host smal RNA pathways. This leads to an arms race between plants and pathogens at the level of smal RNA-mediated defense. Here, we review recent advances in smal RNA-mediated defense responses and discuss the chal enging questions in this area.

  19. Specific detection of the toxigenic species Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum from asparagus plants using primers based on calmodulin gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulè, Giuseppina; Susca, Antonia; Stea, Gaetano; Moretti, Antonio

    2004-01-30

    Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium oxysporum are the causal agents of a destructive disease of asparagus called Fusarium crown and root rot. F. proliferatum from asparagus produces fumonisin B1 and B2, which have been detected as natural contaminants in infected asparagus plants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed for the rapid identification of F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum in asparagus plants. The primer pairs are based on calmodulin gene sequences. The PCR products from F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum were 526 and 534 bp long, respectively. The assays were successfully applied to identify both species from the vegetative part of the plants.

  20. A review of cellphone microscopy for disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendere, R; Myburg, N; Douglas, T S

    2015-12-01

    The expansion in global cellphone network coverage coupled with advances in cellphone imaging capabilities present an opportunity for the advancement of cellphone microscopy as a low-cost alternative to conventional microscopy for disease detection in resource-limited regions. The development of cellphone microscopy has also benefitted from the availability of low-cost miniature microscope components such as low-power light-emitting diodes and ball lenses. As a result, researchers are developing hardware and software techniques that would enable such microscopes to produce high-resolution, diagnostic-quality images. This approach may lead to more widespread delivery of diagnostic services in resource-limited areas where there is a shortage of the skilled labour required for conventional microscopy and where prevalence of infectious and other diseases is still high. In this paper, we review current techniques, clinical applications and challenges faced in the field of cellphone microscopy.

  1. Organ culture system as a means to detect celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picarelli, Antonio; Libanori, Valerio; De Nitto, Daniela; Saponara, Annarita; Di Tola, Marco; Donato, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies can be produced in vitro by the intestinal mucosa of celiac disease (CD) patients in clinical remission, when the culture is performed in the presence of gliadin peptides. Our aim was to use this organ culture system as a means to detect the pathognomonic antibodies of celiac disease (CD) in the culture supernatants. Organ culture was performed in the presence of three different activators to evaluate which one induced the strongest antibody response in intestinal mucosa from patients in clinical remission of CD. Our data confirm the high efficiency of synthetic peptide 31-43 as a specific immunological activator in CD and demonstrate its capability to stimulate production/secretion of CD-specific antibodies. We envision that this organ culture system may prove to be useful as a new technique for CD diagnosis.

  2. An improved electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction method for highly sensitive detection of plant viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Yabing [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Xing Da [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)]. E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn; Zhu Debin [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Liu Jinfeng [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2007-01-23

    Recently, we have reported an electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) method for detection of genetically modified organisms. The ECL-PCR method was further improved in the current study by introducing a multi-purpose nucleic acid sequence that was specific to the tris(bipyridine) ruthenium (TBR) labeled probe, into the 5' terminal of the primers. The method was applied to detect plant viruses. Conserved sequence of the plant viruses was amplified by PCR. The product was hybridized with a biotin labeled probe and a TBR labeled probe. The hybridization product was separated by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and detected by measuring the ECL signals of the TBR labeled. Under the optimized conditions, the experiment results show that the detection limit is 50 fmol of PCR products, and the signal-to-noise ratio is in excess of 14.6. The method was used to detect banana streak virus, banana bunchy top virus, and papaya leaf curl virus. The experiment results show that this method could reliably identity viruses infected plant samples. The improved ECL-PCR approach has higher sensitivity and lower cost than previous approach. It can effectively detect the plant viruses with simplicity, stability, and high sensitivity.

  3. Optical biopsy - a new armamentarium to detect disease using light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been considered a promising method for cancer detection for past thirty years because of its advantages over the conventional diagnostic methods of no tissue removal, minimal invasiveness, rapid diagnoses, less time consumption and reproducibility since the first use in 1984. It offers a new armamentarium. Human tissue is mainly composed of extracellular matrix of collagen fiber, proteins, fat, water, and epithelial cells with key molecules in different structures. Tissues contain a number of key fingerprint native endogenous fluorophore molecules, such as tryptophan, collagen, elastin, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and porphyrins. It is well known that abnormalities in metabolic activity precede the onset of a lot of main diseases: carcinoma, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease, etc. Optical spectroscopy may help in detecting various disorders. Conceivably the biochemical or morphologic changes that cause the spectra variations would appear earlier than the histological aberration. Therefore, "optical biopsy" holds a great promise as clinical tool for diagnosing early stage of carcinomas and other deceases by combining with available photonic technology (e.g. optical fibers, photon detectors, spectrographs spectroscopic ratiometer, fiber-optic endomicroscope and nasopharyngoscope) for in vivo use. This paper focuses on various methods available to detect spectroscopic changes in tissues, for example to distinguish cancerous prostate tissues and/or cells from normal prostate tissues and/or cells. The methods to be described are fluorescence, stokes shift, scattering, Raman, and time-resolved spectroscopy will be reviewed. The underlying physical and biological basis for these optical approaches will be discussed with examples. The idea is to present some of the salient works to show the usefulness and methods of Optical Biopsy for cancer detection and

  4. Using reflectance and photography to detect ozone damage to cantaloupe plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Thomas, C. E.; Bowen, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Laboratory and field reflectance measurements showed that ozone-damaged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) leaves had lower water contents and higher reflectance than nondamaged leaves. Cantaloupe plants with lightly, severely, and very severely ozone-damaged leaves were distinguishable from nondamaged plants by reflectance measurements in the 1.35-2.5-micron near-IR water absorption band. Ozone-damaged leaf areas were detected photographically 16 hours before the damage was visible.

  5. Nuclear power plant sensor fault detection using singular value decomposition-based method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHYAMAPADA MANDAL; N SAIRAM; S SRIDHAR; P SWAMINATHAN

    2017-09-01

    In a nuclear power plant, periodic sensor calibration is necessary to ensure the correctness of measurements. Those sensors which have gone out of calibration can lead to malfunction of the plant, possibly causing a loss in revenue or damage to equipment. Continuous sensor status monitoring is desirable to assure smooth running of the plant and reduce maintenance costs associated with unnecessary manual sensor calibrations.In this paper, a method is proposed to detect and identify any degradation of sensor performance. The validation process consists of two steps: (i) residual generation and (ii) fault detection by residual evaluation.Singular value decomposition (SVD) and Euclidean distance (ED) methods are used to generate the residual and evaluate the fault on the residual space, respectively. This paper claims that SVD-based fault detection method isbetter than the well-known principal component analysis-based method. The method is validated using data from fast breeder test reactor.

  6. Plant odorants interfere with detection of sex pheromone signals by male Heliothis virescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo ePregitzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe, we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC, where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that, plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization.

  7. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of specialized (or secondary) metabolites that function as chemical defence compounds and provide protection against microbial pathogens or herbivores. This chapter focuses on the metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways for plant chemical defence compounds...... with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews...

  8. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker.

  9. Medicinal Plants with Multiple Effects on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid; Deris, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016. The plants that were effective on one, two, three, or all of four diseases were determined. The doses, side effects, the most important pharmaceutically effective compounds, the used organs, and important points regarding usage were separately recorded. Also known clinically significant interactions were presented. 1023 articles were found to be about medicinal plants and hypertension, 1912 articles about medicinal plants and hyperlipidemia, 810 articles about medicinal plants and obesity, 1174 articles about medicinal plants and diabetes. Of 144 plants included in the analysis, 83 were found to be effective on hyperlipidemia, 100 on hypertension, 66 on obesity, and 72 on diabetes. 43 plants were found to be effective on two diseases, 14 on three diseases, and 34 on all four diseases. Three plants (Tomato, Cranberry and Pomegranate), in food and therapeutic doses, were found to be used to treat cardiovascular diseases especially in pre-eclampsia and hyperlipidemia in pregnancy. Regarding the findings of this study, we can argue that the medicinal plants, other than monotherapy, can be used as poly-therapy, to treat cardiovascular diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any

  10. The use of Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography for the development of herbal fingerprints to detect targeted plants in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements is increasing steadily and more and more, these products are bought through internet. Often the products sold through internet are not registered or declared with a national authority, meaning that no or minimal quality control is performed and that they could contain herbs or plants that are regulated. Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOS-LC) was evaluated for the development of specific fingerprints, to be used for the detection of targeted plants in plant food supplements. Three commonly used plants in plant food supplements and two regulated plants were used to develop fingerprints with SOS-LC. It was shown that for all plants specific fingerprints could be obtained, allowing the detection of these targeted plants in triturations with different herbal matrices as well as in real samples of suspicious supplements seized by the authorities. For three of the five plants a more specific fingerprint was obtained, compared to the ones developed on traditional columns described in literature. It could therefore be concluded that the combination of segments of different types of stationary phases, as used in SOS-LC, has the potential of becoming a valuable tool in the quality control and the identification of crude herbal or plant material and in the detection of regulated plants in plant food supplements or other herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection and identification by PCR of Clostridium chauvoei in clinical isolates, bovine faeces and substrates from biogas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, E; Lewerin, S Sternberg; Johansson, K-E

    2009-01-01

    Background Clostridium chauvoei causes blackleg, an acute disease associated with high mortality in ruminants. The apparent primary port of entry is oral, during grazing on pasture contaminated by spores. Cases of blackleg can occur year after year on contaminated pastures. A method to determine the prevalence of C. chauvoei spores on pasture would be useful. The standard method for C. chauvoei detection is culture and biochemical identification, which requires a pure culture. In most muscle samples from cattle dead from blackleg the amount of C. chauvoei in samples is high and the bacterium can easily be cultured, although some samples may be contaminated. Detection by PCR would be faster and independent of contaminating flora. Digested residues from biogas plants provide an excellent fertiliser, but it is known that spore-forming baeria such as Clostridium spp. are not reduced by pasteurisation. The use of digested residues as fertiliser may contribute to the spread of C. chauvoei. Soil, manure and substrate from biogas plants are contaminated with other anaerobic bacteria which outgrow C. chauvoei. Therefore, detection by PCR is would be useful. This study applied a PCR-based method to detect of C. chauvoei in 25 muscle and blood samples, 114 manure samples, 84 soil samples and 33 samples from the biogas process. Methods Muscle tissues from suspected cases of blackleg were analysed both by the standard culture method followed by biochemical identification and by PCR, with and without preculture. To investigate whether muscle tissue samples are necessary, samples taken by swabs were also investigated. Samples from a biogas plant and manure and soil from farms were analysed by culture followed by PCR. The farms had proven cases of blackleg. For detection of C. chauvoei in the samples, a specific PCR primer pair complementary to the spacer region of the 16S-23S rRNA gene was used. Results Clostridium chauvoei was detected in 32% of muscle samples analysed by

  12. Target detect system in 3D using vision apply on plant reproduction by tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Rueda, Martin G.; Hahn, Federico

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results for a system in tree dimension that use a system vision to manipulate plants in a tissue culture process. The system is able to estimate the position of the plant in the work area, first calculate the position and send information to the mechanical system, and recalculate the position again, and if it is necessary, repositioning the mechanical system, using an neural system to improve the location of the plant. The system use only the system vision to sense the position and control loop using a neural system to detect the target and positioning the mechanical system, the results are compared with an open loop system.

  13. Disease detection in sugar beet fields: a multi-temporal and multi-sensoral approach on different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hillnhütter, Christian; Mewes, Thorsten; Scholz, Christine; Steiner, Ulrike; Dehne, Heinz-Willhelm; Oerke, Erich-Christian

    2009-09-01

    Depending on environmental factors fungal diseases of crops are often distributed heterogeneously in fields. Precision agriculture in plant protection implies a targeted fungicide application adjusted these field heterogeneities. Therefore an understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of pathogens is elementary. As shown in previous studies, remote sensing techniques can be used to detect and observe spectral anomalies in the field. In 2008, a sugar beet field site was observed at different growth stages of the crop using different remote sensing techniques. The experimental field site consisted of two treatments. One plot was sprayed with a fungicide to avoid fungal infections. In order to obtain sugar beet plants infected with foliar diseases the other plot was not sprayed. Remote sensing data were acquired from the high-resolution airborne hyperspectral imaging ROSIS in July 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 39 and from the HyMap sensor systems in August 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 45, respectively. Additionally hyperspectral signatures of diseased and non-diseased sugar beet plants were measured with a non-imaging hand held spectroradiometer at growth stage 49 in September. Ground truth data, in particular disease severity were collected at 50 sampling points in the field. Changes of reflection rates were related to disease severity increasing with time. Erysiphe betae causing powdery mildew was the most frequent leaf pathogen. A classification of healthy and diseased sugar beets in the field was possible by using hyperspectral vegetation indices calculated from canopy reflectance.

  14. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... Key words: Essential oil plants, Potatoes, Ralstonia solanacearum, Wilt incidence ... the soil level to collect stems, leaves, flowers and the side branches. Harvesting ..... to other factors such as pH, organic matter content and.

  15. Antimicrobial properties and phenolic contents of medicinal plants used by the Venda people for conditions related to venereal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaudzi, R B; Ndhlala, A R; Kulkarni, M G; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2011-05-17

    Many people are infected by venereal diseases and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in rural areas. Sexual transmitted diseases are considered a disgrace in the community because of the stigmas attached to them. Indigenous people tend to use several medicinal plants to treat these infectious diseases rather than western medicines. This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal, antigonococcal, HIV-type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and to determine phenolic content of twelve medicinal plants used by the Venda people to treat venereal diseases. The dried plant materials of twelve medicinal plants were extracted with petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM), 80% ethanol (EtOH) and water. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), three Gram-negative (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria and a fungus Candida albicans. The phenolic contents including total phenolics, flavonoids, gallotannins and condensed tannins of the methanolic extracts of the same plants were also determined. DCM and EtOH extracts of Bolusanthus speciosus bark and stems exhibited good activity (Water and 50% methanol extracts of Acacia karroo bark, Bolusanthus speciosus stems and Ximenia caffra roots and leaves showed good RT inhibition percentages (>70%) at 1mg/ml. All tested extracts exhibited dose dependent IC(50) values ranging from (0.1 to 0.6 mg/ml). Almost all plant species investigated contained phenolic compounds, which were greater than 5mg/g with the exception of Adansonia digitata bark and Aloe chabaudii roots. The highest level of flavonoids (11.9 μg/g) were detected in Ximenia caffra leaves. Whereas the highest amount of gallotannins were detected in Ekebergia capensis bark (69 μg/g). Condensed tannins were higher in Ekebergia capensis bark and Ximenia caffra roots (0.47 and 0.48% respectively). Adansonia digitata bark and Aloe

  16. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography image enhancement for automatic disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logeswaran, Rajasvaran

    2010-07-28

    To sufficiently improve magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) quality to enable reliable computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). A set of image enhancement strategies that included filters (i.e. Gaussian, median, Wiener and Perona-Malik), wavelets (i.e. contourlet, ridgelet and a non-orthogonal noise compensation implementation), graph-cut approaches using lazy-snapping and Phase Unwrapping MAxflow, and binary thresholding using a fixed threshold and dynamic thresholding via histogram analysis were implemented to overcome the adverse characteristics of MRCP images such as acquisition noise, artifacts, partial volume effect and large inter- and intra-patient image intensity variations, all of which pose problems in application development. Subjective evaluation of several popular pre-processing techniques was undertaken to improve the quality of the 2D MRCP images and enhance the detection of the significant biliary structures within them, with the purpose of biliary disease detection. The results varied as expected since each algorithm capitalized on different characteristics of the images. For denoising, the Perona-Malik and contourlet approaches were found to be the most suitable. In terms of extraction of the significant biliary structures and removal of background, the thresholding approaches performed well. The interactive scheme performed the best, especially by using the strengths of the graph-cut algorithm enhanced by user-friendly lazy-snapping for foreground and background marker selection. Tests show promising results for some techniques, but not others, as viable image enhancement modules for automatic CAD systems for biliary and liver diseases.

  17. Forest species diversity reduces disease risk in a generalist plant pathogen invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Sarah E.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that biodiversity loss can increase disease transmission, yet our understanding of the 'diversity-disease hypothesis' for generalist pathogens in natural ecosystems is limited. We used a landscape epidemiological approach to examine two scenarios regarding diversity effects on the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum across a broad, heterogeneous ecoregion: (1) an amplification effect exists where disease risk is greater in areas with higher plant diversity due to the pathogen's wide host range, or (2) a dilution effect where risk is reduced with increasing diversity due to lower competency of alternative hosts. We found evidence for pathogen dilution, whereby disease risk was lower in sites with higher species diversity, after accounting for potentially confounding effects of host density and landscape heterogeneity. Our results suggest that although nearly all plants in the ecosystem are hosts, alternative hosts may dilute disease transmission by competent hosts, thereby buffering forest health from infectious disease.

  18. Synergisms between microbial pathogens in plant disease complexes: a growing trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram eLamichhane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases are often thought to be caused by one species or even by a specific strain. Microbes in nature however mostly occur as part of complex communities and this has been noted since the time of van Leeuwenhoek. Interestingly, most laboratory studies focus on single microbial strains grown in pure culture; we were therefore unaware of possible interspecies and/or inter-kingdom interactions of pathogenic microbes in the wild. In human and animal infections, it is now being recognized that many diseases are the result of multispecies synergistic interactions. This increases the complexity of the disease and has to be taken into consideration in the development of more effective control measures. On the other hand, there are only a few reports of synergistic pathogen-pathogen interactions in plant diseases and the mechanisms of interactions are currently unknown. Here we review some of these reports of synergism between different plant pathogens and their possible implications in crop health. Finally, we briefly highlight the recent technological advances in diagnostics as these are beginning to provide important insights into the microbial communities associated with complex plant diseases. These examples of synergistic interactions of plant pathogens that lead to disease complexes might prove to be more common than expected and understanding the underlying mechanisms might have important implications in plant disease epidemiology and management.

  19. Combined DECS Analysis and Next-Generation Sequencing Enable Efficient Detection of Novel Plant RNA Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Hironobu; Tomita, Reiko; Katsu, Koji; Uehara, Takuya; Atsumi, Go; Tateda, Chika; Kobayashi, Kappei; Sekine, Ken-Taro

    2016-03-07

    The presence of high molecular weight double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) within plant cells is an indicator of infection with RNA viruses as these possess genomic or replicative dsRNA. DECS (dsRNA isolation, exhaustive amplification, cloning, and sequencing) analysis has been shown to be capable of detecting unknown viruses. We postulated that a combination of DECS analysis and next-generation sequencing (NGS) would improve detection efficiency and usability of the technique. Here, we describe a model case in which we efficiently detected the presumed genome sequence of Blueberry shoestring virus (BSSV), a member of the genus Sobemovirus, which has not so far been reported. dsRNAs were isolated from BSSV-infected blueberry plants using the dsRNA-binding protein, reverse-transcribed, amplified, and sequenced using NGS. A contig of 4,020 nucleotides (nt) that shared similarities with sequences from other Sobemovirus species was obtained as a candidate of the BSSV genomic sequence. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR primer sets based on sequences from this contig enabled the detection of BSSV in all BSSV-infected plants tested but not in healthy controls. A recombinant protein encoded by the putative coat protein gene was bound by the BSSV-antibody, indicating that the candidate sequence was that of BSSV itself. Our results suggest that a combination of DECS analysis and NGS, designated here as "DECS-C," is a powerful method for detecting novel plant viruses.

  20. Detection of extracardiac disease during Tl-201 myocardial perfusion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    It is important to observe extracardiac disease processes (ECD) during cardiac perfusion imaging for valuable information can be obtained at no extracost to patients. The aim of the study is to find out the frequency of ECD during Tl-201 stress myocardial perfusion imaging (TSMPI). Retrospective evaluation of 552 TSMPI was done. There were 229 males and 223 females reffered for evaluation of possible ischemic heart disease. Their ages range from 20 to 80 with mean age of 58.8 years. Three mCi (111 MBq) of 201 TlCl is used for adenosine or treadmil exercise testing and myocardial SPECT is performed utilizing low energy high resolution collimators and a triple-head camera ( MultiSPECT, Siemens medical systems, Inc., Hoffman Estate, III., USA). In addition to routine cardiac Tl-201 SPECT acquisition, included in the protocol is 1 min, anterior planar views in 128 128 matrix after stress and rest SPECT studies for evaluation of lung uptake and chamber size. Utilizing these views ECD is assessed. Five patients had focal increased activity suggesting tumor and 3 of 5 cases were confirmed as malignancy. The malignancies were thyroid cancer (Hurthle cell), lung cancer, and breast cancer. Benign lesions were autonomous thyroid nodule and pheochromocytoma. Other ECDs include pericardial effusion, pleural effusion, and paralyzed hemidiapharm.. Extracardiac disease processes such as benign or malignancy are easily detected during Tl-201 myocardial perfusion imaging using our acquisition protocol at no cost to the patients. This information could be life saving in some patients for early detection of clinically unsuspected malignancy.

  1. An epidemiological network model for disease outbreak detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Y Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced disease-surveillance systems have been deployed worldwide to provide early detection of infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. New methods that improve the overall detection capabilities of these systems can have a broad practical impact. Furthermore, most current generation surveillance systems are vulnerable to dramatic and unpredictable shifts in the health-care data that they monitor. These shifts can occur during major public events, such as the Olympics, as a result of population surges and public closures. Shifts can also occur during epidemics and pandemics as a result of quarantines, the worried-well flooding emergency departments or, conversely, the public staying away from hospitals for fear of nosocomial infection. Most surveillance systems are not robust to such shifts in health-care utilization, either because they do not adjust baselines and alert-thresholds to new utilization levels, or because the utilization shifts themselves may trigger an alarm. As a result, public-health crises and major public events threaten to undermine health-surveillance systems at the very times they are needed most. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this challenge, we introduce a class of epidemiological network models that monitor the relationships among different health-care data streams instead of monitoring the data streams themselves. By extracting the extra information present in the relationships between the data streams, these models have the potential to improve the detection capabilities of a system. Furthermore, the models' relational nature has the potential to increase a system's robustness to unpredictable baseline shifts. We implemented these models and evaluated their effectiveness using historical emergency department data from five hospitals in a single metropolitan area, recorded over a period of 4.5 y by the Automated Epidemiological Geotemporal Integrated Surveillance real-time public health

  2. Photonic crystal waveguide-based biosensor for detection of diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Harshita; Kaler, Rajinder S.; Painam, Balveer

    2016-07-01

    A biosensor is a device that is used to detect the analytes or molecules of a sample by means of a binding mechanism. A two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide-based biosensor is designed with a diamond-shaped ring resonator and two waveguides: a bus waveguide and a drop waveguide. The sensing mechanism is based on change in refractive index of the analytes, leading to a shift in the peak resonant wavelength. This mechanism can be used in the field of biomedical treatment where different body fluids such as blood, tears, saliva, or urine can be used as the analyte in which different components of the fluid can be detected. It can also be used to differentiate between the cell lines of a normal and an unhealthy human being. Average value of quality factor for this device comes out to be 1082.2063. For different analytes used, the device exhibits enhanced sensitivity and, hence, it is useful for the detection of diseases.

  3. FUMEPOC: Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently is not feasible using conventional spirometry as a screening method in Primary Care especially among smoking population to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in early stages. Therefore, the FUMEPOC study protocol intends to analyze the validity and reliability of Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer as simpler tool to aid screening and diagnosis of this disease in early stages in primary care surgery. Methods / Design Study design: An observational, descriptive study of diagnostic tests, undertaken in Primary Care and Pneumology Outpatient Care Centre at San Juan Hospital and Elda Hospital. All smokers attending the primary care surgery and consent to participate in the study will undergo a test with Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer. Subsequently, a conventional spirometry will be performed in the hospital and the results will be compared with those of the Vitalograph COPD-6 test. Discussion It is difficult to use the spirometry as screening for early diagnose test in real conditions of primary care clinical practice. The use of a simpler tool, Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer, can help in the early diagnose and therefore, it could improve the clinical management of the disease.

  4. Detecting acromegaly: screening for disease with a morphable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learned-Miller, Erik; Lu, Qifeng; Paisley, Angela; Trainer, Peter; Blanz, Volker; Dedden, Katrin; Miller, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder which affects about 50 of every million people. The disease typically causes swelling of the hands, feet, and face, and eventually permanent changes to areas such as the jaw, brow ridge, and cheek bones. The disease is often missed by physicians and progresses beyond where it might if it were identified and treated earlier. We consider a semi-automated approach to detecting acromegaly, using a novel combination of support vector machines (SVMs) and a morphable model. Our training set consists of 24 frontal photographs of acromegalic patients and 25 of disease-free subjects. We modelled each subject's face in an analysis-by-synthesis loop using the three-dimensional morphable face model of Blanz and Vetter. The model parameters capture many features of the 3D shape of the subject's head from just a single photograph, and are used directly for classification. We report encouraging results of a classifier built from the training set of real human subjects.

  5. A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of four cassava mosaic begomovirus species in cassava plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloyce, R C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Rey, M E C; Ndunguru, J

    2013-04-01

    A single-tube duplex and multiplex PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV), East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV) and East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV), four cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) affecting cassava in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-occurrence of the CMBs in cassava synergistically enhances disease symptoms and complicates their detection and diagnostics. Four primer pairs were designed to target DNA-A component sequences of cassava begomoviruses in a single tube PCR amplification using DNA extracted from dry-stored cassava leaves. Duplex and multiplex PCR enabled the simultaneous detection and differentiation of the four CMBs, namely ACMV (940bp), EACMCV (435bp), EACMMV (504bp) and EACMZV (260bp) in single and mixed infections, and sequencing results confirmed virus identities according to the respective published sequences of begomovirus species. In addition, we report here a modified Dellapotra et al. (1983) protocol, which was used to extract DNA from dry and fresh cassava leaves with comparable results. Using the duplex and multiplex techniques, time was saved and amount of reagents used were reduced, which translated into reduced cost of the diagnostics. This tool can be used by cassava breeders screening for disease resistance; scientists doing virus diagnostic studies; phytosanitary officers checking movement of diseased planting materials, and seed certification and multipliers for virus indexing.

  6. Production of vaccines for treatment of infectious diseases by transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina LEDL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first pathogen antigen was expressed in transgenic plants with the aim of producing edible vaccine in early 1990s, transgenic plants have become a well-established expression system for production of alternative vaccines against various human and animal infectious diseases. The main focus of plant expression systems in the last five years has been on improving expression of well-studied antigens such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV, bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV, footh and mouth disease virus (FMDV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, rabies G protein, rotavirus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV, Norwalk virus capsid protein (NVCP, avian influenza virus H5N1, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LT-B, cholera toxin B (CT-B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, artherosclerosis, ebola and anthrax. Significant increases in expression have been obtained using improved expression vectors, different plant species and transformation methods.

  7. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce Elaine Cristina Betoni; Rebeca Passarelli Mantovani; Lidiane Nunes Barbosa; Luiz Claudio Di Stasi; Ary Fernandes Junior

    2006-01-01

    ... as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts-"guaco" ( Mikania glomerata ), guava ( Psidium guajava ), clove...

  8. Detection and isolation of plant-associated bacteria scavenging atmospheric molecular hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Manabu; Constant, Philippe; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    High-affinity hydrogen (H2 )-oxidizing bacteria possessing group 5 [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes are important contributors to atmospheric H2 uptake in soil environments. Although previous studies reported the occurrence of a significant H2 uptake activity in vegetation, there has been no report on the identification and diversity of the responsible microorganisms. Here, we show the existence of plant-associated bacteria with the ability to consume atmospheric H2 that may be a potential energy source required for their persistence in plants. Detection of the gene hhyL - encoding the large subunit of group 5 [NiFe]-hydrogenase - in plant tissues showed that plant-associated high-affinity H2 -oxidizing bacteria are widely distributed in herbaceous plants. Among a collection of 145 endophytic isolates, seven Streptomyces strains were shown to possess hhyL gene and exhibit high- or intermediate-affinity H2 uptake activity. Inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) and Oryza sativa (rice) seedlings with selected isolates resulted in an internalization of the bacteria in plant tissues. H2 uptake activity per bacterial cells was comparable between plant and soil, demonstrating that both environments are favourable for the H2 uptake activity of streptomycetes. This study first demonstrated the occurrence of plant-associated high-affinity H2 -oxidizing bacteria and proposed their potential contribution as atmospheric H2 sink.

  9. Accuracy of plant specimen disease severity estimates: concepts, history, methods, ramifications and challenges for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the extent of the symptoms of a plant disease, generally referred to as severity, is key to both fundamental and applied aspects of plant pathology. Most commonly, severity is obtained visually and the accuracy of each estimate (closeness to the actual value) by individual raters is par...

  10. Harnessing Host-Vector Microbiome for Sustainable Plant Disease Management of Phloem-Limited Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Trivedi, Chanda; Grinyer, Jasmine; Anderson, Ian C; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-01-01

    Plant health and productivity is strongly influenced by their intimate interaction with deleterious and beneficial organisms, including microbes, and insects. Of the various plant diseases, insect-vectored diseases are of particular interest, including those caused by obligate parasites affecting plant phloem such as Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma species and several species of Ca. Liberibacter. Recent studies on plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions of these pathogens have demonstrated that plant-microbe-insect interactions have far reaching consequences for the functioning and evolution of the organisms involved. These interactions take place within complex pathosystems and are shaped by a myriad of biotic and abiotic factors. However, our current understanding of these processes and their implications for the establishment and spread of insect-borne diseases remains limited. This article highlights the molecular, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of interactions among insects, plants, and their associated microbial communities with a focus on insect vectored and phloem-limited pathogens belonging to Ca. Phytoplasma and Ca. Liberibacter species. We propose that innovative and interdisciplinary research aimed at linking scales from the cellular to the community level will be vital for increasing our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning plant-insect-microbe interactions. Examination of such interactions could lead us to applied solutions for sustainable disease and pest management.

  11. Harnessing host-vector microbiome for sustainable plant disease management of phloem-limited bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Trivedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant health and productivity is strongly influenced by their intimate interaction with deleterious and beneficial organisms, including microbes and insects. Of the various plant diseases, insect-vectored diseases are of particular interest, including those caused by obligate parasites affecting plant phloem such as Candidatus (Ca. Phytoplasma species and several species of Ca. Liberibacter. Recent studies on plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions of these pathogens have demonstrated that plant-microbe-insect interactions have far reaching consequences for the functioning and evolution of the organisms involved. These interactions take place within complex pathosystems and are shaped by a myriad of biotic and abiotic factors. However our current understanding of these processes and their implications for the establishment and spread of insect-borne diseases remains limited. This article highlights the molecular, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of interactions among insects, plants, and their associated microbial communities with a focus on insect vectored and phloem-limited pathogens belonging to Ca. Phytoplasma and Ca. Liberibacter species. We propose that innovative and interdisciplinary research aimed at linking scales from the cellular to the community level will be vital for increasing our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning plant-insect-microbe interactions. Examination of such interactions could lead us to applied solutions for sustainable disease and pest management.

  12. Are stomatal responses the key to understanding the cost of fungal disease resistance in plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Catherine M; Gay, Alan P; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-07-01

    Preventing disease in cereal crops is important for maintaining productivity and as the availability and efficacy of chemical control becomes reduced the emphasis on breeding for disease resistance increases. However, there is evidence that disease resistance may be physiologically costly to the plant and we ask if understanding stomatal responses to fungal attack is the key to minimising reductions in growth associated with disease resistance.

  13. [Detection of viral infection pathogens in medicinal plants grown in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, L T; Korenieva, A A; Molchanets', O V; Boĭko, A L

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of viral infection on medicinal plant plantations is carried out. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Valeriana officinalis L., Plantago major L. with symptoms of viral infection were revealed. Viral nature of symptoms was proved with biotesting method. Morphology and sizes of virus particles, detected in Panax ginseng method. Morphology and sizes of virus particles, detected in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Valeriana officinalis L., Plantago major L., were determined with electron microscopy method. The paper is presented in Ukrainian.

  14. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches’ broom disease of cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Barau, Joan; GRANDIS, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant–fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon deple...

  15. Genotypic detection and evaluation of the removal efficiency of Giardia duodenalis at municipal wastewater treatment plants in Northern South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samie, A; Ntekele, P

    2014-03-01

    Over the past decade, Giardia duodenalis has increasingly been implicated in diarrheal outbreaks and water and wastewater have been recognized as important vehicles for diseases. Although studies have reported the occurrence of these parasites in developed countries, their occurrence in water and wastewater bodies in these countries including South Africa has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, wastewater samples from 6 different sewage treatment plants in the Vhembe District were collected for a period of 12 months. The samples were concentrated and tested for the presence of G. duodenalis using both microscopy and polymerase chain reaction methods targeting the tpi gene. Of the 79 wastewater samples tested, 25 (31.65%) were positive. Of these, 15 (60%) were assemblage A, while 8 (32%) were assemblage B and 2 samples (8%) were positive for both genogroups. Assemblage A was more common in February 2010 while assemblage B showed two peaks in December-January and March-April and was not detected in May 2010. The general removal rate was 40% for plants using biological filters and 20% for plants using activated sludge. The present study has shown that Giardia assemblage A is more common in sewage treatment plants in the Vhembe District, but the removal efficiency was low. This represents a public health hazard since these organisms might contaminate drinking water sources. Therefore action needs to be taken for the design of more effective procedures or methods for the removal of these parasites from the environment in order to avoid potential outbreaks.

  16. Biological Activities of Purified HarpinXoo and HarpinXoo Detection in Transgenic Plants Using Its Polyclonal Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming LI; Min SHAO; Xu-Zhong LU; Jin-Sheng WANG

    2005-01-01

    Many harpins have been found in plant pathogen bacteria that can elicit disease and insect resistance in plants, and promote plant growth. In this work, we overexpressed and purified Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae harpin, harpinXoo, in Escherichia coli BL21/pGEX-hpa1. HarpinXoo was fused to the Cterminus of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and purified using the Bulk GST purification module and thrombin cleavage capture kit. Purified harpinXoo protein was sensitive to protease K and stable to heat treatment, and could not induce a hypersensitive response after treatment with various plant metabolic inhibitors; these characteristics were similar to harpinEa of Erwinia amylovora. The purified harpinXoo showed a similar ability to induce tobacco mosaic virus resistance in tobacco as harpinEa. Its antibody worked well in detecting the purified harpinXoo, harpinXoo in the total protein of E. coli BL21/pGEX-hpa1 and an hpal transgenic rice.

  17. Plant-plant-microbe mechanisms involved in soil-borne disease suppression on a maize and pepper intercropping system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intercropping systems could increase crop diversity and avoid vulnerability to biotic stresses. Most studies have shown that intercropping can provide relief to crops against wind-dispersed pathogens. However, there was limited data on how the practice of intercropping help crops against soil-borne Phytophthora disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared to pepper monoculture, a large scale intercropping study of maize grown between pepper rows reduced disease levels of the soil-borne pepper Phytophthora blight. These reduced disease levels of Phytophthora in the intercropping system were correlated with the ability of maize plants to form a "root wall" that restricted the movement of Phytophthora capsici across rows. Experimentally, it was found that maize roots attracted the zoospores of P. capsici and then inhibited their growth. When maize plants were grown in close proximity to each other, the roots produced and secreted larger quantities of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H-one (DIMBOA and 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA. Furthermore, MBOA, benzothiazole (BZO, and 2-(methylthio-benzothiazole (MBZO were identified in root exudates of maize and showed antimicrobial activity against P. capsici. CONCLUSIONS: Maize could form a "root wall" to restrict the spread of P. capsici across rows in maize and pepper intercropping systems. Antimicrobe compounds secreted by maize root were one of the factors that resulted in the inhibition of P. capsici. These results provide new insights into plant-plant-microbe mechanisms involved in intercropping systems.

  18. Influence of planting date on incidence and severity of viral disease on cucurbits under field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahoua Kone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were conducted to assess the effect of planting date on the incidence of viral diseases and the severity and the susceptibility of the cultivars. Two cultivars of cucumber (Hybrid Tokyo F1 and Poinsett and one local variety of zucchini (Bolle were used for the evaluation in May-July 2014, September-November 2014, and February-April 2015. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used for the experiments. Data were collected on disease incidence, severity, and time until first symptoms occurred. Area under severity index progress curve (AUSIPC and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC were calculated respectively for disease severity as well as the incidence on each cultivar. The results demonstrate the susceptibility of all cultivars to the tested viral diseases. The effect of planting dates on cultivars was significantly different (P  0.05 in planting date-variety interaction.

  19. Molecular detection of plant pathogenic bacteria using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Chandrashekar; Sharanaiah, Umesha; Shivamallu, Chandan

    2012-03-01

    The application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to molecular diagnostics holds great promise for the early identification of agriculturally important plant pathogens. Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomoans axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae are phytopathogenic bacteria, which can infect vegetables, cause severe yield loss. PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) is a simple and powerful technique for identifying sequence changes in amplified DNA. The technique of PCR-SSCP is being exploited so far, only to detect and diagnose human bacterial pathogens in addition to plant pathogenic fungi. Selective media and serology are the commonly used methods for the detection of plant pathogens in infected plant materials. In this study, we developed PCR-SSCP technique to identify phytopathogenic bacteria. The PCR product was denatured and separated on a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. SSCP banding patterns were detected by silver staining of nucleic acids. We tested over 56 isolates of R. solanacearum, 44 isolates of X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, and 20 isolates of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. With the use of universal primer 16S rRNA, we could discriminate such species at the genus and species levels. Species-specific patterns were obtained for bacteria R. solanacearum, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, and X. oryzae pv. oryzae. The potential use of PCR-SSCP technique for the detection and diagnosis of phytobacterial pathogens is discussed in the present paper.

  20. Molecular detection of plant pathogenic bacteria using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandrashekar Srinivasa; Umesha Sharanaiah; Chandan Shivamallu

    2012-01-01

    The application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to molecular diagnostics holds great promise for the early identification of agriculturally important plant pathogens.Ralstonia solanacearum,Xanthomoans axonopodis pv.vesicatoria,and Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae are phytopathogenic bacteria,which can infect vegetables,cause severe yield loss.PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) is a simple and powerful technique for identifying sequence changes in amplified DNA.The technique of PCR-SSCP is being exploited so far,only to detect and diagnose human bacterial pathogens in addition to plant pathogenic fungi.Selective media and serology are the commonly used methods for the detection of plant pathogens in infected plant materials.In this study,we developed PCR-SSCP technique to identify phytopathogenic bacteria.The PCR product was denatured and separated on a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel.SSCP banding patterns were detected by silver staining of nucleic acids.We tested over 56 isolates of R. solanacearum,44 isolates of X. axonopodis pv.vesicatoria,and 20 isolates of X.oryzae pv.oryzae.With the use of universal primer 16S rRNA,we could discriminate such species at the genus and species levels.Speciesspecific patterns were obtained for bacteria R.solanacearum,X.axonopodis pv.vesicatoria,and X.oryzae pv.oryzae.The potential use of PCR-SSCP technique for the detection and diagnosis of phytobacterial pathogens is discussed in the present paper.

  1. New technologies to detect and monitor Phytophthora ramorum in plant, soil, and water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Russell; Nathan McOwen; Robert Bohannon

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research efforts has been to develop methods to quickly identify plants, soil, and water samples infested with Phytophthora spp., and to rapidly confirm the findings using novel isothermal DNA technologies suitable for field use. These efforts have led to the development of a rapid Immunostrip® that reliably detects...

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction for the detection of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in low dose irradiated plant foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvatovich, Peter; Miesch, Michel; Hasselmann, Claude; Marchioni, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction [152 bar (15,200 kPa), 80 degrees C, 4 ml min(-1), 60 min], performed on lipids (2 g) previously extracted from irradiated plant foods, allowed a selective extraction of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and its further detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry i

  3. Effect of Ionic Liquid on Detection of Carbofuran by Plant-lipases Inactivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan WU; Li Jun HE; Wen Jie ZHAO; Kui LU

    2006-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) as additive in phosphate buffer for detection of carbofuran by plant-lipases inhibition method is described. The higher inhibition efficiency and the shorter analysis time can be obtained by using N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid-phosphate buffer mixtures instead of pure phosphate buffer.

  4. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens through the luminex magplex bead system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.; Raaij, van H.M.G.; Weerdt, de M.; Bergervoet, J.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a versatile multiplex method for both the serological and molecular detection of plant pathogens. The Luminex MagPlex bead system uses small paramagnetic microspheres (“beads”), either coated with specific antibodies or oligonucleotides, which capture respectively viruses and/or bac

  5. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  6. The hypersensitive induced reaction and leucine-rich repeat proteins regulate plant cell death associated with disease and plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Kim, Young Jin; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2011-01-01

    Pathogen-induced programmed cell death (PCD) is intimately linked with disease resistance and susceptibility. However, the molecular components regulating PCD, including hypersensitive and susceptible cell death, are largely unknown in plants. In this study, we show that pathogen-induced Capsicum annuum hypersensitive induced reaction 1 (CaHIR1) and leucine-rich repeat 1 (CaLRR1) function as distinct plant PCD regulators in pepper plants during Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria infection. Confocal microscopy and protein gel blot analyses revealed that CaLRR1 and CaHIR1 localize to the extracellular matrix and plasma membrane (PM), respectively. Bimolecular fluorescent complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that the extracellular CaLRR1 specifically binds to the PM-located CaHIR1 in pepper leaves. Overexpression of CaHIR1 triggered pathogen-independent cell death in pepper and Nicotiana benthamiana plants but not in yeast cells. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CaLRR1 and CaHIR1 distinctly strengthened and compromised hypersensitive and susceptible cell death in pepper plants, respectively. Endogenous salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related gene transcripts were elevated in CaHIR1-silenced plants. VIGS of NbLRR1 and NbHIR1, the N. benthamiana orthologs of CaLRR1 and CaHIR1, regulated Bax- and avrPto-/Pto-induced PCD. Taken together, these results suggest that leucine-rich repeat and hypersensitive induced reaction proteins may act as cell-death regulators associated with plant immunity and disease.

  7. Detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms using DNA arrays for plant pathogen diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, B.; Claes, L.; Vanachter, A.C.R.C.; Cammue, B.P.A.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The lack of a rapid and reliable means for routine pathogen identification has been one of the main limitations in plant disease management, and has pushed the development of culture-independent, molecular approaches. Currently, DNA array technology is the most suitable technique for high-throughput

  8. Early automatic detection of Parkinson's disease based on sleep recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sorensen, Helge B D; Nikolic, Miki;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Idiopathic rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is most likely the earliest sign of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) and consequently increased muscle activity. However, some muscle twitching in normal subjects occurs...... the number of outliers during REM sleep was used as a quantitative measure of muscle activity. RESULTS: The proposed method was able to automatically separate all iRBD test subjects from healthy elderly controls and subjects with periodic limb movement disorder. CONCLUSION: The proposed work is considered...... during REM sleep. PURPOSE: There are no generally accepted methods for evaluation of this activity and a normal range has not been established. Consequently, there is a need for objective criteria. METHOD: In this study we propose a full-automatic method for detection of RSWA. REM sleep identification...

  9. Detection of Alzheimer disease in MR images using structure tensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Therefore, early detection and evaluation of prognosis of AD is an important issue in contemporary brain research. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides valuable diagnostic information about AD. In this work, brain tissue is extracted using phase-based level set method. Structure tensor analysis is used to visualize and quantify structural features of the brain from MRI. Further, quantitative measures are derived to classify different stages of AD. Normal and AD subjects were classified up to an accuracy of 88% using these features. It is observed that structural changes in brain can be characterized using this technique and therefore can be helpful in tracking the progression of AD and aid in classification between normal and AD subjects.

  10. Studies on the utilization of a plant SCE test in detecting potential mutagenic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z L; Yang, J; Zhang, Q A; Cao, X S

    1991-09-01

    In this paper a modified procedure for sister-chromatid differentiation in plant cells is reported. Using this procedure some chemicals were tested for SCE induction in Vicia faba, Hordeum vulgare and Secale cereale. The chemicals tested were ethanol, chromium oxide, sodium saccharin, fluorouracil, ascorbic acid (vitamin c), omethoate and phenol. The experimental results showed that most of them induced SCE increases in mouse spleen cells, human lymphocytes and plant cells. The increase of SCEs per cell in plant cells is in agreement with that found in human lymphocytes or in mouse spleen cells. In our opinion, the utilization of SCE in plants is a simple and inexpensive technique for detecting potential mutagenic agents in the environment.

  11. Parasitic Cuscuta factor(s) and the detection by tomato initiates plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Ursula; Hegenauer, Volker; Kaiser, Bettina; Körner, Max; Welz, Max; Albert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are holoparasitic plants that enwind stems of host plants and penetrate those by haustoria to connect to the vascular bundles. Having a broad host plant spectrum, Cuscuta spp infect nearly all dicot plants - only cultivated tomato as one exception is mounting an active defense specifically against C. reflexa. In a recent work we identified a pattern recognition receptor of tomato, "Cuscuta Receptor 1" (CuRe1), which is critical to detect a "Cuscuta factor" (CuF) and initiate defense responses such as the production of ethylene or the generation of reactive oxygen species. CuRe1 also contributes to the tomato resistance against C. reflexa. Here we point to the fact that CuRe1 is not the only relevant component for full tomato resistance but it requires additional defense mechanisms, or receptors, respectively, to totally fend off the parasite.

  12. Aluminosis – Detection of an almost forgotten disease with HRCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilgers Ralf-Dieter

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to detect high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT findings in aluminium powder workers, which are consistent with early stages of aluminosis. 62 male workers from 8 departments of two plants producing aluminium (Al powder were investigated using a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, lung function analysis, biological monitoring of Al in plasma and urine, chest X-ray, HRCT and immunological tests. Chronic bronchitis was observed in 15 (24.2% of the workers, and four workers (6.5% reported shortness of breath during exercise. HRCT findings in 15 workers (24.2% were characterized by ill-defined centrilobular nodular opacities. Workers with ill-defined centrilobular nodular opacities had a lower vital capacity than workers who had no such HRCT-findings (90.9 % pred. vs. 101.8 % pred., p = 0.01. Biological monitoring in plasma and urine revealed higher internal exposure to Al in affected workers (33.5 μg/l plasma to 15.4 μg/l plasma, p = 0.01 and (340.5 μg/g creat. to 135.1 μg/g creat., p = 0.007. Years of exposure and concentration of aluminum in urine and plasma appear to be the best predictors for HRCT findings. Age and decreased vital capacity show borderline significance. We conclude that aluminosis is still relevant in occupational medicine. With HRCT it is possible to detect early stages of aluminosis and biological monitoring can be used to define workers at high risk.

  13. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens through the Luminex MagPlex bead system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vlugt, René A A; van Raaij, Henry; de Weerdt, Marjanne; Bergervoet, Jan H W

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a versatile multiplex method for both the serological and molecular detection of plant pathogens. The Luminex MagPlex bead system uses small paramagnetic microspheres ("beads"), either coated with specific antibodies or oligonucleotides, which capture respectively viruses and/or bacteria or PCR products obtained from their genetic material. The Luminex MagPlex bead system allows true multiplex detection of up to 500 targets in a single sample on a routine basis. The liquid suspension nature of the method significantly improves (1) assay speed, (2) detection limits and (3) dynamic range. It can also considerably reduce labor and consumables costs.

  14. Detection, isolation, and preliminary characterization of bacteria contaminating plant tissue cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kałużna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to limit the contamination problem in plant tissue cultures experiments on selection of media suitable for detection and isolation of bacteria contaminating plant tissue explants, and preliminary characterization of isolates were made. In the first experiment aiming at detection of bacteria in plant explants four strains representing genera most often occurring at our survey of plant tissue cultures, and earlier isolated and identified (Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas were streaked on five bacteriological media (NA, King B, K, R2A and 523 and on the medium used for plant culture initiation – ½ MS with milk albumin (IM. All strains grew on all media but on K and IM at the slowest rate and on 523 medium at the fastest. The IM medium proved to be useful for immediate bacteria detection at the initial stage of culture. In the second experiment, aiming at characterization of isolates on the basis of colony growth and morphology 14 strains (Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Flavobacterium, Lactobacillus, Methylobacterium – 2 strains Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus, Plantibacterium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Xanthomonas, and species Serratia marcescens were streaked on five microbiological media: KB, NBY, YDC, YNA and YPGA. All strains grew on all those media but at different rates. The only exception was the strain of Lactobacillus spp., which did not grow on King B medium. This medium allowed the detection of such characteristic traits as fluorescence (Pseudomonas and secretion of inclusions (Stenotrophomonas. The third experiment was focussed on assessment of the sensitivity of detection of specific bacteria in pure cultures and in plant tis- sue cultures using standard PCR and BIO-PCR techniques with genus specific primers and 2 methods of DNA isolation. Results showed that the use of Genomic Mini kit enabled an increase of the sensitivity by 100 times as compared to extraction of DNA by boiling

  15. Significance of screening mammography in the detection of breast diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Oh, Yu Whan; Kim, Hong In; Chung, Kyoo Byung [College of Medicine Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-15

    To evaluate the clinical significance of the screening mammography in the detection of the breast diseases, especially breast carcinoma. We analyzed 1,800 cases of mammography retrospectively. The mammography was done as a part of routine check in Health Counselling Center, Korea University Medical Center, during 9 months from November 1993 to July 1994. The age range was from 23 years to 76 years, mean 49.8 years, and the largest age group was 6th decade (31.4%). According to the mammographic findings, we divided the subjects into three groups; normal group, abnormal group in need of follow-up study, abnormal group requiring biopsy. On mammography, the normal group consisted of 1,534 cases (85%), and the abnormal group consisted of 266 cases (15%). The abnormal findings were benign-looking calcification (n = 140), fibroadeno ma (n = 29), fibrocystic changes (n = 27), cyst (n = 23), malignant lesion (n = 15) lipoma (n = 7), and others. In four of 15 cases, which were suspected to be malignant on mammograms, breast carcinoma was confirmed pathologically. In four cases of breast carcinoma, one was under 40 and the other 3 were over 50 years of age. All of the breast cancers were under 3 cm in size, and the mammographic findings of breast cancer included spiculated margin (n = 3), parenchymal distortion (n = 3), malignant calcification (n = 2) and enlarged axillary node (n = 1). Screening mammogram is helpful for early detection of non-palpable breast cancer, especially for women over 50 years of age.

  16. Reduction of lesion growth rate of late blight plant disease in transgenic potato expressing harpin protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汝刚; 范云六

    1999-01-01

    Using harpin protein gene from apple fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylavora and potato prp1-1 promoter as main DNA elements, the feasibility of using pathogen infection-induced hypersensitive response was explored as a new strategy of engineering fungal disease resistance. Three plant transformation vectors were constructed and 68 transgenic potato plants were produced through Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. Southern, Northern and Western blot analysis demonstrated the insertion, transcription and protein expression of harpin protein gene in transgenic plants. Disease resistance test using a complex race of Phytophthora infestans as challenging pathogen showed that both constitutive and pathogen infection-induced expression of harpin protein gene in transgenic potato reduced the lesion growth rate of fungus. Among plants where harpin protein gene expression was induced only by fungus infection, two plants were found to be highly resistant to P. infestans infection. Fungal hyphae were not pr

  17. Compost: its role, mechanism and impact on reducing soil-borne plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, C M; Palni, Uma; Franke-Whittle, I H; Sharma, A K

    2014-03-01

    Soil-borne plant pathogens are responsible for causing many crop plant diseases, resulting in significant economic losses. Compost application to agricultural fields is an excellent natural approach, which can be taken to fight against plant pathogens. The application of organic waste products is also an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical use, which unfortunately is the most common approach in agriculture today. This review analyses pioneering and recent compost research, and also the mechanisms and mode of action of compost microbial communities for reducing the activity of plant pathogens in agricultural crops. In addition, an approach for improving the quality of composts through the microbial communities already present in the compost is presented. Future agricultural practices will almost definitely require integrated research strategies to help combat plant diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ozkan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS. Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile.

  19. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulay; Kamiloglu, Senem; Ozdal, Tugba; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-02-25

    Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile.

  20. TRADITIONAL USES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN TREATING SKIN DISEASES IN NAGAPATTINAM DISTRICT OF TAMILNADU, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sivaranjani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present documented the traditional knowledge of Medicinal Plants species used in various type of skin diseases in Nagapattinam district. We have documented the use of 50 species belonging to 26 families. The information on plants used as traditional medicine against skin diseases was gathered and ethnomedicinal survey based on interviews with local people involved in traditional herbal medicine practices. The particulars plants are used to cure variety of skin diseases, like swelling, wound healing, psoriasis, scabies, eczema, dandruff, tinea versicularis, tinea cruris, impetigo, skin parasities, leucoderma, leucoderma, leprosy, rash, etc. the studies carried out for the time in this area, the medicinal plants used by traditional users of N agapattinam district were arranged by botanical name, family, local name, habit, mode of preparation and uses.

  1. Application of a new TLC chemical method for detection of cyclopeptides in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cyclopeptides have been investigated phytochemically less often because until now there has not been a special chemical method to detect them. Since we found cyclopeptides in Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Caryophyllaceae) in 1991, we have gradually established a special chemical detection method for detecting cyclopeptides in plants, which induces a new thin layer chromatography (TLC) protosite reaction with ninhydrin reagent. With this method, our group isolated and determined 73 cyclopeptides from 17 plants which belong to 5 families and 14 genuses, they are from dicyclopeptides to undecacyclopeptides, including 68 new ones, and were determined based on spectral, chemical and enzymic methods, especially 2D NMR and FAB-MS. Meantime, with this method cyclopeptides can be distinguished from peptidic amides based on their behaviour in TLC.

  2. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome ePouzoulet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp. vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance towards vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management.

  3. Focus issue articles on emerging and re-emerging plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review sums up the key findings of seventeen articles on emerging and re-emerging plant diseases that are designated for the July focus issue in Phytopathology. The emerging and re-emerging diseases discussed include those caused by three viral, six fungal, five oomycete, and four bacterial pa...

  4. The status of biological control of plant diseases in soilless cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.

    2009-01-01

    Avoidance of plant diseases has been a major driver for the development of soilless cultivation systems. Nevertheless, diseases still occur in these systems and the need for additional control measures exist. Traditionally, control has relied on the use of chemical fungicides but environmental press

  5. Are plant diseases too much ignored in the climate change debate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ignoring plant diseases misinforms the climate change and food security debate. Diseases are expected not only to cause more severe crop loss in many areas in the world and threaten food security, but also to decrease the climate change mitigation capacity of forests, of other natural ecosystems and

  6. Application of hordothionins and cecropin B for engineering bacterial disease resistance into plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florack, D.

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial diseases can cause a drastic decrease of yield in certain crops. Breeding for bacterial disease resistance therefore is of utmost necessity. Up to now, traditional plant breeding was the only method to reach this goal. Recent developments in genetic engineering technology however provide n

  7. The status of biological control of plant diseases in soilless cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.

    2009-01-01

    Avoidance of plant diseases has been a major driver for the development of soilless cultivation systems. Nevertheless, diseases still occur in these systems and the need for additional control measures exist. Traditionally, control has relied on the use of chemical fungicides but environmental

  8. Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Helena; Plat, Jogchum; Turley, Stephen; Ginsberg, Henry N; Ellegård, Lars; Jessup, Wendy; Jones, Peter J; Lütjohann, Dieter; Maerz, Winfried; Masana, Luis; Silbernagel, Günther; Staels, Bart; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L; De Backer, Guy; Deanfield, John; Descamps, Olivier S; Kovanen, Petri T; Riccardi, Gabriele; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Chapman, M John

    2014-02-01

    This EAS Consensus Panel critically appraised evidence relevant to the benefit to risk relationship of functional foods with added plant sterols and/or plant stanols, as components of a healthy lifestyle, to reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and thereby lower cardiovascular risk. Plant sterols/stanols (when taken at 2 g/day) cause significant inhibition of cholesterol absorption and lower LDL-C levels by between 8 and 10%. The relative proportions of cholesterol versus sterol/stanol levels are similar in both plasma and tissue, with levels of sterols/stanols being 500-/10,000-fold lower than those of cholesterol, suggesting they are handled similarly to cholesterol in most cells. Despite possible atherogenicity of marked elevations in circulating levels of plant sterols/stanols, protective effects have been observed in some animal models of atherosclerosis. Higher plasma levels of plant sterols/stanols associated with intakes of 2 g/day in man have not been linked to adverse effects on health in long-term human studies. Importantly, at this dose, plant sterol/stanol-mediated LDL-C lowering is additive to that of statins in dyslipidaemic subjects, equivalent to doubling the dose of statin. The reported 6-9% lowering of plasma triglyceride by 2 g/day in hypertriglyceridaemic patients warrants further evaluation. Based on LDL-C lowering and the absence of adverse signals, this EAS Consensus Panel concludes that functional foods with plant sterols/stanols may be considered 1) in individuals with high cholesterol levels at intermediate or low global cardiovascular risk who do not qualify for pharmacotherapy, 2) as an adjunct to pharmacologic therapy in high and very high risk patients who fail to achieve LDL-C targets on statins or are statin- intolerant, 3) and in adults and children (>6 years) with familial hypercholesterolaemia, in line with current guidance. However, it must be acknowledged that there are no randomised, controlled

  9. Detecting plant metabolic responses induced by ground shock using hyperspectral remote sensing and physiological contact measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, W.L.; Cater, G.A.

    1996-12-03

    A series of field experiments were done to determine if ground shock could have induced physiological responses in plants and if the level of the response could be observed. The observation techniques were remote sensing techniques and direct contact physiological measurements developed by Carter for detecting pre-visual plant stress. The remote sensing technique was similar to that used by Pickles to detect what appeared to be ground shock induced plant stress above the 1993 Non Proliferation Experiment`s underground chemical explosion. The experiment was designed to provide direct plant physiological measurements and remote sensing ratio images and from the same plants at the same time. The simultaneous direct and remote sensing measurements were done to establish a ground truth dataset to compare to the results of the hyperspectral remote sensing measurements. In addition, the experiment was designed to include data on what was thought to be the most probable interfering effect, dehydration. The experimental design included investigating the relative magnitude of the shock induced stress effects compared to dehydration effects.

  10. Problems, challenges and future of plant disease management:from an ecological point of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dun-chun; ZHAN Jia-sui; XIE Lian-hui

    2016-01-01

    Plant disease management faces ever-growing chalenges due to: (i) increasing demands for total, safe and diverse foods to support the booming global population and its improving living standards; (i) reducing production potential in agriculture due to competition for land in fertile areas and exhaustion of marginal arable lands; (ii) deteriorating ecology of agro-ecosystems and depletion of natural resources; and (iv) increased risk of disease epidemics resulting from agricultural intensiifcation and monocultures. Future plant disease management should aim to strengthen food security for a stable society while simultaneously safeguarding the health of associated ecosystems and reducing dependency on natural resources. To achieve these multiple functionalities, sustainable plant disease management should place emphases on rational adaptation of resistance, avoidance, elimination and remediation strategies individualy and colectively, guided by traits of speciifc host-pathogen associations using evolutionary ecology principles to create environmental (biotic and abiotic) conditions favorable for host growth and development while adverse to pathogen reproduction and evolution.

  11. Water stress detection in potato plants using leaf temperature, emissivity, and reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhards, Max; Rock, Gilles; Schlerf, Martin; Udelhoven, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Water stress is one of the most critical abiotic stressors limiting crop development. The main imaging and non-imaging remote sensing based techniques for the detection of plant stress (water stress and other types of stress) are thermography, visible (VIS), near- and shortwave infrared (NIR/SWIR) reflectance, and fluorescence. Just very recently, in addition to broadband thermography, narrowband (hyperspectral) thermal imaging has become available, which even facilitates the retrieval of spectral emissivity as an additional measure of plant stress. It is, however, still unclear at what stage plant stress is detectable with the various techniques. During summer 2014 a water treatment experiment was run on 60 potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. Cilena) with one half of the plants watered and the other half stressed. Crop response was measured using broadband and hyperspectral thermal cameras and a VNIR/SWIR spectrometer. Stomatal conductance was measured using a leaf porometer. Various measures and indices were computed and analysed for their sensitivity towards water stress (Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI), Moisture Stress Index (MSI), Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), and spectral emissivity, amongst others). The results show that water stress as measured through stomatal conductance started on day 2 after watering was stopped. The fastest reacting, i.e., starting on day 7, indices were temperature based measures (e.g., CWSI) and NIR/SWIR reflectance based indices related to plant water content (e.g., MSI). Spectral emissivity reacted equally fast. Contrarily, visual indices (e.g., PRI) either did not respond at all or responded in an inconsistent manner. This experiment shows that pre-visual water stress detection is feasible using indices depicting leaf temperature, leaf water content and spectral emissivity.

  12. Plant-based oral vaccines against zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Naila; Daniell, Henry

    2016-11-01

    The shared diseases between animals and humans are known as zoonotic diseases and spread infectious diseases among humans. Zoonotic diseases are not only a major burden to livestock industry but also threaten humans accounting for >60% cases of human illness. About 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans have been reported to originate from zoonotic pathogens. Because antibiotics are frequently used to protect livestock from bacterial diseases, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of epidemic and zoonotic pathogens is now a major concern. Live attenuated and killed vaccines are the only option to control these infectious diseases and this approach has been used since 1890. However, major problems with this approach include high cost and injectable vaccines is impractical for >20 billion poultry animals or fish in aquaculture. Plants offer an attractive and affordable platform for vaccines against animal diseases because of their low cost, and they are free of attenuated pathogens and cold chain requirement. Therefore, several plant-based vaccines against human and animals diseases have been developed recently that undergo clinical and regulatory approval. Plant-based vaccines serve as ideal booster vaccines that could eliminate multiple boosters of attenuated bacteria or viruses, but requirement of injectable priming with adjuvant is a current limitation. So, new approaches like oral vaccines are needed to overcome this challenge. In this review, we discuss the progress made in plant-based vaccines against zoonotic or other animal diseases and future challenges in advancing this field. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    GHINI, R.; Hamada,E.; F. Angelotti; Costa,L.B.; BETTIOL, W.

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographi...

  14. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard.

  15. Mitochondrial Quality Control: Decommissioning Power Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukmini Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell has an intricate quality control system to protect its mitochondria from oxidative stress. This surveillance system is multi-tiered and comprises molecules that are present inside the mitochondria, in the cytosol, and in other organelles like the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. These molecules cross talk with each other and protect the mitochondria from oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a fundamental part of early disease pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. These disorders also damage the cellular quality control machinery that protects the cell against oxidative stress. This exacerbates the oxidative damage and causes extensive neuronal cell death that is characteristic of neurodegeneration.

  16. Detection of carbon nanotubes in plant roots through microwave-induced heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irin, Fahmida; Shrestha, Babina; Canas, Jaclyn; Saed, Mohammad; Green, Micah

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate a novel technique for quantitative detection of CNTs in biological samples by utilizing the thermal response of CNTs under microwave irradiation. In particular, rapid heating of CNTs due to microwave absorption was employed to quantify the amount of CNTs present in alfalfa plant roots. Alfalfa roots were prepared by injecting a known amount of CNTs (single walled and multi walled) and exposed to 30-50 W microwave power to generate calibration curves (temperature rise vs. CNT mass). These calibration curves serve as a characterization tool to determine the unknown amount of CNTs absorbed by alfalfa plant roots grown in CNT-laden soil with superior accuracy and sensitivity. Moreover, the threshold for detectable CNT concentration is much lower than common analytical methods of detecting nanomaterials, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Considering the lack of effective detection methods for CNT uptake in plants, this method is not only unique but also practical, as it addresses a major problem in the field of nanotoxicology risk assessment.

  17. Medicinal plants used to treat the most frequent diseases encountered in Ambalabe rural community, Eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarivelo, Nivo H; Rakotoarivony, Fortunat; Ramarosandratana, Aro Vonjy; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina H; Kuhlman, Alyse R; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2015-09-15

    Traditional medicine remains the only health care available in many rural areas in Madagascar like the rural community of Ambalabe, located in a very remote area in the eastern part of the country. With limited access to modern medicine, the local population uses medicinal plants to treat most diseases. In this study, we aimed to inventory medicinal plants used by local people and how those relate to the treatment of the most frequent diseases encountered in Ambalabe. We interviewed participants in order to identify the most frequent diseases in the region and the medicinal plants used to treat them. The local physician was asked about the most frequent diseases, and ethnobotanical surveys to record medicinal plants and their uses, using semi-structured interviews and free listing, were conducted among 193 informants in local villages, of which 54 % were men and 46 % were women, ageing from 16 to 86 years. The local names, the uses of each plant species and the way they are prepared and administered were recorded and accompanied by herbarium specimens for identification. We also interviewed four traditional healers to elicit more details on the preparation and the use of plants. Our research allowed us to identify six most frequent diseases, namely diarrhea, malaria, stomach-ache, cough, bilharzia and dysentery. Among 209 plant species identified as having medicinal use, 83 species belonging to 49 families and 77 genera were used to treat these diseases. Our analyses highlighted the 11 commonly used species for their treatment, and also 16 species with a high fidelity level (FL ≥ 75 %) for each ailment. Diarrhea is one of the diseases with high number of species recorded. This study highlighted the closed relationship between people in Ambalabe and plant species, especially when faced with frequent diseases. However, most of the species used were collected in the surroundings of the villages. Few species were from Vohibe forest in which a management system on

  18. Plant species used in dental diseases: ethnopharmacology aspects and antimicrobial activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Denise R P; Amaral, Flavia MaM; Maciel, Márcia C G; Nascimento, Flávia R F; Libério, Silvana A; Rodrigues, Vandílson P

    2014-09-29

    Ethnopharmacological surveys show that several plant species are used empirically by the population, in oral diseases. However, it is necessary to check the properties of these plant species. To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans from plant species selected in a previous ethnopharmacology study. An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted with users of a dental clinic school services, located in Sao Luis, Maranhão, Brazil, aiming to identify plant species used in oral diseases treatment. From the ethnopharmacological survey, species were selected for in vitro antimicrobial activity evaluation against Streptococcus mutans, by agar diffusion method and determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Two hundred and seventy one people participated in the research: 55.7% reported the use of plants for medicinal purposes, 29.5% of which have knowledge and/or use plants for some type of oral disease. Thirty four species belonging to 24 (twenty four) botanical families were reported, being Aloe vera L., Anacardium occidentale L., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Punica granatum L. the most cited. The most commonly reported indications were healing after tooth extraction, followed by toothache, inflammation and bleeding gums., The determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) demonstrated that Punica granatum L., Psidium guajava L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed similar activity to 0.12% chlorhexidine, used as positive control. That result is important to follow up the study of these species in the search for new anticariogenic agents originated by plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards establishing broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants: silicon leads the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockhaven, Jonas; De Vleesschauwer, David; Höfte, Monica

    2013-03-01

    Plants are constantly threatened by a wide array of microbial pathogens. Pathogen invasion can lead to vast yield losses and the demand for sustainable plant-protection strategies has never been greater. Chemical plant activators and selected strains of rhizobacteria can increase resistance against specific types of pathogens but these treatments are often ineffective or even cause susceptibility against others. Silicon application is one of the scarce examples of a treatment that effectively induces broad-spectrum disease resistance. The prophylactic effect of silicon is considered to be the result of both passive and active defences. Although the phenomenon has been known for decades, very little is known about the molecular basis of silicon-afforded disease control. By combining knowledge on how silicon interacts with cell metabolism in diatoms and plants, this review describes silicon-induced regulatory mechanisms that might account for broad-spectrum plant disease resistance. Priming of plant immune responses, alterations in phytohormone homeostasis, regulation of iron homeostasis, silicon-driven photorespiration and interaction with defence signalling components all are potential mechanisms involved in regulating silicon-triggered resistance responses. Further elucidating how silicon exerts its beneficial properties may create new avenues for developing plants that are better able to withstand multiple attackers.

  20. Trade-offs between soil hydrology and plant disease effects after biochar amendment in sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Frank; Silva, Flavio; Amaro, Antonio; Pinto, Gloria; Mesquita, Raquel; Jesus, Claudia; Alves, Artur; Keizer, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can affect multiple soil-based ecosystem services to varying extents, leading to trade-offs. Improvements in plant-available water have predominantly been found at high biochar application rates in sandy soils. Reductions in plant diseases after biochar application have been found in various horticultural plants, and trees such as maple and oak, mostly at relatively low biochar application rates. Serious damage to Eucalyptus globulus has been reported since 1999 when frequent and severe defoliation of young trees was observed, and eucalypts are the major tree species in commercial forestry plantations of Portugal, forming an important economic activity. Here we investigated simultaneous effects on plant available water and on disease suppression of eucalypt, in a completely randomised full factorial greenhouse pot experiment, using a range of woody feedstock biochar concentrations in sandy soil. Treatments included plant inoculation with the fungus Neofusicoccum kwambonambiense and cycles of acute drought stress. Preliminary results showed delayed wilting for plants treated with 3-6% biochar, but also increased stem lesion length. These results suggest a trade-off between effects on water availability and disease for Eucalyptus globulus plants in the selected sandy soil amended with this specific biochar, at the selected application rates.

  1. Overexpression of a modified plant thionin enhances disease resistance to citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Hao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri. In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer twelve months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker.

  2. Lateral Flow Immunoassays for Ebola Virus Disease Detection in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jill C; Pettitt, James; George, Josiah S; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Taweh, Fahn M; Bateman, Stacey L; Bennett, Richard S; Norris, Sarah L; Spinnler, David A; Pimentel, Guillermo; Sahr, Phillip K; Bolay, Fatorma K; Schoepp, Randal J

    2016-10-15

     Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs) are point-of-care diagnostic assays that are designed for single use outside a formal laboratory, with in-home pregnancy tests the best-known example of these tests. Although the LFI has some limitations over more-complex immunoassay procedures, such as reduced sensitivity and the potential for false-positive results when using complex sample matrices, the assay has the benefits of a rapid time to result and ease of use. These benefits make it an attractive option for obtaining rapid results in an austere environment. In an outbreak of any magnitude, a field-based rapid diagnostic assay would allow proper patient transport and for safe burials to be conducted without the delay caused by transport of samples between remote villages and testing facilities. Use of such point-of-care instruments in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa would have distinct advantages in control and prevention of local outbreaks, but proper understanding of the technology and interpretation of results are important.  In this study, a LFI, originally developed by the Naval Medical Research Center for Ebola virus environmental testing, was evaluated for its ability to detect the virus in clinical samples in Liberia. Clinical blood and plasma samples and post mortem oral swabs submitted to the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, the National Public Health Reference Laboratory for EVD testing, were tested and compared to results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), using assays targeting Ebola virus glycoprotein and nucleoprotein.  The LFI findings correlated well with those of the real-time RT-PCR assays used as benchmarks.  Rapid antigen-detection tests such as LFIs are attractive alternatives to traditional immunoassays but have reduced sensitivity and specificity, resulting in increases in false-positive and false-negative results. An understanding of the strengths, weaknesses

  3. Control of Plant Diseases by Extracts of Inula viscosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqiao; Ben-Daniel, B H; Cohen, Yigal

    2004-10-01

    ABSTRACT Leaves of Inula viscosa were collected from the field, dried, and extracted with a mixture of acetone and n-hexane. The oily, water-insoluble pastes obtained after evaporation of the solvents were used for the control of foliar diseases in growth chambers. The pastes, either dissolved in acetone or emulsified in water, effectively controlled downy mildew of cucumber, late blight of potato or tomato, powdery mildew of wheat, and rust of sunflower. Mean effective dose (concentration) required for 90% inhibition of disease values for acetone solutions and water emulsions ranged from 0.68 to 1.02% and 0.65 to 1.00% (wt/vol), respectively. Dry matter content in fresh leaves, paste-extract yield in dry leaves, and disease control efficacy of paste extracts were similar in leaves of I. viscosa collected during May to October, suggesting that, for practical use, harvests can be conducted during most of the growing season. The results show that I. viscosa may be used as an herbal source for fungicidal preparations against foliar diseases caused by pathogens belonging to the families Oomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Basidiomycetes.

  4. The clinical spectrum of humidifier disease in synthetic fiber plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, TM; deMonchy, JGR; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    In a synthetic fiber production site with recirculating cold water humidification systems and small-size-particle (> 0.1 mu <1 mu) oil mist exposure, humidifier disease was diagnosed in several workers. The patients could be divided into three groups illustrating the clinical spectrum of humidifier

  5. The clinical spectrum of humidifier disease in synthetic fiber plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, TM; deMonchy, JGR; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    1997-01-01

    In a synthetic fiber production site with recirculating cold water humidification systems and small-size-particle (> 0.1 mu <1 mu) oil mist exposure, humidifier disease was diagnosed in several workers. The patients could be divided into three groups illustrating the clinical spectrum of humidifier

  6. Revisiting Amazonian Plants for Skin Care and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Burlando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., family Meliaceae; Eperua falcata Aubl., family Fabaceae; Quassia amara L., family Simaroubaceae; and Attalea speciosa Mart. and Oenocarpus bataua Mart., family Arecaceae. For each species, the general features, major constituents, overall medicinal properties, detailed dermatological and skin care applications, and possible harmful effects have been considered. The major products include seed oils from A. speciosa and C. guianensis, fruit oil from O. bataua, and active compounds such as limonoids from C. guianensis, flavonoids from E. falcata, and quassinoids from Q. amara. The dermatologic and cosmetic applications of these plants are growing rapidly but are still widely based on empiric knowledge. Applications include skin rehydration and soothing; anti-inflammatory, antiage, and antiparasite effects; hair care; burn and wound healing; and the amelioration of rosacea and psoriasis conditions. Despite a limited knowledge about their constituents and properties, these species appear as promising sources of bioactive compounds for skin care and health applications. An improvement of knowledge about their properties will provide added value to the exploitation of these forest resources.

  7. Measuring Compounds in Exhaled Air to Detect Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Philipp Bach

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is diagnosed based upon medical history, neuropsychiatric examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, extensive laboratory analyses and cerebral imaging. Diagnosis is time consuming and labour intensive. Parkinson's disease (PD is mainly diagnosed on clinical grounds.The primary aim of this study was to differentiate patients suffering from AD, PD and healthy controls by investigating exhaled air with the electronic nose technique. After demonstrating a difference between the three groups the secondary aim was the identification of specific substances responsible for the difference(s using ion mobility spectroscopy. Thirdly we analysed whether amyloid beta (Aβ in exhaled breath was causative for the observed differences between patients suffering from AD and healthy controls.We employed novel pulmonary diagnostic tools (electronic nose device/ion-mobility spectrometry for the identification of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Specifically, we analysed breath pattern differences in exhaled air of patients with AD, those with PD and healthy controls using the electronic nose device (eNose. Using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS, we identified the compounds responsible for the observed differences in breath patterns. We applied ELISA technique to measure Aβ in exhaled breath condensates.The eNose was able to differentiate between AD, PD and HC correctly. Using IMS, we identified markers that could be used to differentiate healthy controls from patients with AD and PD with an accuracy of 94%. In addition, patients suffering from PD were identified with sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Altogether, 3 AD patients out of 53 participants were misclassified. Although we found Aβ in exhaled breath condensate from both AD and healthy controls, no significant differences between groups were detected.These data may open a new field in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson

  8. How glyphosate affects plant disease development: it is more than enhanced susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Ray

    2017-01-09

    Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait. The evidence indicates that neither the resistance trait nor application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant plants increases susceptibility to disease. The only exceptions to this are cases where glyphosate has been shown to reduce rust diseases on glyphosate-resistant crops, supporting a fungicidal role for this chemical. Finally, glyphosate treatment of weeds or volunteer crops can cause a temporary increase in soil-borne pathogens that may result in disease development if crops are planted too soon after glyphosate application. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. People detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A., E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Seixas, Jose M.; Silva, Eduardo Antonio B., E-mail: seixas@lps.ufrj.b, E-mail: eduardo@lps.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica; Cota, Raphael E.; Ramos, Bruno L., E-mail: brunolange@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica e de Computacao

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the development of a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The final objective is to track people online in videos, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during the execution of working tasks in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a real nuclear plant at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Argonauta nuclear research reactor. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta's room, supplying the data needed. Both video processing and statistical signal processing techniques may be used for detection, segmentation and tracking people in video. This first paper reports people segmentation in video using background subtraction, by two different approaches, namely frame differences, and blind signal separation based on the independent component analysis method. Results are commented, along with perspectives for further work. (author)

  10. Automatic detection and segmentation of stems of potted tomato plant using Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Daichang; Xu, Lihong; Li, Dawei; Xin, Longjiao

    2014-04-01

    The automatic segmentation and recognition of greenhouse crop is an important aspect in digitized facility agriculture. Crop stems are closely related with the growth of the crop. Meanwhile, they are also an important physiological trait to identify the species of plants. For these reasons, this paper focuses on the digitization process to collect and analysis stems of greenhouse plants (tomatoes). An algorithm for automatic stem detection and extraction is proposed, based on a cheap and effective stereo vision system—Kinect. In order to demonstrate the usefulness and the potential applicability of our algorithm, a virtual tomato plant, whose stems are rendered by segmented stem texture samples, is reconstructed on OpenGL graphic platform.

  11. New Computer Assisted Diagnostic to Detect Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rabeh Amira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new Computer Assisted Diagnosis (CAD to automatically detect Alzheimer Patients (AD, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and elderly Controls, based on the segmentation and classification of the Hippocampus (H and Corpus Calosum (CC from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI. For the segmentation we used a new method based on a deformable model to extract the area wishes, and then we computed the geometric and texture features. For the classification we proposed a new supervised method. We evaluated the accuracy of our method in a group of 25 patients with AD (age±standard-deviation (SD =70±6 years, 25 patients with MCI (age±SD=65±8 years and 25 elderly healthy controls (age±SD=60±8 years. For the AD patients we found an accuracy of the classification of 92%, for the MCI we found 88% and for the elderly patients we found 96%. Overall, we found our method to be 92% accurate. Our method can be a useful tool for diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease in any of these Steps.

  12. Mining social media and web searches for disease detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tony Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Web-based social media is increasingly being used across different settings in the health care industry. The increased frequency in the use of the Internet via computer or mobile devices provides an opportunity for social media to be the medium through which people can be provided with valuable health information quickly and directly. While traditional methods of detection relied predominately on hierarchical or bureaucratic lines of communication, these often failed to yield timely and accurate epidemiological intelligence. New web-based platforms promise increased opportunities for a more timely and accurate spreading of information and analysis. This article aims to provide an overview and discussion of the availability of timely and accurate information. It is especially useful for the rapid identification of an outbreak of an infectious disease that is necessary to promptly and effectively develop public health responses. These web-based platforms include search queries, data mining of web and social media, process and analysis of blogs containing epidemic key words, text mining, and geographical information system data analyses. These new sources of analysis and information are intended to complement traditional sources of epidemic intelligence. Despite the attractiveness of these new approaches, further study is needed to determine the accuracy of blogger statements, as increases in public participation may not necessarily mean the information provided is more accurate.

  13. Mining social media and web searches for disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Horneffer, Michael; DiLisio, Nicole

    2013-04-28

    Web-based social media is increasingly being used across different settings in the health care industry. The increased frequency in the use of the Internet via computer or mobile devices provides an opportunity for social media to be the medium through which people can be provided with valuable health information quickly and directly. While traditional methods of detection relied predominately on hierarchical or bureaucratic lines of communication, these often failed to yield timely and accurate epidemiological intelligence. New web-based platforms promise increased opportunities for a more timely and accurate spreading of information and analysis. This article aims to provide an overview and discussion of the availability of timely and accurate information. It is especially useful for the rapid identification of an outbreak of an infectious disease that is necessary to promptly and effectively develop public health responses. These web-based platforms include search queries, data mining of web and social media, process and analysis of blogs containing epidemic key words, text mining, and geographical information system data analyses. These new sources of analysis and information are intended to complement traditional sources of epidemic intelligence. Despite the attractiveness of these new approaches, further study is needed to determine the accuracy of blogger statements, as increases in public participation may not necessarily mean the information provided is more accurate.

  14. Bacteria Murmur: Application of an Acoustic Biosensor for Plant Pathogen Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Papadakis

    Full Text Available A multi-targeting protocol for the detection of three of the most important bacterial phytopathogens, based on their scientific and economic importance, was developed using an acoustic biosensor (the Quartz Crystal Microbalance for DNA detection. Acoustic detection was based on a novel approach where DNA amplicons were monitored and discriminated based on their length rather than mass. Experiments were performed during real time monitoring of analyte binding and in a direct manner, i.e. without the use of labels for enhancing signal transduction. The proposed protocol improves time processing by circumventing gel electrophoresis and can be incorporated as a routine detection method in a diagnostic lab or an automated lab-on-a-chip system for plant pathogen diagnostics.

  15. Bacteria Murmur: Application of an Acoustic Biosensor for Plant Pathogen Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, George; Skandalis, Nicholas; Dimopoulou, Anastasia; Glynos, Paraskevas; Gizeli, Electra

    2015-01-01

    A multi-targeting protocol for the detection of three of the most important bacterial phytopathogens, based on their scientific and economic importance, was developed using an acoustic biosensor (the Quartz Crystal Microbalance) for DNA detection. Acoustic detection was based on a novel approach where DNA amplicons were monitored and discriminated based on their length rather than mass. Experiments were performed during real time monitoring of analyte binding and in a direct manner, i.e. without the use of labels for enhancing signal transduction. The proposed protocol improves time processing by circumventing gel electrophoresis and can be incorporated as a routine detection method in a diagnostic lab or an automated lab-on-a-chip system for plant pathogen diagnostics.

  16. The Evidential Basis of Decision Making in Plant Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth

    2017-08-04

    The evidential basis for disease management decision making is provided by data relating to risk factors. The decision process involves an assessment of the evidence leading to taking (or refraining from) action on the basis of a prediction. The primary objective of the decision process is to identify-at the time the decision is made-the control action that provides the best predicted end-of-season outcome, calculated in terms of revenue or another appropriate metric. Data relating to disease risk factors may take a variety of forms (e.g., continuous, discrete, categorical) on measurement scales in a variety of units. Log10-likelihood ratios provide a principled basis for the accumulation of evidence based on such data and allow predictions to be made via Bayesian updating of prior probabilities.

  17. Development of Rapid Isothermal Amplification Assays for Detection of Phytophthora spp. in Plant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Timothy D; Martin, Frank N; Coffey, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for designing primers and a labeled probe is recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). This technology was used to develop two simple and rapid approaches for detection of Phytophthora spp.: one genus-specific assay multiplexed with a plant internal control and the other species-specific assays for Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. All assays were tested for sensitivity (ranging from 3 ng to 1 fg of DNA) and specificity using DNA extracted from more than 136 Phytophthora taxa, 21 Pythium spp., 1 Phytopythium sp., and a wide range of plant species. The lower limit of linear detection using purified DNA was 200 to 300 fg of DNA in all pathogen RPA assays. Six different extraction buffers were tested for use during plant tissue maceration and the assays were validated in the field by collecting 222 symptomatic plant samples from over 50 different hosts. Only 56 samples were culture positive for Phytophthora spp. whereas 91 were positive using the Phytophthora genus-specific RPA test and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. A technique for the generation of sequencing templates from positive RPA amplifications to confirm species identification was also developed. These RPA assays have added benefits over traditional technologies because they are rapid (results can be obtained in as little as 15 min), do not require DNA extraction or extensive training to complete, use less expensive portable equipment than PCR-based assays, and are significantly more specific than current immunologically based methods. This should provide a rapid, field-deployable capability for pathogen detection that will facilitate point-of-sample collection processing

  18. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; John K. Triantafillidis

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most import...

  19. Microradiography as a tool to detect heavy metal uptake in plants for phytoremediation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Lucia; Lai, Antonia; Bellucci, Ida; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Flora, Francesco; Spanò, Laura; Poma, Anna; Limongi, Tania; Palladino, Libero; Ritucci, Antonio; Tomassetti, Giuseppe; Petrocelli, Giovanni; Martellucci, Sergio

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, an application of contact microradiography with soft X-rays for detecting the uptake site of heavy metal in the whole plant leaves is investigated. The X-ray source is a laser-plasma one based on an Nd:glass laser. The soft X-ray radiation emitted from the plasma laser targets of magnesium, iron, and copper can be strongly absorbed in the leaves' regions rich in iron, magnesium, and copper. This absorbance could point to structures in the leaves where these heavy elements are found. In this work, leaves treated with copper sulfate diluted in water at 1, 2, and 5% were imaged by using a copper target, in order to evaluate differences with untreated control leaves. Our results showed that this methodology highlighted the presence of copper in the treated leaves. This new methodology should detect heavy element pollutants inside plants and it should also be a useful analytic tool in phytoremediation studies.

  20. Detection of plant viruses in mixed infection by a macroarray-assisted method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hanako; Furuta, Kazuyoshi; Masuta, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    The protocol for a simple, sensitive, and specific method using a cDNA macroarray to detect multiple viruses is provided. The method can be used even at the production sites for crops, which need a reliable routine diagnosis for mixed infection of plant viruses. The method consists of three steps: RNA extraction, duplex RT-PCR, and "microtube hybridization" (MTH). Biotinylated cDNA probes are prepared using RT-PCR and used to hybridize a nylon membrane containing target viral cDNAs by MTH. Positive signals can be visualized by colorimetric reaction and judged by eyes. We here demonstrate this method to detect asparagus viruses (Asparagus virus 1 and Asparagus virus 2) from latently infected asparagus plants.

  1. Spectral indices for the detection of salinity effects in melon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarni I. Hernández

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and soil salinization affect large semiarid agricultural areas throughout the world. The maintenance of agricultural productivity implies better agricultural practices and a careful selection of resistant crops. A proper monitoring of the physiological status of plants can lead to better knowledge of plant nutritional requirements. Visible and near-infrared (VNIR radiometry provides a non-destructive and quantitative method to monitor vegetation status by quantifying chemical properties using spectroscopic techniques. In this study, the capability of VNIR spectral measurements to detect salinity effects on melon (Cucumis melo L. plants was tested. Melon plants were cultivated under multiple soil salinity conditions (electrical conductivity, (EC1:5: 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 dS m-1. Spectral data of leaves were transformed into vegetation indices indicative of the physiological status of the plants. The results showed differences for N (p < 0.05, K and Na content (p < 0.01 due to salinity suggesting different degrees of salt stress on the plants. Specific leaf area increased with salinity levels (p < 0.001. The capabilities of VNIR radiometry to assess the influence of soil salinity on melon physiology using a non-destructive method were demonstrated. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI750-705, and the ratio between water index (WI and normalized difference vegetation index (WI/NDVI750-705 showed significant relationships (p < 0.01 with the salinity. Therefore, this method could be used for in-situ early detection of salinity stress effects.

  2. Detection of anti-tuberculosis activity in some folklore plants by radiometric BACTEC assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V K; Shukla, C; Bisht, G R S; Saikia, D; Kumar, S; Thakur, R L

    2011-01-01

    The anti-tubercular drugs are less effective because of the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis, so plants being an alternative source of anti-microbial compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-tuberculosis potential of the plants using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a rapid screening model for detection of anti-mycobacterial activity and further to evaluate the active plants for anti-tuberculosis activity against M. tuberculosis using radiometric BACTEC assay. The 15 plants were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against M. smegmatis by the disk diffusion assay. The ethanolic extracts of Mallotus philippensis, Vitex negundo, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Rumex hastatus, Mimosa pudica, Kalanchoe integra and Flacourtia ramontchii were active against M. smegmatis in primary screening. The anti-tuberculosis potential was identified in the leaves extracts of Mallotus philippensis by radiometric BACTEC assay. The ethanolic extract of M. philippensis showed anti-tuberculosis activity against virulent and avirulent strains of M. tuberculosis H(37) Rv and M. tuberculosis H(37) Ra with minimum inhibitory concentration 0·25 and 0·125 mg ml(-1), respectively. The inhibition in growth index values of M. tuberculosis was observed in the presence of ethyl acetate fraction at a minimum concentration of 0·05 mg ml(-1). We found that BACTEC radiometric assay is a valuable method for detection of anti-tuberculosis activity of the plant extracts. The results indicate that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of M. philippensis exhibited significant anti-mycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis. These findings provide scientific evidence to support the traditional medicinal uses of M. philippensis and indicate a promising potential of this plant for the development of anti-tuberculosis agent. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied

  3. Glyphosate Effects on Plant Mineral Nutrition, Crop Rhizosphere Microbiota, and Plant Disease in Glyphosate-Resistant Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Claims have been made recently that glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops sometimes have mineral deficiencies and increased plant disease. This review evaluates the literature that is germane to these claims. Our conclusions are: (1) although there is conflicting literature on the effects of glyphosate on mineral nutrition on GR crops, most of the literature indicates that mineral nutrition in GR crops is not affected by either the GR trait or by application of glyphosate; (2) most of the available data support the view that neither the GR transgenes nor glyphosate use in GR crops increases crop disease; and (3) yield data on GR crops do not support the hypotheses that there are substantive mineral nutrition or disease problems that are specific to GR crops. PMID:23013354

  4. Detection of radioxenon in Darwin, Australia following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Blake; Schöppner, Michael; Tinker, Rick; Plastino, Wolfango

    2013-12-01

    A series of (133)Xe detections in April 2011 made at the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System noble gas station in Darwin, Australia, were analysed to determine the most likely source location. Forward and backwards atmospheric transport modelling simulations using FLEXPART were conducted. It was shown that the most likely source location was the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Other potential sources in the southern hemisphere were analysed, including the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical facility, but it was shown that sources originating from these locations were highly unlikely to be the source of the observed (133)Xe Darwin detections.

  5. Phytocystatins and their potential to control plant diseases caused by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aline M; dos Reis, Savio P; de Souza, Claudia R B

    2015-01-01

    Plant cystatins, also called phytocystatins, constitute a family of specific cysteine protease inhibitors found in several monocots and dicots, where they can be involved in the regulation of several endogenous processes and in defense against pests and pathogens, as well as in response to abiotic stress. In this mini-review we aimed to present isolated and characterized phytocystatins with potential use in control of plant disease caused by fungi.

  6. Screening of Natural Antioxidants from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants Associated with Treatment of Rheumatic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hua-Bin Li; Feng-Lin Song; En-Qin Xia; Yuan Zhang; Xiang-Rong Xu; Lei Kuang; Ren-You Gan

    2010-01-01

    In order to find new sources of natural antioxidants, the antioxidant capacities of 50 medicinal plants associated with treatment of rheumatic diseases were systemically evaluated using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Their antioxidant activities of some of these plants were analyzed for the first time. The FRAP and TEAC assay results suggested ...

  7. Detection of Leuconostoc strains at a meat processing plant using polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Seitaro; Takahashi, Hajime; Kawasaki, Susumu; Kimura, Bon; Fujii, Tateo; Nakatsuji, Miki; Watanabe, Itaru

    2004-02-01

    To simplify the labor-intensive conventional routine testing of samples to detect Leuconostoc at a meat processing plant, we developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for Leuconostoc from 16S rRNA gene sequences. These primers did not detect other common lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lact. sake, Lact. fermentum, Lact. acidophilus and Weissella viridescens. PCR with this primer detected all Leuconostoc species tested (Leu. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Leu. pseudomesenteroides, Leu. carnosum, Leu. lactic, Leu. citreum, Leu. amelibiosum, Leu. gelidum), except for Leu. fallax, and no other lactic acid bacteria on agarose gel electrophoresis. The method could identify areas contaminated with Leuconostoc in a large-scale industrial meat processing plant. Of 69 samples analyzed, 34 were positive for Leuconostoc according to the conventional culture method (isolation of LAB producing dextran) and PCR, whereas 29 were negative according to both. Six samples were culture-negative but positive by PCR. No false negative results were generated by PCR. The method is rapid and simple, is useful for routinely monitoring areas contaminated with Leuconostoc in meat processing plants, and could help to prevent the spoilage of meat products.

  8. Detection of Enteroviruses in Influent and Effluent Flow Samples from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistone, Andrea; Buttinelli, Gabriele; Bonomo, Paolo; Fiore, Stefano; Amato, Concetta; Mercurio, Pietro; Cicala, Antonella; Simeoni, Josef; Foppa, Adelheid; Triassi, Maria; Pennino, Francesca; Fiore, Lucia

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the presence and seasonal distribution of polio and other enteroviruses in four wastewater treatment plants in three cities in Italy, using different treatment systems. Detection of enteroviruses was carried out by virus isolation in cell cultures after concentration of water samples collected at both inlet and outlet of the treatment plants, following the methods described in the WHO guidelines. Viral serotypes isolated before and after water treatment were compared. Forty-eight non-polio enteroviruses were isolated from 312 samples collected at the inlet of the four wastewater treatment plants, 35 of which were Coxsackievirus type B (72.9 %) and 13 Echovirus (27.1 %). After treatment, 2 CVB3, 1 CVB5, and 1 Echo 6 were isolated. CVB3 and Echo 6 serotypes were also detected in samples collected at the inlet of the TP, in the same month and year. The high rate of detection of infectious enteroviruses in inlet sewage samples (30.1 %) indicates wide diffusion of these viruses in the populations linked to the collectors. The incomplete removal of infectious viruses following sewage treatment highlights possible risks for public health relate to treated waters discharge into the environment.

  9. Susceptibility to Laurel Wilt and disease incidence in two rare plant species, Pondberry and Pondspice Plant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Fraedrich; T Harrington; C Bates; J Johnson; L. Reid; Glenda Susan Best; T Leininger; Tracy Hawkins

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, has been responsible for extensive losses of redbay (Persea borbonia) in South Carolina and Georgia since 2003. Symptoms of the disease have been noted in other species of the Lauraceae such as the federally endangered pondberry (Lindera melissifolia) and the threatened pondspice (Litsea aestivalis). Pondberry and pondspice...

  10. Computational network pharmacological research of Chinese medicinal plants for chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between drug molecules and target proteins is the basis of pharmacological action.The pharmacodynamic mechanism of Chinese medicinal plants for chronic kidney disease(CKD) was studied by molecular docking and complex network analysis.It was found that the interaction network of components-proteins of Chinese medicinal plants is different from the interaction network of components-proteins of drugs.The action mechanism of Chinese medicinal plants is different from that of drugs.We also found the interaction network of components-proteins of tonifying herbs is different from the interaction network of components-proteins of evil expelling herbs using complex network research approach.It illuminates the ancient classification theory of Chinese medicinal plants.This computational approach could identify the pivotal components of Chinese medicinal plants and their key target proteins rapidly.The results provide data for development of multi-component Chinese medicine.

  11. Screening of natural antioxidants from traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with treatment of rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ren-You; Kuang, Lei; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, En-Qin; Song, Feng-Lin; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-08-30

    In order to find new sources of natural antioxidants, the antioxidant capacities of 50 medicinal plants associated with treatment of rheumatic diseases were systemically evaluated using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Their antioxidant activities of some of these plants were analyzed for the first time. The FRAP and TEAC assay results suggested that the antioxidant compounds in these plants possessed free radicals scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents implied that phenolic compounds in these plants could be the main components contributing to the observed activities. The results showed that Geranium wilfordii, Loranthus parasiticus, Polygonum aviculare, Pyrrosia sheaeri, Sinomenium acutum and Tripterygium wilfordii possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content among 50 plants tested, and could be rich potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  12. Screening of Natural Antioxidants from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants Associated with Treatment of Rheumatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to find new sources of natural antioxidants, the antioxidant capacities of 50 medicinal plants associated with treatment of rheumatic diseases were systemically evaluated using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Their antioxidant activities of some of these plants were analyzed for the first time. The FRAP and TEAC assay results suggested that the antioxidant compounds in these plants possessed free radicals scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents implied that phenolic compounds in these plants could be the main components contributing to the observed activities. The results showed that Geranium wilfordii, Loranthus parasiticus, Polygonum aviculare, Pyrrosia sheaeri, Sinomenium acutum and Tripterygium wilfordii possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content among 50 plants tested, and could be rich potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  13. Thaxtomin A-deficient endophytic Streptomyces sp. enhances plant disease resistance to pathogenic Streptomyces scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Ge, Hui Ming; Yan, Tong; Qin, Yan Hua; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Each plant species in nature harbors endophytes, a community of microbes living within host plants without causing any disease symptom. However, the exploitation of endophyte-based phytoprotectants is hampered by the paucity of mechanistic understandings of endophyte-plant interaction. We here reported two endophytic Streptomyces isolates IFB-A02 and IFB-A03 recovered from a stress-tolerant dicotyledonous plant Artemisia annua L. After the determination of their non-pathogenicity at the genomic level and from the toxin (thaxtomin A, TXT) level, the endophytism of both isolates was supported by their successful colonization in planta. Of the two endophytes, IFB-A03 was further studied for the mechanism of endophyte-conferred phytoprotection owing to its plant growth promotion in model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the endophyte-Arabidopsis co-cultivation system into which pathogenic Streptomyces scabies was introduced, we demonstrated that IFB-A03 pre-inoculation could activate the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defense responses upon pathogen challenge. Moreover, IFB-A03 was shown to partially rescue the defense deficiency in eds5 (enhanced disease susceptibility 5) Arabidopsis mutants, putatively acting at the upstream of SA accumulation in the defense signaling pathway associated with the systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These data suggest that endophytic Streptomyces sp. IFB-A03 could be a promising candidate for biocontrol agents against S. scabies--a causative pathogen of common scab diseases prevailing in agronomic systems.

  14. Disease-tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants expressing Ah-AMP gene of Amaranthus hypochondriacus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Ah-AMP, was amplified by PCR and cloned. Sequence analysis results revealed that this gene is 261 bp in length encoding a precursor polypeptide of 87 amino acid residues. Ah-AMP gene was inserted in the binary vector pBin438 to construct a plant expression vector pBinAH916. Leave explants of Nicotiana tabacum var. SR1 were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the above expression vector. Results from PCR, Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that the Ah-AMP gene had been integrated into the tobacco genome and was transcribed at mRNA level. Two bacterial-resistant transgenic plants were selected by inoculating the plants with Pseudomonas solanacearum and statistic analysis of two T1 lines showed that the resistance increased by 2.24 and 1.62 grade and the disease index decreased by 49.6% and 37.3% respectively when compared with the non-transformed control plants SR1. The results from challenging the plants with inoculums of Phytophthora parasitica showed that the symptom development was delayed and disease index was significantly reduced. These results suggest that Ah-AMP gene may be a potentially valuable gene for genetic engineering of plant for disease-resistance.

  15. Identification of medicinal plants effective in infectious diseases in Urmia, northwest of Iran简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud; Bahmani; Kourosh; Saki; Somayeh; Shahsavari; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei; Reza; Sepahvand; Ahmad; Adineh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the medicinal plants effective in infectious diseases.Methods: Initially, we obtained a list of herbalists and traditional healers from Food and Drug Deputy. Direct observations and interviews as well as collection of herbarium specimens of indigenous medicinal plants effective in infectious diseases of urinary tract,reproductive, digestive, respiratory and skin systems were performed. This study was conducted through questionnaires and interviews; the questionnaires were distributed among traditional healers and simultaneous interviews were also run. The plants were herbariumized, herbarium specimens were authenticated, and their species were determined by using reliable flora and other sources. Finally, the data were input into Excel2010 and analyses were performed.Results: Out of the studied plants, 35 native medicinal plants belonging to 17 families were effective in the treatment of various diseases and infections. In this study, the Lamiaceae family had the highest frequency of plants for the treatment of infections.Traditional healers of Urmia in 24% of cases used the leaves of medicinal herb to treat patients. In 68% of cases, they prescribed medicinal herbs in the boiled forms. Most medicinal herbs showed therapeutic effect on the digestive system.Conclusions: Traditional medicinal sources, valuable knowledge of traditional healers in Urmia, the scientific investigation of the effects of the herbs offered in this study and their effects in traditional medicine may provide a good source for new drugs in modern medicine.

  16. Identiifcation of medicinal plants effective in infectious diseases in Urmia, northwest of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud Bahmani; Kourosh Saki; Somayeh Shahsavari; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei; Reza Sepahvand; Ahmad Adineh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To identify the medicinal plants effective in infectious diseases. Methods: Initially, we obtained a list of herbalists and traditional healers from Food and Drug Deputy. Direct observations and interviews as well as collection of herbarium specimens of indigenous medicinal plants effective in infectious diseases of urinary tract, reproductive, digestive, respiratory and skin systems were performed. This study was conducted through questionnaires and interviews; the questionnaires were distributed among traditional healers and simultaneous interviews were also run. The plants were herbariumized, herbarium specimens were authenticated, and their species were determined by using reliable flora and other sources. Finally, the data were input into Excel 2010 and analyses were performed. Results: Out of the studied plants, 35 native medicinal plants belonging to 17 families were effective in the treatment of various diseases and infections. In this study, the Lamiaceae family had the highest frequency of plants for the treatment of infections. Traditional healers of Urmia in 24% of cases used the leaves of medicinal herb to treat patients. In 68% of cases, they prescribed medicinal herbs in the boiled forms. Most medicinal herbs showed therapeutic effect on the digestive system. Conclusions: Traditional medicinal sources, valuable knowledge of traditional healers in Urmia, the scientific investigation of the effects of the herbs offered in this study and their effects in traditional medicine may provide a good source for new drugs in modern medicine.

  17. Conventional and Molecular Detection of Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ameer H. Zahid

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare different diagnostic procedures for the detection of Newcastle disease and Infectious bursal disease in broilers and layers (during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 in the laboratory of the Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia (UPM .A total of 187 sick and dead chickens (63 broilers and 124 layers of different ages (1 week to >15 weeks were collected from 12 selective poultry farms (4 broilers and 8 layers. Clinically, 7 (14.89% of 63 affected broiler and 27 (30.68% of 124 affected layer chickens were diagnosed as Newcastle disease (ND whereas, 11 (23.4% of 63 affected broiler and 6 (4.82% of the 124 affected layer birds were diagnosed as IBD on the basis of clinical history, clinical signs and postmortem findings. Virus isolation from field samples was performed by inoculating each suspected sample into 10-day-old chicken embryos. Out of 34 ND suspected field samples, 26 (5 broilers and 21 layers were positive for NDV isolation and 11 (8 broilers and 3 layers of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive for IBDV isolation. For confirmatory diagnosis, virus detection was confirmed by serological tests (HI and AGID and RT-PCR assay. Out of 34 clinically diagnosed ND field samples, 20 (5 broiler and 15 layer were positive by RT-PCR assay and 15 (10 broiler and 5 layer of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay. Of the 26 HA positive NDV suspected AF, 19 (4 broilers and 15 layers were positive by both HI and RT-PCR assay whereas, 10 (7 broilers and 3 layers of 11 IBDV isolation positive tissue suspension were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay in the laboratory. Therefore, it may be concluded that serological (HI and AGIDT and molecular (RT-PCR techniques which allow rapid identification of most of samples are the reliable, sensitive, specific and more accurate methods to detect the

  18. A predicted sex pheromone receptor of codling moth Cydia pomonella detects the plant volatile pear ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M Bengtsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles mediate host discrimination and host finding in phytophagous insects. Understanding how insects recognize these signals is a current challenge in chemical ecology research. Pear ester, ethyl (E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, is a powerful, bisexual attractant of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and strongly synergizes the male response to female-produced sex pheromone. We show here that the codling moth odorant receptor (OR CpomOR3 is dedicated to detecting this plant volatile. Heterologous expression of CpomOR3 in Drosophila T1 trichoid and ab3A basiconic sensilla, followed by a screening with codling moth pheromone compounds and known plant volatile attractants, confirms that CpomOR3 binds to pear ester. Although CpomOR3 does not respond to any of the pheromone components tested, a phylogenetic analysis of lepidopteran chemosensory receptor genes reveals a close relationship of CpomOR3 with pheromone receptors (PRs in moths. This corroborates the interaction of ecological and social chemosensory cues during premating communication. The finding that a plant volatile compound, pear ester, is a specific ligand for a PR-like lepidopteran receptor adds to our understanding of insect-plant interactions and emphasizes the interaction of natural and sexual selection during the phylogenetic divergence of insect herbivores.

  19. Surveying the potential of secreted antimicrobial peptides to enhance plant disease resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan eBreen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are natural products found across diverse taxa as part of the innate immune system against pathogen attacks. Some AMPs are synthesised through the canonical gene expression machinery and are called ribosomal AMPs. Other AMPs are assembled by modular enzymes generating nonribosomal AMPs and harbour unusual structural diversity. Plants synthesise an array of AMPs, yet are still subject to many pathogen invasions. Crop breeding programs struggle to release new cultivars in which complete disease resistance is achieved, and usually such resistance becomes quickly overcome by the targeted pathogens which have a shorter generation time. AMPs could offer a solution by exploring not only plant-derived AMPs, related or unrelated to the crop of interest, but also non-plant AMPs produced by bacteria, fungi, oomycetes or animals. This review highlights some promising candidates within the plant kingdom and elsewhere, and offers some perspectives on how to identify and validate their bioactivities. Technological advances, particularly in mass spectrometry (MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, have been instrumental in identifying and elucidating the structure of novel AMPs, especially nonribosomal peptides which cannot be identified through genomics approaches. The majority of non-plant AMPs showing potential for plant disease immunity are often tested using in vitro assays. The greatest challenge remains the functional validation of candidate AMPs in plants through transgenic experiments, particularly introducing nonribosomal AMPs into crops.

  20. Effect of essential oils in control of plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peighami-Ashnaei, S; Farzaneh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Behboudi, K

    2009-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of some essential oils, extracted from Syzygium aromoticum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cuminum cyminum and Mentha piperita were investigated against grey mould of apple. The essential oils of S. aromaticum and F. vulgare showed considerable antifungal activities on PDA medium against Botrytis cinerea. Results indicated that the increasing of dosage of the essential oils caused to the more antifungal activity against B. cinerea in vitro condition. After 10 days, results showed that the essential oil of F. vulgare in both of the concentrations (750 and 1000 microL/L) was more effective than the essential oil of S. aromaticum against grey mould of apple and decrease the disease up to 15.5% in comparison with the check treatment (100%). After 20 days, biocontrol potential of the essential oils of S. aromaticum and F. vulgare at 1000 microL/L were more effective than the other treatments and the percentage of disease was evaluated 41.6% and 50.8%, respectively, in comparison with the check treatment (100%).

  1. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn's disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted.

  2. Metabolomics in plants and humans: applications in the prevention and diagnosis of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Zanor, Maria I; Busi, María V

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been an increase in the number of metabolomic approaches used, in parallel with proteomic and functional genomic studies. The wide variety of chemical types of metabolites available has also accelerated the use of different techniques in the investigation of the metabolome. At present, metabolomics is applied to investigate several human diseases, to improve their diagnosis and prevention, and to design better therapeutic strategies. In addition, metabolomic studies are also being carried out in areas such as toxicology and pharmacology, crop breeding, and plant biotechnology. In this review, we emphasize the use and application of metabolomics in human diseases and plant research to improve human health.

  3. Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhakainen, M.; Suomela, M

    1999-11-01

    Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main contributor is the radionuclide discharges of the NPPs into the atmosphere, but workers may transmit small amounts through their clothes or skin, or from internal contamination. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the amounts of radionuclides in sewage sludge and to obtain information on transport of the radionuclides from the NPPs to the wastewater treatment plants. Under normal operating conditions and during annual maintenance and refuelling outages at the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, sewage sludge samples were taken at wastewater treatment plants in communities located in the vicinity of the plants. With the exception of {sup 131}I, the most significant activities in discharges into the air from the Loviisa NPP were due to {sup 110}mAg. The latter was also noted most frequently in the sewage sludge at the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Loviisa about 10 km from the Loviisa pressurised water reactor (PWR) NPP. The other nuclides probably originating from the Loviisa NPP were {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, {sup 110}mAg and {sup 124}Sb. In the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Rauma, about 10 km from the Olkiluoto boiling water reactor (BWR) NPP, the only nuclides possibly origination from the NPP were {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co. In the wastewater treatment plant, the variation in concentration of {sup 60}Co in sludge did not correlate with the activities measured in precipitation. The occurrence of the nuclide in the treatment plant did not correlate over time with the amounts of discharge from the NPP. This suggests that at least some of the activity was transported to the wastewater treatment plant via routes other than precipitation

  4. Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhakainen, M.; Suomela, M

    1999-11-01

    Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main contributor is the radionuclide discharges of the NPPs into the atmosphere, but workers may transmit small amounts through their clothes or skin, or from internal contamination. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the amounts of radionuclides in sewage sludge and to obtain information on transport of the radionuclides from the NPPs to the wastewater treatment plants. Under normal operating conditions and during annual maintenance and refuelling outages at the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, sewage sludge samples were taken at wastewater treatment plants in communities located in the vicinity of the plants. With the exception of {sup 131}I, the most significant activities in discharges into the air from the Loviisa NPP were due to {sup 110}mAg. The latter was also noted most frequently in the sewage sludge at the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Loviisa about 10 km from the Loviisa pressurised water reactor (PWR) NPP. The other nuclides probably originating from the Loviisa NPP were {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, {sup 110}mAg and {sup 124}Sb. In the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Rauma, about 10 km from the Olkiluoto boiling water reactor (BWR) NPP, the only nuclides possibly origination from the NPP were {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co. In the wastewater treatment plant, the variation in concentration of {sup 60}Co in sludge did not correlate with the activities measured in precipitation. The occurrence of the nuclide in the treatment plant did not correlate over time with the amounts of discharge from the NPP. This suggests that at least some of the activity was transported to the wastewater treatment plant via routes other than precipitation

  5. Molecular Detection of Spiroplasma Citri Associated with Stubborn Disease in Citrus Orchards in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited pathogen, causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and can be transmitted from plant to plant by several species of phloem-feeding leafhoppers. CSD is an important disorder in certain warm and arid citrus-growing areas, and its agent has been recorded from several Med...

  6. Mammographically detected breast arterial calcifications: Indicators for arteriosclerotic diseases?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskin, Fuesun [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey)]. E-mail: fusuntaskin@yahoo.com; Akdilli, Alev [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Karaman, Can [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Unsal, Alparslan [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Koeseoglu, Kutsi [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Ergin, Filiz [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Aydin (Turkey)

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of breast arterial calcifications (BAC) detected on mammography and search for conditions that may influence their existence. Materials and methods: The mammograms of 6156 consecutive patients were reevaluated for the presence of BAC. Four hundred eighty-five women having BAC were enrolled in the patient group. Additionally, randomly selected 500 women, without BAC constituted the control group. Hospital records of the participants were reviewed for parity, menopausal status, oral contraceptive agent (OCA) usage, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) usage, presence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, albuminuria and history of myocardial infarction (MI). Results: Prevalence of BAC was 7.9% on mammograms. Ninety-four women were aged between 40 and 49 years, 165 were aged between 50 and 59 years and 226 were over 60 years among BAC positive 485 women. A significant relationship was found for the frequency of BAC versus age and HRT usage in all age groups (p < 0.05). Similarly, significant relationships were also found for the frequency of BAC versus OCA usage, HRT usage, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in age group of 40-49 and in age group of 50-59, and for the frequency of BAC versus albuminuria in age group of 40-49, BAC versus history of myocardial infarction in age group of 59-59 and over 60 years (p < 0.05). The correlations were not significant for the relationships of BAC with OCA usage, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and albuminuria in women over 60 years (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Most benign findings like BAC are not routinely reported during mammographic evaluation. Our study showed that, presence of BAC on mammography was strongly related to advancing age. However, these findings may signify a systemic risk and can be used as precautious indicators for undocumented systemic diseases, especially in premenopausal women.

  7. Dating the early evolution of plants: detection and molecular clock analyses of orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Andreas; Lang, Daniel; Richardt, Sandra; Frank, Wolfgang; Reski, Ralf; Rensing, Stefan A

    2007-10-01

    Orthologs generally are under selective pressure against loss of function, while paralogs usually accumulate mutations and finally die or deviate in terms of function or regulation. Most ortholog detection methods contaminate the resulting datasets with a substantial amount of paralogs. Therefore we aimed to implement a straightforward method that allows the detection of ortholog clusters with a reduced amount of paralogs from completely sequenced genomes. The described cross-species expansion of the reciprocal best BLAST hit method is a time-effective method for ortholog detection, which results in 68% truly orthologous clusters and the procedure specifically enriches single-copy orthologs. The detection of true orthologs can provide a phylogenetic toolkit to better understand evolutionary processes. In a study across six photosynthetic eukaryotes, nuclear genes of putative mitochondrial origin were shown to be over-represented among single copy orthologs. These orthologs are involved in fundamental biological processes like amino acid metabolism or translation. Molecular clock analyses based on this dataset yielded divergence time estimates for the red/green algae (1,142 MYA), green algae/land plant (725 MYA), mosses/seed plant (496 MYA), gymno-/angiosperm (385 MYA) and monocotyledons/core eudicotyledons (301 MYA) divergence times.

  8. Sampling plant diversity and rarity at landscape scales: importance of sampling time in species detectability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Documenting and estimating species richness at regional or landscape scales has been a major emphasis for conservation efforts, as well as for the development and testing of evolutionary and ecological theory. Rarely, however, are sampling efforts assessed on how they affect detection and estimates of species richness and rarity. In this study, vascular plant richness was sampled in 356 quarter hectare time-unlimited survey plots in the boreal region of northeast Alberta. These surveys consisted of 15,856 observations of 499 vascular plant species (97 considered to be regionally rare collected by 12 observers over a 2 year period. Average survey time for each quarter-hectare plot was 82 minutes, ranging from 20 to 194 minutes, with a positive relationship between total survey time and total plant richness. When survey time was limited to a 20-minute search, as in other Alberta biodiversity methods, 61 species were missed. Extending the survey time to 60 minutes, reduced the number of missed species to 20, while a 90-minute cut-off time resulted in the loss of 8 species. When surveys were separated by habitat type, 60 minutes of search effort sampled nearly 90% of total observed richness for all habitats. Relative to rare species, time-unlimited surveys had ∼ 65% higher rare plant detections post-20 minutes than during the first 20 minutes of the survey. Although exhaustive sampling was attempted, observer bias was noted among observers when a subsample of plots was re-surveyed by different observers. Our findings suggest that sampling time, combined with sample size and observer effects, should be considered in landscape-scale plant biodiversity surveys.

  9. Bioaerosol emissions and detection of airborne antibiotic resistance genes from a wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Liantong; Zhang, Xiangyu; Xu, Caijia; Dong, Liming; Yao, Maosheng

    2016-01-01

    Air samples from twelve sampling sites (including seven intra-plant sites, one upwind site and four downwind sites) from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing were collected using a Reuter Centrifugal Sampler High Flow (RCS); and their microbial fractions were studied using culturing and high throughput gene sequence. In addition, the viable (fluorescent) bioaerosol concentrations for 7 intra-plant sites were also monitored for 30 min each using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS). Both air and water samples collected from the plant were investigated for possible bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and integrons using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the air near sludge thickening basin was detected to have the highest level of culturable bacterial aerosols (up to 1697 CFU/m3) and fungal aerosols (up to 930 CFU/m3). For most sampling sites, fluorescent peaks were observed at around 3-4 μm, except the office building with a peak at 1.5 μm, with a number concentration level up to 1233-6533 Particles/m3. About 300 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, such as Comamonas Testosteroni and Moraxella Osloensis, were detected from the air samples collected over the biological reaction basin. In addition, we have detected the sul2 gene resistant to cotrimoxazole (also known as septra, bactrim and TMP-SMX) and class 1 integrase gene from the air samples collected from the screen room and the biological reaction basin. Overall, the screen room, sludge thickening basin and biological reaction basin imposed significant microbial exposure risks, including those from airborne antibiotic resistance genes.

  10. Management of Parkinson's disease in Ayurveda: Medicinal plants and adjuvant measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak-Gandhi, Namyata; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants like Mucuna pruriens L.(DC) and Withania somnifera L.(Dunal) have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to manage neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. The aim of this review is to share the role of Ayurveda's insights, traditional usage and contemporary investigations for translational, integrative applications to manage Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease. High impact journals for Parkinson's diseases, traditional textbooks from Ayurveda as well as relevant clinical and para clinical studies with botanicals are selectively incorporated to evolve the aforesaid translational application. . A. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system, neurodegenerative disease. Though predominantly perceived as a motor disease, it also has debilitating non- motor features, which are frequently missed and not treated. Major treatment goals are to increase striatal dopamine levels with precursor-substitution and/or reduce its breakdown. As the disease progresses, a steady increase in the dose of levodopa is inevitable. However, higher doses cause motor complications of dyskinesia and dystonia and compromise medical treatment. B. ROLE OF MUCUNA PRURIENS L.DC), THE MOST PROMISING BOTANICAL FROM AYURVEDA: Ayurveda offers a natural source of levodopa - the seeds of Mucuna pruriens L.(DC)- which have a long standing safe use in the condition. Its clinical studies have shown pharmacokinetic profile distinct from synthetic levodopa, which is likely to reduce the untoward motor complications. Additionally, its seed extracts have shown neuroprotective benefits which are unrelated to levodopa. C. AYURVEDIC REGIMENS AND MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR NEUROPROTECTIVE AND SYMPTOMATIC BENEFITS: Other regimens (Panchakarma) and medicinal plants used in Ayurveda have been subjected to exploratory studies with promising early results in the condition. The debilitating non motor symptoms in patients have shown response with one of the regimens - medicated oil enema

  11. Construction of biological control strain of Trichoderma viride and study of their ability to induce plant disease resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-wang; GUO Ze-jian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Plant diseases heavily affct plant growth and crop yield even in modern agriculture. Control its difficult because pathogens mutate frequently, and this leads in frequent breaking of disease resistance in commercial cultivars. The excessive application of chemical pesticides is not only producing pesticideresistant pathogens, but it is harming the environment threatening the health of human beings.Therefore, the use of biological control agents (BCA) may provide an environmental friendly alternative to chemicals for plant disease control. Hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are the typical expressions of plant defense reactions. Once SAR is established,, the plants exhibits a broad-spectrum of disease resistance against pathogen attack. Researchers have identified elicitor proteins, such as elicitins and harpins, which activate plant defense reactions. It would be useful to explore the possibility of using biological control agents to induce a status of SAR in crop plants.

  12. A new scenario for gravity detection in plants: the position sensor hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliquen, O.; Forterre, Y.; Bérut, A.; Chauvet, H.; Bizet, F.; Legué, V.; Moulia, B.

    2017-06-01

    The detection of gravity plays a fundamental role during the growth and evolution of plants. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular, cellular and physical mechanisms involved in the gravity detection, a coherent scenario consistent with all the observations is still lacking. In this special issue article, we discuss recent experiments showing that the response to inclination of shoots is independent of the gravity intensity, meaning that the gravity sensor detects an inclination and not a force. This result questions some of the commonly accepted hypotheses and leads to propose a new ‘position sensor hypothesis’. The implications of this new scenario are discussed in light of the different observations available in the literature.

  13. An improved method of DNA isolation suitable for PCR-based detection of begomoviruses from jute and other mucilaginous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Paul, Sujay; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Roy, Anirban

    2009-07-01

    A relatively quick and inexpensive modified cetyl trimethylammonium bromide method for extraction of DNA from leaf materials containing large quantities of mucilage is described. The modification including use of more volume of extraction buffer and dissolving crude nucleic acid pellet in 1 M NaCl, reduced markedly the viscosity of the mucilage and thus in the final purification step yielded a larger quantity of mucilage-free DNA suitable for subsequent PCR-based detection of begomoviruses. The method was standardized with jute samples with yellow mosaic disease and validated with different other mucilaginous-hosts with low titre of begomoviruses. DNA isolated using this method showed consistency in yield and compatibility with PCR for detection of begomoviruses from different mucilaginous plant species. The method was compared for efficacy with other reported methods and it was found to be superior over the existing methods described for isolation of DNA from mucilaginous hosts. Thus the method described could be used on a wider scale for reliable and consistent detection of begomoviruses from mucilaginous hosts for characterization and variability study.

  14. Arranging the bouquet of disease: floral traits and the transmission of plant and animal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Scott H; Koch, Hauke; Irwin, Rebecca E; Adler, Lynn S

    2014-05-01

    Several floral microbes are known to be pathogenic to plants or floral visitors such as pollinators. Despite the ecological and economic importance of pathogens deposited in flowers, we often lack a basic understanding of how floral traits influence disease transmission. Here, we provide the first systematic review regarding how floral traits attract vectors (for plant pathogens) or hosts (for animal pathogens), mediate disease establishment and evolve under complex interactions with plant mutualists that can be vectors for microbial antagonists. Attraction of floral visitors is influenced by numerous phenological, morphological and chemical traits, and several plant pathogens manipulate floral traits to attract vectors. There is rapidly growing interest in how floral secondary compounds and antimicrobial enzymes influence disease establishment in plant hosts. Similarly, new research suggests that consumption of floral secondary compounds can reduce pathogen loads in animal pollinators. Given recent concerns about pollinator declines caused in part by pathogens, the role of floral traits in mediating pathogen transmission is a key area for further research. We conclude by discussing important implications of floral transmission of pathogens for agriculture, conservation and human health, suggesting promising avenues for future research in both basic and applied biology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Early tube leak detection system for steam boiler at KEV power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Firas B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tube leakage in boilers has been a major contribution to trips which eventually leads to power plant shut downs. Training of network and developing artificial neural network (ANN models are essential in fault detection in critically large systems. This research focusses on the ANN modelling through training and validation of real data acquired from a sub-critical boiler unit. The artificial neural network (ANN was used to develop a compatible model and to evaluate the working properties and behaviour of boiler. The training and validation of real data has been applied using the feed-forward with back-propagation (BP. The right combination of number of neurons, number of hidden layers, training algorithms and training functions was run to achieve the best ANN model with lowest error. The ANN was trained and validated using real site data acquired from a coal fired power plant in Malaysia. The results showed that the Neural Network (NN with one hidden layers performed better than two hidden layer using feed-forward back-propagation network. The outcome from this study give us the best ANN model which eventually allows for early detection of boiler tube leakages, and forecast of a trip before the real shutdown. This will eventually reduce shutdowns in power plants.

  16. Harmonic radar: efficacy at detecting and recovering insects on agricultural host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Gilles; Vincent, Charles; Meloche, François; Leskey, Tracy C; Colpitts, Bruce G

    2011-02-01

    In pest management research, harmonic radar systems have been largely used to study insect movement across open or vegetation-poor areas because the microwave signal is attenuated by the high water content of vegetation. This study evaluated whether the efficacy of this technology is sufficient to track insects in vegetative landscapes. Field efficacy data were collected using portable harmonic microwave radar and electronic dipole tags mounted on adults of three economically important pests: Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) [corrected] and Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst. Detection and recovery of tagged Colorado potato beetles, plum curculios and western corn rootworms was high within and among potato plants, moderate within apple trees and high within, but not between, corn plants respectively. The efficacy of the radar depends on the ability of the operator to move around the host, scanning for a signal 'sightline' with the tagged insect among plant structures. The detection rate of tagged insects by harmonic radar systems is high enough to track the walking path of pests through low row crops such as potato, tall row crops such as corn or tall but well-separated trees of orchard-type crops by adapting the scanning procedure to the vegetative architecture. Copyright © 2010 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Toothpick test: a methodology for the detection of RR soybean plants1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Mota da Silva

    Full Text Available Due to the large increase in the area cultivated with genetically modified soybean in Brazil, it has become necessary to determine methods that are fast and efficient for detecting these cultivars. The aim of this work was to test the efficiency of the toothpick method in the detection of RR soybean plants, as well as to distinguish between cultivars, for sensitivity caused by herbicide. Ten transgenic soybean cultivars, resistant to the active ingredient glyphosate, and ten conventional soybean cultivars were used. Toothpicks soaked in glyphosate were applied to all the plants at stage V6 and evaluations were made at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days after application (DAA. The effects of the glyphosate on the cultivars, and the symptoms of phytotoxicity caused in the transgenic plants were evaluated by means of grading scales. The toothpick test is effective in identifying RR soybean cultivars and also in separating them into groups by sensitivity to the symptoms caused by the glyphosate.

  18. Proportional odds model applied to mapping of disease resistance genes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Spyrides-Cunha

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers have been used extensively to map quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling disease resistance in plants. Mapping is usually done by establishing a statistical association between molecular marker genotypes and quantitative variations in disease resistance. However, most statistical approaches require a continuous distribution of the response variable, a requirement not always met since evaluation of disease resistance is often done using visual ratings based on an ordinal scale of disease severity. This paper discusses the application of the proportional odds model to the mapping of disease resistance genes in plants amenable to expression as ordinal data. The model was used to map two resistance QTL of maize to Puccinia sorghi. The microsatellite markers bngl166 and bngl669, located on chromosomes 2 and 8, respectively, were used to genotype F2 individuals from a segregating population. Genotypes at each marker locus were then compared by assessing disease severity in F3 plants derived from the selfing of each genotyped F2 plant based on an ordinal scale severity. The residual deviance and the chi-square score statistic indicated a good fit of the model to the data and the odds had a constant proportionality at each threshold. Single-marker analyses detected significant differences among marker genotypes at both marker loci, indicating that these markers were linked to disease resistance QTL. The inclusion of the interaction term after single-marker analysis provided strong evidence of an epistatic interaction between the two QTL. These results indicate that the proportional odds model can be used as an alternative to traditional methods in cases where the response variable consists of an ordinal scale, thus eliminating the problems of heterocedasticity, non-linearity, and the non-normality of residuals often associated with this type of data.Marcadores moleculares têm sido extensivamente usados para o mapeamento de loci de

  19. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome ePouzoulet; Alexandria ePivovaroff; Louis eSantiago; Philippe Eric Rolshausen

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different ...

  20. Knowledge of Medicinal Plants for Children Diseases in the Environs of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (KPK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Shabnam; Abbas, Safdar; Hussain, Javid; Mabood, Fazal; Umair, Muhammad; Ali, Maroof; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants are important treasures for the treatment of different types of diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants related to children disorders from district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. The information gathered was quantitatively analyzed using informant consensus factor, relative frequency of citation and use value method to establish a baseline data for more comprehensive investigations of bioactive compounds of indigenous medicinal plants specifically related to children disorders. To best of our knowledge it is first attempt to document ethno-botanical information of medicinal plants using quantitative approaches. Total of 130 informants were interviewed using questionnaire conducted during 2014–2016 to identify the preparations and uses of the medicinal plants for children diseases treatment. A total of 55 species of flowering plants belonging to 49 genera and 32 families were used as ethno-medicines in the study area. The largest number of specie belong to Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae families (4 species each) followed by Apiaceae, Moraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, and Solanaceae (3 species each). In addition leaves and fruits are most used parts (28%), herbs are most used life form (47%), decoction method were used for administration (27%), and oral ingestion was the main used route of application (68.5%). The highest use value was reported for species Momordica charantia and Raphnus sativus (1 for each) and highest Informant Consensus Factor was observed for cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases categories (0.5 for each). Most of the species in the present study were used to cure gastrointestinal diseases (39 species). The results of present study revealed the importance of medicinal plant species and their significant role in the health care of the inhabitants in the present area. The people of Bannu own high traditional knowledge

  1. Knowledge of Medicinal Plants for Children Diseases in the Environs of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (KPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Shaheen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important treasures for the treatment of different types of diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants related to children disorders from district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK province of Pakistan. The information gathered was quantitatively analyzed using informant consensus factor, relative frequency of citation and use value method to establish a baseline data for more comprehensive investigations of bioactive compounds of indigenous medicinal plants specifically related to children disorders. To best of our knowledge it is first attempt to document ethno-botanical information of medicinal plants using quantitative approaches. Total of 130 informants were interviewed using questionnaire conducted during 2014–2016 to identify the preparations and uses of the medicinal plants for children diseases treatment. A total of 55 species of flowering plants belonging to 49 genera and 32 families were used as ethno-medicines in the study area. The largest number of specie belong to Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae families (4 species each followed by Apiaceae, Moraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, and Solanaceae (3 species each. In addition leaves and fruits are most used parts (28%, herbs are most used life form (47%, decoction method were used for administration (27%, and oral ingestion was the main used route of application (68.5%. The highest use value was reported for species Momordica charantia and Raphnus sativus (1 for each and highest Informant Consensus Factor was observed for cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases categories (0.5 for each. Most of the species in the present study were used to cure gastrointestinal diseases (39 species. The results of present study revealed the importance of medicinal plant species and their significant role in the health care of the inhabitants in the present area. The people of Bannu own high traditional

  2. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  3. Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseong Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful primer sets was 51.9°C. Some primer sets worked well regardless of annealing temperature while others required a very specific annealing temperature. A primer specificity test using plant total RNAs and cDNAs of other plant virus-infected samples demonstrated that the designed primer sets were highly specific and generated reproducible results. The newly developed RT-PCR primer sets would be useful for quarantine inspections aimed at preventing the entry of exotic plant viruses into Korea.

  4. Deep Neural Networks Based Recognition of Plant Diseases by Leaf Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladojevic, Srdjan; Arsenovic, Marko; Culibrk, Dubravko; Stefanovic, Darko

    2016-01-01

    The latest generation of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has achieved impressive results in the field of image classification. This paper is concerned with a new approach to the development of plant disease recognition model, based on leaf image classification, by the use of deep convolutional networks. Novel way of training and the methodology used facilitate a quick and easy system implementation in practice. The developed model is able to recognize 13 different types of plant diseases out of healthy leaves, with the ability to distinguish plant leaves from their surroundings. According to our knowledge, this method for plant disease recognition has been proposed for the first time. All essential steps required for implementing this disease recognition model are fully described throughout the paper, starting from gathering images in order to create a database, assessed by agricultural experts. Caffe, a deep learning framework developed by Berkley Vision and Learning Centre, was used to perform the deep CNN training. The experimental results on the developed model achieved precision between 91% and 98%, for separate class tests, on average 96.3%. PMID:27418923

  5. Yeast Biocontrol of a Fungal Plant Disease: A Model for Studying Organism Interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchaichaovivat, Arun; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2008-01-01

    An experiment on the action of the yeast, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", against a fungal plant disease is proposed for secondary students (Grade 11) to support their study of organism interrelationship. This biocontrol experiment serves as the basis for discussing relationships among three organisms (red chilli fruit, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae," and…

  6. Calonectria diseases on ornamental plants in Europe and the Mediterranean Basion: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.; Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Species of Calonectria and their cylindrocladium-like asexual morphs are important plant pathogens of agronomic and forestry crops, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Calonectria species have been associated with a wide range of disease symptoms on a large number of pla

  7. Yeast Biocontrol of a Fungal Plant Disease: A Model for Studying Organism Interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchaichaovivat, Arun; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2008-01-01

    An experiment on the action of the yeast, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", against a fungal plant disease is proposed for secondary students (Grade 11) to support their study of organism interrelationship. This biocontrol experiment serves as the basis for discussing relationships among three organisms (red chilli fruit, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae," and…

  8. Advances in biocontrol mechanism and application of Trichoderma spp. for plant diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Caihong; YANG Qian

    2007-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. is a filamentous soil fungus known as an effective biocontrol agent of a range of important airborne and soilborne pathogens, it has universal distribution and economic importance. This article reviewed the researches on biocontrol mechanism for plant diseases and application of Trichoderma spp., especially Trichoderma harzianum in recent years.

  9. Invasive plants, insects, and diseases in the forests of the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander M. Evans

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species, non-native plants, insects, and diseases can devastate forests. They outcompete native species, replace them in the ecosystem, and even drive keystone forest species to functional extinction. Invasives have negative effects on forest hydrology, carbon storage, and nutrient cycling. The damage caused by invasive species exacerbates the other forest...

  10. Deep Neural Networks Based Recognition of Plant Diseases by Leaf Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Sladojevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of convolutional neural networks (CNNs has achieved impressive results in the field of image classification. This paper is concerned with a new approach to the development of plant disease recognition model, based on leaf image classification, by the use of deep convolutional networks. Novel way of training and the methodology used facilitate a quick and easy system implementation in practice. The developed model is able to recognize 13 different types of plant diseases out of healthy leaves, with the ability to distinguish plant leaves from their surroundings. According to our knowledge, this method for plant disease recognition has been proposed for the first time. All essential steps required for implementing this disease recognition model are fully described throughout the paper, starting from gathering images in order to create a database, assessed by agricultural experts. Caffe, a deep learning framework developed by Berkley Vision and Learning Centre, was used to perform the deep CNN training. The experimental results on the developed model achieved precision between 91% and 98%, for separate class tests, on average 96.3%.

  11. Disease induction by human microbial pathogens in plant-model systems: potential, problems and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarlen, van P.; Belkum, van A.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Relatively simple eukaryotic model organisms such as the genetic model weed plant Arabidopsis thaliana possess an innate immune system that shares important similarities with its mammalian counterpart. In fact, some human pathogens infect Arabidopsis and cause overt disease with human symptomology.

  12. 植物糖生物学与糖链植物疫苗%Plant glycobiology and carbohydrate-based plant disease vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹恒; 赵小明; 王文霞; 杜昱光

    2011-01-01

    Plant glycobiology is concentrated on the plant-carbohydrates interaction mechanism as well as the structure and biology function of carbohydrates (sugar chains or glycans) and glycoconjugates. It contains several research aspects like sugar signaling, plant glycoprotein and glycan, plant glycosyltransferases and plant lectins. Based on published papers and our previous results, the recent research advance of plant glycobiology was reviewed and focused on carbohydrate-based plant disease vaccines (CPDVs). The carbohydrates which have the ability to active plant immunity and defense were named carbohydrate-based plant disease vaccines and the application and mechanism of carbohydrate-based plant disease vaccines were introduced and discussed.%植物糖生物学是研究植物与糖类互作机制、植物体内糖链与糖缀合物结构及生物学功能的科学,具体涉及糖信号、糖蛋白及其糖链功能、糖基转移酶及植物凝集素等研究方向.依据相关文献及实际研究经验,简要综述植物糖生物学的最新研究进展,其中重点介绍糖链植物疫苗并阐述其应用情况及作用机制.

  13. Importance of diastolic velocities in the detection of celiac and mesenteric artery disease by duplex ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Just, S; Schroeder, T V

    1997-01-01

    To assess the predictive value of ultrasound duplex scanning in the detection of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac artery (CA) occlusive disease.......To assess the predictive value of ultrasound duplex scanning in the detection of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac artery (CA) occlusive disease....

  14. Enzyme-linked immunospot: an alternative method for the detection of interferon gamma in Johne's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Bosward, Katrina;

    2009-01-01

    To date, the sensitivity of the interferon gamma (IFN-) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Johne's disease (JD) has been poor, especially in the early stages of disease. To improve the sensitivity of IFN- detection in the early stages of infection, an alternate assay needs...

  15. Efficacy of plant extracts in controlling wheat leaf rust disease caused by Puccinia triticina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M. Shabana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of eight plant extracts (garlic, clove, garden quinine, Brazilian pepper, anthi mandhaari, black cumin, white cedar and neem in controlling leaf rust disease of wheat was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, all treatments inhibited spore germination by more than 93%. Neem extract recorded 98.99% inhibition of spore germination with no significant difference from the fungicide Sumi-8 (100%. Under greenhouse conditions, seed soaking application in neem extract (at concentration of 2 ml/L resulted in 36.82% reduction in the number of pustules/leaf compared with the untreated control. Foliar spraying of plant extracts on wheat seedlings decreased the number of pustules/leaf. Foliar spraying of plant extracts four days after inoculation led to the highest resistance response of wheat plants against leaf rust pathogen. Spray application of wheat seedlings with neem, clove and garden quinine extracts, four days after inoculation with leaf rust pathogen completely prevented rust development (100% disease control and was comparable with the fungicide Sumi-8. Foliar spray application of wheat plants at mature stage with all plant extracts has significantly reduced the leaf rust infection (average coefficient of infection, ACI compared with the untreated control and neem was the most effective treatment. This was reflected on grain yield components, whereas the 1000-kernel weight and the test weight were improved whether under one- or two-spray applications, with two-spray application being more effective in this regard. Thus, it could be concluded that plant extracts may be useful to control leaf rust disease in Egypt as a safe alternative option to chemical fungicides.

  16. RNA-protein interactions in plant disease: hackers at the dinner table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Pietro D

    2015-09-01

    Plants are the source of most of our food, whether directly or as feed for the animals we eat. Our dinner table is a trophic level we share with the microbes that also feed on the primary photosynthetic producers. Microbes that enter into close interactions with plants need to evade or suppress detection and host immunity to access nutrients. They do this by deploying molecular tools - effectors - which target host processes. The mode of action of effector proteins in these events is varied and complex. Recent data from diverse systems indicate that RNA-interacting proteins and RNA itself are delivered by eukaryotic microbes, such as fungi and oomycetes, to host plants and contribute to the establishment of successful interactions. This is evidence that pathogenic microbes can interfere with the host software. We are beginning to see that pathogenic microbes are capable of hacking into the plants' immunity programs. © 2015 The Author. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. The effect of transmission route on plant virus epidemic development and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeger, Michael J; Madden, Laurence V; van den Bosch, Frank

    2009-05-21

    A model for indirect vector transmission and epidemic development of plant viruses is extended to consider direct transmission through vector mating. A basic reproduction number is derived which is the sum of the R(0) values specific for three transmission routes. We analyse the model to determine the effect of direct transmission on plant disease control directed against indirect transmission. Increasing the rate of horizontal sexual transmission means that vector control rate or indirect transmission rate must be increased/decreased substantially to maintain R(0) at a value less than 1. By contrast, proportionately increasing the probability of transovarial transmission has little effect. Expressions are derived for the steady-state values of the viruliferous vector population. There is clear advantage for an insect virus in indirect transmission to plants, especially where the sexual and transovarial transmission rates are low; however information on virulence-transmissibility relationships is required to explain the evolution of a plant virus from an insect virus.

  18. TLC-Direct Bioautography as a High Throughput Method for Detection of Antimicrobials in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena M. Choma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The richness of bioactive compounds in plant materials encourages continuous development of separation methods and bioassays for their isolation and identification. Thin-layer chromatography-direct bioautography links separation on the adsorbent layer with biological tests performed directly on it. Therefore, the method is very convenient for searching plant constituents with biological activity, such as antibiotics. Test bacteria grow directly on a plate surface excluding places where antibacterials are located. They can be detected with reagents converted by living bacteria. TLC-DB is a high throughput method enabling analyses of many samples in parallel and the comparison of their activity. Both screening and semi-quantitative analysis is possible. The targeted compounds can be identified using spectroscopic methods, mostly mass spectrometry, that can be performed directly on a TLC plate. This paper discusses all above mentioned aspects of TLC-DB, illustrating them with literature, schemes and our own results.

  19. An ethnobotanical study of plants used to treat liver diseases in the Maritime region of Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpodar, Madje S; Karou, Simplice D; Katawa, Gnatoulma; Anani, Kokou; Gbekley, Holaly E; Adjrah, Yao; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Batawila, Komlan; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-04-02

    In Togo, many persons still rely on plants for healing, however very little is known about the medicinal practices of the indigenous people. The present study aimed to document the medicinal plant utilization for the management of liver diseases in the Maritime region of the country. This was an ethnobotanical survey conducted in the Maritime region of Togo from June to August 2015. The data were gathered from 104 traditional healers (TH) by direct interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. The calculated use values (UV) were used to analyze the importance of the cited plants. A total of 99 plant species belonging to 88 genera and 49 families were cited by the TH as curing the hepatic diseases. The most represented families were Caesalpiniaceae with 8 species, followed by Euphorbiaceae with 7 species, Apocynaceae and Asteraceae with 6 species each. The highest UV were recorded with Gomphrena celosioides (0.13), Xylopia ethiopica (0.12), Senna occidentalis (0.12), Bridelia ferruginea (0.12), Cymbopogon citratus (0.12), Kigellia Africana (0.09), Cassia sieberiana (0.08) and Sanseviera liberica (0.08), showing their importance in the management of liver dysfunction in the surveyed region. The main used parts were the leaves, followed by the roots, the whole plant, the rhizome and the bark, accounting for more than 10% each. The herbal medicines were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and administrated by oral route. This study showed that Maritime region of Togo has an important plant biodiversity that is exploited by the indigenous TH. However, some plants cited by the TH have not been studied for their possible hepatoprotective effects. These plants are therefore a starting point for biological screenings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of protein-protein interactions in plants using bimolecular fluorescence complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracha-Drori, Keren; Shichrur, Keren; Katz, Aviva; Oliva, Moran; Angelovici, Ruthie; Yalovsky, Shaul; Ohad, Nir

    2004-11-01

    Protein function is often mediated via formation of stable or transient complexes. Here we report the determination of protein-protein interactions in plants using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). The yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was split into two non-overlapping N-terminal (YN) and C-terminal (YC) fragments. Each fragment was cloned in-frame to a gene of interest, enabling expression of fusion proteins. To demonstrate the feasibility of BiFC in plants, two pairs of interacting proteins were utilized: (i) the alpha and beta subunits of the Arabidopsis protein farnesyltransferase (PFT), and (ii) the polycomb proteins, FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) and MEDEA (MEA). Members of each protein pair were transiently co-expressed in leaf epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis. Reconstitution of a fluorescing YFP chromophore occurred only when the inquest proteins interacted. No fluorescence was detected following co-expression of free non-fused YN and YC or non-interacting protein pairs. Yellow fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm of cells that expressed PFT alpha and beta subunits, or in nuclei and cytoplasm of cells that expressed FIE and MEA. In vivo measurements of fluorescence spectra emitted from reconstituted YFPs were identical to that of a non-split YFP, confirming reconstitution of the chromophore. Expression of the inquest proteins was verified by immunoblot analysis using monoclonal antibodies directed against tags within the hybrid proteins. In addition, protein interactions were confirmed by immunoprecipitations. These results demonstrate that plant BiFC is a simple, reliable and relatively fast method for determining protein-protein interactions in plants.

  1. Automated determinations of selenium in thermal power plant wastewater by sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Kentaro; Ohyama, Seiichi; Hashem, Md Abul; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei

    2016-02-01

    After the Fukushima disaster, power generation from nuclear power plants in Japan was completely stopped and old coal-based power plants were re-commissioned to compensate for the decrease in power generation capacity. Although coal is a relatively inexpensive fuel for power generation, it contains high levels (mgkg(-1)) of selenium, which could contaminate the wastewater from thermal power plants. In this work, an automated selenium monitoring system was developed based on sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection. This method could be applied to control of wastewater contamination. In this method, selenium is vaporized as H2Se, which reacts with ozone to produce chemiluminescence. However, interference from arsenic is of concern because the ozone-induced chemiluminescence intensity of H2Se is much lower than that of AsH3. This problem was successfully addressed by vaporizing arsenic and selenium individually in a sequential procedure using a syringe pump equipped with an eight-port selection valve and hot and cold reactors. Oxidative decomposition of organoselenium compounds and pre-reduction of the selenium were performed in the hot reactor, and vapor generation of arsenic and selenium were performed separately in the cold reactor. Sample transfers between the reactors were carried out by a pneumatic air operation by switching with three-way solenoid valves. The detection limit for selenium was 0.008 mg L(-1) and calibration curve was linear up to 1.0 mg L(-1), which provided suitable performance for controlling selenium in wastewater to around the allowable limit (0.1 mg L(-1)). This system consumes few chemicals and is stable for more than a month without any maintenance. Wastewater samples from thermal power plants were collected, and data obtained by the proposed method were compared with those from batchwise water treatment followed by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

  2. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Koopmans, Marion G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larg...

  3. Detecting disease outbreaks in mass gatherings using internet data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Borsa, Diana; Cox, Ingemar Johansson

    2014-01-01

    Mass gatherings, such as music festivals and religious events, pose a health care challenge because of the risk of transmission of communicable diseases. This is exacerbated by the fact that participants disperse soon after the gathering, potentially spreading disease within their communities...

  4. Simultaneous detection of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material by duplex PCR with melting curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlovsky Petr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium head blight (FHB is a disease of cereal crops, which has a severe impact on wheat and barley production worldwide. Apart from reducing the yield and impairing grain quality, FHB leads to contamination of grain with toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins, which pose a health risk to humans and livestock. The Fusarium species primarily involved in FHB are F. graminearum and F. culmorum. A key prerequisite for a reduction in the incidence of FHB is an understanding of its epidemiology. Results We describe a duplex-PCR-based method for the simultaneous detection of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. Species-specific PCR products are identified by melting curve analysis performed in a real-time thermocycler in the presence of the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I. In contrast to multiplex real-time PCR assays, the method does not use doubly labeled hybridization probes. Conclusion PCR with product differentiation by melting curve analysis offers a cost-effective means of qualitative analysis for the presence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. This method is particularly suitable for epidemiological studies involving a large number of samples.

  5. Using biomarkers to improve detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Milton C; Galvin, James E

    2011-04-01

    Disease-modifying approaches for Alzheimer's disease (AD) might be most effective when initiated very early in the course, before the pathologic burden and neuronal and synaptic degeneration make it unlikely that halting disease progression would have a significant impact on patient outcomes. Biomarkers of disease may provide important avenues of research to enhance the diagnosis of individuals with early AD and could assist in the identification of those individuals at risk for developing AD. However, for such biomarkers to become clinically useful, long-term follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the relevance of cross-sectional biomarker changes to the longitudinal course of the disease. The objective of this article is to review recent progress in AD biomarkers for the early diagnosis, classification, progression and prediction of AD and their usefulness in new treatment trials.

  6. Using biomarkers to improve detection of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Milton C; Galvin, James E

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Disease-modifying approaches for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) might be most effective when initiated very early in the course, before the pathologic burden and neuronal and synaptic degeneration make it unlikely that halting disease progression would have a significant impact on patient outcomes. Biomarkers of disease may provide important avenues of research to enhance the diagnosis of individuals with early AD and could assist in the identification of those individuals at risk for developing AD. However, for such biomarkers to become clinically useful, long-term follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the relevance of cross-sectional biomarker changes to the longitudinal course of the disease. The objective of this article is to review recent progress in AD biomarkers for the early diagnosis, classification, progression and prediction of AD and their usefulness in new treatment trials. PMID:22076127

  7. Bacterial diseases of tomato plants in terms of open and covered growing of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Kolomiets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It was established that the main causes of mass diseases of tomato in covered ground in Ukraine are agents of bacterial black spotting, bacterial speck and in open ground are agent of bacterial cancer of tomato plants. Typical symptoms of diseases are wilting and die-off of young plants, blackening of fiber vascular bundles, black spotting of leaves and fruits, and fruit stem rot. It was studied morphological and cultural, as well as physiological and biochemical properties of the selected strains of the agents of tomato bacterial diseases. We recommended biological preparations Phytocide and Phytohelp based on the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, to restrict the development of the agents of bacterial black spotting Xanthomonas vesicatoria and bacterial cancer Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

  8. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Ikten

    Full Text Available Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.. Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease.

  9. Near-Infrared Upconversion Chemodosimeter for In Vivo Detection of Cu(2+) in Wilson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Su, Qianqian; Chen, Min; Dong, Yi; Shi, Yibing; Feng, Wei; Wu, Zhi-Ying; Li, Fuyou

    2016-08-01

    Near-infrared upconversion chemodosimetry is a promising detection method by virtue of the frequency upconversion technique, which shows very high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of Cu(2+) ions in vitro and in vivo. This method offers a new opportunity for noninvasive diagnosis of Wilson disease associated with Cu(2+) detection in clinical medicine.

  10. Automatic Image-Based Plant Disease Severity Estimation Using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Sun, Yu; Wang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Automatic and accurate estimation of disease severity is essential for food security, disease management, and yield loss prediction. Deep learning, the latest breakthrough in computer vision, is promising for fine-grained disease severity classification, as the method avoids the labor-intensive feature engineering and threshold-based segmentation. Using the apple black rot images in the PlantVillage dataset, which are further annotated by botanists with four severity stages as ground truth, a series of deep convolutional neural networks are trained to diagnose the severity of the disease. The performances of shallow networks trained from scratch and deep models fine-tuned by transfer learning are evaluated systemically in this paper. The best model is the deep VGG16 model trained with transfer learning, which yields an overall accuracy of 90.4% on the hold-out test set. The proposed deep learning model may have great potential in disease control for modern agriculture.

  11. Recent advances in natural products from plants for treatment of liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2013-05-01

    Liver disease is any condition that may cause liver inflammation or tissue damage and affects liver function. Natural products that are found in vegetables, fruits, plant extracts, herbs, insects, and animals, have been traditionally used for treating liver diseases. They are chemical compounds that usually have biological activities for use in drug discovery and design. Many natural products have been clinically available as potent hepatoprotective agents against commonly occurring liver diseases. This review summarizes the current progress in the basic, clinical, and translational research on natural products in treatment of various liver diseases. Furthermore, we will focus on the discovery and biological evaluation of the natural products, which shows potential as a new therapeutic agent of liver diseases.

  12. Linking plant disease risk and precipitation drivers: a dynamical systems framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally; Levin, Simon; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens often respond sensitively to changes in their environmental conditions and consequently represent a potentially important ecological response to global change. Although several studies have considered the effects of increased temperature and CO(2) concentrations on plant pathogen risk, the effects of changing precipitation regimes have drawn less attention. Many classes of plant pathogen, however, are sensitive to changes in the water potential of their local environment. This study applied existing ecohydrological frameworks to connect precipitation, soil, and host properties with scenarios of pathogen risk, focusing on two water-sensitive pathogens: Phytophthora cinnamomi and Botryosphaeria doithidea. Simple models were developed to link the dynamics of these pathogens to water potentials. Model results demonstrated that the risk of host plants being colonized by the pathogens varied sensitively with soil and climate. The model was used to predict the distribution of Phytophthora in Western Australia and the severity of disease in horticultural blueberry trials with variable irrigation rates, illustrating potential applications of the framework. Extending the modeling framework to include spatial variation in hydrology, epidemic progression, and feedbacks between pathogens and soil moisture conditions may be needed to reproduce detailed spatial patterns of disease. At regional scales, the proposed modeling approach provides a tractable framework for coupling climatic drivers to ecosystem response while accounting for the probabilistic and variable nature of disease.

  13. Effect of amino acid application on induced resistance against citrus canker disease in lime plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasabi Vahideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc, is a destructive disease. So far, the chemicals used to control this pathogen are either ineffective or harmful to the environment. To improve control of this disease, lime (Citrus aurantifolia were treated with L-arginine, L-methionine, L-ornithine, and distilled water. Plants were inoculated with Xcc, 48 hours post treatment. Lesion diameters of inoculated leaves were evaluated four weeks after inoculation with a bacterial suspension. Changes in β-1,3-glucanase transcript levels and activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were investigated at 48 hours post treatment and 24, 48, and 72 hours post inoculation. Based on the results of phenotypic, antioxidant enzyme activity and a molecular study of the stressed plants, it was found that those plants treated with the amino acid methionine significantly increased the plant induced resistance as well as decreased the severity of disease by reducing necrotic lesion size.

  14. Carbohydrate biomarkers for future disease detection and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REID; Suazette

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrates are considered as one of the most important classes of biomarkers for cell types,disease states,protein functions,and developmental states.Carbohydrate"binders"that can specifically recognize a carbohydrate biomarker can be used for developing novel types of site specific delivery methods and imaging agents.In this review,we present selected examples of important carbohydrate biomarkers and how they can be targeted for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents.Examples are arranged based on disease categories including(1) infectious diseases,(2) cancer,(3) inflammation and immune responses,(4) signal transduction,(5) stem cell transformation,(6) embryo development,and(7) cardiovascular diseases,though some issues cross therapeutic boundaries.

  15. Array-based detection of genetic alterations associated with disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G.; Gray, Joe W.

    2017-09-05

    The present invention relates to DNA sequences from regions of copy number change on chromosome 20. The sequences can be used in hybridization methods for the identification of chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases.

  16. Array-based detection of genetic alterations associated with disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G.; Gray, Joe W.

    2007-09-11

    The present invention relates to DNA sequences from regions of copy number change on chromosome 20. The sequences can be used in hybridization methods for the identification of chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases.

  17. Detecting disease-predisposing variants: The haplotype method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, A.M.; Thomson, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    For many HLA-associated diseases, multiple alleles - and, in some cases, multiple loci - have been suggested as the causative agents. The haplotype method for identifying disease-predisposing amino acids in a genetic region is a stratification analysis. We show that, for each haplotype combination containing all the amino acid sites involved in the disease process, the relative frequencies of amino acid variants at sites not involved in disease but in linkage disequilibrium with the disease-predisposing sites are expected to be the same in patients and controls. The haplotype method is robust to mode of inheritance and penetrance of the disease and can be used to determine unequivocally whether all amino acid sites involved in the disease have not been identified. Using a resampling technique, we developed a statistical test that takes account of the nonindependence of the sites sampled. Further, when multiple sites in the genetic region are involved in disease, the test statistic gives a closer fit to the null expectation when some - compared with none - of the true predisposing factors are included in the haplotype analysis. Although the haplotype method cannot distinguish between very highly correlated sites in one population, ethnic comparisons may help identify the true predisposing factors. The haplotype method was applied to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) HLA class II DQA1-DQB1 data from Caucasian, African, and Japanese populations. Our results indicate that the combination DQA1 No. 52 (Arg predisposing) DQB1 No. 57 (Asp protective), which has been proposed as an important IDDM agent, does not include all the predisposing elements. With rheumatoid arthritis HLA class H DRB1 data, the results were consistent with the shared-epitope hypothesis. 35 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. The severity of wheat diseases increases when plants and pathogens are acclimatized to elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váry, Zsolt; Mullins, Ewen; McElwain, Jennifer C; Doohan, Fiona M

    2015-04-20

    Wheat diseases present a constant and evolving threat to food security. We have little understanding as to how increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will affect wheat diseases and thus the security of grain supply. Atmospheric CO2 exceeded the 400 ppmv benchmark in 2013 and is predicted to double or even treble by the end of the century. This study investigated the impact of both pathogen and wheat acclimation to elevated CO2 on the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Septoria tritici blotch (STB) disease of wheat. Here, plants and pathogens were cultivated under either 390 or 780 ppmv CO2 for a period (two wheat generations, multiple pathogen subcultures) prior to standard disease trials. Acclimation of pathogens and the wheat cultivar Remus to elevated CO2 increased the severity of both STB and FHB diseases, relative to ambient conditions. The effect of CO2 on disease development was greater for FHB than for STB. The highest FHB disease levels and associated yield losses were recorded for elevated CO2 -acclimated pathogen on elevated CO2 -acclimated wheat. When similar FHB experiments were conducted using the disease-resistant cultivar CM82036, pathogen acclimation significantly enhanced disease levels and yield loss under elevated CO2 conditions, thereby indicating a reduction in the effectiveness of the defence pathways innate to this wheat cultivar. We conclude that acclimation to elevated CO2 over the coming decades will have a significant influence on the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions and the durability of disease resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Small hepatocellular carcinomas in chronic liver disease: Detection with SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, M.; Hirasa, M.; Takakuwa, H.; Ibuki, Y.; Fujimi, K.; Miyamura, M.; Tomita, S.; Komori, H.; Todo, A.; Kitaura, Y.

    1986-06-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed using a rotating gamma camera was compared with ..cap alpha../sub 1/-fetoprotein (AFP) assay, conventional liver scintigraphy, ultrasound (US) imaging, computed tomography (CT), and selective celiac angiography in 40 patients with a total of 50 small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs;<5 cm). The detection rates of US and CT were determined on an initial screening study and on a second, more precisely focused study. The detection rate of small HCCs by the various modalities was as follows: AFP, 13%; liver scintigraphy, 36%; SPECT, 72%; initial screening US, 80%; second, more precise US studies, 94%; initial screening CT, 64%; second, more precise CT study, 82%; angiography, 88%. Although SPECT was inferior to the initial screening US examination in detecting HCCs less than 2 cm in size, its sensitivity was identical to that of the initial screening US study for detecting HCCs of 2-5 cm. The combination of SPECT and US was an excellent method for the early detection of HCCs, yielding a detection rate of 94%.

  20. Rapid detection of fetal Mendelian disorders: Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetta, Esther; Peleg, Leah

    2008-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive storage disease caused by the impaired activity of the lysosomal enzyme hexosaminidase A. In this fatal disease, the sphingolipid GM2 ganglioside accumulates in the neurons. Due to high carrier rates and the severity of the disease, population screening and prenatal diagnosis of Tay-Sachs disease are routinely carried out in Israel. Laboratory diagnosis of Tay-Sachs is carried out with biochemical and DNA-based methods in peripheral and umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, and chorionic villi samples. The assay of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) activity is carried out with synthetic substrates, 4-methylumbelliferyl-6-sulfo-N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminide (4-MUGS) and 4-methylumbelliferil-N-acetyl-beta-glucosamine (4-MUG), and the DNA-based analysis involves testing for the presence of specific known mutations in the alpha-subunit gene of Hex A. Prenatal diagnosis of Tay-Sachs disease is accomplished within 24-48 h from sampling. The preferred strategy is to simultaneously carry out enzymatic analysis in the amniotic fluid supernatant or in chorionic villi and molecular DNA-based testing in an amniotic fluid cell-pellet or in chorionic villi.

  1. Topological Measurements of DWI Tractography for Alzheimer's Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Alfonso; Neuroimaging Initiative, Alzheimer's Disease

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect brain morphology and connectivity, making complex networks a suitable tool to investigate and model their effects. Because of its stereotyped pattern Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a natural benchmark for the study of novel methodologies. Several studies have investigated the network centrality and segregation changes induced by AD, especially with a single subject approach. In this work, a holistic perspective based on the application of multiplex network concepts is introduced. We define and assess a diagnostic score to characterize the brain topology and measure the disease effects on a mixed cohort of 52 normal controls (NC) and 47 AD patients, from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The proposed topological score allows an accurate NC-AD classification: the average area under the curve (AUC) is 95% and the 95% confidence interval is 92%–99%. Besides, the combination of topological information and structural measures, such as the hippocampal volumes, was also investigated. Topology is able to capture the disease signature of AD and, as the methodology is general, it can find interesting applications to enhance our insight into disease with more heterogeneous patterns. PMID:28352290

  2. Flatography: Detection of gastrointestinal diseases by faecal gas analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evelien; F; de; Groot; Tim; G; de; Meij; Daniel; J; Berkhout; Marc; P; van; der; Schee; Nanne; K; de; Boer

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting with gastro-intestinal symptoms might suffer from a range of possible underlying diseases. An unmet need exists for novel cost-effective,reproducible, easy-to-perform and non-invasive tests. Hippocrates used body odours to diagnose diseases circa 460 before Christ. The art of diagnostic smelling is making a promising high-tech come-back with portable "electronic diagnostic noses". Analysis of faecal volatile organic compounds is a novel field in metabolomics with considerable potential to improve the diagnosis, phenotyping and monitoring of gastro-intestinal disease. Challenges will be to mature over the coming years by development of a standardized methodology for stool sample collection, storage, handling and analysis. Furthermore, key volatiles need to be identified to improve test accuracy and sensitivity by development of sensors tailored toward the accurate identification of disease specific volatiles. If these challenges are adequately faced, analysis of faecal volatiles has realistic potential to considerably improve screening, diagnosis and disease monitoring for gastro-intestinal diseases.

  3. An Energy efficient application specific integrated circuit for electrocardiogram feature detection and its potential for ambulatory cardiovascular disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhaumik, Basabi

    2016-03-01

    A novel algorithm based on forward search is developed for real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signal processing and implemented in application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for QRS complex related cardiovascular disease diagnosis. The authors have evaluated their algorithm using MIT-BIH database and achieve sensitivity of 99.86% and specificity of 99.93% for QRS complex peak detection. In this Letter, Physionet PTB diagnostic ECG database is used for QRS complex related disease detection. An ASIC for cardiovascular disease detection is fabricated using 130-nm CMOS high-speed process technology. The area of the ASIC is 0.5 mm(2). The power dissipation is 1.73 μW at the operating frequency of 1 kHz with a supply voltage of 0.6 V. The output from the ASIC is fed to their Android application that generates diagnostic report and can be sent to a cardiologist through email. Their ASIC result shows average failed detection rate of 0.16% for six leads data of 290 patients in PTB diagnostic ECG database. They also have implemented a low-leakage version of their ASIC. The ASIC dissipates only 45 pJ with a supply voltage of 0.9 V. Their proposed ASIC is most suitable for energy efficient telemetry cardiovascular disease detection system.

  4. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Causes Bacterial Spot Disease on Pepper Plant in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeon, Min-Seong; Son, Soo-Hyeong; Noh, Young-Hee; Kim, Yong-Eon; Lee, Hyok-In; Cha, Jae-Soon

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX) were reclassified into 4 species—Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans, and X. gardneri. Bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in Korea is known to be caused by both X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and X. vesicatoria. Here, we reidentified the pathogen causing bacterial spots on pepper plant based on the new classification. Accordingly, 72 pathogenic isolates were obtained from the lesions on pepper plants at 42 different locations. All isolates were negative for pectolytic activity. Five isolates were positive for amylolytic activity. All of the Korean pepper isolates had a 32 kDa-protein unique to X. euvesicatoria and had the same band pattern of the rpoB gene as that of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans as indicated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all the reference strains of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans. A phylogenetic tree of the nucleotide sequences of 3 housekeeping genes—gapA, gyrB, and lepA showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all of the references strains of X. euvesicatoria. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, we identified the pathogen as X. euvesicatoria. Neither X. vesicatoria, the known pathogen of pepper bacterial spot, nor X. perforans, the known pathogen of tomato plant, was isolated. Thus, we suggest that the pathogen causing bacterial spot disease of pepper plants in Korea is X. euvesicatoria. PMID:27721693

  5. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Causes Bacterial Spot Disease on Pepper Plant in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seong Kyeon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX were reclassified into 4 species—Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans, and X. gardneri. Bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in Korea is known to be caused by both X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and X. vesicatoria. Here, we reidentified the pathogen causing bacterial spots on pepper plant based on the new classification. Accordingly, 72 pathogenic isolates were obtained from the lesions on pepper plants at 42 different locations. All isolates were negative for pectolytic activity. Five isolates were positive for amylolytic activity. All of the Korean pepper isolates had a 32 kDa-protein unique to X. euvesicatoria and had the same band pattern of the rpoB gene as that of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans as indicated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all the reference strains of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans. A phylogenetic tree of the nucleotide sequences of 3 housekeeping genes—gapA, gyrB, and lepA showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all of the references strains of X. euvesicatoria. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, we identified the pathogen as X. euvesicatoria. Neither X. vesicatoria, the known pathogen of pepper bacterial spot, nor X. perforans, the known pathogen of tomato plant, was isolated. Thus, we suggest that the pathogen causing bacterial spot disease of pepper plants in Korea is X. euvesicatoria.

  6. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  7. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage).

  8. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles: A newer and safer tool against mosquito-borne diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases is a key challenge of huge public health importance. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has recently gained attention as a cheap, rapid and eco-friendly method to control mosquito vector populations, with special reference to young instars. Furthermore, plant-fabricated nanoparticles have been successfully employed as dengue virus growth inhibitors. In this Editorial, parasitologists, entomologists and researchers in drug nanosynthesis are encouraged to deal with a number of crucial challenges of public health importance.

  9. Approximating the minmax value of Three-player games within a constant is as hard as detecting planted cliques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eickmeyer, Kord; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Verbin, Elad

    2012-01-01

    algorithm. This is based on assuming hardness of a version of the so-called planted clique problem in Erdős-Rényi random graphs, namely that of detecting a planted clique. Our results are stated as reductions from a promise graph problem to the problem of approximating the minmax value, and we use...... the detection problem for planted cliques to argue for its hardness. We present two reductions: a randomised many-one reduction and a deterministic Turing reduction. The latter, which may be seen as a derandomisation of the former, may be used to argue for hardness of approximating the minmax value based...

  10. Native root-associated bacteria rescue a plant from a sudden-wilt disease that emerged during continuous cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Luu, Van Thi; Weinhold, Arne; Goldberg, Jay; Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-09-01

    Plants maintain microbial associations whose functions remain largely unknown. For the past 15 y, we have planted the annual postfire tobacco Nicotiana attenuata into an experimental field plot in the plant's native habitat, and for the last 8 y the number of plants dying from a sudden wilt disease has increased, leading to crop failure. Inadvertently we had recapitulated the common agricultural dilemma of pathogen buildup associated with continuous cropping for this native plant. Plants suffered sudden tissue collapse and black roots, symptoms similar to a Fusarium-Alternaria disease complex, recently characterized in a nearby native population and developed into an in vitro pathosystem for N. attenuata. With this in vitro disease system, different protection strategies (fungicide and inoculations with native root-associated bacterial and fungal isolates), together with a biochar soil amendment, were tested further in the field. A field trial with more than 900 plants in two field plots revealed that inoculation with a mixture of native bacterial isolates significantly reduced disease incidence and mortality in the infected field plot without influencing growth, herbivore resistance, or 32 defense and signaling metabolites known to mediate resistance against native herbivores. Tests in a subsequent year revealed that a core consortium of five bacteria was essential for disease reduction. This consortium, but not individual members of the root-associated bacteria community which this plant normally recruits during germination from native seed banks, provides enduring resistance against fungal diseases, demonstrating that native plants develop opportunistic mutualisms with prokaryotes that solve context-dependent ecological problems.

  11. Control strategies for grapevine phytoplasma diseases: factors influencing the profitability of replacing symptomatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco PAVAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The course of ‘flavescence dorée’ (FD and ‘bois noir’ (BN diseases can result in either recovery or death of affected grapevines. When farmers observe symptomatic grapevines, they must choose whether to replace or maintain the plants. To establish whether there is an advantage in replacing symptomatic grapevines, data were collected on the costs of replacing them (removing the diseased plants and planting new grapevines, with resultant yield loss during the rearing period and growing them on (yield losses in symptomatic grapevines over the following years. To calculate the cost of maintaining FD-infected plants, the possibility was also considered that symptomatic grapevines may be sources of phytoplasmas for the vector Scaphoideus titanus Ball. The symptomatic course of BN was observed in ‘Chardonnay’, and of FD in ‘Chardonnay’, ‘Merlot’ and ‘Perera’ grape cultivars. The costs of replacement decreased with the increase in the productive lifetime of the vineyards. The cost of maintenance was greatly influenced by the course of the diseases, and in the case of FD, also by the risk of new infections due to the fact that S. titanus acquires phytoplasmas from infected grapevines. The replacement of plants affected by BN is not profitable when recovery is the most frequent course of the disease, particularly when it is considered that replantings can, in turn, become infected. The replacement of plants affected by FD is not profitable for cultivars with a recovery near to 100% (‘Merlot’, whereas it is necessary for cultivars where the course of the disease is frequently lethal (‘Perera’. For cultivars with intermediate sensitivity, the decision varies in relation to agronomic/economic factors and to the risk of new infections (‘Chardonnay’. For FD, both replacement and maintenance strategies need to be associated with S. titanus control inside and outside the vineyards. In the case of maintenance the infected

  12. A bioassay using Artemia salina for detecting phototoxicity of plant coumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, T; Vuorela, P; Kiviranta, J; Vuorela, H; Hiltunen, R

    1999-12-01

    Artemia salina (brine shrimp) has been successfully used for toxicity testing, and a screening test for phototoxicity has been developed based on this method. The ability of the method to test the phototoxic potential of seven known compounds was investigated. Athamantin (an angular furanocoumarin) and umbelliferone (a simple coumarin) showed no phototoxicity, while linear furanocoumarins exhibited phototoxic activity in the following order: psoralen > bergapten > peucedanin > xanthotoxin. The applicability of this method was also tested in screening the phototoxicity of plant material. Six plants from Apiaceae [Aegopodium podagraria L., Anethum graveolens L., Angelica archangelica L., Levisticum officinalis Koch, Petroselinum crispum (P. Mill) A. W. Hill., and Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench] and one from Rutaceae (Ruta graveolens L.) were selected, all of them known to contain furanocoumarins. Extracts from leaves collected at different times during the growth period were used in the screening. Our results were in accordance with the furanocoumarin content of these plants and with the results of other phototoxicity tests. The Artemia salina method proved to be rapid, simple and inexpensive, and is therefore ideal in the initial biological screening of large numbers of samples for simultaneous detection of both toxicity and phototoxicity.

  13. Upconversion nanoparticles for differential imaging of plant cells and detection of fluorescent dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴笑峰; 刘云新; 胡盼; 胡仕刚; 陈增辉; 严焕元; 唐志军; 席在芳; 余意; 戴港涛

    2016-01-01

    Upconversion NaLuF4 nanoparticles were synthesized by the solvothermal method which could emit multicolor visible light under the excitation of 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) photons. These upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with an acidic ligand could rapidly capture the basic rhodamine-B (RB) in plant cells to generate a close UCNPs@RB system. RB could efficiently absorb the green fluorescence from NaLuF4:18 mol.%Yb3+,2 mol.%Er3+ UCNPs and then emitted red light in the UCNPs@RB system by a robust luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) from UCNPs to RB. The detection limit of RB with these upconversion fluo-rescent nanoprobes could reach 0.25μg/cm3 in plant cell even under an ultra low excitation power source of 0.2 W/mm2. This LRET phenomenon was also extended to NaLuF4:18 mol.%Yb3+,0.5 mol.%Tm3+@Sodium fluorescein (SF) system. In addition, the differ-ential imaging could be achieved by successively incubating plant cells with fluorescent dyes and UCNPs. The fluorescent dyes ag-gregated in cell wall while UCNPs with surface modification distributed both in cell wall and cytoplasm, so that UCNPs@Dyes formed in cell walls which could emit multicolor light by LRET which was different from the emission in cytoplasm with only UCNPs.

  14. Sphingolipids and plant defense/disease: the "death" connection and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBerkey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids comprise a major class of structural materials and lipid signaling molecules in all eukaryotic cells. Over the past two decades, there has been a phenomenal growth in the study of sphingolipids (i.e. sphingobiology at an average rate of >1000 research articles per year. Sphingolipid studies in plants, though accounting for only a small fraction (~6% of the total number of publications, have also enjoyed proportionally rapid growth in the past decade. Concomitant with the growth of sphingobiology, there has also been tremendous progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant innate immunity. In this review, we (i cross examine and analyze the major findings that establish and strengthen the intimate connections between sphingolipid metabolism and plant programmed cell death (PCD associated with plant defense or disease; (ii highlight and compare key bioactive sphingolipids involved in the regulation of plant PCD and possibly defense; (iii discuss the potential role of sphingolipids in polarized membrane/protein trafficking and formation of lipid rafts as subdomains of cell membranes in relation to plant defense; and (iv where possible, attempt to identify potential parallels for immunity-related mechanisms involving sphingolipids across kingdoms.

  15. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  16. Detection of contaminating enzymatic activity in plant-derived recombinant biotechnology products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Robert G; Giulian, Gary G; Kelman, Zvi; Marino, John P

    2014-12-02

    Residual impurities in recombinantly produced protein biologics, such as host cell proteins (HCP), can potentially cause unwanted toxic or immunogenic responses in patients. Additionally, undetected impurities found in recombinant proteins used in cell culture may adversely impact basic research and biotechnology applications. Currently, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the standard for detection of residual HCP contamination in recombinantly produced biologics. Alternatively, two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is being developed as a tool for assessing this critical quality attribute. Both of these methods rely on the direct detection of HCPs and some previous knowledge of the contaminant. For contaminating enzymes, the mass level of the impurity may fall below the threshold of detection of these methods and underestimate the true impact. To address this point, here we demonstrate facile detection and characterization of contaminating phytase activity in rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) using a sensitive, label-free nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assay. We observed varying degrees of phytase contamination in biotechnology-grade rHSA from various manufacturers by monitoring the degradation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate and myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate by (31)P NMR. The observed lot-to-lot variability may result in irreproducible cell culture results and should be evaluated as a possible critical quality attribute in plant-derived biotherapeutics.

  17. On plant detection of intact tomato fruits using image analysis and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Guo, Wei; Yoshioka, Yosuke; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2014-07-09

    Fully automated yield estimation of intact fruits prior to harvesting provides various benefits to farmers. Until now, several studies have been conducted to estimate fruit yield using image-processing technologies. However, most of these techniques require thresholds for features such as color, shape and size. In addition, their performance strongly depends on the thresholds used, although optimal thresholds tend to vary with images. Furthermore, most of these techniques have attempted to detect only mature and immature fruits, although the number of young fruits is more important for the prediction of long-term fluctuations in yield. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to accurately detect individual intact tomato fruits including mature, immature and young fruits on a plant using a conventional RGB digital camera in conjunction with machine learning approaches. The developed method did not require an adjustment of threshold values for fruit detection from each image because image segmentation was conducted based on classification models generated in accordance with the color, shape, texture and size of the images. The results of fruit detection in the test images showed that the developed method achieved a recall of 0.80, while the precision was 0.88. The recall values of mature, immature and young fruits were 1.00, 0.80 and 0.78, respectively.

  18. On Plant Detection of Intact Tomato Fruits Using Image Analysis and Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated yield estimation of intact fruits prior to harvesting provides various benefits to farmers. Until now, several studies have been conducted to estimate fruit yield using image-processing technologies. However, most of these techniques require thresholds for features such as color, shape and size. In addition, their performance strongly depends on the thresholds used, although optimal thresholds tend to vary with images. Furthermore, most of these techniques have attempted to detect only mature and immature fruits, although the number of young fruits is more important for the prediction of long-term fluctuations in yield. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to accurately detect individual intact tomato fruits including mature, immature and young fruits on a plant using a conventional RGB digital camera in conjunction with machine learning approaches. The developed method did not require an adjustment of threshold values for fruit detection from each image because image segmentation was conducted based on classification models generated in accordance with the color, shape, texture and size of the images. The results of fruit detection in the test images showed that the developed method achieved a recall of 0.80, while the precision was 0.88. The recall values of mature, immature and young fruits were 1.00, 0.80 and 0.78, respectively.

  19. rgs-CaM Detects and Counteracts Viral RNA Silencing Suppressors in Plant Immune Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Jin; Tadamura, Kazuki; Murakami, Taiki; Inaba, Jun-Ichi; Kim, Bo Min; Sato, Masako; Atsumi, Go; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Masuta, Chikara; Nakahara, Kenji S

    2017-10-01

    resistance against secondary infection with pathogens; this so-called systemic acquired resistance (SAR) has been known for more than half a century and continues to be extensively studied. SAR-induced plants strongly and rapidly express a number of antibiotics and pathogenesis-related proteins targeted against secondary infection, which can account for enhanced resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens but are not thought to control viral infection. This study showed that enhanced resistance against cucumber mosaic virus is caused by a tobacco calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM, which detects and counteracts the major viral virulence factor (RNA silencing suppressor) after SAR induction. rgs-CaM-mediated SAR illustrates the growth versus defense trade-off in plants, as it targets the major virulence factor only under specific biotic stress conditions, thus avoiding the cost of constitutive activation while reducing the damage from virus infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Application of generalized Hough transform for detecting sugar beet plant from weed using machine vision method

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    A Bakhshipour Ziaratgahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. as the second most important world’s sugar source after sugarcane is one of the major industrial crops. The presence of weeds in sugar beet fields, especially at early growth stages, results in a substantial decrease in the crop yield. It is very important to efficiently eliminate weeds at early growing stages. The first step of precision weed control is accurate detection of weeds location in the field. This operation can be performed by machine vision techniques. Hough transform is one of the shape feature extraction methods for object tracking in image processing which is basically used to identify lines or other geometrical shapes in an image. Generalized Hough transform (GHT is a modified version of the Hough transform used not only for geometrical forms, but also for detecting any arbitrary shape. This method is based on a pattern matching principle that uses a set of vectors of feature points (usually object edge points to a reference point to construct a pattern. By comparing this pattern with a set pattern, the desired shape is detected. The aim of this study was to identify the sugar beet plant from some common weeds in a field using the GHT. Materials and Methods Images required for this study were taken at the four-leaf stage of sugar beet as the beginning of the critical period of weed control. A shelter was used to avoid direct sunlight and prevent leaf shadows on each other. The obtained images were then introduced to the Image Processing Toolbox of MATLAB programming software for further processing. Green and Red color components were extracted from primary RGB images. In the first step, binary images were obtained by applying the optimal threshold on the G-R images. A comprehensive study of several sugar beet images revealed that there is a unique feature in sugar beet leaves which makes them differentiable from the weeds. The feature observed in all sugar beet plants at the four

  1. Early Detection System of Vascular Disease and Its Application Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Markers of imaging, structure, and function reflecting vascular damage, integrating a long time accumulation effect of traditional and unrecognized cardiovascular risk factors, can be regarded as surrogate endpoints of target organ damage before the occurrence of clinical events. Prevention of cardiovascular disease requires risk stratification and treatment of traditional risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. However, traditional risk stratification is not sufficient to provide accurate assessment of future cardiovascular events. Therefore, vascular injury related parameters obtained by ultrasound or other noninvasive devices, as a surrogate parameter of subclinical cardiovascular disease, can improve cardiovascular risk assessment and optimize the preventive treatment strategy. Thus, we will summarize the research progress and clinical application of early assessment technology of vascular diseases in the present review.

  2. Application of GC-MS for the detection of lipophilic compounds in diverse plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmann Hanjo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of metabolite profiling has been around for decades and technical innovations are now enabling it to be carried out on a large scale with respect to the number of both metabolites measured and experiments carried out. However, studies are generally confined to polar compounds alone. Here we describe a simple method for lipophilic compounds analysis in various plant tissues. Results We choose the same preparative and instrumental platform for lipophilic profiling as that we routinely use for polar metabolites measurements. The method was validated in terms of linearity, carryover, reproducibility and recovery rates, as well as using various plant tissues. As a first case study we present metabolic profiling of Arabidopsis root and shoot tissue of wild type (C24 and mutant (rsr4-1 plants deficient on vitamin B6. We found significant alterations in lipid constituent contents, especially in the roots, which were characterised by dramatic increases in several fatty acids, thus providing further hint for the role of pyridoxine in oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The second example is the lipophilic profiling of red and green tomato fruit cuticles of wild type (Alisa Craig and the DFD (delayed fruit deterioration mutant, which we compared and contrasted with the more focused wax analysis of these plants reported before. Conclusion We can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify over 40 lipophilic metabolites including fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, sterols and tocopherols. The method presented here affords a simple and rapid, yet robust complement to previously validated methods of polar metabolite profiling by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry.

  3. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change...... in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently...

  4. Amorpha fruticosa – A Noxious Invasive Alien Plant in Europe or a Medicinal Plant against Metabolic Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Kozuharova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorpha fruticosa L. (Fabaceae is a shrub native to North America which has been cultivated mainly for its ornamental features, honey plant value and protective properties against soil erosion. It is registered amongst the most noxious invasive species in Europe. However, a growing body of scientific literature also points to the therapeutic potential of its chemical constituents. Due to the fact that A. fruticosa is an aggressive invasive species, it can provide an abundant and cheap resource of plant chemical constituents which can be utilized for therapeutic purposes. Additionally, exploitation of the biomass for medicinal use might contribute to relieving the destructive impact of this species on natural habitats. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary and systematize the state-of-the-art in the knowledge of the phytochemical composition and the potential of A. fruticosa in disease treatment and prevention, with especial emphasis on diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Also reviewed are aspects related to potential toxicity of A. fruticosa which has not yet been systematically evaluated in human subjects.

  5. Autoantigens produced in plants for oral tolerance therapy of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S; Jevnikar, A M

    1999-01-01

    Oral administration of protein antigens can induce antigen-specific immune hyporesponsiveness and may be useful in treating autoimmune diseases or preventing transplant rejection. However, the therapeutic value of oral tolerance may be limited when candidate autoantigens cannot be produced by conventional system in quantities sufficient for clinical studies. Plants may be ideally suited for this purpose, as they can produce hugh quantities of functional mammalian proteins at extremely competitive cost. Furthermore, transgenic food plants could provide a simple and direct method of autoantigen delivery for oral tolerance. Here we show that the diabetes-associated autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is efficiently expressed in both tobacco and potato plants, and that mice, when fed with fresh transgenic potato tubers, are fully protected from diabetes.

  6. Sharka epidemiology and worldwide management strategies: learning lessons to optimize disease control in perennial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Loup; Dallot, Sylvie; Gottwald, Tim; Decroocq, Véronique; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Many plant epidemics that cause major economic losses cannot be controlled with pesticides. Among them, sharka epidemics severely affect prunus trees worldwide. Its causal agent, Plum pox virus (PPV; genus Potyvirus), has been classified as a quarantine pathogen in numerous countries. As a result, various management strategies have been implemented in different regions of the world, depending on the epidemiological context and on the objective (i.e., eradication, suppression, containment, or resilience). These strategies have exploited virus-free planting material, varietal improvement, surveillance and removal of trees in orchards, and statistical models. Variations on these management options lead to contrasted outcomes, from successful eradication to widespread presence of PPV in orchards. Here, we present management strategies in the light of sharka epidemiology to gain insights from this worldwide experience. Although focused on sharka, this review highlights more general levers and promising approaches to optimize disease control in perennial plants.

  7. Novel polymeric biochips for enhanced detection of infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseini, Samira

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the creation and development of polymeric platforms (different compositions) from a specific polymer system. This system can be used as an adaptive technique for producing sensitive analytical devices, or for simple integration into existing bioanalytical tools in order to enhance the detection signal.

  8. Detection of arousals in Parkinson’s disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul

    2011-01-01

    suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD). The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 8 patients...

  9. The Role of Immittance Audiometry in Detecting Middle Ear Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, John T.

    1981-01-01

    Immittance audiometry is an objective technique which evaluates middle ear function by three procedures: static immittance, tympanometry, and the measurement of acoustic reflex threshold sensitivity. This article discusses the technique's ability to identify middle ear effusion, the single leading ear disease in children.

  10. Investigating a mystery disease: tales from a viral detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, W Ian

    2014-11-01

    Viral outbreak investigation is challenging logistically as well as scientifically. In the context of addressing a fictional emerging viral disease, I describe the process of discovery, from the initial report of a problem through discussions of intellectual property and sample management, study design, management, experimental execution, and reporting of results. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Fungal Biofilms: Targets for the Development of Novel Strategies in Plant Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Federica; Cappitelli, Francesca; Cortesi, Paolo; Kunova, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The global food supply has been facing increasing challenges during the first decades of the 21(st) century. Disease in plants is an important constraint to worldwide crop production, accounting for 20-40% of its annual harvest loss. Although the use of resistant varieties, good water management and agronomic practices are valid management tools in counteracting plant diseases, there are still many pathosystems where fungicides are widely used for disease management. However, restrictive regulations and increasing concern regarding the risk to human health and the environment, along with the incidence of fungicide resistance, have discouraged their use and have prompted for a search for new efficient, ecologically friendly and sustainable disease management strategies. The recent evidence of biofilm formation by fungal phytopathogens provides the scientific framework for designing and adapting methods and concepts developed by biofilm research that could be integrated in IPM practices. In this perspective paper, we provide evidence to support the view that the biofilm lifestyle plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of plant diseases. We describe the main factors limiting the durability of single-site fungicides, and we assemble the current knowledge on pesticide resistance in the specific context of the biofilm lifestyle. Finally, we illustrate the potential of antibiofilm compounds at sub-lethal concentrations for the development of an innovative, eco-sustainable strategy to counteract phytopathogenic fungi. Such fungicide-free solutions will be instrumental in reducing disease severity, and will permit more prudent use of fungicides decreasing thus the selection of resistant forms and safeguarding the environment.

  12. Sucrose-mediated priming of plant defense responses and broad-spectrum disease resistance by overexpression of the maize pathogenesis-related PRms protein in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ariza, Jorge; Campo, Sonia; Rufat, Mar; Estopà, Montserrat; Messeguer, Joaquima; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2007-07-01

    Expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes is part of the plant's natural defense response against pathogen attack. The PRms gene encodes a fungal-inducible PR protein from maize. Here, we demonstrate that expression of PRms in transgenic rice confers broad-spectrum protection against pathogens, including fungal (Magnaporthe oryzae, Fusarium verticillioides, and Helminthosporium oryzae) and bacterial (Erwinia chrysanthemi) pathogens. The PRms-mediated disease resistance in rice plants is associated with an enhanced capacity to express and activate the natural plant defense mechanisms. Thus, PRms rice plants display a basal level of expression of endogenous defense genes in the absence of the pathogen. PRms plants also exhibit stronger and quicker defense responses during pathogen infection. We also have found that sucrose accumulates at higher levels in leaves of PRms plants. Sucrose responsiveness of rice defense genes correlates with the pathogen-responsive priming of their expression in PRms rice plants. Moreover, pretreatment of rice plants with sucrose enhances resistance to M. oryzae infection. Together, these results support a sucrose-mediated priming of defense responses in PRms rice plants which results in broad-spectrum disease resistance.

  13. Effect of Seed Bacterization on Plant Growth Response and Induction of Disease Resistance in Chilli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasmeen Siddiqui; Sariah Meon

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the induction of disease resistance, and growth response in chilli plants elicited by plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria [Pseudomonas aeruginosa (UPMP3), Burkholderia cepacia (UPMB3), and Serratia marcescens (UPMS3)]. Seed bacterization with UPMP3 and UPMB3 significantly increased peroxidase (PO),polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities. This increase corresponded to greater reduction in pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. UPMS3 alone or as mixture with UPMP3 and UPMB3 did not show any significant reduction in disease incidence. However, all the isolates tested did not inhibit the seed germination and seedling establishment in chilli.

  14. Metabolomics in Plants and Humans: Applications in the Prevention and Diagnosis of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Gomez-Casati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been an increase in the number of metabolomic approaches used, in parallel with proteomic and functional genomic studies. The wide variety of chemical types of metabolites available has also accelerated the use of different techniques in the investigation of the metabolome. At present, metabolomics is applied to investigate several human diseases, to improve their diagnosis and prevention, and to design better therapeutic strategies. In addition, metabolomic studies are also being carried out in areas such as toxicology and pharmacology, crop breeding, and plant biotechnology. In this review, we emphasize the use and application of metabolomics in human diseases and plant research to improve human health.

  15. Antifungal potential of some higher plants against Fusarium udum causing wilt disease of Cajanus cajan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Rai, B

    2000-01-01

    The fungitoxic effects of different plant extracts on Fusarium udum, which causes wilt disease of Cajanus cajan in vitro and in vivo, were examined. The complete arrest of the radial growth of the pathogen occurred at a 10% concentration of leaf extract from Adenocallyma alliaceum. A leaf extract of Citrus medica, a root extract of Asparagus adscendens, rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale, and a bulb extract of Allium sativum inhibited up to 100% growth at higher concentrations. A. alliaceum controlled the disease up to 100% by amending its 4% powder in unsterilized soil and 2% in sterilized soil. The population of F. udum was found to be markedly reduced following treatments with plant powders.

  16. Plant-made oral vaccines against human infectious diseases-Are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Daniell, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Although the plant-made vaccine field started three decades ago with the promise of developing low-cost vaccines to prevent infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics around the globe, this goal has not yet been achieved. Plants offer several major advantages in vaccine generation, including low-cost production by eliminating expensive fermentation and purification systems, sterile delivery and cold storage/transportation. Most importantly, oral vaccination using plant-made antigens confers both mucosal (IgA) and systemic (IgG) immunity. Studies in the past 5 years have made significant progress in expressing vaccine antigens in edible leaves (especially lettuce), processing leaves or seeds through lyophilization and achieving antigen stability and efficacy after prolonged storage at ambient temperatures. Bioencapsulation of antigens in plant cells protects them from the digestive system; the fusion of antigens to transmucosal carriers enhances efficiency of their delivery to the immune system and facilitates successful development of plant vaccines as oral boosters. However, the lack of oral priming approaches diminishes these advantages because purified antigens, cold storage/transportation and limited shelf life are still major challenges for priming with adjuvants and for antigen delivery by injection. Yet another challenge is the risk of inducing tolerance without priming the host immune system. Therefore, mechanistic aspects of these two opposing processes (antibody production or suppression) are discussed in this review. In addition, we summarize recent progress made in oral delivery of vaccine antigens expressed in plant cells via the chloroplast or nuclear genomes and potential challenges in achieving immunity against infectious diseases using cold-chain-free vaccine delivery approaches. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A flexibly shaped space-time scan statistic for disease outbreak detection and monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tango Toshiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of disease outbreaks enables public health officials to implement disease control and prevention measures at the earliest possible time. A time periodic geographical disease surveillance system based on a cylindrical space-time scan statistic has been used extensively for disease surveillance along with the SaTScan software. In the purely spatial setting, many different methods have been proposed to detect spatial disease clusters. In particular, some spatial scan statistics are aimed at detecting irregularly shaped clusters which may not be detected by the circular spatial scan statistic. Results Based on the flexible purely spatial scan statistic, we propose a flexibly shaped space-time scan statistic for early detection of disease outbreaks. The performance of the proposed space-time scan statistic is compared with that of the cylindrical scan statistic using benchmark data. In order to compare their performances, we have developed a space-time power distribution by extending the purely spatial bivariate power distribution. Daily syndromic surveillance data in Massachusetts, USA, are used to illustrate the proposed test statistic. Conclusion The flexible space-time scan statistic is well suited for detecting and monitoring disease outbreaks in irregularly shaped areas.

  18. Biocontrol of Phytophthora infestans, Fungal Pathogen of Seedling Damping Off Disease in Economic Plant Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Loliam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to control Seedling damping off disease in plants by using antagonistic actinomycetes against the causative fungi. Phytophthora infestans was isolated from the infected tomato plant seedling obtained from an economic plant nursery in Amphoe Pak Chong, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The chitinolytic Streptomyces rubrolavendulae S4, isolated from termite mounds at the grove of Amphoe Si-Sawat, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand, was proven to be the most effective growth inhibition of fungal pathogens tested on potato dextrose agar. Tomato and chili seedlings that colonized with antagonistic S. rubrolavendulae S4 were grown in P. infestans artificial inoculated peat moss. Percents of noninfested seedling in fungal contaminated peat moss were compared to the controls with uninoculated peat moss. In P. infestans contaminated peat moss, the percents of survival of tomato and chili seedling were significantly increased (0.05. It was clearly demonstrated that S. rubrolavendulae S4 can prevent the tomato and chili seedling damping off disease in economic plant nurseries.

  19. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches' broom disease of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant-fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Antimicrobial Peptides: Insights into Membrane Permeabilization, Lipopolysaccharide Fragmentation and Application in Plant Disease Control

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, A.; Ghosh, A; Airoldi, C; Sperandeo, P; Mroue, K; Jimenez-Barbero, J; Kundu, P.; Ramamoorthy, A; Bhunia, A

    2015-01-01

    The recent increase in multidrug resistance against bacterial infections has become a major concern to human health and global food security. Synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently received substantial attention as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics because of their potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. These peptides have also been implicated in plant disease control for replacing conventional treatment methods that are polluting and hazardous to the en...