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Sample records for detect multiple insemination

  1. Effect of insemination after estrous detection on pregnancy per artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, S; Haimerl, P; Heuwieser, W

    2016-03-01

    Presynchronization of cows with 2 injections of prostaglandin administered 14d apart (Presynch-Ovsynch) is a widely adopted procedure to increase pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) for the first service. In a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, 2 different management strategies can be observed. Either all cows receive timed artificial insemination (onlyTAI) or cows detected in estrus after the second PGF2α injection are inseminated and the remaining cows without signs of estrus will be subject to timed AI (EDAI+TAI). A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection during a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for the first service on fertility in lactating dairy cows. Two statistical approaches were conducted using either a fixed or a random effects meta-analysis based on the heterogeneity among the experimental groups. Reproductive outcomes of interest were P/AI measured on d32 (d 28 to 42) and pregnancy loss between d32 and 60 (d 42 to 74) of gestation. In approach 1, 3 randomized controlled studies including 1,689 cows with the primary objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. The incorporation of insemination after estrous detection decreased the odds of pregnancy by 35% [odds ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53-0.80] on d32 after AI using a fixed effects model. We detected no effect on pregnancy loss on d60 of gestation (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI=0.55-1.43). There was no heterogeneity among the 3 studies regarding P/AI and pregnancy loss. In approach 2, cows from approach 1 and cohorts from another 17 experimental groups including 8,124 cows submitted to first AI using a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. Information regarding pregnancy loss was available for 5,200 cows. In the random effects model, the overall proportion of P/AI was 30.9% (95% CI=26.71-35.28; n=2,400) and 41.7% (95% CI=39.76-42.01; n=7

  2. Association between ovarian stimulators with or without intrauterine insemination, and assisted reproductive technologies on multiple births.

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    Chaabane, Sonia; Sheehy, Odile; Monnier, Patricia; Bissonnette, François; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Fraser, William; Bérard, Anick

    2015-10-01

    We sought to quantify the risk of multiple births associated with the use of different modalities of medically assisted reproduction. We conducted a case-control study using a birth cohort from 2006 through 2009. This cohort was built with the linkage of data obtained by a self-administered questionnaire and medical, hospital, pharmaceutical, birth, and death databases in Quebec. Cases were pregnancies resulting in multiple live births (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision/International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes). Each case was matched, on maternal age and year of delivery, with 3 singleton pregnancies (controls) randomly selected among all Quebec singleton pregnancies. Data on the use of different fertility treatments were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for body mass index, number of previous live births, ethnicity, family income, place of residence, marital status, subfertility, reduction of embryos, diabetes, metformin treatment, folic acid supplementation, and lifestyle factors, were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs). We evaluated the associations between each type of fertility treatment (ovarian stimulators used alone, intrauterine insemination [IUI] used with ovarian stimulation, and assisted reproductive technologies [ART]) and the risk of multiple births. A total of 1407 cases of multiple births and 3580 controls were analyzed. More than half of multiple births following medically assisted reproduction (53.6%) occurred among women having used ovarian stimulation with or without IUI. The use of ovarian stimulators alone and IUI with ovarian stimulation increase the risk of multiple births (adjusted OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 3.2-6.4; and adjusted OR, 9.32; 95% CI, 5.60-15.50, respectively) compared to spontaneous conception. The use of invasive ART was associated with a greatly increased risk of multiple births

  3. Multiple mating in the traumatically inseminating Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes: effects on fecundity and longevity.

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    Backhouse, Amy; Sait, Steven M; Cameron, Tom C

    2012-10-23

    Optimal mating frequencies differ between sexes as a consequence of the sexual differentiation of reproductive costs per mating, where mating is normally more costly to females than males. In mating systems where sexual reproduction is costly to females, sexual conflict may cause both direct (i.e. by reducing female fecundity or causing mortality) and indirect (i.e. increased risk of mortality, reduced offspring viability) reductions in lifetime reproductive success of females, which have individual and population consequences. We investigated the direct and indirect costs of multiple mating in a traumatically inseminating (TI) predatory Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), where the male penetrates the female's abdomen during copulation. This study aimed to quantify the effects of TI on female fecundity, egg viability, the lifetime fecundity schedule, longevity and prey consumption in this cosmopolitan biocontrol agent. We found no difference in the total reproductive output between mating treatments in terms of total eggs laid or offspring viability, but there were significant differences found in daily fecundity schedules and adult longevity. In terms of lifetime reproduction, female Warehouse pirate bugs appear to be adapted to compensate for the costs of TI mating to their longevity.

  4. Detecting asymptomatic rams infected with Mycoplasma agalactiae in ovine artificial insemination centers.

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    Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; de la Fe, Christian; Paterna, Ana; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Antonio; Gómez-Martín, Ángel

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is the main causative agent of ovine contagious agalactia, which is a serious disease of small ruminants. In endemic areas, its most common clinical situation consists of chronically infected herds, and asymptomatic infected individuals represent an epidemiological risk regarding the transmission of this disease. The aim of this work was to detect the presence of asymptomatic rams infected with Ma in different artificial insemination centers, and to determine the most effective way to identify these individuals so as to implement adequate surveillance protocols. For this purpose, 215 rams and 14 teaser sheep were sampled taking auricular, nasal, and vaginal swabs and serum samples. In addition, ejaculates from 147 rams were analyzed. These samples were subjected to specific culture and molecular techniques to isolate and identify mycoplasmas, and to a serological test to detect antibodies against Ma. Mycoplasma agalactiae was detected in 47 (4.4%) of the 1077 samples analyzed, and also one individual resulted seropositive. Thus, 37 (17.2%) of the 215 studied rams were infected with Ma. The specimens which proportionally yielded the greatest number of positive results for this pathogen were semen samples (13.6%), followed by nasal swabs (5.8%). In contrast, the sampling of the external auricular canal and the serological analyses resulted insufficient to effectively detect infected individuals. Asymptomatic rams infected with Ma were detected in all the analyzed artificial insemination centers, highlighting the need to implement adequate surveillance protocols to prevent the presence of these individuals in these centers, reducing the risk of transmitting contagious agalactia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of the pregnancy rates and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination or artificial insemination after estrus detection in Bos indicus heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Bo, G A; Chandra, K A; Atkinson, P C; McGowan, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study compared pregnancy rates (PRs) and costs per calf born after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or AI after estrus detection (i.e., estrus detection and AI, EDAI), before and after a single PGF2α treatment in Bos indicus (Brahman-cross) heifers. On Day 0, the body weight, body condition score, and presence of a CL (46% of heifers) were determined. The heifers were then alternately allocated to one of two FTAI groups (FTAI-1, n = 139) and (FTAI-2, n = 141) and an EDAI group (n = 273). Heifers in the FTAI groups received an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD; 0.78 g of progesterone) and 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (im) on Day 0. Eight days later, the IPRD was removed and heifers received 500 μg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG im; 24 hours later, they received 1 mg estradiol benzoate im and were submitted to FTAI 30 to 34 hours later (54 and 58 hours after IPRD removal). Heifers in the FTAI-2 group started treatment 8 days after those in the FTAI-1 group. Heifers in the EDAI group were inseminated approximately 12 hours after the detection of estrus between Days 4 and 9 at which time the heifers that had not been detected in estrus received 500 μg of PGF2α im and EDAI continued until Day 13. Heifers in the FTAI groups had a higher overall PR (proportion pregnant as per the entire group) than the EDAI group (34.6% vs. 23.2%; P = 0.003), however, conception rate (PR of heifers submitted for AI) tended to favor the estrus detection group (34.6% vs. 44.1%; P = 0.059). The cost per AI calf born was estimated to be $267.67 and $291.37 for the FTAI and EDAI groups, respectively. It was concluded that in Brahman heifers typical of those annually mated in northern Australia FTAI compared with EDAI increases the number of heifers pregnant and reduces the cost per calf born. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

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    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  7. The value of second polar body detection 4 hours after insemination and early rescue ICSI in preventing complete fertilisation failure in patients with borderline semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haixia; Shu, Yimin; Dai, Shanjun; Peng, Zhaofeng; Shi, Senlin; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the value of short-time insemination and early rescue intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in preventing the occurrence of complete fertilisation failure for mild or moderate male infertility patients. A total of 866 couples with borderline semen who underwent in vitro fertilisation treatment in 2010 were included. Regular insemination was performed between January and June of 2010 and short-term insemination was performed from July through December 2010, where, as early as 4h after insemination, oocytes were denuded from cumulus cells and extrusion of the second polar body was evaluated. Of the 4153 mature oocytes with a detectable second polar body 4 h after insemination, 3874 (93.3%) showed signs of fertilisation on Day 1. Where no second polar body was present in any of the retrieved oocytes for a given patient, rescue ICSI was performed immediately. Similar rates of normal fertilisation and percentage of good-quality embryos were obtained between early rescue ICSI and regular ICSI. Clinical pregnancy occurred in 16 of 43 patients (37.2%) receiving early rescue ICSI. Our results showed early rescue ICSI in combination with evaluation of the second polar body 4 h following insemination is an effective method to prevent complete fertilisation failure for patients with mild or moderate male infertility.

  8. Multiple symbol differential detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  9. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IUI) Overview Intrauterine insemination ( IUI ) — a type of artificial insemination — is a procedure for treating infertility. Sperm that ... more eggs to be fertilized. Older types of artificial insemination placed the sperm in the vagina. While this ...

  10. Effect of time of artificial insemination after oestrus detection on non-return rate of lactating dairy cows on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z Z

    2017-05-01

    To determine the difference in reproductive performance between cows detected in oestrus during morning or afternoon milking when artificial insemination (AI) was carried out once daily, either after the morning or afternoon milking. The study used 20,816 records for cows in 30 spring calving dairy herds that used a camera-based system for oestrus detection during both morning and afternoon milkings. This system automatically determined whether a pressure-sensitive oestrus detection device had been activated or not, or was missing. In all study herds cows were milked twice daily and AI was performed by professional AI technicians once daily, after either morning or afternoon milking. The time of recorded oestrus was classified into AM or PM oestrus groups using 12:00 noon as the cut-off point and time of AI was classified into AM or PM AI groups using 13:00 as the cut-off point. Reproductive performance was determined using non-return to oestrus (NRR) between 2 and 24 days after AI, and was compared between oestrus and AI groups using generalised linear mixed models. Most AI (18,621/20,816; 89%) were carried out after morning milking, and more cows were recorded in oestrus during morning milking (12,328/20,816; 59%) than during afternoon milking (8,488/20,816; 41%). The NRR of cows inseminated after morning milking did not differ (OR=1.04; 95% CI=0.97-1.10) for cows recorded in oestrus in the morning (LSM=68.6 (95% CI=66.3-70.9)%) or afternoon (LSM=67.9 (95% CI=65.4-70.2)%); and did not differ for cows inseminated after the afternoon milking (OR=1.10; 95% CI=0.92-1.32) for cows recorded in oestrus in the morning (LSM=63.4 (95% CI=58.2-68.2)%) or afternoon (LSM=61.2 (95% CI=55.8-66.3)%). There were no differences in NRR between cows detected in oestrus during the morning or the afternoon milking after AI with either liquid (OR=1.04; 95% CI=0.97-1.12) or frozen-thawed (OR=1.02; 95% CI=0.88-1.18) semen. Results from the present study show that, under New Zealand

  11. DETECTION OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Paputungan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the Mendelian mode inheritance of growth hormone (GH and to establish genotype frequency of GH gene in Ongole-crossbred cattle mated by the artificial insemination (AI technique. Total of 76 blood samples were collected from Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls (G0, and their progenies (G1 at the Tumaratas AI service center in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia. All blood samples were screened for the presence of GH locus using a PCR-RFLP method involving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 1.2 % of agarose gel. Data were analyzed using statistical program function in Excel XP. The results showed that GH locus using alleles of Msp1+ and Msp1- enzyme restriction in Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls was inherited to their Ongole-crossbred progenies following the Mendelian mode inheritance. This Mendelian inheritance generated by AI technique was not under genetic equilibrium for the Msp1 genotype frequencies in groups of G0 and G1. The breeding program using genotypes of bulls and cows (G0 for generating the genotype of GH Msp1 enzyme restriction by AI technique should be maintained to increase these various allele dispersion rates for breeding under genetic equilibrium of the Ongole-crossbred cattle population.

  12. Effect of education on ability of AI professionals and herd-owner inseminators to detect cows not in oestrus and its relation with progesterone concentration on day of re-insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartia, K; Taponen, J; Heikkinen, J; Lindeberg, H

    2017-10-15

    The effect of training background of persons performing artificial insemination (AI) (herd-owner inseminators (OWNER), AI technicians (AI-T), and fertility consultants (FC)) on pregnancy rate and their ability to detect cows not in oestrus were studied. A total of 1584 re-AI occasions on 754 dairy farms were included. Milk samples for progesterone (P4) analysis in all cases were collected, as were data on the herd, previous breeding attempts, oestrous signs, uterine tone, slipperiness of cervix, and co-operation of the cow. Further breeding attempts and next calving or culling date were sought from registers. The cases were distributed into three categories based on P4 concentrations; 10 nmol/l (high luteal activity, not in oestrus). Of cows offered for re-AI 7.7% had P4 concentration >10 nmol/l, with no difference between OWNER farms and farms using AI service. OWNERs chose for AI more cows having intermediate P4 than farms using AI service (9.8% vs. 5.9%, p farms and farms using AI service. Fertility consultants had higher pregnancy rates than AI-Ts (39.6% vs. 32.6%, p < 0.05). Toneless uterus and sticky cervix at AI significantly correlated with AI occurring at the wrong time (p < 0.001). Behaviour of the cow at AI did not predict P4 concentration. In conclusion, 7.7% of cows offered for re-AI had high P4 concentration. Training of AI personnel increased their ability to detect and reject these cows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intrauterine insemination versus intracervical insemination in donor sperm treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, Petronella Al; Mochtar, Monique H.; O'Brien, Paul A.; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon

    2018-01-01

    The first-line treatment in donor sperm treatment consists of inseminations that can be done by intrauterine insemination (IUI) or by intracervical insemination (ICI). To compare the effectiveness and safety of intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracervical insemination (ICI) in women who start

  14. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  15. Prevention of multiple pregnancies in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility: randomised controlled trial of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in modified natural cycle compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensdorp, A J; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Bossuyt, P M M; Koks, C A M; Oosterhuis, G J E; Hoek, A; Hompes, P G A; Broekmans, F J M; Verhoeve, H R; de Bruin, J P; van Golde, R; Repping, S; Cohlen, B J; Lambers, M D A; van Bommel, P F; Slappendel, E; Perquin, D; Smeenk, J M; Pelinck, M J; Gianotten, J; Hoozemans, D A; Maas, J W M; Eijkemans, M J C; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W J; van Wely, M

    2015-01-09

    To compare the effectiveness of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle with that of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in terms of a healthy child. Multicentre, open label, three arm, parallel group, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. 17 centres in the Netherlands. Couples seeking fertility treatment after at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse, with the female partner aged between 18 and 38 years, an unfavourable prognosis for natural conception, and a diagnosis of unexplained or mild male subfertility. Three cycles of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer (plus subsequent cryocycles), six cycles of in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, or six cycles of intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation within 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcome was birth of a healthy child resulting from a singleton pregnancy conceived within 12 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were live birth, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, time to pregnancy, complications of pregnancy, and neonatal morbidity and mortality 602 couples were randomly assigned between January 2009 and February 2012; 201 were allocated to in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer, 194 to in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle, and 207 to intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Birth of a healthy child occurred in 104 (52%) couples in the in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer group, 83 (43%) in the in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle group, and 97 (47%) in the intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation group. This corresponds to a risk, relative to intrauterine insemination with ovarian hyperstimulation, of 1.10 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.34) for in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer and 0.91 (0

  16. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

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    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A daily herd Markov-chain model to study the reproductive and economic impact of reproductive programs combining timed artificial insemination and estrus detection.

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    Giordano, J O; Kalantari, A S; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C; Cabrera, V E

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to compare the economic and reproductive performance of programs combining timed artificial insemination (TAI) and different levels of AI after estrus detection (ED) using a daily Markov-chain model. A dairy herd was modeled with every cow following daily probabilistic events of aging, replacement, mortality, pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and calving. The probability of pregnancy depended on the combination of probability of insemination and conception rate (CR). All nonpregnant cows had a probability of pregnancy between the end of the voluntary waiting period and days in milk cutoff for AI. After the cutoff, cows were labeled as do not breed and replaced when milk production was below a minimum milk threshold. A similar model was created to represent a replacement heifer herd to simulate and adjust the supply and demand of replacements. The net value (NV) of a program was the sum of milk income over feed cost, replacement and mortality cost, income from newborns, and reproductive costs. The model was used to compare the NV of 19 programs. One program used 100% TAI (42% CR for first TAI and 30% for second-and-later services), whereas the other programs combined TAI with ED. The proportion of cows receiving AI after ED for the combined programs ranged from 30 to 80%, with levels of CR of 25, 30, and 35%. As the proportion of cows receiving AI after ED increased, the CR of cows receiving TAI decreased. The combined programs with CR of 35% for cows receiving AI after ED had the greatest NV and reproductive performance at all levels of ED. The program using 100% TAI had greater NV and better reproductive performance than all programs with 25% CR after ED inseminations, whereas it had very similar performance to combined programs with up to 60% of cows receiving AI after ED and 30% CR. The factor with the greatest relative contribution to the differences among programs was income over feed cost, followed by replacement and reproductive costs. Adjusting

  18. Multiple-Symbol Detection Of Multiple-Trellis-Coded MDPSK

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    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad M.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed scheme for detection and decoding of multiple-trellis-coded multilevel differential-phase-shift-keyed (MDPSK) radio signals, observation time for differential detection extended from conventional 2 to larger number of symbol periods. Decreases rate of error in differential detection of uncoded MDPSK by increasing number of symbol periods.

  19. Ovarian Stimulation, Intrauterine Insemination, Multiple Pregnancy and Major Congenital Malformations: A Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis- The ART_Rev Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Sonia; Sheehy, Odile; Monnier, Patricia; Fraser, William; Bissonnette, François; Trasler, Jaquetta M; Muanda, Flory T; Boukhris, Takoua; Karam, Fatiha; Santos, Fabiano; Blais, Lucie; Bérard, Anick

    2016-01-01

    Multiple pregnancies are a recognized adverse effect of assisted reproductive technologies; nevertheless, there is no consensus on the incremental risk associated with the ovarian stimulation (OS) used alone and intrauterine insemination (IUI). The relationship between OS and IUI and the risk of major congenital malformations (MCM) is unclear. To summarise the literature and evaluate the risk of multiple pregnancy and MCM associated with OS used alone and IUI used with or without OS compared to natural conception (spontaneously conceived infants without any type of fertility treatments). We carried out a systematic review to identify published papers between 1966 and 2014 in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included observational studies and randomized clinical trials related to the risk of multiple pregnancies and MCM conceived following OS alone or IUI compared to natural conception (spontaneously conceived infants without any fertility treatments). The quality of the included studies was evaluated using The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias for RCTs and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. There were 63 studies included in this review. Our systematic review suggests that the use of any OS alone was associated with an increased risk of multiple pregnancy compared to natural conception (pooled RR 8.80, 95% CI 5.09- 15.20; p= 0.000; 9 studies). Similar increases in the risk of multiple pregnancies were observed following clomiphene citrate used without assisted reproductive technologies. Compared to natural conception, the use of IUI with or without OS was associated with an increased risk of multiple pregnancy (pooled RR 9.73, 95% CI 7.52 -12.60; p= 0.000; 6 studies). Compared to natural conception, the use of any OS alone was associated with an increased risk of any MCM (RR pooled 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36; 11 studies), major musculoskeletal malformations (pooled RR 1.48, 95%CI 1

  20. Ovarian Abscess Following Therapeutic Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford A. Kolb

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial insemination is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of various forms of infertility. Infectious complications have only rarely been noted as a complication of intrauterine insemination (IUI.

  1. Effect of one or three timed artificial inseminations before natural service on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Ayres, H; Greco, L F; Galvão, K N; Risco, C A; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of one or three timed artificial insemination (AI) before natural service (NS) in lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus on hazard of pregnancy, days nonpregnant, and 21-days cycle pregnancy rate. A total of 1050 lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a double Ovsynch program for their first postpartum AI. On the day of first AI (78 ± 3 days in milk), cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either one timed AI (1TAI, n = 533) or three timed AI (3TAI, n = 517) before being exposed to NS. Cows assigned to 1TAI were exposed to bulls 7 days after the first AI. Nonpregnant cows in 3TAI were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol supplemented with progesterone twice, with intervals between AI of 42 days, before being exposed to NS 7 days after the third AI. Cows were evaluated for pregnancy 32 days after each timed AI, or every 28 days after being exposed to NS. Pregnant cows were re-examined for pregnancy 28 days later (i.e., 60-day gestation). Exposure to heat stress was categorized based on the first AI being performed during the hot or cool season, according to the temperature-humidity index. Body condition was scored at first AI. All cows were allowed a period of 231 days of breeding, after which nonpregnant cows were censored. Pregnancy to the first AI did not differ between 1TAI and 3TAI on Day 60 after insemination (30.8 vs. 33.5%). Cows receiving 3TAI had a 15% greater hazard of pregnancy and a 17% greater 21-days cycle pregnancy rate than 1TAI and these benefits originated from the first 84 days of breeding. These changes in rate of pregnancy reduced the median and mean days nonpregnant by 9 and 10 d, respectively. Despite the long inter-AI interval in cows subjected to 3TAI, reproductive performance was improved compared with a single timed AI and subsequent exposure to NS. In dairy herds that use a combination of AI and NS, allowing cows additional opportunities to AI

  2. Intrauterine insemination or intracervical insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P. A. L.; van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W.; de Melker, A. A.; Janssens, P. M. W.; Arends, B.; Curfs, M. H. J. M.; Kortman, M.; Nap, A.; Rijnders, E.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.; Ruis, H.; Simons, A. H. M.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.; Mochtar, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved

  3. Multi-lane detection based on multiple vanishing points detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanxiang; Nie, Yiming; Dai, Bin; Wu, Tao

    2015-03-01

    Lane detection plays a significant role in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for intelligent vehicles. In this paper we present a multi-lane detection method based on multiple vanishing points detection. A new multi-lane model assumes that a single lane, which has two approximately parallel boundaries, may not parallel to others on road plane. Non-parallel lanes associate with different vanishing points. A biological plausibility model is used to detect multiple vanishing points and fit lane model. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect both parallel lanes and non-parallel lanes.

  4. Control of estrus and ovulation: Fertility to timed insemination of gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, F; Kirkwood, R N

    2016-10-01

    It is possible to control follicular development in gilts and sows with the use of hormones including the progestogen altrenogest, GnRH, eCG, hCG, and porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH). These hormones can be used to develop protocols for control of estrus with artificial insemination (AI) timed to estrus detection (timed artificial insemination; TAI) or to control estrus and ovulation with insemination at a fixed time without the requirement of estrus detection (fixed-timed artificial insemination; FTAI). In cyclic gilts, double TAI after protocols based on altrenogest and eCG plus hCG administration can achieve a 70% of farrowing rate. Valuable results can be obtained in weaned sows by the utilization of protocols based on eCG administration at weaning and then GnRH or pLH at estrus onset followed by single or double TAI. In cyclic gilts, single or double FTAI regardless of estrus expression can be applied after protocols based on altrenogest administration followed by eCG and then GnRH, hCG, or pLH some hours later; farrowing rates are similar to control animals inseminated at estrus detection. With sows, a protocol based on eCG administration at weaning and hCG, GnRH, or pLH some hours later followed by single or double FTAI can give fertility rates comparable to control animal inseminated at estrus. Most recently, injection or vaginal deposition of GnRH 96 hours after weaning followed by a single FTAI 24 to 30 hours later is resulting in reproductive performance not different to animals subject to multiple inseminations after natural estrus. It is possible to apply FTAI in lactating sows. The protocols are based on eCG during lactation followed by hCG and FTAI. These protocols will induce ovulation during lactation, but pregnancy rates are reduced. However, in the future, a better knowledge on the effect of hormone administration on follicular dynamics during lactation may allow the development of more effective protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Multiple-Symbol Differential Detection Of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple-symbol differential detection proposed for reception of radio-frequency signals modulated by mutliple-phase-shift keying (MPSK). Offers advantage of less complexity in not requiring equipment to acquire and track carrier signal. Performance approaches that of ideal coherent detection. Applicable to coded as well as uncoded MPSK, and to other forms of modulation.

  6. Interger multiplication with overflow detection or saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, M.J.; Balzola, P.I.; Akkas, A.; Brocato, R.W.

    2000-01-11

    High-speed multiplication is frequently used in general-purpose and application-specific computer systems. These systems often support integer multiplication, where two n-bit integers are multiplied to produce a 2n-bit product. To prevent growth in word length, processors typically return the n least significant bits of the product and a flag that indicates whether or not overflow has occurred. Alternatively, some processors saturate results that overflow to the most positive or most negative representable number. This paper presents efficient methods for performing unsigned or two's complement integer multiplication with overflow detection or saturation. These methods have significantly less area and delay than conventional methods for integer multiplication with overflow detection and saturation.

  7. Artificial insemination in captive Whooping Cranes: Results from genetic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.L.; Nicolich, Jane M.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial insemination has been used frequently in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana) population. In the 1980s, it was necessary at times to inseminate females with semen from several males during the breeding season or with semen from multiple males simultaneously due to unknown sperm viability of the breeding males. The goals of this study were to apply microsatellite DNA profiles to resolve uncertain paternities and to use these results to evaluate the current paternity assignment assumptions used by captive managers. Microsatellite DNA profiles were successful in resolving 20 of 23 paternity questions. When resolved paternities were coupled with data on insemination timing, substantial information was revealed on fertilization timing in captive whooping cranes. Delayed fertilization from inseminations 6+ days pre-oviposition suggests capability of sperm storage.

  8. DETECTION OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Paputungan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the Mendelian mode inheritance of growth hormone(GH and to establish genotype frequency of GH gene in Ongole-crossbred cattle mated by the artificialinsemination (AI technique. Total of 76 blood samples were collected from Ongole-crossbred cows andbulls (G0, and their progenies (G1 at the Tumaratas AI service center in North Sulawesi province,Indonesia. All blood samples were screened for the presence of GH locus using a PCR-RFLP methodinvolving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 1.2 % of agarose gel. Data were analyzed using statistical programfunction in Excel XP. The results showed that GH locus using alleles of Msp1+ and Msp1- enzymerestriction in Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls was inherited to their Ongole-crossbred progeniesfollowing the Mendelian mode inheritance. This Mendelian inheritance generated by AI technique wasnot under genetic equilibrium for the Msp1 genotype frequencies in groups of G0 and G1. The breedingprogram using genotypes of bulls and cows (G0 for generating the genotype of GH Msp1 enzymerestriction by AI technique should be maintained to increase these various allele dispersion rates forbreeding under genetic equilibrium of the Ongole-crossbred cattle population.

  9. Detection efficiency of the multiple muon catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fil'chenkov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    This work is devoted to further development of the experimental method successfully used at JINR (Dubna) for the muon-catalyzed fusion (MCF) study. Influence of the pile up effects on the MCF product detection efficiency is considered. It is shown that the efficiency slightly depends on the MCF multiplicity

  10. Estimating probability of insemination success using milk progesterone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavy, P; Friggens, N C; Nielsen, K R; Christensen, J M; Derks, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of progesterone profile features and other cow-level factors on insemination success to provide a real-time predictor equation of probability of insemination success. Progesterone profiles from 26 dairy herds were analyzed and the effects of profile features (progesterone slope, cycle length, and cycle height) and cow traits (milk yield, parity, insemination during the previous estrus) on likelihood of artificial insemination success were estimated. The equation was fitted on a training data set containing data from 16 herds (6,246 estrous cycles from 3,404 lactations). The equation was tested on a testing data set containing data from 10 herds (8,105 estrous cycles from 3,038 lactations). Predictors were selected to be implemented in the final equation if adding them to a base model correcting for timing of insemination and parity decreased the overall likelihood distance of the model. Selected variables (cycle length, milk yield, cycle height, and insemination during the previous estrus) were used to build the final model using a stepwise approach. Predictors were added 1 by 1 in different order, and the model that had the smallest likelihood distance was selected. The final equation included the variables timing of insemination, parity, milk yield, cycle length, cycle height, and insemination during the previous estrus, respectively. The final model was applied to the testing data set and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. On the testing data set, the final model had an AUC of 58%. When the farm effect was taken into account, the AUC increased to 63%. This equation can be implemented on farms that monitor progesterone and can support the farmer in deciding when to inseminate a cow. This can be the first step in moving the focus away from the current paradigm associated with poorer estrus detection, where each detected estrus is automatically inseminated, to near perfect estrus detection, where the

  11. Intrauterine insemination versus intracervical insemination in donor sperm treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, Petronella Al; Mochtar, Monique H; O'Brien, Paul A; Van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon

    2018-01-25

    The first-line treatment in donor sperm treatment consists of inseminations that can be done by intrauterine insemination (IUI) or by intracervical insemination (ICI). To compare the effectiveness and safety of intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracervical insemination (ICI) in women who start donor sperm treatment. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL in October 2016, checked references of relevant studies, and contacted study authors and experts in the field to identify additional studies. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, the Grey literature, and five trials registers on 15 December 2017. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on IUI versus ICI in natural cycles or with ovarian stimulation, and RCTs comparing different cointerventions in IUI and ICI. We included cross-over studies if pre-cross-over data were available. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. We collected data on primary outcomes of live birth and multiple pregnancy rates, and on secondary outcomes of clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and cancellation rates. We included six RCTs (708 women analysed) on ICI and IUI in donor sperm treatment. Two studies compared IUI and ICI in natural cycles, two studies compared IUI and ICI in gonadotrophin-stimulated cycles, and two studies compared timing of IUI and ICI. There was very low-quality evidence; the main limitations were risk of bias due to poor reporting of study methods, and serious imprecision.IUI versus ICI in natural cyclesThere was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any clear difference in live birth rate between IUI and ICI in natural cycles (odds ratio (OR) 3.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 87.13; 1 RCT, 26 women; very low-quality evidence). There was only one live birth in this study (in the IUI group). IUI resulted in higher clinical pregnancy rates (OR 6.18, 95% CI 1.91 to 20.03; 2

  12. Comparison of endoscopic-assisted transcervical and laparotomy insemination with frozen-thawed dog semen: a retrospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S J; Rous, N R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this retrospective clinical study was to compare pregnancy rates obtained after the use of endoscopic-assisted transcervical catheterization (EIU) or laparotomy (SIU) for insemination of frozen-thawed dog semen. Healthy bitches from various breeds were inseminated with semen from multiple donors processed by different freezing centers. Data from 118 inseminations (78 EIU and 40 SIU) performed between 2009 and 2011 were analyzed. Insemination timing was based on vaginal cytology, serum progesterone concentrations, and vaginoscopy. A ureterorenoscope and a CH-5 Transcervical insemination catheter were used for EIU; 28 of the bitches in this group were inseminated twice with the second insemination less than 12 hours after the first. The numbers of live morphologically normal sperm (LMNS) were determined to characterize insemination doses. Overall, pregnancy rate was greater (P inseminated regardless of insemination method; the greatest pregnancy rate was observed in the EIU group when this insemination dose was used (38/49; 78%). There was no significant difference in pregnancy rate whether one (69%) or two inseminations (64%) were performed in the EIU group. Complications in the SIU group included anesthetic-induced bradycardia during surgery, significant postsurgery pain, seroma formation over the abdominal incision, and delayed wound healing. No complications were noted during or after insemination in the EIU group. In conclusion, these results support the use of EIU as a noninvasive alternative to laparotomy for insemination of frozen-thawed dog semen. In addition, use of more than 100 × 10(6) LMNS is also recommended for insemination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intrauterine insemination or intracervical insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle : A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P. A L; Van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W.; De Melker, A. A.; Janssens, P. M W; Arends, B.; Curfs, M. H J M; Kortman, M.; Nap, A.; Rijnders, E.; Roovers, J. P W R; Ruis, H.; Simons, A. H M; Repping, S.; Van Der Veen, F.; Mochtar, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    studyquestion: Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. summaryanswer: In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial

  14. Embedded chemicals detection using multiple frequencies excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jimmy; Cheng, Jiping; Yin, Stuart (Shizhuo)

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, recent works of buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multi-frequency excitations are discussed. In this detection system, those multiple excitations, including DC electric field, microwave, CO2 laser illumination and infrared radiation, are utilized and each of them plays a unique role. The Microwave could effectively increase the buried chemicals' evaporation rate from the source. The gradient DC electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the buried chemicals, but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Similarly, CO2 laser illumination, which behaves as another type vapor accelerator, could also help to release the vapors adsorbed on the soil surface to the air rapidly. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors released into the air are detected by the infrared (IR) spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than 20-fold increase of detection signal can be achieved by using those proposed technology.

  15. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  16. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones

    OpenAIRE

    Ombelet, W.; Van Robays, J.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adap...

  17. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple symbol partially coherent detection of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.; Divsalar, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that by using the known (or estimated) value of carrier tracking loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the decision metric, it is possible to improve the error probability performance of a partially coherent multiple phase-shift-keying (MPSK) system relative to that corresponding to the commonly used ideal coherent decision rule. Using a maximum-likeihood approach, an optimum decision metric is derived and shown to take the form of a weighted sum of the ideal coherent decision metric (i.e., correlation) and the noncoherent decision metric which is optimum for differential detection of MPSK. The performance of a receiver based on this optimum decision rule is derived and shown to provide continued improvement with increasing length of observation interval (data symbol sequence length). Unfortunately, increasing the observation length does not eliminate the error floor associated with the finite loop SNR. Nevertheless, in the limit of infinite observation length, the average error probability performance approaches the algebraic sum of the error floor and the performance of ideal coherent detection, i.e., at any error probability above the error floor, there is no degradation due to the partial coherence. It is shown that this limiting behavior is virtually achievable with practical size observation lengths. Furthermore, the performance is quite insensitive to mismatch between the estimate of loop SNR (e.g., obtained from measurement) fed to the decision metric and its true value. These results may be of use in low-cost Earth-orbiting or deep-space missions employing coded modulations.

  19. Fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Crepaldi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI in buffalo has limited use worldwide due the difficulties in the estrus detection and in finding an adequate moment for this procedure. Therefore, an alternative to increase the number of buffalo that are inseminated is the use of protocols that allow the AI without the need of estrus detection, usually called fixed-time AI (FTAI. Our expanding knowledge of the control of follicular wave dynamics during the buffalo estrous cycle has resulted in renewed enthusiasm for the prospects of precisely control of the follicular and luteal dynamics and finely controlling the time of ovulation. Follicular wave development can be controlled by treatments with GnRH or estradiol and progestogen/progesterone in combination. Treatment of buffalo with GnRH in combination with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α 7 d later and a second GnRH 48 h after PGF2α (known as Ovsynch has resulted in acceptable pregnancy rates after FTAI in cycling buffalo during the breeding season. FTAI protocols using progestin devices, estradiol and eCG have resulted in synchronous onset of a new follicular wave, synchronous ovulation and consistent pregnancy rates in anestrous buffalo during the off breeding season. The combination of these protocols permits the use of AI throughout the year, obtaining conception and calving even in anestrus buffalo during the off breeding season.

  20. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones.

  1. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W.; Van Robays, J.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today’s common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  2. Heterotopic pregnancy following intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-27

    Apr 27, 2011 ... Clomiphene citrate, gonadotropin stimulation (hCG), and intrauterine insemination using donor sperm. The resulting pregnancy was later diagnosed as heterotopic pregnancy ... Presence of corpus luteum cyst of pregnancy in early ultrasound should be an index of suspicious of a possible heterotopic ...

  3. First results from insemination with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupche Kochoski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Science has been searching for a long time for a reliable method for controlling the sex of mammalian offspring. Recently, the application of specific modern cellular methodologies has led to the development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. The aim of this work was to present the first results of heifers that introduce bovine AI with sex sorted semen, for the first time in Macedonia. Insemination with sex sorted cryopreserved semen (2x106 spermatozoa per dose imported from the USA was done at two dairy farms in ZK Pelagonija. In total, 74 heifers (Holstein Friesian were inseminated. Inseminations were carried out in a timely manner following a modified OvSynch protocol. During the insemination, the sperm was deposited into the uterine horn ipsi lateral to the ovary where a follicle larger than 1.6 cm was detected by means of transrectal ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was checked by ultrasound on day 30 after the insemination. Overall, the average pregnancy rate in both farms was 43,24% (40,54% and 45,95%, for farm 1 and farm 2, respectively. All pregnant heifers delivered their calves following a normal gestation length (274,3 days in average and of the 32 born calves, 30 (93,75% were female. In conclusion, since the first results from inseminations with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia are very promising, the introduction of this technique may bring much benefit to the local dairy sector. Average pregnancy rate seems similar with results obtained following ‘regular’ inseminations, notwithstanding the relatively low number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Due to the latter, we however recommend inseminations only to be carried out by experienced technicians followinga TAI protocol and ultrasound examinations of the ovaries prior to insemination.

  4. Effect of insemination site and diameter of the pre-ovulatory follicle on the odds of pregnancy in heifers using sexed or non-sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenhoff, L; Hall, E; Ranjbar Ni, S; House, J K

    2017-09-01

    To determine if insemination site or pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) affects the odds of pregnancy when heifers are inseminated with sexed semen. The study was conducted in 422 Holstein heifers enrolled into 531 inseminations. Inseminations were randomly allocated to 1 of 16 treatment combinations involving three variables: semen type (sexed vs non-sexed), insemination site (uterine horn vs uterine body) and one of four sires. Ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasound prior to FTAI to determine the follicle diameter and location. AI technician, times bred, age, weight and temperature-humidity index were also recorded. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted 29 days post-insemination. Follicle diameter and body weight were categorised according to arbitrary cut-points. Each variable was analysed by logistic regression to determine the effect on pregnancy per AI and compare between sexed and non-sexed inseminations. Insemination site did not affect pregnancy per AI for either sexed (P = 0.528) or non-sexed (P = 0.886) inseminations. Heifers with an 18-22 mm follicle had better odds of pregnancy than heifers that did not (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-2.09), although no effect was detected for only sexed or only non-sexed inseminations. Heifers weighing 310-370 kg had a higher pregnancy per AI than heifers weighing > 370 kg for non-sexed inseminations (P = 0.004) and sexed semen from sire 4 caused lower odds of pregnancy than semen from sire 1 (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.89). Insemination site did not affect pregnancy per AI, but heifers with an 18-22 mm pre-ovulatory follicle at insemination had better odds of pregnancy for both sexed and non-sexed inseminations. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Detection of Multiple Stationary Humans Using UWB MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulai Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable progress has been achieved in the detection of single stationary human. However, restricted by the mutual interference of multiple humans (e.g., strong sidelobes of the torsos and the shadow effect, detection and localization of the multiple stationary humans remains a huge challenge. In this paper, ultra-wideband (UWB multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO radar is exploited to improve the detection performance of multiple stationary humans for its multiple sight angles and high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capacity. A signal model of the vital sign considering both bi-static angles and attitude angle of the human body is firstly developed, and then a novel detection method is proposed to detect and localize multiple stationary humans. In this method, preprocessing is firstly implemented to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the vital signs, and then a vital-sign-enhanced imaging algorithm is presented to suppress the environmental clutters and mutual affection of multiple humans. Finally, an automatic detection algorithm including constant false alarm rate (CFAR, morphological filtering and clustering is implemented to improve the detection performance of weak human targets affected by heavy clutters and shadow effect. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can get a high-quality image of multiple humans and we can use it to discriminate and localize multiple adjacent human targets behind brick walls.

  6. A retrospective clinical study of endoscopic-assisted transcervical insemination in the bitch with frozen-thawed dog semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S J

    2017-04-01

    Since the conclusion of data collation from previously published work, a further 352 inseminations using frozen-thawed dog semen by endoscopic-assisted transcervical insemination (EIU) have been performed by the author. Insemination was performed on the second day in which crenulation of the anterior vagina was detected in conjunction with a progesterone concentration of >10 ng/ml. All semen samples were analysed for total number of sperm, total motility and progressive motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). The insemination dose was based on the progressively motile normal spermatozoa (PMNS). Insemination was performed on all bitches as previously described using a ureterorenoscope. Additional extender was inseminated subsequent to the semen to expand and fill the uterus. The semen and additional extender were inseminated slowly over a period of 15-20 min. Pregnancy was determined by B-mode ultrasound equipped with a 7.5-MHz probe whilst standing and/or via the whelping rate. The number of sperm inseminated ranged from 9 × 10 6 PMNS to 519 × 10 6 PMNS, with progressive motility values ranging between 20% and 80%. The overall pregnancy rate was 68% (238/352). When stratified by PMNS, pregnancy rates were as follows: >150 × 10 6 PMNS - 76% (110/145), 100-150 × 10 6 - 68% (87/128) and 150 × 10 6 PMNS (p = .003) or 100-150 ×10 6 PMNS (p = .027) were inseminated compared to insemination of >150 × 10 6 PMNS to maximize pregnancy rate. These results indicate that one optimally timed EIU insemination results in similar pregnancy rates to previous publications of one optimally timed, or two or more non-optimally timed inseminations using the Norwegian catheter. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Prevention of multiple pregnancies in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility : randomised controlled trial of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in modified natural cycle compared with intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R. I.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Koks, C. A. M.; Oosterhuis, G. J. E.; Hoek, A.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Broekmans, F. J. M.; Verhoeve, H. R.; de Bruin, J. P.; van Golde, R.; Repping, S.; Cohlen, B. J.; Lambers, M. D. A.; van Bommel, P. F.; Slappendel, E.; Perquin, D.; Smeenk, J. M.; Pelinck, M. J.; Gianotten, J.; Hoozemans, D. A.; Maas, J. W. M.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.; van Wely, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effectiveness of in vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer or in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle with that of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in terms of a healthy child. Design Multicentre, open label, three arm,

  8. Multiple-Symbol, Partially Coherent Detection of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush

    1994-01-01

    Proposed method of reception of multiple-phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) radio signals involves multiple-symbol, partially coherent detection. Instead of attempting to determine phase of transmitted signal during each symbol period as in coherent detection, receiver acquires signal data during multiple-symbol observation interval, then produces maximum-likelihood-sequence estimate of phases transmitted during interval. Combination of coherent-reception and incoherent-reception decision rules are used.

  9. Intrauterine insemination or intracervical insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P. A. L.; van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W.; de Melker, A. A.; Janssens, P. M. W.; Arends, B.; Curfs, M. H. J. M.; Kortman, M.; Nap, A.; Rijnders, E.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.; Ruis, H.; Simons, A. H. M.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.; Mochtar, M. H.

    STUDY QUESTION: Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. SUMMARY ANSWER: In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial

  10. When to inseminate the cow? Insemination, ovulation and fertilization in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: dairy cattle; oestrus; behaviour; pedometer; reproductive hormones; ovulation time; insemination strategyIn dairy practice, calving rates after first insemination are often less than 50%. Part of this low percentage might be explained by wrongly timed inseminations. The

  11. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wait two weeks before taking an at-home pregnancy test. Testing too soon could produce a result that ... after your home kit results for a blood test, which is more sensitive in detecting pregnancy hormones after fertilization. If you don't become ...

  12. Multidimensional Extension of Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes Models to Detect DIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo; Bulut, Okan; Suh, Youngsuk

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have found multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) models to be an effective tool in detecting uniform differential item functioning (DIF) for individual items and item bundles. A recently developed MIMIC-interaction model is capable of detecting both uniform and nonuniform DIF in the unidimensional item response theory…

  13. On detection of multiple object instances using Hough transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinova, Olga; Lempitsky, Victor; Kholi, Pushmeet

    2012-09-01

    Hough transform-based methods for detecting multiple objects use nonmaxima suppression or mode seeking to locate and distinguish peaks in Hough images. Such postprocessing requires the tuning of many parameters and is often fragile, especially when objects are located spatially close to each other. In this paper, we develop a new probabilistic framework for object detection which is related to the Hough transform. It shares the simplicity and wide applicability of the Hough transform but, at the same time, bypasses the problem of multiple peak identification in Hough images and permits detection of multiple objects without invoking nonmaximum suppression heuristics. Our experiments demonstrate that this method results in a significant improvement in detection accuracy both for the classical task of straight line detection and for a more modern category-level (pedestrian) detection problem.

  14. (Bunaji) breeds of cattle following artificial insemination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the fertility rate of white Fulani (Bunaji) and Friesian breeds of cattle following artificial insemination (A. I). Artificial insemination was performed following Oestrus synchronization using prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) in 368 white Fulani and 230 Friesian cows at West Africa Milk Company ...

  15. Effects of timed artificial insemination following estrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate estrus response and pregnancy rates resulting from timed artificial insemination (AI) following estrus synchronization using CIDR in postpartum beef cattle. A total of 100 cows were randomly divided into three groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were artificially inseminated at 48-50 h ...

  16. A prognostic model to predict the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows based on readily available data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, C J; Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Huijps, K; Nielen, M; Hogeveen, H

    2016-08-01

    physiological conditions of the cow, which are approximated indirectly by production and reproduction data that are routinely recorded on the farm. The model cannot be used as a detection model to distinguish cows that conceive from cows that do not. The model validation indicates, however, that routinely collected farm data and test-day milk yield records have value for the prognosis of insemination success in dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fertility of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination versus artificial insemination after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V G; Carvalho, P D; Maia, C; Carneiro, B; Valenza, A; Fricke, P M

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to compare the AI submission rate and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) at first service of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination (TAI) versus artificial insemination (AI) to a detected estrus after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range. Lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive their first TAI after a Double-Ovsynch protocol (DO; n = 294) or to receive their first AI after a synchronized estrus (EST; n = 284). Pregnancy status was determined 33 ± 3 d after insemination and was reconfirmed 63 ± 3 d after insemination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). By design, days in milk at first insemination did not differ between treatments (76.9 ± 0.2 vs. 76.7 ± 0.3 for DO vs. EST cows, respectively), but more DO cows were inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period than EST cows (100.0 vs. 77.5%). Overall, DO cows had more P/AI than EST cows at both 33 d (49.0 vs. 38.6%) and 63 d (44.6 vs. 36.4%) after insemination, but pregnancy loss from 33 to 63 d after insemination did not differ between treatments. Primiparous cows had more P/AI than multiparous cows 33 and 63 d after insemination, but the treatment by parity interaction was not significant. Synchronization rate to the hormonal protocols was 85.3%, which did not differ between treatments; however, synchronized DO cows had more P/AI 33 d after insemination than synchronized EST cows (54.7 vs. 44.5%). In summary, submission of lactating Holstein cows to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and TAI for first insemination increased the percentage of cows inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period and increased P/AI at 33 and 63 d after first insemination resulting in 64 and 58% more pregnant cows, respectively, than submission of cows for first AI after detection

  18. Artificial insemination of cows with semen in vitro contaminated with Neospora caninum tachyzoites failed to induce neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Nuno; Meireles, Carla Sofia; Ferreira, Paulo; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Rocha, António

    2006-06-30

    Neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle all over the world. Congenital transmission as well as horizontal transmission by ingestion of oocysts has been described. The detection of Neospora caninum DNA in bull semen warrants the investigation of possible transmission through the use of contaminated semen. In this experiment four cows were artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed semen contaminated in vitro with viable N. caninum tachyzoites (group A) and four control cows were inseminated with tachyzoites-free frozen-thawed semen, from the same bull (group B). Serum samples were collected 15 days before the artificial insemination (AI) and at days 10, 14, 21, 28, 45, 60 and 75 post-insemination. All sera samples were tested for neosporosis by direct agglutination test (DAT). Three of the cows from group A had negative DAT titers (neosporosis by artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen is an unlikely event.

  19. Estrategies to improve fertility in cattle: artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruselli PS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial insemination (AI is currently the major biotechnique used worldwide to disseminate superior genetics and to improve reproductive efficiency in bovine herds. Conversely, reports from different parts of the world indicate low pregnancy rates in cattle submitted to AI, due to both mistakes in heat detection or a high incidence of anestrous. In dairy cattle, the use of AI following visual detection of estrus is relatively easier to be used because their routine of management is intense (milking two to three times a day, allowing a frequent contact with cows for estrus observation. However, for beef cattle, the implementation of AI programs based on estrus detection is harder to be used because of several management conditions. Beef cows are frequently raised extensively, with great walking distances between their pasture to the corral where the AI is performed, the number of employers designated for cattle management is reduced and they have several activities besides reproduction. Because of the necessity of at least two periods of estrus observation per day and the conduction of cattle to the corral around 12 h following estrus detection to be inseminated, the AI is somehow unfeasible in beef farms. The development of timed AI (TAI enabled insemination of cows in commercial scale, because it allows the programmed AI of large number of cows in the same day without the need for estrus detection. Besides, the use of TAI in early postpartum dairy and beef females reduces the interval partum-conception and, consequently the interval between parturitions, which has a dramatic effect on farm economic return. For beef cattle, TAI also brings the advantages of concentrating around half of the conceptions at the first days of the breeding season and stimulating cyclicity and a synchronous estrus return in cows that did not become pregnant at TAI. Thus, the calving season is also concentrate in the best periods of the year to generate offspring

  20. Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad

    1989-01-01

    A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.

  1. Real-time Multiple Abnormality Detection in Video Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Simon Hartmann; Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in video sequences has recently gained an increasing attention within the research community. Although progress has been seen, there are still some limitations in current research. While most systems are designed at detecting specific abnormality, others which...... are capable of detecting more than two types of abnormalities rely on heavy computation. Therefore, we provide a framework for detecting abnormalities in video surveillance by using multiple features and cascade classifiers, yet achieve above real-time processing speed. Experimental results on two datasets...... show that the proposed framework can reliably detect abnormalities in the video sequence, outperforming the current state-of-the-art methods....

  2. Toxoplasma gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep with experimentally contaminated frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalter, Angélica; Silva, Andressa F; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Matos, Luis F; de Oliveira, Francisco C R; Leite, Juliana S; Silva, Franciele B F; Ferreira, Ana M R

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite considered one of the major causes of reproductive problems in sheep. Furthermore, the presence of the agent in ram semen urges the possibility of sexual transmission in this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate if ram's frozen semen spiked with T. gondii tachyzoites would be able to cause infection in sheep by laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Nine ewes tested seronegative to anti-T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were superovulated and inseminated to collect embryos. Animals were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 5), ewes inseminated with semen containing 4 × 10 7 tachyzoites; and G2 (n = 4), ewes inseminated with tachyzoite-free semen (control group). To confirm infection, ewe's blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49 and 57 after AI for analysis by MAT and PCR. Tissue samples of these ewes were also collected for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven days after AI, all ewes of group G1 had specific antibodies to T. gondii, while those of G2 were negative. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the blood of one ewe and parasites were observed in tissues of all five animals inseminated with contaminated semen, indicating that semen freezing protocol does not affect T. gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaphylactic reaction after artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta, Marta; Ordoqui, Elena; Aranzábal, Ascensión; Fernández, Cristina; Bartolomé, Borja; Sanz, Maria Luisa

    2003-04-01

    Bovine seroalbumin is known as an allergen for human beings, but reactions to it in an artificial insemination procedure are much rarer. We report a case of anaphylaxis after intrauterine insemination (IUI) in which sensitization to bovine serum albumin (BSA) is demonstrated. Report the allergy evaluation performed in a patient who suffered a severe reaction immediately after an IUI procedure. A 33-year-old woman was referred because of an anaphylactic reaction after a second trial of IUI. She developed pruritus, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, bronchospasm, and generalized urticaria. She had an atopic medical history of pollen allergy and sensitization to cat epithelium. She had never had trouble with minor surgery and she usually uses latex material. She had never received heterologous sera before. Her husband's semen for the IUI was processed in a standard fluid medium called upgraded INRA B 2 (Laboratoires CCD, Paris, France), which contains amino acids, lipids, vitamins, BSA, penicillin, and streptomycin in addition to inorganic salts. Skin prick tests with the medium and BSA 10 mg/mL were positive. In vitro studies demonstrated an immunoglobulin E binding protein of 60 to 65 kDa and mast cells and basophil activation (CD63 expression) against BSA contained in the medium. Cutaneous and challenge tests with penicillin and streptomycin were negative. We consider the BSA in the semen culture medium to be the factor which triggered the anaphylactic reaction. This case supports the authors who state that media free from heterologous proteins should be used for human application, especially on atopic patients, to avoid sensitization.

  4. Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Beutel, Rolf G; Pohl, Hans

    2016-04-29

    In a few insect groups, males pierce the female's integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females.

  5. Sistemas de inseminação artificial em dois dias com observação de estro ou em tempo fixo para vacas de corte amamentando Artificial insemination systems within two days of estrus detection or at fixed time for suckled beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carvalho Siqueira

    2008-04-01

    , estrus detection was carried out twice a day during 48h and the animals were inseminated 12h after detection. Cows which were not detected in estrus received 100mg of GnRH IM and were inseminated 16 to 18h later. In EB group, cows were injected IM with 1mg of EB on day 8 and were inseminated on day 9 without estrus detection. The pregnancy rate was higher (P<0.01 in the BioRep group (54.7% than in the EB group (33.3%. In suckled cows, two days of estrus detection associated to fixed-time insemination using GnRH to induce ovulation allowed the attainment of higher pregnancies rates than exclusively TAI using EB.

  6. Performance of automated activity monitoring systems used in combination with timed artificial insemination compared to timed artificial insemination only in early lactation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Robichaud, J; Cerri, R L A; Jones-Bitton, A; LeBlanc, S J

    2018-01-01

    Identifying cows in estrus remains a challenge on dairy cattle farms, and tools and technologies have been developed and used to complement or replace visual detection of estrus. Automated activity monitoring (AAM) systems and timed artificial insemination (TAI) are technologies available to dairy farmers, but many factors can influence their relative performance. The objective of the present study was to compare reproductive performance of cows managed with an AAM system combined with TAI, or with a TAI program (Double Ovsynch) for insemination before 88 DIM. From April 2014 to April 2015, 998 cows from 2 herds were randomly assigned either to be inseminated at 85 ± 3 DIM exclusively using the Double Ovsynch protocol for TAI, or to be inseminated based on estrus detection by AAM without hormonal intervention between 50 and 75 DIM; if no alarm was detected by 75 DIM, cows were inseminated following the single Ovsynch protocol (AAM + Ovsynch). The herds used different AAM systems. Parity, hyperketonemia at wk 1 and 2 postpartum (PP), purulent vaginal discharge at wk 5 PP, body condition score at wk 7 PP, and anovulation to wk 9 PP were recorded. These health indicators did not significantly differ between treatments, but did between herds. The effect of treatment on pregnancy at first insemination and by 88 DIM were assessed using logistic regression models. Time to pregnancy was assessed using survival analysis. Results are reported from intention-to-treat analyses. Treatment did not affect pregnancy at first insemination or pregnancy by 88 DIM, but we found significant interactions between treatment and herd for both outcomes. In herd 2, marginal mean pregnancy at first AI was greater with Double Ovsynch (38%) than AAM + Ovsynch (31%), but no difference was observed in herd 1 (Double Ovsynch = 31%; AAM + Ovsynch = 34%). By 88 DIM, a smaller proportion of cows in herd 1 were pregnant in Double Ovsynch (31%) than AAM + Ovsynch (49%), but there was no difference in

  7. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.; Lewis, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  8. Evaluation of hormone-free protocols based on the "male effect" for artificial insemination in lactating goats during seasonal anestrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Boissard, Karine; Forgerit, Yvonnick; Pougnard, Jean Louis; Bonné, Jean Luc; Leboeuf, Bernard

    2016-03-15

    Goat estrous and ovulatory responses to the "male effect" were characterized to determine the time range over which fertile ovulations occur after buck exposure. The results were used to explore the efficacy of different hormone-free artificial insemination (AI) protocols aimed at diminishing the number of inseminations needed to optimize fertility. Adult bucks and does were exposed to artificially long days during winter and then exposed to a natural photoperiod before buck exposure (Day 0). Most goats (>70%) ovulated twice, developing a short cycle followed by a normal cycle over 13 days after buck exposure. Among them, 21% were in estrus at the short cycle and 94% at the normal cycle. This second ovulation occurred within 48 hours of Day 6 and was the target for AI protocols. In protocol A (n = 79), goats were inseminated 12 hours after estrus detection from Day 5 to Day 9. Up to six AI times over 4 days were needed to inseminate goats in estrus. Forty-nine percent of the inseminated goats kidded. In protocol B (n = 145), estrus detection started on Day 5. The earlier (group 1) and later (group 2) buck-marked goats received one single insemination at fixed times on Days 6.5 or 7 and 8, respectively; unmarked goats (group 3) were inseminated along with group 2. In protocol C (n = 153), goats were inseminated twice on Days 6.5 or 7 and 8 without needing to detect estrus. Goats induced to ovulate by hormonal treatment were used as the control (n = 319). Fertility was lower in protocol B than in protocol C and controls (47% vs. 58% and 65% kidding; P ≤ 0.05), whereas this was higher in buck-marked goats than in unmarked ones (64% vs. 33%; P ≤ 0.05). In protocol B, fertility can increase (>60%) when only goats coming into estrus are inseminated. The best kidding rate (∼70%) was achieved when does were inseminated within 24 hours of the LH surge. Protocols involving insemination on Day 7 instead of Day 6.5 led to more goats being inseminated during this

  9. PCR assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection of semen specimens processed for artificial insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; Westenberg, S. M.; de Vries, J.; Repping, S.; Spanjaard, L.; Eijk, P. P.; van der Ende, A.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    In order to ascertain the microbiological quality of stored semen specimens processed for artificial insemination by a donor (AID), we developed a PCR assay targeting the chlamydial plasmid to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in semen. The lower limit of detection of this assay corresponded to 2.5 to 5

  10. Damage Detection Sensor System for Aerospace and Multiple Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy L.; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    NASA has identified structural health monitoring and damage detection and verification as critical needs in multiple technology roadmaps. The sensor systems can be customized for detecting location, damage size, and depth, with velocity options and can be designed for particular environments for monitoring of impact or physical damage to a structure. The damage detection system has been successfully demonstrated in a harsh environment and remote integration tested over 1000 miles apart. Multiple applications includes: Spacecraft and Aircraft; Inflatable, Deployable and Expandable Structures; Space Debris Monitoring; Space Habitats; Military Shelters; Solar Arrays, Smart Garments and Wearables, Extravehicular activity (EVA) suits; Critical Hardware Enclosures; Embedded Composite Structures; and Flexible Hybrid Printed Electronics and Systems. For better implementation and infusion into more flexible architectures, important and improved designs in advancing embedded software and GUI interface, and increasing flexibility, modularity, and configurable capabilities of the system are currently being carried out.

  11. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Valls, Laia [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  12. Review of The Artificial Insemination Result Based on Anestrus Post Insemination in Bali Cattle Herds at The Regency of Sikka, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsisius Considus Topianong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anestrus is one of indirect clinical signs of cattle pregnancy. Based on the present of sufficient progesterone on the blood,  the cattle with pregnancy condition will not show the signs of estrus.  The success of artificial insemination (AI is the occurrence of fertilization followed by pregnancy and parturition. This involves a complex relationship between semen quality and oocytes, estrus detection, AI punctuality, inseminator and farmers ability. Artificial insemination should be performed at the relative optimum time to ovulation. Estrus detection is an important factor to determine the time of AI. Estrus Detection of Bali cattles of the farmer is often difficult observed or not observed, especially in semi-intensive system maintenance. From this review it can be seen that there is the different proportion of inseminators on the incidence of estrus after AI. However, determination of  the role of inseminator on the success of AI and  then the other factors that affect the success of the AI should be under ideal conditions. Straw from the different bulls breed gave the same of AI result. The estimate of pregnancy rate of 80 cows after AI is 55 %.  Estrus detection on 21st days after AI can be used as a detection method for early diagnosis of pregnancy, especially for the  farmers who did not have any ability or authority to perform  medical acts of reproduction which is only owned by a veterinarian. Observation, recording and evaluation of the implementation of the AI should be made until the end of pregnancy  followed by the process of parturition.

  13. Fall detection for multiple pedestrians using depth image processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Lin, Shir-Kuan

    2014-04-01

    A fall detection method based on depth image analysis is proposed in this paper. As different from the conventional methods, if the pedestrians are partially overlapped or partially occluded, the proposed method is still able to detect fall events and has the following advantages: (1) single or multiple pedestrian detection; (2) recognition of human and non-human objects; (3) compensation for illumination, which is applicable in scenarios using indoor light sources of different colors; (4) using the central line of a human silhouette to obtain the pedestrian tilt angle; and (5) avoiding misrecognition of a squat or stoop as a fall. According to the experimental results, the precision of the proposed fall detection method is 94.31% and the recall is 85.57%. The proposed method is verified to be robust and specifically suitable for applying in family homes, corridors and other public places. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Successively detected events of the multiple muon catalysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov, V.G.; Somov, L.N.; Fil'chenkov, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of multiple muon catalysis process is considered. Expressions for the yields and time distributions of successive events of mu-catalysis reactions detected with epsilon 2 +t 2 mixtere are given. These results can be also applied to the synthesis reactions p+d -> 3 He+γ in h 2 d 2 mixture and p+t -> 4 He+γ in h 2 +t 2 mixture. It is shown that the mu-catalysis process parameters and the detection efficiency can be independently determined for the experimental data analysis

  15. Photodiode Based Detection for Multiple Trap Optical Tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Dino

    This thesis is concerned with the position tracking of microscopic, optically trapped particles and the quantification of the forces acting on them. A new detection method for simultaneous, three-dimensional tracking of multiple particles is presented, its performance is evaluated, and its...... usefulness is illustrated in specific application examples. Optical traps enable contact-less, all-optical manipulation of microscopic objects. Over the last decades, this laser-based micro-manipulation tool has facilitated numerous exciting discoveries within biology and physics, and it is today regarded...... as one of the workhorses of biophysical research. There exists a variety of implementations of optical traps, from simple single traps to complex multiple traps with engineered three-dimensional light fields. In comparison to single beam optical traps, multiple beam optical traps offer more freedom...

  16. Pregnancy rates after artificial insemination with cooled stallion spermatozoa either with or without single layer centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Richter, J; Martinsson, G; Stuhtmann, G; Hoogewijs, M; Roels, K; Dalin, A-M

    2014-11-01

    A successful outcome after artificial insemination with cooled semen is dependent on many factors, the sperm quality of the ejaculate being one. Previous studies have shown that spermatozoa with good motility, normal morphology, and good chromatin integrity can be selected by means of colloid centrifugation, particularly single layer centrifugation (SLC) using species-specific colloids. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an insemination trial with spermatozoa from "normal" ejaculates, i.e., from stallions with no known fertility problem, to determine whether the improvements in sperm quality seen in SLC-selected sperm samples compared with uncentrifuged controls in laboratory tests are reflected in an increased pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In a multicentre study, SLC-selected sperm samples and uncentrifuged controls from eight stallions were inseminated into approximately 10 mares per treatment per stallion. Ultrasound examination was carried out approximately 16 days after insemination to detect an embryonic vesicle. The pregnancy rates per cycle were 45% for controls and 69% for SLC-selected sperm samples, which is statistically significant (P < 0.0018). Thus, the improvement in sperm quality reported previously for SLC-selected sperm samples is associated with an increase in pregnancy rate, even for ejaculates from stallions with no known fertility problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Fertility of Frozen Boar Sperm When used for Artificial Insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2015-07-01

    One of the limits to practical use of frozen boar sperm involves the lowered fertility when used for artificial insemination. Years of studies have shown that 5-6 billion sperm (approximately 3 billion viable) used in single or multiple inseminations results in pregnancy rates most often between 60 and 70% and with litter sizes between nine and 10 pigs. Yet today, it is not uncommon for studies to report pregnancy rates from 70 to 85% and litter sizes with 11-12 pigs. While global statements about the incidence and reasons for higher fertility are not conclusive, incremental fertility improvements appear independently associated with use of a minimum number of viable sperm (1-2 billion), insemination timing that increases the probability that sperm will be present close to ovulation for groups of females, selection for boar sperm survival following cryopreservation, and modification of the freeze and thaw conditions using additives to protect sperm from oxidative damage. Studies show that techniques such as intrauterine and deep uterine insemination can provide an opportunity to reduce sperm numbers and that control of time of ovulation in groups of females can reduce the need for multiple inseminations and improve the chance for AI close to ovulation. However, optimal and consistent fertility with cryopreserved boar sperm may require a multifaceted approach that includes boar selection and screening, strategic use of additives during the freezing and thawing process, post-thaw evaluation of sperm and adjustments in sperm numbers for AI, assessment of female fertility and ovulation induction for single insemination. These sequenced procedures should be developed and incorporated into a quality control system for improved fertility when using minimal numbers of cryopreserved boar sperm. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Intrauterine insemination with fresh semen in Amur leopard cat (Pionailurus bengalensis eutilura) during non-breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAJIMA, Hideo; YOSHIZAWA, Madoka; SASAKI, Shinichi; YAMAMOTO, Fujio; NARUSHIMA, Etsuo; TSUTSUI, Toshihiko; FUNAHASHI, Takashi; KUSUDA, Satoshi; DOI, Osamu; TATEYAMA, Yuriko; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; HORI, Tatsuya; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Equine and human chorionic gonadotropins were administered to two female Amur leopard cats to induce estrus and ovulation during non-breeding season. Fresh semen collected from male cats was surgically inseminated into the uterine horn of the females. In one animal, two fetal sacs without heartbeats were observed on abdominal ultrasonography 31 days after insemination, which indicated that embryo death had occurred. In the other animal, fetal heartbeats were detected in two fetal sacs 29 days after insemination, which confirmed as pregnancy. This animal delivered two newborns 68 days after insemination; the one of the kittens was assumed to be stillbirth, and the other grew normally. In this study, we successfully obtained a kitten from an Amur leopard cat by artificial breeding for the first time in Japan. PMID:27733725

  19. Intrauterine insemination with fresh semen in Amur leopard cat (Pionailurus bengalensis eutilura) during non-breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Hideo; Yoshizawa, Madoka; Sasaki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Fujio; Narushima, Etsuo; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Funahashi, Takashi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Doi, Osamu; Tateyama, Yuriko; Kobayashi, Masanori; Hori, Tatsuya; Kawakami, Eiichi

    2017-01-20

    Equine and human chorionic gonadotropins were administered to two female Amur leopard cats to induce estrus and ovulation during non-breeding season. Fresh semen collected from male cats was surgically inseminated into the uterine horn of the females. In one animal, two fetal sacs without heartbeats were observed on abdominal ultrasonography 31 days after insemination, which indicated that embryo death had occurred. In the other animal, fetal heartbeats were detected in two fetal sacs 29 days after insemination, which confirmed as pregnancy. This animal delivered two newborns 68 days after insemination; the one of the kittens was assumed to be stillbirth, and the other grew normally. In this study, we successfully obtained a kitten from an Amur leopard cat by artificial breeding for the first time in Japan.

  20. Economic consequences of immediate or delayed insemination of a cowhhhh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Most dairy farmers are not certain whether immediate insemination or delaying the insemination is the best economic decision for a cow in oestrus. A model was developed for determining, based on herd and cow characteristics, the economic consequences of immediate or delayed insemination. The model

  1. Nonstripping "Rainbow" and Multiple Antigen Detection (MAD) Western Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Stan Stanislaw; Tsukamoto, Michelle M; Huang, Xianshu; Krajewski, Sebastian B

    2015-01-01

    A variation of immunoblotting method (the "Rainbow Western"), permits sequential detection of multiple antigens (MAD) on a single protein blot without stripping off prior antibodies. Because no stripping is involved, immobilized proteins are not lost from the membrane, thus allowing for multiple reprobings of the same membrane with different primary antibodies (≥12), retaining strong signal intensities for all sequential antibody probings. The procedure utilizes horseradish peroxidase (HRPase)-based detection with both a chemiluminescent and colorimetric substrate. Initial incubation of the blot with secondary antibody followed by colorimetric development prior to probing the blot with primary antibodies markedly reduces background in ECL-based detection procedures and permits sequential use of antibodies derived from a single species. In the "Rainbow Western," four different HRPase-colorimetric substrates that produce black, brown, red, and green colors are employed sequentially for detection and simultaneous display of four different antigens on the same membrane. By allowing large amounts of data to be obtained from a single blot, the MAD-immunoblotting and Rainbow Western methods have the potential for researchers to compare the expression of several proteins within a single biological sample. Both techniques could be particularly valuable for analysis of cellular populations that are difficult to isolate in large numbers or of clinical specimens where the amounts of protein samples is minute or only available on a one-time basis.

  2. Robust facial landmark detection based on initializing multiple poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For robot systems, robust facial landmark detection is the first and critical step for face-based human identification and facial expression recognition. In recent years, the cascaded-regression-based method has achieved excellent performance in facial landmark detection. Nevertheless, it still has certain weakness, such as high sensitivity to the initialization. To address this problem, regression based on multiple initializations is established in a unified model; face shapes are then estimated independently according to these initializations. With a ranking strategy, the best estimate is selected as the final output. Moreover, a face shape model based on restricted Boltzmann machines is built as a constraint to improve the robustness of ranking. Experiments on three challenging datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed facial landmark detection method against state-of-the-art methods.

  3. An Improved Test for Detecting Multiplicative Homeostatic Synaptic Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimok; Tsien, Richard W.; Alger, Bradley E.

    2012-01-01

    Homeostatic scaling of synaptic strengths is essential for maintenance of network “gain”, but also poses a risk of losing the distinctions among relative synaptic weights, which are possibly cellular correlates of memory storage. Multiplicative scaling of all synapses has been proposed as a mechanism that would preserve the relative weights among them, because they would all be proportionately adjusted. It is crucial for this hypothesis that all synapses be affected identically, but whether or not this actually occurs is difficult to determine directly. Mathematical tests for multiplicative synaptic scaling are presently carried out on distributions of miniature synaptic current amplitudes, but the accuracy of the test procedure has not been fully validated. We now show that the existence of an amplitude threshold for empirical detection of miniature synaptic currents limits the use of the most common method for detecting multiplicative changes. Our new method circumvents the problem by discarding the potentially distorting subthreshold values after computational scaling. This new method should be useful in assessing the underlying neurophysiological nature of a homeostatic synaptic scaling transformation, and therefore in evaluating its functional significance. PMID:22615990

  4. Orthogonal DF Cooperative Relay Networks with Multiple-SNR Thresholds and Multiple Hard-Decision Detections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian-Wu Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a wireless cooperative relay network with multiple relays communicating with the destination over orthogonal channels. Proposed is a cooperative transmission scheme that employs two signal-to-noise ratio (SNR thresholds and multiple hard-decision detections (HDD at the destination. One SNR threshold is used to select transmitting relays, and the other threshold is used at the destination for detection. Then the destination simply combines all the hard-decision results and makes the final binary decision based on majority voting. Focusing on the decode-and-forward (DF relaying protocol, the average bit error probability is derived and diversity analysis is carried out. It is shown that the full diversity order can be achieved by setting appropriate thresholds even when the destination does not know the exact or average SNRs of the source-relay links. The performance analysis is further extended to multi-hop cooperation and/or with the presence of a direct link where multiple thresholds are needed. By combining the multiple-SNR threshold method with a selection of the best relaying link, a high spectral-efficiency cooperative transmission scheme is further presented. Simulation results verify the theoretical analysis and demonstrate performance advantage of our proposed schemes over the existing ones.

  5. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.

  6. Success Rate of Inseminations Dependent on Maternal Age? An Analysis of 4246 Insemination Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorsch, M.; Gomez, R.; Hahn, T.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Seufert, R.; Skala, C.

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) has latterly become less important in reproductive medicine. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to identify and evaluate the success rates of repeated insemination cycles in women of different ages. All women who underwent intrauterine insemination in the Wiesbaden Fertility Clinic between 1998 and 2010 were included in the analysis. Additional inclusion criteria were: not more than 45 years old, previous FSH stimulation and slight to moderate subfertility of the male partner. A total of 4246 insemination cycles in 1612 patients were included in the analysis. The average number of IUI cycles per patient was 2.24 (1–14). Patient age ranged from 19 to 45 years (mean: 33.9 years). Logistic regression analysis showed a drop in pregnancy rates with increasing age (p = 0.000). However, for the first three cycles the pregnancy rates for women aged 40 and 41 did not differ from those of women aged between 35 and 39 years. Overall pregnancy rates were stable in women up to the age of 40, even after several insemination cycles (7.5 and 10 %). Insemination is therefore still an effective procedure in selected patients. Stable pregnancy rates were recorded even after more than 3 cycles. After 3 cycles, the success rates for women aged 40 and 41 did not differ from those of women below the age of 40. PMID:24771935

  7. Intra-uterine insemination for male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensdorp, A. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Heineman, M. J.; Vandekerckhove, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most frequently used fertility treatments for couples with male subfertility. Its use, especially when combined with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) has been subject of discussion. Although the treatment itself is less invasive and expensive

  8. Harvesting Sperm and Artificial Insemination of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duselis, Amanda R.; Vrana, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    Rodents of the genus Peromyscus (deer mice) are the most prevalent native North American mammals. Peromyscus species are used in a wide range of research including toxicology, epidemiology, ecology, behavioral, and genetic studies. Here they provide a useful model for demonstrations of artificial insemination. Methods similar to those displayed here have previously been used in several deer mouse studies, yet no detailed protocol has been published. Here we demonstrate the basic method of artificial insemination. This method entails extracting the testes from the rodent, then isolating the sperm from the epididymis and vas deferens. The mature sperm, now in a milk mixture, are placed in the female’s reproductive tract at the time of ovulation. Fertilization is counted as day 0 for timing of embryo development. Embryos can then be retrieved at the desired time-point and manipulated. Artificial insemination can be used in a variety of rodent species where exact embryo timing is crucial or hard to obtain. This technique is vital for species or strains (including most Peromyscus) which may not mate immediately and/or where mating is hard to assess. In addition, artificial insemination provides exact timing for embryo development either in mapping developmental progress and/or transgenic work. Reduced numbers of animals can be used since fertilization is guaranteed. This method has been vital to furthering the Peromyscus system, and will hopefully benefit others as well. PMID:18978991

  9. Prognostic factors affecting outcome of intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a recent resurgence in the use of intrauterine insemination (IUI) in Nigeria. However, there is a need for a rational use of the procedure so that couples do not waste time and money on ineffective therapy if it is not indicated. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the possible prognostic ...

  10. Nonsurgical Artificial Insemination in the Ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination (AI) is not readily utilized with sheep because of a lack of knowledge and infrastructure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the timing of AI with a synchronized estrous on fertility and the impact of cryopreservation diluents on post-thaw sperm quality. The estrous...

  11. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last 30 years however, intrauterine insemination has evolved with the introduction of ovulation stimulating protocols and sperm preparation methods taken from assisted reproduction techniques. Costs have risen, but the success rate has not risen to the same extent. We have therefore developed a quite simple ...

  12. Low Cost, Simple, Intrauterine Insemination Procedure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    sophisticated equipment, costly materials, media, or disposable insemination catheters; it is quite inexpensive and may be ... cycle day 4. Follicular growth was monitored by ultrasound with a vaginal probe. Monitoring started on day 9 and thereafter every other day. Human Chorionic ..... Analysis of the relationship between ...

  13. A novel interacting multiple model based network intrusion detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ruichi; Venkatasubramanian, Vijay; Leung, Henry

    2006-04-01

    In today's information age, information and network security are of primary importance to any organization. Network intrusion is a serious threat to security of computers and data networks. In internet protocol (IP) based network, intrusions originate in different kinds of packets/messages contained in the open system interconnection (OSI) layer 3 or higher layers. Network intrusion detection and prevention systems observe the layer 3 packets (or layer 4 to 7 messages) to screen for intrusions and security threats. Signature based methods use a pre-existing database that document intrusion patterns as perceived in the layer 3 to 7 protocol traffics and match the incoming traffic for potential intrusion attacks. Alternately, network traffic data can be modeled and any huge anomaly from the established traffic pattern can be detected as network intrusion. The latter method, also known as anomaly based detection is gaining popularity for its versatility in learning new patterns and discovering new attacks. It is apparent that for a reliable performance, an accurate model of the network data needs to be established. In this paper, we illustrate using collected data that network traffic is seldom stationary. We propose the use of multiple models to accurately represent the traffic data. The improvement in reliability of the proposed model is verified by measuring the detection and false alarm rates on several datasets.

  14. Probability of detection as a function of multiple influencing parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Mato

    2014-10-15

    Non-destructive testing is subject to measurement uncertainties. In safety critical applications the reliability assessment of its capability to detect flaws is therefore necessary. In most applications, the flaw size is the single most important parameter that influences the probability of detection (POD) of the flaw. That is why the POD is typically calculated and expressed as a function of the flaw size. The capability of the inspection system to detect flaws is established by comparing the size of reliably detected flaw with the size of the flaw that is critical for the structural integrity. Applications where several factors have an important influence on the POD are investigated in this dissertation. To devise a reliable estimation of the NDT system capability it is necessary to express the POD as a function of all these factors. A multi-parameter POD model is developed. It enables POD to be calculated and expressed as a function of several influencing parameters. The model was tested on the data from the ultrasonic inspection of copper and cast iron components with artificial flaws. Also, a technique to spatially present POD data called the volume POD is developed. The fusion of the POD data coming from multiple inspections of the same component with different sensors is performed to reach the overall POD of the inspection system.

  15. Detection and localization of multiple wideband intermittent acoustic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. E.; Yao, K.; Hedley, R.; Taylor, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    We have been interested in the analytical and experimental study of real-life bird song sources for several years. Bird sources are characterized by either a single or multiple bird vocalizations independent of each other or in response to others. The sources may be physically-stationary or exhibit movements and the signals are wide-band in frequency and often intermittent with pauses and possibly restarting with repeating previously used songs or with new songs. Thus, the detection, classification, and 2D or 3D localization of these birds pose challenging signal and array problems. Due to the fact that some birds can mimic other birds, time-domain waveform characterization may not be sufficient for determining the number of birds. Similarly, due to the intermittent nature of the vocalizations, data collected over a long period cannot be used naively. Thus, it is necessary to use short-time Fourier transform (STFT) to fully exploit the intricate natures of the time and frequency properties of these sources and displayed on a spectrogram. Various dominant spectral data over the relevant frames are used to form sample covariance matrices. Eigenvectors associated with the decompositions of these matrices for these spectral indices can be used to provide 2D/3D DOA estimations of the sources over different frames for intermittent sources. Proper cluttering of these data can be used to perform enhanced detection, classification, and localization of multiple bird sources. Two sets of collected bird data will be used to demonstrate these claims.

  16. Synchronized ovulation for first insemination improves reproductive performance and reduces cost per pregnancy in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T V; Lima, F S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of synchronizing estrus and ovulation to implement a timed artificial insemination (AI) at first insemination on reproductive performance and cost per pregnancy in dairy heifers. Six hundred eleven Holsteins heifers at approximately 400 d of age from 3 farms were enrolled in the study. Six days before moving to the breeding pens, heifers were allocated randomly to AI after detected estrus from study d 0 to 84 (CON, n=306), or to timed AI for first AI followed by detected estrus for the remainder of the 84-d study (TAI, n=305). Heifers receiving TAI were enrolled in the 5-d timed AI protocol on study d -6 (d -6, GnRH and a progesterone insert; d -1, PGF2α and insert removal; d 0, PGF2α; d 2, GnRH + AI), and they were allowed to be bred the day before scheduled timed AI if detected in estrus. Starting on study d 0, estrus was detected daily. Heifers in estrus were inseminated on the same morning as detected estrus. Control heifers not inseminated by study d 7 received PGF2α and this treatment was repeated every 2 wk until AI. The study lasted 84 d to allow a period of breeding equivalent to four 21-d estrous cycles. A herd budget accounting for inputs for both treatments was created to determine the cost per pregnancy. Sensitivity analysis compared economic differences between the 2 treatments under different input scenarios when detection of estrus after the first AI varied from 50 to 80%. Interval to first AI was 8 d shorter for TAI than for CON. Pregnancy at first AI did not differ between treatments (CON=58.3 vs. TAI=62.8%). In contrast, TAI increased pregnancy per AI (P/AI) compared with CON in heifers inseminated with sex-sorted semen (CON=31.6 vs. TAI=54.8%). The 21-d cycle insemination rate was greater for TAI (91.4%) than for CON (82.4%), even when evaluated after the first 21 d in the study (CON=68.2 vs. TAI=77.1%). The increased insemination rate improved the 21-d cycle pregnancy rate from 47.9% in CON to 57

  17. Detection and track of a stochastic target using multiple measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, C.T.

    1995-11-01

    The authors are interested in search and tracking problems. In a search, the target might be located among a number of hiding places. Multiple measurements from various locations might be used to determine the likelihood that a particular hiding place is occupied. An obvious example would be a search for a weak radiation source in a building. Search teams might make many measurements with radiation detectors and analyze this data to determine likely areas for further searching. In this paper the authors present a statistical interpretation of the implications of measurements made on a stochastic system, one which makes random state transitions with known average rates. Knowledge of the system is represented as a statistical ensemble of instances which accord with measurements and prior information. The evolution of ratios of populations in this ensemble due to measurements and stochastic transitions may be calculated efficiently. Applied to target detection and tracking, this approach allows a rigorous definition of probability of detection and probability of false alarm and reveals a computationally useful functional relationship between the two. An example of a linear array of simple counters is considered in detail. For it, accurate analytic approximations are developed for detection and tracking statistics as functions of system parameters. A single measure of effectiveness for individual sensors is found which is a major determinant of system performance and which would be useful for initial sensor design.

  18. Multiple-Instance Learning for Anomaly Detection in Digital Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwenole; Lamard, Mathieu; Cozic, Michel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Cazuguel, Guy

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided detection and diagnosis system for breast cancer, the most common form of cancer among women, using mammography. The system relies on the Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL) paradigm, which has proven useful for medical decision support in previous works from our team. In the proposed framework, breasts are first partitioned adaptively into regions. Then, features derived from the detection of lesions (masses and microcalcifications) as well as textural features, are extracted from each region and combined in order to classify mammography examinations as "normal" or "abnormal". Whenever an abnormal examination record is detected, the regions that induced that automated diagnosis can be highlighted. Two strategies are evaluated to define this anomaly detector. In a first scenario, manual segmentations of lesions are used to train an SVM that assigns an anomaly index to each region; local anomaly indices are then combined into a global anomaly index. In a second scenario, the local and global anomaly detectors are trained simultaneously, without manual segmentations, using various MIL algorithms (DD, APR, mi-SVM, MI-SVM and MILBoost). Experiments on the DDSM dataset show that the second approach, which is only weakly-supervised, surprisingly outperforms the first approach, even though it is strongly-supervised. This suggests that anomaly detectors can be advantageously trained on large medical image archives, without the need for manual segmentation.

  19. Detection and Characterization of Circulating Tumour Cells in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxuan Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM remains an incurable disease despite recent therapeutic improvements. The ability to detect and characterize MM circulating tumour cells (CTCs in peripheral blood provides an alternative to replace or augment invasive bone marrow (BM biopsies with a simple blood draw, providing real-time, clinically relevant information leading to improved disease manage‐ ment and therapy selection. Here we have developed and qualified an enrichment-free, cell-based immunofluores‐ cence MM CTC assay that utilizes an automated digital pathology algorithm to distinguish MM CTCs from white blood cells (WBCs on the basis of CD138 and CD45 expression levels, as well as a number of morphological parameters. These MM CTCs were further characterized for expression of phospho-ribosomal protein S6 (pS6 as a readout for PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Clinical feasi‐ bility of the assay was established by testing blood samples from a small cohort of patients, where we detected popu‐ lations of both CD138pos and CD138neg MM CTCs. In this study, we developed an immunofluorescent cell-based assay to detect and characterize CTCs in MM.

  20. Point-of-care detection of extracellular vesicles: Sensitivity optimization and multiple-target detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Rodríguez, Myriam; Serrano-Pertierra, Esther; García, Agustín Costa; López-Martín, Soraya; Yañez-Mo, María; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Blanco-López, M C

    2017-01-15

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound nanovesicles delivered by different cellular lineages under physiological and pathological conditions. Although these vesicles have shown relevance as biomarkers for a number of diseases, their isolation and detection still has several technical drawbacks, mainly related with problems of sensitivity and time-consumed. Here, we reported a rapid and multiple-targeted lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) system for the detection of EVs isolated from human plasma. A range of different labels (colloidal gold, carbon black and magnetic nanoparticles) was compared as detection probe in LFIA, being gold nanoparticles that showed better results. Using this platform, we demonstrated that improvements may be carried out by incorporating additional capture lines with different antibodies. The device exhibited a limit of detection (LOD) of 3.4×10 6 EVs/µL when anti-CD81 and anti-CD9 were selected as capture antibodies in a multiple-targeted format, and anti-CD63 labeled with gold nanoparticles was used as detection probe. This LFIA, coupled to EVs isolation kits, could become a rapid and useful tool for the point-of-care detection of EVs, with a total analysis time of two hours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic multiple thresholding breast boundary detection algorithm for mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi-Ta; Zhou Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Daly, Caroline Plowden; Douglas, Julie A.; Zhang Yiheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Shi Jiazheng; Wei Jun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Automated detection of breast boundary is one of the fundamental steps for computer-aided analysis of mammograms. In this study, the authors developed a new dynamic multiple thresholding based breast boundary (MTBB) detection method for digitized mammograms. Methods: A large data set of 716 screen-film mammograms (442 CC view and 274 MLO view) obtained from consecutive cases of an Institutional Review Board approved project were used. An experienced breast radiologist manually traced the breast boundary on each digitized image using a graphical interface to provide a reference standard. The initial breast boundary (MTBB-Initial) was obtained by dynamically adapting the threshold to the gray level range in local regions of the breast periphery. The initial breast boundary was then refined by using gradient information from horizontal and vertical Sobel filtering to obtain the final breast boundary (MTBB-Final). The accuracy of the breast boundary detection algorithm was evaluated by comparison with the reference standard using three performance metrics: The Hausdorff distance (HDist), the average minimum Euclidean distance (AMinDist), and the area overlap measure (AOM). Results: In comparison with the authors' previously developed gradient-based breast boundary (GBB) algorithm, it was found that 68%, 85%, and 94% of images had HDist errors less than 6 pixels (4.8 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 89%, 90%, and 96% of images had AMinDist errors less than 1.5 pixels (1.2 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 96%, 98%, and 99% of images had AOM values larger than 0.9 for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. The improvement by the MTBB-Final method was statistically significant for all the evaluation measures by the Wilcoxon signed rank test (p<0.0001). Conclusions: The MTBB approach that combined dynamic multiple thresholding and gradient information provided better performance than the breast boundary

  2. Plagiarism Detection Using Artificial Intelligence Technique In Multiple Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mausumi Sahu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism relates to the act of taking information or ideas of someone else and demand it as your own. Basically it reproduce the existing information in modified format. In every field of education it becomes a serious issue. Various techniques and tools are derived these days to detect plagiarism. Various types of plagiarism are there like text matching copy paste grammar based method etc.This paper proposes a new method implemented in a program where we utilise a text set to identify the copied part by comparing with some existing multiple files. Here we put the concept of a machine learning language i.e k-NN. It helps us to identify whether a paper is plagiarized or not.

  3. SWI enhances vein detection using gadolinium in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, Pietro; Mazzoni, Lorenzo N; Moretti, Marco; Grammatico, Matteo; Chiti, Stefano; Massacesi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) combined with the FLAIR sequence provides the ability to depict in vivo the perivenous location of inflammatory demyelinating lesions – one of the most specific pathologic features of multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, in MS white matter (WM) lesions, gadolinium-based contrast media (CM) can increase vein signal loss on SWI. This report focuses on two cases of WM inflammatory lesions enhancing on SWI images after CM injection. In these lesions in fact the CM increased the contrast between the parenchyma and the central vein allowing as well, in one of the two cases, the detection of a vein not visible on the same SWI sequence acquired before CM injection

  4. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination.

  5. A Multiple-Channel Sub-Band Transient Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Smith

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a unique multiple-channel sub-band transient detection system to record transient electromagnetic signals in carrier-dominated radio environments; the system has been used to make unique observations of weak, transient HF signals. The detection system has made these observations possible through improved sensitivity compared to conventional broadband transient detection systems; the sensitivity improvement is estimated to be at least 20 dB. The increase in sensitivity has been achieved through subdivision of the band of interest (an 18 MHz tunable bandwidth) into eight sub-band independent detection channels, each with a 400 kHz bandwidth and its own criteria. The system generates a system trigger signal when a predetermined number of channels (typically five) trigger within a predetermined window of time (typically 100 ~s). Events are recorded with a broadband data acquisition system sampling at 50 or 100 Msample/s, so despite the fact that the detection system operates on portions of the signal confined to narrow bands, data acquisition is broadband. Between May and September of 1994, the system was used to detect and record over six thousand transient events in the frequency band from 3 to 30 MHz. Approximately 500 of the events have been characterized as paired bursts of radio noise with individual durations of 2 to 10 ps and separations between the bursts of 5 to 160 ps. The paired transients are typically 5 to 40 dB brighter than the background electromagnetic spectrum between carrier signals. We have termed these events SubIonospheric Pulse Pairs (SIPPS) and presently have no explanation as to their source. Our observations of SIPPS resemble observations of TransIonospheric Pulse Pairs (TIPPs) recorded by the Blackboard instrument on the ALEXIS satellite; the source of TIPP events is also unknown. Most of the recorded SIPP events do not exhibit frequency dispersion, implying propagation along a line-of-sight (groundwave) path; but seven of

  6. Detecting multiple adulterants in dry milk using Raman chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were together mixed into nonfat dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1%-5.0% for each adulterant. A benchtop point-scan Raman imaging system using a 785-nm laser was assembled to acquire hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm-1. Each mixture was imaged in an area of 25×25 mm2 with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. Selfmodeling mixture analysis (SMA) was used to extract pure component spectra, by which the four types of the adulterants were identified at all concentration levels based on their spectral information divergence values to the reference spectra. Raman chemical images were created using the contribution images from SMA, and their use to effectively visualize identification and spatial distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the dry milk was demonstrated.

  7. Multiple-instance learning for breast cancer detection in mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Rosa, Rubén; Lamard, Mathieu; Cazuguel, Guy; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Cozic, Michel; Quellec, Gwenolé

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental computer-aided detection and diagnosis system for breast cancer, the most common form of cancer among women, using mammography. The system relies on the Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL) paradigm, which has proven useful for medical decision support in previous works from our team. In the proposed framework, the breasts are first partitioned adaptively into regions. Then, either textural features, or features derived from the detection of masses and microcalcifications, are extracted from each region. Finally, feature vectors extracted from each region are combined using an MIL algorithm (Citation k-NN or mi-Graph), in order to recognize "normal" mammography examinations or to categorize examinations as "normal", "benign" or "cancer". An accuracy of 91.1% (respectively 62.1%) was achieved for normality recognition (respectively three-class categorization) in a subset of 720 mammograms from the DDSM dataset. The paper also discusses future improvements, that will make the most of the MIL paradigm, in order to improve "benign" versus "cancer" discrimination in particular.

  8. Multiple Vehicle Detection and Segmentation in Malaysia Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariz Hasan, Ahmad; Fikri Che Husin, Mohd; Affendi Rosli, Khairul; Norhafiz Hashim, Mohd; Faiz Zainal Abidin, Amar

    2018-03-01

    Vision based system are widely used in the field of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) to extract a large amount of information to analyze traffic scenes. By rapid number of vehicles on the road as well as significant increase on cameras dictated the need for traffic surveillance systems. This system can take over the burden some task was performed by human operator in traffic monitoring centre. The main technique proposed by this paper is concentrated on developing a multiple vehicle detection and segmentation focusing on monitoring through Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) video. The system is able to automatically segment vehicle extracted from heavy traffic scene by optical flow estimation alongside with blob analysis technique in order to detect the moving vehicle. Prior to segmentation, blob analysis technique will compute the area of interest region corresponding to moving vehicle which will be used to create bounding box on that particular vehicle. Experimental validation on the proposed system was performed and the algorithm is demonstrated on various set of traffic scene.

  9. Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in Goats during Low Breeding Season-A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmood*, S. M. H Andrabi, M. Anwar and M. Rafiq

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A pilot project was initiated to introduce artificial insemination (AI in goats at farmer level with chilled semen. Does (n=18 were synchronized with progesterone impregnated vaginal sponges (60 mg Medroxyprogesterone acetate; MAP for 11 days. At 48 hrs prior to removal of the sponges, intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and cloprostenol (0.075 mg was given. Fixed time vaginal insemination (43-45 hrs after sponge removal was done twice (at 12 hrs interval in 17 does with chilled Beetal buck semen (4°C extended with Tris-citric acid (TCA or skimmed milk (SM based extender (75 x 106 sperm/ml. Pregnancy test was performed at 45 days post insemination through ultrasonography. An overall 94.5% (17/18 of does showed heat signs and 78% of them were detected in heat between 12 - 24 hrs after sponge removal. An overall 29.4% (5/17 pregnancy rate was recorded. Higher pregnancy rate (44.4% was obtained in does inseminated with SM extended semen as compared to 12.5% for TCA extended semen. Results were encouraging in the sense that to the best of our knowledge it was the first report of kidding through AI in heat induced does in Pakistan. Moreover, it indicated the feasibility of using synchronization and fixed time AI during low breeding season to enhance the reproductive efficiency in local goats.

  10. Training Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for Artificial Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) K. V. Keller, Jr. 1a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT IlYai. WMt...ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (Tursiops truncatus) FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION Karl V. Keller Naval Ocean Systems Center, Hawaii Laboratory Kailua, HI 96734...INTRODUCTION The Naval Ocean Systems Center, Hawaii Laboratory, for the past eight years has maintained an artificial insemination (AI) program for

  11. Homolog intrauterin insemination som basisbehandling af infertile par

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmsøe-Zinck, Lise; Vilsbøll, Tina; Andersen, A N

    1995-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination with husband's Percoll preparated sperm was performed in 179 couples in a total of 440 treatment cycles. A total of 60 pregnancies was obtained. The pregnancy and delivery rate was 13.6% and 9.3% per insemination cycle, respectively. The cumulative probabilities......-invasive treatment gives acceptable results. We recommend an ideal maximum of three treatment cycles, and at least 1-2 million spermatozoa for each insemination....

  12. Short communication: Field fertility in Holstein bulls: Can type of breeding strategy (artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination) alter service sire fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Carvalho, P D; Rivera, H; Cabrera, V; Wiltbank, M C; Baruselli, P S; Souza, A H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) from service sires used on artificial insemination after estrus detection (EAI) or timed artificial insemination (TAI) breedings. Confirmed artificial insemination outcome records from 3 national data centers were merged and used as a data source. Criteria edits were herd's overall P/AI within 20 and 60%, a minimum of 30 breedings reported per herd-year, service sires that were used in at least 10 different herds with no more than 40% of the breedings performed in a single herd, breeding records from lactating Holstein cows receiving their first to fifth postpartum breedings occurring within 45 to 375 d in milk, and cows with 1 to 5 lactations producing a minimum of 6,804 kg. Initially 1,142,859 breeding records were available for analysis. After editing, a subset of the data (n=857,539) was used to classify breeding codes into either EAI or TAI based on weekly insemination profile in each individual herd. The procedure HPMIXED of SAS was used and took into account effects of state, farm, cow identification, breeding month, year, parity, days in milk at breeding, and service sire. This model was used independently for the 2 types osires f breeding codes (EAI vs. TAI), and service sire P/AI rankings within each breeding code were performed for sires with >700 breedings (94 sires) and for with >1,000 breedings (n=56 sires) following both EAI and TAI. Correlation for service sire fertility rankings following EAI and TAI was performed with the PROC CORR of SAS. Service sire P/AI rankings produced with EAI and TAI were 0.81 (for sires with >700 breedings) and 0.84 (for sires with >1,000 breedings). In addition, important changes occurred in service sire P/AI ranking to EAI and TAI for sires with less than 10,000 recorded artificial inseminations. In conclusion, the type of breeding strategy (EAI or TAI) was associated with some changes in service sire P/AI ranking, but ranking changes

  13. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year [es

  14. Multiple mode gravitational wave detection with a spherical antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, J. Alberto

    2000-07-01

    Apart from being omnidirectional, a solid elastic sphere is a natural multimode and multifrequency device for the detection of gravitational waves (GW). Motion sensing in a spherical GW detector thus requires a multiple set of transducers attached to it at suitable locations. If these are resonant then they exert a significant back action on the larger sphere and, as a consequence, the joint dynamics of the entire system must be properly understood before reliable conclusions can be drawn from data obtained using this system. In this paper, I present and develop an analytical approach to the study of such dynamics, which generalizes the currently existing ones and clarifies their actual range of validity. In addition, the new formalism shows that resonator layouts exist that are alternatives to the highly symmetric Truncated Icosahedron Gravitational Antenna (TIGA), and that they have potentially interesting properties. I will describe in detail one resonance layout that has mode channels, only requires five resonators per quadrupole-mode sensed and is based on a Pentagonal Hexa-Contrahedron (PHC) polyhedric shape. Also, the perturbative nature of the proposed approach makes it very well adapted to systematically assessing the consequences of realistic mistunings in the device parameters, by robust analytic methods. In order to check the real value of the mathematical model, its predictions have been compared with experimental data from the Louisiana State University (LSU) prototype detector TIGA and agreement between the predictions and data is consistently found to reach a satisfactory precision of four decimal places.

  15. The detection of cheating in multiple choice examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2015-10-01

    Cheating in examinations is acknowledged by an increasing number of organizations to be widespread. We examine two different approaches to assess their effectiveness at detecting anomalous results, suggestive of collusion, using data taken from a number of multiple-choice examinations organized by the UK Radio Communication Foundation. Analysis of student pair overlaps of correct answers is shown to give results consistent with more orthodox statistical correlations for which confidence limits as opposed to the less familiar "Bonferroni method" can be used. A simulation approach is also developed which confirms the interpretation of the empirical approach. Then the variables Xi =(1 -Ui) Yi +Ui Z are a system of symmetric dependent binary variables (0 , 1 ; p) whose correlation matrix is ρij = r. The proof is easy and given in the paper. Let us add two remarks. • We used the expression "symmetric variables" to reflect the fact that all Xi play the same role. The expression "exchangeable variables" is often used with the same meaning. • The correlation matrix has only positive elements. This is of course imposed by the symmetry condition. ρ12 0, thus violating the symmetry requirement. In the following subsections we will be concerned with the question of uniqueness of the set of Xi generated above. Needless to say, it is useful to know whether the proposition gives the answer or only one among many. More precisely, the problem can be stated as follows.

  16. Detecting Multiple Random Changepoints in Bayesian Piecewise Growth Mixture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Eric F; Kohli, Nidhi; Bose, Maitreyee

    2017-11-17

    Piecewise growth mixture models are a flexible and useful class of methods for analyzing segmented trends in individual growth trajectory over time, where the individuals come from a mixture of two or more latent classes. These models allow each segment of the overall developmental process within each class to have a different functional form; examples include two linear phases of growth, or a quadratic phase followed by a linear phase. The changepoint (knot) is the time of transition from one developmental phase (segment) to another. Inferring the location of the changepoint(s) is often of practical interest, along with inference for other model parameters. A random changepoint allows for individual differences in the transition time within each class. The primary objectives of our study are as follows: (1) to develop a PGMM using a Bayesian inference approach that allows the estimation of multiple random changepoints within each class; (2) to develop a procedure to empirically detect the number of random changepoints within each class; and (3) to empirically investigate the bias and precision of the estimation of the model parameters, including the random changepoints, via a simulation study. We have developed the user-friendly package BayesianPGMM for R to facilitate the adoption of this methodology in practice, which is available at https://github.com/lockEF/BayesianPGMM . We describe an application to mouse-tracking data for a visual recognition task.

  17. Modeling species occurrence dynamics with multiple states and imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.; Seamans, M.E.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensions of occupancy modeling have focused not only on the distribution of species over space, but also on additional state variables (e.g., reproducing or not, with or without disease organisms, relative abundance categories) that provide extra information about occupied sites. These biologist-driven extensions are characterized by ambiguity in both species presence and correct state classification, caused by imperfect detection. We first show the relationships between independently published approaches to the modeling of multistate occupancy. We then extend the pattern-based modeling to the case of sampling over multiple seasons or years in order to estimate state transition probabilities associated with system dynamics. The methodology and its potential for addressing relevant ecological questions are demonstrated using both maximum likelihood (occupancy and successful reproduction dynamics of California Spotted Owl) and Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation approaches (changes in relative abundance of green frogs in Maryland). Just as multistate capture-recapture modeling has revolutionized the study of individual marked animals, we believe that multistate occupancy modeling will dramatically increase our ability to address interesting questions about ecological processes underlying population-level dynamics. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Textureless Macula Swelling Detection with Multiple Retinal Fundus Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Grisan, Enrico [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Favaro, Paolo [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh; Ruggeri, Alfredo [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Retinal fundus images acquired with non-mydriatic digital fundus cameras are a versatile tool for the diagnosis of various retinal diseases. Because of the ease of use of newer camera models and their relatively low cost, these cameras can be employed by operators with limited training for telemedicine or Point-of-Care applications. We propose a novel technique that uses uncalibrated multiple-view fundus images to analyse the swelling of the macula. This innovation enables the detection and quantitative measurement of swollen areas by remote ophthalmologists. This capability is not available with a single image and prone to error with stereo fundus cameras. We also present automatic algorithms to measure features from the reconstructed image which are useful in Point-of-Care automated diagnosis of early macular edema, e.g., before the appearance of exudation. The technique presented is divided into three parts: first, a preprocessing technique simultaneously enhances the dark microstructures of the macula and equalises the image; second, all available views are registered using non-morphological sparse features; finally, a dense pyramidal optical flow is calculated for all the images and statistically combined to build a naiveheight- map of the macula. Results are presented on three sets of synthetic images and two sets of real world images. These preliminary tests show the ability to infer a minimum swelling of 300 microns and to correlate the reconstruction with the swollen location.

  19. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongtip, Nikorn; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote; Pongsopavijitr, Pornsawan; Kornkaewrat, Kornchai; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Jansittiwate, Saran; Rungsri, Ronnachit; Boonprasert, Khajornpat; Wongkalasin, Warut; Homkong, Pongpon; Dejchaisri, Suthathip; Wajjwalku, Worawit; Saikhun, Kulnasan

    2009-01-01

    Background Artificial insemination (AI) using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI). Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years) by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years) were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod) inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao) inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population. PMID:19615097

  20. Need of reevaluation of the parameters of semen straws to be used in artificial insemination programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Angel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In buffalo industry artificial insemination is being used in breeding programs of our country . It has limitations such us seasonality, difficult estrus detection and low pregnancy rates when compared with cattle. IATF programs using a single insemination show results from 10 to 50% pregnancy rate, little information is available about minimum requirements of spermatozoa for IA. The aim of this paper is to compare the pregnancy rates after using narual mating or frozen semen in a sincronization of ovulation program. This work were conducted in Pueblo Nuevo Cordoba Colombia in August during the breeding season of 2005-6. 99 multiparous crossbred females were used with 50 to 150 postpartum days. Body score condition of 3,5 to 4. All animals were palpated to exclude anatomical alterations. Ovsynch protocol for IATF reported by Baruselli (2000, they were allocated in two groups: Buffalo group, after the last GnRH analog injection 17 females were allocated with 5 bulls, and IATF Group 82 females were inseminated 16 hours later. The semen of 7 different buffalo bulls were used and evaluated and qualified as normal. Inseminations were performed by 3 different technicians. A blood sample was obtained 20 days after IA to determine pregnancy by determinations of P4 levels using chemiluminiscence, ≥1ng/ml were used as cut off value to determine pregnancy. Data were compared using Chi square test. 70% (12/17 females of the bull group and 29% (24/82 of IATF group were diagnosed us pregnant using P4, this difference were statistically significant (P≤0.001. Buffalo bulls mount all females. No statistical differences were found in pregnancy rates of the bulls used for IATF, from 12% to 37 %, one exceptional bull obtain 71%. As expected bulls have higher pregnancy rates than artificial insemination, the results obtained here allow researchers to evaluated semen quality, specially density to improve results IATF in buffaloes.

  1. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongkalasin Warut

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.

  2. Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of Glossina palpalis palpalis (robineau-desvoidy) at a relict forest in the Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. ... The results indicate that nutritional and physical stress were the likely constraints to optimum productivity. Keywords: insemination, pregnancy ...

  3. Oestrus synchronization with fixed-time artificial insemination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study obtained a farrowing rate of 82.6% and litter size of 9.2 ± 0.32 after oestrus synchronization with timed insemination. Oestrus synchronization facilitated the insemination of a batch of sows at particular locations covering two to three village clusters, which drastically reduced the transport costs for the semen.

  4. Constraints to adoption of artificial insemination techniques in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constraints to adoption of artificial insemination techniques by livestock owners in Bauchi LGA were investigated using some randomly selected respondents. Of the constraints considered, the most important among the village livestock owners was lack of artificial insemination facilities (84. 3%) while the least was the ...

  5. Multiple Additive Regression Trees a Methodology for Predictive Data Mining for Fraud Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da

    2002-01-01

    ...) is using new and innovative techniques for fraud detection. Their primary techniques for fraud detection are the data mining tools of classification trees and neural networks as well as methods for pooling the results of multiple model fits...

  6. Improvement strategies in ovine artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anel, L; Alvarez, M; Martinez-Pastor, F; Garcia-Macias, V; Anel, E; de Paz, P

    2006-10-01

    Artificial insemination in ram is scarcely widespread comparing with other domestic species. This has been due not only to fertility results being irregular and low but also because of the difficulty in the application of enhancements such as the use of frozen-thawed sperm. Although there is a lot of information on the use of different options to improve these AI results (such as transcervical application, the use of thawed sperm, etc.) commercial programmes can be classified on two general categories: those using refrigerated semen (15 degrees C) by superficial intracervical deposition (vaginal), and, more restricted, those using thawed sperm by intrauterine deposition (laparoscopy). In the present work, we have summarized our viewpoint on three general research lines for the improvement of AI results in sheep: semen preservation, AI procedures and semen assessment. Briefly, in ram it is necessary to develop a medium term methodology of sperm refrigeration (3-5 days), which would allow the distribution of sperm doses to a widespread area. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to develop an intrauterine transcervical AI technique, which allows thawed semen to be applied by vaginal insemination. Besides, the low predictive value of classic assessment techniques limits the ability to adjust the number of spermatozoa per dose according to its actual fertility.

  7. Efforts to Increase the Success Rate of Artificial Insemination on Small Ruminant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The success rate of artificial insemination (AI technology in Indonesia is still low, especially on small ruminants. At experimental station condition, it was reported that the success rate of intrauterine AI was high (78.9% lambing percentage, while intracervix AI technique was still low (47.6% lambing percentage. Various things that could affect the success rate of AI program are discussed in this paper. Efforts to improve the success of artificial insemination in small ruminants (goats and sheep can be done through the selection of productive female with good reproductive cycle, accurate dose of hormonal synchronization, followed by proper estrous detection and semen placement at the right time. Each stage is still open for more detailed study in order to obtain satisfactory results.

  8. First deliveries after estrus induction using deslorelin and endoscopic transcervical insemination in the queen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Daniele; Bini, Costanza; Küster, Daniel Gerhard; Molari, Valeria; Cunto, Marco

    2015-09-15

    The present study consists of two distinct parts, experiment 1 and experiment 2. In experiment 1, 13 anestrous queens were treated with a 4.7-mg deslorelin subcutaneous implant to assess its effectiveness in inducing estrus in the domestic cat. Deslorelin is currently used for the reversible suppression of ovarian and testicular activity in dogs and cats and for estrus induction in the bitch. Estrus induction is also reported in the queen but never reported with a targeted study. All the queens showed a positive response to the induction protocol, and estrus was detected within an average of 5.0 ± 2.2 days after the implant placement in 13 out of 13 subjects (100%). Seven of 13 queens exhibited behavioral manifestations of estrus, and the mean number of follicles detected at ultrasound examination was 4.8 ± 1.6 per subject. In experiment 2, three of the queens previously treated with deslorelin for estrus induction were submitted to artificial insemination through endoscopic transcervical catheterization, a new nonsurgical technique for intrauterine sperm deposition. All of them (100%) were pregnant after insemination and they gave birth to healthy litters. The study, as a whole, proves the effectiveness of the 4.7-mg deslorelin subcutaneous implants in inducing estrus in the domestic cat and is, to our knowledge, the first study assessing fertility of the induced estruses. Moreover, it shows the effectiveness of endoscopic transcervical catheterization for artificial insemination in the queen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fixed-time post-cervical artificial insemination in sows receiving porcine luteinising hormone at oestrus onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, D L; Ulguim, R R; Sbardella, P E; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-01-30

    Fixed-time post-cervical artificial insemination (FTPCAI) allows a wider use of high indexing boars and a considerable reduction in labour requirements in swine production. The aim of this study was to evaluate fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) efficiency using different artificial insemination protocols and porcine luteinising hormone (pLH) to induce ovulation. A total of 597 weaned sows in which oestrus detection was performed once daily (08:00 am) was allocated to three groups: FTPCAI1 (n=199) - sows received a 5-mg (4 ml) intramuscular injection of pLH at oestrus onset, and were inseminated 24h later; FTPCAI2 (n=199) - sows received 5mg of pLH and were inseminated at oestrus onset (0 h) and 24h after; and MultPCAI (n=199) - sows did not receive pLH, and the first AI was performed at oestrus onset (0 h) and repeated every 24h during oestrus. Homospermic doses (1.5 × 10(9) total sperm cells/50 ml) were used in post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI) in all the treatments. Hormonal treatment did not affect (P>0.05) the interval between oestrus onset and ovulation (overall 32.4h) and there were no differences (P>0.05) in farrowing rate (overall 91.6%) or litter size (overall 12.6 piglets born) among treatments. In sows treated with pLH at oestrus onset, a single PCAI with 1.5 billion sperm cells did not compromise reproductive performance compared with a double PCAI at 24h intervals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrauterine insemination or intracervical insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, P A L; van Wely, M; Mol, B W; de Melker, A A; Janssens, P M W; Arends, B; Curfs, M H J M; Kortman, M; Nap, A; Rijnders, E; Roovers, J P W R; Ruis, H; Simons, A H M; Repping, S; van der Veen, F; Mochtar, M H

    2015-03-01

    Does intrauterine insemination in the natural cycle lead to better pregnancy rates than intracervical insemination (ICI) in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. In a large cohort of women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm, there was no substantial beneficial effect of IUI in the natural cycle over ICI in the natural cycle. At present, there are no studies comparing IUI in the natural cycle versus ICI in the natural cycle in women undergoing artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm. We performed a retrospective cohort study among all eight sperm banks in the Netherlands. We included all women who underwent artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor sperm in the natural cycle between January 2009 and December 2010. We compared time to ongoing pregnancy in the first six cycles of IUI and ICI, after which controlled ovarian stimulation was commenced. Ongoing pregnancy rates (OPRs) over time were compared using life tables. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to compare the chances of reaching an ongoing pregnancy after IUI or ICI adjusted for female age and indication. We included 1843 women; 1163 women underwent 4269 cycles of IUI and 680 women underwent 2345 cycles of ICI with cryopreserved donor sperm. Baseline characteristics were equally distributed (mean age 34.0 years for the IUI group versus 33.8 years for the ICI group), while in the IUI group, there were more lesbian women than in the ICI group (40.6% for IUI compared with 31.8% for ICI). Cumulative OPRs up to six treatment cycles were 40.5% for IUI and 37.9% for ICI. This corresponds with a hazard rate ratio of 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-1.23] after controlling for female age and indication. Increasing female age was associated with a lower OPR, in both the IUI and ICI groups with a hazard ratio for ongoing pregnancy of 0.94 per year (95% CI 0.93-0.97). This study is prone to

  11. Human resources in artificial insemination of beef cattle: profile of managers and inseminators Recursos humanos na inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte: perfil dos administradores e inseminadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia dos Santos Russi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to outline the profile of managers and inseminators involved in beef cattle artificial insemination programs to characterize the management processes involved in this activity. Additionally, by interviewing managers and inseminators, it was searched to detect particularities concerned to personal life and work that can be used to evaluate the quality of life of inseminators on farms. The open questions were analyzed by frequency of answer, after being grouped by similarity. Accordingly to the results, managers associate the concept of human resource management to work supervision, mainly, prioritizing technical factors such as professional experience and indexes in the selection processes, although problems in interpersonal relationships have been shown as the main reason for dismissal. In general, education level of the inseminators is not good because most of these workers studied only to the first series of primary school. Inseminators prefer conventional artificial insemination although they recognize that fixed-time artificial insemination can make animal handling on the farm easier. The performance of these workers seems to be determined more by interpersonal relationships than by the salaries.Objetivou-se delinear o perfil de administradores e inseminadores envolvidos em programas de inseminação artificial em bovinos de corte no intuito de caracterizar os processos gerenciais envolvidos nesta atividade. Adicionalmente, por meio de entrevistas com administradores e inseminadores, buscou-se detectar fatores ligados à vida pessoal e ao trabalho que possam ser utilizados como medida da qualidade de vida dos inseminadores nas propriedades rurais. As questões abertas foram analisadas por frequência de respostas, depois de agrupadas por similaridade. De acordo com os resultados, os administradores associam o conceito de gestão de recursos humanos principalmente à supervisão do trabalho priorizando

  12. Detection of Multiple Waterborne Pathogens Using Microsequencing Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: A microarray was developed to simultaneously detect Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis in water. Methods and Results: A DNA microarray was designed to contain probes that specifically dete...

  13. Comparing Automatic CME Detections in Multiple LASCO and SECCHI Catalogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Phillip; Colaninno, Robin C.

    2017-01-01

    With the creation of numerous automatic detection algorithms, a number of different catalogs of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) spanning the entirety of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) mission have been created. Some of these catalogs have been further expanded for use on data from the Solar Terrestrial Earth Observatory ( STEREO ) Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) as well. We compare the results from different automatic detection catalogs (Solar Eruption Event Detection System (SEEDS), Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus), and Coronal Image Processing (CORIMP)) to ensure the consistency of detections in each. Over the entire span of the LASCO catalogs, the automatic catalogs are well correlated with one another, to a level greater than 0.88. Focusing on just periods of higher activity, these correlations remain above 0.7. We establish the difficulty in comparing detections over the course of LASCO observations due to the change in the instrument image cadence in 2010. Without adjusting catalogs for the cadence, CME detection rates show a large spike in cycle 24, despite a notable drop in other indices of solar activity. The output from SEEDS, using a consistent image cadence, shows that the CME rate has not significantly changed relative to sunspot number in cycle 24. These data, and mass calculations from CORIMP, lead us to conclude that any apparent increase in CME rate is a result of the change in cadence. We study detection characteristics of CMEs, discussing potential physical changes in events between cycles 23 and 24. We establish that, for detected CMEs, physical parameters can also be sensitive to the cadence.

  14. Comparing Automatic CME Detections in Multiple LASCO and SECCHI Catalogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Phillip [NRC Research Associate, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Colaninno, Robin C., E-mail: phillip.hess.ctr@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: robin.colaninno@nrl.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-02-10

    With the creation of numerous automatic detection algorithms, a number of different catalogs of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) spanning the entirety of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) mission have been created. Some of these catalogs have been further expanded for use on data from the Solar Terrestrial Earth Observatory ( STEREO ) Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) as well. We compare the results from different automatic detection catalogs (Solar Eruption Event Detection System (SEEDS), Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus), and Coronal Image Processing (CORIMP)) to ensure the consistency of detections in each. Over the entire span of the LASCO catalogs, the automatic catalogs are well correlated with one another, to a level greater than 0.88. Focusing on just periods of higher activity, these correlations remain above 0.7. We establish the difficulty in comparing detections over the course of LASCO observations due to the change in the instrument image cadence in 2010. Without adjusting catalogs for the cadence, CME detection rates show a large spike in cycle 24, despite a notable drop in other indices of solar activity. The output from SEEDS, using a consistent image cadence, shows that the CME rate has not significantly changed relative to sunspot number in cycle 24. These data, and mass calculations from CORIMP, lead us to conclude that any apparent increase in CME rate is a result of the change in cadence. We study detection characteristics of CMEs, discussing potential physical changes in events between cycles 23 and 24. We establish that, for detected CMEs, physical parameters can also be sensitive to the cadence.

  15. A multiple-detector Radioactive Material Detection Spectroscopic (RMDS) portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaar, Ilan; Peysakhov, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization process for a Radioactive Material Detection Spectroscopic (RMDS) portal, designed to detect and identify radioactive materials concealed inside cargo containers. The system is based on a combination of conventional 3 in. NaI(Tl) gamma detectors and 3 He neutron detection tubes. The basic concept and the advantages of the new segmented spectroscopic detector approach are presented with several algorithms that were developed to enhance the detection capability of the portal and improve the signal to noise ratio. The results of field tests performed in several locations in Israel are also presented. The RMDS portal fully meets the demands of new ANSI Standard 42.38 for spectroscopic portals. In addition, the portal has some unique features, such as the ability to find the exact location of a point source inside the cargo and the ability to differentiate between a point source and Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) radiation. During the tests, the RMDS portal was compared to other detection systems, such as a PVT-based portal and a handheld spectroscopic HPGe detector. In these tests, the RMDS system was found to have a unique technique for background subtraction, which results in a higher detection sensitivity

  16. A multiple-detector Radioactive Material Detection Spectroscopic (RMDS) portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaar, Ilan, E-mail: iyaar@nrcn.org.il [Nuclear Research Center Negev (NRCN), P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Peysakhov, Ilya [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes an optimization process for a Radioactive Material Detection Spectroscopic (RMDS) portal, designed to detect and identify radioactive materials concealed inside cargo containers. The system is based on a combination of conventional 3 in. NaI(Tl) gamma detectors and {sup 3}He neutron detection tubes. The basic concept and the advantages of the new segmented spectroscopic detector approach are presented with several algorithms that were developed to enhance the detection capability of the portal and improve the signal to noise ratio. The results of field tests performed in several locations in Israel are also presented. The RMDS portal fully meets the demands of new ANSI Standard 42.38 for spectroscopic portals. In addition, the portal has some unique features, such as the ability to find the exact location of a point source inside the cargo and the ability to differentiate between a point source and Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) radiation. During the tests, the RMDS portal was compared to other detection systems, such as a PVT-based portal and a handheld spectroscopic HPGe detector. In these tests, the RMDS system was found to have a unique technique for background subtraction, which results in a higher detection sensitivity.

  17. Outcome measurement in multiple sclerosis: detection of clinically relevant improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsen, L.M.L.; Kragt, J.J.; Hoogervorst, E.L.J.; Polman, C.H.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Because the development of new treatments in multiple sclerosis as well as the awareness of the importance of patient-oriented measures have become more important in the last two decades, new outcome measures have been developed with the aim of being more responsive to change and more clinically

  18. Outcome measurement in multiple sclerosis: detection of clinically relevant improvement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, L.M.L. van; Kragt, J.J.; Hoogervorst, E.L.; Polman, C.H.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Because the development of new treatments in multiple sclerosis as well as the awareness of the importance of patient-oriented measures have become more important in the last two decades, new outcome measures have been developed with the aim of being more responsive to change and more clinically

  19. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males’ inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology. PMID:26222780

  20. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males' inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology.

  1. Artificial insemination: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, R

    2003-01-15

    The history of research into artificial insemination (AI) is over two centuries old and its commercial application now spans 75 years. It is appropriate to reflect on the contribution of this powerful method of gene dispersal. AI remains as one of the most important assisted reproductive technologies. The three cornerstones for its application are: it is simple, economical and successful. The importance of AI will be challenged in the next few decades. The remarkable progress made in other assisted reproductive technologies does have the potential to rapidly generate offspring. The challenge for any of these reproductive technologies to attain widespread use is to match AI in being simple, economical and successful. This review aims at capturing the salient advances in AI, the comparisons with natural mating and other reproductive technologies, and, whether the future of AI will be challenged. It predicts what the new horizon looks like and the role that AI will play in the overall reproductive technologies landscape.

  2. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  3. Detection and location of multiple events by MARS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Masso, J.F.; Archambeau, C.B.; Savino, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    Seismic data from two explosions was processed using the Systems Science and Software MARS (Multiple Arrival Recognition System) seismic event detector in an effort to determine their relative spatial and temporal separation on the basis of seismic data alone. The explosions were less than 1.0 kilometer apart and were separated by less than 0.5 sec in origin times. The seismic data consisted of nine local accelerograms (r < 1.0 km) and four regional (240 through 400 km) seismograms. The MARS processing clearly indicates the presence of multiple explosions, but the restricted frequency range of the data inhibits accurate time picks and hence limits the precision of the event location

  4. National Earthquake Information Center Seismic Event Detections on Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J.; Yeck, W. L.; Benz, H.; Earle, P. S.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Johnson, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) monitors seismicity on local, regional, and global scales using automatic picks from more than 2,000 near-real time seismic stations. This presents unique challenges in automated event detection due to the high variability in data quality, network geometries and density, and distance-dependent variability in observed seismic signals. To lower the overall detection threshold while minimizing false detection rates, NEIC has begun to test the incorporation of new detection and picking algorithms, including multiband (Lomax et al., 2012) and kurtosis (Baillard et al., 2014) pickers, and a new bayesian associator (Glass 3.0). The Glass 3.0 associator allows for simultaneous processing of variably scaled detection grids, each with a unique set of nucleation criteria (e.g., nucleation threshold, minimum associated picks, nucleation phases) to meet specific monitoring goals. We test the efficacy of these new tools on event detection in networks of various scales and geometries, compare our results with previous catalogs, and discuss lessons learned. For example, we find that on local and regional scales, rapid nucleation of small events may require event nucleation with both P and higher-amplitude secondary phases (e.g., S or Lg). We provide examples of the implementation of a scale-independent associator for an induced seismicity sequence (local-scale), a large aftershock sequence (regional-scale), and for monitoring global seismicity. Baillard, C., Crawford, W. C., Ballu, V., Hibert, C., & Mangeney, A. (2014). An automatic kurtosis-based P-and S-phase picker designed for local seismic networks. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 104(1), 394-409. Lomax, A., Satriano, C., & Vassallo, M. (2012). Automatic picker developments and optimization: FilterPicker - a robust, broadband picker for real-time seismic monitoring and earthquake early-warning, Seism. Res. Lett. , 83, 531-540, doi: 10

  5. Methods and apparatus using commutative error detection values for fault isolation in multiple node computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY

    2008-06-03

    Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.

  6. Oviductal Transcriptome Is Modified after Insemination during Spontaneous Ovulation in the Sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Úbeda, Rebeca; García-Vázquez, Francisco A; Romar, Raquel; Gadea, Joaquín; Muñoz, Marta; Hunter, Ronald H F; Coy, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Gene Expression Microarray technology was used to compare oviduct transcriptome between inseminated and non-inseminated pigs during spontaneous oestrus. We used an in vivo model approaching the study from a physiological point of view in which no hormonal treatment (animals were in natural oestrus) and no artificial sperm selection (selection was performed within the female genital) were imposed. It is therefore emphasised that no surgical introduction of spermatozoa and no insemination at a site other than the physiological one were used. This approach revealed 17 genes that were two-fold or more up-regulated in oviducts exposed to spermatozoa and/or developing embryos and 9 genes that were two-fold or more down-regulated. Functional analysis of the genes revealed that the top canonical pathways affected by insemination were related to the inflammatory response and immune system (Network 1) to molecular transport, protein trafficking and developmental disorder (Network 2) and to cell-to-cell signalling and interaction (Network 3). Some of the genes in network 1 had been previously detected in the oviduct of human and animals, where they were over-expressed in the presence of spermatozoa or pre-implantation embryos (C3, IGHG1, ITIH4, TNF and SERPINE1) whereas others were not previously reported (SAA2, ALOX12, CD1D and SPP1). Genes in Network 2 included RAB1B and TOR3A, the latter being described for the first time in the oviduct and clearly expressed in the epithelial cells of the mucosa layer. Network 3 integrated the genes with the highest down-regulation level (CYP51, PTH1R and TMOD3). Data in the present study indicate a change in gene expression during gamete encounter at the site of fertilization after a natural sperm selection within the female genital tract. These changes would indicate a modification of the environment preparing the oviduct for a successful fertilization and for an adequate embryo early development.

  7. Laparoscopic artificial insemination in dairy sheep with chilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    C. Unilateral intrauterine ... conception rates to intrauterine insemination with chilled semen was relatively higher than Chios ewes. Key words: .... fertility trials and the effects of dilution methods on freezing ram semen in the ...

  8. Immobilisation versus immediate mobilisation after intrauterine insemination: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, Inge M.; Flierman, Paul A.; Maas, Pettie; Cox, Tessa; van Dessel, Thierry J. H. M.; Gerards, Mariette H.; Mochtar, Monique H.; Janssen, Catharina A. H.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of 15 minutes of immobilisation versus immediate mobilisation after intrauterine insemination. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting One academic teaching hospital and six non-academic teaching hospitals. Participants Women having intrauterine

  9. Assessing bat detectability and occupancy with multiple automated echolocation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P.M.; Miles, A.C.; Todd, C.M.; Bonaccorso, F.J.; Weller, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Occupancy analysis and its ability to account for differential detection probabilities is important for studies in which detecting echolocation calls is used as a measure of bat occurrence and activity. We examined the feasibility of remotely acquiring bat encounter histories to estimate detection probability and occupancy. We used echolocation detectors coupled to digital recorders operating at a series of proximate sites on consecutive nights in 2 trial surveys for the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus). Our results confirmed that the technique is readily amenable for use in occupancy analysis. We also conducted a simulation exercise to assess the effects of sampling effort on parameter estimation. The results indicated that the precision and bias of parameter estimation were often more influenced by the number of sites sampled than number of visits. Acceptable accuracy often was not attained until at least 15 sites or 15 visits were used to estimate detection probability and occupancy. The method has significant potential for use in monitoring trends in bat activity and in comparative studies of habitat use. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. Multi-Feature Based Multiple Landmine Detection Using Ground Penetration Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for detection of multiple landmines using a ground penetrating radar (GPR. Conventional algorithms mainly focus on detection of a single landmine, which cannot linearly extend to the multiple landmine case. The proposed algorithm is composed of four steps; estimation of the number of multiple objects buried in the ground, isolation of each object, feature extraction and detection of landmines. The number of objects in the GPR signal is estimated by using the energy projection method. Then signals for the objects are extracted by using the symmetry filtering method. Each signal is then processed for features, which are given as input to the support vector machine (SVM for landmine detection. Three landmines buried in various ground conditions are considered for the test of the proposed method. They demonstrate that the proposed method can successfully detect multiple landmines.

  11. Artificial insemination for breeding non-domestic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Temple, S.A.; Watson, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    Captive breeding of non-domestic birds has increased dramatically in this century, and production of young often exceeds that of the same number of birds in their native habitat. However, when infertility is a problem, artificial insemination can be a useful method to improve production. Artificial insemination programs with non-domestic birds are relatively recent, but several notable successes have been documented, especially with cranes and raptors. Three methods of artificial insemination are described--cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation. Cooperative artificial insemination requires training of birds imprinted on man and is used extensively in some raptor programs. The massage technique generally is used when there are larger numbers of birds to inseminate since it requires less training of the birds than with the cooperative method, and a larger number of attempted semen collections are successful. Although the best samples are obtained from birds conditioned to capture and handling procedures associated with the massage method, samples can be obtained from wild birds. Semen collection and insemination for the crane serves to illustrate some of the modifications necessary to compensate for anatomical variations. Collection of semen by electrical stimulation is not commonly used in birds. Unlike the other two methods which require behavioral cooperation by the bird, electroejaculation is possible in reproductively active birds without prior conditioning when properly restrained. Fertility from artificial insemination in captive non-domestic-birds has been good. Although some spermatozoal morphology has been reported, most aspects of morphology are not useful in predicting fertility. However, spermatozoal head length in the crane may have a positive correlation with fertility. Nevertheless, insemination with the largest number of live spermatozoa is still the best guarantee of fertile egg production.

  12. Neutrophil recruitment and phagocytosis of boar spermatozoa after artificial insemination of sows, and the effects of inseminate volume, sperm dose and specific additives in the extender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijs, A.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.

    2003-01-01

    In this study the recruitment of leucocytes and phagocytosis of spermatozoa after artificial insemination of multiparous sows was investigated. In Expt 1, groups of sows received either no inseminate (n = 6) or inseminates with various concentrations of spermatozoa and seminal plasma or different

  13. Concealed Threat Detection at Multiple Frames-per-second

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J T

    2005-11-08

    In this LDRD project, our research purpose is to investigate the science and technology necessary to enable real-time array imaging as a rapid way to detect hidden threats through obscurants such as smoke, fog, walls, doors, and clothing. The goal of this research is to augment the capabilities of protective forces in concealed threat detection. In the current context, threats include people as well as weapons. In most cases, security personnel must make very fast assessments of a threat based upon limited amount of data. Among other attributes, UWB has been shown and quantified to penetrate and propagate through many materials (wood, some concretes, non-metallic building materials, some soils, etc.) while maintaining high range resolution. We have build collaborations with university partners and government agencies. We have considered the impact of psychometrics on target recognition and identification. Specifically we have formulated images in real-time that will engage the user's vision system in a more active way to enhance image interpretation capabilities. In this project, we are researching the use of real time (field programmable gate arrays) integrated with high resolution (cm scale), ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic signals for imaging personnel through smoke and walls. We evaluated the ability of real-time UWB imaging for detecting smaller objects, such as concealed weapons that are carried by the obscured personnel. We also examined the cognitive interpretation process of real time UWB electromagnetic images.

  14. Relationships among the cervical mucus urea and acetone, accuracy of insemination timing, and sperm survival in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, J; Stádník, L; Ducháček, J; Okrouhlá, M; Doležalová, M; Kadlecová, V; Ptáček, M

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships among urea and acetone content in cows' cervical mucus (CM), its crystallization type (CT) and sperm survival (SS) after timed AI. Samples of CM were collected from 192 Holstein cows treated by Ovsynch(®) protocol. Analysis of the urea and acetone content for identification of the metabolic status, the arborization test for evaluation of insemination timing and the short-term heat test of SS for assessment of its suitability as a biological matrix were performed. The data set was analyzed by the GLM procedure using SAS(®). The results documented the existence of substantial differences in individual response to the Ovsynch(®) protocol causing insemination of 55.2% cows at an inappropriate time. The urea content was found as a possible indicator of a cow's metabolism and/or of insemination timing, concentrations of less than 500 mg/L corresponded (Pacetone content on SS were determined. The greatest values of SS were detected in cows with an expected response to precisely timed oestrus documented by the corresponding CT. Greater values of urea (>260 mg/L) and acetone (>5mg/L) negatively affected SS as well (P<0.05-0.01). The results confirmed that the accuracy of insemination timing can be affected by the metabolism intensity, just as CM quality directly influences sperm survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Short communication: Optimization of a timed artificial insemination program for reproductive management of heifers in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, K; Loree, K; Mapletoft, R J; Colazo, M G

    2017-05-01

    Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) following the use of 1 of 2 timed AI (TAI) protocols and 2 different intervals between TAI and resynchronization were compared in heifers that were inseminated with either conventional or sex-sorted semen. Holstein heifers (n = 317; 527 inseminations) were submitted to a 5-d Cosynch protocol with (+) or without (-) GnRH at the time of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insertion on d 0, CIDR removal and a single PGF 2α treatment on d 5, and TAI plus GnRH on d 8 (72 h later). Visual estrus detection (ED) was conducted on d 6 in the afternoon and d 7 in the morning and heifers observed in estrus were artificially inseminated on d 7 in the afternoon. Heifers were alternately assigned conventional or sex-sorted semen. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 27 and 42 d after AI, and heifers diagnosed as nonpregnant were resynchronized, up to 3 times, starting on d 27 or 34 to provide an interbreeding interval of 35 or 42 d. Overall, TAI protocol had no effect on P/AI at 27 or 42 d after artificial insemination or on pregnancy loss, but P/AI following the first service tended to be higher in the -GnRH TAI group (66.3 vs. 56.8%). Pregnancy per AI at 27 d (61.9 vs. 55.5%) tended to differ between conventional and sex-sorted semen. Heifers artificially inseminated based on ED tended to have a greater P/AI (67.6 vs. 58.2%) and had decreased pregnancy loss (0.0 vs. 4.1%) than those submitted to TAI. A greater number of heifers in the -GnRH TAI protocol were artificially inseminated on ED than the +GnRH TAI protocol (21.5 vs. 13.7%). No difference in P/AI was observed between the 35- and 42-d interbreeding intervals; however, more heifers in the 42-d group were artificially inseminated based on ED than in the 35-d group (22.7 vs. 7.8%). A 5-d Cosynch+CIDR TAI protocol without the initial GnRH and with a single PGF 2α at CIDR removal is an acceptable alternative to achieve high P/AI when either conventional or sex-sorted semen is used in Holstein

  16. Early detection of multiple sclerosis: MR findings during the initial manifestations of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoerner, W.; Baum, K.; Henkes, H.; Girke, W.; Felix, R.; Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin

    1988-01-01

    The MR results in 21 patients showing the initial manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS) were compared with those in 45 patients with a long history of MS. As in the old cases, MR proved a very sensitive technique during the early manifestations, with abnormal findings in 20 out of 21 patients. The relatively characteristic MR findings in long-standing MS (predominant peri-ventricular involvement with a relatively typical pattern) was seen in the early stages is only rare cases. The value of MR during the initial manifestations of MS is in cases where the clinical findings are not conclusive and laboratory diagnosis (evoked potentials, CSF findings) are indefinite. In these patients the finding of multiple lesions in the brain can confirm the suspected diagnosis of MS. (orig.) [de

  17. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with gonadotropin-releasing hormone before first insemination during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the experiments were to compare ovarian responses, pregnancy per artificial insemination, and pattern of insemination of 2 estrus detection-based presynchronization protocols before first artificial insemination (AI) during heat stress. In experiment 1, primiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,358) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 60±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0): (1) treatment with 100 µg of GnRH on study d 0 (Gpresynch), or (2) no treatment on study d 0 (control). In experiment 2, multiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,971) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 49±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0), similar to experiment 1. In both experiments, PGF2α injections were administered 14 d apart starting on study d 7 for all cows. Cows not inseminated after detection of estrus were submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol at study d 35. In a subgroup of cows from 2 dairies, concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected on study d 0 and 7. Furthermore, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d -14, 0, and 7 to determine cyclic status and ovulation in response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, progesterone concentration was not different on d 0, but progesterone was increased for Gpresynch compared with control cows on study d 7 (3.6±0.3 vs. 2.7±0.4 ng/mL), respectively. Ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 was increased for Gpresynch compared with control (50.6 vs. 15.2%). Control cows were inseminated at a faster rate than Gpresynch cows [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.80 to 1.00], and the interaction between treatment and dairy affected pregnancy per artificial insemination at 36 and 94 d post-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, concentrations of progesterone did not differ on study d 0 or 7, despite ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 being greater in Gpresynch than control cows (46.9 vs. 23.8%). The interaction between treatment and

  18. UTILIZATION OF PHOSWICH DETECTORS FOR SIMULTANEOUS, MULTIPLE RADIATION DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Miller; Manuel Diaz de Leon

    2003-04-15

    A phoswich radiation detector is comprised of a phosphor sandwich in which several different phosphors are viewed by a common photomultiplier. By selecting the appropriate phosphors, this system can be used to simultaneously measure multiple radiation types (alpha, beta, gamma and/or neutron) with a single detector. Differentiation between the signals from the different phosphors is accomplished using digital pulse shape discrimination techniques. This method has been shown to result in accurate discrimination with highly reliable and versatile digital systems. This system also requires minimal component count (i.e. only the detector and a computer for signal processing). A variety of detectors of this type have been built and tested including: (1) a triple phoswich system for alpha/beta/gamma swipe counting, (2) two well-type detectors for measuring low levels of low energy photons in the presence of a high energy background, (3) a large area detector for measuring beta contamination in the presence of a photon background, (4) another large area detector for measuring low energy photons from radioactive elements such as uranium in the presence of a photon background. An annular geometry, triple phoswich system optimized for measuring alpha/beta/gamma radiation in liquid waste processing streams is currently being designed.

  19. UTILIZATION OF PHOSWICH DETECTORS FOR SIMULTANEOUS, MULTIPLE RADIATION DETECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, William H.; Manuel Diaz de Leon

    2003-01-01

    A phoswich radiation detector is comprised of a phosphor sandwich in which several different phosphors are viewed by a common photomultiplier. By selecting the appropriate phosphors, this system can be used to simultaneously measure multiple radiation types (alpha, beta, gamma and/or neutron) with a single detector. Differentiation between the signals from the different phosphors is accomplished using digital pulse shape discrimination techniques. This method has been shown to result in accurate discrimination with highly reliable and versatile digital systems. This system also requires minimal component count (i.e. only the detector and a computer for signal processing). A variety of detectors of this type have been built and tested including: (1) a triple phoswich system for alpha/beta/gamma swipe counting, (2) two well-type detectors for measuring low levels of low energy photons in the presence of a high energy background, (3) a large area detector for measuring beta contamination in the presence of a photon background, (4) another large area detector for measuring low energy photons from radioactive elements such as uranium in the presence of a photon background. An annular geometry, triple phoswich system optimized for measuring alpha/beta/gamma radiation in liquid waste processing streams is currently being designed

  20. Detection of Brain Reorganization in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Using Functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Page | 2 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0464 TITLE: Detection of Brain Reorganization in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Using Functional MRI...Sep 2014 – 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Detection of Brain Reorganization in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Using Functional...adaptive functional reorganization as a way to explain how some early-stage MS patients are able to perform well in clinical cognitive testing

  1. MULTIPLE TESTING OF LOCAL MAXIMA FOR DETECTION OF PEAKS IN CHIP-SEQ DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartzman, Armin; Jaffe, Andrew; Gavrilov, Yulia; Meyer, Clifford A.

    2013-01-01

    A topological multiple testing approach to peak detection is proposed for the problem of detecting transcription factor binding sites in ChIP-Seq data. After kernel smoothing of the tag counts over the genome, the presence of a peak is tested at each observed local maximum, followed by multiple testing correction at the desired false discovery rate level. Valid $p$-values for candidate peaks are computed via Monte Carlo simulations of smoothed Poisson sequences, whose background Poisson rates...

  2. Delayed insemination of nonestrous cows improves pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in timed artificial insemination of suckled beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Lock, S L; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2014-04-01

    This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that delayed insemination of nonestrous cows would increase pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in conjunction with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Estrus was synchronized for 656 suckled beef cows with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR [1.38 g progesterone] on d 0, 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR removal on d 7, and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after CIDR removal) with conventional semen regardless of estrous expression, 2) FTAI with sex-sorted semen regardless of estrous expression, or 3) FTAI with sex-sorted semen for cows having expressed estrus and delayed AI 20 h after final GnRH for cows failing to express estrus. A treatment × estrous expression interaction was found (P insemination with sex-sorted semen yielded higher (P < 0.0001) pregnancy rates than with sex-sorted semen at the standard time (Treatments 2 and 3; 3 versus 36%, respectively). Furthermore, among cows that failed to express estrus, FTAI pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen at the delayed time (36%) were comparable (P = 0.9) to those achieved using conventional semen at the standard time (Treatment 1; 37%). These results indicate that delaying AI of nonestrous cows by 20 h from the standard FTAI improves pregnancy rates when sex-sorted semen is used with FTAI.

  3. Improving productivity through the use of artificial insemination in dual purpose farms in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, S.; Perez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the major causes of inefficiency in the AI services provided to dual-purpose farms in the region of Tilaran, Guanacaste. The study included four representative farms from the region, where AI was done on a routine basis in which 80 to 100 first services were done annually. The overall conception rate (CR) was 42.7% (271/635) and was significantly influenced by three variables: lactation, oestrus signs and technician. Cows that were inseminated during their lactation number 5 had 2.17 times greater chance of getting pregnant (P<0.001) than cows inseminated during any other lactation. Cows inseminated after detecting oestrus because they were mounting others had 1.2 less chance to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat, but those cows detected by other signs such as restlessness or bellowing had 1.8 more opportunity to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat. The interval from calving to first service was 114.1 days and three variables had significant (P<0.05) effects on this interval: farm, calving season and lactation. Cows calving during the rainy season had a shorter interval than those calving in the dry season. There was a significant difference between the first lactation and the others. Only lactation had significant effect on first service CR. It was concluded that farm type, lactation, season, and heat signs were the most important factors having an influence on the efficiency of AI. Variables involved are closely related to management and should be targeted in future work aimed at improving reproductive efficiency. (author)

  4. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System for Automatic Hardwood Feature Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbin

    1993-01-01

    A multiple sensor machine vision prototype is being developed to scan full size hardwood lumber at industrial speeds for automatically detecting features such as knots holes, wane, stain, splits, checks, and color. The prototype integrates a multiple sensor imaging system, a materials handling system, a computer system, and application software. The prototype provides...

  5. The Detection and Interpretation of Interaction Effects between Continuous Variables in Multiple Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, James; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Issues in the detection and interpretation of interaction effects between quantitative variables in multiple regression analysis are discussed. Recent discussions associated with problems of multicollinearity are reviewed in the context of the conditional nature of multiple regression with product terms. (TJH)

  6. Multiple endocrine neoplasia detection on I-123 MIBG imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, C.A.; McEwan, L.M.; Wong, J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: An 123 I meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan was performed on a 54-year-old lady with familial phaeochromocytoma, to evaluate for bilateral or extra-adrenal disease. She has hypertension with raised catecholamines and CT evidence of a right adrenal phaeochromocytoma, and a female sibling with bilateral phaeochromocytoma. Thyroid blockade using Lugol's Iodine was given orally prior to intravenous administration of 370 MBq 123 I MIBG. Planar and SPECT imaging were acquired at 24 hours. There was intense uptake in the known right phaeochromocytoma. An unexpected finding was focal intense uptake in the region of the right thyroid lobe, which may be either a functioning paraganglioma arising from the cervical sympathetic ganglia or a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). At 48 hours, a further image of the neck showed no changes. This was followed by a standard injection of 150 MBq 99 Tc m pertechnetate for thyroid scanning. Imaging obtained on 99 Tc m energy window setting showed a large hypofunctioning region in the right thyroid lobe, corresponding in location to the focal 123 I MIBG uptake. This is in keeping with a MTC, a neuroendocrine tumour, as other thyroid carcinomas are non-MIBG avid. A subsequent serum calcitonin assay showed elevated levels. The patient underwent surgical removal of the right phaeochromocytoma followed several weeks later by a right hemithyroidectomy. Histological reports confirmed the tumour diagnoses. The patient's familial phaeochromocytoma is therefore part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome Type 2A (MEN 2A). To date, biochemistry has not shown any evidence of hyperparathyroidism which occurs in 15-20 per cent of patients with MEN 2A. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Detecting multiple DNA human profile from a mosquito blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Moura, R R; Brandão, L A C; Crovella, S

    2016-08-26

    Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals. We also determined the effect of blood acquisition time by setting time intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h after the blood meal. STR loci and amelogenin were analyzed, and the results showed that human DNA profiles could be obtained from hematophagous mosquitos at 24 h following the blood meal. It is possible that hematophagous mosquitoes can be used as biological remains at the scene of the crime, and can be used to detect human DNA profiles of up to four individuals.

  8. Fast and Accurate Detection of Multiple Quantitative Trait Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettelblad, Carl; Holmgren, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present a new computational scheme that enables efficient and reliable quantitative trait loci (QTL) scans for experimental populations. Using a standard brute-force exhaustive search effectively prohibits accurate QTL scans involving more than two loci to be performed in practice, at least if permutation testing is used to determine significance. Some more elaborate global optimization approaches, for example, DIRECT have been adopted earlier to QTL search problems. Dramatic speedups have been reported for high-dimensional scans. However, since a heuristic termination criterion must be used in these types of algorithms, the accuracy of the optimization process cannot be guaranteed. Indeed, earlier results show that a small bias in the significance thresholds is sometimes introduced. Our new optimization scheme, PruneDIRECT, is based on an analysis leading to a computable (Lipschitz) bound on the slope of a transformed objective function. The bound is derived for both infinite- and finite-size populations. Introducing a Lipschitz bound in DIRECT leads to an algorithm related to classical Lipschitz optimization. Regions in the search space can be permanently excluded (pruned) during the optimization process. Heuristic termination criteria can thus be avoided. Hence, PruneDIRECT has a well-defined error bound and can in practice be guaranteed to be equivalent to a corresponding exhaustive search. We present simulation results that show that for simultaneous mapping of three QTLS using permutation testing, PruneDIRECT is typically more than 50 times faster than exhaustive search. The speedup is higher for stronger QTL. This could be used to quickly detect strong candidate eQTL networks. PMID:23919387

  9. Three-Phase Multiple Harmonic Sequence Detection Based on Generalized Delayed Signal Superposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    Grid synchronization has always been an important challenge for three-phase grid-connected converters under unbalanced and distorted grid conditions. Moreover, how to quickly and accurately extract multiple harmonic sequence information is essential for control systems. In this paper, a three......-phase multiple harmonic sequence detection method is proposed for estimating both the fundamental and harmonic sequence components under adverse grid conditions. This detection method is denoted as MG DSS-PLL since it contains Multiple Generalized Delayed Signal Superposition operators and a Phase-Locked Loop...

  10. Minimum Symbol Error Rate Detection in Single-Input Multiple-Output Channels with Markov Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Minimum symbol error rate detection in Single-Input Multiple- Output(SIMO) channels with Markov noise is presented. The special case of zero-mean Gauss-Markov noise is examined closer as it only requires knowledge of the second-order moments. In this special case, it is shown that optimal detection...

  11. Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Bonet, Sergi

    2017-09-01

    Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen in pigs is not a routine technique; its use is restricted to specific cases, such as preservation of valuable genetic material (germplasm banks), safety strategies in case of natural disasters, long-distance transport of sperm, and in combination with sex-sorting. Cryoinjuries resulting from freeze-thawing protocols are a major concern with regard to the fertilization capacity of the treated sperm, which is lower than that of liquid-stored semen. Here, we provide an overview of artificial insemination using cryopreserved sperm, and summarize the factors that influence cryopreservation success before, during, and after freeze-thaw (i.e., sperm selection before starting the cryopreservation process, holding time, use of cryoprotectants, and rates of freezing and thawing) and that are driving the identification of biomarkers to predict sensitivity to cryodamage. Three different artificial insemination techniques (conventional or intracervical; intrauterine; and deep intrauterine) are also discussed with regards to their relevance when using frozen-thawed semen. Finally, we review the use of additives to freezing and thawing media, given reports that they may maintain and improve the quality and fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed sperm. In sum, artificial insemination with frozen-thawed boar sperm can provide reasonable fertility outcomes, if freezable ejaculates, specific additives, and appropriate insemination techniques are used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Techniques for the insemination of low doses of stallion sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, J C; Plough, T

    2010-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the quality and commercial use of frozen equine semen. The emergence of new reproductive technologies, coupled with the high prices for an insemination dose from some stallions, the increasing costs of import and export and the marketing policies of stallion agents or owners in the sport horse industry has stimulated the fractionation of doses for insemination. Consequently, the sperm number and the volume of an insemination dose are significantly reduced. To deliver lower doses of sperm in lower volumes compared to the standard dose, two techniques are used in clinical practice. Semen can be delivered hysteroscopically (HI) or by rectally guiding a flexible pipette to the tip of the desired uterine horn (RI). Both techniques have been described with good success and have triggered an incentive to further reduce the number of spermatozoa without having a negative effect on fertility. This article will review the expected success of both techniques in clinical settings and will highlight their advantages and disadvantages both for the mare and stallion. In addition, some of the implications of reducing sperm numbers on the industry will be discussed. From the available information, it is evident that lower sperm numbers deposited by RI or HI to deliver the inseminate can result in acceptable pregnancy rates with fresh or frozen semen in commercial settings. These methods of insemination could have major implications in the implementation and commercialization of new and emerging technologies in the equine industry.

  13. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For

  14. Multi-scale occupancy estimation and modelling using multiple detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Talancy, Neil W.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Gilbert, Andrew T.; Annand, Elizabeth M.; Husband, Thomas P.; Hines, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Occupancy estimation and modelling based on detection–nondetection data provide an effective way of exploring change in a species’ distribution across time and space in cases where the species is not always detected with certainty. Today, many monitoring programmes target multiple species, or life stages within a species, requiring the use of multiple detection methods. When multiple methods or devices are used at the same sample sites, animals can be detected by more than one method.We develop occupancy models for multiple detection methods that permit simultaneous use of data from all methods for inference about method-specific detection probabilities. Moreover, the approach permits estimation of occupancy at two spatial scales: the larger scale corresponds to species’ use of a sample unit, whereas the smaller scale corresponds to presence of the species at the local sample station or site.We apply the models to data collected on two different vertebrate species: striped skunks Mephitis mephitis and red salamanders Pseudotriton ruber. For striped skunks, large-scale occupancy estimates were consistent between two sampling seasons. Small-scale occupancy probabilities were slightly lower in the late winter/spring when skunks tend to conserve energy, and movements are limited to males in search of females for breeding. There was strong evidence of method-specific detection probabilities for skunks. As anticipated, large- and small-scale occupancy areas completely overlapped for red salamanders. The analyses provided weak evidence of method-specific detection probabilities for this species.Synthesis and applications. Increasingly, many studies are utilizing multiple detection methods at sampling locations. The modelling approach presented here makes efficient use of detections from multiple methods to estimate occupancy probabilities at two spatial scales and to compare detection probabilities associated with different detection methods. The models can be

  15. Effect of numbers of sperm and timing of a single, post-cervical insemination on the fertility of weaned sows treated with OvuGel®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V; Esparza-Harris, K C; Johnston, M E; Webel, S K

    2017-04-01

    Variability in estrus and ovulation requires multiple inseminations during estrus to ensure one AI occurs close to ovulation. Induction of ovulation after weaning improves synchrony of ovulation and allows for fixed time AI. However, the interaction between number of sperm in the AI dose and the timing of insemination has not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sperm numbers used in a single post-cervical insemination (PCAI) and the timing of insemination following induced ovulation in weaned sows. The experiment was performed using sows (n = 641) allotted by parity (1-6) and lactation length (19.5 d) to receive a single PCAI using 1.5 or 2.5 billion motile sperm at either 22, 26, or 30 h following administration of a GnRH agonist, triptorelin acetate (OvuGel ® ) at 96 h post-weaning. Sows received boar contact once daily 3-6 d following weaning. A sub-population of the sows (n = 499) were assessed for follicle size and ovulation utilizing ultrasound at 8 h intervals. There was no interaction of number of sperm and timing of insemination for any response measure (P > 0.10). Wean to estrus interval (4.8 d), duration of estrus (1.9 d), and expression of estrus (88.0%), were not different among treatments (P > 0.10). Of sows scanned by ultrasound at the time of OvuGel ® , 88.2% had large follicles, 10.9% had small, medium or cystic sized follicles, and 0.9% had corpora lutea. The proportion of sows that ovulated averaged 94%, and differed by time of AI (P ≤ 0.05) but not by number of sperm. Pregnancy rate and farrowing rate tended to be affected by dose (P ≤ 0.10), while time of insemination affected pregnancy rate and tended to influence farrowing rate (P ≤ 0.10). Farrowing rate was greater (P insemination at 22 and 26 h compared to 30 h after OvuGel ® (P ≤ 0.10). Farrowing rate was also affected by parity, estrus expression, ovulation and ovarian abnormalities (P insemination with

  16. Use of nuclear techniques for evaluation of first service conception rate in dairy herds with artificial insemination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, N.G.; Risopatron, J.; Rodriguez, F.; Perez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify causes of inefficiency in Artificial Insemination (AI) services in 12 dairy farms located in southern Chile. Milk progesterone concentration was determined on the day of breeding and then 10-12 and 21-22 days after AI. Data for semen and cow inseminated, including physical signs of oestrus, were recorded in a computer database (AIDA). Information from 713 cows with first services was analysed. The mean interval from calving to first service was 88.7 days and the mean interval from calving to conception was 107.9 days. The conception rate at first service was 61.9%. Incidence of incorrect AI, most likely due to erroneous heat detection, was 8.9%. Herd related problems affected efficiency of AI in 15.2%. The results show that important factors affecting reproductive performance include nutritional management, oestrus detection and AI technique. (author)

  17. Bioelectronic DNA detection of human papillomaviruses using eSensor™: a model system for detection of multiple pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Donna L

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We used human papillomaviruses (HPV as a model system to evaluate the utility of a nucleic acid, hybridization-based bioelectronic DNA detection platform (eSensor™ in identifying multiple pathogens. Methods Two chips were spotted with capture probes consisting of DNA oligonucleotide sequences specific for HPV types. Electrically conductive signal probes were synthesized to be complementary to a distinct region of the amplified HPV target DNA. A portion of the HPV L1 region that was amplified by using consensus primers served as target DNA. The amplified target was mixed with a cocktail of signal probes and added to a cartridge containing a DNA chip to allow for hybridization with complementary capture probes. Results Two bioelectric chips were designed and successfully detected 86% of the HPV types contained in clinical samples. Conclusions This model system demonstrates the potential of the eSensor platform for rapid and integrated detection of multiple pathogens.

  18. THE IMPROVEMENT AND APPLICATION OF EI-GUN (ELECTRICAL INSEMINATION GUN FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI USING GOAT FRESH SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsa Ita Dewi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Insemination Gun (EI-GUN was a tool for Artificial Insemination (AI using fresh semen with an electric control system. The research objective was to produced EI-GUN for AI using fresh semen on small ruminants (goat. The research was conducted from March to June 2015. The process of EI-GUN creation implemented in Design and Prototype Laboratory and Aero Modeling Research Laboratory at Engineering Faculty, University of Brawijaya (UB. Testing tools EI-GUN on goat was conducted in the Sumber Sekar Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, UB.  The methods of research were literature study, tool specification determination, designing EI-GUN, running test, semen evaluation passed EI-GUN and application on Goat. EI-GUN has seven important parts, which supports each other in this operating system. Those parts consist of stylet, servo, system controlled, insemination pump, connecting rod, battery, and holder. EI-GUN work system sucked the semen into insemination pump as much as 5 ml, and release the semen 0.25 ml appropriate standard of AI. It was applicable for 20 times AI. The results showed that the cell motility of spermatozoa ≥ 70% were still in ranging of Indonesian National Standard (SNI.   Keywords: artificial insemination, EI-GUN, fresh semen.

  19. Detection of surface cracks in cladded pipes by the multiple-beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    Standard ultrasonic techniques usually yield reliable inspection results for the steel structures of the nuclear power industry. Stainless-steel cladding of pipes, vessels, and nozzles to reduce the susceptibility of the base material to cracking has, however, led to unexpected inspection difficulties. Some solutions to the ultrasonic inspection problems of cladded pipes were found in multiple-beam transducer design and the application of novel waveform-processing and pattern-recognition methods. The paper is divided into four parts. First, the problems of standard ultrasonic inspection techniques in detecting surface and near-surface cracks are presented. Next, signal-reducing and background-interference-producing mechanisms (beam skewing, defocusing, multiple grain-boundary and clad-base-material-interface scattering, focusing, etc.) are postulated to guide attempts to improve the reliability of crack detection. The two modes of operation of the multiple-beam array featured in the multiple-beam technique (Mode I - Inspection by Threshold Detection, and Mode II - Confirmation by Pattern Recognition) are then described. Finally, the results of a detection reliability evaluation study involving the multiple-beam technique and four other detection techniques and ten cladded plates containing thirty-three thumbnail-shaped notches are cited

  20. A comparison of intrauterine versus intracervical insemination in fertile single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, N; Palmer, J R

    2001-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracervical insemination (ICI) when used by fertile single women in a donor insemination program. Prospective randomized crossover study. Donor insemination program (not an infertility clinic). Single fertile women choosing to inseminate with frozen donor semen. Clients received procreative counseling and screening and were then randomly assigned to begin office insemination with ICI or IUI. If additional insemination cycles were required, the clients used the method opposite their previous method of insemination until pregnancy was achieved. Monthly fecundity rate was compared between the two methods of insemination. Sixty-two women contributed a total of 189 cycles, 94 by IUI and 95 by ICI. The monthly fecundity rate for IUI was 15%, as compared with 9% for ICI, (P=0.14). When the analysis was confined to cycles in which only one insemination was performed (64 IUI and 65 ICI cycles), the monthly fecundity rates were 14% for IUI and 5% for ICI (P=0.04). Intrauterine insemination with frozen donor sperm is more effective than intracervical insemination for single women without known fertility problems.

  1. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  2. Long-time vs. short-time insemination of sibling eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Yue; Zhao, Junliang; Hao, Dayong; Zhang, Jianrui; Liu, Yanli; Wu, Wenbin; Wang, Xingling

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a short insemination procedure on embryo development, assess the reliability of a fertilization check prior to the appearance of pronuclei and elucidate the role of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (R-ICSI). Patients who had ≥9 eggs, were aged insemination time, 20 h) and the other half for short insemination (insemination time, 5 h). R-ICSI was performed where total fertilization failure (TFF) was deemed to have occurred in the short insemination group. In total, 2,465 eggs were included. No significant differences were found in fertilization, abnormal fertilization, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates between the short insemination and conventional insemination groups. In the short insemination group, R-ICSI was performed in 11 cycles (6.7%); in 6 of these cycles, fertilization occurred in the patient's eggs in the 20 h insemination group, while in the other 5 cycles, the patient's eggs were not fertilized after 20 h insemination either. Following R-ICSI, 19 of 36 eggs were normally fertilized. Subsequently, 7 embryos were transferred in 4 fresh cycles resulting in one ectopic pregnancy. In conclusion, the short insemination procedure does not improve embryo development and pregnancy rates. Short insemination combined with early R-ICSI may be a method of preventing total fertilization failure, albeit with poor accuracy. PMID:28105107

  3. Artificial insemination practice in Nigeria – review of the dangers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first documented cattle artificial insemination (AI) in Nigeria dated back to 1949. Other recorded cattle artificial insemination in the country could be traced to when the Federal Government of Nigeria under the auspices of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, established Artificial Insemination Unit at the National Animal ...

  4. Cytological assessment of endometrial washings obtained with an insemination cannula and its histological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Reeni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometrial cytopathology is a powerful tool for the detection of a wide variety of benign atypias, inflammatory changes, and infectious organisms. It is also helpful for the cytohormonal evaluation of patients and the detection of endometrial malignancies. Aims: The present study was carried out to assess the sensitivity and specificity of endometrial cytology performed by using an insemination cannula. Materials and Methods: Endometrial aspiration using an insemination cannula was done in 60 cases who presented with dysuterine bleed, infertility, or postmenopausal bleed. The cytological evaluation of endometrial smears was correlated with histopathological findings with reference to cyclic endometrium, atypical hyperplasia, and endometrial malignancies. Results: There were 35 patients in the reproductive and 25 in the menopausal age groups. The sample was inadequate in four cases but there was an overall 100% correlation between cytological and histological findings of cyclic endometrium, atypical hyperplasia, and endometrial malignancy. The sensitivity and specificity of endometrial aspiration was 83.3 and 95.4% respectively, with two false negative and false positive cases. Conclusions: Endometrial aspiration cytology was found to be a safe outpatient procedure in the diagnosis of normal and abnormal endometrium for patients of all ages.The present study emphasizes the need for endometrial screening in postmenopausal patients to enable the detection of endometrial malignancies at an early stage.

  5. Flexible Modeling of Survival Data with Covariates Subject to Detection Limits via Multiple Imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul W; Wang, Huixia Judy; Zhang, Daowen

    2014-01-01

    Models for survival data generally assume that covariates are fully observed. However, in medical studies it is not uncommon for biomarkers to be censored at known detection limits. A computationally-efficient multiple imputation procedure for modeling survival data with covariates subject to detection limits is proposed. This procedure is developed in the context of an accelerated failure time model with a flexible seminonparametric error distribution. The consistency and asymptotic normality of the multiple imputation estimator are established and a consistent variance estimator is provided. An iterative version of the proposed multiple imputation algorithm that approximates the EM algorithm for maximum likelihood is also suggested. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed multiple imputation methods work well while alternative methods lead to estimates that are either biased or more variable. The proposed methods are applied to analyze the dataset from a recently-conducted GenIMS study.

  6. Karhunen-Loève (PCA) based detection of multiple oscillations in multiple measurement signals from large-scale process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Wickerhauser, M.V.

    2007-01-01

     In the perspective of optimizing the control and operation of large scale process plants, it is important to detect and to locate oscillations in the plants. This paper presents a scheme for detecting and localizing multiple oscillations in multiple measurements from such a large-scale power pla...

  7. Multiple fault detection and diagnosis in a gas turbine using nonlinear principal component analysis and structured residuals

    OpenAIRE

    Rincon-Charris, Amilcar; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin

    2013-01-01

    Multiple fault detection and diagnosis is a challenging problem because the number of candidates grows exponentially in the number of faults. In add ition, multiple faults in dynamic systems may be hard to detect, because they can mask or compensate each other’s effects. This paper presents the study of the detection and diagnosis of multiple faults in a SR-30 Gas Turbine using nonlinear principal component analys is as the detection method and structured residua...

  8. SOWS FERTILITY AFTER TRANSCERVICAL INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION (the sumarize of ours results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. STANČIĆ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the potential advantages of transcervical artificial insemination into the caudal portion of the uterus (corpus uteri, compared with conventional sperm-dose deposition into the posterior region of the cervix. Three experiments was carried out to investigate: (1 the influence of insemination-dose volume, (2 sperm number per dose and (3 type of insemination catheter on sows fertility (farrowing rate and litter size. Classic intracervical insemination was performed in the total of 50 sows (25 inseminated with 100ml doses and 25 with 50ml doses. Intrauterine insemination was performed in the total of 50 sows (25 inseminated with 100ml doses and 25 with 50ml doses. Significant greater farrowing rate (88% and live born piglet per litter (10,77 or 11,86 was found after intrauterine insemination, then after intracervical insemination (76 or 72% farrowing rate, and 10,42 or 9,89 live born piglets per litter. Classic intracervical insemination was performed in the total of 90 sows, with different catheter type. Intrauterine insemination was performed in the total of 90 sows, with 5x109,3,7x109 or 2,5x109 spermatozoa per dose. No significant differences in farrowing rate was found between intracervical and intrauterine insemination (83,3 to 86,7%. Significant greater live born piglet per litter was found after intrauterine insemination with 2,5x109 spermatozoa per dose. Obtained results suggest that intrauterine insemination can be performed by significant reduction of insemination dose volume and sperm number in dose, without decreasing sows fertility. It can result in significant increasing of boar reproductive efficiency.

  9. Fault Detection for Network Control Systems with Multiple Communication Delays and Stochastic Missing Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with fault detection problem for a class of network control systems (NCSs with multiple communication delays and stochastic missing measurements. The missing measurement phenomenon occurs in a random way and the occurrence probability for each measurement output is governed by an individual random variable. Besides, the multiple communication delay phenomenon reflects that networked control systems have different communication delays when the signals are transferred via different channels. We aim to design a fault detection filter so that the overall fault detection dynamics is exponentially stable in the mean square. By constructing proper Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, we acquire sufficient conditions to guarantee the stability of the fault detection filter for the discrete systems, and the filter parameters are also derived by solving linear matrix inequality. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed design method.

  10. Ultrasound image edge detection based on a novel multiplicative gradient and Canny operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yinfei; Zhou, Yali; Zhou, Hao; Gong, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    To achieve the fast and accurate segmentation of ultrasound image, a novel edge detection method for speckle noised ultrasound images was proposed, which was based on the traditional Canny and a novel multiplicative gradient operator. The proposed technique combines a new multiplicative gradient operator of non-Newtonian type with the traditional Canny operator to generate the initial edge map, which is subsequently optimized by the following edge tracing step. To verify the proposed method, we compared it with several other edge detection methods that had good robustness to noise, with experiments on the simulated and in vivo medical ultrasound image. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm has higher speed for real-time processing, and the edge detection accuracy could be 75% or more. Thus, the proposed method is very suitable for fast and accurate edge detection of medical ultrasound images. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Based on Clustering and Multiple One-Class SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jungsuk; Takakura, Hiroki; Okabe, Yasuo; Kwon, Yongjin

    Intrusion detection system (IDS) has played an important role as a device to defend our networks from cyber attacks. However, since it is unable to detect unknown attacks, i.e., 0-day attacks, the ultimate challenge in intrusion detection field is how we can exactly identify such an attack by an automated manner. Over the past few years, several studies on solving these problems have been made on anomaly detection using unsupervised learning techniques such as clustering, one-class support vector machine (SVM), etc. Although they enable one to construct intrusion detection models at low cost and effort, and have capability to detect unforeseen attacks, they still have mainly two problems in intrusion detection: a low detection rate and a high false positive rate. In this paper, we propose a new anomaly detection method based on clustering and multiple one-class SVM in order to improve the detection rate while maintaining a low false positive rate. We evaluated our method using KDD Cup 1999 data set. Evaluation results show that our approach outperforms the existing algorithms reported in the literature; especially in detection of unknown attacks.

  12. Delayed insemination of non-estrous heifers and cows when using conventional semen in timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that pregnancy rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers and cows may be improved by delaying insemination of females that have not expressed estrus before FTAI. In Exp. 1, estrus was synchronized for 931 heifers across 3 locations using the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol (controlled internal drug-release [CIDR] insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0 with removal of CIDR insert on d 14; 25 mg PGF2α 16 d after CIDR insert removal on d 30; and 100 μg GnRH on d 33, 66 h after PGF2α). Estrous detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α on d 30, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 33. Heifers within each location were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments based on weight and reproductive tract score (RTS): 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after PGF2α) regardless of estrous expression or 2) FTAI for heifers expressing estrus and delayed AI (20 h after GnRH) for heifers failing to express estrus. Heifers assigned to treatment 2 achieved a higher AI pregnancy rate than heifers assigned to treatment 1 (54 versus 46%; P = 0.01). The observed increase in AI pregnancy rate is attributed to the delayed AI of non-estrous heifers in treatment 2, as AI pregnancy rates for non-estrous heifers were significantly higher for treatment 2 (49 versus 34%; P = 0.02), while AI pregnancy rates of estrous heifers did not differ by treatment (P = 0.24). In Exp. 2, estrus was synchronized for 951 mature, suckled cows across 9 locations using the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR insert removal on d 7; and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR insert removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR insert removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows within each location were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments based on age, days postpartum, and BCS: 1) FTAI (concurrent with Gn

  13. A Unified Framework for Event Summarization and Rare Event Detection from Multiple Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junseok; Lee, Kyoung Mu

    2015-09-01

    A novel approach for event summarization and rare event detection is proposed. Unlike conventional methods that deal with event summarization and rare event detection independently, our method solves them in a single framework by transforming them into a graph editing problem. In our approach, a video is represented by a graph, each node of which indicates an event obtained by segmenting the video spatially and temporally. The edges between nodes describe the relationship between events. Based on the degree of relations, edges have different weights. After learning the graph structure, our method finds subgraphs that represent event summarization and rare events in the video by editing the graph, that is, merging its subgraphs or pruning its edges. The graph is edited to minimize a predefined energy model with the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The energy model consists of several parameters that represent the causality, frequency, and significance of events. We design a specific energy model that uses these parameters to satisfy each objective of event summarization and rare event detection. The proposed method is extended to obtain event summarization and rare event detection results across multiple videos captured from multiple views. For this purpose, the proposed method independently learns and edits each graph of individual videos for event summarization or rare event detection. Then, the method matches the extracted multiple graphs to each other, and constructs a single composite graph that represents event summarization or rare events from multiple views. Experimental results show that the proposed approach accurately summarizes multiple videos in a fully unsupervised manner. Moreover, the experiments demonstrate that the approach is advantageous in detecting rare transition of events.

  14. Optimizing model. 1. Insemination, replacement, seasonal production and cash flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delorenzo, M.A.; Spreen, T.H.; Bryan, G.R.; Beede, D.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic programming to solve the Markov decision process problem of optimal insemination and replacement decisions was adapted to address large dairy herd management decision problems in the US. Expected net present values of cow states (151,200) were used to determine the optimal policy. States

  15. Synchronised approach for intrauterine insemination in subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Janssen, Mirjam J.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Allersma, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries intrauterine insemination (IUI) is the treatment of first choice for a subfertile couple when the infertility work up reveals an ovulatory cycle, at least one open Fallopian tube and sufficient spermatozoa. The final goal of this treatment is to achieve a pregnancy and

  16. Adoption and Donor Insemination: Factors Influencing Couples' Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Ken R.

    1994-01-01

    A study of 54 couples who gave birth to a child by means of donor insemination (DI) showed that most couples who had children by DI had previously considered adoption. Their reasons for choosing DI ranged from the practical to the emotional and from perceived negative aspects of adoption to perceived advantages of DI. (MDM)

  17. Review of the Use of Artificial Insemination Services in Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed artificial insemination (AI) services rendered at AI centres across Botswana over a five year period (2005 to 2010). The use of AI in cattle production in Botswana dates back to the mid-1960s. AI service in the country was mainly performed in beef production to improve herd quality in terms of improved ...

  18. (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kit with the standard swim-up sperm washing method regarding pregnancy outcomes. Male factor infertility is a term that describes inability to conceive associated with a problem identified in the male partner. Intra- uterine insemination (IUI) has been shown to be effective in a range of sperm abnormalities causing male ...

  19. Variation in guideline adherence in intrauterine insemination care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagen, E.C.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Health-care delivery according to clinical practice guidelines is thought to be critical in achieving optimal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the extent to which practice performance in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care is consistent with guideline recommendations and to evaluate the

  20. Artificial insemination in black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, L; Cerda-Molina, A L; Páez-Ponce, D L; Rojas-Maya, S; Mondragón-Ceballos, R

    2007-01-15

    Artificial insemination (AI) was performed in spider monkeys; these primates are vulnerable to extinction and usually do not reproduce spontaneously in captivity. Uterine cycles were followed by daily assessment of vaginal cytology, and corroborated a posteriori by concentrations of 17-beta estradiol and progesterone, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), in fecal samples collected once daily. Five females between 13 to 27 years old were inseminated intravaginally (with fresh semen) twice each during the periovulatory phase (Days 9-12 of the menstrual cycle; Day 0, first day of menstrual bleeding), from September to the first 3 weeks of November (most fertile months). Transcervical AI was not useful in this primate because the liquid portion of the semen completely solidified instead of liquefying as in other primates. Pregnancies were apparently achieved in 5 of 14 attempts. One female became pregnant after the first round of inseminations, delivered a healthy infant, was inseminated and got pregnant again (subsequently aborted). One female aborted, apparently due to an intramural uterine leiomyoma. Another two females stopped menstruating for a few months, then restarted menstruating (these females may have been pregnant and aborted). In conclusion, in spider monkeys: (1) captivity-induced stress did not inhibit reproduction; (2) fecal steroid hormones were useful to assess cyclicity; (3) the semen coagulum, which apparently is a tightly packed and large reservoir of spermatozoa, must not be discarded but used in AI; (4) old female spider monkeys did not have cessation of reproductive function.

  1. (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of an office-based semen preparation method (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI): A controlled randomised study to compare the IUI pregnancy outcome between a routine (swim-up) and the SEP-D Kit method.

  2. The Potential use of Artificial Insemination in sustainable Breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of resources is, however, an obstacle for comprehensive recording schemes and progeny testing. Therefore, a breeding pyramid with detailed recording and performance testing of approximately 500 breeding does belonging to Mgeta farmers has been proposed, This opens up possibilities of insemination of some of ...

  3. Laparoscopic artificial insemination in dairy sheep with chilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... fertility trials and the effects of dilution methods on freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Cryobiology, 28: 36-42. Anel L, Kaabi M, Abroug B, Alvarez M, Anel E, Boixo JC, De La Fuente. LF, De Paz P (2005). Factors influencing the success of vaginal and laparoscopic artificial insemination in churra ...

  4. Acceptability of artificial insemination by donor among infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acceptability of artificial insemination by donor among infertile women attending the Gynaecological Clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan. ... Providing information on AID as a treatment option during counseling and routine infertility management may be the needed drive to improve awareness and promote ...

  5. Evaluation of the Artificial Insemination Programme for Small Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information from the study suggest that the artificial insemination program for the small scale farmers in Malawi requires a thorough revision. An inventory of the Malawian diary cattle population and its genetic composition are recommended to provide basic information for the development of an appropriate breeding ...

  6. Challenges to Farmers' Participation In Artificial Insemination (AI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock farming is an important source of animal based food products and income in Nigeria. To improve livestock production in the country, technologies such as artificial insemination have to be understood and transferred properly by Livestock Extension Agents (LEA) to farmers for proper adoption. This technology has ...

  7. Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of insemination time on fertility of Rhodes island white chicken (Gallus domestica) raised in northern guinea savannah zone of Nigeria. D Zahraddeen, ISR Butswat, KM Bello, AA Washik. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 1 (4) 2007: pp. 378-383. Full Text:.

  8. DIF Detection Using Multiple-Group Categorical CFA with Minimum Free Baseline Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Huang, Wei-Kang; Tsai, Rung-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the efficiency of using the multiple-group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MCCFA) and the robust chi-square difference test in differential item functioning (DIF) detection for polytomous items under the minimum free baseline strategy. While testing for DIF items, despite the strong assumption that all…

  9. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR): an emerging tool for multiple resource inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen E. Reutebuch; Hans-Erik Andersen; Robert J. McGaughey

    2005-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning of forests has been shown to provide accurate terrain models and, at the same time, estimates of multiple resource inventory variables through active sensing of three-dimensional (3D) forest vegetation. Brief overviews of airborne laser scanning technology [often referred to as "light detection and ranging" (LIDAR)] and research...

  10. Enhanced terahertz detection using multiple GaAs HEMTs connected in series

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhatib, Tamer A.

    2012-07-28

    We report here, for the first time, on enhanced nonresonant detection of terahertz radiation using multiple InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) connected in series and biased by a direct drain current. A 1.63 THz (184 mum) response is proportional to the number of detecting transistors operating in saturation region at the same gate-source bias voltage. The experimental data are in agreement with the detection mechanism based on the rectification of overdamped plasma waves excited by radiation in channels of devices.

  11. Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubara, A. S.

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck semen. From a flock of 150 females of mixed breeds and crosses, 34 female Nubian goats were selected and grouped by ages. They were then randomly assigned to different treatments Viz: Four females were allowed to cycle naturally as control (Treatment A): ten were injected intramuscularly with 125 μ g Cloprosterol, two doses gives 13 days apart (Treatment C): the last ten females were treated as C but were injected intramuscularly with 300 I:U pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) two days before removal of sponges (Treatment D): one vasectomized buck and other aspermic were immediately introduced to the treated groups to aid in detection and initiation of oestrus. Conception rates were estimated as non return rates, and early pregnancy (3-10 weeks) after insemination was diagnosed by progesterone Radio -Immuno -Assay (RIA) and late pregnancy (90-110 days) post-insemination was diagnosed by abdominal palpation technique. The obtained results indicated that all employed treatments were capable of inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats. Treatment B being significantly higher than other treatments (P≤ 0.05). There was significant difference between treatments (P≤0.05) as far as the duration of oestrus period is concerned in this study. Pregnancy rates were significantly different between treatments (P≤0.05). Treatment B has more advantages than C and D in oestrus induction and synchronization and could easily be applied in a large flock of different ages with minimal labour required, while C and D proved to be difficult in its application in non- parous goats and requires assistance and some hygienic measures during application. This study recommended cloprosterol (Treatment B), fixed time

  12. Mixture Statistical Distribution Based Multiple Component Model for Target Detection in High Resolution SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an innovative Mixture Statistical Distribution Based Multiple Component (MSDMC model for target detection in high spatial resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. Traditional detection algorithms usually ignore the spatial relationship among the target’s components. In the presented method, however, both the structural information and the statistical distribution are considered to better recognize the target. Firstly, the method based on compressed sensing reconstruction is used to recover the SAR image. Then, the multiple component model composed of a root filter and some corresponding part filters is applied to describe the structural information of the target. In the following step, mixture statistical distributions are utilised to discriminate the target from the background, and the Method of Logarithmic Cumulants (MoLC based Expectation Maximization (EM approach is adopted to estimate the parameters of the mixture statistical distribution model, which will be finally merged into the proposed MSDMC framework together with the multiple component model. In the experiment, the aeroplanes and the electrical power towers in TerraSAR-X SAR images are detected at three spatial resolutions. The results indicate that the presented MSDMC Model has potential for improving the detection performance compared with the state-of-the-art SAR target detection methods.

  13. PathogenMIPer: a tool for the design of molecular inversion probes to detect multiple pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhras Michael

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we describe PathogenMIPer, a software program for designing molecular inversion probe (MIP oligonucleotides for use in pathogen identification and detection. The software designs unique and specific oligonucleotide probes targeting microbial or other genomes. The tool tailors all probe sequence components (including target-specific sequences, barcode sequences, universal primers and restriction sites and combines these components into ready-to-order probes for use in a MIP assay. The system can harness the genetic variability available in an entire genome in designing specific probes for the detection of multiple co-infections in a single tube using a MIP assay. Results PathogenMIPer can accept sequence data in FASTA file format, and other parameter inputs from the user through a graphical user interface. It can design MIPs not only for pathogens, but for any genome for use in parallel genomic analyses. The software was validated experimentally by applying it to the detection of human papilloma virus (HPV as a model system, which is associated with various human malignancies including cervical and skin cancers. Initial tests of laboratory samples using the MIPs developed by the PathogenMIPer to recognize 24 different types of HPVs gave very promising results, detecting even a small viral load of single as well as multiple infections (Akhras et al, personal communication. Conclusion PathogenMIPer is a software for designing molecular inversion probes for detection of multiple target DNAs in a sample using MIP assays. It enables broader use of MIP technology in the detection through genotyping of pathogens that are complex, difficult-to-amplify, or present in multiple subtypes in a sample.

  14. Detection of fast oscillating magnetic fields using dynamic multiple TR imaging and Fourier analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations produce oscillating magnetic fields. There have been trials to detect neuronal oscillations using MRI, but the detectability in in vivo is still in debate. Major obstacles to detecting neuronal oscillations are (i weak amplitudes, (ii fast oscillations, which are faster than MRI temporal resolution, and (iii random frequencies and on/off intervals. In this study, we proposed a new approach for direct detection of weak and fast oscillating magnetic fields. The approach consists of (i dynamic acquisitions using multiple times to repeats (TRs and (ii an expanded frequency spectral analysis. Gradient echo echo-planar imaging was used to test the feasibility of the proposed approach with a phantom generating oscillating magnetic fields with various frequencies and amplitudes and random on/off intervals. The results showed that the proposed approach could precisely detect the weak and fast oscillating magnetic fields with random frequencies and on/off intervals. Complex and phase spectra showed reliable signals, while no meaningful signals were observed in magnitude spectra. A two-TR approach provided an absolute frequency spectrum above Nyquist sampling frequency pixel by pixel with no a priori target frequency information. The proposed dynamic multiple-TR imaging and Fourier analysis are promising for direct detection of neuronal oscillations and potentially applicable to any pulse sequences.

  15. Detection of fast oscillating magnetic fields using dynamic multiple TR imaging and Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Heo, Hyo-Im; Park, Sung-Hong

    2018-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations produce oscillating magnetic fields. There have been trials to detect neuronal oscillations using MRI, but the detectability in in vivo is still in debate. Major obstacles to detecting neuronal oscillations are (i) weak amplitudes, (ii) fast oscillations, which are faster than MRI temporal resolution, and (iii) random frequencies and on/off intervals. In this study, we proposed a new approach for direct detection of weak and fast oscillating magnetic fields. The approach consists of (i) dynamic acquisitions using multiple times to repeats (TRs) and (ii) an expanded frequency spectral analysis. Gradient echo echo-planar imaging was used to test the feasibility of the proposed approach with a phantom generating oscillating magnetic fields with various frequencies and amplitudes and random on/off intervals. The results showed that the proposed approach could precisely detect the weak and fast oscillating magnetic fields with random frequencies and on/off intervals. Complex and phase spectra showed reliable signals, while no meaningful signals were observed in magnitude spectra. A two-TR approach provided an absolute frequency spectrum above Nyquist sampling frequency pixel by pixel with no a priori target frequency information. The proposed dynamic multiple-TR imaging and Fourier analysis are promising for direct detection of neuronal oscillations and potentially applicable to any pulse sequences.

  16. The importance and potential of artificial insemination in CANDES (companion animals, non-domestic, endangered species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, B S

    2009-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is the least invasive assisted reproductive technology, and is therefore of great interest to breeders of companion animals, non-domestic, and endangered species (CANDES). This most fundamental artificial breeding technique circumvents physical or behavioral impediments to natural mating and provides the means for genetic exchange between populations without transfer of live animals. In addition, because oocytes grow, mature and are fertilized in vivo and embryos are not subjected to in vitro culture conditions, AI eliminates the epigenetic effects on the female gamete that are inherent in more invasive assisted reproductive technologies. Although the management of CANDES differs significantly from current livestock husbandry practices, the cattle industry is a powerful example of the potential for AI to enhance the genetic health and sustainability of animal populations. Ultimately, successful AI requires sperm of adequate quality and quantity, oocytes that have attained nuclear maturation and cytoplasmic competence, operational gamete transport systems, accurate timing, and proper placement of sperm in the female reproductive tract. Increased understanding of semen collection, evaluation and preservation techniques, estrus synchronization and superovulation, estrus and ovulation detection, and insemination instrumentation is needed for each CANDES before AI success rates will approach those of the livestock industry. Concentrated, collaborative research in these areas must be encouraged among private breeders, universities and zoological institutions to realize the full potential of AI in the management of CANDES.

  17. Comparison of post-cervical and cervical porcine artificial insemination in nulliparous and multiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchetti CG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI in sows increases semen performance compared to cervical artificial insemination (CAI. In Argentina the use of the PCAI is restricted to multiparous while it is not applied to nulliparous. The aim of this study was to compare porcine CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous. Pregnancy rates and number of live pups with CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous, assessing advantages and disadvantages of each method were compared. This is a small-scale work (4 CAI and 7 PCAI in nulliparous, 3 CAI and 3 PCAI in multiparous in a small field productive site in the Province of Buenos Aires. Here the boar was omitted for heat detection and to stimulate the sow during AI. Pregnancy rates and the number of pups born alive per pregnant sow were similar with the two techniques and two categories. The PCAI is a good practice in nulliparous and multiparous because this technique increases semen performance compared to CAI and it is omitted the presence of the boar.

  18. Spinal focal lesion detection in multiple myeloma using multimodal image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fränzle, Andrea; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2015-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a tumor disease in the bone marrow that affects the skeleton systemically, i.e. multiple lesions can occur in different sites in the skeleton. To quantify overall tumor mass for determining degree of disease and for analysis of therapy response, volumetry of all lesions is needed. Since the large amount of lesions in one patient impedes manual segmentation of all lesions, quantification of overall tumor volume is not possible until now. Therefore development of automatic lesion detection and segmentation methods is necessary. Since focal tumors in multiple myeloma show different characteristics in different modalities (changes in bone structure in CT images, hypointensity in T1 weighted MR images and hyperintensity in T2 weighted MR images), multimodal image analysis is necessary for the detection of focal tumors. In this paper a pattern recognition approach is presented that identifies focal lesions in lumbar vertebrae based on features from T1 and T2 weighted MR images. Image voxels within bone are classified using random forests based on plain intensities and intensity value derived features (maximum, minimum, mean, median) in a 5 x 5 neighborhood around a voxel from both T1 and T2 weighted MR images. A test data sample of lesions in 8 lumbar vertebrae from 4 multiple myeloma patients can be classified at an accuracy of 95% (using a leave-one-patient-out test). The approach provides a reasonable delineation of the example lesions. This is an important step towards automatic tumor volume quantification in multiple myeloma.

  19. Fixed-time insemination with frozen semen in mares: is it suitable for poorly fertile stallions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzi, Bruno Ribeiro; Ramos, Renata Dos Santos; Araujo, Gustavo Henrique Marques; Fioratti, Eduardo Gorzoni; Trinca, Luzia Aparecida; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio; Melo E Oña, Cely Marini; Zahn, Fabíola Soares; Martin, Ian; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio; Papa, Frederico Ozanam

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare two protocols for equine frozen semen programs using either postovulation insemination or fixed-time insemination (FT), evaluating both pregnancy rates and intrauterine fluid (IUF) accumulation after artificial insemination with semen obtained from either highly or poorly fertile stallions. Six ejaculates from two stallions (n = 12) were processed. After thawing, semen samples were evaluated by computerized semen analysis. Fifteen mares (30 cycles) were inseminated with frozen semen from highly fertile stallion A, and 14 mares (28 cycles) were inseminated with frozen semen from poorly fertile stallion B. Ovulations were induced with 1 mg (intramuscular) of deslorelin acetate after the observation of a greater than 35 mm follicle and uterine edema. In postovulation insemination group, mares were inseminated once with 800 × 10(6) total sperm in a maximum 6-hour interval after ovulation. In FT group, mares were inseminated twice with 400 × 10(6) total sperm, 24 and 40 hours after induction. Mares were ultrasonographically examined for IUF accumulation 24 hours and for pregnancy diagnosis 14 days after the last insemination. Although IUF accumulation was more evident in mares inseminated once postovulation, pregnancy rates were similar for both protocols, regardless of the stallion, although a significant effect of the stallion was observed. These results indicated that FTs may be used for both highly and poorly fertile stallions as a practical tool to help spreading the use of frozen semen in equine reproduction programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A prospective, randomized, cross-over comparison of two methods of artificial insemination by donor on the incidence of conception: intracervical insemination by straw versus cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flierman, P A; Hogerzeil, H V; Hemrika, D J

    1997-09-01

    In a prospective, randomized study of insemination with donor semen, intracervical insemination by straw was compared with insemination using a cervical cap with an intracervical reservoir. A total of 91 patients completed 486 treatment cycles. There were no significant differences in age, parity, indication for insemination by donor, or method of cycle monitoring between women who became pregnant and those who did not conceive with either insemination method. In 236 standard intracervical insemination cycles, 14 patients became pregnant (5.9% per cycle), whereas 38 patients conceived in 250 cervical cap cycles (15.2% per cycle). Both the crude pregnancy rates and the cumulative pregnancy rates calculated by the Kaplan-Meier life-table method were significantly different (chi(2)-test, P < 0.001, and log-rank test, P < 0.005 respectively). Pregnancy rates in artificial insemination with cryopreserved donor semen may be improved by the use of a cervical cap when compared to cervical insemination by straw. The use of the cervical cap may prolong the exposure of the spermatozoa to the cervical mucus and prevent the backflow of semen into the vagina.

  1. Seven-Tesla Magnetization Transfer Imaging to Detect Multiple Sclerosis White Matter Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Lim, Su-Yin; Tanasescu, Radu; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Mougin, Olivier E; Tench, Christopher R; Whitehouse, William P; Gowland, Penny A; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2018-03-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 Tesla (T) field strength is the most sensitive modality for detecting white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis. While 7T FLAIR is effective in detecting cortical lesions, it has not been fully optimized for visualization of white matter lesions and thus has not been used for delineating lesions in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of 7T magnetization-transfer-weighted (MT w ) images in the detection of white matter lesions compared with 3T-FLAIR. Fifteen patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 6 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 healthy participants were scanned with 7T 3-dimensional (D) MT w and 3T-2D-FLAIR sequences on the same day. White matter lesions visible on either sequence were delineated. Of 662 lesions identified on 3T-2D-FLAIR images, 652 were detected on 7T-3D-MT w images (sensitivity, 98%; 95% confidence interval, 97% to 99%). The Spearman correlation coefficient between lesion loads estimated by the two sequences was .910. The intrarater and interrater reliability for 7T-3D-MT w images was good with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 98.4% and 81.8%, which is similar to that for 3T-2D-FLAIR images (ICC 96.1% and 96.7%). Seven-Tesla MT w sequences detected most of the white matter lesions identified by FLAIR at 3T. This suggests that 7T-MT w imaging is a robust alternative for detecting demyelinating lesions in addition to 3T-FLAIR. Future studies need to compare the roles of optimized 7T-FLAIR and of 7T-MT w imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Multiple SNPs Detection Based on Lateral Flow Assay for Phenylketonuria Diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Kewu; Wang, Han; Lu, Chaoxia; Li, Hang; Hua, Kai; Zhu, Juanli; Hui, Wenli; Cui, Yali; Zhang, Xue

    2018-02-16

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are closely related to genetic diseases, but current SNP detection methods, such as DNA microarrays that include tedious procedures and expensive, sophisticated instruments, are unable to perform rapid SNPs detection in clinical practice, especially for those multiple SNPs related to genetic diseases. In this study, we report a sensitive, low cost, and easy-to-use point-of-care testing (POCT) system formed by combining amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) polymerase chain reaction with gold magnetic nanoparticles (GMNPs) and lateral flow assay (LFA) noted as the ARMS-LFA system, which allow us to use a uniform condition for multiple SNPs detection simultaneously. The genotyping results can be explained by a magnetic reader automatically or through visual interpretation according to the captured GMNPs probes on the test and control lines of the LFA device. The high sensitivity (the detection limit of 0.04 pg/μL with plasmid) and specificity of this testing system were found through genotyping seven pathogenic SNPs in phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH, the etiological factor of phenylketonuria). This system can also be applied in DNA quantification with a linear range from 0.02 to 2 pg/μL of plasmid. Furthermore, this ARMS-LFA system was applied to clinical trials for screening the seven pathogenic SNPs in PAH of 23 families including 69 individuals. The concordance rate of the genotyping results detected by the ARMS-LFA system was up to 97.8% compared with the DNA sequencing results. This method is a very promising POCT in the detection of multiple SNPs caused by genetic diseases.

  3. Multiple-Features-Based Semisupervised Clustering DDoS Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghao Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DDoS attack stream from different agent host converged at victim host will become very large, which will lead to system halt or network congestion. Therefore, it is necessary to propose an effective method to detect the DDoS attack behavior from the massive data stream. In order to solve the problem that large numbers of labeled data are not provided in supervised learning method, and the relatively low detection accuracy and convergence speed of unsupervised k-means algorithm, this paper presents a semisupervised clustering detection method using multiple features. In this detection method, we firstly select three features according to the characteristics of DDoS attacks to form detection feature vector. Then, Multiple-Features-Based Constrained-K-Means (MF-CKM algorithm is proposed based on semisupervised clustering. Finally, using MIT Laboratory Scenario (DDoS 1.0 data set, we verify that the proposed method can improve the convergence speed and accuracy of the algorithm under the condition of using a small amount of labeled data sets.

  4. Development of an oligonucleotide-based microarray to detect multiple foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Biao; He, Yiping; Paoli, George; Gehring, Andrew; Tu, Shu-I; Shi, Xianming

    2010-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni are considered important pathogens causing the most food-related human illnesses worldwide. Current methods for pathogen detection have limitations in the effectiveness of identifying multiple foodborne pathogens. In this study, a pathogen detection microarray was developed using various 70-mer oligonucleotides specifically targeting the above pathogens. To reduce the cost of detection, each microarray chip was designed and fabricated to accommodate 12 identical arrays which could be used for screening up to 12 different samples. To achieve high detection sensitivity and specificity, target-specific DNA amplification instead of whole genome random amplification was used prior to microarray analysis. Combined with 14-plex PCR amplification of target sequences, the microarray unambiguously distinguished all 4 pathogens with a detection sensitivity of 1 x 10(-4) ng (approximately 20 copies) of each genomic DNA. Applied the assay to 39 fresh meat samples, 16 samples were found to be contaminated by either 1 or 2 of these pathogens. The co-occurrences of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes in the same meat samples were also observed. Overall, the microarray combined with multiplex PCR method was able to effectively screen single or multiple pathogens in food samples and to provide important genotypic information related to pathogen virulence.

  5. Detection and localization of multiple short range targets using FMCW radar signal

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, a 24 GHz frequency-modulated continuous wave radar is used to detect and localize both stationary and moving targets. Depending on the application, the implemented software offers different modes of operation. For example, it can simply output raw data samples for advanced offline processing or directly carry out a two dimensional fast Fourier transform to estimate the location and velocity of multiple targets. To suppress clutter and detect only moving targets, two methods based on the background reduction and the slow time processing techniques are implemented. A trade-off between the two methods is presented based on their performance and the required processing time. © 2016 IEEE.

  6. Anomaly detection in homogenous populations: A sparse multiple kernel-based regularization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Tianshi; Andersen, Martin S.; Chiuso, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    A problem of anomaly detection in homogenous populations consisting of linear stable systems is studied. The recently introduced sparse multiple kernel based regularization method is applied to solve the problem. A common problem with the existing regularization methods is that there lacks......, both the parameter and hyper-parameter estimation problems can be cast as convex and sequential convex optimization problems. It is possible to derive scalable solutions to both the parameter and hyper-parameter estimation problems and thus provide a scalable solution to the anomaly detection....

  7. Detection of multiple tumor markers using ultra-long carbon nanotube devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hye-Mi; Park, Dong-Won; Kim, Beom Soo; Kong, Ki-Jeong; Buh, Gyoung-Ho; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Jeong-O.; Kong, Jing

    2008-03-01

    For the simultaneous detection of multiple tumor markers, we have fabricated ultra-long carbon nanotube sensors that can detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), simultaneously. Ultra-long carbon nanotubes, several millimeters long, were grown by ethanol CVD, and fabricated as FET sensors by using conventional photolithography. To functionalize each segment of a single ultra-long nanotube device with multiple-tumor markers, we first functionalize the entire device with CDI-Tween 20 linking molecules, and then immobilized CEA and PSA antibodies using the microfluidic channel. The electrical conductance from CEA-antibody functionalized and PSA-antibody functionalized segment of a ultra-long carbon nanotube device was monitored simultaneously with Ag/AgCl reference electrode as a liquid gate. We will discuss the advantages of long-nanotube device in detail.

  8. Improved knowledge about conception rates influences the decision to stop insemination in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchaisri, C; De Vries, A; Jorritsma, R; Hogeveen, H

    2012-10-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated optimal insemination and replacement policy might differ from the real optimal insemination and replacement policy. The objective of this study was to evaluate different sets of conception rates with an increasing level of accuracy to determine the insemination policy. An existing dynamic program for optimal insemination and replacement was used to compare three different scenarios in the estimation of conception rates, based on the reproductive performance of Dutch dairy cattle: (i) constant conception rate throughout lactation, (ii) conception rate dependent on parity and months in milk, and (iii) conception rate dependent on parity, months in milk and insemination number. The time step of the model was 30.4 days (1 month). The discounted future cash flow of culling a cow at each time step (replace a heifer immediately) was compared with keeping that cow under optimal future decisions. The difference between immediate culling and optimal decisions is defined as the retention pay-off. The insemination value was calculated as the difference between the future cash flow between immediate insemination of a cow and waiting one time-step. The results show that the difference in the insemination values and the optimal time to stop insemination depend on parity, lactation stage and the relative milk yield. In older cows with equal milk yields and at the same months in milk, the insemination value was lower than in younger cows. Within a parity, the insemination value was higher for cows with a higher milk yield. On individual cow level, using more accurate conception rate as input in the optimal insemination and replacement model might reduce miscalculation of the economic

  9. Semi-parametric detection of multiple changes in long-range dependent processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bardet, Jean-Marc; Guenaizi, Abdellatif

    2018-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the offline multiple changes detection for long memory processes. The observations are supposed to satisfy a semi-parametric long memory assumption with distinct memory parameters on each stage. A penalized local Whittle contrast is considered for estimating all the parameters. The consistency as well as convergence rates are obtained. Monte-Carlo experiments exhibit the accuracy of the estimators. They also show that the estimation of the number of breaks is improved...

  10. Ear Detection under Uncontrolled Conditions with Multiple Scale Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear detection is an important step in ear recognition approaches. Most existing ear detection techniques are based on manually designing features or shallow learning algorithms. However, researchers found that the pose variation, occlusion, and imaging conditions provide a great challenge to the traditional ear detection methods under uncontrolled conditions. This paper proposes an efficient technique involving Multiple Scale Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNN to detect ears from 2D profile images in natural images automatically. Firstly, three regions of different scales are detected to infer the information about the ear location context within the image. Then an ear region filtering approach is proposed to extract the correct ear region and eliminate the false positives automatically. In an experiment with a test set of 200 web images (with variable photographic conditions, 98% of ears were accurately detected. Experiments were likewise conducted on the Collection J2 of University of Notre Dame Biometrics Database (UND-J2 and University of Beira Interior Ear dataset (UBEAR, which contain large occlusion, scale, and pose variations. Detection rates of 100% and 98.22%, respectively, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...... and number of insemination to pregnancy) of 62 Holstein cows involved in a 16 months extended lactation trial was recorded and compared with the reproductive performance of the previous and following 10 months lactation of the same cows. It was hypothesized that a late rebreeding (at eight months, 16 months...... delaying rebreeding until after peak lactation can improve reproductive performance compared with the traditional rebreeding in early lactation. The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of cows in consecutive lactations of different lengths. The reproductive performance (pregnancy rate...

  12. The insemination of goldfish ( Carassium auratus) oocyte matured in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renxue; Wu, Xianhan; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Shicui; Ma, Yingjie; Wu, Shangqin; Shi, Yingxian

    1991-03-01

    Full maturation of goldfish oocyte was induced in vitro by 17 α-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone. The oocyte maturation involves GV migration to the periphery of the oocyte and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). In the experiment, incubation duration for GVBD varied in different broods of oocytes. Generally, if the duration for GVBD was shorter than 6 h, oocytes would have a better chance to survive after maturation and insemination. The maturation of nucleus (GV) and cytoplasm are not synchronous. Cytoplasm maturation occurs several hs after GVBD. Oocytes inseminated 8 9 h after GVBD have the highest fertilizing and hatching rate. Fertilized ova matured in vitro can develop to sexually mature adults capable of reproduction.

  13. Detection of Extramedullary Multiple Myeloma in Liver by FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daeweung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Choi, Keum Ha; Kim, Chang Guhn [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We present the case of a 42-year-old man with a painful mass lesion in the right shoulder that was detected by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. Excisional biopsy revealed infiltration of plasma cells with anaplastic features, consistent with solitary plasmacytoma (PC). Serum analysis showed elevation of serum free lambda light chain levels (27.78 mg/l), with an abnormally high kappa:lambda ratio (2.33) and high total proteins (10.4 g/dl). Serum protein electrophoresis revealed an M spike in the gamma-globulin region (56.1 %=5.8 g/dl). Subsequently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT revealed another hypermetabolic mass in the right lobe of the liver. CT-guided biopsy of the liver lesion revealed plasma cell myeloma, consistent with multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma presenting as nodular liver masses is very rare in clinical practice. In a retrospective review of more than 2,000 patients, Talamo et al. reported only nine cases where there was nodular involvement of the liver by multiple myeloma. The organ most commonly involved was the liver, followed by pancreas, stomach, peritoneum with malignant ascites, colon, rectum, duodenum and ileum. Therefore, the literature published thus far has been limited to a few reports and case series. Among these reports, some had demonstrated the PET or PET/CT findings of nodular liver involvement of multiple myeloma. About 10 % of the solitary myelomas appeared as extramedullary PC or solitary PC of bone. In spite of the advances in therapy, the treatment of multiple myeloma is still palliative. However, solitary PC could be cured by resection or radiation therapy. Thus, differentiation between PC and multiple myeloma is essential in making a decision for the appropriate therapeutic regimen. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has the unique ability to detect and characterize malignant lesions in one single examination. Schirrmeister et al. reported that

  14. Primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare type of extrauterine pregnancy. It has been reported from many unusual intra-abdominal sites. We report a case of primary abdominal pregnancy following intra-uterine insemination (not reported earlier to our knowledge. Implanted on the anterior surface of the uterus possibly related to an endometriotic foci. Early diagnosis enabled laparoscopic management of this case.

  15. Vertical transmission of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) from hens infected through artificial insemination with ALV-J infected semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang

    2017-06-29

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosis, have the greatest pathogenicity and transmission ability within this class of viruses. ALV can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically; however, the effects of ALV infection in chickens-especially roosters-during the propagation, on future generations is not clear. Knowing the role of the cock in the transmission of ALV from generation to generation might contribute to the eradication programs for ALV. The results showed that two hens inseminated with ALV-J-positive semen developed temporary antibody responses to ALV-J at 4-5 weeks post insemination. The p27 antigen was detected in cloacal swabs of six hens, and in 3 of 26 egg albumens at 1-6 weeks after insemination. Moreover, no viremia was detected at 6 weeks after insemination even when virus isolation had been conducted six times at weekly intervals for each of the 12 females. However, ALV-J was isolated from 1 of their 34 progeny chicks at 1 week of age, and its gp85 had 98.4%-99.2% sequence identity with the gp85 of ALV-J isolated from semen samples of the six cocks. Our findings indicated that females that were late horizontally infected with ALV-J by artificial insemination might transmit the virus to progeny through eggs, which amounts to vertical transmission.

  16. AIDA Asia. Artificial Insemination Database Application. User manual. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Podesta, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA-Asia) is a computer application to store and analyze information from AI Services (farms, females, inseminated, semen, estrus characteristics, inseminator and pregnancy diagnosis data). The need for such an application arose during a consultancy undertaken by the author for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) under the framework of its Regional Co-operative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA) which is implementing a project on 'Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency' (RAS/5/035). The detailed specifications for the application were determined through a Task Force Meeting of National Consultants from five RCA Member States, organized by the IAEA and held in Sri Lanka in April 2001. The application has been developed in MS Access 2000 and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) 6.0. However, it can run as a stand-alone application through its own executable files. It is based on screen forms for data entry or editing of information and command buttons. The structure of the data, the design of the application and VBA codes cannot be seen and cannot be modified by users. However, the designated administrator of AIDA-Asia in each country can customize it

  17. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Artificial insemination in South American camelids and wild equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G P; Ratto, M H; Collins, C W; Bergfelt, D R

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the present status of the use of artificial insemination (AI) in South American camelids and wild equids is offered. Technical aspects of semen collection, dilution and cryopreservation have limited the development and use of AI in camelid and equid species. To-date, efficiency is low but progress has been made and viable offspring have been produced through the use of AI in domestic South American camelids using both fresh and frozen semen. The origin, composition, and function of the viscous component of camelid seminal plasma remain a mystery and an obvious area for future research. A better understanding of the normal constituents of seminal plasma will enable the rational design of semen extenders suitable for camelids. Post-thaw sperm viability is very low, and studies are needed to address questions of optimal freezing and thawing procedures as well as the insemination dose. The basis for differences in reported pregnancy rates with sexed and frozen semen in domestic equids, and the ultimate success of AI in wild equids will require continued research into the "stallion effect", extenders and cryoprotectants, optimal volume and number of spermatozoa, temperatures during handling, processing an transport, and insemination techniques. In both camelids and equids, research on domestic species under controlled conditions provides and excellent opportunity to develop effective semen handling techniques for application in wild and endangered species of the respective families.

  19. Predictors of ovarian response in intrauterine insemination patients and development of a dosage nomogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Nina La Cour; Lossl, K.; Bogstad, Jeanette Wulff

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to identify predictors of ovarian response in ovulatory patients treated with low-dose recombinant FSH (rFSH), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist and intrauterine insemination (IUI), and to develop an rFSH dosage nomogram based on the findings....... Patients (n = 159) were stimulated with a starting dose of 75 IU rFSH/day. Ten parameters were investigated as possible predictors of the number of mature follicles >or=15 mm: age, spontaneous cycle length, body weight, body mass index, smoking status, total ovarian volume, total number of antral follicles......, total Doppler score of the ovarian stromal blood flow, baseline FSH and oestradiol. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used for the statistical analysis. Appropriate ovarian response was defined as two to three mature follicles. Body weight (P = 0.001) and the number of antral follicles (P = 0...

  20. Multiple Moving Targets Detection and Parameters Estimation in Strong Reverberation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of multiple moving targets detection and parameters estimation (direction of arrival and range in strong reverberation environments. As reverberation has a strong correlation with target echo, the performance of target detection and parameters estimation is significantly degraded in practical underwater environments. In this paper, we utilize two uniform circular arrays to receive plane wave of the linear frequency modulation signal reflected from far-field targets. On the basis of received signal, we build a variance matrix of multiple beams by using modal decomposition, conventional beamforming, and fractional Fourier transform (FrFT. We then propose a novel detection method and an estimation method of parameters based on the constructed image. A significant feature of the proposed methods is that our design does not involve any a priori knowledge about targets number and parameters of marine environments. Finally, we demonstrate via numerical simulation examples that the detection probability and the accuracy of estimated parameters of the proposed method are higher than the existing methods in both low signal-to-reverberation ratio and signal-to-noise ratio environment.

  1. Color, Scale, and Rotation Independent Multiple License Plates Detection in Videos and Still Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Reddy Soora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing license plate (LP detection systems have shown significant development in the processing of the images, with restrictions related to environmental conditions and plate variations. With increased mobility and internationalization, there is a need to develop a universal LP detection system, which can handle multiple LPs of many countries and any vehicle, in an open environment and all weather conditions, having different plate variations. This paper presents a novel LP detection method using different clustering techniques based on geometrical properties of the LP characters and proposed a new character extraction method, for noisy/missed character components of the LP due to the presence of noise between LP characters and LP border. The proposed method detects multiple LPs from an input image or video, having different plate variations, under different environmental and weather conditions because of the geometrical properties of the set of characters in the LP. The proposed method is tested using standard media-lab and Application Oriented License Plate (AOLP benchmark LP recognition databases and achieved the success rates of 97.3% and 93.7%, respectively. Results clearly indicate that the proposed approach is comparable to the previously published papers, which evaluated their performance on publicly available benchmark LP databases.

  2. Object detection with DoG scale-space: a multiple kernel learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilufar, Sharmin; Ray, Nilanjan; Zhang, Hong

    2012-08-01

    Difference of Gaussians (DoG) scale-space for an image is a significant way to generate features for object detection and classification. While applying DoG scale-space features for object detection/classification, we face two inevitable issues: dealing with high dimensional data and selecting/weighting of proper scales. The scale selection process is mostly ad-hoc to date. In this paper, we propose a multiple kernel learning (MKL) method for both DoG scale selection/weighting and dealing with high dimensional scale-space data. We design a novel shift invariant kernel function for DoG scale-space. To select only the useful scales in the DoG scale-space, a novel framework of MKL is also proposed. We utilize a 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) in the MKL optimization problem for sparse weighting of scales from DoG scale-space. The optimized data-dependent kernel accommodates only a few scales that are most discriminatory according to the large margin principle. With a 2-norm SVM this learned kernel is applied to a challenging detection problem in oil sand mining: to detect large lumps in oil sand videos. We tested our method on several challenging oil sand data sets. Our method yields encouraging results on these difficult-to-process images and compares favorably against other popular multiple kernel methods.

  3. Effects of piroxicam administration on pregnancy outcome in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, A; Mahboubi, M; Parsanezhad, M E; Alborzi, S; Younesi, M; Madadi, G

    2016-01-01

    Uterus contractibility is considered a powerful prognostic factor in predicting the embryo transfer outcome. Moreover, uterine contractions are known to be stimulated by prostaglandins which are produced by cyclooxygenase from arachidonic acid. As such, suppressing the inflammatory response and contractions using anti-inflammatory and relaxant agents is expected to result in increased success rate of embryo transfer and artificial insemination. To investigate the effect of piroxicam administration on the success rate in intrauterine insemination (IU) cycles in patients presenting with unexplained infertility. This randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial included 260 women with unexplained infertility undergoing IUI cycles. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either piroxicam ten mg/day on days 4-6 after IUI or placebo (control group). The main outcome measures were number of IUI cycles, pregnancy, abortion, and multiple pregnancy rates. The pregnancy rate was found to be 25 (19.2%) and 16 (12.3%) in piroxicam and control groups, respectively (p = 0.039). Five patients (3.8%) in piroxicam group experienced twin pregnancy whereas only three patients (2.3%) in control group had twin pregnancy (p = 0.361). The pregnancy rate per cycle was also significantly higher in those who received piroxicam as compared to controls (11.16 vs. 6.66; p = 0.021). Administration of piroxicam after IUI is associated with decreased number of cycles, as well as increased pregnancy rate and pregnancy rate per cycle in IUI cycles. However, piroxicam did not have any effect on abortion, multiple pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates.

  4. Longer time interval between semen processing and intrauterine insemination does not affect pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Charlotte H J R; Elisen, Marc G L M; Leenstra, Cor W; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Verhoeve, Harold R

    2017-11-01

    To study whether the pregnancy outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI) is affected by a longer time interval between semen processing and insemination. Retrospective cohort. Teaching hospital. Couples with subfertility and an indication for IUI over a 10-year period. Insemination performed the day after but within 24 hours of semen collection and processing (delayed insemination) compared with insemination performed immediately after sperm collection and processing (immediate insemination). Ongoing pregnancy rate, defined as a pregnancy confirmed by ultrasound at 10 to 12 weeks of gestation. In total, 1,136 cycles were analyzed. In 77 of 547 couples (14%) an ongoing pregnancy occurred after delayed insemination, and in 77 of 589 couples (13%) an ongoing pregnancy occurred after immediate insemination. Both groups had similar baseline characteristics. After adjustment for confounders, there was no difference in the ongoing pregnancy rate between delayed as compared with immediate insemination (odds ratio 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.25). There is no negative effect on pregnancy rate when IUI of processed sperm is delayed until the next day. This approach allows additional flexibility for couples when the male partner is not available on the day of ovulation, and it allows for a spread of workload in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple-Parameter, Low-False-Alarm Fire-Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Greensburg, Paul; McKnight, Robert; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, Prabir; Makel, Darby; Blake, D.; Sue-Antillio, Jill

    2007-01-01

    Fire-detection systems incorporating multiple sensors that measure multiple parameters are being developed for use in storage depots, cargo bays of ships and aircraft, and other locations not amenable to frequent, direct visual inspection. These systems are intended to improve upon conventional smoke detectors, now used in such locations, that reliably detect fires but also frequently generate false alarms: for example, conventional smoke detectors based on the blockage of light by smoke particles are also affected by dust particles and water droplets and, thus, are often susceptible to false alarms. In contrast, by utilizing multiple parameters associated with fires, i.e. not only obscuration by smoke particles but also concentrations of multiple chemical species that are commonly generated in combustion, false alarms can be significantly decreased while still detecting fires as reliably as older smoke-detector systems do. The present development includes fabrication of sensors that have, variously, micrometer- or nanometer-sized features so that such multiple sensors can be integrated into arrays that have sizes, weights, and power demands smaller than those of older macroscopic sensors. The sensors include resistors, electrochemical cells, and Schottky diodes that exhibit different sensitivities to the various airborne chemicals of interest. In a system of this type, the sensor readings are digitized and processed by advanced signal-processing hardware and software to extract such chemical indications of fires as abnormally high concentrations of CO and CO2, possibly in combination with H2 and/or hydrocarbons. The system also includes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based particle detector and classifier device to increase the reliability of measurements of chemical species and particulates. In parallel research, software for modeling the evolution of a fire within an aircraft cargo bay has been developed. The model implemented in the software can

  6. Comparing strategies to synchronize estrus before fixed-time artificial insemination in primiparous 2-year-old beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, J M; Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Ellersieck, M R; Poock, S E; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments evaluated controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocols to synchronize estrus in primiparous 2-year-old beef cows. In each experiment, treatments were balanced according to body condition score and days postpartum. Experiment 1 compared the 14-day CIDR-PG (14-d) and 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR (7-d) protocols on the basis of estrous response, pregnancy rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI), and final pregnancy rate. Cows assigned to 14-d (n = 355) received a CIDR insert on Day 0 with removal on Day 14. Cows assigned to 7-d (n = 349) received gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and a CIDR insert on Day 23. On Day 30, CIDRs were removed from 7-d cows, and PGF 2α was administered to all cows in each treatment. On Day 33, GnRH was administered concurrent with FTAI at 66 and 72 hours after PGF 2α for 7-d and 14-d treated cows, respectively. Estrous response before FTAI was higher for 7-d compared with 14-d cows (74% vs. 43%, respectively; P artificial insemination (STAI) following synchronization of estrus with the 14-day protocol. Cows assigned to FTAI (n = 266) were inseminated at a fixed time concurrent with GnRH at 72 hours after PGF 2α regardless of estrus expression, whereas cows assigned to STAI (n = 257) were inseminated based on estrus expression as determined by activation of an estrus detection aid. Cows assigned to STAI that exhibited estrus by 72 hours were inseminated; however, AI was delayed until 24 hours after GnRH (96 hours after PGF 2α ) for nonestrous cows. Total estrous response was increased for STAI- versus FTAI-treated cows (STAI 64%; FTAI 42%; P < 0.0001); pregnancy rates resulting from AI were similar (STAI 55%; FTAI 56%; P = 0.60). In summary, the 14-day CIDR-PG and 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocols can be used effectively to synchronize estrus before FTAI in primiparous 2-year-old beef cows. Although expression of estrus was increased using STAI in conjunction with the 14-day

  7. Prediction of the optimal time for insemination using frozen-thawed semen in a multi-sire insemination trial in bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, D; Nöthling, J O; Harper, C

    2013-11-30

    The aims of the study were to determine which of Days 5, 6 or 7 after the blood plasma progesterone concentration (PPC) of bitches first reached 6-9 nmol/L (Day 0) yield the highest fertility and whether day of insemination affects the gender ratio of conceptuses. Six bitches were inseminated on Days 5 and 6 and 6 on Days 6 and 7. Ten million progressively motile frozen-thawed sperm from each of 5 dogs were pooled for the first insemination. The same number of sperm from 5 other dogs were pooled for the second insemination. Only one batch of semen from each dog was used on all bitches, which largely prevented any effect of male and semen. Twenty-three autosomal microsatellites and the amelogenin gene were used to determine the paternity and gender of the conceptuses. Pregnancy rate was 100%. Out of 103 ovulations 66 conceptuses were conceived (conception rate: 64%). The proportion of available oocytes fertilised was 0.11, 0.56, and 0.27 for Days 5, 6, and 7, respectively. The odds of fertilisation was 16.7 and 4.2 times higher from insemination on Day 6 compared to Day 5 (Pinsemination day (P = 0.18). This study suggests that intrauterine insemination of bitches should best be done 6 days after PPC first reaches a value between 6 and 9 nmol/L with a second insemination one day later. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of artificial insemination protocol and dose of frozen/thawed stallion semen on pregnancy results in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaere, J L J; Hoogewijs, M K; De Schauwer, C; De Vliegher, S; Van Soom, A; Duchateau, L; de Kruif, A

    2014-06-01

    Deep intra-uterine insemination is commonly accepted as a routine procedure for artificial insemination in horses. The motives and principles of deep insemination are well described, but the equipment used may differ. In this trial, the efficiency of two different insemination pipettes for deep intra-uterine insemination in the mare was compared with insemination into the uterine body using commercially available frozen-thawed semen of two stallions of proven fertility. These inseminations were performed using two different doses. The semi-flexible Minitube pipette was compared with a newly designed insemination device with a more flexible telescopic insemination catheter (Ghent device). The semi-flexible Minitube pipette performed better than the newly designed insemination device with respect to pregnancy outcome (p = 0.008). The superiority of deep horn insemination over uterine body insemination was reflected by the better pregnancy rates obtained after deep insemination using the same low doses (30.6% better pregnancy rates) (p = 0.0123). © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Performance of Multiple Passive Islanding Detection Technique for Synchronous Type of DG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimie Nadia Ab Salam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Placing DG closer to the load in the system can improve the grid reliability and power quality, however it can lead to some technical issues such as islanding which requires attention from utility and Independent Power Producer (IPP. One of the important issues in power system distribution is islanding detection for protecting the DG when islanding operation occurred. The detection technique is employed so that the islanding event can be detected within the time frame. The main reason of detecting islanding situation at distribution level is to monitor the DG output or system parameters thus can determine the occurrence of islanding situation from the change of these parameters. Therefore, this paper presents the performance of multiple parameters of passive islanding detection technique in distribution system connected with synchronous type of DG. Sixteen passive parameters including rate of change of frequency (df/dt, rate of change of voltage (dv/dt, rate of change of active power (dp/dt, and rate of change of reactive power (dq/dt are evaluated. The sensitivity analysis of these parameters are determined via simulation in terms of variation of loads, fault events and load switching on various events that are islanding and non-islanding events. The analysis indicates that each parameter displays a different pattern of sensitivity towards islanding event.

  10. DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION OF MULTIPLE SPOOFING ATTACKERS FOR MOBILE WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maivizhi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The openness nature of wireless networks allows adversaries to easily launch variety of spoofing attacks and causes havoc in network performance. Recent approaches used Received Signal Strength (RSS traces, which only detect spoofing attacks in mobile wireless networks. However, it is not always desirable to use these methods as RSS values fluctuate significantly over time due to distance, noise and interference. In this paper, we discusses a novel approach, Mobile spOofing attack DEtection and Localization in WIireless Networks (MODELWIN system, which exploits location information about nodes to detect identity-based spoofing attacks in mobile wireless networks. Also, this approach determines the number of attackers who used the same node identity to masquerade as legitimate device. Moreover, multiple adversaries can be localized accurately. By eliminating attackers the proposed system enhances network performance. We have evaluated our technique through simulation using an 802.11 (WiFi network and an 802.15.4 (Zigbee networks. The results prove that MODELWIN can detect spoofing attacks with a very high detection rate and localize adversaries accurately.

  11. Fault detection and isolation for a full-scale railway vehicle suspension with multiple Kalman filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesussek, Mathias; Ellermann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Reliability and dependability in complex mechanical systems can be improved by fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods. These techniques are key elements for maintenance on demand, which could decrease service cost and time significantly. This paper addresses FDI for a railway vehicle: the mechanical model is described as a multibody system, which is excited randomly due to track irregularities. Various parameters, like masses, spring- and damper-characteristics, influence the dynamics of the vehicle. Often, the exact values of the parameters are unknown and might even change over time. Some of these changes are considered critical with respect to the operation of the system and they require immediate maintenance. The aim of this work is to detect faults in the suspension system of the vehicle. A Kalman filter is used in order to estimate the states. To detect and isolate faults the detection error is minimised with multiple Kalman filters. A full-scale train model with nonlinear wheel/rail contact serves as an example for the described techniques. Numerical results for different test cases are presented. The analysis shows that for the given system it is possible not only to detect a failure of the suspension system from the system's dynamic response, but also to distinguish clearly between different possible causes for the changes in the dynamical behaviour.

  12. A comparison between fast and conventional spin-echo in the detection of multiple sclerosis lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, J.W.; Halpin, S.F.; MacManus, D.G.; Barker, G.J.; Kendall, B.E.; Miller, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Long repetition time (TR) spin-echo (SE) with T 2 - or proton density weighting is the sequence of choice to detect the brain lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fast spin-echo (FSE) permits the generation of T 2 -weighted images with similar contrast to SE but in a fraction of the time. We compared the sensitivity of FSE and SE in the detection of the brain lesions of MS. Six patients with clinically definite MS underwent brain imaging with both dual echo (long TR, long and short echo time (TE) SE and dual echo FSE. The SE and FSE images were first reviewed independently and then compared. A total of 404 lesions was detected on SE and 398 on FSE. Slightly more periventricular lesions were detected using SE than FSE (145 vs 127), whereas more posterior cranial fossa lesions were detected by FSE (77 vs 57). With both SE and FSE the short TE images revealed more lesions than the long echo. These results suggest that FSE could replace SE as the long TR sequence of choice in the investigation of MS. (orig.)

  13. Comparison between immunofixation and electrophoresis for the early detection of relapsed multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Helena C. Aita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM is an incurable progressive hematological neoplasia characterized by heterogeneous evolution and by relapses after therapy. Objective: Compare the effectiveness of serum immunofixation (SIF and electrophoresis (SPE techniques in the detection of relapses in MM patients undergoing treatment at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM. Material and methods: The study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2014 and included 52 patients from HUSM with confirmed diagnosis of MM. The retrospective monitoring based on laboratory analyses indicated that nine of these patients relapsed, in whom it was possible to compare the effectiveness of SIF and SPE techniques for detecting relapses. Results: For the nine patients, SIF always detected MM relapses earlier than SPE, with a precocity ranging from 2.0 to 18.8 months, for an average of 6.6 months. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicated that SIF was more effective than SPE for the early detection of relapses, regardless of the class and type of M component (mono/biclonal. Therefore, the use of SIF allows for better monitoring of MM patients, especially for the detection of relapses, thereby helping in choosing the most appropriate therapy and resulting in increased duration of survival period free of disease.

  14. A subtraction pipeline for automatic detection of new appearing multiple sclerosis lesions in longitudinal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Diez, Yago; Freixenet, Jordi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, VICOROB Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Beltran, Brigitte [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Time-series analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is of great value for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and follow-up. In this paper, we present an unsupervised subtraction approach which incorporates multisequence information to deal with the detection of new MS lesions in longitudinal studies. The proposed pipeline for detecting new lesions consists of the following steps: skull stripping, bias field correction, histogram matching, registration, white matter masking, image subtraction, automated thresholding, and postprocessing. We also combine the results of PD-w and T2-w images to reduce false positive detections. Experimental tests are performed in 20 MS patients with two temporal studies separated 12 (12M) or 48 (48M) months in time. The pipeline achieves very good performance obtaining an overall sensitivity of 0.83 and 0.77 with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.14 and 0.18 for the 12M and 48M datasets, respectively. The most difficult situation for the pipeline is the detection of very small lesions where the obtained sensitivity is lower and the FDR higher. Our fully automated approach is robust and accurate, allowing detection of new appearing MS lesions. We believe that the pipeline can be applied to large collections of images and also be easily adapted to monitor other brain pathologies. (orig.)

  15. An improved early detection method of type-2 diabetes mellitus using multiple classifier system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The specific causes of complex diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have not yet been identified. Nevertheless, many medical science researchers believe that complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Detection of such diseases becomes an issue because it is not free from false presumptions and is accompanied by unpredictable effects. Given the greatly increased amount of data gathered in medical databases, data mining has been used widely in recent years to detect and improve the diagnosis of complex diseases. However, past research showed that no single classifier can be considered optimal for all problems. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on employing multiple classifier systems to improve the accuracy of detection for complex diseases, such as T2DM. We proposed a dynamic weighted voting scheme called multiple factors weighted combination for classifiers\\' decision combination. This method considers not only the local and global accuracy but also the diversity among classifiers and localized generalization error of each classifier. We evaluated our method on two real T2DM data sets and other medical data sets. The favorable results indicated that our proposed method significantly outperforms individual classifiers and other fusion methods.

  16. Multiple HPV genotypes in cervical carcinomas: improved DNA detection and typing in archival tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lee-Wen; Chao, Shiouh-Lirng; Chen, Pei-Hsin; Chou, Hui-Ping

    2004-04-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been considered to be the necessary and central agents of cervical carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of HPV in archival cervical carcinomas. The study included 152 paraffin-embedded, formaldehyde-fixed cervical carcinoma specimens. To improve the detection and typing of HPV in archival tissues, we conducted a comprehensive study in which, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods using E7 type-specific (TS) and L1 modified general primers (MY11/GP6+ and GP5+/GP6+) were employed. Overall HPV prevalence was 98% in the cervical carcinomas. HPV 16 was detected in 66% of the tumors, HPV 18 in 22%, HPV 31 in 13%, HPV 33 in 9%, and HPV 58 in 9%. Notably, multiple HPV types were present in 44 (28.9%) of the 152 cervical carcinomas. The most common co-infections were HPV types 16/18 (12 cases), followed by HPV types 16/31 (7 cases). Additionally, HPV 18 was more frequent in adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas (86%) than in squamous cell carcinomas (15.8%) (P = 0.0002). The combination of L1 general primers and E7 type-specific primers can be of use in detecting HPV DNA in archival tissues. The present study showed a high frequency of multiple HPV infections in cervical carcinomas. Hence, relevant HPV typing information in cervical carcinoma is very important for further HPV vaccine design and application.

  17. Simultaneous detection of multiple adulterants in dry milk using macro-scale Raman chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S

    2013-06-01

    The potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder was investigated. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulphate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were mixed together into skim dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1-5.0% for each adulterant. Using a 785-nm laser, a Raman imaging system acquired hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm(-1) for a 25 × 25 mm(2) area of each mixture sample, with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. Self-modelling mixture analysis (SMA) was used to extract pure component spectra, by which the four types of the adulterants were identified at all concentration levels based on their spectral information divergence values to the reference spectra. Raman chemical images were created using the contribution images from SMA, and their use to effectively visualise identification and spatial distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the dry milk was demonstrated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Clinical values of detection of multiple tumor markers in pleural fluid for diagnosis malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chuangqing; Jiang Li; Zhou Guanghua; He Yunnan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To improve the diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation of malignant from tuberculous pleural effusion with determination of multiple tumor markers in pleural fluid. Methods: With a multiple tumor markers combined protein chip diagnostic system, contents of twelve common tumor markers were detected in the chest fluid from 60 patients with malignant pleural effusion and 30 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion. Results: For pulmonary carcinoma related pleural effusion, the contents of four common tumor markers (CEA, NSE, SF, CA125) in chest fluid were significantly higher those in tuberculous related chest fluid. The diagnostic positive rate of combined test of these four marker for malignancy could be as high as 96.7%. Conclusion: Combined determination of chest fluid CEA, NSE, SF, CA125 contents was very sensitive and accurate for differentiation of malignant from tuberculous pleural effusion. (authors)

  19. Multiple crack detection in 3D using a stable XFEM and global optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathos, Konstantinos; Chatzi, Eleni; Bordas, Stéphane P. A.

    2018-02-01

    A numerical scheme is proposed for the detection of multiple cracks in three dimensional (3D) structures. The scheme is based on a variant of the extended finite element method (XFEM) and a hybrid optimizer solution. The proposed XFEM variant is particularly well-suited for the simulation of 3D fracture problems, and as such serves as an efficient solution to the so-called forward problem. A set of heuristic optimization algorithms are recombined into a multiscale optimization scheme. The introduced approach proves effective in tackling the complex inverse problem involved, where identification of multiple flaws is sought on the basis of sparse measurements collected near the structural boundary. The potential of the scheme is demonstrated through a set of numerical case studies of varying complexity.

  20. Multiple nutrient stresses at intersecting Pacific Ocean biomes detected by protein biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mak A; McIlvin, Matthew R; Moran, Dawn M; Goepfert, Tyler J; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Post, Anton F; Lamborg, Carl H

    2014-09-05

    Marine primary productivity is strongly influenced by the scarcity of required nutrients, yet our understanding of these nutrient limitations is informed by experimental observations with sparse geographical coverage and methodological limitations. We developed a quantitative proteomic method to directly assess nutrient stress in high-light ecotypes of the abundant cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus across a meridional transect in the central Pacific Ocean. Multiple peptide biomarkers detected widespread and overlapping regions of nutritional stress for nitrogen and phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and iron in the equatorial Pacific. Quantitative protein analyses demonstrated simultaneous stress for these nutrients at biome interfaces. This application of proteomic biomarkers to diagnose ocean metabolism demonstrated Prochlorococcus actively and simultaneously deploying multiple biochemical strategies for low-nutrient conditions in the oceans. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Simple lock-in detection technique utilizing multiple harmonics for digital PGC demodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fajie; Huang, Tingting; Jiang, Jiajia; Fu, Xiao; Ma, Ling

    2017-06-01

    A simple lock-in detection technique especially suited for digital phase-generated carrier (PGC) demodulators is proposed in this paper. It mixes the interference signal with rectangular waves whose Fourier expansions contain multiple odd or multiple even harmonics of the carrier to recover the quadrature components needed for interference phase demodulation. In this way, the use of a multiplier is avoided and the efficiency of the algorithm is improved. Noise performance with regard to light intensity variation and circuit noise is analyzed theoretically for both the proposed technique and the traditional lock-in technique, and results show that the former provides a better signal-to-noise ratio than the latter with proper modulation depth and average interference phase. Detailed simulations were conducted and the theoretical analysis was verified. A fiber-optic Michelson interferometer was constructed and the feasibility of the proposed technique is demonstrated.

  2. Effect of month of conception on fertility of mares inseminated with jackass semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rossi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertility obtained by cross-breeding mares (Equus caballus with jackasses (Equus asinus was evaluated. Two extenders, containing skim milk-glucose or egg yolk-glycine were used to study the fertility of mares inseminated with diluted jackass semen (T1 and T2 or diluted and cooled semen at 5°C for 12 hours (T3 and T4. A total of 272 cycles of 208 mares of undefined breeds were evaluated, being uniformly distributed between groups. The cycles were controlled by transrectal palpation and teasing, and mares were inseminated every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday (three times/week, from the detection of a follicle with 3.0 to 3.5cm diameter in one of the ovaries until ovulation. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal palpation, teasing and ultrasound exams every 14 days. The extenders had no effect on fertility (P>0.05. Pregnancy rates for the first cycle were 64.52%, 61.11%, 50.72% and 54.17% and pregnancy rates/cycle were 63.64%, 54.55%, 52.69% and 47.06%, respectively, for T1, T2, T3 and T4. Differences in pregnancy loss rates between groups and effect of month of conception on fertility were found. Pregnancy loss rates were significantly higher (P<0.05 in January (38.46% and in February and March (52.38%, with an average of 33.09%. The results indicate that mares conceiving at the end of the physiological reproduction time, carrying a mule embryo, are more susceptible to pregnancy loss.

  3. A multiple parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.Y., E-mail: wu24@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 9455 (United States); Henderson, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 9455 (United States); Haight, R.C.; Lee, H.Y.; Taddeucci, T.N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, MN 87545 (United States); Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 9455 (United States); Devlin, M.; Fotiades, N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, MN 87545 (United States); Kwan, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 9455 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); O’Donnell, J.M.; Perdue, B.A.; Ullmann, J.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, MN 87545 (United States)

    2015-09-11

    A new low-mass multiple gas-filled parallel-plate avalanche counter for the fission-fragment detection has been developed to mark the fission occurrence in measurements of the prompt fission neutron energy spectrum as a function of incident neutron energy. It was used successfully for the neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu with a total mass near 100 mg each and the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. Both the incident neutron energy and the prompt fission neutron energy are measured by using the time-of-flight method. The design and performance of this avalanche counter are described.

  4. Detection of multiple corrosion thresholds in reinforced concrete structures using passive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Yosef, Ali E.; Pasupathy, Praveen; Wood, Sharon L.; Neikirk, Dean P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the ongoing research efforts to develop a novel class of low-cost, unpowered, wireless sensors for detecting corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures. The sensors are powered through magnetic coupling between an external reader coil and an embedded sensor. Measured AC impedance is used to interpret the state of the embedded sensor. The sensors are envisioned to be placed during construction and interrogated as part of routine inspections. The sensor prototype incorporates a sacrificial corroding element that is placed entirely outside the sensor components and interacts with the resonant circuit by inductive coupling and shielding of the magnetic fields. As the resistance of the sacrificial element increases due to corrosion, the measured frequency response changes gradually indicating corrosion initiation within concrete. In this paper the potential for detecting multiple levels of corrosion damage is demonstrated.

  5. Methods for radiation detection and characterization using a multiple detector probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas William; Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2014-11-04

    Apparatuses, methods, and systems relating to radiological characterization of environments are disclosed. Multi-detector probes with a plurality of detectors in a common housing may be used to substantially concurrently detect a plurality of different radiation activities and types. Multiple multi-detector probes may be used in a down-hole environment to substantially concurrently detect radioactive activity and contents of a buried waste container. Software may process, analyze, and integrate the data from the different multi-detector probes and the different detector types therein to provide source location and integrated analysis as to the source types and activity in the measured environment. Further, the integrated data may be used to compensate for differential density effects and the effects of radiation shielding materials within the volume being measured.

  6. detecting multiple sclerosis lesions with a fully bioinspired visual attention model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon-Reina, Julio; Gutierrez-Carvajal, Ricardo; Thompson, Paul M.; Romero-Castro, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The detection, segmentation and quantification of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions on magnetic resonance images (MRI) has been a very active field for the last two decades because of the urge to correlate these measures with the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment. A myriad of methods has been developed and most of these are non specific for the type of lesions and segment the lesions in their acute and chronic phases together. On the other hand, radiologists are able to distinguish between several stages of the disease on different types of MRI images. The main motivation of the work presented here is to computationally emulate the visual perception of the radiologist by using modeling principles of the neuronal centers along the visual system. By using this approach we are able to detect the lesions in the majority of the images in our population sample. This type of approach also allows us to study and improve the analysis of brain networks by introducing a priori information.

  7. Mouse epileptic seizure detection with multiple EEG features and simple thresholding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M.; Anbazhagan, Ashwin; Chen, Min; Reutens, David C.

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. The search for new treatments for seizures and epilepsy relies upon studies in animal models of epilepsy. To capture data on seizures, many applications require prolonged electroencephalography (EEG) with recordings that generate voluminous data. The desire for efficient evaluation of these recordings motivates the development of automated seizure detection algorithms. Approach. A new seizure detection method is proposed, based on multiple features and a simple thresholding technique. The features are derived from chaos theory, information theory and the power spectrum of EEG recordings and optimally exploit both linear and nonlinear characteristics of EEG data. Main result. The proposed method was tested with real EEG data from an experimental mouse model of epilepsy and distinguished seizures from other patterns with high sensitivity and specificity. Significance. The proposed approach introduces two new features: negative logarithm of adaptive correlation integral and power spectral coherence ratio. The combination of these new features with two previously described features, entropy and phase coherence, improved seizure detection accuracy significantly. Negative logarithm of adaptive correlation integral can also be used to compute the duration of automatically detected seizures.

  8. Visual detection of multiple genetically modified organisms in a capillary array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ning; Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Jiaying; Li, Rong; Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Shujuan; Hui, Junhou; Liu, Peng; Yang, Litao; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2017-01-31

    There is an urgent need for rapid, low-cost multiplex methodologies for the monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we report a C[combining low line]apillary A[combining low line]rray-based L[combining low line]oop-mediated isothermal amplification for M[combining low line]ultiplex visual detection of nucleic acids (CALM) platform for the simple and rapid monitoring of GMOs. In CALM, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets are pre-fixed to the inner surface of capillaries. The surface of the capillary array is hydrophobic while the capillaries are hydrophilic, enabling the simultaneous loading and separation of the LAMP reaction mixtures into each capillary by capillary forces. LAMP reactions in the capillaries are then performed in parallel, and the results are visually detected by illumination with a hand-held UV device. Using CALM, we successfully detected seven frequently used transgenic genes/elements and five plant endogenous reference genes with high specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, we found that measurements of real-world blind samples by CALM are consistent with results obtained by independent real-time PCRs. Thus, with an ability to detect multiple nucleic acids in a single easy-to-operate test, we believe that CALM will become a widely applied technology in GMO monitoring.

  9. Multiple biomarkers biosensor with just-in-time functionalization: Application to prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cabrera, C; Samitier, J; Homs-Corbera, A

    2016-03-15

    We present a novel lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for the simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers using simple voltage measurements. The biosensor functionalization is performed in-situ, immediately before its use, facilitating reagents storage and massive devices fabrication. Sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are tunable depending on the in-chip flown sample volumes. As a proof-of-concept, the system has been tested and adjusted to quantify two proteins found in blood that are susceptible to be used combined, as a screening tool, to diagnose prostate cancer (PCa): prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and spondin-2 (SPON2). This combination of biomarkers has been reported to be more specific for PCa diagnostics than the currently accepted but rather controversial PSA indicator. The range of detection for PSA and SPON2 could be adjusted to the clinically relevant range of 1 to 10 ng/ml. The system was tested for specificity to the evaluated biomarkers. This multiplex system can be modified and adapted to detect a larger quantity of biomarkers, or different ones, of relevance to other specific diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Cytogenetic Abnormalities and Outcomes of 117 Patients with Multiple Myeloma Detected by FISH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Bing; Zou, Dan-Dan; Yan, Jian-Jun; Wang, Nan; Wang, Li-Li; Zhu, Hong-Li; Huang, Wen-Rong; Yu, Li

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the cytogenetic abnormalities and prognostic outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The clinical record of 117 newly-diagnosed patients with MM treated in department of hematology and geriatric hematology of our hospital for 7 years were collected, and their molecular cytogenetic abnormalities detected by FISH and the clinical outcome were analyzed retrospectively. The detected rate of cytogenetic abnormality was 76.9%(90/117), the most common abnormality deteted by FISH was 1q21+ (71.1%), followed by 13q- (56.6%). The cross comparison method showed that 13q- and 17p13-, t(11;14) and t(4;14) were related respectively. All the patients with cytogenetic abnormalities showed no significant difference in the overall survival from cytogenetic normal patients. The positive rate of molecular cytogenetic abnormalities detected by FISH in MM patients is high, but data from larger and longer studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic outcomes.

  11. Fully automatic detection of deep white matter T1 hypointense lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Lothar; Tewes, Anja; Suppa, Per; Opfer, Roland; Buchert, Ralph; Winkler, Gerhard; Raji, Alaleh

    2013-12-01

    A novel method is presented for fully automatic detection of candidate white matter (WM) T1 hypointense lesions in three-dimensional high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. By definition, T1 hypointense lesions have similar intensity as gray matter (GM) and thus appear darker than surrounding normal WM in T1-weighted images. The novel method uses a standard classification algorithm to partition T1-weighted images into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As a consequence, T1 hypointense lesions are assigned an increased GM probability by the standard classification algorithm. The GM component image of a patient is then tested voxel-by-voxel against GM component images of a normative database of healthy individuals. Clusters (≥0.1 ml) of significantly increased GM density within a predefined mask of deep WM are defined as lesions. The performance of the algorithm was assessed on voxel level by a simulation study. A maximum dice similarity coefficient of 60% was found for a typical T1 lesion pattern with contrasts ranging from WM to cortical GM, indicating substantial agreement between ground truth and automatic detection. Retrospective application to 10 patients with multiple sclerosis demonstrated that 93 out of 96 T1 hypointense lesions were detected. On average 3.6 false positive T1 hypointense lesions per patient were found. The novel method is promising to support the detection of hypointense lesions in T1-weighted images which warrants further evaluation in larger patient samples.

  12. Membrane-based oligonucleotide array developed from multiple markers for the detection of many Phytophthora species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Djama, Zeinab Robleh; Coffey, Michael D; Martin, Frank N; Bilodeau, Guillaume J; Radmer, Lorien; Denton, Geoff; Lévesque, C André

    2013-01-01

    Most Phytophthora spp. are destructive plant pathogens; therefore, effective monitoring and accurate early detection are important means of preventing potential epidemics and outbreaks of diseases. In the current study, a membrane-based oligonucleotide array was developed that can detect Phytophthora spp. reliably using three DNA regions; namely, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the 5' end of cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (cox1), and the intergenic region between cytochrome c oxidase 2 gene (cox2) and cox1 (cox2-1 spacer). Each sequence data set contained ≈250 sequences representing 98 described and 15 undescribed species of Phytophthora. The array was validated with 143 pure cultures and 35 field samples. Together, nonrejected oligonucleotides from all three markers have the ability to reliably detect 82 described and 8 undescribed Phytophthora spp., including several quarantine or regulated pathogens such as Phytophthora ramorum. Our results showed that a DNA array containing signature oligonucleotides designed from multiple genomic regions provided robustness and redundancy for the detection and differentiation of closely related taxon groups. This array has the potential to be used as a routine diagnostic tool for Phytophthora spp. from complex environmental samples without the need for extensive growth of cultures.

  13. Multiplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)(criminal statute prohibiting interracial marriages held unconstitutional violation of the Equal Protection and Due Process...such sentences does not violate the Constitution."°2 7 In effect , the double jeopardy protection from multiple punishments is coextensive with...unaware of what it accomplished . . . . In effect , the Blockburger test establishes a presumption of legislative intent: if each of two statutes

  14. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  15. Results of artificial insemination at home by the partner with cryopreserved donor semen: a randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerzeil, H. V.; Hamerlynck, J. V.; van Amstel, N.; Nagelkerke, N. J.; Lammes, F. B.

    1988-01-01

    The use of cryopreserved semen offers the possibility of home insemination by the instructed partner. A comparative study was designed whereby participants were randomly allocated to use home or clinic insemination for six cycles. If no pregnancy had occurred after six cycles, the site of

  16. DETERMINATION OF A MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATIONS BY DONOR CHILDREN PER SPERM DONOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, A; Oosterwijk, JC; RIGTERSARIS, CAE

    Objective: To determine a safe maximum number of artificial insemination (donor insemination [DI]) children per anonymous sperm donor. Design: Multiparameter calculation model of contribution of DI to inbreeding. Setting: Data of the collaborative DI centers and demographic population data of The

  17. Unambiguous molecular detections with multiple genetic approach for the complicated chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lung-Huang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS causes a developmental disorder during the embryonic stage, usually because of hemizygous deletions. The clinical pictures of patients with 22q11DS vary because of polymorphisms: on average, approximately 93% of affected individuals have a de novo deletion of 22q11, and the rest have inherited the same deletion from a parent. Methods using multiple genetic markers are thus important for the accurate detection of these microdeletions. Methods We studied 12 babies suspected to carry 22q11DS and 18 age-matched healthy controls from unrelated Taiwanese families. We determined genomic variance using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. Results Changes in genomic copy number were significantly associated with clinical manifestations for the classical criteria of 22q11DS using MPLA and qPCR (p Conclusion Both MLPA and qPCR could produce a clearly defined range of deleted genomic DNA, whereas there must be a deleted genome that is not distinguishable using MLPA. These data demonstrate that such multiple genetic approaches are necessary for the unambiguous molecular detection of these types of complicated genomic syndromes.

  18. Multiple sound source localization using gammatone auditory filtering and direct sound componence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiyu; Cao, Li

    2017-06-01

    In order to research multiple sound source localization with room reverberation and background noise, we analyze the shortcomings of traditional broadband MUSIC and ordinary auditory filtering based broadband MUSIC method, then a new broadband MUSIC algorithm with gammatone auditory filtering of frequency component selection control and detection of ascending segment of direct sound componence is proposed. The proposed algorithm controls frequency component within the interested frequency band in multichannel bandpass filter stage. Detecting the direct sound componence of the sound source for suppressing room reverberation interference is also proposed, whose merits are fast calculation and avoiding using more complex de-reverberation processing algorithm. Besides, the pseudo-spectrum of different frequency channels is weighted by their maximum amplitude for every speech frame. Through the simulation and real room reverberation environment experiments, the proposed method has good performance. Dynamic multiple sound source localization experimental results indicate that the average absolute error of azimuth estimated by the proposed algorithm is less and the histogram result has higher angle resolution.

  19. Timing-Free Blind Multiuser Detection for Multicarrier DS/CDMA Systems with Multiple Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Buzzi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of blind multiuser detection for an asynchronous multicarrier DS-CDMA system employing multiple transmit and receive antennae over a Rayleigh fading channel is considered in this paper. The solutions that we develop require prior knowledge of the spreading code of the user to be decoded only, while no further information either on the user to be decoded or on the other active users is required. Several combining rules for the observables at the output of each receive antenna are proposed and assessed, and the implications of the different options are studied in depth in terms of both detection performance and computational complexity. A closed form expression is also derived for the conditional error probability and a lower bound for the near-far resistance is provided. Results confirm that the proposed blind receivers can cope with both multiple access interference suppression and channel estimation at the price of a limited performance loss as compared to the ideal linear receivers which assume perfect channel state information.

  20. Relationships between rabbit semen characteristics and fertilising ability after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theau-Clément, M; Ailloud, E; Sanchez, A; Saleil, G; Brun, J M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the relationship between rabbit semen characteristics and semen fertilising ability after insemination, which is generally found to be weak. Our hypothesis was that using high semen dilutions (1 : 19), non-oestrus-stimulated does, and homospermic inseminations would make it easier to predict semen fertilising ability. Semen characteristics were evaluated on 275 ejaculates of 128 INRA1001 bucks, distributed into five successive batches. A total of 1970 inseminations were performed. The continuous semen variables were subdivided into three classes of similar size to account for any non-linear relationship between semen characteristics and fertilising ability. Mass motility was divided into two classes according to the presence or absence of waves under microscope observation. Libido, the presence or absence of gel, volume, percentage of progressive sperms, curvilinear velocity, beat frequency of the flagellum, and straightness and linearity of sperm movement did not affect fertility, prolificacy or productivity. It was confirmed that mass motility, estimated by visual observation under the microscope, significantly influenced fertility as well as the percentage of motile and of rapid sperms, and the amplitude of lateral head displacement, estimated by a computer-assisted semen analysis system. To a lesser extent, the percentage of motile cells and of rapid cells significantly influenced prolificacy. Consequently, mass motility and the percentage of motile cells significantly influenced rabbit doe productivity (+1 live births/AI when the semen showed at least a beginning of wave movement, or when the percentage of motile cells was >84%). Interestingly, a gain of 1.5 rabbits was observed when the percentage of rapid cells changed from 64% to 79%, whereas productivity significantly dropped beyond 83% of rapid cells, reflecting a non-linear relationship.

  1. 9 CFR 147.27 - Procedures recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. 147.27 Section 147.27 Animals and Animal... recommended to prevent the spread of disease by artificial insemination of turkeys. (a) The vehicle transporting the insemination crew should be left as far as practical from the turkey pens. (b) The personnel...

  2. Semen deposition by cervical, transcervical and intrauterine route for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in the ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, R; Pinczak, A; Cuadro, F; Guillen-Muñoz, J M; Mezzalira, A; Menchaca, A

    2017-11-01

    Semen deposition through the cervix into the uterus is a difficult technique in ewes and represents the main limiting factor for insemination in this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate achieved with a new transcervical insemination method in comparison with conventional cervical and laparoscopic intrauterine techniques. A total of 586 multiparous Corriedale ewes were synchronized for fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) performed by cervical, transcervical, or intrauterine route at 46-50 h or 52-56 h after progesterone device removal in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Pregnancy rate was affected by the insemination technique and by the moment of FTAI (P insemination was delayed. For transcervical insemination, pregnancy rate was intermediate (42.3%; P= NS) between cervical and intrauterine route (36.0% and 50.2%; P inseminated beyond 4 cm into the cervix (60.0% versus 35.1% for insemination beyond or within 4 cm into the cervix, respectively; P insemination. This method was more time-consuming than cervical or laparoscopic insemination (11.4 ± 1.6 versus 85.5 ± 7.5 and 56.8 ± 5.6 ewes inseminated per hour, respectively; P insemination to be applied in large-scale FTAI programs in Corriedale ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved interstate for insemination of swine or implantation into swine shall be accompanied by a document issued by...

  4. Reproduction in nondomestic birds: Physiology, semen collection, artificial insemination and cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Bertschinger, H.; Donoghue, A.M.; Blanco, J.; Soley, J.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering work by Quinn and Burrows in the late 1930s led to successful artificial insemination (AI) programs in the domestic poultry industry. A variety of species specific modifications to the Quinn and Burrows massage technique made AI possible in nondomestic birds. Massage semen collection and insemination techniques span the entire range of species from sparrows to ostriches. Also, cooperative semen collection and electroejaculation have found limited use in some nondomestic species. Artificial insemination produces good fertility, often exceeding fertility levels in naturally copulating populations. However, aviculturists should explore other ways to improve fertility before resorting to AI. Artificial insemination is labor intensive and may pose risks to nondomestic birds as well as handlers associated with capture and insemination. Semen collection and AI makes semen cryopreservation and germ plasma preservation possible. Yet, semen cryopreservation techniques need improvement before fertility with frozen-thawed semen will equal fertility from AI with fresh semen.

  5. Quantifying sperm egg interaction to assess the breeding efficiency through artificial insemination in guinea fowls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, G H; Omprakash, A V; Premavalli, K; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2017-04-01

    1. Guinea fowl hens were inseminated weekly once with two doses of spermatozoa (75 million and 100 million) in two different diluents, Beltsville poultry semen extender (BPSE), and Instruments for Veterinary Medicine (IMV), each with and without pre-insemination vaginal douching. Per cent fertility, hatchability, dead germ, dead in shells along with data on sperm egg interaction and vaginal microbial counts were recorded. 2. Artificial insemination had significantly improved the per cent fertility and hatchability compared to natural mating. Dose dependent improvement in fertility was noticed with both diluents. 3. There was a beneficial effect of vaginal douching, which was more pronounced at lower insemination doses. 4. For optimum fertility and hatchability in guinea fowl, insemination of 75 million spermatozoa diluted in BPSE once in 4 d and 100 million spermatozoa diluted in BPSE or IMV once in 5 d coupled with vaginal douching is recommended.

  6. Multiple target tracking by learning-based hierarchical association of detection responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang; Li, Yuan; Nevatia, Ramakant

    2013-04-01

    We propose a hierarchical association approach to multiple target tracking from a single camera by progressively linking detection responses into longer track fragments (i.e., tracklets). Given frame-by-frame detection results, a conservative dual-threshold method that only links very similar detection responses between consecutive frames is adopted to generate initial tracklets with minimum identity switches. Further association of these highly fragmented tracklets at each level of the hierarchy is formulated as a Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) problem that considers initialization, termination, and transition of tracklets as well as the possibility of them being false alarms, which can be efficiently computed by the Hungarian algorithm. The tracklet affinity model, which measures the likelihood of two tracklets belonging to the same target, is a linear combination of automatically learned weak nonparametric models upon various features, which is distinct from most of previous work that relies on heuristic selection of parametric models and manual tuning of their parameters. For this purpose, we develop a novel bag ranking method and train the crucial tracklet affinity models by the boosting algorithm. This bag ranking method utilizes the soft max function to relax the oversufficient objective function used by the conventional instance ranking method. It provides a tighter upper bound of empirical errors in distinguishing correct associations from the incorrect ones, and thus yields more accurate tracklet affinity models for the tracklet association problem. We apply this approach to the challenging multiple pedestrian tracking task. Systematic experiments conducted on two real-life datasets show that the proposed approach outperforms previous state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of tracking accuracy, in particular, considerably reducing fragmentations and identity switches.

  7. DETECTION OF FAST RADIO TRANSIENTS WITH MULTIPLE STATIONS: A CASE STUDY USING THE VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, David R.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Majid, Walid A.; Brisken, Walter F.; Deller, Adam T.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations reveal an important new class of transient radio phenomena that occur on submillisecond timescales. Often, transient surveys' data volumes are too large to archive exhaustively. Instead, an online automatic system must excise impulsive interference and detect candidate events in real time. This work presents a case study using data from multiple geographically distributed stations to perform simultaneous interference excision and transient detection. We present several algorithms that incorporate dedispersed data from multiple sites, and report experiments with a commensal real-time transient detection system on the Very Long Baseline Array. We test the system using observations of pulsar B0329+54. The multiple-station algorithms enhanced sensitivity for detection of individual pulses. These strategies could improve detection performance for a future generation of geographically distributed arrays such as the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder and the Square Kilometre Array.

  8. Detection and Classification of Multiple Objects using an RGB-D Sensor and Linear Spatial Pyramid Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitriou, Michalis; Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Vidakis, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    is making machines see and understand objects like humans do. To this goal, the new RGB-D sensors can be utilized since they provide real-time depth map which can be used along with the RGB images for our tasks. In our system we employ effective depth map processing techniques, along with edge detection......, connected components detection and filtering approaches, in order to design a complete image processing algorithm for efficient object detection of multiple individual objects in a single scene, even in complex scenes with many objects. Besides, we apply the Linear Spatial Pyramid Matching (LSPM) [1] method......This paper presents a complete system for multiple object detection and classification in a 3D scene using an RGB-D sensor such as the Microsoft Kinect sensor. Successful multiple object detection and classification are crucial features in many 3D computer vision applications. The main goal...

  9. Effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on Dufour's gland chemical profiles and vitellogenin expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2011-09-01

    Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) mate in their early adult lives with a variable number of males (drones). Mating stimulates dramatic changes in queen behavior, physiology, gene expression, and pheromone production. Here, we used virgin, single drone- (SDI), and multi-drone- (MDI) inseminated queens to study the effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on the pheromone profiles of the Dufour's gland, and the expression of the egg-yolk protein, vitellogenin, in the fat body. Age, environmental conditions, and genetic background of the queens were standardized to specifically characterize the effects of these treatments. Our data demonstrate that insemination and insemination quantity significantly affect the chemical profiles of the Dufour's gland secretion. Moreover, workers were more attracted to Dufour's gland extract from inseminated queens compared to virgins, and to the extract of MDI queens compared to extract of SDI queens. However, while there were differences in the amounts of some esters between MDI queens and the other groups, it appears that the differences in behavioral responses were elicited by subtle changes in the overall chemical profiles rather than dramatic changes in specific individual chemicals. We also found a decrease in vitellogenin gene expression in the fat body of the MDI queens, which is negatively correlated with the quantities of Dufour's gland content. The possible explanations of this reduction are discussed.

  10. Aptamer/quantum dot-based simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haixia [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Jiang Bingying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400040 (China); Xiang Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang Yuyong; Chai Yaqin [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-03-04

    A novel strategy for 'signal on' and sensitive one-spot simultaneous detection of multiple small molecular analytes based on electrochemically encoded barcode quantum dot (QD) tags is described. The target analytes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cocaine, respectively, are sandwiched between the corresponding set of surface-immobilized primary binding aptamers and the secondary binding aptamer/QD bioconjugates. The captured QDs yield distinct electrochemical signatures after acid dissolution, whose position and size reflect the identity and level, respectively, of the corresponding target analytes. Due to the inherent amplification feature of the QD labels and the 'signal on' detection scheme, as well as the sensitive monitoring of the metal ions released upon acid dissolution of the QD labels, low detection limits of 30 nM and 50 nM were obtained for ATP and cocaine, respectively, in our assays. Our multi-analyte sensing system also shows high specificity to target analytes and promising applicability to complex sample matrix, which makes the proposed assay protocol an attractive route for screening of small molecules in clinical diagnosis.

  11. GUIDANCE2: accurate detection of unreliable alignment regions accounting for the uncertainty of multiple parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Itamar; Ashkenazy, Haim; Katoh, Kazutaka; Pupko, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Inference of multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) is a critical part of phylogenetic and comparative genomics studies. However, from the same set of sequences different MSAs are often inferred, depending on the methodologies used and the assumed parameters. Much effort has recently been devoted to improving the ability to identify unreliable alignment regions. Detecting such unreliable regions was previously shown to be important for downstream analyses relying on MSAs, such as the detection of positive selection. Here we developed GUIDANCE2, a new integrative methodology that accounts for: (i) uncertainty in the process of indel formation, (ii) uncertainty in the assumed guide tree and (iii) co-optimal solutions in the pairwise alignments, used as building blocks in progressive alignment algorithms. We compared GUIDANCE2 with seven methodologies to detect unreliable MSA regions using extensive simulations and empirical benchmarks. We show that GUIDANCE2 outperforms all previously developed methodologies. Furthermore, GUIDANCE2 also provides a set of alternative MSAs which can be useful for downstream analyses. The novel algorithm is implemented as a web-server, available at: http://guidance.tau.ac.il. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Host-encoded reporters for the detection and purification of multiple enveloped viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketteler, Robin; Tomov, Vesselin; Neunkirchner, Alina; Xie, Qiang; Pickl, Winfried F; Seed, Brian

    2010-08-01

    The identification of host cell factors for virus replication holds great promise for the development of new antiviral therapies. Recently, high-throughput screening methods have emerged as powerful tools to identify candidate host factors for therapeutic intervention. The development of assay systems suitable for large-scale automated screening is of particular importance for novel viruses with high pathogenic potential for which limited biological information can be developed in a short period of time. This report presents a general enzymatic reporter system for the detection and characterization of multiple enveloped viruses that does not rely on engineering of the virus. Instead, reporter enzymes are incorporated into virus particles by targeting to lipid microdomains in producer cells. The approach allows a variety of human pathogenic enveloped viruses to be detected by sensitive, inexpensive and automatable enzymatic assays. Tagged viruses can be purified quickly and efficiently by a magnetic bead-based capture method. The method allows general detection of enveloped viruses without prior reference to their sequence. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple Kernel Learning for Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection: Algorithm and Aviation Safety Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Matthews, Bryan L.; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems ever developed and is generating data at an extremely rapid rate. Most modern commercial aircraft record several hundred flight parameters including information from the guidance, navigation, and control systems, the avionics and propulsion systems, and the pilot inputs into the aircraft. These parameters may be continuous measurements or binary or categorical measurements recorded in one second intervals for the duration of the flight. Currently, most approaches to aviation safety are reactive, meaning that they are designed to react to an aviation safety incident or accident. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach based on the theory of multiple kernel learning to detect potential safety anomalies in very large data bases of discrete and continuous data from world-wide operations of commercial fleets. We pose a general anomaly detection problem which includes both discrete and continuous data streams, where we assume that the discrete streams have a causal influence on the continuous streams. We also assume that atypical sequence of events in the discrete streams can lead to off-nominal system performance. We discuss the application domain, novel algorithms, and also discuss results on real-world data sets. Our algorithm uncovers operationally significant events in high dimensional data streams in the aviation industry which are not detectable using state of the art methods

  14. Detection of ingested nitromethane and reliable creatinine assessment using multiple common analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christine M; Devlin, John J; Beuhler, Michael C; Cheifetz, Paul; Maynard, Susan; Schwartz, Michael D; Kacinko, Sherri

    2018-04-01

    Nitromethane, found in fuels used for short distance racing, model cars, and model airplanes, produces a falsely elevated serum creatinine with standard creatinine analysis via the Jaffé method. Erroneous creatinine elevation often triggers extensive testing, leads to inaccurate diagnoses, and delayed or inappropriate medical interventions. Multiple reports in the literature identify "enzymatic assays" as an alternative method to detect the true value of creatinine, but this ambiguity does not help providers translate what type of enzymatic assay testing can be done in real time to determine if there is indeed false elevation. We report seven cases of ingested nitromethane where creatinine was determined via Beckman Coulter ® analyser using the Jaffé method, Vitros ® analyser, or i-Stat ® point-of-care testing. Nitromethane was detected and semi-quantified using a common clinical toxic alcohol analysis method, and quantified by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When creatinine was determined using i-Stat ® point-of-care testing or a Vitros ® analyser, levels were within the normal range. Comparatively, all initial creatinine levels obtained via the Jaffé method were elevated. Nitromethane concentrations ranged from 42 to 310 μg/mL. These cases demonstrate reliable assessment of creatinine through other enzymatic methods using a Vitros ® analyser or i-STAT ® . Additionally, nitromethane is detectable and quantifiable using routine alcohols gas chromatography analysis and by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  15. Multiple-instance learning for computer-aided detection of tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, J.; Sánchez, C. I.; Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Maduskar, P.; van Ginneken, B.

    2014-03-01

    Detection of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs (CXRs) is a hard problem. Therefore, to help radiologists or even take their place when they are not available, computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are being developed. In order to reach a performance comparable to that of human experts, the pattern recognition algorithms of these systems are typically trained on large CXR databases that have been manually annotated to indicate the abnormal lung regions. However, manually outlining those regions constitutes a time-consuming process that, besides, is prone to inconsistencies and errors introduced by interobserver variability and the absence of an external reference standard. In this paper, we investigate an alternative pattern classi cation method, namely multiple-instance learning (MIL), that does not require such detailed information for a CAD system to be trained. We have applied this alternative approach to a CAD system aimed at detecting textural lesions associated with TB. Only the case (or image) condition (normal or abnormal) was provided in the training stage. We compared the resulting performance with those achieved by several variations of a conventional system trained with detailed annotations. A database of 917 CXRs was constructed for experimentation. It was divided into two roughly equal parts that were used as training and test sets. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was utilized as a performance measure. Our experiments show that, by applying the investigated MIL approach, comparable results as with the aforementioned conventional systems are obtained in most cases, without requiring condition information at the lesion level.

  16. Comparison of two timed artificial insemination system schemes to synchronize estrus and ovulation in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos V C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos V; Santos, Marcelo H; Barroso, José P R; Gonçalves, José R S; Sartori, Roberto; Day, Michael L

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of 411 Nellore cows (198 nulliparous, 80 primiparous, and 133 multiparous) submitted to the 5dCO-Synch + P4 or 7dEB + P4 systems. The 5dCO-Synch + P4 system consisted of insertion of an intravaginal progesterone (P4) insert and 100 μg of GnRH (intramuscularly [i.m.]) on Day 0. On Day 5, the P4 insert was removed, and two doses of 25 mg of PGF2α (i.m.) were administered 6 hours apart. Cows not detected in estrus until 55 hours after insert removal received 100 μg of GnRH i.m. 17 hours later (i.e., 72 hours after P4 removal). The 7dEB + P4 system consisted of insertion of a P4 insert and 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (i.m.) on Day 0. On Day 7, the P4 insert was removed and 25 mg of PGF2α, 0.6 mg of estradiol cypionate, and 300 IU of eCG were administered i.m. In both systems, artificial insemination (AI) was performed according to estrus detection (i.e., cows detected in estrus until 55 hours after insert removal were inseminated at 55 hours and cows detected in estrus later or those not detected in estrus were inseminated at 72 hours). Estrus-detection risk was greater (P < 0.05) in 7dEB + P4 (80.4%) than 5dCO-Synch + P4 system (36.4%). Progesterone concentration 10 days after AI was greater (P < 0.05) in 7dEB + P4 than 5dCO-Synch + P4 system in primiparous and multiparous but did not differ between systems in nulliparous cows. Pregnancy per AI was greater (P < 0.05) in 7dEB + P4 (49.7%) than 5dCO-Synch + P4 (35.4%) system. Primiparous had lower estrus-detection risk (25.0%), ovulation risk (76.6%), and pregnancy per AI (28.7%) than multiparous or nulliparous cows. In conclusion, reproductive performance was reduced with the 5dCO-Synch + P4 in comparison with the 7dEB + P4 system in Nellore cows. Moreover, the reproductive traits observed for primiparous cows indicate that more attention is required when timed AI programs are started early after calving

  17. Artificial insemination and eugenics: celibate motherhood, eutelegenesis and germinal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Martin

    2008-06-01

    This paper traces the history of artificial insemination by selected donors (AID) as a strategy for positive eugenic improvement. While medical artificial insemination has a longer history, its use as a eugenic strategy was first mooted in late nineteenth-century France. It was then developed as 'scientific motherhood' for war widows and those without partners by Marion Louisa Piddington in Australia following the Great War. By the 1930s AID was being more widely used clinically in Britain (and elsewhere) as a medical solution to male infertility for married couples. In 1935 English postal clerk, Herbert Brewer, promoted AID (eutelegenesis) as the socialization of the germ plasm in a eugenic scheme. The next year Hermann Muller, American Drosophila geneticist and eugenicist, presented his plan for human improvement by AID to Stalin. Some twenty years later, Muller, together with Robert Klark Graham, began planning a Foundation for Germinal Choice in California. This was finally opened in 1980 as the first practical experiment in eugenic AID, producing some 215 babies over the twenty years it functioned. While AID appeared to be a means of squaring a eugenic circle by separating paternity from love relationships, and so allowing eugenic improvement without inhibiting individual choice in marriage, it found very little favour with those who might use it, not least because of a couple's desire to have their 'own' children has always seemed stronger than any eugenic aspirations. No state has ever contemplated using AID as a social policy.

  18. Hypodermic self-insemination as a reproductive assurance strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Steven A; Schlatter, Aline; Poirier, Maude; Schärer, Lukas

    2015-07-22

    Self-fertilization occurs in a broad range of hermaphroditic plants and animals, and is often thought to evolve as a reproductive assurance strategy under ecological conditions that disfavour or prevent outcrossing. Nevertheless,selfing ability is far from ubiquitous among hermaphrodites, and may be constrained in taxa where the male and female gametes of the same individual cannot easily meet. Here, we report an extraordinary selfing mechanism in one such species, the free-living flatworm Macrostomum hystrix. To test the hypothesis that adaptations to hypodermic insemination of the mating partner under outcrossing also facilitate selfing, we experimentally manipulated the social environment of these transparent flatworms and then observed the spatial distribution of received sperm in vivo. We find that this distribution differs radically between conditions allowing or preventing outcrossing, implying that isolated individuals use their needle-like stylet (male copulatory organ) to inject own sperm into their anterior body region, including into their own head, from where they then apparently migrate to the site of (self-)fertilization. Conferring the ability to self could thus be an additional consequence of hypodermic insemination, a widespread fertilization mode that is especially prevalent among simultaneously hermaphroditic animals and probably evolves due to sexual conflict over the transfer and subsequent fate of sperm.

  19. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  20. CT scan range estimation using multiple body parts detection: let PACS learn the CT image content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunliang; Lundström, Claes

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient CT scan range estimation method that is based on the analysis of image data itself instead of metadata analysis. This makes it possible to quantitatively compare the scan range of two studies. In our study, 3D stacks are first projected to 2D coronal images via a ray casting-like process. Trained 2D body part classifiers are then used to recognize different body parts in the projected image. The detected candidate regions go into a structure grouping process to eliminate false-positive detections. Finally, the scale and position of the patient relative to the projected figure are estimated based on the detected body parts via a structural voting. The start and end lines of the CT scan are projected to a standard human figure. The position readout is normalized so that the bottom of the feet represents 0.0, and the top of the head is 1.0. Classifiers for 18 body parts were trained using 184 CT scans. The final application was tested on 136 randomly selected heterogeneous CT scans. Ground truth was generated by asking two human observers to mark the start and end positions of each scan on the standard human figure. When compared with the human observers, the mean absolute error of the proposed method is 1.2% (max: 3.5%) and 1.6% (max: 5.4%) for the start and end positions, respectively. We proposed a scan range estimation method using multiple body parts detection and relative structure position analysis. In our preliminary tests, the proposed method delivered promising results.

  1. Detection ability of FDG-PET/CT comparing with other imaging modalities in multiple myeloma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Lee, Tae Hyun; Pai, Moon Sun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2007-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by bone marrow infiltration with malignant plasma cells. It is important to detect involving bone for diagnosis and management of MM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability and limitation of 18F-FDG-PET/CT (PET/CT) comparing other imaging modalities (separated PET and CT, whole body plain X-ray (XR), bone scintigraphy (BS), and MRI) in MM. Twenty PET/CT scans were performed in 16 patients (M: F=6: 10, median age=59 y). PET/CT findings were compared with available other images (n of CT=21, XR=21, BS=8, and MRI=5). Concordance with more than 2 image modalities, laboratory data, symptom, and biopsies were used for diagnosis of detected lesions. PET/CT revealed 256 of total 287 sites (sensitivity, 89.2%; accuracy, 84.8%). The sensitivity and accuracy of separating PET, CT, and XR were 86.3%, 70.4%; 47.4%, 50.3%; and 72.8%, 72.4%, respectively. Available BS identified 67 of 202 sites (sensitivity, 33.2%; accuracy, 44.0%). MRI detected 20 of 24 sites (sensitivity, 83.3%; accuracy, 36.3%). False positive rate (FP) of PET, XR, and MRI was as high as 87.8%, 95.1%, and 100%. PET for rib lesion identified 9 of 10 patients (90.0%) but for skull lesion only 4 of 7 patients (57.2%) with underestimation. 5 patients in MRI showed diffuse marrow signal change but only 3 had marrow involvement. But PET/CT showed higher accuracy than MRI. PET/CT was the most useful tool for detecting involving bone of MM comparing with other imaging modalities. Moreover, PET/CT is expected to overcome the limitations for the small osteolytic bone lesions with diffuse FDG uptake on PET

  2. Authenticity examination of compressed audio recordings using detection of multiple compression and encoders' identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korycki, Rafal

    2014-05-01

    Since the appearance of digital audio recordings, audio authentication has been becoming increasingly difficult. The currently available technologies and free editing software allow a forger to cut or paste any single word without audible artifacts. Nowadays, the only method referring to digital audio files commonly approved by forensic experts is the ENF criterion. It consists in fluctuation analysis of the mains frequency induced in electronic circuits of recording devices. Therefore, its effectiveness is strictly dependent on the presence of mains signal in the recording, which is a rare occurrence. Recently, much attention has been paid to authenticity analysis of compressed multimedia files and several solutions were proposed for detection of double compression in both digital video and digital audio. This paper addresses the problem of tampering detection in compressed audio files and discusses new methods that can be used for authenticity analysis of digital recordings. Presented approaches consist in evaluation of statistical features extracted from the MDCT coefficients as well as other parameters that may be obtained from compressed audio files. Calculated feature vectors are used for training selected machine learning algorithms. The detection of multiple compression covers up tampering activities as well as identification of traces of montage in digital audio recordings. To enhance the methods' robustness an encoder identification algorithm was developed and applied based on analysis of inherent parameters of compression. The effectiveness of tampering detection algorithms is tested on a predefined large music database consisting of nearly one million of compressed audio files. The influence of compression algorithms' parameters on the classification performance is discussed, based on the results of the current study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple Gamma-Ray Detection Capability of a CeBr3 Detector for Gamma Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Naqvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed cerium tribromide (CeBr3 detector has reduced intrinsic gamma-ray activity with gamma energy restricted to 1400–2200 keV energy range. This narrower region of background gamma rays allows the CeBr3 detector to detect more than one gamma ray to analyze the gamma-ray spectrum. Use of multiple gamma-ray intensities in elemental analysis instead of a single one improves the accuracy of the estimated results. Multigamma-ray detection capability of a cylindrical 75 mm × 75 mm (diameter × height CeBr3 detector has been tested by analyzing the chlorine concentration in water samples using eight chlorine prompt gamma rays over 517 to 8578 keV energies utilizing a D-D portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup and measuring the corresponding minimum detection limit (MDC of chlorine. The measured MDC of chlorine for gamma rays with 517–8578 keV energies varies from 0.07 ± 0.02 wt% to 0.80 ± 0.24. The best value of MDC was measured to be 0.07 ± 0.02 wt% for 788 keV gamma rays. The experimental results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations. The study has shown excellent detection capabilities of the CeBr3 detector for eight prompt gamma rays over 517–8578 keV energy range without significant background interference.

  4. Gonadotrophins versus clomifene citrate with or without intrauterine insemination in women with normogonadotropic anovulation and clomifene failure (M-OVIN): a randomised, two-by-two factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nienke S; Nahuis, Marleen J; Bordewijk, Esmee; Oosterhuis, Jurjen E; Smeenk, Jesper Mj; Hoek, Annemieke; Broekmans, Frank Jm; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Laven, Joop Se; Hendriks, Dave J; Gerards, Marie H; van Rooij, Ilse Aj; Bourdrez, Petra; Gianotten, Judith; Koks, Carolien; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Hompes, Peter G; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J; van Wely, Madelon

    2018-02-24

    allocated to gonadotrophins had more livebirths than those allocated to clomifene citrate (167 [52%] of 327 women vs 138 [41%] of 334 women, relative risk [RR] 1·24 [95% CI 1·05-1·46]; p=0·0124). Addition of intrauterine insemination did not increase livebirths compared with intercourse (161 [49%] vs 144 [43%], RR 1·14 [95% CI 0·97-1·35]; p=0·1152). Multiple pregnancy rates for the two comparisons were low and not different. There were three adverse events: one child with congenital abnormalities and one stillbirth in two women treated with clomifene citrate, and one immature delivery due to cervical insufficiency in a woman treated with gonadotrophins. In women with normogonadotropic anovulation and clomifene citrate failure, a switch of treatment to gonadotrophins increased the chance of livebirth over treatment with clomifene citrate; there was no evidence that addition of intrauterine insemination does so. The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A minimally invasive multiple marker approach allows highly efficient detection of meningioma tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meese Eckart

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of effective frameworks that permit an accurate diagnosis of tumors, especially in their early stages, remains a grand challenge in the field of bioinformatics. Our approach uses statistical learning techniques applied to multiple antigen tumor antigen markers utilizing the immune system as a very sensitive marker of molecular pathological processes. For validation purposes we choose the intracranial meningioma tumors as model system since they occur very frequently, are mostly benign, and are genetically stable. Results A total of 183 blood samples from 93 meningioma patients (WHO stages I-III and 90 healthy controls were screened for seroreactivity with a set of 57 meningioma-associated antigens. We tested several established statistical learning methods on the resulting reactivity patterns using 10-fold cross validation. The best performance was achieved by Naïve Bayes Classifiers. With this classification method, our framework, called Minimally Invasive Multiple Marker (MIMM approach, yielded a specificity of 96.2%, a sensitivity of 84.5%, and an accuracy of 90.3%, the respective area under the ROC curve was 0.957. Detailed analysis revealed that prediction performs particularly well on low-grade (WHO I tumors, consistent with our goal of early stage tumor detection. For these tumors the best classification result with a specificity of 97.5%, a sensitivity of 91.3%, an accuracy of 95.6%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.971 was achieved using a set of 12 antigen markers only. This antigen set was detected by a subset selection method based on Mutual Information. Remarkably, our study proves that the inclusion of non-specific antigens, detected not only in tumor but also in normal sera, increases the performance significantly, since non-specific antigens contribute additional diagnostic information. Conclusion Our approach offers the possibility to screen members of risk groups as a matter of routine

  6. The post-cervical insemination does not impair the reproductive performance of primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, P E; Ulguim, R R; Fontana, D L; Ferrari, C V; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-02-01

    The study evaluated the reproductive performance of primiparous sows submitted to post-cervical insemination (PCAI) compared with cervical artificial insemination (CAI). Difficulty with catheter introduction, the occurrence of bleeding or semen backflow during insemination, and volume and sperm cell backflow up to 60 min after insemination were also evaluated. Sows were homogenously distributed, according to body weight loss in lactation, lactation length, weaned piglets, weaning-to-oestrus interval and total born in previous farrowing, in two treatments: PCAI (n = 165) with 1.5 × 10(9) sperm cells in 45 ml (2.4 ± 0.04 doses per sow) and CAI (n = 165) with 3 × 10(9) sperm cells in 90 ml (2.5 ± 0.04 doses per sow). During PCAI, sows were inseminated in the absence of boars. Transabdominal real-time ultrasonography was performed at oestrus onset, immediately before the first insemination and at 24 h after last insemination. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between treatments in farrowing rate (91.5% × 89.1%) and litter size (12.5 × 11.9 piglets born, respectively for PCAI and CAI sows). Successful passage of the intrauterine catheter in all the inseminations was possible in 86.8% (165/190) of sows initially allocated to PCAI treatment. Difficulty of introducing the catheter in at least one insemination did not affect the reproductive performance of PCAI sows (P > 0.05). Bleeding during insemination did not affect (P > 0.05) the farrowing rate in both treatments, but litter size was reduced in CAI and PCAI sows (P ≤ 0.06). Percentage of spermatozoa present in backflow within 1 h after insemination was greater in CAI than PCAI sows (P inseminated with doses containing 1.5 × 10(9) sperm cells in the absence of the boar during insemination without impairing the reproductive performance. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. EvalMSA: A Program to Evaluate Multiple Sequence Alignments and Detect Outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiner-Oms, Alvaro; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    We present EvalMSA, a software tool for evaluating and detecting outliers in multiple sequence alignments (MSAs). This tool allows the identification of divergent sequences in MSAs by scoring the contribution of each row in the alignment to its quality using a sum-of-pair-based method and additional analyses. Our main goal is to provide users with objective data in order to take informed decisions about the relevance and/or pertinence of including/retaining a particular sequence in an MSA. EvalMSA is written in standard Perl and also uses some routines from the statistical language R. Therefore, it is necessary to install the R-base package in order to get full functionality. Binary packages are freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/evalmsa/for Linux and Windows.

  8. Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowla, Farid U [Castro Valley, CA; Nekoogar, Faranak [San Ramon, CA; Benzel, David M [Livermore, CA; Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Spiridon, Alex [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-29

    A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

  9. Automated detection of age-related macular degeneration in OCT images using multiple instance learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a kind of macular disease which mostly occurs in old people,and it may cause decreased vision or even lead to permanent blindness. Drusen is an important clinical indicator for AMD which can help doctor diagnose disease and decide the strategy of treatment. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is widely used in the diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases, include AMD. In this paper, we propose a classification method based on Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) to detect AMD. Drusen can exist in a few slices of OCT images, and MIL is utilized in our method. We divided the method into two phases: training phase and testing phase. We train the initial features and clustered to create a codebook, and employ the trained classifier in the test set. Experiment results show that our method achieved high accuracy and effectiveness.

  10. Acrolein detection: potential theranostic utility in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Shi, Riyi

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as a major pathological process underlying CNS disease and trauma. More specifically, acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde, produced by way of lipid peroxidation, has been shown to play a crucial role in initiating and perpetuating detrimental effects associated with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. In light of these findings, quantification of acrolein levels both systemically and locally could allow for the use of acrolein as a biomarker to aid in diagnosis and guide treatment regimens. The three main approaches currently available are acrolein derivatization followed by LC/GC-MS, application of an acrolein antibody and subsequent immunoblotting, and the 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid-based method. Of these three strategies, the 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid-based method is the least invasive allowing for rapid translation of acrolein detection into a clinical setting.

  11. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalacy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animals models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis.

  13. Is passive transmission of non-viral vectors through artificial insemination of sperm-DNA mixtures sufficient for chicken transgenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparian, Shahram; Abdulahnejad, Ahad; Rashidi, Farzad; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abbasali; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2016-06-17

    DNA uptake in the post-acrosomal region of the spermatozoa takes place exclusively in immotile spermatozoa that are naturally unable to fertilize eggs. The present study aimed to assess whether passive transmission of non-viral vectors to the surrounding areas of chicken embryos could be an alternate mechanism in chicken sperm-mediated gene transfer. First, the presence of nucleases in rooster seminal plasma was evaluated. Semen ejaculates from five roosters were centrifuged and the supernatant was incubated with pBL2 for 1 h. A robust nuclease cocktail was detected in the rooster semen. To overcome these nucleases, plasmid-TransIT combinations were incubated with semen for 1 h. Incubation of exogenous DNA in the lipoplex structure could considerably bypass the semen nuclease effect. Then, intravaginal insemination of 1 × 10(9) sperm mixed with lipoplexes (40 µg pBL2:40 µl TransIT) was carried out in 15 virgin hens. Neither the epithelial tissue from the inseminated female reproductive tracts nor the produced embryos following artificial insemination showed the transgene. To remove any bias in the transgene transmission possibility, the plasmid-TransIT admixture was directly injected in close vicinity of the embryos in newly laid eggs. Nonetheless, none of the produced fetuses or chicks carried the transgene. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a nuclease admixture in rooster seminal plasma, and passive/active transmission of the non-viral vector into close vicinity of the chicken embryo was inefficient for producing transgenic chicks.

  14. Is passive transmission of non-viral vectors through artificial insemination of sperm-DNA mixtures sufficient for chicken transgenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAPARIAN, Shahram; ABDULAHNEJAD, Ahad; RASHIDI, Farzad; TOGHYANI, Majid; GHEISARI, Abbasali; EGHBALSAIED, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    DNA uptake in the post-acrosomal region of the spermatozoa takes place exclusively in immotile spermatozoa that are naturally unable to fertilize eggs. The present study aimed to assess whether passive transmission of non-viral vectors to the surrounding areas of chicken embryos could be an alternate mechanism in chicken sperm-mediated gene transfer. First, the presence of nucleases in rooster seminal plasma was evaluated. Semen ejaculates from five roosters were centrifuged and the supernatant was incubated with pBL2 for 1 h. A robust nuclease cocktail was detected in the rooster semen. To overcome these nucleases, plasmid-TransIT combinations were incubated with semen for 1 h. Incubation of exogenous DNA in the lipoplex structure could considerably bypass the semen nuclease effect. Then, intravaginal insemination of 1 × 109 sperm mixed with lipoplexes (40 µg pBL2:40 µl TransIT) was carried out in 15 virgin hens. Neither the epithelial tissue from the inseminated female reproductive tracts nor the produced embryos following artificial insemination showed the transgene. To remove any bias in the transgene transmission possibility, the plasmid-TransIT admixture was directly injected in close vicinity of the embryos in newly laid eggs. Nonetheless, none of the produced fetuses or chicks carried the transgene. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a nuclease admixture in rooster seminal plasma, and passive/active transmission of the non-viral vector into close vicinity of the chicken embryo was inefficient for producing transgenic chicks. PMID:26935324

  15. Effects of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at artificial insemination on conception rates in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R W; Morton, J M; Norman, S T

    2014-01-10

    A controlled trial investigating the effect on conception of administration of 250 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows in seasonal or split calving herds was conducted. Time of detection of estrus, body condition, extent of estrous expression, treatment, breed, age and milk production from the most recent herd test of the current lactation was recorded. Cows were tested for pregnancy with fetal aging between 35 and 135 days after AI. Sixteen herds provided 2344 spring-calved cows and 3007 inseminations. Logistic regression adjusting for clustering at herd level was used to examine the effect of treatment for first (2344) and second (579) inseminations separately. For first AI, treatment significantly improved conception rate in cows with milk protein concentrations of 3.75% or greater and for cows with milk protein concentrations between 3.00% and 3.50% and less than 40 days calved; increased conception rate from 41.2% to 53.4%. Treatment reduced conception rates in cows with milk protein concentrations of 2.75% or less. Treating only cows identified as responding positively to treatment (11% of all study cows) was estimated to increase first service conception rate in herds from 48.1% to 49.4%. There was no significant effect of treatment on conception to second AI, nor any significant interactions. These findings indicate that GnRH at AI should be limited to the sub-group cows most likely to respond. The positive effect of GnRH at AI may be mediated through improved oocyte maturation and/or improved luteal function, rather than by reducing AI-to-ovulation intervals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of multiple AE signal by triaxial hodogram analysis; Sanjiku hodogram ho ni yoru taju acoustic emission no kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, K.; Yamashita, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In order to evaluate dynamic behavior of underground cracks, analysis and detection were attempted on multiple acoustic emission (AE) events. The multiple AE is a phenomenon in which multiple AE signals generated by underground cracks developed in an extremely short time interval are superimposed, and observed as one AE event. The multiple AE signal consists of two AE signals, whereas the second P-wave is supposed to have been inputted before the first S-wave is inputted. The first P-wave is inputted first, where linear three-dimensional particle movements are observed, but the movements are made random due to scattering and sensor characteristics. When the second P-wave is inputted, the linear particle movements are observed again, but are superimposed with the existing input signals and become multiple AE, which creates poor S/N ratio. The multiple AE detection determines it a multiple AE event when three conditions are met, i. e. a condition of equivalent time interval of a maximum value in a scalogram analysis, a condition of P-wave vibrating direction, and a condition of the linear particle movement. Seventy AE signals observed in the Kakkonda geothermal field were analyzed and AE signals that satisfy the multiple AE were detected. However, further development is required on an analysis method with high resolution for the time. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Detection of Multiple Antenna Systems over Dispersive Channels via Sphere Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassibi Babak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple antenna systems are capable of providing high data rate transmissions over wireless channels. When the channels are dispersive, the signal at each receive antenna is a combination of both the current and past symbols sent from all transmit antennas corrupted by noise. The optimal receiver is a maximum-likelihood sequence detector and is often considered to be practically infeasible due to high computational complexity (exponential in number of antennas and channel memory. Therefore, in practice, one often settles for a less complex suboptimal receiver structure, typically with an equalizer meant to suppress both the intersymbol and interuser interference, followed by the decoder. We propose a sphere decoding for the sequence detection in multiple antenna communication systems over dispersive channels. The sphere decoding provides the maximum-likelihood estimate with computational complexity comparable to the standard space-time decision-feedback equalizing (DFE algorithms. The performance and complexity of the sphere decoding are compared with the DFE algorithm by means of simulations.

  18. Detecting Causality by Combined Use of Multiple Methods: Climate and Brain Examples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Hirata

    Full Text Available Identifying causal relations from time series is the first step to understanding the behavior of complex systems. Although many methods have been proposed, few papers have applied multiple methods together to detect causal relations based on time series generated from coupled nonlinear systems with some unobserved parts. Here we propose the combined use of three methods and a majority vote to infer causality under such circumstances. Two of these methods are proposed here for the first time, and all of the three methods can be applied even if the underlying dynamics is nonlinear and there are hidden common causes. We test our methods with coupled logistic maps, coupled Rössler models, and coupled Lorenz models. In addition, we show from ice core data how the causal relations among the temperature, the CH4 level, and the CO2 level in the atmosphere changed in the last 800,000 years, a conclusion also supported by irregularly sampled data analysis. Moreover, these methods show how three regions of the brain interact with each other during the visually cued, two-choice arm reaching task. Especially, we demonstrate that this is due to bottom up influences at the beginning of the task, while there exist mutual influences between the posterior medial prefrontal cortex and the presupplementary motor area. Based on our results, we conclude that identifying causality with an appropriate ensemble of multiple methods ensures the validity of the obtained results more firmly.

  19. Liquid detection with InGaAsP semiconductor lasers having multiple short external cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Cassidy, D T

    1996-08-20

    A liquid detection system consisting of a diode laser with multiple short external cavities (MSXC's) is reported. The MSXC diode laser operates single mode on one of 18 distinct modes that span a range of 72 nm. We selected the modes by setting the length of one of the external cavities using a piezoelectric positioner. One can measure the transmission through cells by modulating the injection current at audio frequencies and using phase-sensitive detection to reject the ambient light and reduce 1/f noise. A method to determine regions of single-mode operation by the rms of the output of the laser is described. The transmission data were processed by multivariate calibration techniques, i.e., partial least squares and principal component regression. Water concentration in acetone was used to demonstrate the performance of the system. A correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.997 and 0.29% root-mean-square error of prediction are found for water concentration over the range of 2-19%.

  20. Detection and analysis of a transient energy burst with beamforming of multiple teleseismic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retailleau, Lise; Landès, Matthieu; Gualtieri, Lucia; Shapiro, Nikolai M.; Campillo, Michel; Roux, Philippe; Guilbert, Jocelyn

    2018-01-01

    Seismological detection methods are traditionally based on picking techniques. These methods cannot be used to analyse emergent signals where the arrivals cannot be picked. Here, we detect and locate seismic events by applying a beamforming method that combines multiple body-wave phases to USArray data. This method explores the consistency and characteristic behaviour of teleseismic body waves that are recorded by a large-scale, still dense, seismic network. We perform time-slowness analysis of the signals and correlate this with the time-slowness equivalent of the different body-wave phases predicted by a global traveltime calculator, to determine the occurrence of an event with no a priori information about it. We apply this method continuously to one year of data to analyse the different events that generate signals reaching the USArray network. In particular, we analyse in detail a low-frequency secondary microseismic event that occurred on 2010 February 1. This event, that lasted 1 d, has a narrow frequency band around 0.1 Hz, and it occurred at a distance of 150° to the USArray network, South of Australia. We show that the most energetic phase observed is the PKPab phase. Direct amplitude analysis of regional seismograms confirms the occurrence of this event. We compare the seismic observations with models of the spectral density of the pressure field generated by the interferences between oceanic waves. We attribute the observed signals to a storm-generated microseismic event that occurred along the South East Indian Ridge.

  1. Smart Sensor for Online Detection of Multiple-Combined Faults in VSD-Fed Induction Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Armando G.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.; Granados-Lieberman, David; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.

    2012-01-01

    Induction motors fed through variable speed drives (VSD) are widely used in different industrial processes. Nowadays, the industry demands the integration of smart sensors to improve the fault detection in order to reduce cost, maintenance and power consumption. Induction motors can develop one or more faults at the same time that can be produce severe damages. The combined fault identification in induction motors is a demanding task, but it has been rarely considered in spite of being a common situation, because it is difficult to identify two or more faults simultaneously. This work presents a smart sensor for online detection of simple and multiple-combined faults in induction motors fed through a VSD in a wide frequency range covering low frequencies from 3 Hz and high frequencies up to 60 Hz based on a primary sensor being a commercially available current clamp or a hall-effect sensor. The proposed smart sensor implements a methodology based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT), RMS calculation and artificial neural networks (ANN), which are processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of cytogenetic abnormalities and prognosis in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prognosis of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM and attempted to find a suitable treatment strategy for them. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH detection was performed on 57 patients with MM. The following probes: IgH, p53, 1q21, RB1, and D13S319 specific for the rearrangements of 14q32, 17p13, 1q21 and 13q14 were used. Fluorescent hybridization signals were observed using an Olympus BX60 epifluorescence microscope equipped with filters for detecting fluoroisothiocyanate (FITC, Texas red, and 4'-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI. Triple color clone-specific images were captured using a Quips XL genetic workstation. The mortalities in patients with moderate prognosis (66.7% and poor prognosis (50% were significantly higher compared with that in patients with good prognosis (15%, P<0.05. All the patients in good and moderate prognosis groups achieved complete remission (CR/very good partial remission (VGPR/partial remission (PR, whereas only half of the cases in the poor prognosis group reached this level. Patients 2 supported by autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation presented CR/PR and long survival. For those with poor prognosis, a proper therapeutic regimen and timely transplantation, especially tandem transplantation, was necessary due to the rapid progression and complications.

  3. Perinatal outcomes in 6,338 singletons born after intrauterine insemination in Denmark, 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara Sofia; Loft, Anne; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study perinatal outcomes in singletons born after intrauterine insemination (IUI) compared with children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and spontaneous conception (SC), and to assess predictors of poor outcome in singletons born after IUI......, exploring the effect of ovarian stimulation. DESIGN: National cohort study, 2007-2012. SETTING: Danish national registries. PATIENT(S): Four thousand two hundred twenty-eight singletons born after insemination with partner semen (IUI-H) and 1,881 singletons born after insemination with donor semen...

  4. Extended semen for artificial insemination in swine as a potential transmission mechanism for infectious Chlamydia suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamonic, G; Pasternak, J A; Käser, T; Meurens, F; Wilson, H L

    2016-09-01

    Although typically unnoticed, Chlamydia infections in swine have been shown to be both widespread and may impact production characteristics and reproductive performance in swine. Serum titers suggest Chlamydia infection within boar studs is common, and infected boars are known to shed chlamydia in their ejaculates. Although the transmission of viruses in chilled extended semen (ES) is well established, the inclusion of antibiotics in commercially available extender is generally believed to limit or preclude the transmission of infectious bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of ES used in artificial insemination to support transmission of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia suis (C suis) under standard industry conditions. First, the effect of C suis on sperm quality during storage was assessed by flow cytometry. Only concentrations above 5 × 10(5) viable C suis/mL caused significant spermicidal effects which only became evident after 7 days of storage at 17 °C. No significant effect on acrosome reaction was observed using any chlamydial concentration. Next, an in vitro infection model of swine testicular fibroblast cells was established and used to evaluate the effect of chilled storage on C suis viability under variable conditions. Storage in Androhep ES reduced viability by 34.4% at a multiplicity of infection of 1.25, an effect which increased to 53.3% when the multiplicity of infection decreased to 0.1. Interestingly, storage in semen extender alone (SE) or ES with additional antibiotics had no effect on bacterial viability. To rule out a secondary effect on extender resulting from metabolically active sperm, C suis was stored in fresh and expended SE and again no significant effect on bacterial viability was observed. Fluorescent microscopy of C suis in ES shows an association between bacteria and the remaining gel fraction after storage suggesting that the apparent reduction of bacterial viability in the presence

  5. Detection of multiple sclerosis with visual evoked potentials--an unsupervised computational intelligence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasey, T J; Micheli-Tzanakou, E

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel unsupervised pattern recognition system to the classification of the Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP's) of normal and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The method combines a traditional statistical feature extractor with a fuzzy clustering method, all implemented in a parallel neural network architecture. The optimization routine, ALOPEX, is used to train the network while decreasing the likelihood of local solutions. The unsupervised system includes a feature extraction and clustering module, trained by the optimization routine ALOPEX. Through maximization of the output variance of each node, and an architecture which excludes redundancy, the feature extraction network retains the most significant Karhunen-Loeve expansion vectors. The clustering module uses a modification to the Fuzzy c-Means (FCM) clustering algorithms, where ALOPEX adjusts a set of cluster centers to minimize an objective error function. The result combines the power of the FCM algorithms with the advantage of a more global solution from ALOPEX. The new pattern recognition system is used to cluster the VEP's of 13 normal and 12 MS subjects. The classification with this technique can, without supervision, separate the patient population into two groups which largely correspond to the MS and control subject groups. A suitable threshold can be chosen so that the recognizer chooses no false negatives. The use of multiple stimulation patterns appears to improve the reliability of the decision. The reasoning of most neural networks in their decision making cannot easily be extracted upon the completion of training. However, due to the linearity of the network nodes, the cluster prototypes of this unsupervised system can be reconstructed to illustrate the reasoning of the system. In this application, this analysis hints at the usefulness of previously unused portions of the VEP in detecting MS. It also indicates a possible use of the system as a training

  6. Conception following insemination with a freeze-preserved retrograde ejaculate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, E; Rao, R; Dmowski, W P; Scommegna, A

    1978-03-01

    Retrograde ejaculation, an infrequent cause of male infertility, may be the sequela of prostate or bladder neck surgery or the result of interruption in the sympathetic innervation to the bladder neck. The diagnosis is established by history and examination of the urine. In infertile couples artificial insemination homologous (AIH) using retrograde ejaculate recovered from the bladder has been successfully accomplished, but conception has occurred only in isolated cases. A literature review of the subject is presented. The technique of semen recovery from the bladder is time-consuming and uncomfortable to the patient, while the quality of the semen recovered is variable and the risk of iatrogenic urinary tract infection is increased. To avoid the above problems, and to have sperm available for AIH at the time of induced ovulation in an anovulatory wife, we were able to freeze-preserve ejaculate recovered from the bladder for future use. A case of conception following AIH with freeze-preserved retrograde ejaculate is presented.

  7. A longitudinal analysis of artificial insemination with donor semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulewski, J M; Eisenberg, F; Stenger, V G

    1978-05-01

    A longitudinal analysis of artificial insemination with donor semen (AID) in 114 consecutive couples revealed a 37% over-all pregnancy rate. The 45 pregnancies occurred in 39 patients, and approximately 90% of these pregnancies occurred within six cycles of AID. Pregnancy rates were higher in the age group 25 to 30, in those who received only fresh semen, and in those with a history of a previous pregnancy. Lower pregnancy rates were observed in patients age 31 or older, in those with pelvic disease, and in those randomly receiving freshly thawed semen or fresh semen. The use of a vaginal device for retaining semen, the use of patient positioning, or the duration of infertility did not appear to affect the success rate. When surgically correctable pelvic disease was treated, a pregnancy rate of 22% was obtained.

  8. Results of 6139 artificial insemination cycles with donor spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchan, A; Hauser, R; Gamzu, R; Yogev, L; Paz, G; Yavetz, H

    2001-11-01

    Artificial insemination by donor spermatozoa (AID) can prove a valuable treatment for a number of male factor disorders, although its success rate is variable. Retrospective analysis of the results of 6139 cycles performed in 1001 women during an 18 year period is presented. Pregnancy rates per cycle are presented as a function of: female fertility history, treatment modalities, medication used for induction of ovulation, female age, year of treatment, consecutive cycle effect and the use of fresh versus frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Overall pregnancy rate of 12.6% and cumulative pregnancy rate after 12 months of treatment of 75% were achieved. Age was found to be the most important determinant for success rate. Since the establishment of AID treatments, the mean age of the population of women receiving treatment has increased each year. Consequently, success rate did not improve, even with the use of more sophisticated medical modalities.

  9. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: III. Comparing fixed-time artificial insemination to split-time artificial insemination with delayed administration of GnRH in postpartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-09-01

    This experiment was designed to compare pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows following split-time (STAI) or fixed-time (FTAI) artificial insemination. Estrus was synchronized for 671 cows at seven locations following administration of the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR insert [1.38 g progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg prostaglandin F 2α [PG] at CIDR removal on d 7). Cows were assigned to treatments that were balanced across locations based on age, body condition score, and days postpartum at the time treatments were initiated. All cows in treatment 1 (n = 333; FTAI) were inseminated at 66 h after PG and GnRH was administered concurrent with insemination regardless of estrus expression. For cows in treatment 2 (n = 338; STAI), inseminations were performed at 66 or 90 h after PG, and estrous status was recorded at these times. Cows in the STAI treatment that exhibited estrus by 66 h were inseminated at that time and did not receive GnRH, whereas AI was delayed 24 h until 90 h after PG for cows that failed to exhibit estrus by 66 h. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (100 μg) was administered concurrent with AI at 90 h only to cows failing to exhibit estrus. Estrus expression that occurred during the 24 h delay period among cows assigned to the STAI treatment increased the total proportion of cows that expressed estrus prior to insemination (1 = 60%; 2 = 86%; P inseminated at 66 h that exhibited estrus did not differ between treatments (1 = 58%; 2 = 58%; P = 0.93); however, pregnancy rates among non-estrous cows at 66 h were improved (1 = 35%; 2 = 51%; P = 0.01) among cows assigned to the STAI treatment when insemination was postponed by 24 h. Consequently, total AI pregnancy rate tended to be higher for cows that received STAI (1 = 49%; 2 = 56%; P = 0.06). In summary, following administration of the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol, total estrous response increased and pregnancy rates resulting from AI tended

  10. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection for deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization based on gold nanoparticles carrying multiple probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Zhang Chengxiao; Li Yan; Qi Honglan

    2006-01-01

    A novel sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) method for the detection deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization based on gold nanoparticles carrying multiple probes was developed. Ruthenium bis(2,2'-bipyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS) was used as a ECL label and gold nanoparticle as a carrier. Probe single strand DNA (ss-DNA) was self-assembled at the 3'-terminal with a thiol group to the surface of gold nanoparticle and covalently labeled at the 5'-terminal of a phosphate group with Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS and the resulting conjugate (Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS)-ss-DNA-Au, was taken as a ECL probe. When target analyte ss-DNA was immobilized on a gold electrode by self-assembled monolayer technique and then hybridized with the ECL probe to form a double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA), a strong ECL response was electrochemically generated. The ECL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of the complementary sequence (target ss-DNA) in the range from 1.0 x 10 -11 to 1.0 x 10 -8 mol L -1 , and the linear regression equation was S = 57301 + 4579.6 lg C (unit of C is mol L -1 ). A detection limit of 5.0 x 10 -12 mol L -1 for target ss-DNA was achieved. The ECL signal generated from many reporters of ECL probe prepared is greatly amplified, compared to the convention scheme which is based on one reporter per hybridization event

  11. Multiple Break-Points Detection in Array CGH Data via the Cross-Entropy Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshana, W J R M; Sofronov, Georgy

    2015-01-01

    Array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) is a widely used methodology to detect copy number variations of a genome in high resolution. Knowing the number of break-points and their corresponding locations in genomic sequences serves different biological needs. Primarily, it helps to identify disease-causing genes that have functional importance in characterizing genome wide diseases. For human autosomes the normal copy number is two, whereas at the sites of oncogenes it increases (gain of DNA) and at the tumour suppressor genes it decreases (loss of DNA). The majority of the current detection methods are deterministic in their set-up and use dynamic programming or different smoothing techniques to obtain the estimates of copy number variations. These approaches limit the search space of the problem due to different assumptions considered in the methods and do not represent the true nature of the uncertainty associated with the unknown break-points in genomic sequences. We propose the Cross-Entropy method, which is a model-based stochastic optimization technique as an exact search method, to estimate both the number and locations of the break-points in aCGH data. We model the continuous scale log-ratio data obtained by the aCGH technique as a multiple break-point problem. The proposed methodology is compared with well established publicly available methods using both artificially generated data and real data. Results show that the proposed procedure is an effective way of estimating number and especially the locations of break-points with high level of precision. Availability: The methods described in this article are implemented in the new R package breakpoint and it is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=breakpoint.

  12. Slow Earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone Detected by Multiple Mini Seismic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, B.; Ghosh, A.; Thurber, C. H.; Lanza, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone is one of the most seismically and volcanically active plate boundaries on earth. Compared to other subduction zones, the slow earthquakes, such as tectonic tremors (TTs) and low frequency earthquakes (LFEs), are relatively poorly studied due to the limited data availability and difficult logistics. The analysis of two-months of continuous data from a mini array deployed in 2012 shows abundant tremor and LFE activities under Unalaska Island that is heterogeneously distributed [Li & Ghosh, 2017]. To better study slow earthquakes and understand their physical characteristics in the study region, we deployed a hybrid array of arrays, consisting of three well-designed mini seismic arrays and five stand alone stations, in the Unalaska Island in 2014. They were operational for between one and two years. Using the beam back-projection method [Ghosh et al., 2009, 2012], we detect continuous tremor activities for over a year when all three arrays are running. The sources of tremors are located south of the Unalaska and Akutan Islands, at the eastern and down-dip edge of the rupture zone of the 1957 Mw 8.6 earthquake, and they are clustered in several patches, with a gap between the two major clusters. Tremors show multiple migration patterns with propagation in both along-strike and dip directions and a wide range of velocities. We also identify tens of LFE families and use them as templates to search for repeating LFE events with the matched-filter method. Hundreds to thousands of LFEs for each family are detected and their activities are spatiotemporally consistent with tremor activities. The array techniques are revealing a near-continuous tremor activity in this area with remarkable spatiotemporal details. It helps us to better recognize the physical properties of the transition zone, provides new insights into the slow earthquake activities in this area, and explores their relation with the local earthquakes and the potential slow

  13. Multiple Sclerosis: Identification of Temporal Changes in Brain Lesions with Computer-Assisted Detection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilello, M.; Arkuszewski, M.; Nucifora, P.; Nasrallah, I.; Melhem, E.R.; Cirillo, L.; Krejza, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with a progressing and evolving course. Serial imaging with MRI is the mainstay in monitoring and managing MS patients. In this work we demonstrate the performance of a locally developed computer-assisted detection (CAD) software used to track temporal changes in brain MS lesions. CAD tracks changes in T2-bright MS lesions between two time points on a 3D high-resolution isotropic FLAIR MR sequence of the brain acquired at 3 Tesla. The program consists of an image-processing pipeline, and displays scrollable difference maps used as an aid to the neuroradiologist for assessing lesional change. To assess the value of the software we have compared diagnostic accuracy and duration of interpretation of the CAD-assisted and routine clinical interpretations in 98 randomly chosen, paired MR examinations from 88 patients (68 women, 20 men, mean age 43.5, age range 21–75) with a diagnosis of definite MS. The ground truth was determined by a three-expert panel. In case-wise analysis, CAD interpretation showed higher sensitivity than a clinical report (87% vs 77%, respectively). Lesion-wise analysis demonstrated improved sensitivity of CAD over a routine clinical interpretation of 40%–48%. Mean software-assisted interpretation time was 2.7 min. Our study demonstrates the potential of including CAD software in the workflow of neuroradiology practice for the detection of MS lesional change. Automated quantification of temporal change in MS lesion load may also be used in clinical research, e.g., in drug trials. PMID:23859235

  14. Site of intrauterine artificial insemination in the bitch does not affect sperm distribution within the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, F B; Malm, C; Henry, M; Gheller, V A; Serakides, R; Neves, M M; Macedo, S P; Figueiredo, M S; Andrade, M E J; Chaves, M S; Silva, M X; Rezende, C M F; Melo, E G

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of frozen-thawed spermatozoa within the uterine lumen and oviducts following intrauterine laparoscopic deposition at two sites. Twelve bitches of unknown reproductive history were randomly distributed into two groups. Semen (3 ml containing 300 × 10(6) frozen-thawed spermatozoa) was infused at the uterine body (UB group) or at the cranial tip of the left uterine horn. A 22-G catheter was used to access the uterine lumen. Sperm cell distribution was evaluated after ovariohysterectomy performed 3 h after artificial insemination (AI). There was no difference between groups in mean time to perform AI. Spermatozoa were detected in all uterine segments, including the tip of both horns, but none was detected in the oviduct. The 22-G catheter facilitated deposition of semen in the uterine lumen, particularly at the UB site. Sperm cell distribution occurred evenly along both horns, independent of the site of semen deposition. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Pelvic endometriosis with peritoneal fluid reduces pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Chen, Chi-Hung; Chen, Pi-Hua

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of peritoneal fluid in women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and its correlation with the stage of pelvic endometriosis and its influence on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective case-control design was used to recruit 272 infertile women with pelvic endometriosis. The treatment protocol consisted of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with downregulation and gonadotropin for IUI treatment following ultrasound and laparoscopic intervention. The amount and color of the peritoneal fluid were determined during laparoscopy. The mean amount of peritoneal fluid with pelvic endometriosis that was detected using transvaginal ultrasound was ~ 15.1 mL. Women whose cycles contained more peritoneal fluid had significantly lower pregnancy rates (17.2% and 31.3%, respectively). The total clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly different between the two groups with reddish and yellowish peritoneal fluid who had pelvic endometriosis. Pelvic endometriosis and peritoneal fluid, detected through vaginal ultrasound, have negative effects on the pregnancy outcome of IUI treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Genetic-algorithm-based multiple regression with fuzzy inference system for detection of nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Steve S H; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-03-01

    Hypoglycemia or low blood glucose is dangerous and can result in unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. It is a common and serious side effect of insulin therapy in patients with diabetes. Hypoglycemic monitor is a noninvasive monitor that measures some physiological parameters continuously to provide detection of hypoglycemic episodes in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (T1DM). Based on heart rate (HR), corrected QT interval of the ECG signal, change of HR, and the change of corrected QT interval, we develop a genetic algorithm (GA)-based multiple regression with fuzzy inference system (FIS) to classify the presence of hypoglycemic episodes. GA is used to find the optimal fuzzy rules and membership functions of FIS and the model parameters of regression method. From a clinical study of 16 children with T1DM, natural occurrence of nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes is associated with HRs and corrected QT intervals. The overall data were organized into a training set (eight patients) and a testing set (another eight patients) randomly selected. The results show that the proposed algorithm performs a good sensitivity with an acceptable specificity.

  17. Malignant lymphoma with diffuse cardiac involvement detected by multiple imaging examinations: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishiwata Toshiji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In malignant lymphoma, cardiac involvement, which usually forms pathologically focal and firm nodules in the cardiac walls, is considered to be a late manifestation of the disease. Case presentation We describe the case of a 71-year-old Asian Japanese woman whose first presentation of lymphoma was congestive heart failure. Multiple imaging examinations and laboratory findings led to a presumed diagnosis of a malignant lymphoma. A tissue diagnosis of the mediastinal mass could not be performed due to our patient’s generally poor condition. Our patient received corticosteroid therapy, but died 42 days after her admission. An autopsy revealed lymphoid cells encircling her ventricular wall and infiltrating her endocardium. A histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Conclusion Imaging examinations such as echocardiography, computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction, and gallium-67-citrate scintigraphy could clearly detect the diffuse cardiac involvement antemortem. A combination of these imaging techniques could provide a working diagnosis and allow empirical initiation of treatment in patients with poor general condition.

  18. Detection of Matrix Crack Density of CFRP using an Electrical Potential Change Method with Multiple Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Akira; Omagari, Kazuomi

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminates are adopted for fuel tank structures of next generation space rockets or automobiles. Matrix cracks may cause fuel leak or trigger fatigue damage. A monitoring system of the matrix crack density is required. The authors have developed an electrical resistance change method for the monitoring of delamination cracks in CFRP laminates. Reinforcement fibers are used as a self-sensing system. In the present study, the electric potential method is adopted for matrix crack density monitoring. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to investigate the possibility of monitoring matrix crack density using multiple electrodes mounted on a single surface of a specimen. The FEA reveals the matrix crack density increases electrical resistance for a target segment between electrodes. Experimental confirmation was also performed using cross-ply laminates. Eight electrodes were mounted on a single surface of a specimen using silver paste after polishing of the specimen surface with sandpaper. The two outermost electrodes applied electrical current, and the inner electrodes measured electric voltage changes. The slope of electrical resistance during reloading is revealed to be an appropriate index for the detection of matrix crack density.

  19. JC virus detection and JC virus-specific immunity in natalizumab-treated Multiple Sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso Roberta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis (MS may favour JC virus reactivation; this phenomenon is usually asymptomatic but can, albeit rarely, evolve into frank progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML. Methods JCV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry over a 24-month period in 24 natalizumab-treated MS patients in whom JCV DNA was or was not detected in blood using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; all these cases were asymptomatic. Results Perforin- and grazymes-containing VP-1-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes were reduced whereas CD107a-expressing cells were increased in JCV positive patients, suggesting an active degranulation of these cells; naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes were also decreased whereas memory cells were increased in patients in whom JCV reactivation was observed. Conclusion The presence of a CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated effector immune response offers a greater insight into reactivation of JCV and its clinical sequelae, and may help the monitoring of patients on natalizumab therapy.

  20. Detecting Renibacterium salmoninarum in wild brown trout by use of multiple organ samples and diagnostic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guomundsdottir, S.; Applegate, Lynn M.; Arnason, I.O.; Kristmundsson, A.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2017-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease (BKD), is endemic in many wild trout species in northerly regions. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal R. salmoninarum sampling/testing strategy for wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in Iceland. Fish were netted in a lake and multiple organs—kidney, spleen, gills, oesophagus and mid-gut—were sampled and subjected to five detection tests i.e. culture, polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pELISA) and three different PCR tests. The results showed that each fish had encountered R. salmoninarum but there were marked differences between results obtained depending on organ and test. The bacterium was not cultured from any kidney sample while all kidney samples were positive by pELISA. At least one organ from 92.9% of the fish tested positive by PCR. The results demonstrated that the choice of tissue and diagnostic method can dramatically influence the outcome of R. salmoninarum surveys.

  1. Detection of Antibodies against Human and Plant Aquaporins in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristo Vojdani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease that affects the body’s central nervous system. Around 90% of MS sufferers are diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS. We used ELISA to measure IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies against linear epitopes of human and plant aquaporins (AQP4 as well as neural antigens in RRMS patients and controls to determine whether patients suffering from RRMS have simultaneous elevations in antibodies against these peptides and antigens. In comparison to controls, significant elevations in isotype-specific antibodies against human and plant AQP4 and neural antigens such as MBP, MOG, and S100B were detected in RRMS patients, indicating a high correlation in antibody reaction between plant aquaporins and brain antigens. This correlation between the reactivities of RRMS patients with various tested antigens was the most significant for the IgM isotype. We conclude that a subclass of patients with RRMS reacts to both plant and human AQP4 peptides. This immune reaction against different plant aquaporins may help in the development of dietary modifications for patients with MS and other neuroimmune disorders.

  2. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.

    2016-10-01

    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P insemination based on forecasted temperatures can improve the success of AI in goats and sheep.

  3. Implementing artificial insemination as an effective tool for ex situ conservation of endangered avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captive propagation programs have proven useful in maintaining genetic diversity and restoring wild populations of certain species, including the Peregrine falcon, California condor and Whooping crane. Artificial insemination (AI) has the potential of solving problems inherent to reproductive manage...

  4. The Use of Tenaculum During Intrauterine Insemination May Not Affect the Pregnancy Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Eui; Kim, Hoon; Jee, Byung Chul; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The association between tenaculum application to the cervix just before embryo transfer and lower pregnancy rate has been reported. However, studies on the use of tenaculum in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles are not available. This study attempted to investigate whether the use of tenaculum affects the clinical outcomes of IUI. Materials and Methods Two hundred and thirty three CC/hMG/IUI cycles of one hundred and forty three couples were recruited at Seoul National University Hospital from October 2006 to December 2008. Mock insemination and IUI with or without tenaculum application to the cervix were also performed, and clinical pregnancy rate was compared. Results The incidence of difficult mock insemination at the beginning of cycle was higher in the tenaculum use group (p insemination. Conclusion The use of tenaculum during IUI may not affect the pregnancy outcome. Our results need to be confirmed by a prospective study in a larger population. PMID:20879065

  5. The on-line detection of engine misfire at low speed using multiple feature fusion with fuzzy pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique for the online detection of incipient engine misfire based on multiple feature fusion and fuzzy pattern recognition. The technique requires the measurement of instantaneous angular velocity signals. By processing the engine dynamics model equation in the angular frequency domain, four dimensionless features for misfire detection are defined, along with fast feature-extracting algorithms. By directly analysing the waveforms of the angular velocity and the angula...

  6. Multiple Strategy Bio-Detection Sensor Platforms Made from Carbon and Polymer Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giedd, Ryan; Ghosh, Kartik; Curry, Matt; Patel, Rishi; Durham, Paul

    2005-01-01

    ...) and a platform that incorporates multiple biodetection strategies. This report discusses the progress to date on the biosensors made from CPMEMS and the multiple strategy biodetection sensor platforms that incorporate these CPMEMS...

  7. Unconventional conceptions : family planning in lesbian-headed families created by donor insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Lisa Katherine

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically describe the decision-making phase of family formation in German lesbians planning to parent via donor insemination, to assess the issues pertinent to each mother role and those involved in donor type choice using a retrospective, structured questionnaire. Data was collected from 105 self-identified lesbian women, 55 of whom were birthmothers and 50 of whom were social mothers. The process of planning a lesbian-headed family created by donor insemination ...

  8. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sraïri, MT.; Farit, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al) database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of...

  9. The Role of Infertility Etiology in Success Rate of Intrauterine Insemination Cycles: An Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Pregnancy Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Rashidi, Mandana; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Daghighi, Sara; Pourasghari, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of ovarian stimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in couples with different infertility etiology. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in data of 1348 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation by clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or gonadotropins in 632 women with five different infertility etiology subgroups at Akbarabbadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Results: The pregnancy rate (PR)/ cycle was highest (19.9%) among couples with unexplained infertility and lowest (10.6%) in couples with multiple factors infertility. In cases of unexplained infertility, the best PRs were seen after CC plus gonadotropins stimulation (26.3%) and with inseminated motile sperm count>30×106 (21.9%), but the tendency didn’t reach statistical significant. In the ovarian factor group, the best PRs were observed in women aged between 30 and 34 years (20.8%), with 2-3 preovulatory follicles (37.8%) and infertility duration between 1and 3 years (20.8%), while only infertility duration (p=0.03) and number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.01) were statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis determined that number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.02), duration of infertility (p=0.015), age (p=0.019), infertility etiology (p=0.05) and stimulation regimen (p=0.01) were significant independent factors in order to predict overall clinical PR. Conclusion: The etiology of infertility is important to achieve remarkable IUI success. It is worth mentioning that within different etiologies of infertility, the demographic and cycles characteristics of couples did not show the same effect. Favorable variables for treatment success are as follows: age infertility ≤5 years and a cause of infertility except of multiple factors. PMID:24520471

  10. Sources of spermatozoa loss during collection and artificial insemination of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Michelle A; Blum, Katherine M; Burd, Matthew A

    2011-07-01

    During artificial insemination of horses, it is important to accurately estimate the number of spermatozoa in each insemination dose. However, little research exists regarding sources of spermatozoa loss during collection and artificial insemination. Therefore, spermatozoal losses were quantified in the dismount loss (187.6×10(6)±62.5×10(6)spermatozoa), gel fraction (179.8×10(6)±61.7×10(6)spermatozoa), and the collection receptacle (136.1×10(6)±26.9×10(6)spermatozoa). Spermatozoal losses were examined in the centrifuge tube (25.8×10(6)±2.1×10(6)spermatozoa), AI pipette during the air removal (90.9×10(6)±8.5×10(6)spermatozoa), and spermatozoa remaining in the AI pipette after insemination (342.9×10(6)±21.4×10(6)spermatozoa). The average cumulative loss was 14.2±2.9% of the total spermatozoa ejaculated with approximately half of the loss due to the process of semen collection and half due to the process of artificial insemination. Spermatozoa retained in the AI pipette, after insemination with extended semen, represented the greatest source of loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors influencing the success of vaginal and laparoscopic artificial insemination in churra ewes: a field assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anel, L; Kaabi, M; Abroug, B; Alvarez, M; Anel, E; Boixo, J C; de la Fuente, L F; de Paz, P

    2005-03-01

    Pregnancy rate following artificial insemination (AI) in sheep is variable depending on several factors. The Churra breed (milk breed of the North-West of Spain) yields lower fertility results compared with other local and European breeds (Manchega, Latxa, Merino, Lacaune, Sarde, etc.). In this work we studied the influence of many factors on the fertility of the Churra breed (insemination technique, year, farm, age, male, number of inseminations per ewe, lambing-insemination interval and technician), analyzing lambing data obtained after 44448 inseminations (39.67% cervical AI via vagina, AIV, and 60.33% intrauterine AI using laparoscopy, AIL) in a categorical model. The most important factors influencing fertility after AI were farm, year, season, AI technique, and technician. AIL showed significantly higher fertility results than AIV (44.89% versus 31.25%). Season significantly affected fertility in both cases, but differences were more evident in AIV. Fertility dropped 1.74% (AIV) and 2.07% (AIL) per year as the ewes aged. Finally, AI fertility decreased when the lambing-insemination interval was lower than 10 weeks.

  12. Efeito do número de inseminações artificiais sobre a fertilidade de éguas inseminadas com sêmen diluído, resfriado a 14ºC e transportado Effect of artificial insemination number on the fertility in mares inseminated with diluted, cooled at 14ºC and transported semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ribeiro Valle

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do número de inseminações sobre a fertilidade de éguas inseminadas, três vezes/semana (segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras, com sêmen diluído, resfriado e transportado, de apenas um garanhão. As éguas foram inseminadas a partir da detecção, pela palpação retal, de um folículo de 3,0 a 3,5 cm de diâmetro, em um dos ovários, até a ovulação. Utilizaram-se para o transporte o sêmen diluído no diluidor leite desnatado-glicose e o conteiner "Celle" modificado, sendo a dose inseminante de 400 x 10(6 espermatozóides móveis, no momento da diluição final, pré-resfriamento. De acordo com o número de inseminações artificiais (IA utilizadas/ciclo, os resultados de 148 ciclos, de 100 éguas, foram agrupados em: 1 IA, 2IA, 3 IA e 4 ou mais IA. A eficiência de prenhez foi de 4,29; 5,04; 5,67; e 3,43, para 1, 2, 3 e 4 ou mais IA, respectivamente. As características foliculares diferiram em relação à freqüência de inseminações com os maiores valores observados no grupo de éguas inseminadas quatro ou mais vezes. Concluiu-se que menor velocidade de crescimento folicular e maior diâmetro do folículo ovulatório estiveram associados a maior número de inseminações artificiais/ciclo. Na presença de uma concentração espermática adequada, o número de inseminações/ciclo não exerceu influência sobre a fertilidade.The effect of the number of insemination on the fertility of mares inseminated three times/week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday, with extended, cooled and transported semen, from only one stallion, was studied. The mares were inseminated from the detection, by rectal palpation, of a 3.0 to 3.5 cm follicle diameter, in one of the ovaries, until ovulation. The semen was transported in skim milk-glucose extender in a "Celle" modified container; with inseminate doses of 400 x 10(6 motile spermatozoa at the moment of the final dilution, before cooling. The results of 148 cycles of 100 mares were

  13. Detection and quantification of regional cortical gray matter damage in multiple sclerosis utilizing gradient echo MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical gray matter (GM damage is now widely recognized in multiple sclerosis (MS. The standard MRI does not reliably detect cortical GM lesions, although cortical volume loss can be measured. In this study, we demonstrate that the gradient echo MRI can reliably and quantitatively assess cortical GM damage in MS patients using standard clinical scanners. High resolution multi-gradient echo MRI was used for regional mapping of tissue-specific MRI signal transverse relaxation rate values (R2* in 10 each relapsing–remitting, primary-progressive and secondary-progressive MS subjects. A voxel spread function method was used to correct artifacts induced by background field gradients. R2* values from healthy controls (HCs of varying ages were obtained to establish baseline data and calculate ΔR2* values – age-adjusted differences between MS patients and HC. Thickness of cortical regions was also measured in all subjects. In cortical regions, ΔR2* values of MS patients were also adjusted for changes in cortical thickness. Symbol digit modalities (SDMT and paced auditory serial addition (PASAT neurocognitive tests, as well as Expanded Disability Status Score, 25-foot timed walk and nine-hole peg test results were also obtained on all MS subjects. We found that ΔR2* values were lower in multiple cortical GM and normal appearing white matter (NAWM regions in MS compared with HC. ΔR2* values of global cortical GM and several specific cortical regions showed significant (p < 0.05 correlations with SDMT and PASAT scores, and showed better correlations than volumetric measures of the same regions. Neurological tests not focused on cognition (Expanded Disability Status Score, 25-foot timed walk and nine-hole peg tests showed no correlation with cortical GM ΔR2* values. The technique presented here is robust and reproducible. It requires less than 10 min and can be implemented on any MRI scanner. Our results show that quantitative tissue-specific R2

  14. Development of Real Time PCR Using Novel Genomic Target for Detection of Multiple Salmonella Serovars from Milk and Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: A highly sensitive and specific novel genomic and plasmid target-based PCR platform was developed to detect multiple Salmonella serovars (S. Heidelberg, S. Dublin, S. Hadar, S. Kentucky and S. Enteritidis). Through extensive genome mining of protein databases of these serovars and compar...

  15. One-step isothermal detection of multiple KRAS mutations by forming SNP specific hairpins on a gold nanoshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chan Ho; Kim, Joong Hyun

    2018-04-24

    We developed a one-step isothermal method for typing multiple KRAS mutations using a designed set of primers to form a hairpin on a gold nanoshell upon being ligated by a SNP specific DNA ligase after binding of targets. As a result, we could detect as low as 20 attomoles of KRAS mutations within 1 h.

  16. Simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets by integrating dual-color graphene quantum dot nanoprobes and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhaosheng; Shan, Xiaoyue; Chai, Lujing; Chen, Jianrong; Feng, Hui

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets was achieved based on a biocompatible graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) platform through spontaneous assembly between dual-color GQD-based probes and CNTs and subsequently self-recognition between DNA probes and targets. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Intrauterin insemination med donorsaed. Behandling af ufrivillig barnløshed på grund af mandlig infertilitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Helmsøe-Zinck, Lise; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination with cryopreserved donor semen was performed in 114 women in a total of menstrual 381 cycles during the period 1.2.1991 to 15.5.1993. Eighty-one pregnancies were recorded corresponding to a conception rate of 21% per insemination cycle. After ten cycles the probability...... of conception and expected delivery was respectively 96% and 86%. The results show that intrauterine insemination with donor semen is a good treatment for couples with male infertility. Ultrasonic measurement of the follicles and timing of hCG injection were used for optimal timing of intrauterine donor...... insemination. The quality of the semen used for insemination is important. It is recommended to inseminate with at least two million of spermatozoa where at least 20% have normal motility....

  18. Preliminary investigation of cognitive function in aged multiple sclerosis patients: Challenges in detecting comorbid Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shumita; Drake, Allison; Snyder, Stephanie; Cline, Breana; Khan, Anjum; Fuchs, Tom; Zivadinov, Robert; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Szigeti, Kinga; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2018-03-13

    Cognitive impairment can be seen in patients of all ages with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, there is limited research on neurocognitive disorder in older adults with MS and how to detect Alzheimer's disease (AD) or its prodromal stage, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Thus, the MS clinician is challenged to discriminate between signs of MS-related cognitive decline versus a secondary neurodegenerative process. Compare cognition in older MS patients to patients with AD and aMCI. We evaluated cognitively impaired and unimpaired MS patients, AD patients, aMCI patients, and healthy controls (HCs), all elderly (n = 20 per group). AD and aMCI diagnoses were derived by consensus conference independent of the MS research project. Neuropsychological measures assessed domains commonly affected in AD, including verbal memory and expressive language. Cognitively impaired and unimpaired MS groups did not differ on any measures sensitive to AD. Unimpaired MS patients were comparable to HCs. Impaired MS patients showed decreased semantic fluency, similar to aMCI patients. Lastly, while both AD and aMCI groups had deficient memory retention, there was no evidence of a retention deficit in either MS group. Our findings suggest that the cognitive profiles of MS and AD are distinct. In contrast to AD, MS is not associated with impairment of memory consolidation. However, there may be overlap between cognitive deficits related to MS and aMCI. Thus, evidence of poor memory retention, in an older MS patient may merit comprehensive dementia evaluation. The study is preliminary and includes no AD biomarkers (e.g., amyloid imaging) to confirm or rule out AD pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple fault separation and detection by joint subspace learning for the health assessment of wind turbine gearboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhaohui; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhang, Han; Zi, Yanyang; Yan, Ruqiang

    2017-09-01

    The gearbox of a wind turbine (WT) has dominant failure rates and highest downtime loss among all WT subsystems. Thus, gearbox health assessment for maintenance cost reduction is of paramount importance. The concurrence of multiple faults in gearbox components is a common phenomenon due to fault induction mechanism. This problem should be considered before planning to replace the components of the WT gearbox. Therefore, the key fault patterns should be reliably identified from noisy observation data for the development of an effective maintenance strategy. However, most of the existing studies focusing on multiple fault diagnosis always suffer from inappropriate division of fault information in order to satisfy various rigorous decomposition principles or statistical assumptions, such as the smooth envelope principle of ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the mutual independence assumption of independent component analysis. Thus, this paper presents a joint subspace learning-based multiple fault detection (JSL-MFD) technique to construct different subspaces adaptively for different fault patterns. Its main advantage is its capability to learn multiple fault subspaces directly from the observation signal itself. It can also sparsely concentrate the feature information into a few dominant subspace coefficients. Furthermore, it can eliminate noise by simply performing coefficient shrinkage operations. Consequently, multiple fault patterns are reliably identified by utilizing the maximum fault information criterion. The superiority of JSL-MFD in multiple fault separation and detection is comprehensively investigated and verified by the analysis of a data set of a 750 kW WT gearbox. Results show that JSL-MFD is superior to a state-of-the-art technique in detecting hidden fault patterns and enhancing detection accuracy.

  20. Use of Carazolol at Pre-Synchronized Timed Artificial Insemination in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ş. M. Pancarci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of the β-adrenergic receptor blocker (carazolol at Timed Artificial Insemination (TAI was investigated. Cows (n = 73 were pre-synchronized with two PGF2α injections given 14 d apart to initiate the Ovsynch protocol at early and middle luteal stages 14 d later, and received injections of GnRH and PGF2α seven d apart followed by GnRH 48 h later, and TAI 16 - 18 h later. Corpus luteum (CL was detected via rectal palpation at the beginning of the Ovsynch protocol. Carazolol (Treatment I; n = 41 or physiologic saline (Treatment II; n = 32 were administered via jugular vein five min before TAI. Uterine tone was determined prior to infusion and at TAI via rectal palpation. Pregnancies were diagnosed with transrectal ultrasonography 40 ± 7 d after TAI. Uterine tone was 2.8 (1.4 - 5.3 times higher (P P < 0.05, and 66.7%, 75%, 52.6%, 100% and 16.7%, 33.3%, 25%, 28.6% in primiparous cows with CL and without CL, and in multiparous cows with CL and without CL in Treatments I and II, respectively. Pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments I (34.2% and II (40.6%. In conclusion, no beneficial effect of carazolol administration prior to TAI was found except for the increased uterine tone.

  1. Role of laparohysteroscopy in women with normal pelvic imaging and failed ovulation stimulation with intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Women with primary infertility and no obvious pelvic pathology on clinical evaluation and imaging are either treated empirically or further investigated by laparoscopy. Aims: The role of diagnostic laparoscopy in women who fail to conceive after empirical treatment with ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination was evaluated. Settings and Design: Retrospective study at a private infertility center. Materials and Methods: A study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy between 1 st January 2001 and 31 st December 2008 was performed. Those patients who had no detectable pathology based on history, physical examination, and ultrasound and had treatment for three or more cycles in the form of ovulation induction and IUI were included in the study. Moderate and severe male factor infertility and history of any previous surgery were exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using Statistics Package for Social Sciences (ver. 16.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago. Results: Of the 127 women who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy, 87.4% ( n= 111 of patients had positive findings. Significant pelvic pathology (moderate endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and tubal pathology was seen in 26.8% of cases. Conclusion: One in four women had significant pelvic pathology where treatment could possibly improve future fertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy has a role in infertile women with no obvious abnormality before they proceed to more aggressive treatments.

  2. Detection and Symbol Synchronization for Multiple-bit Per Photon Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of detection and synchronization in a highly efficient direct detection optical communication system are reported. Results of measurements on this moderate-rate demonstration system capable of transmitting 2.5 bits/detected photon in low-background situations indicate that symbol slot synchronization is not a problem, and that a simple symbol detection scheme is adequate for this situation. This system is a candidate for interplanetary optical communications.

  3. Factors affecting fertility after cervical insemination with cooled semen in meat sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacín, I; Yániz, J L; Fantova, E; Blasco, M E; Quintín-Casorrán, F J; Sevilla-Mur, E; Santolaria, P

    2012-06-01

    Field results of 18,328 cervical artificial inseminations (AI) with cooled semen in Rasa Aragonesa meat sheep under field conditions in north-eastern Spain AI were analyzed. Logistic regression procedures were used including fertility at AI as the dependent variable (measured by lambing, 0 or 1) and year, month of AI, farm, hours between extraction and insemination, number of ewes inseminated in a set of AI, parity, lambing-treatment interval, total number of synchronization treatment per ewe, inseminating ram and AI technician as independent factors. Previous parturitions, lambing-AI interval, month, farm, inseminating ram and technician were factors with significant impact on AI fertility. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in ewes with more than five previous parturitions (by a factor of 0.87, 0.79 and 0.66 for the 6th, 7th and ≥8 parturitions, respectively); in ewes with lambing-AI interval higher than 240 days (by a factor of 0.8); and for inseminations performed during the spring period, (March, April, May and June, 0.70, 0.76, 0.66, and 0.76, respectively). We noted a higher fertility in seven inseminating rams (odds ratios between 1.4 and 1.7) and lower in two rams (odds ratios between 0.6 and 0.7). Of the 17 AI technicians, two were related to fertilities improved by odds ratio of 1.6, and 1.30, whereas two technicians were attributed fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.68 and 0.40. These findings should be taken into account to evaluate the AI technique performance and make decisions to enhance fertility results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of extending the interval from Presynch to initiation of Ovsynch in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol on fertility of timed artificial insemination services in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Thomas, M J; Catucuamba, G; Curler, M D; Wijma, R; Stangaferro, M L; Masello, M

    2016-01-01

    The specific objective of this study was to determine if increasing the interval between the Presynch and Ovsynch portion of the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (Presynch: PGF2α-14 d-PGF2α and Ovsynch: GnRH-7 d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16-20 h-timed artificial insemination) from 12 to 14 d would reduce the fertility of lactating dairy cows not detected in estrus after Presynch that receive timed artificial insemination (TAI). Cows from 4 commercial dairy farms (n=3,165) were blocked by parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) and randomly assigned to a 12 (PSOv14-12; n=1,566) or 14 d (PSOv14-14; n=1,599) interval between the second PGF2α (PGF) injection of Presynch (P2) and the beginning of Ovsynch. Cows detected in estrus any time between P2 and the day of the TAI were inseminated (AIED group). From a subgroup of cows (177 and 150 in PSOv14-12 and PSOv14-14, respectively), ovarian parameters and ovulation were evaluated through determination of concentrations of progesterone (P4) in blood and transrectal ultrasonography at the time of the first GnRH (GnRH1) and the PGF injection of Ovsynch. Overall, 52.8% (n=1,671) of the cows were AIED, whereas 47.2% (n=1,494) received TAI. For cows that received TAI, pregnancies per artificial insemination 39 d after artificial insemination were similar for PSOv14-12 (36.3%) and PSOv14-14 (36.0%) but were greater for primiparous (41.5%) than multiparous cows (33.6%). Pregnancy loss from 39 to 105 d after artificial insemination was similar for PSOv14-12 (4.8%) and PSOv14-14 (8.6%), for primiparous (6.4%) and multiparous cows (7.0%), but a tendency for a treatment by parity interaction was observed. Both treatments had a similar proportion of cows with a follicle ≥ 10 mm and similar follicle size at GnRH1; however, the ovulatory response to GnRH was greater for PSOv14-12 (62.2%) than PSOv14-14 (46.4%). A greater proportion of cows with a functional corpus luteum (75.3 vs. 65.6%) and greater concentrations of P4 (3.9 vs. 3.3 ng/mL) at GnRH1 in

  5. Automatic detection and recognition of multiple macular lesions in retinal optical coherence tomography images with multi-instance multilabel learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Leyuan; Yang, Liumao; Li, Shutao; Rabbani, Hossein; Liu, Zhimin; Peng, Qinghua; Chen, Xiangdong

    2017-06-01

    Detection and recognition of macular lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) are very important for retinal diseases diagnosis and treatment. As one kind of retinal disease (e.g., diabetic retinopathy) may contain multiple lesions (e.g., edema, exudates, and microaneurysms) and eye patients may suffer from multiple retinal diseases, multiple lesions often coexist within one retinal image. Therefore, one single-lesion-based detector may not support the diagnosis of clinical eye diseases. To address this issue, we propose a multi-instance multilabel-based lesions recognition (MIML-LR) method for the simultaneous detection and recognition of multiple lesions. The proposed MIML-LR method consists of the following steps: (1) segment the regions of interest (ROIs) for different lesions, (2) compute descriptive instances (features) for each lesion region, (3) construct multilabel detectors, and (4) recognize each ROI with the detectors. The proposed MIML-LR method was tested on 823 clinically labeled OCT images with normal macular and macular with three common lesions: epiretinal membrane, edema, and drusen. For each input OCT image, our MIML-LR method can automatically identify the number of lesions and assign the class labels, achieving the average accuracy of 88.72% for the cases with multiple lesions, which better assists macular disease diagnosis and treatment.

  6. The use of progesterone RIA to increase efficiency and quality of artificial insemination services of beef cattle in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toleng, L.; Sonjaya, H.; Yusuf, M.; Hamid, A.

    2001-01-01

    The technique of artificial insemination (AI) has been used in Indonesia for several years. The fertility rate resulting from this technique, however, is still lower than that for natural mating. Therefore, two studies were conducted to evaluate the factors that might cause lower efficiency of AI in beef cattle. The first was a survey to evaluate reproductive performance and factors that affect the inefficiency of AI. A total of 652 beef cows inseminated on one large and several small farms were used. Data for farm, cow, inseminator and each insemination were recorded. Serum samples were taken at the day of insemination (day 0), and days 10-12 and 20-22 after AI, and at time of manual pregnancy diagnosis. The second study was conducted to evaluate whether the induction of first postpartum oestrus in suckling cows could be done by hormonal treatments. Two groups of suckling Brahman cows were used, with and without treatment using Controlled Intra-vaginal Drug Release devices (CIDR). CIDR were inserted into the vagina, oestradiol benzoate (OB) was injected, the CIDR were removed after 12 days and two Als were performed at 24 and 72 hr later. The studies were conducted during dry and wet seasons. Mean overall conception rate (CR) for the large and small farms were 23 and 38%, respectively. Season of the year, housing system, type of heat, time of AI, and characteristics of AI technicians (level of education and non-AI work) affected the CR. Oestrus behaviour was detected in 95 and 100% of cows respectively for the first and the second period. However, the proportions of animals showing ovulatory oestrus during the first and second periods were 22 and 48% (P<0.01), and pregnancy rates were 12 and 24%, respectively. These findings show that reproductive rate of cows served by AI in this area is low and that factors related to the cow, farm management and AI technician affect this problem. CIDR treatment can induce oestrus behaviour in suckling cows, but only few of

  7. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI) after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL) were rejected (20.7%) while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg). Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130). The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d) from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d). Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable. PMID:19948052

  8. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  9. The effectiveness of intrauterine insemination: A matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Irma; van Zijl, Maud; Custers, Inge M; Brandes, Monique; Gianotten, Judith; van der Linden, Paul J Q; Hompes, Peter G A; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W J

    2017-05-01

    To study the effectiveness of an intrauterine insemination (IUI) program compared to no treatment in subfertile couples with unexplained subfertility and a poor prognosis on natural conception. A retrospective matched cohort study in which ongoing pregnancy rates in 72 couples who voluntarily dropped out of treatment with IUI were compared to ongoing pregnancy rates in 144 couples who continued treatment with IUI. Couples with unexplained subfertility, mild male subfertility or cervical factor subfertility who started treatment with IUI between January 2000 and December 2008 were included. Couples were matched on hospital, age, duration of subfertility, primary or secondary subfertility and diagnosis. Primary outcome was cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate after three years. Time to pregnancy was censored at the moment couples were lost to follow up or when their child wish ended and, for the no-treatment group, when couples re-started treatment. After three years, there were 18 pregnancies in the stopped treatment group (25%) versus 41 pregnancies in the IUI group (28%) (RR 1.1 (0.59-2.2)(p=0.4)). The cumulative pregnancy rate after three years was 40% in both groups, showing no difference in time to ongoing pregnancy (shared frailty model p=0.86). In couples with unexplained subfertility and a poor prognosis for natural conception, treatment with IUI does not to add to expectant management. There is need for a randomized clinical trial comparing IUI with expectant management in these couples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-sensor field trials for detection and tracking of multiple small unmanned aerial vehicles flying at low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Hengy, Sebastien; Hommes, Alexander; Kloeppel, Frank; Shoykhetbrod, Alex; Geibig, Thomas; Johannes, Winfried; Naz, Pierre; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) flying at low altitude are becoming more and more a serious threat in civilian and military scenarios. In recent past, numerous incidents have been reported where small UAV were flying in security areas leading to serious danger to public safety or privacy. The detection and tracking of small UAV is a widely discussed topic. Especially, small UAV flying at low altitude in urban environment or near background structures and the detection of multiple UAV at the same time is challenging. Field trials were carried out to investigate the detection and tracking of multiple UAV flying at low altitude with state of the art detection technologies. Here, we present results which were achieved using a heterogeneous sensor network consisting of acoustic antennas, small frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) RADAR systems and optical sensors. While acoustics, RADAR and LiDAR were applied to monitor a wide azimuthal area (360°) and to simultaneously track multiple UAV, optical sensors were used for sequential identification with a very narrow field of view.

  11. Gateway Vectors for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Protein-Protein Interactions in Plant Cells Using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamigaki, Akane; Nito, Kazumasa; Hikino, Kazumi; Goto-Yamada, Shino; Nishimura, Mikio; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Mano, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) is widely used to detect protein-protein interactions, because it is technically simple, convenient, and can be adapted for use with conventional fluorescence microscopy. We previously constructed enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)-based Gateway cloning technology-compatible vectors. In the current study, we generated new Gateway cloning technology-compatible vectors to detect BiFC-based multiple protein-protein interactions using N- and C-terminal fragments of enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1). Using a combination of N- and C-terminal fragments from ECFP, EGFP and EYFP, we observed a shift in the emission wavelength, enabling the simultaneous detection of multiple protein-protein interactions. Moreover, we developed these vectors as binary vectors for use in Agrobacterium infiltration and for the generate transgenic plants. We verified that the binary vectors functioned well in tobacco cells. The results demonstrate that the BiFC vectors facilitate the design of various constructions and are convenient for the detection of multiple protein-protein interactions simultaneously in plant cells.

  12. Gateway Vectors for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Protein−Protein Interactions in Plant Cells Using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikino, Kazumi; Goto-Yamada, Shino; Nishimura, Mikio; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Mano, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) is widely used to detect protein—protein interactions, because it is technically simple, convenient, and can be adapted for use with conventional fluorescence microscopy. We previously constructed enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)-based Gateway cloning technology-compatible vectors. In the current study, we generated new Gateway cloning technology-compatible vectors to detect BiFC-based multiple protein—protein interactions using N- and C-terminal fragments of enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1). Using a combination of N- and C-terminal fragments from ECFP, EGFP and EYFP, we observed a shift in the emission wavelength, enabling the simultaneous detection of multiple protein—protein interactions. Moreover, we developed these vectors as binary vectors for use in Agrobacterium infiltration and for the generate transgenic plants. We verified that the binary vectors functioned well in tobacco cells. The results demonstrate that the BiFC vectors facilitate the design of various constructions and are convenient for the detection of multiple protein—protein interactions simultaneously in plant cells. PMID:27490375

  13. Heterodyne detection using spectral line pairing for spectral phase encoding optical code division multiple access and dynamic dispersion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Foster, Mark; Khurgin, Jacob B; Cooper, A Brinton

    2012-07-30

    A novel coherent optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) scheme is proposed that uses spectral line pairing to generate signals suitable for heterodyne decoding. Both signal and local reference are transmitted via a single optical fiber and a simple balanced receiver performs sourceless heterodyne detection, canceling speckle noise and multiple-access interference (MAI). To validate the idea, a 16 user fully loaded phase encoded system is simulated. Effects of fiber dispersion on system performance are studied as well. Both second and third order dispersion management is achieved by using a spectral phase encoder to adjust phase shifts of spectral components at the optical network unit (ONU).

  14. Multiple and double scattering contributions to depth resolution and low energy background in hydrogen elastic recoil detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    The sensitivity of hydrogen elastic recoil detection ( ERD ) is usually limited by the low energy background in the ERD spectrum. A number of 4.5 MeV He{sup ++} hydrogen ERD spectra from different hydrogen implanted samples are compared. The samples are chosen with different atomic numbers from low Z (carbon) to high Z (tungsten carbide) to observe the effects of multiple scattering and double scattering within the sample material. The experimental depth resolution and levels of the low energy background in ERD spectra are compared with theoretical predictions from multiple and double scattering. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Minimal Stimulation Using Gonadotropin Combined with Clomiphene Citrate or Letrozole for Intrauterine Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Park, Joo Hyun; Seo, Seok Kyo; Cho, SiHyun; Kim, Seok Hyun; Lee, Byung Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of minimal stimulation using discretely administered gonadotropin combined with clomiphene citrate (CC) or letrozole (LTZ) for intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Materials and Methods Total 257 IUI cycles from 158 infertile couples were assessed. A CC dose of 100 mg/day (n=126 cycles) or a LTZ dose of 5 mg/day (n=131 cycles) was administered on days 3-5 of the menstrual cycle for 5 days. Each group received human menopausal gonadotropin at a dose of 150 IU by two or three alternative day: CC combined with alternate-day regimen for 2 or 3 days (CC+300, n=37; CC+450, n=89) and LTZ combined with alternate-day regimen for 2 or 3 days (LTZ+300, n=36; LTZ+450, n=95). Results The clinical pregnancy rate was comparable between the CC and LTZ groups (18.3% vs. 13.0%, p=0.243). The clinical pregnancy rate also showed no significant difference among the 4 groups (21.6% vs. 16.9% vs. 11.1% vs. 12.6%, p=0.507). The multiple pregnancy rate was significantly higher in LTZ compared to CC group (37.5% vs. 8.7%, p=0.028) and in the LTZ+450 compared to CC+450 group (50% vs. 13.3%, p=0.038). Overall, there were 15 cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), with the prevalence being significantly lower in the LTZ compared to CC group (1.5% vs. 10.3%, p=0.003). OHSS was more prevalent in the CC+450 compared to the LTZ+450 group (12.4% vs. 1.1%, p=0.002). Conclusion Our findings suggest that minimal stimulation using two alternate-day gonadotropin with LTZ decreases the development of OHSS and multiple pregnancies, while maintaining comparable pregnancy rates in IUI cycles. PMID:25684000

  16. Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhatib, Tamer A.

    2010-02-01

    We report on enhanced room-temperature detection of terahertz radiation by several connected field-effect transistors. For this enhanced nonresonant detection, we have designed, fabricated, and tested plasmonic structures consisting of multiple InGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistors connected in series. Results show a 1.63-THz response that is directly proportional to the number of detecting transistors biased by a direct drain current at the same gate-to-source bias voltages. The responsivity in the saturation regime was found to be 170 V/W with the noise equivalent power in the range of 10-7 W/Hz0.5. The experimental data are in agreement with the detection mechanism based on the rectification of overdamped plasma waves excited by terahertz radiation in the transistor channel. © 2010 IEEE.

  17. Constraints limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination of cattle in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuddin, M.; Bhuiyan, M.M.U.; Sikder, T.K.; Sugulle, A.H.; Chanda, P.K.; Alam, M.G.S.; Galloway, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the factors that influence postpartum intervals to first detected luteal activity, first service and to conception, and the conception rates of cows in the artificial insemination (AI) programme in Bangladesh. A baseline survey (investigations 1, 2 and 3) was made on 444 milking cows of various breeds presented for the first postpartum insemination by 413 farmers living at 182 villages/regions in Mymensingh District to 6 AI centres and sub-centres. Each cow was then examined three times after each AI until she stopped returning to oestrus. Sixty to 120 days after the last AI, the cows were examined per rectum to confirm the pregnancy. Milk progesterone data on Day 0 and Day 21-24 contributed to a clear diagnosis with respect to pregnancy in 82.5% cows indicating a possible use of this progesterone assay schedule for pregnancy diagnosis in AI programmes. The intervals to first service and to conception varied from 31 to 427 days (median = 184; n=444) and 40 to 426 days (median 184; n=232) respectively, and conception rate from 32-58% (average 46.2%; n=444). Prolongation of weaning age of calves resulted in long intervals to first service and to conception (P<0.001); weaning age varied from 6 to 19 months (median = 10). Cows with body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) of 3 or more and cows calved during July to September had shorter intervals to first service and conception than those with BCS less than 3 and those calved during March. The conception rate was influenced by cattle rearing systems (intensive vs. extensive), purpose of rearing cows (dairy vs. dairy + draught), BCS and milk production (P<0.05). The degrees of vulvar swelling, nature of genital discharge, tonicity of uterus, and interval between oestrus and AI had significant effects on the conception rate. Bulls classified as good and poor on the basis of semen evaluation data differed with respect to the conception rate in AI (P<0.001); this indicates a way of

  18. Carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals detected by energy transfer to organic dye molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ying; Hua, Zheng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xiao, Min

    2012-01-01

    Carrier multiplication describes an interesting optical phenomenon in semiconductors whereby more than one electron-hole pair, or exciton, can be simultaneously generated upon absorption of a single high-energy photon. So far, it has been highly debated whether the carrier multiplication efficiency is enhanced in semiconductor nanocrystals as compared with their bulk counterpart. The controversy arises from the fact that the ultrafast optical methods currently used need to correctly account for the false contribution of charged excitons to the carrier multiplication signals. Here we show that this charged exciton issue can be resolved in an energy transfer system, where biexcitons generated in the donor nanocrystals are transferred to the acceptor dyes, leading to an enhanced fluorescence from the latter. With the biexciton Auger and energy transfer lifetime measurements, an average carrier multiplication efficiency of ~17.1% can be roughly estimated in CdSe nanocrystals when the excitation photon energy is ~2.46 times of their energy gap.

  19. Carrier multiplication detected through transient photocurrent in device-grade films of lead selenide quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fidler, Andrew F; Klimov, Victor I

    2015-09-08

    In carrier multiplication, the absorption of a single photon results in two or more electron-hole pairs. Quantum dots are promising materials for implementing carrier multiplication principles in real-life technologies. So far, however, most of research in this area has focused on optical studies of solution samples with yet to be proven relevance to practical devices. Here we report ultrafast electro-optical studies of device-grade films of electronically coupled quantum dots that allow us to observe multiplication directly in the photocurrent. Our studies help rationalize previous results from both optical spectroscopy and steady-state photocurrent measurements and also provide new insights into effects of electric field and ligand treatments on multiexciton yields. Importantly, we demonstrate that using appropriate chemical treatments of the films, extra charges produced by carrier multiplication can be extracted from the quantum dots before they are lost to Auger recombination and hence can contribute to photocurrent of practical devices.

  20. Object-Based Change Detection in Urban Areas from High Spatial Resolution Images Based on Multiple Features and Ensemble Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of change detection in urban areas using bi-temporal high-resolution remote sensing images, a novel object-based change detection scheme combining multiple features and ensemble learning is proposed in this paper. Image segmentation is conducted to determine the objects in bi-temporal images separately. Subsequently, three kinds of object features, i.e., spectral, shape and texture, are extracted. Using the image differencing process, a difference image is generated and used as the input for nonlinear supervised classifiers, including k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, extreme learning machine and random forest. Finally, the results of multiple classifiers are integrated using an ensemble rule called weighted voting to generate the final change detection result. Experimental results of two pairs of real high-resolution remote sensing datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the traditional methods in terms of overall accuracy and generates change detection maps with a higher number of homogeneous regions in urban areas. Moreover, the influences of segmentation scale and the feature selection strategy on the change detection performance are also analyzed and discussed.

  1. Daytime Water Detection by Fusing Multiple Cues for Autonomous Off-Road Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, A. L.; Matthies, L. H.; Huertas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Detecting water hazards is a significant challenge to unmanned ground vehicle autonomous off-road navigation. This paper focuses on detecting the presence of water during the daytime using color cameras. A multi-cue approach is taken. Evidence of the presence of water is generated from color, texture, and the detection of reflections in stereo range data. A rule base for fusing water cues was developed by evaluating detection results from an extensive archive of data collection imagery containing water. This software has been implemented into a run-time passive perception subsystem and tested thus far under Linux on a Pentium based processor.

  2. Reducing BER of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access systems by single photodiode detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khafaji, H. M. R.; Aljunid, S. A.; Amphawan, A.; Fadhil, H. A.; Safar, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a single photodiode detection (SPD) technique for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. The proposed technique eliminates both phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) and multiple-access interference (MAI) in the optical domain. Analytical results show that for 35 simultaneous users transmitting at data rate of 622 Mbps, the bit-error rate (BER) = 1.4x10^-28 for SPD technique is much better compared to 9.3x10^-6 and 9.6x10^-3 for the modified-AND as well as the AND detection techniques, respectively. Moreover, we verified the improved performance afforded by the proposed technique using data transmission simulations.

  3. SOWS FERTILITY AFTER INTRACERVICAL OR POSTCERVICAL ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI IN WORM AND COLD SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stančić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fertility of boars and sows during the warmer period of the year significantly reduces the reproductive efficiency of pigs in intensive production. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of intrauterine (postcervical artificial insemination (AI, with twice reduced dose volume (50 mL and the number of spermatozoa per dose (2x109, compared to the classical intracervical insemination (dose volume 50 mL with 4x109 spermatozoa, can increase the fertility of sows inseminated in the warm season of the year. After classical intracervical insemination, farrowing rate was significantly (P0.05, neither depending on the season, or depending on the number of spermatozoa per dose (78% and 75% in warm, or 86% and 83% in cold season of the year. The results show that the use of intrauterine insemination, with doses twice reduced in volume and sperm number, can significantly reduce the negative impact of the warm season on sows fertility.

  4. Great expectations--German debates about artificial insemination in humans around 1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghaus, Christina

    2007-06-01

    In May 1912, reports on successful attempts at artificial insemination hit the German papers. Over the following months, the topic was taken up in medical lectures, in the debates of medical associations, and in medical journals. The technique--which had not much changed since the days of James Marion Sims--apparently triggered the imagination of scientists, medical doctors, journalists and authors. That artificial insemination met such interest, however, was not primarily due to its medical usefulness or proven success. Given that insemination with donor sperm was out of the question for most doctors and that ideas about the fertile period within the menstrual cycle were erroneous, contemporary attempts at insemination in humans hardly ever worked. Public interest in this topic rather reflects the desires and expectations which contemporaries associated with artificial insemination and with modern, scientific medicine. What appears to be a comparatively straight forward, low-tech operation today was imagined as a way or creating life artificially. Thus the topic was able to mobilise fears and expectations. The debate not only reflected contemporary beliefs about the possibilities and dangers of modern medicine, it also addressed the meaning of reproduction and infertility and the future of gender relations.

  5. [Effect of sexual abstinence on pregnancy rates after an intrauterine insemination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably-Ambe, Alberto; Carballo-Mondragón, Esperanza; Durán-Monterrosas, Leonor; Soriano-Ortega, Karla Patricia; Roque-Sánchez, Armando Miguel

    2015-02-01

    There are many studies showing that more days of sexual abstinence increased sperm concentration, however, the direct influence between the days of abstinence and pregnancy rates has not been evaluated. The usual recommendation is 3-4 days prior to intrauterine insemination; this based on the interval that maximizes the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate. There are some reports with better success rate when abstinence is less than three days. To evaluate the pregnancy rate post-intrauterine insemination according to days of sexual abstinence prior to obtaining semen sample. A retrospective, observational and transversal study in patients attending the Mexican Center for Fertility (CEPAM) to intrauterine insemination. For analysis patients were grouped by age group, success rate and days of sexual abstinence. Continuous variables are reported as means and standard deviations; to determine statistical significance univariate logistic regression was performed. Categorical variables were evaluated in frequencies and percentages. The calculations were performed using JMP software program. 3,123 couples were included and increased success rate for intrauterine insemination was obtained with less than seven days of sexual abstinence. The rate of sperm retrieval is inversely proportional to the days of abstinence. A better pregnancy rate in intrauterine insemination was achieved with less than seven days of sexual abstinence and sperm retrieval rate was also recorded with fewer days of abstinence.

  6. Morphometry of boar sperm head and flagellum in semen backflow after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Francisco Alberto; Hernández-Caravaca, Iván; Yánez-Quintana, Wellington; Matás, Carmen; Soriano-Úbeda, Cristina; Izquierdo-Rico, María José

    2015-09-01

    Once deposited in the female reproductive system, sperm begin their competition and undergo a selection to reach the site of fertilization. Little is known about the special characteristics of sperm that reach the oviduct and are able to fertilize, with even less information on the role of sperm dimension and shape in transport and fertilization. Here, we examine whether sperm morphometry could be involved in their journey within the uterus. For this purpose, sperm head dimension (length, width, area, and perimeter) and shape (shape factor, ellipticity, elongation, and regularity), and flagellum length were analyzed in the backflow at different times after insemination (0-15, 16-30, and 31-60 minutes). Sperm morphometry in the backflow was also analyzed taking into account the site of semen deposition (cervical vs. intrauterine). Finally, flagellum length was measured at the uterotubal junction. Sperm analyzed in the backflow were small (head and flagellum) with different head shapes compared with sperm observed in the dose before insemination. The site of deposition influenced head morphometry and tail size both being smaller in the backflow after cervical insemination compared with intrauterine insemination. Mean tail length of sperm collected in the backflow was smaller than that in the insemination dose and at the uterotubal junction. Overall, our results suggest that sperm size may be involved in sperm transport either because of environment or through sperm selection and competence on their way to encounter the female gamete. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An assessment of the breeding maturity of insemination boars based on ejaculate quality changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, Dorota; Kondracki, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    We examined the sexual development and insemination capability of boars representing five breeds used at Polish sow insemination stations. The speed of attaining full breeding maturity by the boars and their insemination usefulness was assessed based on the results of experiments analysing age-related changes in the physical characteristics of the ejaculates. Directly after sampling, the ejaculates were analysed for the following physical parameters: ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa per ejaculate. The total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculates and the number of insemination doses obtained from one ejaculate were calculated using SYSTEM SUL v. 6.1 software. The sexual development of boars continues during insemination use, leading to improved ejaculatory performance. The physical parameters of the ejaculate change along with the age of the boar. The Duroc and Hampshire boars represent a pattern of sexual development that is different from that of the PLW, PL and Pietrain males, with an evident earlier termination of growth. The American boars (Duroc and Hampshire) acquire top ejaculatory performance approximately 6 months earlier.

  8. Use of frozen-thawed semen in equine artificial insemination programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of equine frozen semen has variable results. Pregnancy rates per cycle may be between 10 to 70%. Although an inseminating dose of 280 a 320 millones progressive motile sperm (PMS has been recommended, under experimental conditions it is posible to obtain acceptable results with doses of 50 to 100 millones PMS. Deep intrauterine insemination is prefered when using frozen thawed semen, which consists in depositing the dose at the tip of the horn, ipsiltateral to ovulation. Young mares usually have better uterine condition and that increase their chance of become pregnant. It is important to make a correct follicular monitoring, in order to determine the right time to induce ovulation. Ovulation may be induced with Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG or deslorelin. It posible to perform a fixed time insemination or to choose an ultrasound follicular following protocol, inseminating within 6 h of ovulation. This option offers the best prenancy rates. Our laboratory manages a protocol which includes ultrasound monitoring every 6 hours, beginning 24 hous after induction of ovulation; this protocol had a first insemination pregnancy rate of 73%. If we consider that one of the main disadvantages of frozen-thawed semen is decreased fertility, these results are encouraging, since they are similar to those obtained with fresh or cooled semen, so it may represent an advantage when having stored semen of stallions that are dead, or have been sold or even castrated.

  9. Usefulness of Housekeeping Genes for the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Strain Discrimination and Detection of Multiple Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, Montserrat; Kulmann, Marcos; Ramírez-Lázaro, María José; Lario, Sergio; Quilez, María Elisa; Campo, Rafael; Piqué, Núria; Calvet, Xavier; Miñana-Galbis, David

    2016-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects human stomachs of over half the world's population, evades the immune response and establishes a chronic infection. Although most people remains asymptomatic, duodenal and gastric ulcers, MALT lymphoma and progression to gastric cancer could be developed. Several virulence factors such as flagella, lipopolysaccharide, adhesins and especially the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA and the oncoprotein CagA have been described for H. pylori. Despite the extensive published data on H. pylori, more research is needed to determine new virulence markers, the exact mode of transmission or the role of multiple infection. Amplification and sequencing of six housekeeping genes (amiA, cgt, cpn60, cpn70, dnaJ, and luxS) related to H. pylori pathogenesis have been performed in order to evaluate their usefulness for the specific detection of H. pylori, the genetic discrimination at strain level and the detection of multiple infection. A total of 52 H. pylori clones, isolated from 14 gastric biopsies from 11 patients, were analyzed for this purpose. All genes were specifically amplified for H. pylori and all clones isolated from different patients were discriminated, with gene distances ranged from 0.9 to 7.8%. Although most clones isolated from the same patient showed identical gene sequences, an event of multiple infection was detected in all the genes and microevolution events were showed for amiA and cpn60 genes. These results suggested that housekeeping genes could be useful for H. pylori detection and to elucidate the mode of transmission and the relevance of the multiple infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A logical source localization approach evaluating SRS-fields from backward atmospheric transport modeling for multiple detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ole; Ceranna, Lars

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification the use of atmospheric Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models is well established to confine possible source regions of radionuclide detections. For that Source Receptor Sensitivity (SRS) fields are calculated in backward mode. At the German National Data Center (NDC) the NOAA model HYSPLIT is operational using as well NCEP as ECMWF meteorological data in up to 0.2 degree horizontal resolution. For additional comparisons and tests FLEXPART is also available. Various localization approaches for atmospheric backtracking are introduced. Especially a logical approach for combining SRS fields for multiple detections and non-detections is presented and compared with the correlation based PSR given by the CTBT-Organization software tool Webgrape. Our logical method is based on an additive coincidence score value combining binary sensitivities of detecting and non-detecting samples pointing to areas of high source location probability. Additionally, weight-functions and variable threshold values are introduced accounting for radioactive decay and for detectable release terms, respectively. The presented test cases comprise detections related to the Fukushima release 2011, scenarios of the NDC Preparedness Exercises NPE2012 and NP2010, and recent radioxenon occurrences at Schauinsland, Germany (DEX 33). Furthermore, the differences in sensitivity results between simulations in backward and forward mode are discussed. Although the standard backward simulations have huge operational and political advantages in the CTBT context, additional forward simulations for specific cases are essential to provide the most consitent picture of a potential release scenario.

  11. Comparison between immediate and delayed imaging after gadolinium chelate injection for detecting enhanced lesions in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, A.; Roudbari, A.; Heidarzadeh, A.; Kouhsari, M.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive and valuable method in the diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis. Compared with other modalities, the sensitivity of Magnetic resonance imaging for detection of the lesion increases using magnetization transfer and delayed imaging. Our aim was to compare the two methods in detecting Multiple Sclerosis lesions. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, twenty-one patients with the definite diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis referred to Poursina Hospital, Rasht were included. Two radiologists evaluated all the images. First, images without contrast were conducted, then 0.1 mmol/kg contrast material (Dotarem, single dose) was injected and after 30 minutes, T1W and magnetization transfer images were obtained. Seventy-two hours later, T1W images were obtained immediately after injection of 0.2 mmol/kg contrast material (double dose). The data were analyzed using Fisher's and McNemar tests by SPSS for Windows. Results: Delayed magnetization transfer showed 44 enhanced lesions using magnetization transfer (69.84%) and 29 lesions using T1 (46.03%). In addition, the number of enhanced lesions in the delayed method were significantly more than those in the immediate method (p value=0.003). Conclusion: The use of single dose in combination with magnetization transfer and delayed images after 20-30 minutes enables us to detect more enhanced lesions.

  12. A method to detect single and multiple delamination problems using a combined neural network technique and genetic algorithm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hieu The

    This thesis develops a new method to detect delaminations in composite laminates using a combination of finite element method, artificial neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Next, this newly developed method is applied to successfully solve delamination detection problems. Delaminations in a composite laminate with various sizes and locations are considered in the present studies. The improved layerwise shear deformation theory is implemented into the finite element method and used to calculate responses of laminates with single and multiple delaminations. Mappings between the natural frequencies and delamination characteristics are first determined from the developed models. These data are then used to train artificial neural networks of multiplayer perceptron using back-propagation. These trained artificial neural networks are in turn used as an approximate tool to calculate the responses of the delaminated laminates and to feed the data to the delamination detection process. Two different approaches for handling the neural network models are applied in the work and are presented for comparison. The delamination detection problem is formulated as an optimization problem with mixed type design variables. A genetic algorithm, which is a guided probabilistic search technique based on the simulation of Darwin's principle of evolution and natural selection, is developed to solve this optimization problem. Single through-the-width delamination, single internal delamination, and multiple through-the-width delaminations are separately considered for detection study. At last, the application is extended to the most challenging problem, which is the detection of general delamination. Various factors affecting the detection process such as the finite element convergence factor and the laminate geometry factor are also examined. Case studies are made and the findings are summarized in detail in each chapter of the dissertation. It is found that the newly developed

  13. The potential of TaqMan Array Cards for detection of multiple biological agents by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Rachwal

    Full Text Available The TaqMan Array Card architecture, normally used for gene expression studies, was evaluated for its potential to detect multiple bacterial agents by real-time PCR. Ten PCR assays targeting five biological agents (Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis were incorporated onto Array Cards. A comparison of PCR performance of each PCR in Array Card and singleplex format was conducted using DNA extracted from pure bacterial cultures. When 100 fg of agent DNA was added to Array Card channels the following levels of agent detection (where at least one agent PCR replicate returned a positive result were observed: Y. pestis 100%, B. mallei & F. tularensis 93%; B. anthracis 71%; B. pseudomallei 43%. For B. mallei & pseudomallei detection the BPM2 PCR, which detects both species, outperformed PCR assays specific to each organism indicating identification of the respective species would not be reproducible at the 100 fg level. Near 100% levels of detection were observed when 100 fg of DNA was added to each PCR in singleplex format with singleplex PCRs also returning sporadic positives at the 10 fg per PCR level. Before evaluating the use of Array Cards for the testing of environmental and clinical sample types, with potential levels of background DNA and PCR inhibitors, users would therefore have to accept a 10-fold reduction in sensitivity of PCR assays on the Array Card format, in order to benefit for the capacity to test multiple samples for multiple agents. A two PCR per agent strategy would allow the testing of 7 samples for the presence of 11 biological agents or 3 samples for 23 biological agents per card (with negative control channels.

  14. Artificial insemination and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Bakst, M.R.; Wishart, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of Al and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds began because of the increased emphasis on conservation of avian species threatened with extinction. Over the years, aviculturists have developed techniques for Al and cryopreservation of semen obtained from a variety of birds ranging from passerines to Andean condors. Generally, for each new species, we develop a practical semen collection technique and then evaluate the semen. A commercial semen extender (Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender) is modified and used to dilute the semen and provide support for the sperm during the freezing process (the pH and osmolality of the extender is adjusted to reflect the pH and osmolality of the semen being frozen). We find that the freezing schedule developed by Sexton (1977), which utilizes dimethylsulfoxide (DMS0) as cryoprotectant, works well for many species. We cool the sample sequentially in an ethanol bath, in liquid nitrogen vapor, and lastly in liquid nitrogen. Although we have experimented with a variety of freezing protocols, we prefer a 15-min equilibration period in DMSO at 5 C. We begin the freezing process by cooling at -1 C/min from 5 to -20 C in the ethanol bath. The samples are transferred into a vapor tank at a location just above liquid nitrogen and frozen at -50 C/min to -80 C. To complete the freezing process, the samples are plunged into the liquid nitrogen in the bottom of the vapor tank. The samples remain in liquid nitrogen until they are thawed just before insemination. If necessary, the freezing equipment can be transported in a van to remote locations.

  15. Outcomes after intrauterine insemination are independent of provider type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Randi H.; Batsis, Maria; Hacker, Michele R.; Souter, Irene; Petrozza, John C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether the success of intrauterine insemination (IUI) varies based on the type of health care provider performing the procedure. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective cohort study set at an infertility clinic at an academic institution. The patients who comprised this study were 1575 women who underwent 3475 IUI cycles from late 2003 through early 2012. Cycles were stratified into 3 groups according to the type of provider who performed the procedure: attending physician, fellow physician, or registered nurse (RN). The primary outcome was live birth. Additional outcomes of interest included positive pregnancy test and clinical pregnancy. Repeated measures log binomial regression was used to estimate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the outcomes and to evaluate the effect of potential confounders. All tests were 2-sided, and P values < .05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS Of the 3475 IUI cycles, 2030 (58.4%) were gonadotropin stimulated, 929 (26.7%) were clomiphene citrate stimulated, and 516 (14.9%) were natural. The incidences of clinical pregnancy and live birth among all cycles were 11.8% and 8.8%, respectively. After adjusting for female age, male partner age, and cycle type, the incidence of live birth was similar for RNs compared with attending physicians (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.58–1.1) and fellow physicians compared with attending physicians (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58–1.2). Similar results were seen for positive pregnancy test and clinical pregnancy. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference in live birth following IUI cycles in which the procedure was performed by a fellow physician or RN compared with an attending physician. PMID:24881820

  16. A prognostic model to predict the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows based on readily available data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C.J.; Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Huijps, K.; Nielen, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A prognosis of the likelihood of insemination success is valuable information for the decision to start inseminating a cow. This decision is important for the reproduction management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the likelihood of successful first

  17. A prognostic model to predict the success of artificial insemination in dairy cows based on readily available data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C J; Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Huijps, K; Nielen, M; Hogeveen, H

    2016-01-01

    A prognosis of the likelihood of insemination success is valuable information for the decision to start inseminating a cow. This decision is important for the reproduction management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic model for the likelihood of successful first

  18. Objective detection and localization of multiple sclerosis lesions on magnetic resonance brainstem images: validation with auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stufflebeam, S M; Levine, R A; Gardner, J C; Fullerton, B C; Furst, M; Rosen, B R

    2000-01-01

    To develop an objective method for detecting multiple sclerosis (MS) brainstem lesions, magnetic resonance (MR) images (multiple planar, spin-echo, acquired in three planes of section) of sixteen MS patients and fourteen normal subjects were analyzed with an algorithm that detected regions with a relatively increased intensity on both a spin-echo image and a T2 image. To be considered a lesion, such regions had to overlap in at least two orthogonal planes. Using a digitized atlas of the human brainstem, the lesion locations were mapped with respect to the brainstem anatomy. This method was evaluated by comparing the location of MS lesions with the brainstem auditory evoked potentials obtained from these subjects. Brainstem lesions were detected in five MS patients; four had lesions impinging upon the auditory system and one did not. All four had abnormal evoked potentials. The fourteen normal subjects, the one MS patient with brainstem lesions outside the auditory pathway, and the eleven other MS patients with no brainstem lesions all had normal evoked potentials. The requirement that lesions be detected in at least two planes of section greatly improved the specificity of the algorithm. The consistency between the MR and brainstem auditory evoked potentials results supports the validity of this imaging analysis algorithm for objectively localizing brainstem lesions.

  19. Detection and Identification of Multiple Stationary Human Targets Via Bio-Radar Based on the Cross-Correlation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wideband (UWB radar has been widely used for detecting human physiological signals (respiration, movement, etc. in the fields of rescue, security, and medicine owing to its high penetrability and range resolution. In these applications, especially in rescue after disaster (earthquake, collapse, mine accident, etc., the presence, number, and location of the trapped victims to be detected and rescued are the key issues of concern. Ample research has been done on the first issue, whereas the identification and localization of multi-targets remains a challenge. False positive and negative identification results are two common problems associated with the detection of multiple stationary human targets. This is mainly because the energy of the signal reflected from the target close to the receiving antenna is considerably stronger than those of the targets at further range, often leading to missing or false recognition if the identification method is based on the energy of the respiratory signal. Therefore, a novel method based on cross-correlation is proposed in this paper that is based on the relativity and periodicity of the signals, rather than on the energy. The validity of this method is confirmed through experiments using different scenarios; the results indicate a discernible improvement in the detection precision and identification of the multiple stationary targets.

  20. Smart Integrated Sensor for Multiple Detections of Glucose and L-Lactate Using On-Chip Electrochemical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Yamazaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sensor electrodes, a supplementary electrode, a reference electrode, and signal-processing circuits were integrated on a single chip to develop a chip-shaped electrochemical sensing system. L-lactate and glucose were measured using on-chip working electrodes modified by polyion complex to immobilize lactate oxidase and glucose oxidase, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were conducted using an on-chip potentiostat. Selective and quantitative detection of glucose and L-lactate and the interference behavior were studied. Hydrogen peroxide generated by enzymatic reactions was detected by an increase in anodic oxidation current. Reaction currents at +0.7 V versus Ag/AgCl were used to obtain calibration plots. The measured dynamic ranges for L-lactate and glucose were 0.2–1.0 mM and 2.0–8.0 mM, respectively. The sensitivities were 65 nA/mM and 15 nA/mM, respectively, using a working electrode of 0.5 mm2. The 3σ detection limit was 0.19 mM and 1.1 mM, respectively. We have achieved multiple biomaterial detections on a circuit-equipped single chip. This integrated electrochemical sensor chip could be the best candidate for realizing point-of-care testing due to its portability and potential for mass production.

  1. Detection and Identification of Multiple Stationary Human Targets Via Bio-Radar Based on the Cross-Correlation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Fuming; Xue, Huijun; Li, Zhao; An, Qiang; Wang, Jianqi; Zhang, Yang

    2016-10-27

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) radar has been widely used for detecting human physiological signals (respiration, movement, etc.) in the fields of rescue, security, and medicine owing to its high penetrability and range resolution. In these applications, especially in rescue after disaster (earthquake, collapse, mine accident, etc.), the presence, number, and location of the trapped victims to be detected and rescued are the key issues of concern. Ample research has been done on the first issue, whereas the identification and localization of multi-targets remains a challenge. False positive and negative identification results are two common problems associated with the detection of multiple stationary human targets. This is mainly because the energy of the signal reflected from the target close to the receiving antenna is considerably stronger than those of the targets at further range, often leading to missing or false recognition if the identification method is based on the energy of the respiratory signal. Therefore, a novel method based on cross-correlation is proposed in this paper that is based on the relativity and periodicity of the signals, rather than on the energy. The validity of this method is confirmed through experiments using different scenarios; the results indicate a discernible improvement in the detection precision and identification of the multiple stationary targets.

  2. Ovulation induction and artificial insemination of a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus) using fresh semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Erin; Wyatt, Jeff; Sorel, Lawrence J; MacKinnon, Katherine M; Roth, Terri L

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, polar bears were listed as a species threatened with extinction by the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Unfortunately, reproductive success has been poor despite breeding recommendations for almost every reproductively viable bear by the Species Survival Plan. Assisted reproductive technologies could complement breeding efforts by overcoming the challenges of behavioral incompatibilities and deficiencies, facilitating genetic management and increasing cub production. The goal of this study was to artificially inseminate a female polar bear after inducing ovarian activity and ovulation with exogenous hormones (equine chorionic gonadotropin and porcine luteinizing hormone). Fresh semen collected from an adult male via electroejaculation/urethral catheterization was used for the insemination. Fecal steroid monitoring indicated that the female ovulated following the exogenous hormone treatment. Progestin concentrations increased in late summer, at the time implantation was expected to occur; however, no cubs were produced. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ovulation induction and artificial insemination in a polar bear.

  3. The return of the Inseminator: Eutelegenesis in past and contemporary reproductive ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John

    2007-06-01

    Eugenicists in the 1930s and 1940s emphasised our moral responsibilities to future generations and the importance of positively selecting traits that would benefit humanity. In 1935 Herbert Brewer recommended 'Eutelegenesis' (artificial insemination with sperm from specially selected males) so that that future generations are not only protected from hereditary disease but also become more intelligent and fraternal than us. The development of these techniques for human use and animal husbandry was the catalyst for the cross fertilization of moral ideas and the development of a critical procreative morality. While eugenicists argued for a new critical morality, religious critics argued against artificial insemination because of its potential to damage important moral institutions. The tension between critical and conservative procreative morality is a feature of the contemporary debates about reproductive technologies. This and some of the other aspects of the early and contemporary debates about artificial insemination and reproductive technologies are discussed in this article.

  4. Multiple support vector machines for land cover change detection: An application for mapping urban extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmour, Hassiba; Chibani, Youcef

    The reliability of support vector machines for classifying hyper-spectral images of remote sensing has been proven in various studies. In this paper, we investigate their applicability for land cover change detection. First, SVM-based change detection is presented and performed for mapping urban growth in the Algerian capital. Different performance indicators, as well as a comparison with artificial neural networks, are used to support our experimental analysis. In a second step, a combination framework is proposed to improve change detection accuracy. Two combination rules, namely, Fuzzy Integral and Attractor Dynamics, are implemented and evaluated with respect to individual SVMs. Recognition rates achieved by individual SVMs, compared to neural networks, confirm their efficiency for land cover change detection. Furthermore, the relevance of SVM combination is highlighted.

  5. Detection of uterine MMG contractions using a multiple change point estimator and the K-means cluster algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Patricio S; Nehorai, Arye; Eswaran, Hari; Lowery, Curtis L; Preissl, Hubert

    2008-02-01

    We propose a single channel two-stage time-segment discriminator of uterine magnetomyogram (MMG) contractions during pregnancy. We assume that the preprocessed signals are piecewise stationary having distribution in a common family with a fixed number of parameters. Therefore, at the first stage, we propose a model-based segmentation procedure, which detects multiple change-points in the parameters of a piecewise constant time-varying autoregressive model using a robust formulation of the Schwarz information criterion (SIC) and a binary search approach. In particular, we propose a test statistic that depends on the SIC, derive its asymptotic distribution, and obtain closed-form optimal detection thresholds in the sense of the Neyman-Pearson criterion; therefore, we control the probability of false alarm and maximize the probability of change-point detection in each stage of the binary search algorithm. We compute and evaluate the relative energy variation [root mean squares (RMS)] and the dominant frequency component [first order zero crossing (FOZC)] in discriminating between time segments with and without contractions. The former consistently detects a time segment with contractions. Thus, at the second stage, we apply a nonsupervised K-means cluster algorithm to classify the detected time segments using the RMS values. We apply our detection algorithm to real MMG records obtained from ten patients admitted to the hospital for contractions with gestational ages between 31 and 40 weeks. We evaluate the performance of our detection algorithm in computing the detection and false alarm rate, respectively, using as a reference the patients' feedback. We also analyze the fusion of the decision signals from all the sensors as in the parallel distributed detection approach.

  6. Multiple Biomarker Panels for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers.

  7. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction-based System for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Lily-infecting Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Kwon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A detection system based on a multiplex reverse transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR was developed to simultaneously identify multiple viruses in the lily plant. The most common viruses infecting lily plants are the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, lily mottle virus (LMoV, lily symptomless virus (LSV. Leaf samples were collected at lily-cultivation facilities located in the Kangwon province of Korea and used to evaluate the detection system. Simplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed using virus-specific primers to detect single-or mixed viral infections in lily plants. Our results demonstrate the selective detection of 3 different viruses (CMV, LMoV and LSV by using specific primers as well as the potential of simultaneously detecting 2 or 3 different viruses in lily plants with mixed infections. Three sets of primers for each target virus, and one set of internal control primers were used to evaluate the detection system for efficiency, reliability, and reproducibility.

  8. Combining multiple serum tumor markers improves detection of stage I epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yu, Yinhua; Xu, Fengji; Berchuck, Andrew; van Haaften-Day, Carolien; Havrilesky, Laura J.; de Bruijn, Henk W. A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Woolas, Robert P.; Jacobs, Ian J.; Skates, Steven; Chan, Daniel W.; Bast, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Currently available tumor markers for ovarian cancer are still inadequate in both sensitivity and specificity to be used for population-based screening. Artificial neural network (ANN) as a modeling tool has demonstrated its ability to assimilate information from multiple sources and to

  9. Identification of differential item functioning in multiple-group settings: a multivariate outlier detection approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, D.; de Boeck, P.

    2011-01-01

    We focus on the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) when more than two groups of examinees are considered. We propose to consider items as elements of a multivariate space, where DIF items are outlying elements. Following this approach, the situation of multiple groups is a quite

  10. Multiple bone metastases detected 10 years after mastectomy with silicone reconstruction for DCIS and contralateral augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Ryutaro; Nagao, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Key Clinical Message The patient developed multiple bone metastases following mastectomy with silicone reconstruction and contralateral augmentation for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. She was diagnosed with contralateral invasive cancer. Distant metastasis of DCIS is rare, and other metastatic origins must be screened. However, screening of augmented breasts is difficult.

  11. Polarization microscopy imaging for the identification of unfertilized oocytes after short-term insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Liu, Wenqiang; Wang, Yu; Pan, Jiaping; Liang, Shanshan; Ruan, Jingling; Teng, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    To develop a unique approach using polarization microscopy (PM) to determine whether the presence of a spindle can be used as an indicator associated with fertilization failure 5 hours after short-term insemination. Observational study. Assisted reproduction center. Eighty-five patients undergoing short-term insemination. Oocytes imaged via PM at 4, 5, and 6 hours after standard insemination. Spindle visualization and fertilization rate, with rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) results determined by rates of normal fertilization, abnormal fertilization, and good-quality embryo formation. After standard insemination, comparisons of spindle visualization at three time points indicated that the predictive accuracy rates were 84.30% at 5 hours, 86.80% at 6 hours, and 62.20% at 4 hours, with the rates at 5 and 6 hours statistically significantly higher than at 4 hours. A spindle was present in 242 of the 788 metaphase-II oocytes 5 hours after insemination, and there were 204 failed fertilizations on day 1. The positive predictive value was 0.84. After rescue ICSI, the abnormal fertilization rate of the polar body group (assessed using the polar body visualization method) was statistically significantly higher than that of the PM group (assessed using the spindle visualization method) and the regular ICSI group (9.37%, 5.88%, and 4.87%, respectively). The presence of a spindle 5 hours after insemination in in vitro fertilization is an accurate indicator of unfertilized oocytes. Spindle imaging combined with rescue measures effectively prevents fertilization failure and decreases the polyspermy rate. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. XY sperm separation and use in artificial insemination and other ARTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cran, David G

    2007-01-01

    Many tens of thousands of calves resulting from artificial insemination (AI) have been born worldwide after XY sperm separation and commercial production is underway in several countries. Accuracy of sex selection is some 90% and can be achieved both in research facilities and at AI studs in rural locations. Most facilities sort X- sperm which have also be utilised for superovulation and embryo transfer projects and for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) as well as AI. Sort rates of some 15 x 10(6) sperm/h are currently achievable and are used for low dose insemination, generally at 2 x 10(6) frozen sperm per dose, at a minimum of 35% post thaw motility. Pregnancy rates are some 70% to 80% of normal "high" dose unsexed inseminates. Good herd management is essential for high pregnancy rates with sexed sperm. In addition to cattle, offspring of predetermined sex have been born in the human, sheep, pig, horse, rabbit, elk, buffalo, cat and dolphin. Each species has its own challenge with regard to sperm handling and insemination procedure. In pigs, horses and sheep, the available dose of sexed sperm is very considerably lower than that which is used for conventional AI and special approaches have been devised for each species. In the pig a flexible catheter has been used to deliver a small dose of semen as close to the site of ovulation as possible. In the horse, hysteroscopic insemination at the utero tubal junction has resulted in fertilisation and, in the sheep, laparoscopic insemination into the uterus is the standard procedure for both sexed and unsexed sperm. Further advances in the efficiency of sorting together with improvements in sperm handling should result in acceptable pregnancy rates in these species.

  13. THE IMPACT OF HEPARIN IMPLEMENTER (GAG IN THE RABBIT INSEMINATION DOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of implementer heparin in insemination dose in rabbits selected on reproductive parameters.The experiment was monitored reproductive parameters (conceptual relationship, the number of live-born pups per litter, the number of dead-born pups per litter, the number of live-born pups per inseminated does 156 does in the experimental group and 165 does in the control group. We used the ejaculate of synthetic broiler rabbit population with concentration of sperm 25-50 mil. / 0.5 ml / 1 ID. Heparin was added at a dose - 0.06 ml = 10 mg per 0.5 ml semen / 1 ID. Assessing selected reproductive parameters in does inseminated with insemination dose with the addition of heparin, we observed a higher conceptual proportion of 14.12 % in the experimental group compared to the control group. These differences did not show a statistically significant difference (χ 2 3.56-. The number of live-born pups per litter was 8.69 ± 4.10 pc in the experimental group and 8.41 ± 3.62 pc in the control group (P> 0.05. The number of dead-born pups was recorded 0.74 pc in the experimental group and 0.76 pc in the control group (P> 0.05. The number of live-born pups per litter per inseminated does we have seen improvement in favor of experimental group by 1.39 pc. This parameter was within each of experiments ranged from 0.91 to 1.66 pc live-born pups to inseminated does.

  14. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers with a rapid and sensitive multicolor quantum dots based immunochromatographic test strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunying; Hou, Fei; Ma, Yicai

    2015-06-15

    A novel multicolor quantum dots (QDs) based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed for simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers, by utilizing alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as models. The immunosensor could realize simultaneous quantitative detection of tumor markers with only one test line and one control line on the nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) due to the introduction of multicolor QDs. In this method, a mixture of mouse anti-AFP McAb and mouse anti-CEA McAb was coated on NC membrane as test line and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was coated as control line. Anti-AFP McAb-QDs546 conjugates and anti-CEA McAb-QDs620 conjugates were mixed and applied to the conjugate pad. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers was achieved by detecting the fluorescence intensity of captured QDs labels on test line and control line using a test strip reader. Under the optimum conditions, AFP and CEA could be detected as low as 3 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in 15 min with a sample volume of 80 μL, and no obvious cross-reactivity was observed. The immunosensor was validated with 130 clinical samples and in which it exhibited high sensitivity (93% for AFP and 87% for CEA) and specificity (94% for AFP and 97% for CEA). The immunosensor also demonstrated high recoveries (87.5-113% for AFP and 90-97.3% for CEA) and low relative standard deviations (RSDs) (2.8-6.2% for AFP and 4.9-9.6% for CEA) when testing spiked human serum. This novel multicolor QDs based ICTS provides an easy and rapid, simultaneous quantitative detecting strategy for point-of-care testing of tumor markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors that affect the quality and efficiency of artificial insemination in oestrus synchronization programmes in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, R.; Roller, F.; Gonzalez, N.; Felipe, N.; Bravo, M.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed during a three-year period in order to identify the factors affecting quality and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) when it is used in cattle subjected to oestrus induction and synchronization (OIS) programmes. The study took place in the Western part of the country and 3 herds with a total of 6357 animals were used. The first study was a survey to evaluate the factors affecting the efficiency of AI in OIS. The second study examined the effects of body condition score (BCS) and three different regimes of OIS on the results of AI. Progesterone levels were measured in blood and milk using radioimmunoassay to determine the incidence of acyclic animals in the herds. Data were recorded and analysed using the artificial insemination database application (AIDA) and further statistical analyses were done using Systat. The results found in the survey showed a low conception rate (18%) and a great variability in the period from calving to conception (154 ± 98.11 days). The latter parameter was significantly different between herds (P<0.001). A high percentage of animals selected for OIS programmes (37%) showed a poor BCS (<2.5 on a scale of 1-5). Motility of semen used for AI was low (<30%) in 47% of the samples evaluated. The results from progesterone measurements demonstrated that the reasons for poor fertility were low accuracy in oestrus detection, poor response to treatment for OIS, non-fertilization, embryo mortality and functional disturbances present after treatment. Under our field conditions during the dry season, acyclicity (anoestrus) is a frequent problem in primiparous cows and in those with poor BCS. The BCS in heifers and the quality of different treatments had a significant effect on the conception rate. These results confirm that the use of progesterone measurement together with data management using AIDA is a very appropriate way to evaluate and improve the quality and efficiency of AI in OIS programmes. (author)

  16. Evaluating The Effective Factors in Pregnancy after Intrauterine Insemination: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ghaffari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH in conjunction with intrauterine inseminations (IUI are commonly used to treat infertile couples. In this study we evaluated the relationship between IUI outcome and special causes of infertility. We also aimed to examine parameters that might predict success following IUI. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 994 IUI cycles in 803 couples who referred to the infertility Institute. All statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS program, t tests and chi-square. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to compare the association between dependent and independent variables. Logistic regression was conducted to build a prediction model of the IUI outcome. Results: Overall pregnancy rate per completed cycle (16.5% and live birth rate per cycle (14.5%. The mean age in the pregnant group was significantly lower than that of the non-pregnant group (P=0.01.There was an association between cause of infertility and clinical pregnancies (P<0.001. Logistic regression identified four significant factors in determining the success of the IUI [menstrual irregularites (OR:2.3, CI:1.6-3.4, P<0.001, duration of infertility (OR:0.8, CI:0.8-0.9, P<0.001, total dose of gonadotropin (OR:1.02, CI:1.003-1.04, P=0.02 and semen volume (OR:1.1, CI:1.008-1.2, P=0.03] which were the most predictive of IUI success. Conclusion: Our study defined prognostic factors for pregnancy in COH+IUI. These variables can be integrated into a mathematical model to predict the chance of pregnancy rate in subsequent COH+IUI cycles.

  17. Association of uterine fibroids and pregnancy outcomes after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination for unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Aaron K; Jin, Susan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Baisong; Polotsky, Alex J; Christianson, Mindy S; Vitek, Wendy; Engmann, Lawrence; Hansen, Karl; Wild, Robert; Legro, Richard S; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M; Christy, Alicia; Diamond, Michael P; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Santoro, Nanette

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the association of non-cavity-distorting uterine fibroids and pregnancy outcomes after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination (OS-IUI) in couples with unexplained infertility. Secondary analysis from a prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial investigating fertility outcomes after OS-IUI. Reproductive Medicine Network clinical sites. Nine hundred couples with unexplained infertility who participated in the Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) clinical trial. Participants were randomized to one of three arms (clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins), and treatment was continued for up to four cycles or until pregnancy was achieved. Conception (serum hCG increase), clinical pregnancy (fetal cardiac activity), and live birth rates. A total of 102/900 participants (11.3%) had at least one documented fibroid and a normal uterine cavity. Women with fibroids were older, more likely to be African American, had a greater uterine volume, lower serum antimüllerian hormone levels, and fewer antral follicles than women without fibroids. In conception cycles, clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower in participants with fibroids than in those without uterine fibroids. Pregnancy loss before 12 weeks was more likely in African American women with fibroids compared with non-African American women with fibroids. There was no difference in conception and live birth rates in subjects with and without fibroids. No differences were observed in conception and live birth rates in women with non-cavity-distorting fibroids and those without fibroids. These findings provide reassurance that pregnancy success is not impacted in couples with non-cavity-distorting fibroids undergoing OS-IUI for unexplained infertility. NCT01044862. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved Sensor Fault Detection, Isolation, and Mitigation Using Multiple Observers Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Anand, D. M.; Moyne, J.; Tilbury, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) methods analyze a residual signal to detect and isolate sensor faults. The residual signal is the difference between the sensor measurements and the estimated outputs of the system based on an observer. The traditional residual-based FDI methods, however, have some limitations. First, they require that the observer has reached its steady state. In addition, residual-based methods may not detect some sensor faults, such as faults on critical sensors that result in an unobservable system. Furthermore, the system may be in jeopardy if actions required for mitigating the impact of the faulty sensors are not taken before the faulty sensors are identified. The contribution of this paper is to propose three new methods to address these limitations. Faults that occur during the observers' transient state can be detected by analyzing the convergence rate of the estimation error. Open-loop observers, which do not rely on sensor information, are used to detect faults on critical sensors. By switching among different observers, we can potentially mitigate the impact of the faulty sensor during the FDI process. These three methods are systematically integrated with a previously developed residual-based method to provide an improved FDI and mitigation capability framework. The overall approach is validated mathematically, and the effectiveness of the overall approach is demonstrated through simulation on a 5-state suspension system. PMID:28924303

  19. Detection of High-Z Objects using Multiple Scattering of Cosmic Ray Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, Gary E.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Gomez, John; Morris, Christopher; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Teasdale, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    Detection of high-Z material hidden inside a large volume of ordinary cargo is an important and timely task given the danger associated with illegal transport of uranium and heavier elements. Existing radiography techniques are inefficient for shielded material, often expensive and involve radiation hazards, real and perceived. We recently demonstrated that radiographs can be formed using cosmic-ray muons. Here, we show that compact, high-Z objects can be detected and located in 3 dimensions with muon radiography. The natural flux of cosmic-ray muons, approximately 10,000 m-2min-1, can generate a reliable detection signal in a fraction of a minute, using large-area muon detectors as used in particle and nuclear physics

  20. A case of multiple hepatic abscesses detected by CT scan in the patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saburi, Yoshio; Shuto, Ryusuke; Mizutani, Ryoko; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Itoga, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    A 34 years old man admitted to a hospital on 21 Feb. 1983 and was diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A hematological complete remission was achieved by combination therapy of vincristine, prednisolone and L-asparaginase. However, he had complaining of high fever and right hypochondralgia since early in Apr. 1983, and it was revealed that elevation of right diaphragm on chest X-ray. Therefore, he was also given several antibiotics (CPZ, TOB, LMOX, PIPC, LCM, AMK, MINO and GM) for complication of probable liver abscess. Remittent fever was persisted in spite of as mentioned above various antibiotics. The multiple hepatic abscesses were found by CT scan of the mid-abdomen as the low density lesions, but bacterial cultures detected no any pathogens. His complaining of remittent fever and right hypochondralgia were improved by treated with Miconazole during about one month, and decreasing in size and number of multiple hepatic abscesses were found by CT scan. Though we could not determined clearly, but suspected that, multiple hepatic abscesses were due to fungus infection, by reason of therapeutic result. Regarding the complication of hepatic abscesses with leukemia, 5 cases have been reported in Japan, and one case out of 5 cases were detected by CT scan. We thought that CT scan were useful procedure for a early diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. In recently, the patient has continued of complete remission hematologically. (author)

  1. A novel GMO biosensor for rapid ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple DNA components in GMO products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Zheng, Lei; Chen, Yinji; Xue, Feng; Cheng, Lin; Adeloju, Samuel B; Chen, Wei

    2015-04-15

    Since the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), there has been on-going and continuous concern and debates on the commercialization of products derived from GMOs. There is an urgent need for development of highly efficient analytical methods for rapid and high throughput screening of GMOs components, as required for appropriate labeling of GMO-derived foods, as well as for on-site inspection and import/export quarantine. In this study, we describe, for the first time, a multi-labeling based electrochemical biosensor for simultaneous detection of multiple DNA components of GMO products on the same sensing interface. Two-round signal amplification was applied by using both an exonuclease enzyme catalytic reaction and gold nanoparticle-based bio-barcode related strategies, respectively. Simultaneous multiple detections of different DNA components of GMOs were successfully achieved with satisfied sensitivity using this electrochemical biosensor. Furthermore, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach was successfully demonstrated by application to various GMO products, including locally obtained and confirmed commercial GMO seeds and transgenetic plants. The proposed electrochemical biosensor demonstrated unique merits that promise to gain more interest in its use for rapid and on-site simultaneous multiple screening of different components of GMO products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Field Evaluation of Culture plus Latex Sweep Serotyping for Detection of Multiple Pneumococcal Serotype Colonisation in Infants and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Jankhot, Auscharee; Phakaudom, Kawalee; Nosten, Francois; Goldblatt, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) culture by World Health Organisation (WHO) methodology underestimates multiple pneumococcal serotype colonisation compared to a simple culture and latex sweep method. The impacts of this on descriptions of pneumococcal serotype distributions and colonisation dynamics in infancy are not clear. Methods 8,736 NPS collected from infants enrolled into a longitudinal study were processed to evaluate the field utility of the latex sweep method. 1,107 had previously been cultured by WHO methodology. Additionally, colonisation results were compared in 100 matched pairs of infants, where swabs from an individual were cultured either by WHO or latex sweep method. Results In 1,107 swabs cultured by both methods, the latex sweep method was three times more likely to detect colonisation with multiple pneumococcal serotypes than the WHO method (platex sweep (p = 0.03). The overall rate of non-vaccine type pneumococcal acquisition was also greater in infants cultured by latex sweep (p = 0.04). Conclusions Latex sweep serotyping was feasible to perform on a large specimen collection. Multiple serotype colonisation detection was significantly improved compared with WHO methodology. However, use of the latex sweep method is unlikely to significantly alter colonisation study serotype distribution or colonisation dynamics results. PMID:23844133

  3. Detecting Vegetation Changes Induced by Government Policy in China Using Multiple Satellite Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Yanagi, Y.; Xiao, J.

    2016-12-01

    The use of multiple satellite-based data products can help analyze and understand changes in terrestrial vegetation cover and terrestrial CO2 cycles. Terrestrial vegetation environment in China is known as affected by many changes including both natural and anthropogenic changes. Especially, afforestation and land use change are considered as two of the most important factors. To date, satellite-based monitoring of terrestrial vegetation changes in China is conducted at either regional or country scales with coarse spatial resolutions. In this study, we analyzed and attributed vegetation changes in China from 2000 to 2015 using multiple satellite-based data products with higher spatial resolution (from 25m to 1km). The products include ALOS PALSAR Forest/NonForest Map, LANDSAT based land cover map, MODIS land cover (MCD12Q1), vegetation continuous field (MOD44B) and vegetation index (MOD13A2), and data-driven estimates of terrestrial CO2 fluxes (Support Vector Regression with AsiaFlux data). First, we assessed changes in forest cover from 2000 to 2015 using multiple products. We confirmed that two MODIS datasets, MCD12Q1 and MOD44B, were consistent with high resolution satellite based products (LANDSAT and ALOS PALSAR) with slight negative bias for MOD44B. The changes of forest cover by MCD12Q1 and MOD44B products were consistent, showing large increases in forest cover in central China, where afforestation were intensively conducted. Second, we analyzed temporal trends of vegetation index and data-driven estimates of CO2 fluxes, and their dependency on land cover changes. Clear relations between temporal trends of vegetation index and land use change history were obtained; the highest increasing trends were observed in the grid cells where land use change from non-forest to forest occured. These multiple pieces of evidence show that afforestation policy in China significantly affects forest areas, terrestrial vegetation and CO2 cycle for the 2000 to 2015 period.

  4. Bayesian Aggregation of Evidence for Detection and Characterization of Patterns in Multiple Noisy Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    presence of benign nuisance sources or noise fluctu- ations in the sensor data. In the radiation domain, false positives may emerge from common nuisances ...patterns in noisy sensor data. Our Bayesian Aggregation (BA) algorithmic framework can leverage data fusion from multiple low Signal-To- Noise Ratio (SNR...more flexibly model background and nuisance source fluctuations in a dynamic environment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  5. Sensitive targeted multiple protein quantification based on elemental detection of Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Garcia-Cortes, Marta [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); González-Iglesias, Hector [Fundación de Investigación Oftalmológica, Instituto Oftalmológico Fernandez-Vega, Avenida Doctores Fernández-Vega, 34, Oviedo 33012 (Spain); Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Costa-Fernández, José M. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Coca-Prados, Miguel [Fundación de Investigación Oftalmológica, Instituto Oftalmológico Fernandez-Vega, Avenida Doctores Fernández-Vega, 34, Oviedo 33012 (Spain); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Sanz-Medel, Alfredo, E-mail: asm@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain)

    2015-06-16

    Highlights: • Novel generic platform for multiparametric quantification of proteins. • QDs labeling and ICP-MS detection allow significant analytical signal amplification. • ICP-MS mass balances information provided an internal validation of the immunoassay. • Multiparametric determination of 5 proteins in human serum samples. • ICP-MS reduced matrix effects as compared to other conventional detection techniques. - Abstract: A generic strategy based on the use of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs) as elemental labels for protein quantification, using immunoassays with elemental mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), detection is presented. In this strategy, streptavidin modified QDs (QDs-SA) are bioconjugated to a biotinylated secondary antibody (b-Ab{sub 2}). After a multi-technique characterization of the synthesized generic platform (QDs-SA-b-Ab{sub 2}) it was applied to the sequential quantification of five proteins (transferrin, complement C3, apolipoprotein A1, transthyretin and apolipoprotein A4) at different concentration levels in human serum samples. It is shown how this generic strategy does only require the appropriate unlabeled primary antibody for each protein to be detected. Therefore, it introduces a way out to the need for the cumbersome and specific bioconjugation of the QDs to the corresponding specific recognition antibody for every target analyte (protein). Results obtained were validated with those obtained using UV–vis spectrophotometry and commercial ELISA Kits. As expected, ICP-MS offered one order of magnitude lower DL (0.23 fmol absolute for transferrin) than the classical spectrophotometric detection (3.2 fmol absolute). ICP-MS precision and detection limits, however turned out to be compromised by procedural blanks. The full analytical performance of the ICP-MS-based immunoassay proposed was assessed for detection of transferrin (Tf), present at the low ng mL{sup −1} range in a complex “model” synthetic matrix, where the total protein

  6. Electrochemical immunosensor with nanocellulose-Au composite assisted multiple signal amplification for detection of avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Dong, Jing; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Cheng, Ziqiang; Ai, Shiyun

    2018-03-15

    A sensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was developed for the detection of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), which benefitted from multiple signal amplification involving graphene-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid nanocomposites (GR-PTCA), nanocellulose-Au NP composites (NC-Au) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalytic reaction. GR-PTCA nanocomposites on glassy carbon electrodes served as the immunosensor platform. Due to their excellent electrical conductivity and abundant polycarboxylic sites, the GR-PTCA nanocomposites allowed fast electron transfer and good immobilization of primary antibodies, thereby affording a strong immunosensor signal in the presence of ALV-J. The detected signal could be further amplified by the introduction of NC-Au composites as a carrier of secondary antibodies (Ab 2 ) and by harnessing the catalytic properties of Au and ALP. Under optimized testing conditions, the electrochemical immunosensor displayed excellent analytical performance for the detection of ALV-J, showing a linear current response from 10 2.08 to 10 4.0 TCID 50 /mL (TCID 50 : 50% tissue culture infective dose) with a low detection limit of 10 1.98 TCID 50 /mL (S/N = 3). In addition to high sensitivity, the immunosensor showed very good selectivity, reproducibility and operational stability, demonstrating potential application for the quantitative detection of ALV-J in clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Statistical analysis of water-quality data containing multiple detection limits: S-language software for regression on order statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L.; Helsel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Trace contaminants in water, including metals and organics, often are measured at sufficiently low concentrations to be reported only as values below the instrument detection limit. Interpretation of these "less thans" is complicated when multiple detection limits occur. Statistical methods for multiply censored, or multiple-detection limit, datasets have been developed for medical and industrial statistics, and can be employed to estimate summary statistics or model the distributions of trace-level environmental data. We describe S-language-based software tools that perform robust linear regression on order statistics (ROS). The ROS method has been evaluated as one of the most reliable procedures for developing summary statistics of multiply censored data. It is applicable to any dataset that has 0 to 80% of its values censored. These tools are a part of a software library, or add-on package, for the R environment for statistical computing. This library can be used to generate ROS models and associated summary statistics, plot modeled distributions, and predict exceedance probabilities of water-quality standards. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Through-container, extremely low concentration detection of multiple chemical markers of counterfeit alcohol using a handheld SORS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Eccles, Rebecca; Xu, Yun; Griffen, Julia; Muhamadali, Howbeer; Matousek, Pavel; Goodall, Ian; Goodacre, Royston

    2017-09-21

    Major food adulteration incidents occur with alarming frequency and are episodic, with the latest incident, involving the adulteration of meat from 21 producers in Brazil supplied to 60 other countries, reinforcing this view. Food fraud and counterfeiting involves all types of foods, feed, beverages, and packaging, with the potential for serious health, as well as significant economic and social impacts. In the spirit drinks sector, counterfeiters often 'recycle' used genuine packaging, or employ good quality simulants. To prove that suspect products are non-authentic ideally requires accurate, sensitive, analysis of the complex chemical composition while still in its packaging. This has yet to be achieved. Here, we have developed handheld spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) for the first time in a food or beverage product, and demonstrate the potential for rapid in situ through-container analysis; achieving unequivocal detection of multiple chemical markers known for their use in the adulteration and counterfeiting of Scotch whisky, and other spirit drinks. We demonstrate that it is possible to detect a total of 10 denaturants/additives in extremely low concentrations without any contact with the sample; discriminate between and within multiple well-known Scotch whisky brands, and detect methanol concentrations well below the maximum human tolerable level.

  9. Signal-on electrochemical detection of antibiotics at zeptomole level based on target-aptamer binding triggered multiple recycling amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yu; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Guo, Yuna; Xu, Ying; Huang, Jiadong

    2016-06-15

    In the work, a signal-on electrochemical DNA sensor based on multiple amplification for ultrasensitive detection of antibiotics has been reported. In the presence of target, the ingeniously designed hairpin probe (HP1) is opened and the polymerase-assisted target recycling amplification is triggered, resulting in autonomous generation of secondary target. It is worth noting that the produced secondary target could not only hybridize with other HP1, but also displace the Helper from the electrode. Consequently, methylene blue labeled HP2 forms a "close" probe structure, and the increase of signal is monitored. The increasing current provides an ultrasensitive electrochemical detection for antibiotics down to 1.3 fM. To our best knowledge, such work is the first report about multiple recycling amplification combing with signal-on sensing strategy, which has been utilized for quantitative determination of antibiotics. It would be further used as a general strategy associated with more analytical techniques toward the detection of a wide spectrum of analytes. Thus, it holds great potential for the development of ultrasensitive biosensing platform for the applications in bioanalysis, disease diagnostics, and clinical biomedicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Retrospective Evaluation of a Teleretinal Screening Program in Detecting Multiple Nondiabetic Eye Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, April Y; Patel, Shivangi; Chasan, Joel E; Delaune, William; Lynch, Mary G

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic teleretinal screening programs have been utilized successfully across the world to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) and are well validated. Less information, however, exists on the ability of teleretinal imaging to detect nondiabetic ocular pathology. This study performed a retrospective evaluation to assess the ability of a community-based diabetic teleretinal screening program to detect common ocular disease other than DR. A retrospective chart review of 1,774 patients who underwent diabetic teleretinal screening was performed. Eye clinic notes from the Veterans Health Administration's electronic medical record, Computerized Patient Record System, were searched for each of the patients screened through teleretinal imaging. When a face-to-face examination note was present, the physical findings were compared to those obtained through teleretinal imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for suspicious nerve, cataract, and age-related macular degeneration. A total of 903 patients underwent a clinical examination. The positive predictive value was highest for cataract (100%), suspicious nerve (93%), and macular degeneration (90%). The negative predictive value and the percent agreement between teleretinal imaging and a clinical examination were over 90% for each disease category. A teleretinal imaging protocol may be used to screen for other common ocular diseases. It may be feasible to use diabetic teleretinal photographs to screen patients for other potential eye diseases. Additional elements of the eye workup may be added to enhance accuracy of disease detection. Further study is necessary to confirm this initial retrospective review.

  11. Detection of multiple viral DNA species in synovial tissue and fluid of patients with early arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, H. D.; Hubner, B.; Seidl, B.; Liebert, U. G.; van der Heijden, I. M.; Wilbrink, B.; Kraan, M. C.; Emmrich, F.; Tak, P. P.

    2000-01-01

    Viruses have a role in the pathogenesis of various forms of arthritis. This study aimed at determining whether viral DNA can be detected in joint samples in the early stages of idiopathic arthritides. Synovial fluid (SF) and synovial tissue (ST) samples were obtained from 73 patients, with

  12. Detecting Weak Explosions at Local Distances by Fusing Multiple Geophysical Phenomenologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Joshua D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nemzek, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sentz, Kari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Comprehensive explosion monitoring requires the technical capability to identify certain signatures at low signal strengths. For particularly small, evasively conducted explosions, conventional monitoring methods that use single geophysical phenomenologies may produce marginal or absent detections. To address this challenge, we recorded coincident acoustic, seismic and radio-frequency emissions during the above-ground detonation of ~ 2-12 kg solid charges and assessed how waveform data could be fused to increase explosion-screening capability. Our data provided identifiable explosion signatures that we implemented as template-events in multichannel correlation detectors to search for similar, matching waveforms. We thereby observed that these highly sensitive correlation detectors missed explosive events when applied separately to data streams that were heavily contaminated with noise and signal clutter. By then adding the p-values of these statistics through Fisher’s combined probability test, we correctly identified the explosion signals at thresholds consistent with the false alarm rates of the correlation detectors. This resulting Fisher test thereby provided high-probability detections, zero false alarms, and higher theoretical detection capability. We conclude that inclusion of these fusion methods in routine monitoring operations will likely lower both detection thresholds for small explosions, while reducing false attribution rates.

  13. Passive Coherent Detection and Target Location with Multiple Non-Cooperative Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ABBREVIATIONS AIS automatic identification system AOA angle of arrival ARM anti-radiation missile BRRE bistatic radar range equation CFAR ...forward-scattering configuration due to Babinet’s principle [2]. Using the constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) approach, target detection and parameter

  14. Sensitive detection of multiple hepatitis A virus genotypes with a single polony-based assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the major causes of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. HAV is mostly transmitted via direct person-to-person contact, or by consumption of contaminated foods and water. Since only a few viral particles may cause disease, detection of low levels of HA...

  15. Stator fault detection for multi-phase machines with multiple reference frames transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, Claudio; Fornasiero, Emanuele; Matzen, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on a new diagnostic index for fault detection of a five-phase permanent-magnet machine. This machine has been designed for fault tolerant applications, and it is characterized by a mutual inductance equal to zero and a high self inductance, in order to limit the short-circuit cu...

  16. Comparison of conventional and computer-assisted semen analysis in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and evaluation of different insemination dosages for artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; Neumann, D; Wehrend, A; Lierz, M

    2014-09-01

    Many psittacine species are threatened in the wild and also rare in captivity. Therefore, successful conservation and breeding programs are important to save these species. Unfortunately, clutches in conservation programs are frequently infertile. Semen evaluation is beneficial to investigate the causes of infertility and is advisable before artificial insemination (AI). In this study, we analyzed the semen of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) using two different methods and investigated different insemination dosages for AI. Cockatiels (n = 30) were divided into two groups (group A: nine males; group B: six males). The males in group B were endoscopically sterilized, whereas the males in group A were used as semen donors. In the first part of the study, the semen of males in group A was evaluated by semen analysis. Semen samples were collected by the massage technique and examined using a conventional light microscope and a computer-assisted semen analyzer for comparison. Results demonstrated that the evaluations of motility, progressive motility, and sperm concentration, but not of live/dead ratio, correlated strongly for both methods. However, the results for sperm concentration, progressive motility, and live/dead ratio differed significantly. In the second part of our study, the volume and quantity of spermatozoa of the semen samples were adjusted and used for AI of females of group B. Intravaginal insemination with 250,000 spermatozoa resulted in five of 17 (29%) eggs fertilized; however, intracloacal insemination resulted in only four of 57 (7%) eggs fertilized at 232,000 and 250,000 spermatozoa but none at higher or lower dosages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acoustical gas-leak detection in the presence of multiple reflections, dispersion, and uncorrelated noise using optimized residual complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A M; Amjadi, A; Bahrampour, A R; Ravanbod, H; Tofighi, S

    2016-09-01

    Precise acoustical leak detection calls for robust time-delay estimates, which minimize the probability of false alarms in the face of dispersive propagation, multiple reflections, and uncorrelated background noise. Providing evidence that higher order modes and multi-reflected signals behave like sets of correlated noise, this work uses a regression model to optimize residual complexity in the presence of both correlated and uncorrelated noise. This optimized residual complexity (ORC) is highly robust since it takes into account both the level and complexity of noise. The lower complexity of the dispersive modes and multiple reflections, compared to the complexity of the plane mode, points to the robustness of ORC against multiple reflections and dispersion. Experimental investigations using recorded sounds of gas leaking from a pipe confirm the robustness of ORC against multiple reflections. Numerical simulations also show robustness against dispersive modes, even when they disturb the linearity of the cross-spectrum phase. Comparisons with other methods-mutual information, cross correlation, and residual complexity-underline the general advantages of ORC in terms of robustness in the presence of reflection and dispersion, against both correlated and uncorrelated noise, and to short signals.

  18. Häufig gestellte Fragen zur intrauterinen Insemination (IUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zech J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lediglich Fachärzte für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe dürfen laut österreichischem Fortpflanzungsmedizingesetz intrauterine Inseminationen durchführen. Nach Vorlage eines Notariatsakts ist es auch unverheirateten Paaren gestattet, diesen Eingriff vornehmen zu lassen. In Österreich ist die Durchführung einer heterologen Insemination (Samen von Dritten in dafür zugelassenen Krankenanstalten erlaubt. Die häufigste Indikation für eine IUI ist die idiopathische Infertilität, aber auch bei Ejakulationsproblemen und bei Pathologien an der Portio und der Cervix uteri sowie bei immunologischen Erkrankungen findet die IUI ihre Anwendung. Grundsätzlich ist bei Frauen mit einem regelmäßigen Zyklus eine hormonelle Stimulation nicht vonnöten. Zu beachten ist, dass eine hormonelle Stimulation zwar zur Steigerung der Erfolgschancen führt, jedoch häufig auch mit Komplikationen, wie beispielsweise Mehrlingsschwangerschaften oder einer Überstimulation, verbunden ist. Wichtig bei der Samenaufbereitung für eine IUI ist die Trennung der Spermien von Seminalflüssigkeit, Bakterien, Leukozyten und Zelldebris sowie die Gewinnung von 2–5 Millionen gut beweglichen Spermien. Es gibt unterschiedliche Aufbereitungsmethoden wie die Swim-up-Technik oder die Dichte-Gradienten-Zentrifugation, welche jedoch für die Aufreinigung der Spermien Zentrifugationsschritte benötigen, was eine mechanische Belastung für die Spermien darstellt. Eine neue, sehr einfache, schonende und kostengünstige Methode bietet der Zech-Selector®, welcher als einzige Methode in der Lage ist, auf einfache Weise nahezu alle Spermien mit DNAStrangbrüchen zu eliminieren. Ein weiterer wichtiger Bestandteil für eine erfolgreiche IUI ist die Wahl des Katheters. Dieser muss für die IUI zugelassen sein und darf beim Einführen keine Schleimhautverletzungen herbeiführen. Des Weiteren sollten nicht mehr als 0,5 ml Flüssigkeit in das Cavum uteri eingespritzt werden. Optimal ist es, die

  19. Improved detection of multiple environmental antibiotics through an optimized sample extraction strategy in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Bayen, Stéphane; Kelly, Barry C; Li, Xu; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A solid-phase extraction/liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was optimized in this study for sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple antibiotics in urban surface waters and soils. Among the seven classes of tested antibiotics, extraction efficiencies of macrolides, lincosamide, chloramphenicol, and polyether antibiotics were significantly improved under optimized sample extraction pH. Instead of only using acidic extraction in many existing studies, the results indicated that antibiotics with low pK a values (antibiotics with high pK a values (>7) were extracted more efficiently under neutral conditions. The effects of pH were more obvious on polar compounds than those on non-polar compounds. Optimization of extraction pH resulted in significantly improved sample recovery and better detection limits. Compared with reported values in the literature, the average reduction of minimal detection limits obtained in this study was 87.6% in surface waters (0.06-2.28 ng/L) and 67.1% in soils (0.01-18.16 ng/g dry wt). This method was subsequently applied to detect antibiotics in environmental samples in a heavily populated urban city, and macrolides, sulfonamides, and lincomycin were frequently detected. Antibiotics with highest detected concentrations were sulfamethazine (82.5 ng/L) in surface waters and erythromycin (6.6 ng/g dry wt) in soils. The optimized sample extraction strategy can be used to improve the detection of a variety of antibiotics in environmental surface waters and soils.

  20. Development of Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification Label-Based Gold Nanoparticles Lateral Flow Biosensor for Detection of Shigella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp., the etiological agent of shigellosis or “bacillary dysentery,” are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of a million deaths globally per year. Although PCR-based techniques (such as PCR-based dipstick biosensors) have been used for the molecular diagnosis of infectious disease, these assays were restricted due to the need for a sophisticated thermal cycling apparatus to denature target templates. To facilitate simple and rapid detection of target pathogens, we successfully devised an inexpensive, reliable and nearly instrument-free molecular technique, which incorporates multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) combined with a newly designed lateral flow biosensor (LFB) for visual, sensitive and specific detection of Shigella. The MCDA-LFB assay was conducted at 65°C for only 20 min during the amplification stage, and then products were directly analyzed on the biosensor, alleviating the use of special reagents, electrophoresis equipment and amplicon detection instruments. The entire process, including specimen processing (35 min), amplification (20) and detection (2–5 min), can be finished within 1 h. The MCDA-LFB assay demonstrated high specificity for Shigella detection. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 10 fg of genomic templates per reaction in pure culture and 5.86 CFU per tube in human fecal samples, which was consistent with MCDA by colorimetric indicator, gel electrophoresis, real time turbidity and fluorescence detection. Hence, the simplicity, rapidity and nearly instrument-free platform of the MCDA-LFB assay make it practical for ‘on-site’ diagnosis, point-of-care testing and more. Moreover, the proof-of-concept approach can be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of target sequences by re-designing the specific MCDA primers. PMID:27917160

  1. Development of multiple cross displacement amplification label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow biosensor for detection of Shigella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp., the etiological agent of shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of a million deaths globally per year. Although PCR-based techniques (such as PCR-based dipstick biosensors have been used for the molecular diagnosis of infectious disease, these assays were restricted due to the need for a sophisticated thermal cycling apparatus to denature target templates. To facilitate simple and rapid detection of target pathogens, we successfully devised an inexpensive, reliable and nearly instrument-free molecular technique, which incorporates multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA combined with a newly designed lateral flow biosensor (LFB for visual, sensitive and specific detection of Shigella. The MCDA-LFB assay was conducted at 65 ˚C for only 20 min during the amplification stage, and then products were directly analyzed on the biosensor, alleviating the use of special reagents, electrophoresis equipment and amplicon detection instruments. The entire process, including specimen processing (35 min, amplification (20 and detection (2-5 min, can be finished within 1 h. The MCDA-LFB assay demonstrated high specificity for Shigella detection. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 10 fg of genomic templates per reaction in pure culture and 5.86 CFU per tube in human fecal samples, which was consistent with MCDA by colorimetric indicator, gel electrophoresis, real time turbidity and fluorescence detection. Hence, the simplicity, rapidity and nearly instrument-free platform of the MCDA-LFB assay make it practical for ‘on-site’ diagnosis, point-of-care testing and more. Moreover, the proof-of-concept approach can be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of target sequences by re-designing the specific MCDA primers.

  2. Development of Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification Label-Based Gold Nanoparticles Lateral Flow Biosensor for Detection ofShigellaspp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp., the etiological agent of shigellosis or "bacillary dysentery," are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of a million deaths globally per year. Although PCR-based techniques (such as PCR-based dipstick biosensors) have been used for the molecular diagnosis of infectious disease, these assays were restricted due to the need for a sophisticated thermal cycling apparatus to denature target templates. To facilitate simple and rapid detection of target pathogens, we successfully devised an inexpensive, reliable and nearly instrument-free molecular technique, which incorporates multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) combined with a newly designed lateral flow biosensor (LFB) for visual, sensitive and specific detection of Shigella . The MCDA-LFB assay was conducted at 65°C for only 20 min during the amplification stage, and then products were directly analyzed on the biosensor, alleviating the use of special reagents, electrophoresis equipment and amplicon detection instruments. The entire process, including specimen processing (35 min), amplification (20) and detection (2-5 min), can be finished within 1 h. The MCDA-LFB assay demonstrated high specificity for Shigella detection. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 10 fg of genomic templates per reaction in pure culture and 5.86 CFU per tube in human fecal samples, which was consistent with MCDA by colorimetric indicator, gel electrophoresis, real time turbidity and fluorescence detection. Hence, the simplicity, rapidity and nearly instrument-free platform of the MCDA-LFB assay make it practical for 'on-site' diagnosis, point-of-care testing and more. Moreover, the proof-of-concept approach can be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of target sequences by re-designing the specific MCDA primers.

  3. Development and validation of a questionnaire to detect behavior change in multiple advance care planning behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Sudore

    Full Text Available Advance directives have traditionally been considered the gold standard for advance care planning. However, recent evidence suggests that advance care planning involves a series of multiple discrete behaviors for which people are in varying stages of behavior change. The goal of our study was to develop and validate a survey to measure the full advance care planning process.The Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey assesses "Process Measures" of factors known from Behavior Change Theory to affect behavior (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, using 5-point Likert scales and "Action Measures" (yes/no of multiple behaviors related to surrogate decision makers, values and quality of life, flexibility for surrogate decision making, and informed decision making. We administered surveys at baseline and 1 week later to 50 diverse, older adults from San Francisco hospitals. Internal consistency reliability of Process Measures was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (only continuous variables and test-retest reliability of Process and Action Measures was examined using intraclass correlations. For discriminant validity, we compared Process and Action Measure scores between this cohort and 20 healthy college students (mean age 23.2 years, SD 2.7.Mean age was 69.3 (SD 10.5 and 42% were non-White. The survey took a mean of 21.4 minutes (±6.2 to administer. The survey had good internal consistency (Process Measures Cronbach's alpha, 0.94 and test-retest reliability (Process Measures intraclass correlation, 0.70; Action Measures, 0.87. Both Process and Action Measure scores were higher in the older than younger group, p<.001.A new Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey that measures behavior change (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness and multiple advance care planning actions demonstrates good reliability and validity. Further research is needed to assess whether survey scores improve in response to advance care planning

  4. Detecting the limits of regulatory element conservation anddivergence estimation using pairwise and multiple alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Moses, Alan M.; Iyer, Venky N.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2006-08-14

    Background: Molecular evolutionary studies of noncodingsequences rely on multiple alignments. Yet how multiple alignmentaccuracy varies across sequence types, tree topologies, divergences andtools, and further how this variation impacts specific inferences,remains unclear. Results: Here we develop a molecular evolutionsimulation platform, CisEvolver, with models of background noncoding andtranscription factor binding site evolution, and use simulated alignmentsto systematically examine multiple alignment accuracy and its impact ontwo key molecular evolutionary inferences: transcription factor bindingsite conservation and divergence estimation. We find that the accuracy ofmultiple alignments is determined almost exclusively by the pairwisedivergence distance of the two most diverged species and that additionalspecies have a negligible influence on alignment accuracy. Conservedtranscription factor binding sites align better than surroundingnoncoding DNA yet are often found to be misaligned at relatively shortdivergence distances, such that studies of binding site gain and losscould easily be confounded by alignment error. Divergence estimates frommultiple alignments tend to be overestimated at short divergencedistances but reach a tool specific divergence at which they cease toincrease, leading to underestimation at long divergences. Our moststriking finding was that overall alignment accuracy, binding sitealignment accuracy and divergence estimation accuracy vary greatly acrossbranches in a tree and are most accurate for terminal branches connectingsister taxa and least accurate for internal branches connectingsub-alignments. Conclusions: Our results suggest that variation inalignment accuracy can lead to errors in molecular evolutionaryinferences that could be construed as biological variation. Thesefindings have implications for which species to choose for analyses, whatkind of errors would be expected for a given set of species and howmultiple alignment tools and

  5. Development of a Machine Vision Method for the Monitoring of Laying Hens and Detection of Multiple Nest Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Redaelli, Veronica; Luzi, Fabio; Mitchell, Malcolm; Bontempo, Valentino; Cattaneo, Donata; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni

    2018-01-05

    Free range systems can improve the welfare of laying hens. However, the access to environmental resources can be partially limited by social interactions, feeding of hens, and productivity, can be not stable and damaging behaviors, or negative events, can be observed more frequently than in conventional housing systems. In order to reach a real improvement of the hens' welfare the study of their laying performances and behaviors is necessary. With this purpose, many systems have been developed. However, most of them do not detect a multiple occupation of the nest negatively affecting the accuracy of data collected. To overcome this issue, a new "nest-usage-sensor" was developed and tested. It was based on the evaluation of thermografic images, as acquired by a thermo-camera, and the performing of patter recognitions on images acquired from the nest interior. The sensor was setup with a "Multiple Nest Occupation Threshold" of 796 colored pixels and a template of triangular shape and sizes of 43 × 33 pixels (high per base). It was tested through an experimental nesting system where 10 hens were reared for a month. Results showed that the evaluation of thermografic images could increase the detection performance of a multiple occupation of the nest and to apply an image pattern recognition technique could allow for counting the number of hens in the nest in case of a multiple occupation. As a consequence, the accuracy of data collected in studies on laying performances and behaviors of hens, reared in a free-range housing system, could result to be improved.

  6. Detection of multiple potentially pathogenic bacteria in Matang mangrove estuaries, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderpour, Aziz; Mohd Nasori, Khairul Nazrin; Chew, Li Lee; Chong, Ving Ching; Thong, Kwai Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

    2014-06-15

    The deltaic estuarine system of the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve of Malaysia is a site where several human settlements and brackish water aquaculture have been established. Here, we evaluated the level of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the surface water and sediments. Higher levels of FIB were detected at downstream sampling sites from the fishing village, indicating it as a possible source of anthropogenic pollution to the estuary. Enterococci levels in the estuarine sediments were higher than in the surface water, while total coliforms and E. coli in the estuarine sediments were not detected in all samples. Also, various types of potentially pathogenic bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae were isolated. The results indicate that the Matang estuarine system is contaminated with various types of potential human bacterial pathogens which might pose a health risk to the public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Frequency Modulation Multiplexing for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Gases by use of Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Daniel B.; Paige, Mark E.; Bomse, David S.

    1998-04-01

    Modulation frequency multiplexing provides a straightforward method, analogous to television or radio broadcasting, for performing simultaneous detection of multiple gases by use of wavelength modulation spectroscopy with diode lasers. When fiber-optic coupled lasers are used, our approach guarantees that all beams transit the same optical path and impinge on the same detector. Each laser is modulated at a different frequency and the detector output is processed by a set of lock-in amplifiers, one for each laser, to measure the absorbance encountered by each laser.

  8. Land cover change detection using the internal covariance matrix of the extended kalman filter over multiple spectral bands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon, Brian P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Salmon_10577_2013.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1183 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Salmon_10577_2013.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 IEEE Journal... of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol, 6(3): 1079- 1085 Land cover change detection using the internal covariance matrix of the extended kalman filter over multiple spectral bands Salmon BP Kleynhans W Van den Bergh...

  9. Gastrointestinal disease outbreak detection using multiple data streams from electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sharon K; Huang, Jie; Abrams, Allyson M; Gilliss, Debra; Reed, Mary; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S; Kulldorff, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Passive reporting and laboratory testing delays may limit gastrointestinal (GI) disease outbreak detection. Healthcare systems routinely collect clinical data in electronic medical records (EMRs) that could be used for surveillance. This study's primary objective was to identify data streams from EMRs that may perform well for GI outbreak detection. Zip code-specific daily episode counts in 2009 were generated for 22 syndromic and laboratory-based data streams from Kaiser Permanente Northern California EMRs, covering 3.3 million members. Data streams included outpatient and inpatient diagnosis codes, antidiarrheal medication dispensings, stool culture orders, and positive microbiology tests for six GI pathogens. Prospective daily surveillance was mimicked using the space-time permutation scan statistic in single and multi-stream analyses, and space-time clusters were identified. Serotype relatedness was assessed for isolates in two Salmonella clusters. Potential outbreaks included a cluster of 18 stool cultures ordered over 5 days in one zip code and a Salmonella cluster in three zip codes over 9 days, in which at least five of six cases had the same rare serotype. In all, 28 potential outbreaks were identified using single stream analyses, with signals in outpatient diagnosis codes most common. Multi-stream analyses identified additional potential outbreaks and in one example, improved the timeliness of detection. GI disease-related data streams can be used to identify potential outbreaks when generated from EMRs with extensive regional coverage. This process can supplement traditional GI outbreak reports to health departments, which frequently consist of outbreaks in well-defined settings (e.g., day care centers and restaurants) with no laboratory-confirmed pathogen. Data streams most promising for surveillance included microbiology test results, stool culture orders, and outpatient diagnoses. In particular, clusters of microbiology tests positive for specific

  10. Multiple steroid and thyroid hormones detected in baleen from eight whale species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Lysiak, Nadine S; Robbins, Jooke; Moore, Michael J; Seton, Rosemary E; Torres, Leigh; Buck, C Loren

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that some hormones are present in baleen powder from bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus) and North Atlantic right ( Eubalaena glacialis ) whales. To test the potential generalizability of this technique for studies of stress and reproduction in large whales, we sought to determine whether all major classes of steroid and thyroid hormones are detectable in baleen, and whether these hormones are detectable in other mysticetes. Powdered baleen samples were recovered from single specimens of North Atlantic right, bowhead, blue ( Balaenoptera [ B .] musculus ), sei ( B. borealis ), minke ( B. acutorostrata ), fin ( B. physalu s), humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) and gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales. Hormones were extracted with a methanol vortex method, after which we tested all species with commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs, Arbor Assays) for progesterone, testosterone, 17β-estradiol, cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine, representing a wide array of steroid and thyroid hormones of interest for whale physiology research. In total, 64 parallelism tests (8 species × 8 hormones) were evaluated to verify good binding affinity of the assay antibodies to hormones in baleen. We also tested assay accuracy, although available sample volume limited this test to progesterone, testosterone and cortisol. All tested hormones were detectable in baleen powder of all species, and all assays passed parallelism and accuracy tests. Although only single individuals were tested, the consistent detectability of all hormones in all species indicates that baleen hormone analysis is likely applicable to a broad range of mysticetes, and that the EIA kits tested here perform well with baleen extract. Quantification of hormones in baleen may be a suitable technique with which to explore questions that have historically been difficult to address in large whales, including pregnancy and inter-calving interval, age of sexual

  11. Simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple tumor markers using metal ions tagged immunocolloidal gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Teng; Jia, Xinle; Chen, Xia; Ma, Zhanfang

    2014-06-15

    In this work, a sandwich-format electrochemical immunosensor has been fabricated in the aim of simultaneous detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) using metal ions tagged immunocolloidal gold nanocomposites as signal tags. The capture anti-CEA and anti-AFP were immobilized onto the chitosan-Au nanoparticles (CHIT-AuNPs) membrane modified glassy carbon electrode through glutaraldehyde (GA). The metal ion labels could be detected directly through differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) without metal pre-concentration, and the distinct voltammetric peaks had a close relationship with each sandwich-type immunoreaction. Under the optimized conditions, the multiplexed immunoassay exhibited good sensitivity and selectivity for the simultaneous determination of CEA and AFP with linear ranges of 0.01-50 ng mL(-1). The detection limits for CEA and AFP are 4.6 pg mL(-1) and 3.1 pg mL(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of AFP and CEA levels in clinical serum samples, and the results were in good agreement with standard enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This approach gives a promising simple and sensitive immunoassay strategy for clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Fish Pathogens Using a Naked-Eye Readable DNA Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Jung Lin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We coupled 16S rDNA PCR and DNA hybridization technology to construct a microarray for simultaneous detection and discrimination of eight fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Flavobacterium columnare, Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio anguillarum commonly encountered in aquaculture. The array comprised short oligonucleotide probes (30 mer complementary to the polymorphic regions of 16S rRNA genes for the target pathogens. Targets annealed to the microarray probes were reacted with streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3′-indolylphosphate, p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP, resulting in blue spots that are easily visualized by the naked eye. Testing was performed against a total of 168 bacterial strains, i.e., 26 representative collection strains, 81 isolates of target fish pathogens, and 61 ecologically or phylogenetically related strains. The results showed that each probe consistently identified its corresponding target strain with 100% specificity. The detection limit of the microarray was estimated to be in the range of 1 pg for genomic DNA and 103 CFU/mL for pure pathogen cultures. These high specificity and sensitivity results demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA microarrays in the diagnostic detection of fish pathogens.

  13. [Multiple myeloma with significant multifocal osteolysis in a dog without a detectible gammopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, F; Koch, A; Sohns, A

    2013-01-01

    Description of a variant of multiple myeloma in a dog lacking the gammopathy normally associated with this type of neoplasm. A Border Collie mongrel was presented with symptoms of progressive hind-leg weakness, lethargy and tiredness, which had started to appear 6 weeks previously. Radiographic examination showed small osteolytic areas in the spinal column, but also diffuse small areas of increased opacity as well as evidence of decreased bone density in the pelvis and of both femoral necks. Moderate regenerative anaemia, hypogammopathy and hypercalcaemia were diagnosed. Computed tomography scans displayed multifocal osteolysis and bone destruction in the skull, spinal column, scapulae, proximal humeri, pelvis and femoral necks. H&E staining of the biopsies showed bone destruction and monomorphic plasmacyotid cell populations, causing infiltrative bone marrow lesions and osteolysis. In many areas neoplastic plasma cell infiltration of the bone marrow was 70% and in some areas reached 100%. The diagnosis was non-secretory multiple myeloma without apparent secretion of paraproteins into the blood.

  14. Early detection of neutralizing antibodies to interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, H; Millonig, A; Bertolotto, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) affect efficacy of interferon-beta (IFN-b) treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. NAbs evolve in up to 44% of treated patients, usually between 6-18 months on therapy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether early binding antibody (BAb) titers or diffe......BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) affect efficacy of interferon-beta (IFN-b) treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. NAbs evolve in up to 44% of treated patients, usually between 6-18 months on therapy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether early binding antibody (BAb) titers...... or different IFN-b biomarkers predict NAb evolution. METHODS: We included patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) receiving de novo IFN-b treatment in this prospective European multicenter study. Blood samples were collected at baseline, before and after the first IFN-b administration, and again...... after 3, 12 and 24 months on that therapy; for determination of NAbs, BAbs, gene expression of MxA and protein concentrations of MMP-9, TIMP-1, sTRAIL, CXCL-10 and CCL-2. RESULTS: We found that 22 of 164 (13.4%) patients developed NAbs during a median time of 23.8 months on IFN-b treatment...

  15. Analysis of single photon detection in avalanche photodetectors with multi-gain-stage multiplication region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Amir; Zavvari, Mahdi

    2017-02-20

    We report the design and analysis of a single photon avalanche detector (SPAD) with cascaded multiplication stages with asymmetric gain series for near-IR applications. The asymmetric gain profile allows us to selectively enhance the ionization coefficient for injected electrons and suppress the hole-initiated ionization by repetition of high and low field layers. The low field layer acts as a carrier relaxation region, which inhibits avalanche feedback between stages; hence, it is expected to have a lower dark count rate (DCR). The gain stage consists of three distinct layers with different electric fields, which can be adjusted by geometrical and mole fraction design. In this paper we study the effect of these layers' field and thickness on the single photon quantum efficiency (SPQE) and DCR of the proposed SPAD. Our results show that the high-field layer can better influence the performance of the detector rather than the others. In comparison with a conventional SPAD with a uniform multiplication region, our proposed structure shows lower DCR for a same SPQE.

  16. Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: Are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mango, Victoria L., E-mail: vlm2125@columbia.edu [Columbia University Medical Center, Herbert Irving Pavilion, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Morris, Elizabeth A., E-mail: morrise@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); David Dershaw, D., E-mail: dershawd@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Abramson, Andrea, E-mail: abramsoa@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Fry, Charles, E-mail: charles_fry@nymc.edu [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); New York Medical College, 40 Sunshine Cottage Rd, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Moskowitz, Chaya S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Hughes, Mary, E-mail: hughesm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Kaplan, Jennifer, E-mail: kaplanj@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jochelson, Maxine S., E-mail: jochelsm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Abbreviated breast MR demonstrates high sensitivity for breast carcinoma detection. • Time to perform/interpret the abbreviated exam is shorter than a standard MRI exam. • An abbreviated breast MRI could reduce costs and make MRI screening more available. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of an abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, consisting of a precontrast T1 weighted (T1W) image and single early post-contrast T1W image, to detect breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A HIPAA compliant Institutional Review Board approved review of 100 consecutive breast MRI examinations in patients with biopsy proven unicentric breast carcinoma. 79% were invasive carcinomas and 21% were ductal carcinoma in situ. Four experienced breast radiologists, blinded to carcinoma location, history and prior examinations, assessed the abbreviated protocol evaluating only the first post-contrast T1W image, post-processed subtracted first post-contrast and subtraction maximum intensity projection images. Detection and localization of tumor were compared to the standard full diagnostic examination consisting of 13 pre-contrast, post-contrast and post-processed sequences. Results: All 100 cancers were visualized on initial reading of the abbreviated protocol by at least one reader. The mean sensitivity for each sequence was 96% for the first post-contrast sequence, 96% for the first post-contrast subtraction sequence and 93% for the subtraction MIP sequence. Within each sequence, there was no significant difference between the sensitivities among the 4 readers (p = 0.471, p = 0.656, p = 0.139). Mean interpretation time was 44 s (range 11–167 s). The abbreviated imaging protocol could be performed in approximately 10–15 min, compared to 30–40 min for the standard protocol. Conclusion: An abbreviated breast MRI protocol allows detection of breast carcinoma. One pre and post-contrast T1W sequence may be adequate for detecting

  17. Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: Are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango, Victoria L.; Morris, Elizabeth A.; David Dershaw, D.; Abramson, Andrea; Fry, Charles; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Hughes, Mary; Kaplan, Jennifer; Jochelson, Maxine S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Abbreviated breast MR demonstrates high sensitivity for breast carcinoma detection. • Time to perform/interpret the abbreviated exam is shorter than a standard MRI exam. • An abbreviated breast MRI could reduce costs and make MRI screening more available. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of an abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, consisting of a precontrast T1 weighted (T1W) image and single early post-contrast T1W image, to detect breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A HIPAA compliant Institutional Review Board approved review of 100 consecutive breast MRI examinations in patients with biopsy proven unicentric breast carcinoma. 79% were invasive carcinomas and 21% were ductal carcinoma in situ. Four experienced breast radiologists, blinded to carcinoma location, history and prior examinations, assessed the abbreviated protocol evaluating only the first post-contrast T1W image, post-processed subtracted first post-contrast and subtraction maximum intensity projection images. Detection and localization of tumor were compared to the standard full diagnostic examination consisting of 13 pre-contrast, post-contrast and post-processed sequences. Results: All 100 cancers were visualized on initial reading of the abbreviated protocol by at least one reader. The mean sensitivity for each sequence was 96% for the first post-contrast sequence, 96% for the first post-contrast subtraction sequence and 93% for the subtraction MIP sequence. Within each sequence, there was no significant difference between the sensitivities among the 4 readers (p = 0.471, p = 0.656, p = 0.139). Mean interpretation time was 44 s (range 11–167 s). The abbreviated imaging protocol could be performed in approximately 10–15 min, compared to 30–40 min for the standard protocol. Conclusion: An abbreviated breast MRI protocol allows detection of breast carcinoma. One pre and post-contrast T1W sequence may be adequate for detecting

  18. Multi-color quantum dot-based fluorescence immunoassay array for simultaneous visual detection of multiple antibiotic residues in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Erqun; Yu, Mengqun; Wang, Yunyun; Hu, Weihua; Cheng, Dan; Swihart, Mark T; Song, Yang

    2015-10-15

    Antibiotic residues, which are among the most common contaminants in animal-based food products such as milk, have become a significant public health concern. Here, we combine a multicolor quantum dot (QD)-based immunofluorescence assay and an array analysis method to achieve simultaneous, sensitive and visual detection of streptomycin (SM), tetracycline (TC), and penicillin G (PC-G) in milk. Antibodies (Abs) for SM, TC and PC-G were conjugated to QDs with different emission wavelengths (QD 520 nm, QD 565 nm and QD 610 nm) to serve as detection probes (QD-Ab). Then a direct competitive fluorescent immunoassay was performed in antigen-coated microtiter plate wells for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative detection of SM, TC, and PC-G residues, based on fluorescence of the QD-Ab probes. The linear ranges for SM, TC and PC-G were 0.01-25 ng/mL, 0.01-25 ng/mL and 0.01-10 ng/mL, respectively, with detection limit of 5 pg/mL for each of them. Based on fluorescence of the QD-Ab probes, residues of the three antibiotics were determined visually and simultaneously. Compared with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, our method could achieve simultaneous analysis of multiple target antibiotics in multiple samples in a single run (high-throughput analysis) and improved accuracy and sensitivity for analysis of residues of the three antibiotics in authentic milk samples. This new analytical tool can play an important role in ameliorating the negative impact of the residual antibiotics on human health and the ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive performance and backflow study in cervical and post-cervical artificial insemination in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Caravaca, Iván; Izquierdo-Rico, M José; Matás, Carmen; Carvajal, Juan A; Vieira, Luis; Abril, Dario; Soriano-Úbeda, Cristina; García-Vázquez, Francisco A

    2012-12-01

    The present study was developed to evaluate multiparous sow reproductive performance and backflow in post-cervical artificial insemination (post-CAI) using a reduced number of sperm than in cervical artificial insemination (CAI). The experimental groups were divided into sows inseminated by: 1) cervical artificial insemination (CAI): 3×10(9) spermatozoa/80 ml; 2) post-CAI: 1.5×10(9) spermatozoa/40 ml (post-CAI 1); 3) post-CAI using 1×10(9) spermatozoa/26 ml (post-CAI 2). Post-CAI 1 reproductive parameters were similar to those of post-CAI 2 (except for live born litter size which was greater in post-CAI 1) and better than for the CAI group (pinsemination dose incubated inside a colostomy bag (sperm quality control group). The present study shows that the use of post-CAI (either post-CAI 1 or 2) in field conditions can be recommended because the efficiency is similar (in the case of post-CAI 2) or higher (post-CAI 1) than when using the traditional method (CAI), representing a reduction cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  1. 19 Beef cattle pregnancy rates following insemination with aged frozen angus semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination has proven to be a valuable asset to the cattle industry. It is assumed that once good quality semen is frozen in liquid nitrogen it should remain viable indefinitely; however, semen viability has not been systematically evaluated after being stored for several decades. In th...

  2. Investigation of a novel non-surgical method of artificial insemination for sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcervical artificial insemination (AI) with sheep is not frequently used in the US due to low fertility rates. Consequently, laparoscopic AI has been employed to circumvent this situation. The problem with this technique is that while it provides satisfactory levels of fertility the degree of ...

  3. Predictors of ovarian response in intrauterine insemination patients and development of a dosage nomogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, N L C; Lossl, K; Bogstad, J

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to identify predictors of ovarian response in ovulatory patients treated with low-dose recombinant FSH (rFSH), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist and intrauterine insemination (IUI), and to develop an rFSH dosage nomogram based on the findings...

  4. Effects of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen insemination volume on worker behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies consist of tens of thousands of workers and a single reproductive queen that produces a pheromone blend which maintains colony organization. Previous studies indicated that the insemination quantity and volume alter queen mandibular pheromone profiles. In our 11-month long field s...

  5. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  6. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  7. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  8. First successful artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen in rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Saragusty, J; Sós, E; Molnar, V; Reid, C E; Schwarzenberger, F; Hildebrandt, T B

    2009-02-01

    The first successful artificial insemination (AI) in a rhinoceros was reported in 2007 using fresh semen. Following that success, we decided to evaluate the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen for artificial insemination. Semen, collected from a 35-36 year old Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) in the UK was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen semen was used in two intrauterine AI attempts on a 30 years old female rhinoceros in Hungary. The first attempt, conducted 30 days postpartum with an insemination dose of approximately 135 x 10(6) motile cells, failed. The second attempt, conducted two estrus cycles later with an insemination dose of approximately 500 x 10(6) motile cells, resulted in pregnancy and the birth of a healthy offspring. This represents the first successful AI using frozen-thawed semen in a rhinoceros, putting it among very few wildlife species in which AI with frozen-thawed semen resulted in a live birth. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease carrying animals. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for managing genetic diversity in these endangered mammals.

  9. Use of flunixin meglumine in Santa Inês ewes submitted to laparoscopic and transcervical insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Travassos Beltrame

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of flunixim meglumine in Santa Ines ewes submitted to artificial insemination (AI. Forty-four Santa Inês ewes were synchronized and inseminated at fixed times, by the transcervical or laparoscopic route, between 52 and 58 hours after sponge removal. The ewes were split into two treatment groups, to receive intramuscular injections of 2 mL of saline (control treatment or 2.2 mg/kg flunixin meglumine (FM treatment, twice a day between days 9 and 19 after AI. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasound 30 days after the AI. The chi-square test was used to compare the pregnancy rate between the control and flunixin meglumine treatment and between type of insemination, while the t-test, at 5% probability was used to compare the average weight and body condition, using the SAS statistical software. Flunixin meglumine was not effect in increasing the pregnancy rate in Santa Ines ewes undergoing laparoscopic and transcervical insemination.

  10. The effect of insemination/injection time on the results of IVF and ICSI.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.; Stolwijk, A.M.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether a pre-incubation time between oocyte retrieval and insemination or injection had any effect on the success rate of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Based on previously published data, many laboratories retain a time interval

  11. Blastocysts production and collection in albino Syrian hamster using superovulation and intrauterine artificial insemination in non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amiri Divani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo blastocyst production and collection using superovulation and intrauterine insemination was established in albino Syrian hamsters. Twenty female albino hamsters were injected pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 25 IU in non-breeding season and 48 h or 56 h later, 25 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG were injected. Both groups were divided into two subgroups of natural mating and artificial insemination. The former group was mated with a fertile male (1 male for 2 fe-males after hCG injection and in the next morning, the hamsters with vaginal plug were regarded as pregnant. In the artificial insemination group, intrauterine artificial insemination of 1×108 sperms was done 12 h after hCG injection. Blastocysts were counted at 3.5 days after mating or insemination. However, 48 h and 56 h hCG and natural mating and 48 h hCG and artificial insemination were without blastocyst; however the method of 56 h hCG and artificial insemination produced of 15±5 (mean and standard deviation blastocysts in each albino hamster in the winter.

  12. Differential effects of insemination volume and substance on reproductive changes in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, E L; Tarpy, D R; Grozinger, C M

    2013-06-01

    Mating causes dramatic changes in female insects at the behavioural, physiological and molecular level. The factors driving these changes (e.g. seminal proteins, seminal volume) and the molecular pathways by which these factors are operating have been characterized only in a handful of insect species. In the present study, we use instrumental insemination of honey bee queens to examine the role of the insemination substance and volume in triggering post-mating changes. We also examine differences in gene expression patterns in the fat bodies of queens with highly activated ovaries to determine if events during copulation can cause long-term changes in gene expression. We found that the instrumental insemination procedure alone caused cessation of mating flights and triggered ovary activation, with high-volume inseminated queens having the greatest ovary activation. Hierarchical clustering grouped queens primarily by insemination substance and then insemination volume, suggesting that while volume may trigger short-term physiological changes (i.e. ovary activation) substance plays a greater role in regulating long-term transcriptional changes. The results of gene ontology analysis and comparison with previous studies suggest that both insemination substance and volume trigger molecular post-mating changes by altering overlapping gene pathways involved in honey bee reproduction. We also discuss the effects on two genes (vitellogenin and transferrin) involved in reproduction and defence responses. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Comparison of clinical outcomes betweenin vitrofertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in IVF-ICSI split insemination cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Yong-Seog; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in sibling oocytes. Additionally, we evaluated whether the implementation of split insemination contributed to an increase in the number of ICSI procedures. A total of 571 cycles in 555 couples undergoing split insemination cycles were included in this study. Among them, 512 cycles (89.7%) were a couple's first IVF cycle. The patients were under 40 years of age and at least 10 oocytes were retrieved in all cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated to IVF or ICSI. Total fertilization failure was significantly more common in IVF cycles than in ICSI cycles (4.0% vs. 1.4%, p insemination or ICSI was performed in 18 of the 95 cycles in which a second IVF cycle was performed. The clinical outcomes did not differ between IVF and ICSI in split insemination cycles. Split insemination can decrease the risk of total fertilization failure. However, unnecessary ICSI is carried out in most split insemination cycles and the use of split insemination might make ICSI more common.

  14. The use of PGF2α as ovulatory stimulus for timed artificial insemination in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, L F M; Leonardi, C E P; Castro, N A; Viana, J H M; Siqueira, L G B; Castilho, E M; Singh, J; Krusser, R H; Rubin, M I B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a PGF2α-analogue (PGF) on ovulation and pregnancy rates after timed artificial insemination (TAI) in cattle. In experiment 1, crossbred dual-purpose heifers, in a crossover design (3 × 3), were given an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]) plus 1 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) intramuscularly (im) and 250 μg of a PGF-analogue im on Day 0. The CIDR inserts were removed 5 days after follicular wave emergence, and the heifers were randomly divided into three treatment groups to receive the following treatments: (1) 1 mg of EB im (EB group, n = 13); (2) 500 μg of PGF im (PG group, n = 13); or (3) saline (control group, n = 13), 24 hours after CIDR removal. Ovulation occurred earlier in EB (69.81 ± 3.23 hours) and PG groups (73.09 ± 3.23 hours) compared with control (83.07 ± 4.6 hours; P = 0.01) after CIDR removal. In experiment 2, pubertal beef heifers (n = 444), 12 to 14 months of age were used. On Day 0, the heifers were given a CIDR insert plus 2 mg EB im. On Day 9, the CIDR was removed and the heifers were given 500 μg of PGF im. Heifers were randomly assigned into one of three treatment groups: (1) 1 mg of EB (EB group; n = 145); (2) 500 μg of PGF (PG group; n = 149), both 24 hours after CIDR removal; or (3) 600 μg of estradiol cypionate (ECP group; n = 150) at CIDR removal. Timed artificial insemination occurred 48 hours after CIDR removal in the ECP group and 54 hours in the PG and EB groups. The percentage of heifers ovulating was higher in the PG group compared with the other groups (P = 0.08). However, the pregnancy rates did not differ among groups (47.6%, 45%, and 46.6%, for EB, PG, and ECP, respectively; P = 0.9). In experiment 3, 224 lactating beef cows, 40 to 50 days postpartum with 2.5 to 3.5 of body condition score were treated similarly as described in experiment 2, except for the ECP group, which was excluded. The treatments were as follows

  15. [Detection of Helicobacter pylori by immunoblot: a multiple-center study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinhong; Hu, Fulian; Gao, Wen; Cheng, Hong; Liu, Xi; Xu, Le; An, Hejuan; Xie, Yong; Lu, Hong; Li, Yan

    2016-01-26

    To evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)antibody detection kit (immunoblot) in typing H. pylori strains, and to investigate the relationship between characteristics of H. pylori strains and clinical outcomes. A total of 378 patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms who had received gastroscopy and had pathological results within the period from March to August 2012 were collected from 6 centers in China.In all the patients, H. pylori antibody detection kit was used to detect and type serum H. pylori antibodies.The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of immunoblot in diagnosing H. pylori infection were evaluation in comparison to (13)C urea breath test (UBT) as the"gold standard". The results were also compared with those colloidal gold method.The relationship between H. pylori typing and clinical conditions was analyzed. Totally 378 patients were enrolled, in which 257 had H. pylori-positive (13)C UBT results, and 121 were negative.With (13)C UBT as the"gold standard", the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and concordance rate of H. pylori antibodies detection kit(immunoblot)were 97.7%, 86.8%, 94.0%, 94.6%, and 94.2%, respectively; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and concordance rate of colloidal gold method were 84.4%, 92.6%, 96.0%, 73.7%, and 87.0%, respectively.In patients diagnosed as H. pylori-positive by (13)C UBT and immunoblot, 93.0%(53/57) in H. pylori eradication failure patients and 93.8%(182/194)in untreated patients were infected with type Ⅰ H. pylori as detected by immunoblot, with no statistically significant difference (P=0.764). The type Ⅰ strains positive rate was 94.2%(65/69), 89.9%(62/69)and 98.2% (55/56) in non-atrophy gastritis, atrophy gastritis, and duodenal ulcer untreated patients, respectively, the positive rate of type Ⅰ strains higher in duodenal ulcer cases than in gastritis ones, but with no

  16. Capacitive lamb wave transducers with multiple even-modes for biochemical detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li-Feng; Shao, Jin-Ping

    2010-08-01

    The high-order even-modes of high-aspect-ratio rectangular diaphragms are further exploited in this paper to excite Lamb waves. Thus the capacitive Lamb wave transducer (CLWT) can be excited by not only the second-order mode but also higher order even-modes, so that we can obtain higher operation frequencies, and make the CLWTs operate at several different frequencies for different applications. An optimized design with a 3μm thick silicon plate and submicrometer thick conducting silicon diaphragms is given according to the characteristics of the lowest order Lamb wave (i.e. A0 wave) and the TDK model for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT) with high-aspect-ratio rectangular diaphragms. Such a CLWT with multiple even-modes is significant and attractive for gas and liquid sensing in the field of biochemical measurements.

  17. Aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL; Liu, Juewen [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-11-15

    The present invention provides aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneously determining the presence and optionally the concentration of multiple analytes in a sample. Methods of utilizing the system and kits that include the sensor components are also provided. The system includes a first reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a first analyte; a second reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a second analyte; a third polynucleotide; a fourth polynucleotide; a first particle, coupled to the third polynucleotide; a second particle, coupled to the fourth polynucleotide; and at least one quencher, for quenching emissions of the first and second quantum dots, coupled to the first and second reactive polynucleotides. The first particle includes a quantum dot having a first emission wavelength. The second particle includes a second quantum dot having a second emission wavelength different from the first emission wavelength. The third polynucleotide and the fourth polynucleotide are different.

  18. Identifying the Micro-relations Underpinning Familiarity Detection in Dynamic Displays Containing Multiple Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. North

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We identified the important micro-relations that are perceived when attempting to recognize patterns in stimuli consisting of multiple dynamic objects. Skilled and less-skilled participants were presented with point light display sequences representing dynamic patterns in an invasion sport and were subsequently required to make familiarity based recognition judgments in three different conditions, each of which contained only a select number of features that were present at initial viewing. No differences in recognition accuracy were observed between skilled and less-skilled participants when just objects located in the periphery were presented. Yet, when presented with the relative motions of two centrally located attacking objects only, skilled participants were significantly more accurate than less-skilled participants and their recognition accuracy improved further when a target object was included against which these relative motions could be judged. Skilled participants can perceive and recognize global patterns on the basis of centrally located relational information.

  19. Multiple production, transport in atmosphere and detection of high energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Capdevielle, J N; Le Gall, C; Kurp, I; Szabelska, B; Szabelski, J

    2002-01-01

    We describe the general aspects of Monte Carlo collision generators suitable for cosmic ray nucleon-air and nuclei-air interactions, including accelerator and collider data. The problem of the extrapolation at 3 energy decades above the LHC of the main features of high energy collisions is discussed and under theoretical and phenomenological assumptions, the properties of the longitudinal and lateral development of giant extensive air showers simulated with the CORSIKA program are presented. The determination of the primary energy near 10/sup 20/ eV is examined for different observables, total size, densities of charged particles interpolated at 600 m from shower core. The extensive air shower data collected around LHC energy is in better agreement with models of large multiplicities. Beyond this energy, the extrapolation carried assuming the diquark breaking mechanism can change the classic conversion to primary energy and such circumstance can have consequences on the validity of the GZK cut off. In those c...

  20. Studies on the causes of inefficiency in artificial insemination systems in dairy cattle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongiardino, M.E.; Rodriguez de Vinals, L.

    2001-01-01

    Information was obtained on reproductive efficiency and management from 17 dairy farms which use artificial insemination (AI) in Argentina. The methods included use of questionnaires, body condition scoring at calving and AI, measurement of progesterone in milk samples on day of AI (day 0), day 10-12 and day 22-24 by radioimmunoassay, and measurement of milk urea on day 0. The overall conception rate (OCR) from 504 inseminations was 41.5%. There was non-fertilization or early embryo death in 27.8% of cases and late embryo death in 10.4%. Three percent of inseminations were performed on pregnant animals, 8.2% with intermediate progesterone values (1.25-3.18 nmol/L) and more than 2% during anoestrus or with ovarian cysts. Calving season did not affect OCR, but first service conception rate (FSCR) was higher for cows calved during winter and bred in spring. Cows fed pastures and hay (P+H) had lower body condition at the time of AI than those fed pastures plus concentrates with or without hay. The P+H group showed delayed interval to first AI and conception, but higher FSCR. Both groups fed concentrates had higher milk urea that was related to lower OCR. Mean milk urea on the day of AI for cows that conceived was 43.81 ± 1.42 mg/100mL, statistically different from the 48.87 ± 1.58 mg/100mL for those that did not conceive (P<0.05). Inseminators formally trained for more than a month, employed on government farms and paid fixed salaries had better performances than those trained less than a month, employed on commercial farms and paid on the basis of inseminations or conceptions, respectively. OCR was also higher when cows were inseminated into the uterus, when uterine tone was slight, and mucus was clear, compared with those inseminated in the cervix, with marked uterine tone and without the presence of mucus, respectively. Semen of known good quality resulted in higher OCR than semen which was unexamined or without good information on its quality. However, 12

  1. A method for detecting IBD regions simultaneously in multiple individuals--with applications to disease genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders; Hansen, Thomas V O

    2011-01-01

    All individuals in a finite population are related if traced back long enough and will, therefore, share regions of their genomes identical by descent (IBD). Detection of such regions has several important applications-from answering questions about human evolution to locating regions in the huma...... individuals with breast and/or ovarian cancer, and show that a known disease-causing mutation can be mapped to a 2.2-Mb region using SNP data from only five seemingly unrelated affected individuals. This would not be possible using classical linkage mapping or association mapping....

  2. Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ralph L; Wipf, Mathias; Müller, Steffen; Bedner, Kristine; Wright, Iain A; Martin, Colin J; Constable, Edwin C; Fanget, Axel; Schönenberger, Christian; Calame, Michel

    2016-05-06

    Ionic gradients play a crucial role in the physiology of the human body, ranging from metabolism in cells to muscle contractions or brain activities. To monitor these ions, inexpensive, label-free chemical sensing devices are needed. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on silicon (Si) nanowires or nanoribbons (NRs) have a great potential as future biochemical sensors as they allow for the integration in microscopic devices at low production costs. Integrating NRs in dense arrays on a single chip expands the field of applications to implantable electrodes or multifunctional chemical sensing platforms. Ideally, such a platform is capable of detecting numerous species in a complex analyte. Here, we demonstrate the basis for simultaneous sodium and fluoride ion detection with a single sensor chip consisting of arrays of gold-coated SiNR FETs. A microfluidic system with individual channels allows modifying the NR surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of two types of ion receptors sensitive to sodium and fluoride ions. The functionalization procedure results in a differential setup having active fluoride- and sodium-sensitive NRs together with bare gold control NRs on the same chip. Comparing functionalized NRs with control NRs allows the compensation of non-specific contributions from changes in the background electrolyte concentration and reveals the response to the targeted species.

  3. Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph L. Stoop

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionic gradients play a crucial role in the physiology of the human body, ranging from metabolism in cells to muscle contractions or brain activities. To monitor these ions, inexpensive, label-free chemical sensing devices are needed. Field-effect transistors (FETs based on silicon (Si nanowires or nanoribbons (NRs have a great potential as future biochemical sensors as they allow for the integration in microscopic devices at low production costs. Integrating NRs in dense arrays on a single chip expands the field of applications to implantable electrodes or multifunctional chemical sensing platforms. Ideally, such a platform is capable of detecting numerous species in a complex analyte. Here, we demonstrate the basis for simultaneous sodium and fluoride ion detection with a single sensor chip consisting of arrays of gold-coated SiNR FETs. A microfluidic system with individual channels allows modifying the NR surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of two types of ion receptors sensitive to sodium and fluoride ions. The functionalization procedure results in a differential setup having active fluoride- and sodium-sensitive NRs together with bare gold control NRs on the same chip. Comparing functionalized NRs with control NRs allows the compensation of non-specific contributions from changes in the background electrolyte concentration and reveals the response to the targeted species.

  4. Multiple Behavior Change Intervention to Improve Detection of Unmet Social Needs and Resulting Resource Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Jeffrey D; Bettenhausen, Jessica L; Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Plencner, Laura; Krager, Molly; Nelson, Brooke; Donnelly, Sara; Simmons, Julia; Higinio, Valeria; Chung, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    It is critical that pediatric residents learn to effectively screen families for active and addressable social needs (ie, negative social determinants of health). We sought to determine 1) whether a brief intervention teaching residents about IHELP, a social needs screening tool, could improve resident screening, and 2) how accurately IHELP could detect needs in the inpatient setting. During an 18-month period, interns rotating on 1 of 2 otherwise identical inpatient general pediatrics teams were trained in IHELP. Interns on the other team served as the comparison group. Every admission history and physical examination (H&P) was reviewed for IHELP screening. Social work evaluations were used to establish the sensitivity and specificity of IHELP and document resources provided to families with active needs. During a 21-month postintervention period, every third H&P was reviewed to determine median duration of continued IHELP use. A total of 619 admissions met inclusion criteria. Over 80% of intervention team H&Ps documented use of IHELP. The percentage of social work consults was nearly 3 times greater on the intervention team than on the comparison team (P Social work provided resources for 78% of positively screened families. The median duration of screening use by residents after the intervention was 8.1 months (interquartile range 1-10 months). A brief intervention increased resident screening and detection of social needs, leading to important referrals to address those needs. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Detection of Multiple Emerging Pathogens in Sputa from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Fadi; Richet, Hervé; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Stremler, Nathalie; Sarles, Jacques; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence that culture-based methods detect only a small proportion of bacteria present in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Standard microbiological culture and phenotypic identification of bacteria in sputa from CF patients have been compared to molecular methods by the use of 16S rDNA amplification, cloning and sequencing. Twenty-five sputa from CF patients were cultured that yield 33 isolates (13 species) known to be pathogens during CF. For molecular cloning, 760 clones were sequenced (7.2±3.9 species/sputum), and 53 different bacterial species were identified including 16 species of anaerobes (30%). Discrepancies between culture and molecular data were numerous and demonstrate that accurate identification remains challenging. New or emerging bacteria not or rarely reported in CF patients were detected including Dolosigranulum pigrum, Dialister pneumosintes, and Inquilinus limosus. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate the complex microbial community in sputa from CF patients, especially anaerobic bacteria that are probably an underestimated cause of CF lung pathology. Metagenomic analysis is urgently needed to better understand those complex communities in CF pulmonary infections. PMID:18682840

  6. A deviation based assessment methodology for multiple machine health patterns classification and fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaodong; Jin, Chao; Buzza, Matt; Di, Yuan; Siegel, David; Lee, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Successful applications of Diffusion Map (DM) in machine failure detection and diagnosis have been reported in several recent studies. DM provides an efficient way to visualize the high-dimensional, complex and nonlinear machine data, and thus suggests more knowledge about the machine under monitoring. In this paper, a DM based methodology named as DM-EVD is proposed for machine degradation assessment, abnormality detection and diagnosis in an online fashion. Several limitations and challenges of using DM for machine health monitoring have been analyzed and addressed. Based on the proposed DM-EVD, a deviation based methodology is then proposed to include more dimension reduction methods. In this work, the incorporation of Laplacian Eigen-map and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are explored, and the latter algorithm is named as PCA-Dev and is validated in the case study. To show the successful application of the proposed methodology, case studies from diverse fields are presented and investigated in this work. Improved results are reported by benchmarking with other machine learning algorithms.

  7. Formalized Conflicts Detection Based on the Analysis of Multiple Emails: An Approach Combining Statistics and Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Chahnez; Curé, Olivier; Salzano, Gabriella; Smaïli, Kamel

    In Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), it is crucial for project leaders to detect conflicting situations as early as possible. Generally, this task is performed manually by studying a set of documents exchanged between team members. In this paper, we propose a full-fledged automatic solution that identifies documents, subjects and actors involved in relational conflicts. Our approach detects conflicts in emails, probably the most popular type of documents in CSCW, but the methods used can handle other text-based documents. These methods rely on the combination of statistical and ontological operations. The proposed solution is decomposed in several steps: (i) we enrich a simple negative emotion ontology with terms occuring in the corpus of emails, (ii) we categorize each conflicting email according to the concepts of this ontology and (iii) we identify emails, subjects and team members involved in conflicting emails using possibilistic description logic and a set of proposed measures. Each of these steps are evaluated and validated on concrete examples. Moreover, this approach's framework is generic and can be easily adapted to domains other than conflicts, e.g. security issues, and extended with operations making use of our proposed set of measures.

  8. Detection of multiple, novel reverse transcriptase coding sequences in human nucleic acids: relation to primate retroviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, A.; Misra, R.; Rush, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of chemically synthesized oligonucleotides designed on the basis of amino acid and/or nucleotide sequence data were used to detect a large number of novel reverse transcriptase coding sequences in human and mouse DNAs. Procedures involving Southern blotting, library screening, and the polymerase chain reaction were all used to detect such sequences; the polymerase chain reaction was the most rapid and productive approach. In the polymerase chain reaction, oligonucleotide mixtures based on consensus sequence homologies to reverse transcriptase coding sequences and unique oligonucleotides containing perfect homology to the coding sequences of human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II were both effective in amplifying reverse transcriptase-related DNA. It is shown that human DNA contains a wide spectrum of retrovirus-related reverse transcriptase coding sequences, including some that are clearly related to human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II, some that are related to the L-1 family of long interspersed nucleotide sequences, and others that are related to previously described human endogenous proviral DNAs. In addition, human T-cell leukemia virus type I-related sequences appear to be transcribed in both normal human T cells and in a cell line derived from a human teratocarcinoma

  9. Multiple Moving Object Detection for Fast Video Content Description in Compressed Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Mansencal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Indexing deals with the automatic extraction of information with the objective of automatically describing and organizing the content. Thinking of a video stream, different types of information can be considered semantically important. Since we can assume that the most relevant one is linked to the presence of moving foreground objects, their number, their shape, and their appearance can constitute a good mean for content description. For this reason, we propose to combine both motion information and region-based color segmentation to extract moving objects from an MPEG2 compressed video stream starting only considering low-resolution data. This approach, which we refer to as “rough indexing,” consists in processing P-frame motion information first, and then in performing I-frame color segmentation. Next, since many details can be lost due to the low-resolution data, to improve the object detection results, a novel spatiotemporal filtering has been developed which is constituted by a quadric surface modeling the object trace along time. This method enables to effectively correct possible former detection errors without heavily increasing the computational effort.

  10. Magnetic nanowires for rapid and ultrasensitive isolation of DNA from cervical specimens for the detection of multiple human papillomaviruses genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyungJae; Hwang, Na Rae; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Youngnam

    2016-12-15

    Detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) is central in diagnosing and monitoring HPV-related disease. However, limited sensitivity and the wide variability of the HPV genome pose challenges in the identification of HPV genes, particularly high-risk types. This study reports the development of polyethyleneimine-conjugated magnetic nanowires (PEI-MNWs) and their use in the isolation, identification, and analysis of multiple genotypes of HPV DNA from cervical cancer specimens. The nanowires are electrochemically doped with a high density of magnetic nanoparticles and biotin moieties during potentiostatic deposition, thereby allowing conjugating cationic branched polymers to direct the attachment of negatively charged DNA molecules with strong magnetic response. For proof of concept, the rapid and ultrasensitive isolation of HPV DNA is performed at concentrations as low as 10pg/mL with an efficiency of >95%. For clinical optimization, the analytical and clinical sensitivity of PEI-MNWs is compared with that of the Roche Cobas 4800 HPV Test and demonstrates excellent correlation for multiple HPV DNA genotypes with superior threshold cycle values. The high sensitivity, specificity, and good reproducibility of PEI-MNWs are particularly well suited for the recovery of DNA and provide significant and clinically meaningful evidence for the early detection and treatment of HPV-associated cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  12. Calibration of measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy using a contact detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhen; Jeong, Younkoo; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    An accurate experimental method is proposed for on-spot calibration of the measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy. One of the key techniques devised for this method is a reliable contact detection mechanism that detects the tip-surface contact instantly. At the contact instant, the oscillation amplitude of the tip deflection, converted to that of the deflection signal in laser reading through the measurement sensitivity, exactly equals to the distance between the sample surface and the cantilever base position. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes the recorded oscillation amplitude of the deflection signal and the base position of the cantilever at the contact instant for the measurement sensitivity calibration. Experimental apparatus along with various signal processing and control modules was realized to enable automatic and rapid acquisition of multiple sets of data, with which the calibration of a single dynamic mode could be completed in less than 1 s to suppress the effect of thermal drift and measurement noise. Calibration of the measurement sensitivities of the first and second dynamic modes of three micro-cantilevers having distinct geometries was successfully demonstrated. The dependence of the measurement sensitivity on laser spot location was also experimentally investigated. Finally, an experiment was performed to validate the calibrated measurement sensitivity of the second dynamic mode of a micro-cantilever.

  13. A Signal Detection Approach in a Multiple Cohort Study: Different Admission Tools Uniquely Select Different Successful Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda van Ooijen-van der Linden

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Using multiple admission tools in university admission procedures is common practice. This is particularly useful if different admission tools uniquely select different subgroups of students who will be successful in university programs. A signal-detection approach was used to investigate the accuracy of Secondary School grade point average (SSGPA, an admission test score (ACS, and a non-cognitive score (NCS in uniquely selecting successful students. This was done for three consecutive first year cohorts of a broad psychology program. Each applicant's score on SSGPA, ACS, or NCS alone—and on seven combinations of these scores, all considered separate “admission tools”—was compared at two different (medium and high cut-off scores (criterion levels. Each of the tools selected successful students who were not selected by any of the other tools. Both sensitivity and specificity were enhanced by implementing multiple tools. The signal-detection approach distinctively provided useful information for decisions on admission instruments and cut-off scores.

  14. New approaches in buffalo artificial insemination programs with special reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K

    2016-07-01

    Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chicks produced in the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) after cloacal insemination of frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Justine Kellie; Steinman, Karen J; Montano, Gisele A; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro and in vivo functionality of cryopreserved spermatozoa was examined over two breeding seasons in a zoological colony of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Frozen-thawed semen was inseminated into five anesthetized females, over a total of eight egg production cycles, with a different male used for each artificial insemination (AI) within each season. Females were maintained within the colony in cordoned nest sites to prevent copulation with their paired male, and were inseminated every 3-10 days until the first oviposition. Semen frozen from seven males using a straw method retained 39.8%, 25.7%, 74.0%, and 52.1% of its initial total motility, progressive motility, average path velocity, and plasma membrane integrity, respectively. Normal morphology of motile cells was reduced (P inseminations before the first oviposition, with 19.2 ± 1.6 × 10(6) motile, morphologically normal spermatozoa per insemination. Overall fertility was 53.3% (8/15 eggs), hatchability was 50.0% (4/8), and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by the AI male. Fertile eggs were laid at 4.0-12.1 days after AI, indicating that frozen-thawed spermatozoa resided in the female reproductive tract for up to ∼7.2 days prior to fertilization. Results demonstrate that frozen-thawed Magellanic penguin spermatozoa are fully functional in vivo and support the use of genome banking and AI as tools for managing the sustainability of zoological penguin populations. Zoo Biol. 35:326-338, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Influence of seasonality, timing of insemination and rectal temperature on conception rate of crossbred dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransérgio Rocha de Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of rectal temperature (RT on conception rate (CR, as well as the effects of seasonality (spring-summer vs. autumn-winter and timing of artificial insemination (AI (morning vs. afternoon on RT and CR in crossbred dairy cows (Holstein x Gyr. The experiment was conducted on a dairy farm in Centralina, MG, where 1,219 conventional and fixed-time inseminations were analyzed. The RT was measured immediately before AI using a digital thermometer. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed using ultrasonography between 28 and 60 days after AI. T The effects of seasonality and timing of AI on RT were analyzed with a Mann-Whitney U test and the effects of RT (above or below the average, seasonality and timing of AI on CR were analyzed with a Chi-squared test, both using the SAS program. The RT average was 39.4°C. Cows with RT ? 39.4°C had lower CR than cows with RT < 39.4°C (25.78% vs. 32.54%; P = 0.0096. During spring-summer, cows had higher RT (39.44°C ± 0.025 vs. 39.27°C ± 0.022; P < 0.0001 and lower CR (25.49% vs. 31.75%; P = 0.0146 compared with autumn-winter. Cows inseminated in the morning had lower RT (38.96°C ± 0.022 vs. 39.60°C ± 0.018; P < 0.0001 and higher CR (32.86% vs. 26.06%; P = 0.0102 than cows inseminated in the afternoon. In conclusion, crossbred dairy cows with rectal temperature equal to or greater than 39.4°C had lower conception rate. Moreover, rectal temperature and conception rate were affected by seasonality and insemination