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Sample records for detect influenza-like illness

  1. Emergency Department Chief Complaint and Diagnosis Data to Detect Influenza-Like Illness with an Electronic Medical Record

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    May, Larissa S.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Bauers, Nicole Maier; Jain, Arvind; Mitchum, Marsha; Sikka, Neal; Carim, Marianne; Stoto, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of syndromic surveillance is early detection of a disease outbreak. Such systems rely on the earliest data, usually chief complaint. The growing use of electronic medical records (EMR) raises the possibility that other data, such as emergency department (ED) diagnosis, may provide more specific information without significant delay, and might be more effective in detecting outbreaks if mechanisms are in place to monitor and report these data. Objective: The purpose of this study is to characterize the added value of the primary ICD-9 diagnosis assigned at the time of ED disposition compared to the chief complaint for patients with influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of the EMR of a single urban, academic ED with an annual census of over 60, 000 patients per year from June 2005 through May 2006. We evaluate the objective in two ways. First, we characterize the proportion of patients whose ED diagnosis is inconsistent with their chief complaint and the variation by complaint. Second, by comparing time series and applying syndromic detection algorithms, we determine which complaints and diagnoses are the best indicators for the start of the influenza season when compared to the Centers for Disease Control regional data for Influenza-Like Illness for the 2005 to 2006 influenza season using three syndromic surveillance algorithms: univariate cumulative sum (CUSUM), exponentially weighted CUSUM, and multivariate CUSUM. Results: In the first analysis, 29% of patients had a different diagnosis at the time of disposition than suggested by their chief complaint. In the second analysis, complaints and diagnoses consistent with pneumonia, viral illness and upper respiratory infection were together found to be good indicators of the start of the influenza season based on temporal comparison with regional data. In all examples, the diagnosis data outperformed the chief-complaint data. Conclusion: Both analyses

  2. Influenza and other respiratory viruses detected by influenza-like illness surveillance in Leyte Island, the Philippines, 2010-2013.

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    Hirono Otomaru

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the role of influenza-like illness (ILI surveillance conducted on Leyte Island, the Philippines, including involvement of other respiratory viruses, from 2010 to 2013. ILI surveillance was conducted from January 2010 to March 2013 with 3 sentinel sites located in Tacloban city, Palo and Tanauan of Leyte Island. ILI was defined as fever ≥38°C or feverish feeling and either cough or running nose in a patient of any age. Influenza virus and other 5 respiratory viruses were searched. A total of 5,550 ILI cases visited the 3 sites and specimens were collected from 2,031 (36.6% cases. Among the cases sampled, 1,637 (75.6% were children aged <5 years. 874 (43.0% cases were positive for at least one of the respiratory viruses tested. Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were predominantly detected (both were 25.7% followed by human rhinovirus (HRV (17.5%. The age distributions were significantly different between those who were positive for influenza, HRV, and RSV. ILI cases were reported throughout the year and influenza virus was co-detected with those viruses on approximately half of the weeks of study period (RSV in 60.5% and HRV 47.4%. In terms of clinical manifestations, only the rates of headache and sore throat were significantly higher in influenza positive cases than cases positive to other viruses. In conclusion, syndromic ILI surveillance in this area is difficult to detect the start of influenza epidemic without laboratory confirmation which requires huge resources. Age was an important factor that affected positive rates of influenza and other respiratory viruses. Involvement of older age children may be useful to detect influenza more effectively.

  3. The impact of alternative diagnoses on the utility of influenza-like illness case definition to detect the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

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    Rumoro, Dino P; Bayram, Jamil D; Silva, Julio C; Shah, Shital C; Hallock, Marilyn M; Gibbs, Gillian S; Waddell, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the impact of excluding cases with alternative diagnoses on the sensitivity and specificity of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) influenza-like illness (ILI) case definition in detecting the 2009 H1N1 influenza, using Geographic Utilization of Artificial Intelligence in Real-Time for Disease Identification and Alert Notification, a disease surveillance system. Retrospective cross-sectional study design. Emergency department of an urban tertiary care academic medical center. 1,233 ED cases, which were tested for respiratory viruses from September 5, 2009 to May 5, 2010. The main outcome measures were positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the ILI case definition (both including and excluding alternative diagnoses) to detect H1N1. There was a significant decrease in sensitivity (chi2 = 9.09, p < 0.001) and significant improvement in specificity (chi2 = 179, p < 0.001), after excluding cases with alternative diagnoses. When early detection of an influenza epidemic is of prime importance, pursuing alternative diagnoses as part of CDC's ILI case definition may not be warranted for public health reporting due to the significant decrease in sensitivity, in addition to the resources required for detecting these alternative diagnoses.

  4. Influenza-like illness in Mexico and the United States

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-13

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Influenza-like illness in Mexico and the United States. Mexico. First case April 13, 2009 in Mexico. By May 3, 2,498 suspected cases,165 deaths in 31 of 32 States in Mexico. The USA. 24 April 2009. The US reported 7 confirmed human cases of Influenza A/H1N1. Five cases in ...

  5. [Influenza-like illness. Therapeutic experience in family medicine].

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    Muñoz-Cortés, Gerardo; García-Zavala, Guadalupe Ulises; Estrada-Andrade, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease. Surveillance in Mexico is based on the detection of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and antiviral treatment should begin within 48 hours to avoid the main complication, pneumonia. The aim was to describe the experience of treatment of ILI in a family medicine unit. a descriptive study included patients presented to the emergency room with ILI (38°C fever, headache and cough accompanied by other symptoms). We reviewed the reporting formats of Influenza. To follow up, we contacted them by telephone. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. there were 537 patients attended with diagnosis of upper airway infection, 1.3 % met criteria for ILI. 85.7 % were men. The mean age was 18 ± 24.21 years. The patients were seen in a mean time of 19.14 hours after the symptoms have started; 100 % of the patients received treatment with oseltamivir and zanamivir; 14.3 % developed pneumonia. All the patients recovered without concomitant disease or complications. The use of a protocol in patients with influenza in a family medicine unit led an early diagnosis and treatment that favored the patients' health restoration.

  6. Viruses associated with influenza-like-illnesses in Papua New Guinea, 2010.

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    Kono, Jacinta; Jonduo, Marinjho H; Omena, Matthew; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-05-01

    Influenza-like-illness can be caused by a wide range of respiratory viruses. The etiology of influenza-like-illness in developing countries such as Papua New Guinea is poorly understood. The etiological agents associated with influenza-like-illness were investigated retrospectively for 300 nasopharyngeal swabs received by the Papua New Guinea National Influenza Centre in 2010. Real-time PCR/RT-PCR methods were used for the detection of 13 respiratory viruses. Patients with influenza-like-illness were identified according to the World Health Organization case definition: sudden onset of fever (>38°C), with cough and/or sore throat, in the absence of other diagnoses. At least one viral respiratory pathogen was detected in 66.3% of the samples tested. Rhinoviruses (17.0%), influenza A (16.7%), and influenza B (12.7%) were the pathogens detected most frequently. Children 5 years of age. Influenza B, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were all detected at significantly higher rates in children Papua New Guinea. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Early detection for cases of enterovirus- and influenza-like illness through a newly established school-based syndromic surveillance system in Taipei, January 2010 ~ August 2011.

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    Ting Chia Weng

    Full Text Available School children may transmit pathogens with cluster cases occurring on campuses and in families. In response to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1 pandemic, Taipei City Government officials developed a School-based Infectious Disease Syndromic Surveillance System (SID-SSS. Teachers and nurses from preschools to universities in all 12 districts within Taipei are required to daily report cases of symptomatic children or sick leave requests through the SID-SSS. The pre-diagnosis at schools is submitted firstly as common pediatric disease syndrome-groups and re-submitted after confirmation by physicians. We retrieved these data from January 2010 to August 2011 for spatio-temporal analysis and evaluated the temporal trends with cases obtained from both the Emergency Department-based Syndromic Surveillance System (ED-SSS and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005. Through the SID-SSS, enterovirus-like illness (EVI and influenza-like illness (ILI were the two most reported syndrome groups (77.6% and 15.8% among a total of 19,334 cases, respectively. The pre-diagnosis judgments made by school teachers and nurses showed high consistency with physicians' clinical diagnoses for EVI (97.8% and ILI (98.9%. Most importantly, the SID-SSS had better timeliness with earlier peaks of EVI and ILI than those in the ED-SSS. Furthermore, both of the syndrome groups in these two surveillance systems had the best correlation reaching 0.98 and 0.95, respectively (p<0.01. Spatio-temporal analysis observed the patterns of EVI and ILI both diffuse from the northern suburban districts to central Taipei, with ILI spreading faster. This novel system can identify early suspected cases of two important pediatric infections occurring at schools, and clusters from schools/families. It was also cost-effective (95.5% of the operation cost reduced and 59.7% processing time saved. The timely surveillance of mild EVI and ILI cases integrated with spatial analysis may help

  8. Modeling influenza-like illnesses through composite compartmental models

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    Levy, Nir; , Michael, Iv; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2018-03-01

    Epidemiological models for the spread of pathogens in a population are usually only able to describe a single pathogen. This makes their application unrealistic in cases where multiple pathogens with similar symptoms are spreading concurrently within the same population. Here we describe a method which makes possible the application of multiple single-strain models under minimal conditions. As such, our method provides a bridge between theoretical models of epidemiology and data-driven approaches for modeling of influenza and other similar viruses. Our model extends the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model to higher dimensions, allowing the modeling of a population infected by multiple viruses. We further provide a method, based on an overcomplete dictionary of feasible realizations of SIR solutions, to blindly partition the time series representing the number of infected people in a population into individual components, each representing the effect of a single pathogen. We demonstrate the applicability of our proposed method on five years of seasonal influenza-like illness (ILI) rates, estimated from Twitter data. We demonstrate that our method describes, on average, 44% of the variance in the ILI time series. The individual infectious components derived from our model are matched to known viral profiles in the populations, which we demonstrate matches that of independently collected epidemiological data. We further show that the basic reproductive numbers (R 0) of the matched components are in range known for these pathogens. Our results suggest that the proposed method can be applied to other pathogens and geographies, providing a simple method for estimating the parameters of epidemics in a population.

  9. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India

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    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007–2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was...

  10. Evaluation of outbreak detection performance using multi-stream syndromic surveillance for influenza-like illness in rural Hubei Province, China: a temporal simulation model based on healthcare-seeking behaviors.

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    Fan, Yunzhou; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Hongbo; Yang, Wenwen; Yu, Miao; Yan, Weirong; Diwan, Vinod K; Xu, Biao; Dong, Hengjin; Palm, Lars; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance promotes the early detection of diseases outbreaks. Although syndromic surveillance has increased in developing countries, performance on outbreak detection, particularly in cases of multi-stream surveillance, has scarcely been evaluated in rural areas. This study introduces a temporal simulation model based on healthcare-seeking behaviors to evaluate the performance of multi-stream syndromic surveillance for influenza-like illness. Data were obtained in six towns of rural Hubei Province, China, from April 2012 to June 2013. A Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model generated 27 scenarios of simulated influenza A (H1N1) outbreaks, which were converted into corresponding simulated syndromic datasets through the healthcare-behaviors model. We then superimposed converted syndromic datasets onto the baselines obtained to create the testing datasets. Outbreak performance of single-stream surveillance of clinic visit, frequency of over the counter drug purchases, school absenteeism, and multi-stream surveillance of their combinations were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves and activity monitoring operation curves. In the six towns examined, clinic visit surveillance and school absenteeism surveillance exhibited superior performances of outbreak detection than over the counter drug purchase frequency surveillance; the performance of multi-stream surveillance was preferable to signal-stream surveillance, particularly at low specificity (Sp performance of multi-stream surveillance.

  11. Evaluation of outbreak detection performance using multi-stream syndromic surveillance for influenza-like illness in rural Hubei Province, China: a temporal simulation model based on healthcare-seeking behaviors.

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    Yunzhou Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance promotes the early detection of diseases outbreaks. Although syndromic surveillance has increased in developing countries, performance on outbreak detection, particularly in cases of multi-stream surveillance, has scarcely been evaluated in rural areas. OBJECTIVE: This study introduces a temporal simulation model based on healthcare-seeking behaviors to evaluate the performance of multi-stream syndromic surveillance for influenza-like illness. METHODS: Data were obtained in six towns of rural Hubei Province, China, from April 2012 to June 2013. A Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model generated 27 scenarios of simulated influenza A (H1N1 outbreaks, which were converted into corresponding simulated syndromic datasets through the healthcare-behaviors model. We then superimposed converted syndromic datasets onto the baselines obtained to create the testing datasets. Outbreak performance of single-stream surveillance of clinic visit, frequency of over the counter drug purchases, school absenteeism, and multi-stream surveillance of their combinations were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves and activity monitoring operation curves. RESULTS: In the six towns examined, clinic visit surveillance and school absenteeism surveillance exhibited superior performances of outbreak detection than over the counter drug purchase frequency surveillance; the performance of multi-stream surveillance was preferable to signal-stream surveillance, particularly at low specificity (Sp <90%. CONCLUSIONS: The temporal simulation model based on healthcare-seeking behaviors offers an accessible method for evaluating the performance of multi-stream surveillance.

  12. Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006-2010.

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    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month--86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second--higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial appearance in 2009. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was the most common influenza

  13. Electronic Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-like Illness. Experience from a pilot study in New Zealand.

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    Adnan, Mehnaz; Peterkin, Donald; Lopez, Liza; Mackereth, Graham

    2017-02-01

    Electronic reporting of Influenza-like illness (eILI) from primary care was implemented and evaluated in three general medical practices in New Zealand during May to September 2015. To measure the uptake of eILI and to identify the system's strength and limitations. Analysis of transactional data from the eILI system; comparative study of influenza-like illness cases reported using manual methods and eILI; questionnaire administered to clinical and operational stakeholders. Over the study period 66% of total ILI cases were reported using eILI. Reporting timeliness improved significantly compared to manual reporting with an average of 24 minutes from submission by the clinician to processing in the national database. Users found the system to be user-friendly. eILI assists clinicians to report ILI cases to public health authorities within a stipulated time period and is associated with faster, more reliable and improved information transfer.

  14. Influenza virus infection among pediatric patients reporting diarrhea and influenza-like illness

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    Uyeki Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children. While less often reported in adults, gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with influenza in children, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Methods From September 2005 and April 2008, pediatric patients in Indonesia presenting with concurrent diarrhea and influenza-like illness were enrolled in a study to determine the frequency of influenza virus infection in young patients presenting with symptoms less commonly associated with an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Stool specimens and upper respiratory swabs were assayed for the presence of influenza virus. Results Seasonal influenza A or influenza B viral RNA was detected in 85 (11.6% upper respiratory specimens and 21 (2.9% of stool specimens. Viable influenza B virus was isolated from the stool specimen of one case. During the time of this study, human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus were common in the survey area. However, among 733 enrolled subjects, none had evidence of H5N1 virus infection. Conclusions The detection of influenza viral RNA and viable influenza virus from stool suggests that influenza virus may be localized in the gastrointestinal tract of children, may be associated with pediatric diarrhea and may serve as a potential mode of transmission during seasonal and epidemic influenza outbreaks.

  15. Advances in nowcasting influenza-like illness rates using search query logs

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    Lampos, Vasileios; Miller, Andrew C.; Crossan, Steve; Stefansen, Christian

    2015-08-01

    User-generated content can assist epidemiological surveillance in the early detection and prevalence estimation of infectious diseases, such as influenza. Google Flu Trends embodies the first public platform for transforming search queries to indications about the current state of flu in various places all over the world. However, the original model significantly mispredicted influenza-like illness rates in the US during the 2012-13 flu season. In this work, we build on the previous modeling attempt, proposing substantial improvements. Firstly, we investigate the performance of a widely used linear regularized regression solver, known as the Elastic Net. Then, we expand on this model by incorporating the queries selected by the Elastic Net into a nonlinear regression framework, based on a composite Gaussian Process. Finally, we augment the query-only predictions with an autoregressive model, injecting prior knowledge about the disease. We assess predictive performance using five consecutive flu seasons spanning from 2008 to 2013 and qualitatively explain certain shortcomings of the previous approach. Our results indicate that a nonlinear query modeling approach delivers the lowest cumulative nowcasting error, and also suggest that query information significantly improves autoregressive inferences, obtaining state-of-the-art performance.

  16. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India.

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    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007-2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was further confirmed and typed by hemagglutination assay and hemagglutination inhibition assay. Out of 193 samples 24 (12.4 3%) samples tested positive for influenza virus, of which 13 (6.73 %) were influenza type A virus and 10 (5.18 %) were influenza type B virus, while 1 sample (0.51 %) was positive for both. By culture methods, 3 (1.55 %) viral isolates were obtained. All the three isolates were found to be Influenza type B/Malaysia (Victoria lineage) by Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay. The data generated from the present study reveals that both Influenza type A and B are prevalent in Mumbai with considerable activity. The peak activity was observed during monsoon season.

  17. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial

  18. Influenza-Like Illnesses in Senegal: Not Only Focus on Influenza Viruses

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    Dia, Ndongo; Diene Sarr, Fatoumata; Thiam, Diamilatou; Faye Sarr, Tening; Espié, Emmanuelle; OmarBa, Ibrahim; Coly, Malang; Niang, Mbayame; Richard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Influenza surveillance in African countries was initially restricted to the identification of circulating strains. In Senegal, the network has recently been enhanced (i) to include epidemiological data from Dakar and other regions and (ii) to extend virological surveillance to other respiratory viruses. Epidemiological data from the sentinel sites is transmitted daily by mobile phone. The data include those for other febrile syndromes similar to influenza-like illnesses (ILI), corresponding to integrated approach. Also, clinical samples are randomly selected and analyzed for influenza and other respiratory viruses. There were 101,640 declared visits to the 11 sentinel sites between week 11-2012 and week 35-2013; 22% of the visits were for fever syndromes and 23% of the cases of fever syndrome were ILI. Influenza viruses were the second most frequent cause of ILI (20%), after adenoviruses (21%) and before rhinoviruses (18%) and enteroviruses (15%). Co-circulation and co-infection were frequent and were responsible for ILI peaks. The first months of implementation of the enhanced surveillance system confirmed that viruses other the influenza make large contributions to influenza-like illnesses. It is therefore important to consider these etiologies in the development of strategies to reduce respiratory infections. More informative tools and research studies are required to assess the burden of respiratory infections in developing countries. PMID:24675982

  19. Comparison of outpatient medically attended and community-level influenza-like illness-New York City, 2013-2015.

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    Russell, Kate E; Fowlkes, Ashley; Stockwell, Melissa S; Vargas, Celibell Y; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L; LaRussa, Philip; Di Lonardo, Steve; Popowich, Michael; St George, Kirsten; Steffens, Andrea; Reed, Carrie

    2018-05-01

    Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States is primarily conducted through medical settings despite a significant burden of non-medically attended ILI. To assess consistency between surveillance for respiratory viruses in outpatient and community settings using ILI surveillance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) and the Mobile Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and Influenza-Like Illness in the Community (MoSAIC) Study. The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project conducts ILI surveillance in 3 primary care clinics in New York City, and MoSAIC conducts community-based ILI/ARI surveillance through text messaging among a cohort of New York City residents. Both systems obtain respiratory specimens from participants with ILI/ARI and test for multiple pathogens. We conducted a retrospective review of ILI cases in IISP and MoSAIC from January 2013 to May 2015 with descriptive analyses of clinical and laboratory data. Five-hundred twelve MoSAIC and 669 IISP participants met an ILI criteria (fever with cough or sore throat) and were included. Forty percent of MoSAIC participants sought care; the majority primary care. Pathogens were detected in 63% of MoSAIC and 70% of IISP cases. The relative distribution of influenza and other respiratory viruses detected was similar; however, there were statistically significant differences in the frequency that were not explained by care seeking. Outpatient and community-based surveillance in the one found similar timing and relative distribution of respiratory viruses, but community surveillance in a single neighborhood may not fully capture the variations in ILI etiology that occur more broadly. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Influenza-Like Illness among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies

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    Mullins, Jocelyn; Cook, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles; Yablonsky, Eric; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants: Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and…

  1. Eight years of the Great Influenza Survey to monitor influenza-like illness in Flanders.

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    Yannick Vandendijck

    Full Text Available In 2003, an internet-based monitoring system of influenza-like illness (ILI, the Great Influenza Survey (GIS, was initiated in Belgium. For the Flemish part of Belgium, we investigate the representativeness of the GIS population and assess the validity of the survey in terms of ILI incidence during eight influenza seasons (from 2003 through 2011. The validity is investigated by comparing estimated ILI incidences from the GIS with recorded incidences from two other monitoring systems, (i the Belgian Sentinel Network and (ii the Google Flu Trends, and by performing a risk factor analysis to investigate whether the risks on acquiring ILI in the GIS population are comparable with results in the literature. A random walk model of first order is used to estimate ILI incidence trends based on the GIS. Good to excellent correspondence is observed between the estimated ILI trends in the GIS and the recorded trends in the Sentinel Network and the Google Flu Trends. The results of the risk factor analysis are in line with the literature. In conclusion, the GIS is a useful additional surveillance network for ILI monitoring in Flanders. The advantages are the speed at which information is available and the fact that data is gathered directly in the community at an individual level.

  2. Viral etiologies of influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infections in Thailand.

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    Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Yingyong, Thitipong; Praphasiri, Prabda; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2018-07-01

    Information on the burden, characteristics and seasonality of non-influenza respiratory viruses is limited in tropical countries. Describe the epidemiology of selected non-influenza respiratory viruses in Thailand between June 2010 and May 2014 using a sentinel surveillance platform established for influenza. Patients with influenza-like illness (ILI; history of fever or documented temperature ≥38°C, cough, not requiring hospitalization) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; history of fever or documented temperature ≥38°C, cough, onset respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus (MPV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV) 1-3, and adenoviruses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. We screened 15 369 persons with acute respiratory infections and enrolled 8106 cases of ILI (5069 cases respiratory viruses tested, while for SARI cases respiratory viruses, particularly seasonality, although adjustments to case definitions may be required. © 2018 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Revision of clinical case definitions: influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection

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    Qasmieh, Saba; Mounts, Anthony Wayne; Alexander, Burmaa; Besselaar, Terry; Briand, Sylvie; Brown, Caroline; Clark, Seth; Dueger, Erica; Gross, Diane; Hauge, Siri; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Jorgensen, Pernille; Katz, Mark A; Mafi, Ali; Malik, Mamunur; McCarron, Margaret; Meerhoff, Tamara; Mori, Yuichiro; Mott, Joshua; Olivera, Maria Teresa da Costa; Ortiz, Justin R; Palekar, Rakhee; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Soetens, Loes; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Zhang, Wenqing; Vandemaele, Katelijn

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of the condition involved and improvements in diagnostic testing. Optimal case definitions also need to have a balance of sensitivity and specificity that reflects their intended use. After the 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a technical consultation on global influenza surveillance. This prompted improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of the case definition for influenza – i.e. a respiratory disease that lacks uniquely defining symptomology. The revision process not only modified the definition of influenza-like illness, to include a simplified list of the criteria shown to be most predictive of influenza infection, but also clarified the language used for the definition, to enhance interpretability. To capture severe cases of influenza that required hospitalization, a new case definition was also developed for severe acute respiratory infection in all age groups. The new definitions have been found to capture more cases without compromising specificity. Despite the challenge still posed in the clinical separation of influenza from other respiratory infections, the global use of the new WHO case definitions should help determine global trends in the characteristics and transmission of influenza viruses and the associated disease burden. PMID:29403115

  4. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangue, Julie; Roca Sanchez, Yelin; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Bessaud, Maël; Baronti, Cécile; Thirion-Perrier, Laurence; Mafayle, Roxana Loayza; Ardaya, Cinthia Avila; Aguilera, Gabriela Añez; Guzman, Jimmy Revollo; Riera, Javier Lora; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-02-24

    Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients.

  5. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. Methods It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. Results 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Conclusion Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients. PMID:24564892

  6. Acute effects of air pollution on influenza-like illness in Nanjing, China: A population-based study.

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    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Jin; Chen, Kai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xiaodong; Tang, Fenyang

    2016-03-01

    Influenza-like illness causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Air pollution has already been linked to many health issues, and increasing evidence in recent years supports an association between air pollution and respiratory infections. It is a pioneer study in China to quantify the effects of air pollution on influenza-like illness. This study used wavelet coherence analysis and generalized additive models to explore the potential association between air pollution (including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≦2.5 μm (PM2.5), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≦10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and influenza-like illness (a total of 59860 cases) in Nanjing, China from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. The average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 were 77.37 μg/m(3), 135.20 μg/m(3) and 55.80 μg/m(3). An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 2.99% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64%, 4.36%) increase in daily influenza-like cases on the same day, while the corresponding increase in NO2 was associated with a 3.77% (95% CI: 2.01%, 5.56%) increase in daily cases. People aged 0-4 were proved to be significantly susceptible to PM10 and NO2; 5-14 ages were significantly susceptible to PM2.5 and PM10; and 15-24 ages were significantly susceptible to all the analyzed air pollutants. Air pollution effects tended to be null or negative for patients aged over 25, which might be due to the small number of influenza-like cases in this age group. This study can be useful for understanding the adverse health effects of air pollution and the cause of influenza-like illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of statins on influenza-like illness morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Paul; Wu, Jennifer W; Ernst, Pierre; Dell'Aniello, Sophie; Smiechowski, Brielan; Suissa, Samy

    2017-01-01

    The effect of statins on cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses may impact on the prognosis of influenza. We assessed whether statin use decreases the incidence of adverse influenza-related outcomes. Additionally, we used a new-user study design to minimize healthy user bias. We further examined the possibility of non-causal associations by using unrelated outcomes. We used the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to identify all patients aged 30 or older diagnosed with influenza-like illness during 1997-2010. Statin users were compared with propensity score-matched patients not receiving statins. The outcome was hospitalization for influenza or pneumonia or death in the 30 days following influenza diagnosis. Logistic regression estimated cumulative incidence ratios. The study cohort included 5181 statin users matched to 5181 non-users. The 30-day incidence of hospitalization or death was 3.5% in statin users and 5.2% in non-users, resulting in a 27% lower incidence with statin use (cumulative incidence ratio: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.59-0.89). New statin users were less protected against our composite outcome. The effect of statins was less pronounced among those with respiratory and cardiac disease. Statin use was shown to be associated with a non-statistically significant risk reduction of motor vehicle accident and burns. The attenuation of the effect of statins with the new-user design, supporting evidence from the assessment of effect modification, and additional sub-analyses evaluating the effect of statins on non-related outcomes suggest that the beneficial effect of statins on influenza-related adverse outcomes may be explained by a healthy user bias. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Outbreaks of health care-associated influenza-like illness in France: Impact of electronic notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier-Marion, Elodie; Bénet, Thomas; Dananché, Cédric; Soing-Altach, Sophan; Maugat, Sylvie; Vaux, Sophie; Vanhems, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Mandatory notification of health care-associated (HA) infections, including influenza-like illness (ILI) outbreaks, has been implemented in France since 2001. In 2012, the system moved to online electronic notification of HA infections (e-SIN). The objectives of this study are to describe ILI outbreak notifications to Santé publique France (SPF), the French national public health agency, and to evaluate the impact of notification dematerialization. All notifications of HA ILI outbreaks between July 2001 and June 2015 were included. Notifications before and after e-SIN implementation were compared regarding notification delay and information exhaustiveness. Overall, 506 HA ILI outbreaks were reported, accounting for 7,861 patients and health care professionals. Median delay between occurrence of the first case and notification was, respectively, 32 and 13 days before and after e-SIN utilization (P < .001). Information exhaustiveness was improved by electronic notification regarding HA status (8.5% of missing data before and 2.3% after e-SIN, P = .003), hypotheses of cause (25.4% of missing data before vs 8.0% after e-SIN, P < .001), and level of event control (23.7% of missing data before vs 7.5% after e-SIN, P < .001). HA influenza notifications, including HA ILI or influenza, to health authorities are essential to guide decisional instances and health care practices. Electronic notifications have improved the timeliness and quality of information transmitted. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Seasonality of absolute humidity explains seasonality of influenza-like illness in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Pham Quang; Choisy, Marc; Duong, Tran Nhu; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Yen, Nguyen Thu; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Weiss, Daniel J; Boni, Maciej F; Horby, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Experimental and ecological studies have shown the role of climatic factors in driving the epidemiology of influenza. In particular, low absolute humidity (AH) has been shown to increase influenza virus transmissibility and has been identified to explain the onset of epidemics in temperate regions. Here, we aim to study the potential climatic drivers of influenza-like illness (ILI) epidemiology in Vietnam, a tropical country characterized by a high diversity of climates. We specifically focus on quantifying and explaining the seasonality of ILI. We used 18 years (1993-2010) of monthly ILI notifications aggregated by province (52) and monthly climatic variables (minimum, mean, maximum temperatures, absolute and relative humidities, rainfall and hours of sunshine) from 67 weather stations across Vietnam. Seasonalities were quantified from global wavelet spectra, using the value of the power at the period of 1 year as a measure of the intensity of seasonality. The 7 climatic time series were characterized by 534 summary statistics which were entered into a regression tree to identify factors associated with the seasonality of AH. Results were extrapolated to the global scale using simulated climatic times series from the NCEP/NCAR project. The intensity of ILI seasonality in Vietnam is best explained by the intensity of AH seasonality. We find that ILI seasonality is weak in provinces experiencing weak seasonal fluctuations in AH (annual power power >17.6). In Vietnam, AH and ILI are positively correlated. Our results identify a role for AH in driving the epidemiology of ILI in a tropical setting. However, in contrast to temperate regions, high rather than low AH is associated with increased ILI activity. Fluctuation in AH may be the climate factor that underlies and unifies the seasonality of ILI in both temperate and tropical regions. Alternatively, the mechanism of action of AH on disease transmission may be different in cold-dry versus hot-humid settings

  10. Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like-illness in two cities of the tropical country of Ecuador: 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Douce

    Full Text Available Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI in Ecuador, describe what strains of influenza were circulating in the region along with their epidemiologic characteristics, and perform molecular characterization of those strains.This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. Out of 1,702 cases of ILI, nine viral agents were detected in 597 patients. During the time of the study, seven genetic variants of influenza circulated in Ecuador, causing six periods of increased activity. There appeared to be more heterogeneity in the cause of ILI in the tropical city of Guayaquil when compared with the Andean city of Quito.This was the most extensive documentation of the viral causes of ILI in Ecuador to date. Influenza was a common cause of ILI in Ecuador, causing more than one outbreak per year. There was no well defined influenza season although there were periods of time when no influenza was detected alternating with epidemics of different variant strains.

  11. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like-Illness in Two Cities of the Tropical Country of Ecuador: 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douce, Richard W.; Aleman, Washington; Chicaiza-Ayala, Wilson; Madrid, Cesar; Sovero, Merly; Delgado, Franklin; Rodas, Mireya; Ampuero, Julia; Chauca, Gloria; Perez, Juan; Garcia, Josefina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in Ecuador, describe what strains of influenza were circulating in the region along with their epidemiologic characteristics, and perform molecular characterization of those strains. Methodology/Findings This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. Out of 1,702 cases of ILI, nine viral agents were detected in 597 patients. During the time of the study, seven genetic variants of influenza circulated in Ecuador, causing six periods of increased activity. There appeared to be more heterogeneity in the cause of ILI in the tropical city of Guayaquil when compared with the Andean city of Quito. Conclusions/Significance This was the most extensive documentation of the viral causes of ILI in Ecuador to date. Influenza was a common cause of ILI in Ecuador, causing more than one outbreak per year. There was no well defined influenza season although there were periods of time when no influenza was detected alternating with epidemics of different variant strains. PMID:21887216

  12. Influenza-like illness in an urban community of Salvador, Brazil: incidence, seasonality and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos R; Costa, Gisela S R; Paploski, Igor A D; Kikuti, Mariana; Kasper, Amelia M; Silva, Monaise M O; Tavares, Aline S; Cruz, Jaqueline S; Queiroz, Tássia L; Lima, Helena C A V; Calcagno, Juan; Reis, Mitermayer G; Weinberger, Daniel M; Shapiro, Eugene D; Ko, Albert I; Ribeiro, Guilherme S

    2016-03-15

    Our understanding of the epidemiology of influenza is limited in tropical regions, which in turn has hampered identifying optimal region-specific policy to diminish disease burden. Influenza-like illness (ILI) is a clinical diagnosis that can be used as a surrogate for influenza. This study aimed to define the incidence and seasonality of ILI and to assess its association with climatic variables and school calendar in an urban community in the tropical region of Salvador, Brazil. Between 2009 and 2013, we conducted enhanced community-based surveillance for acute febrile illnesses (AFI) among patients ≥ 5 years of age in a slum community emergency unit in Salvador, Brazil. ILI was defined as a measured temperature of ≥ 37.8 °C or reported fever in a patient with cough or sore throat for ≤ 7 days, and negative test results for dengue and leptospirosis. Seasonality was analyzed with a harmonic regression model. Negative binomial regression models were used to correlate ILI incidence with rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and the number of days per month that schools were in session while controlling for seasonality. There were 2,651 (45.6% of 5,817 AFI patients) ILI cases with a mean annual incidence of 60 cases/1,000 population (95% CI 58-62). Risk of ILI was highest among 5-9 year olds with an annual incidence of 105 cases/1,000 population in 2009. ILI had a clear seasonal pattern with peaks between the 35-40th week of the year. ILI peaks were higher and earlier in 5-9 year olds compared with > 19 year olds. No association was seen between ILI and precipitation, relative humidity or temperature. There was a significant association between the incidence of ILI in children 5-9 years of age and number of scheduled school days per month. We identified a significant burden of ILI with distinct seasonality in the Brazilian tropics and highest rates among young school-age children. Seasonal peaks of ILI in children 5-9 years of age were positively associated

  13. Hospital triage system for adult patients using an influenza-like illness scoring system during the 2009 pandemic--Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodriguez-Noriega

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus emerged during 2009. To help clinicians triage adults with acute respiratory illness, a scoring system for influenza-like illness (ILI was implemented at Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, Mexico.A medical history, laboratory and radiology results were collected on emergency room (ER patients with acute respiratory illness to calculate an ILI-score. Patients were evaluated for admission by their ILI-score and clinicians' assessment of risk for developing complications. Nasal and throat swabs were collected from intermediate and high-risk patients for influenza testing by RT-PCR. The disposition and ILI-score of those oseltamivir-treated versus untreated, clinical characteristics of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 patients versus test-negative patients were compared by Pearson's Chi(2, Fisher's Exact, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests.Of 1840 ER patients, 230 were initially hospitalized (mean ILI-score = 15, and the rest were discharged, including 286 ambulatory patients given oseltamivir (median ILI-score = 11, and 1324 untreated (median ILI-score = 5. Fourteen (1% untreated patients returned, and 3 were hospitalized on oseltamivir (median ILI-score = 19. Of 371 patients tested by RT-PCR, 104 (28% had pandemic influenza and 42 (11% had seasonal influenza A detected. Twenty (91% of 22 imaged hospitalized pandemic influenza patients had bilateral infiltrates compared to 23 (38% of 61 imaged hospital test-negative patients (p<0.001. One patient with confirmed pandemic influenza presented 6 days after symptom onset, required mechanical ventilation, and died.The triaging system that used an ILI-score complimented clinicians' judgment of who needed oseltamivir and inpatient care and helped hospital staff manage a surge in demand for services.

  14. Forecasting influenza-like illness dynamics for military populations using neural networks and social media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Volkova

    Full Text Available This work is the first to take advantage of recurrent neural networks to predict influenza-like illness (ILI dynamics from various linguistic signals extracted from social media data. Unlike other approaches that rely on timeseries analysis of historical ILI data and the state-of-the-art machine learning models, we build and evaluate the predictive power of neural network architectures based on Long Short Term Memory (LSTMs units capable of nowcasting (predicting in "real-time" and forecasting (predicting the future ILI dynamics in the 2011 - 2014 influenza seasons. To build our models we integrate information people post in social media e.g., topics, embeddings, word ngrams, stylistic patterns, and communication behavior using hashtags and mentions. We then quantitatively evaluate the predictive power of different social media signals and contrast the performance of the-state-of-the-art regression models with neural networks using a diverse set of evaluation metrics. Finally, we combine ILI and social media signals to build a joint neural network model for ILI dynamics prediction. Unlike the majority of the existing work, we specifically focus on developing models for local rather than national ILI surveillance, specifically for military rather than general populations in 26 U.S. and six international locations., and analyze how model performance depends on the amount of social media data available per location. Our approach demonstrates several advantages: (a Neural network architectures that rely on LSTM units trained on social media data yield the best performance compared to previously used regression models. (b Previously under-explored language and communication behavior features are more predictive of ILI dynamics than stylistic and topic signals expressed in social media. (c Neural network models learned exclusively from social media signals yield comparable or better performance to the models learned from ILI historical data, thus

  15. Forecasting influenza-like illness dynamics for military populations using neural networks and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Ayton, Ellyn; Porterfield, Katherine; Corley, Courtney D

    2017-01-01

    This work is the first to take advantage of recurrent neural networks to predict influenza-like illness (ILI) dynamics from various linguistic signals extracted from social media data. Unlike other approaches that rely on timeseries analysis of historical ILI data and the state-of-the-art machine learning models, we build and evaluate the predictive power of neural network architectures based on Long Short Term Memory (LSTMs) units capable of nowcasting (predicting in "real-time") and forecasting (predicting the future) ILI dynamics in the 2011 - 2014 influenza seasons. To build our models we integrate information people post in social media e.g., topics, embeddings, word ngrams, stylistic patterns, and communication behavior using hashtags and mentions. We then quantitatively evaluate the predictive power of different social media signals and contrast the performance of the-state-of-the-art regression models with neural networks using a diverse set of evaluation metrics. Finally, we combine ILI and social media signals to build a joint neural network model for ILI dynamics prediction. Unlike the majority of the existing work, we specifically focus on developing models for local rather than national ILI surveillance, specifically for military rather than general populations in 26 U.S. and six international locations., and analyze how model performance depends on the amount of social media data available per location. Our approach demonstrates several advantages: (a) Neural network architectures that rely on LSTM units trained on social media data yield the best performance compared to previously used regression models. (b) Previously under-explored language and communication behavior features are more predictive of ILI dynamics than stylistic and topic signals expressed in social media. (c) Neural network models learned exclusively from social media signals yield comparable or better performance to the models learned from ILI historical data, thus, signals from

  16. Laboratory surveillance of influenza-like illness in seven teaching hospitals, South Korea: 2011-2012 season.

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    Ji Yun Noh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A well-constructed and properly operating influenza surveillance scheme is essential for public health. This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of respiratory viruses in patients with influenza-like illness (ILI through the first teaching hospital-based surveillance scheme for ILI in South Korea. METHODS: Respiratory specimens were obtained from adult patients (≥18 years who visited the emergency department (ED with ILI from week 40, 2011 to week 22, 2012. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect respiratory viruses: influenza virus, adenovirus, coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, bocavirus, and enterovirus. RESULTS: Among 1,983 patients who visited the ED with ILI, 811 (40.9% were male. The median age of patients was 43 years. Influenza vaccination rate was 21.7% (430/1,983 during the 2011-2012 season. At least one comorbidity was found in 18% of patients. The positive rate of respiratory viruses was 52.1% (1,033/1,983 and the total number of detected viruses was 1,100. Influenza A virus was the dominant agent (677, 61.5% in all age groups. The prevalence of human metapneumovirus was higher in patients more than 50 years old, while adenovirus was detected only in younger adults. In 58 (5.6% cases, two or more respiratory viruses were detected. The co-incidence case was identified more frequently in patients with hematologic malignancy or organ transplantation recipients, however it was not related to clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study is valuable as the first extensive laboratory surveillance of the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in ILI patients through a teaching hospital-based influenza surveillance system in South Korea.

  17. [Status of acute upper respiratory infection, influenza-like illness, and influenza vaccination coverage among community residents in Jinan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Song, Shaoxia; Wang, Wei; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Wen; Han, Debiao; Liu, Ti; Wu, Julong; Li, Zhong; Wang, Xianjun; Bi, Zhenqiang

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the status of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI) among community residents in Jinan in 2015, and to make a understand of the patient's medical treatment behavior and influenza vaccination coverage status in 2014. Balloting method and convenient sampling method were used to launch a household survey. The residents who had been in Jinan for more than 3 months were selected, to investigate the residents' attack ratio of acute upper respiratory and influenza-like from Jan. 8 to Feb. 7, 2015. Totally, 1 300 persons from 410 families were involved in this survey which recovered 1 241 valid questionnaires with the efficiency of 95.5%. Based on the national age-urban demographic statistics in 2010, the attack rates of acute respiratory infections, influenza-like illness were estimated by the direct standardization method, and the influenza vaccination rates were also calculated in this study. χ(2)-test method was used to compare the different status of incidence and vaccination among residents with different features. The attack rate of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness in Jinan from January 8, 2015 to February 7, 2015 were 30.2% (375 cases), and 6.1% (76 cases), respectively, with a standardized rate of 29.1% and 5.4%. 5.3% (66 cases) of the residents have vaccinated with the influenza vaccine inoculation, with an adjusted rate of 3.8%. The attack rate difference of acute upper respiratory tract infections was statistically significant between each age group (χ(2)=17.121, P= 0.002). The 0-4 age group had a highest attack rate (45.4%) of acute respiratory infection, while the 15-24 age group got the lowest (26.5%). 38.9% (146 cases) of patients went for a treatment in hospital. Among them, 37.7% (55 cases) of them selected the county level hospitals for treatment, 37.7% (55 cases) selected the community level hospitals, and 24.6% (36 cases) selected the individual clinic. Significant differences of

  18. Incidence of influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection during three influenza seasons in Bangladesh, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, ASM; Rahman, Mustafizur; Homaira, Nusrat; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Sharker, MA Yushuf; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Dee, Jacob; Gurley, Emily S; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Mah-E-Muneer, Syeda; Fry, Alicia M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Lindstrom, Stephen; Azim, Tasnim; Brooks, Abdullah; Podder, Goutam; Hossain, M Jahangir; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine how much influenza contributes to severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), a leading cause of death in children, among people of all ages in Bangladesh. Methods Physicians obtained nasal and throat swabs to test for influenza virus from patients who were hospitalized within 7 days of the onset of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) or who consulted as outpatients for influenza-like illness (ILI). A community health care utilization survey was conducted to determine the proportion of hospital catchment area residents who sought care at study hospitals and calculate the incidence of influenza using this denominator. Findings The estimated incidence of SARI associated with influenza in children < 5 years old was 6.7 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0–18.3); 4.4 (95% CI: 0–13.4) and 6.5 per 1000 person–years (95% CI: 0–8.3/1000) during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 influenza seasons, respectively. The incidence of SARI in people aged ≥ 5 years was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.4–2.0) and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.5–2.2) per 10 000 person–years during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The incidence of medically attended, laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza in outpatients with ILI was 10 (95% CI: 8–14), 6.6 (95% CI: 5–9) and 17 per 100 person–years (95% CI: 13–22) during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 influenza seasons, respectively. Conclusion Influenza-like illness is a frequent cause of consultation in the outpatient setting in Bangladesh. Children aged less than 5 years are hospitalized for influenza in greater proportions than children in other age groups. PMID:22271960

  19. Evaluation of an influenza-like illness case definition in the diagnosis of influenza among patients with acute febrile illness in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Matthew R; Wierzba, Thomas F; Sovann, Ly; Blair, Patrick J; Putnam, Shannon D

    2010-11-07

    Influenza-like illness (ILI) is often defined as fever (>38.0°C) with cough or sore throat. In this study, we tested the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of this case definition in a Cambodia patient population. Passive clinic-based surveillance was established at nine healthcare centers to identify the causes of acute undifferentiated fever in patients aged two years and older seeking treatment. Fever was defined as tympanic membrane temperature >38°C lasting more than 24 hours and less than 10 days. Influenza virus infections were identified by polymerase chain reaction. From July 2008 to December 2008, 2,639 patients were enrolled. From 884 (33%) patients positive for influenza, 652 presented with ILI and 232 acute fever patients presented without ILI. Analysis by age group identified no significant differences between influenza positive patients from the two groups. Positive predictive values (PPVs) varied during the course of the influenza season and among age groups. The ILI case definition can be used to identify a significant percentage of patients with influenza infection during the influenza season in Cambodia, assisting healthcare providers in its diagnosis and treatment. However, testing samples based on the criteria of fever alone increased our case detection by 34%.

  20. Effect of influenza-like illness and other wintertime respiratory illnesses on worker productivity: The child and household influenza-illness and employee function (CHIEF) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Liisa A; Rousculp, Matthew D; Johnston, Stephen S; Mahadevia, Parthiv J; Nichol, Kristin L

    2010-07-12

    Acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), comprising influenza-like illness (ILI) and other wintertime respiratory illnesses (ORI), impose substantial health and economic burdens on the United States. Little is known about the impact of ILI among household members (HHM), particularly children, on employees' productivity. To quantify the impact of employee and HHM-ILI and ARI on employee productivity, a prospective, observational cohort study was conducted among employees from three large US companies. Employees who had at least one child living at home (N=2013) completed a monthly survey during the 2007-2008 influenza season, reporting the number of days missed from work and hours of presenteeism due to: (1) personal ILI, (2) HHM-ILI, and (3) personal and HHM-ARI. Employee ILI ranged from 4.8% (April) to 13.5% (February). Employees reporting ILI reported more absences than employees not reporting ILI (72% vs 30%, respectively; Pemployees surveyed had at least one child with an ILI; these employees missed more days of work due to HHM illness than employees without an ARI-ill child (0.9 days vs 0.3 days, respectively; PEmployees with ILI were less productive, on average, for 4.8h each day that they worked while sick, 2.5h of which was attributable to ILI. HHM illnesses accounted for 17.7% (1389/7868 days) of employee absenteeism, over half of which was due to HHM-ARI. ILI causes a significant amount of employee absence. Household members, particularly children, comprise a sizable proportion of general illness and injury-related employee absences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influenza-like illness in a Vietnamese province: epidemiology in correlation with weather factors and determinants from the surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Bich; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal influenza affects from 5 to 15% of the world's population annually and causes an estimated 250,000-500,000 deaths worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 'sentinel surveillance' for influenza-like illness (ILI) because it is simple and calls for standardized methods at a relatively low cost that can be implemented throughout the world. In Vietnam, ILI is a key priority for public health also because of its annually recurring temporal pattern. Two major factors, on which the spread of influenza depends, are the strain of the virus and its rate of mutation, since flu strains constantly mutate as they compete with host immune systems. In the context of global climate change, the role of climatic factors has been discussed, as they may significantly contribute to the cause of large outbreaks of ILI. 1) To describe the epidemiology of ILI in Ha Nam province, Vietnam; 2) to seek scientific evidence on the association of ILI occurrence with weather factors in Ha Nam province; and 3) to analyze factors from the Ha Nam ILI surveillance system that contribute to explaining the correlation between the ILI and the weather factors. A data set of 89,270 monthly reported ILI cases from 2008 to 2012 in Ha Nam was used to describe ILI epidemiological characteristics. Spearman correlation analyses between ILI cases and weather factors were conducted to identify which preceding period of months and weather patterns influenced the occurrence of ILI cases. Ten in-depth interviews with health workers in charge of recording and reporting ILI cases at different levels of the ILI surveillance system were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of factors contributing to explaining the relation between the ILI and the weather factors. The results indicated that the ILI occurred annually in all districts of the Ha Nam province in the five studied years. An epidemic occurred in 2009 with the number of cases three times higher than the average threshold. There was a

  2. Influenza-like illness in a Vietnamese province: epidemiology in correlation with weather factors and determinants from the surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seasonal influenza affects from 5 to 15% of the world's population annually and causes an estimated 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends ‘sentinel surveillance’ for influenza-like illness (ILI because it is simple and calls for standardized methods at a relatively low cost that can be implemented throughout the world. In Vietnam, ILI is a key priority for public health also because of its annually recurring temporal pattern. Two major factors, on which the spread of influenza depends, are the strain of the virus and its rate of mutation, since flu strains constantly mutate as they compete with host immune systems. In the context of global climate change, the role of climatic factors has been discussed, as they may significantly contribute to the cause of large outbreaks of ILI. Objectives: 1 To describe the epidemiology of ILI in Ha Nam province, Vietnam; 2 to seek scientific evidence on the association of ILI occurrence with weather factors in Ha Nam province; and 3 to analyze factors from the Ha Nam ILI surveillance system that contribute to explaining the correlation between the ILI and the weather factors. Design: A data set of 89,270 monthly reported ILI cases from 2008 to 2012 in Ha Nam was used to describe ILI epidemiological characteristics. Spearman correlation analyses between ILI cases and weather factors were conducted to identify which preceding period of months and weather patterns influenced the occurrence of ILI cases. Ten in-depth interviews with health workers in charge of recording and reporting ILI cases at different levels of the ILI surveillance system were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of factors contributing to explaining the relation between the ILI and the weather factors. Results: The results indicated that the ILI occurred annually in all districts of the Ha Nam province in the five studied years. An epidemic occurred in 2009 with the number of

  3. Seasonal Web Search Query Selection for Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Mølbak, Kåre; Cox, Ingemar Johansson

    2017-01-01

    Inuenza-like illness (ILI) estimation from web search data is an important web analytics task. The basic idea is to use the frequencies of queries in web search logs that are correlated with past ILI activity as features when estimating current ILI activity. It has been noted that since inuenza...

  4. Characteristics of patients with influenza-like illness, severe acture respiratory illness, and laboratory-confirmed influenza at a major children's hospital in Angola, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Yolanda; Oliveira, Erika; Vasconcelos, Jocelyne; Cohen, Adam L; Francisco, Moises

    2012-12-15

    There are no published data on influenza trends in Angola, where pneumonia is a leading cause of death among young children. This study aims to describe the seasonal trends, types, and subtypes of influenza virus recovered from patients with respiratory illness who were admitted to the major children's hospital in Angola from May 2009 through April 2011. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from patients seen in the outpatient clinic with influenza-like illness (ILI) or hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and tested for influenza virus by polymerase chain reaction assays. Of 691 samples collected, 334 (48%) were from case patients with ILI, and 357 (52%) were from case patients with SARI. Most (86%) of these children were Angola.

  5. A placebo-controlled trial of Korean red ginseng extract for preventing Influenza-like illness in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Ki-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Standardized Korean red ginseng extract has become the best-selling influenza-like illness (ILI remedy in Korea, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of the Korean red ginseng (KRG in reducing ILI incidence remains. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of the KRG extract on the ILI incidence in healthy adults. Methods/Design We will conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at the onset of the influenza seasons. A total of 100 subjects 30-70 years of age will be recruited from the general populations. The subjects will be instructed to take 9 capsules per day of either the KRG extract or a placebo for a period of 3 months. The primary outcome measure is to assess the frequency of ILI onset in participated subjects. Secondary variable measures will be included severity and duration of ILI symptoms. The ILI symptoms will be scored by subjects using a 4-point scale. Discussion This study is a randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the KRG extract compared to placebo and will be provided valuable new information about the clinical and physiological effects of the KRG extract on reduction of ILI incidence including flu and upper respiratory tract infections. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if KRG extract can be shown to be an effective reduction strategy in ILI incidence. Trial Registration NCT01478009.

  6. Viruses Associated With Acute Respiratory Infections and Influenza-like Illness Among Outpatients From the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Ashley; Giorgi, Andrea; Erdman, Dean; Temte, Jon; Goodin, Kate; Di Lonardo, Steve; Sun, Yumei; Martin, Karen; Feist, Michelle; Linz, Rachel; Boulton, Rachelle; Bancroft, Elizabeth; McHugh, Lisa; Lojo, Jose; Filbert, Kimberly; Finelli, Lyn

    2017-01-01

    Background The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) monitored outpatient acute respiratory infection (ARI; defined as the presence of ≥2 respiratory symptoms not meeting ILI criteria) and influenza-like illness (ILI) to determine the incidence and contribution of associated viral etiologies. Methods From August 2010 through July 2011, 57 outpatient healthcare providers in 12 US sites reported weekly the number of visits for ILI and ARI and collected respiratory specimens on a subset for viral testing. The incidence was estimated using the number of patients in the practice as the denominator, and the virus-specific incidence of clinic visits was extrapolated from the proportion of patients testing positive. Results The age-adjusted cumulative incidence of outpatient visits for ARI and ILI combined was 95/1000 persons, with a viral etiology identified in 58% of specimens. Most frequently detected were rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (RV/EV) (21%) and influenza viruses (21%); the resulting extrapolated incidence of outpatient visits was 20 and 19/1000 persons respectively. The incidence of influenza virus-associated clinic visits was highest among patients aged 2–17 years, whereas other viruses had varied patterns among age groups. Conclusions The IISP provides a unique opportunity to estimate the outpatient respiratory illness burden by etiology. Influenza virus infection and RV/EV infection(s) represent a substantial burden of respiratory disease in the US outpatient setting, particularly among children. PMID:24338352

  7. Viruses associated with acute respiratory infections and influenza-like illness among outpatients from the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Ashley; Giorgi, Andrea; Erdman, Dean; Temte, Jon; Goodin, Kate; Di Lonardo, Steve; Sun, Yumei; Martin, Karen; Feist, Michelle; Linz, Rachel; Boulton, Rachelle; Bancroft, Elizabeth; McHugh, Lisa; Lojo, Jose; Filbert, Kimberly; Finelli, Lyn

    2014-06-01

    The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) monitored outpatient acute respiratory infection (ARI; defined as the presence of ≥ 2 respiratory symptoms not meeting ILI criteria) and influenza-like illness (ILI) to determine the incidence and contribution of associated viral etiologies. From August 2010 through July 2011, 57 outpatient healthcare providers in 12 US sites reported weekly the number of visits for ILI and ARI and collected respiratory specimens on a subset for viral testing. The incidence was estimated using the number of patients in the practice as the denominator, and the virus-specific incidence of clinic visits was extrapolated from the proportion of patients testing positive. The age-adjusted cumulative incidence of outpatient visits for ARI and ILI combined was 95/1000 persons, with a viral etiology identified in 58% of specimens. Most frequently detected were rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (RV/EV) (21%) and influenza viruses (21%); the resulting extrapolated incidence of outpatient visits was 20 and 19/1000 persons respectively. The incidence of influenza virus-associated clinic visits was highest among patients aged 2-17 years, whereas other viruses had varied patterns among age groups. The IISP provides a unique opportunity to estimate the outpatient respiratory illness burden by etiology. Influenza virus infection and RV/EV infection(s) represent a substantial burden of respiratory disease in the US outpatient setting, particularly among children.

  8. Characterization of Seasonal Influenza Virus Type and Subtypes Isolated from Influenza Like Illness Cases of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, B P; Ghimire, P; Tashiro, M; Banjara, M R

    Background Seasonal influenza is one of the increasing public health burdens in Nepal. Objective The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the influenza virus type and subtypes of Nepal. Method A total of 1536 throat swab specimens were collected from January to December 2012. Total ribonucleic acid was extracted using Qiagen viral nucleic acid extraction kit and polymerase chain reaction assay was performed following the US; CDC Real-time PCR protocol. Ten percent of positive specimens were inoculated onto Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Isolates were characterized by using reference ferret antisera. Result Of the total specimens (n=1536), influenza virus type A was detected in 196 (22%) cases; of which 194 (99%) were influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and 2 (1 %) were influenza A/H3 subtype. Influenza B was detected in 684 (76.9%) cases. Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B virus were antigenically similar to the recommended influenza virus vaccine candidate of the year 2012. Although sporadic cases of influenza were observed throughout the year, peak was observed during July to November. Conclusion Similar to other tropical countries, A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B viruses were co-circulated in Nepal.

  9. Age-related differences in the accuracy of web query-based predictions of influenza-like illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Domnich

    Full Text Available Web queries are now widely used for modeling, nowcasting and forecasting influenza-like illness (ILI. However, given that ILI attack rates vary significantly across ages, in terms of both magnitude and timing, little is known about whether the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related queries is comparable across different age-groups. The present study aimed to investigate features of the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related query volume from the perspective of age.Since Google Flu Trends is unavailable in Italy, Google Trends was used to identify entry terms that correlated highly with official ILI surveillance data. All-age and age-class-specific modeling was performed by means of linear models with generalized least-square estimation. Hold-out validation was used to quantify prediction accuracy. For purposes of comparison, predictions generated by exponential smoothing were computed.Five search terms showed high correlation coefficients of > .6. In comparison with exponential smoothing, the all-age query-based model correctly predicted the peak time and yielded a higher correlation coefficient with observed ILI morbidity (.978 vs. .929. However, query-based prediction of ILI morbidity was associated with a greater error. Age-class-specific query-based models varied significantly in terms of prediction accuracy. In the 0-4 and 25-44-year age-groups, these did well and outperformed exponential smoothing predictions; in the 15-24 and ≥ 65-year age-classes, however, the query-based models were inaccurate and highly overestimated peak height. In all but one age-class, peak timing predicted by the query-based models coincided with observed timing.The accuracy of web query-based models in predicting ILI morbidity rates could differ among ages. Greater age-specific detail may be useful in flu query-based studies in order to account for age-specific features of the epidemiology of ILI.

  10. Influenza like illness monitoring in adults of the State Capitals and Federal District in Brazil by telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Priscilleyne Ouverney; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Souza, Líbia Roberta de Oliveira; Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; de Almeida, Walquiria Aparecida Ferreira; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    In order to estimate the prevalence of influenza like illness (ILI) in adults from all state capitals and geographic regions in Brazil, a periodical monitoring of ILI cases by the national telephone survey (VIGITEL) was carried out in 2010. A cross-sectional study with 47,876 telephone interviews in the state capitals and Federal District, a probabilistic sample of adult population (>18 years-old) with landline telephone. Questions concerning the results of ILI cases and pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009, from January 10 to November 30, were analyzed. The proportion of cases stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and Brazilian geographic region was weighted with data from the National Survey with Household Sampling (PNAD) 2008. The prevalence of ILI cases in the last 30 days before interview was 31.2% (95%CI 30.2-32.2%) for all state capitals and the Federal District. This prevalence was higher among women, young adults (18 to 29 years-old) and individuals with 9 to 11 years of schooling. According to the geographic region analysis, Northern Brazil presented the highest prevalence of ILI cases. A tendency to increase with further decrease was observed among the geographic regions, except the Northeast. Need for health care assistance was reported by 26.8% (95%CI 25.1-28.5) from ILI cases. Among ILI cases that sought health care assistance, 2.6% (95%CI 1.8-3.4) reported pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 medical suspicion. The results of this survey supported influenza surveillance as it provided timeliness and useful surveillance information, which were not captured by the traditional surveillance system, as the occurrence of ILI and need of health care assistance.

  11. Identifying influenza-like illness presentation from unstructured general practice clinical narrative using a text classifier rule-based expert system versus a clinical expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Jayden; Love, Tom; Baker, Michael G; Dowell, Anthony; Carnachan, Matthew; Stubbe, Maria; McBain, Lynn

    2015-10-06

    We designed and validated a rule-based expert system to identify influenza like illness (ILI) from routinely recorded general practice clinical narrative to aid a larger retrospective research study into the impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in New Zealand. Rules were assessed using pattern matching heuristics on routine clinical narrative. The system was trained using data from 623 clinical encounters and validated using a clinical expert as a gold standard against a mutually exclusive set of 901 records. We calculated a 98.2 % specificity and 90.2 % sensitivity across an ILI incidence of 12.4 % measured against clinical expert classification. Peak problem list identification of ILI by clinical coding in any month was 9.2 % of all detected ILI presentations. Our system addressed an unusual problem domain for clinical narrative classification; using notational, unstructured, clinician entered information in a community care setting. It performed well compared with other approaches and domains. It has potential applications in real-time surveillance of disease, and in assisted problem list coding for clinicians. Our system identified ILI presentation with sufficient accuracy for use at a population level in the wider research study. The peak coding of 9.2 % illustrated the need for automated coding of unstructured narrative in our study.

  12. Prevalence and characterization of enterovirus infections among pediatric patients with hand foot mouth disease, herpangina and influenza like illness in Thailand, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand.

  13. The effect of school dismissal on rates of influenza-like illness in New York City schools during the spring 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Joseph R; Konty, Kevin J; Wilson, Elisha; Karpati, Adam; Matte, Thomas; Weiss, Don; Barbot, Oxiris

    2012-03-01

    The effects of individual school dismissal on influenza transmission have not been well studied. During the spring 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak, New York City implemented an individual school dismissal policy intended to limit influenza transmission at schools with high rates of influenza-like illness (ILI). Active disease surveillance data collected by the New York City Health Department on rates of ILI in schools were used to evaluate the impact. Sixty-four schools that met the Health Department's criteria for considering dismissal were included in the analysis. Twenty-four schools that met criteria subsequently dismissed all classes for approximately 1 school week. A regression model was fit to these data, estimating the effect of school dismissal on rates of in-school ILI following reconvening, adjusting for potential confounders. The model estimated that, on average, school dismissal reduced the rate of ILI by 7.1% over the entire average outbreak period. However, a large proportion of in-school ILI occurred before dismissal criteria were met. A separate model estimated that school absenteeism rates were not significantly affected by dismissal. Results suggest that individual school dismissal could be considered in situations where schools have a disproportionate number of high-risk students or may be unable to implement recommended preventive or infection control measures. Future work should focus on developing more sensitive indicators of early outbreak detection in schools and evaluating the impact of school dismissal on community transmission. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  14. Prevalence and Characterization of Enterovirus Infections among Pediatric Patients with Hand Foot Mouth Disease, Herpangina and Influenza Like Illness in Thailand, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand. PMID:24887237

  15. Using Google Flu Trends data in forecasting influenza-like-illness related ED visits in Omaha, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araz, Ozgur M; Bentley, Dan; Muelleman, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits increase during the influenza seasons. It is essential to identify statistically significant correlates in order to develop an accurate forecasting model for ED visits. Forecasting influenza-like-illness (ILI)-related ED visits can significantly help in developing robust resource management strategies at the EDs. We first performed correlation analyses to understand temporal correlations between several predictors of ILI-related ED visits. We used the data available for Douglas County, the biggest county in Nebraska, for Omaha, the biggest city in the state, and for a major hospital in Omaha. The data set included total and positive influenza test results from the hospital (ie, Antigen rapid (Ag) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) tests); an Internet-based influenza surveillance system data, that is, Google Flu Trends, for both Nebraska and Omaha; total ED visits in Douglas County attributable to ILI; and ILI surveillance network data for Douglas County and Nebraska as the predictors and data for the hospital's ILI-related ED visits as the dependent variable. We used Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average and Holt Winters methods with3 linear regression models to forecast ILI-related ED visits at the hospital and evaluated model performances by comparing the root means square errors (RMSEs). Because of strong positive correlations with ILI-related ED visits between 2008 and 2012, we validated the use of Google Flu Trends data as a predictor in an ED influenza surveillance tool. Of the 5 forecasting models we have tested, linear regression models performed significantly better when Google Flu Trends data were included as a predictor. Regression models including Google Flu Trends data as a predictor variable have lower RMSE, and the lowest is achieved when all other variables are also included in the model in our forecasting experiments for the first 5 weeks of 2013 (with RMSE = 57.61). Google Flu Trends data

  16. Risk factors of respiratory syncytial virus infection among pediatric influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infections in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yukai; Hua, Jun; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liling; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Hong; Tian, Jianmei; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Genming

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics and risk factors of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children has not yet been fully understood. To address the characteristics of RSV-associated illness and risk factors of RSV infection among children under 5 years of age in Suzhou, China. From April 2011 to March 2014, we conducted a prospective surveillance among children in Suzhou, China. Nasal or throat swabs were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and inpatients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI). RSV was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct fluorescent antibody assay for children with ILI and SARI, respectively. Multivariable logistic-regression models were constructed to explore risk factors and symptoms of RSV infection. Of 3267 ILI and 1838 SARI children enrolled in the study, 192 (5.9%) and 287 (15.6%) tested positive for RSV, respectively. Among ILI patients, children with RSV infections visited clinics more often (P = 0.005) and had longer duration of fever (P = 0.032) than those without RSV infection. All RSV-positive children had an increased risk of having cough (OR = 2.9), rhinorrhea (OR = 1.6), breathing difficulty (OR = 3.4), wheezing (OR = 3.3), and irritability (OR = 2.7). Children aged respiratory infections (OR = 1.3) were more likely to get infected by RSV. Children with SARI had higher positive rate of RSV than those with ILI. Cough, rhinorrhea, and wheezing were the most common symptoms in RSV infection. Children aged respiratory infections were the potential risk factors for RSV infection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Enterovirus genotypes among patients with severe acute respiratory illness, influenza-like illness, and asymptomatic individuals in South Africa, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellferscee, Orienka; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Wolter, Nicole; Madhi, Shabir A.; du Plessis, Mignon; Cohen, Cheryl; Treurnicht, Florette K.

    2017-01-01

    Enteroviruses can cause outbreaks of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and EV-A, -B, -C, and -D species have different pathogenic profiles and circulation patterns. We aimed to characterize and determine the prevalence of enterovirus genotypes among South African patients with respiratory illness and controls during June 2012 to July 2014. Syndromic SARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance was performed at two sentinel sites. At each site nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were collected from SARI and ILI patients as well as controls. Specimens were tested for enterovirus by real-time PCR. Positive specimenswere further genotyped by sequencing a region of theVP1 gene. The prevalence of enterovirus was 5.8% (87/1494), 3.4% (103/3079), and 3.4% (46/1367) among SARI, ILI, and controls, respectively (SARI/controls, P=0.002 and ILI/control, P = 0.973). Among the 101/236 (42.8%) enterovirus-positive specimens that could be genotyped, we observed a high diversity of circulating enterovirus genotypes (a total of 33 genotypes) from all four human enterovirus species with high prevalence of Enterovirus-B (60.4%; 61/101) and Enterovirus-A (21.8%; 22/101) compared to Enterovirus-C (10.9%; 11/101) and Enterovirus-D (6.9%; 7/101) (P = 0.477). Of the enterovirus genotypes identified, Echovirus 30 (9.9%, 10/101), Coxsackie virus B5 (7.9%, 8/101) and Enterovirus-D68 (6.9%, 7/101) were most prevalent. There was no difference in disease severity (SARI or ILI compared to controls) between the different enterovirus species (P = 0.167).We observed a high number of enterovirus genotypes in patients with respiratory illness and in controls from South Africa with no disease association of EV species with disease severity. PMID:28574589

  18. Respiratory viruses involved in influenza-like illness in a Greek pediatric population during the winter period of the years 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogka, Vasiliki; Kossivakis, Athanasios; Kalliaropoulos, Antonios; Moutousi, Afroditi; Sgouras, Dionyssios; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Chrousos, George P; Theodoridou, Maria; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki P; Mentis, Andreas F

    2011-10-01

    Viruses are the major cause of pediatric respiratory tract infection and yet many suspected cases of illness remain uncharacterized. This study aimed to determine the distribution of several respiratory viruses in children diagnosed as having influenza-like illness, over the winter period of 2005-2008. Molecular assays including conventional and real time PCR protocols, were employed to screen respiratory specimens, collected by clinicians of the Influenza sentinel system and of outpatient pediatric clinics, for identification of several respiratory viruses. Of 1,272 specimens tested, 814 (64%) were positive for at least one virus and included 387 influenza viruses, 160 rhinoviruses, 155 respiratory syncytial viruses, 95 adenoviruses, 81 bocaviruses, 47 parainfluenza viruses, 44 metapneumoviruses, and 30 coronaviruses. Simultaneous presence of two or three viruses was observed in 173 of the above positive cases, 21% of which included influenza virus and rhinovirus. The majority of positive cases occurred during January and February. Influenza virus predominated in children older than 1 year old, with type B being the dominant type for the first season and subtypes A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 the following two winter seasons, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus prevailed in children younger than 2 years old, with subtypes A and B alternating from year to year. This is the most comprehensive study of the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in Greece, indicating influenza, rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus as major contributors to influenza-like illness in children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Automated data extraction from general practice records in an Australian setting: trends in influenza-like illness in sentinel general practices and emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeqvist, Gösta T H; Staff, Michael; Puech, Michele; Blom, Hans; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2011-06-06

    Influenza intelligence in New South Wales (NSW), Australia is derived mainly from emergency department (ED) presentations and hospital and intensive care admissions, which represent only a portion of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the population. A substantial amount of the remaining data lies hidden in general practice (GP) records. Previous attempts in Australia to gather ILI data from GPs have given them extra work. We explored the possibility of applying automated data extraction from GP records in sentinel surveillance in an Australian setting.The two research questions asked in designing the study were: Can syndromic ILI data be extracted automatically from routine GP data? How do ILI trends in sentinel general practice compare with ILI trends in EDs? We adapted a software program already capable of automated data extraction to identify records of patients with ILI in routine electronic GP records in two of the most commonly used commercial programs. This tool was applied in sentinel sites to gather retrospective data for May-October 2007-2009 and in real-time for the same interval in 2010. The data were compared with that provided by the Public Health Real-time Emergency Department Surveillance System (PHREDSS) and with ED data for the same periods. The GP surveillance tool identified seasonal trends in ILI both retrospectively and in near real-time. The curve of seasonal ILI was more responsive and less volatile than that of PHREDSS on a local area level. The number of weekly ILI presentations ranged from 8 to 128 at GP sites and from 0 to 18 in EDs in non-pandemic years. Automated data extraction from routine GP records offers a means to gather data without introducing any additional work for the practitioner. Adding this method to current surveillance programs will enhance their ability to monitor ILI and to detect early warning signals of new ILI events.

  20. Enterovirus genotypes among patients with severe acute respiratory illness, influenza-like illness, and asymptomatic individuals in South Africa, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellferscee, Orienka; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Wolter, Nicole; Madhi, Shabir A; du Plessis, Mignon; Cohen, Cheryl; Treurnicht, Florette K

    2017-10-01

    Enteroviruses can cause outbreaks of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and EV-A, -B, -C, and -D species have different pathogenic profiles and circulation patterns. We aimed to characterize and determine the prevalence of enterovirus genotypes among South African patients with respiratory illness and controls during June 2012 to July 2014. Syndromic SARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance was performed at two sentinel sites. At each site nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were collected from SARI and ILI patients as well as controls. Specimens were tested for enterovirus by real-time PCR. Positive specimens were further genotyped by sequencing a region of the VP1 gene. The prevalence of enterovirus was 5.8% (87/1494), 3.4% (103/3079), and 3.4% (46/1367) among SARI, ILI, and controls, respectively (SARI/controls, P = 0.002 and ILI/control, P = 0.973). Among the 101/236 (42.8%) enterovirus-positive specimens that could be genotyped, we observed a high diversity of circulating enterovirus genotypes (a total of 33 genotypes) from all four human enterovirus species with high prevalence of Enterovirus-B (60.4%; 61/101) and Enterovirus-A (21.8%; 22/101) compared to Enterovirus-C (10.9%; 11/101) and Enterovirus-D (6.9%; 7/101) (P = 0.477). Of the enterovirus genotypes identified, Echovirus 30 (9.9%, 10/101), Coxsackie virus B5 (7.9%, 8/101) and Enterovirus-D68 (6.9%, 7/101) were most prevalent. There was no difference in disease severity (SARI or ILI compared to controls) between the different enterovirus species (P = 0.167). We observed a high number of enterovirus genotypes in patients with respiratory illness and in controls from South Africa with no disease association of EV species with disease severity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Performance of the inFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) diary in patients with influenza-like illness (ILI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Elizabeth D.; Leidy, Nancy K.; Poon, Jiat-Ling; Stringer, Sonja; Memoli, Matthew J.; Han, Alison; Fairchok, Mary P.; Coles, Christian; Owens, Jackie; Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Danaher, Patrick J.; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.; Ridore, Michelande; Hernández, Andrés; Rodríguez-Zulueta, Patricia; Ortega-Gallegos, Hilda; Galindo-Fraga, Arturo; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Pett, Sarah; Fischer, William; Gillor, Daniel; Moreno Macias, Laura; DuVal, Anna; Rothman, Richard; Dugas, Andrea; Guerrero, M. Lourdes

    2018-01-01

    Background The inFLUenza Patient Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) measure is a daily diary assessing signs/symptoms of influenza across six body systems: Nose, Throat, Eyes, Chest/Respiratory, Gastrointestinal, Body/Systemic, developed and tested in adults with influenza. Objectives This study tested the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of FLU-PRO scores in adults with influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods Data from the prospective, observational study used to develop and test the FLU-PRO in influenza virus positive patients were analyzed. Adults (≥18 years) presenting with influenza symptoms in outpatient settings in the US, UK, Mexico, and South America were enrolled, tested for influenza virus, and asked to complete the 37-item draft FLU-PRO daily for up to 14-days. Analyses were performed on data from patients testing negative. Reliability of the final, 32-item FLU-PRO was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha (α; Day 1) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC; 2-day reproducibility). Convergent and known-groups validity were assessed using patient global assessments of influenza severity (PGA). Patient report of return to usual health was used to assess responsiveness (Day 1–7). Results The analytical sample included 220 ILI patients (mean age = 39.3, 64.1% female, 88.6% white). Sixty-one (28%) were hospitalized at some point in their illness. Internal consistency reliability (α) of FLU-PRO Total score was 0.90 and ranged from 0.72–0.86 for domain scores. Reproducibility (Day 1–2) was 0.64 for Total, ranging from 0.46–0.78 for domain scores. Day 1 FLU-PRO scores correlated (≥0.30) with the PGA (except Gastrointestinal) and were significantly different across PGA severity groups (Total: F = 81.7, pFLU-PRO scores are reliable, valid, and responsive in adults with influenza-like illness. PMID:29566007

  2. Relating calls to US poison centers for potential exposures to medications to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting of influenza-like illness.

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    Beauchamp, Gillian A; McKeown, Nathanael J; Rodriguez, Sergio; Spyker, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) monitors influenza like illness (ILI) and the National Poison Data System (NPDS) warehouses call data uploaded by US poison centers regarding reported exposures to medication. We examined the relationship between calls to poison centers regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI and weekly reports of ILI. The CDC reports ILI, by age group, for each of 10 Health and Human Services (HHS) regions. We examined NPDS summary data from calls reported to poison centers regarding reported exposures to acetaminophen, cough/cold medications, and promethazine, for the same weeks, age groups, and HHS regions for influenza seasons 2000-2013. ILI and NPDS exposures were examined using graphical plots, descriptive statistics, stepwise regression analysis, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). About 5,101,841 influenza-like illness cases were reported to the CDC, and 2,122,940 calls regarding reported exposures to medications commonly used to treat ILI, were reported by poison centers to the NPDS over the 13 flu seasons. Analysis of stepwise models of the linear untransformed data involving 24 NPDS data groups and for 60 ILI measures, over the 13 influenza seasons, demonstrated that reported exposures to medications used to treat ILI correlated with reported cases of ILI with a median R(2 )=( )0.489 (min R(2 )=( )0.248, max R(2 )=( )0.717), with mean ± SD of R(2 )=( )0.494 ± 0.121. Median number of parameters used (degrees of freedom - 1) was 7. NPDS data regarding poison center calls for selected ILI medication exposures were highly correlated with CDC ILI data. Since NPDS data are available in real time, it provides complimentary ILI monitoring. This approach may provide public health value in predicting other illnesses which are not currently as thoroughly monitored.

  3. High burden of non-influenza viruses in influenza-like illness in the early weeks of H1N1v epidemic in France.

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    Nathalie Schnepf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza-like illness (ILI may be caused by a variety of pathogens. Clinical observations are of little help to recognise myxovirus infection and implement appropriate prevention measures. The limited use of molecular tools underestimates the role of other common pathogens. OBJECTIVES: During the early weeks of the 2009-2010 flu pandemic, a clinical and virological survey was conducted in adult and paediatric patients with ILI referred to two French University hospitals in Paris and Tours. Aims were to investigate the different pathogens involved in ILI and describe the associated symptoms. METHODS: H1N1v pandemic influenza diagnosis was performed with real time RT-PCR assay. Other viral aetiologies were investigated by the molecular multiplex assay RespiFinder19®. Clinical data were collected prospectively by physicians using a standard questionnaire. RESULTS: From week 35 to 44, endonasal swabs were collected in 413 patients. Overall, 68 samples (16.5% were positive for H1N1v. In 13 of them, other respiratory pathogens were also detected. Among H1N1v negative samples, 213 (61.9% were positive for various respiratory agents, 190 in single infections and 23 in mixed infections. The most prevalent viruses in H1N1v negative single infections were rhinovirus (62.6%, followed by parainfluenza viruses (24.2% and adenovirus (5.3%. 70.6% of H1N1v cases were identified in patients under 40 years and none after 65 years. There was no difference between clinical symptoms observed in patients infected with H1N1v or with other pathogens. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the high frequency of non-influenza viruses involved in ILI during the pre-epidemic period of a flu alert and the lack of specific clinical signs associated with influenza infections. Rapid diagnostic screening of a large panel of respiratory pathogens may be critical to define and survey the epidemic situation and to provide critical information for patient management.

  4. A Smart Card-Based Electronic School Absenteeism System for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Hong Kong: Design, Implementation, and Feasibility Assessment.

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    Ip, Dennis Km; Lau, Eric Hy; So, Hau Chi; Xiao, Jingyi; Lam, Chi Kin; Fang, Vicky J; Tam, Yat Hung; Leung, Gabriel M; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2017-10-06

    School-aged children have the highest incidence of respiratory virus infections each year, and transmission of respiratory viruses such as influenza virus can be a major concern in school settings. School absenteeism data have been employed as a component of influenza surveillance systems in some locations. Data timeliness and system acceptance remain as key determinants affecting the usefulness of a prospective surveillance system. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing an electronic school absenteeism surveillance system using smart card-based technology for influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance among a representative network of local primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. We designed and implemented a surveillance system according to the Protocol for a Standardized information infrastructure for Pandemic and Emerging infectious disease Response (PROSPER). We employed an existing smart card-based education and school administration platform for data capture, customized the user interface, and used additional back end systems built for other downstream surveillance steps. We invited local schools to participate and collected absenteeism data by the implemented system. We compared temporal trend of the absenteeism data with data from existing community sentinel and laboratory surveillance data. We designed and implemented an ILI surveillance system utilizing smart card-based attendance tracking approach for data capture. We implemented the surveillance system in a total of 107 schools (including 66 primary schools and 41 secondary schools), covering a total of 75,052 children. The system successfully captured information on absences for 2 consecutive academic years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). The absenteeism data we collected from the system reflected ILI activity in the community, with an upsurge in disease activity detected up to 1 to 2 weeks preceding other existing surveillance systems. We designed and implemented a novel

  5. The role of influenza, RSV and other common respiratory viruses in severe acute respiratory infections and influenza-like illness in a population with a high HIV sero-prevalence, South Africa 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Marthi A; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Adam L; Moyes, Jocelyn; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Seleka, Mpho; Hellferscee, Orienka; Treurnicht, Florette; Cohen, Cheryl; Venter, Marietjie

    2016-02-01

    Viruses detected in patients with acute respiratory infections may be the cause of illness or asymptomatic shedding. To estimate the attributable fraction (AF) and the detection rate attributable to illness for each of the different respiratory viruses We compared the prevalence of 10 common respiratory viruses (influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza virus 1-3; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); adenovirus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and enterovirus) in both HIV positive and negative patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and control subjects who did not report any febrile, respiratory or gastrointestinal illness during 2012-2015 in South Africa. We enrolled 1959 SARI, 3784 ILI and 1793 controls with a HIV sero-prevalence of 26%, 30% and 43%, respectively. Influenza virus (AF: 86.3%; 95%CI: 77.7-91.6%), hMPV (AF: 85.6%; 95%CI: 72.0-92.6%), and RSV (AF: 83.7%; 95%CI: 77.5-88.2%) infections were associated with severe disease., while rhinovirus (AF: 46.9%; 95%CI: 37.6-56.5%) and adenovirus (AF: 36.4%; 95%CI: 20.6-49.0%) were only moderately associated. Influenza, RSV and hMPV can be considered pathogens if detected in ILI and SARI while rhinovirus and adenovirus were commonly identified in controls suggesting that they may cause only a proportion of clinical disease observed in positive patients. Nonetheless, they may be important contributors to disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  7. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke Bilcke

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies to (1 describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2 assess influential background characteristics, and (3 formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever, a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  8. A study of the health and economic effects of influenza-like illness on the working population under different working environments of a large corporation in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth K C; Li, Shu Chuen; Kwong, Kai Sun; Chan, Thomas Y K; Lee, Vivian W Y; Lau, Joseph T F

    2008-01-01

    The incidence, health and economic impacts of influenza-like illness (ILI) among the working population in Hong Kong had never been studied. Due to the nature of the disease, ILIs can have a significant impact on the operation of a corporation in terms of loss of productivity and reduced work performance. The present study was undertaken to determine the health and economic impacts of ILIs under different environmental conditions on the working population of a large corporation. Over 2,000 employees of a large corporation in the travelling and tourism industry were studied with three different types of working environment (confined, typical office and well ventilated) by two structured questionnaires. The most affected group in terms of productivity and health was the group working in a confined area, whilst those working in a well-ventilated area were least affected. However, symptoms of the confined area group seemed to disappear faster. The infection rate appeared to vary according to work environment for the studied population. Policies on preventive measures and early treatment are important for a corporation to reduce loss in productivity due to ILIs.

  9. Multiple estimates of transmissibility for the 2009 influenza pandemic based on influenza-like-illness data from small US military populations.

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    Pete Riley

    Full Text Available Rapidly characterizing the amplitude and variability in transmissibility of novel human influenza strains as they emerge is a key public health priority. However, comparison of early estimates of the basic reproduction number during the 2009 pandemic were challenging because of inconsistent data sources and methods. Here, we define and analyze influenza-like-illness (ILI case data from 2009-2010 for the 50 largest spatially distinct US military installations (military population defined by zip code, MPZ. We used publicly available data from non-military sources to show that patterns of ILI incidence in many of these MPZs closely followed the pattern of their enclosing civilian population. After characterizing the broad patterns of incidence (e.g. single-peak, double-peak, we defined a parsimonious SIR-like model with two possible values for intrinsic transmissibility across three epochs. We fitted the parameters of this model to data from all 50 MPZs, finding them to be reasonably well clustered with a median (mean value of 1.39 (1.57 and standard deviation of 0.41. An increasing temporal trend in transmissibility ([Formula: see text], p-value: 0.013 during the period of our study was robust to the removal of high transmissibility outliers and to the removal of the smaller 20 MPZs. Our results demonstrate the utility of rapidly available - and consistent - data from multiple populations.

  10. Assessing Healthcare Utilization for Influenza-like Illness at an Emergency Department and a Student Health Service during the 2009–2010 H1N1 Pandemic

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    Ruchi Bhandari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of healthcare utilization during an influenza pandemic are needed in order to plan for the allocation of staff and resources. The aim of this study was to assess the number, age, and arrival time of patients with influenza-like-illness (ILI, and associations between their symptoms during the 2009–2010 H1N1 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of electronic health records from the student health service (SHS and an emergency department (ED in Morgantown, West Virginia, between January 2009 and December 2010. During the 2009–2010 H1N1 pandemic, patient arrivals at SHS and ED varied over the week. SHS patients arrived early in the week and primarily in the afternoon. ED patient arrivals were more evenly distributed, with busier evenings and weekends. Those with fever were more likely to experience cough, sore throat, vomiting/nausea, chills, congestion, headache, and body-ache. These results can assist health professionals in preparing for an influenza pandemic.

  11. Mortality, severe acute respiratory infection, and influenza-like illness associated with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Argentina, 2009.

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    Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While there is much information about the burden of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in North America, little data exist on its burden in South America. METHODS: During April to December 2009, we actively searched for persons with severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI in three sentinel cities. A proportion of case-patients provided swabs for influenza testing. We estimated the number of case-patients that would have tested positive for influenza by multiplying the number of untested case-patients by the proportion who tested positive. We estimated rates by dividing the estimated number of case-patients by the census population after adjusting for the proportion of case-patients with missing illness onset information and ILI case-patients who visited physicians multiple times for one illness event. RESULTS: We estimated that the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 mortality rate per 100,000 person-years (py ranged from 1.5 among persons aged 5-44 years to 5.6 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. A(H1N1pdm09 hospitalization rates per 100,000 py ranged between 26.9 among children aged <5 years to 41.8 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 ILI rates per 100 py ranged between 1.6 among children aged <5 to 17.1 among persons aged 45-64 years. While 9 (53% of 17 influenza A(H1N1pdm09 decedents with available data had obesity and 7 (17% of 40 had diabetes, less than 4% of surviving influenza A(H1N1pdm09 case-patients had these pre-existing conditions (p ≤ 0.001. CONCLUSION: Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 caused a similar burden of disease in Argentina as in other countries. Such disease burden suggests the potential value of timely influenza vaccinations.

  12. Internet-based surveillance of Influenza-like-illness in the UK during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic

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    Ealden Toby

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet-based surveillance systems to monitor influenza-like illness (ILI have advantages over traditional (physician-based reporting systems, as they can potentially monitor a wider range of cases (i.e. including those that do not seek care. However, the requirement for participants to have internet access and to actively participate calls into question the representativeness of the data. Such systems have been in place in a number of European countries over the last few years, and in July 2009 this was extended to the UK. Here we present results of this survey with the aim of assessing the reliability of the data, and to evaluate methods to correct for possible biases. Methods Internet-based monitoring of ILI was launched near the peak of the first wave of the UK H1N1v influenza pandemic. We compared the recorded ILI incidence with physician-recorded incidence and an estimate of the true number of cases over the course of the epidemic. We also compared overall attack rates. The effect of using different ILI definitions and alternative denominator assumptions on incidence estimates was explored. Results The crude incidence measured by the internet-based system appears to be influenced by individuals who participated only once in the survey and who appeared more likely to be ill. This distorted the overall incidence trend. Concentrating on individuals who reported more than once results in a time series of ILI incidence that matches the trend of case estimates reasonably closely, with a correlation of 0.713 (P-value: 0.0001, 95% CI: 0.435, 0.867. Indeed, the internet-based system appears to give a better estimate of the relative height of the two waves of the UK pandemic than the physician-recorded incidence. The overall attack rate is, however, higher than other estimates, at about 16% when compared with a model-based estimate of 6%. Conclusion Internet-based monitoring of ILI can capture the trends in case numbers if

  13. Quality of life for parents of children with influenza-like illness: development and validation of Care-ILI-QoL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maria Yui Kwan; Morrow, Angela; Heron, Leon; Yin, Jiehui Kevin; Booy, Robert; Leask, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Influenza-like illnesses (ILI) cause paediatric morbidity and affect the quality of life (QoL) of children and their parents. We have developed a disease-specific questionnaire (Care-ILI-QoL) to measure the QoL of caregivers of children with ILI. The drafting of the Care-ILI-QoL questionnaire was based on a systematic review, a quantitative survey, qualitative interviews with parents, and meetings with paediatricians. Children aged 6-48 months recruited from childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, were followed up during the 2011 influenza season. Care-ILI-QoL and SF-12v2 Acute Form were administered to the parent of a sick child 2 weeks after the onset of ILI, and again 2 weeks after the child had recovered. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Internal consistency, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, homogeneity of items, and responsiveness were tested. Out of the 125 children enrolled from 48 childcare centres, 55 children had ILI (total 75 ILI episodes). Care-ILI-QoL was reduced from 25 to 16 items covering four factors: Daily Activities, Perceived Support, Social Life, and Emotions (Cronbach's alphas 0.90, 0.92, 0.78, and 0.72, respectively). Care-ILI-QoL has satisfactory concurrent and discriminant validity, good internal consistency, and excellent responsiveness. Total QoL and factor scores correlated well with SF-12v2 scores. Total QoL scores were significantly lower in parents who perceived their child as very/extremely sick, sacrificed 10 hours or more in work or recreation in caring for the child, or whose child had two or more general practitioner visits. Total QoL and factor scores were significantly higher after the child had recovered than when the child had ILI. Care-ILI-QoL is the first ILI-specific QoL instrument for parents and is demonstrated to be valid and reliable in a developed country setting where the child is affected by ILI. It has the potential to be applied in clinical and research settings to assist measurement of

  14. Prevalence and Incidence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Other Respiratory Viral Infections in Children Aged 6 Months to 10 Years With Influenza-like Illness Enrolled in a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry; Borja-Tabora, Charissa; Lopez, Pio; Weckx, Lily; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Weber, Miguel Angel Rodriguez; Mascareñas de Los Santos, Abiel; Tinoco, Juan-Carlos; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P.; Seng, Lim Fong; Hernandez-de Mezerville, Marcela; Faingezicht, Idis; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Feng, Yang; Li, Ping; Durviaux, Serge; Haars, Gerco; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W.; Taylor, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Background. The high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated morbidity and mortality makes vaccine development a priority. Methods. As part of an efficacy trial of pandemic influenza vaccines (NCT01051661), RSV epidemiology in healthy children aged 6 months to <10 years at first vaccination with influenza-like illness (ILI) was evaluated in Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand between February 2010 and August 2011. Active surveillance for ILI was conducted for approximately 1 year, with nasal and throat swabs analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence and incidence of RSV among ILI episodes were calculated. Results. A total of 6266 children were included, of whom 2421 experienced 3717 ILI episodes with a respiratory sample available. RSV was detected for 359 ILI episodes, a prevalence of 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 8.7–10.7). The highest prevalence was in children aged 12–23 or 24–35 months in all countries except the Philippines, where it was in children aged 6–11 months. The incidence of RSV-associated ILI was 7.0 (6.3–7.7) per 100 person-years (PY). Eighty-eight ILI episodes resulted in hospitalization, of which 8 were associated with RSV (prevalence 9.1% [4.0–17.1]; incidence 0.2 [0.1–0.3] per 100 PY). The incidence of RSV-associated ILI resulting in medical attendance was 6.0 (5.4–6.7) per 100 PY. RSV B subtypes were observed more frequently than A subtypes. Conclusions. Active surveillance demonstrated the considerable burden of RSV-associated illness that would not be identified through hospital-based surveillance, with a substantial part of the burden occurring in older infants and children. PMID:25673560

  15. [Characteristics of infection prevention and coping behavior for seasonal influenza-like illnesses and its relationship to personal characteristics among hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Saki; Takahashi, Mihoko

    2011-10-01

    To describe the infection prevention and coping behavior for seasonal influenza-like illnesses among hospital nurses. We conducted an anonymous questionnaire survey of 444 nurses in October 2007, who belonged to two hospitals in one city. We investigated their infection prevention behavior (handwashing, gargling, mask-use, influenza vaccination rate, humidification of the room, room ventilation, increased physical strength) and coping behavior (type of coping, elapsed time until taking appropriate action, absent days, recognition of infection source) in one season, and their characteristics (sex, age, division, family). 423 questionnaires were analyzed. Most nurses performed handwashing with soap or a disinfectant. However, only 71% and 53% of nurses regularly did this after blowing their nose or touching any hair. Many used only water. Only 58% of the nurses gargled at home. Except after handling linen, gargling was done by less than 10%. Regarding handwashing or gargling, nurses who performed these before the beginning of duties or any treatment was only in the range from 10-25% which was less than when they finished their duties or treatment. Handwashing before beginning duties was significantly associated with "living together with a family" (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] after adjusting for sex and age) (0.32[0.12-0.84]) and "living together with children who go to school" (0.49[0.24-0.995]), respectively. Gargling after any treatment and gargling at home, room humidification and ventilation were all significantly associated with "living together with babies and infants" (2.36[1.07-5.21], 1.87[1.07-3.27], 2.29[1.32-3.97] and 2.46[1.39-4.36]). Fifty-five% of the nurses regularly wore masks during work. The influenza vaccination rate was 82%. 67% of 51 nurses who had flu-like symptoms responded appropriately within 24 hours after onset. However, 25% of 51 nurses did not consult a doctor, but instead took over-the-counter medicine or rested at home. Some

  16. Internet-based monitoring of influenza-like illness (ILI in the general population of the Netherlands during the 2003–2004 influenza season

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    Schellevis François G

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An internet-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI – the Great Influenza Survey or GIS – was launched in the Netherlands in the 2003–2004 influenza season. The aim of the present study was to validate the representativeness of the GIS population and to compare the GIS data with the official ILI data obtained by Dutch GPs participating in the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. Method Direct mailings to schools and universities, and repeated interviews on television and radio, and in newspapers were used to kindle the enthusiasm of a broad section of the public for GIS. Strict symptomatic criteria for ILI were formulated with the assistance of expert institutes and only participants who responded at least five times to weekly e-mails asking them about possible ILI symptoms were included in the survey. Validation of GIS was done at different levels: 1 some key demographic (age distribution and public health statistics (prevalence of asthma and diabetes, and influenza vaccination rates for the Dutch population were compared with corresponding figures calculated from GIS; 2 the ILI rates in GIS were compared with the ILI consultation rates reported by GPs participating in the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. Results 13,300 persons (53% of total responders, replied at least five times to weekly e-mails and were included in the survey. As expected, there was a marked under-representation of the age groups 0–10 years and 81->90 years in the GIS population, although the similarities were remarkable for most other age groups, albeit that the age groups between 21 and 70 years were slightly overrepresented. There were striking similarities between GIS and the Dutch population with regard to the prevalence of asthma (6.4% vs. 6.9% and the influenza vaccination rates, and to a lesser degree for diabetes (2.4% vs. 3.5%. The vaccination rates in patients with asthma or diabetes, and persons older than 65 years were 68%, 85%, and

  17. Changes in the viral distribution pattern after the appearance of the novel influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) virus in influenza-like illness patients in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Torres, Victor Alberto; Gómez, Jorge; Aguilar, Patricia V; Ampuero, Julia S; Munayco, Cesar; Ocaña, Víctor; Pérez, Juan; Gamero, María E; Arrasco, Juan Carlos; Paz, Irmia; Chávez, Edward; Cruz, Rollin; Chavez, Jaime; Mendocilla, Silvia; Gomez, Elizabeth; Antigoni, Juana; Gonzalez, Sofía; Tejada, Cesar; Chowell, Gerardo; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2010-07-27

    We describe the temporal variation in viral agents detected in influenza like illness (ILI) patients before and after the appearance of the ongoing pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) in Peru between 4-January and 13-July 2009. At the health centers, one oropharyngeal swab was obtained for viral isolation. From epidemiological week (EW) 1 to 18, at the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD) in Lima, the specimens were inoculated into four cell lines for virus isolation. In addition, from EW 19 to 28, the specimens were also analyzed by real time-polymerase-chain-reaction (rRT-PCR). We enrolled 2,872 patients: 1,422 cases before the appearance of the pH1N1 virus, and 1,450 during the pandemic. Non-pH1N1 influenza A virus was the predominant viral strain circulating in Peru through (EW) 18, representing 57.8% of the confirmed cases; however, this predominance shifted to pH1N1 (51.5%) from EW 19-28. During this study period, most of pH1N1 cases were diagnosed in the capital city (Lima) followed by other cities including Cusco and Trujillo. In contrast, novel influenza cases were essentially absent in the tropical rain forest (jungle) cities during our study period. The city of Iquitos (Jungle) had the highest number of influenza B cases and only one pH1N1 case. The viral distribution in Peru changed upon the introduction of the pH1N1 virus compared to previous months. Although influenza A viruses continue to be the predominant viral pathogen, the pH1N1 virus predominated over the other influenza A viruses.

  18. Changes in the viral distribution pattern after the appearance of the novel influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1 virus in influenza-like illness patients in Peru.

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    Victor Alberto Laguna-Torres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe the temporal variation in viral agents detected in influenza like illness (ILI patients before and after the appearance of the ongoing pandemic influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 in Peru between 4-January and 13-July 2009. METHODS: At the health centers, one oropharyngeal swab was obtained for viral isolation. From epidemiological week (EW 1 to 18, at the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD in Lima, the specimens were inoculated into four cell lines for virus isolation. In addition, from EW 19 to 28, the specimens were also analyzed by real time-polymerase-chain-reaction (rRT-PCR. RESULTS: We enrolled 2,872 patients: 1,422 cases before the appearance of the pH1N1 virus, and 1,450 during the pandemic. Non-pH1N1 influenza A virus was the predominant viral strain circulating in Peru through (EW 18, representing 57.8% of the confirmed cases; however, this predominance shifted to pH1N1 (51.5% from EW 19-28. During this study period, most of pH1N1 cases were diagnosed in the capital city (Lima followed by other cities including Cusco and Trujillo. In contrast, novel influenza cases were essentially absent in the tropical rain forest (jungle cities during our study period. The city of Iquitos (Jungle had the highest number of influenza B cases and only one pH1N1 case. CONCLUSIONS: The viral distribution in Peru changed upon the introduction of the pH1N1 virus compared to previous months. Although influenza A viruses continue to be the predominant viral pathogen, the pH1N1 virus predominated over the other influenza A viruses.

  19. Human coronavirus OC43 causes influenza-like illness in residents and staff of aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, C. J.; Clothier, H. J.; Seccull, A.; Tran, T.; Catton, M. C.; Lambert, S. B.; Druce, J. D.

    2005-01-01

    Three outbreaks of respiratory illness associated with human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 infection occurred in geographically unrelated aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia during August and September 2002. On clinical and epidemiological grounds the outbreaks were first thought to be caused by influenza virus. HCoV-OC43 was detected by RT-PCR in 16 out of 27 (59%) specimens and was the only virus detected at the time of sampling. Common clinical manifestations were cough (74%), rhinorrhoea (59%) and sore throat (53%). Attack rates and symptoms were similar in residents and staff across the facilities. HCoV-OC43 was also detected in surveillance and diagnostic respiratory samples in the same months. These outbreaks establish this virus as a cause of morbidity in aged-care facilities and add to increasing evidence of the significance of coronavirus infections. PMID:15816152

  20. Influenza vaccination among healthcare workers and absenteeism from work due to influenza-like illness in a teaching hospital in Palermo

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    Emanuele Amodio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Annual flu vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs is recommended worldwide as the best way to prevent influenza and to avoid its transmission. However, in several European Countries, vaccination rate among HCWs is still less than 25%. The aim of this study was to determine the HCW vaccination coverage during a three year period in a large University Hospital, identifying socio demographic and occupational variables involved in the decision to accept influenza vaccination. Moreover, for the 2007-2008 season, we also assessed the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in reducing influenza-related absenteeism.

    Methods: During three consecutive influenza seasons (from 2005-2006 to 2007-2008, a cross-sectional study was carried out on all HCWs employed in the “Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico” (AOUP of Palermo (Italy. Socio-demographic and occupational data of HCWs were collected from administrative hospital personnel records and included gender, age, birthplace, residence, profession and the workplace unit. In addition, during the 2007-2008 season, a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate absence from work due to influenza–like illness (ILI in vaccinated versus unvaccinated personnel.

    Results: A total of 7,848 HCW-years were observed and 881 vaccines were administered during the study period. Vaccination rate declined from 14.7% in 2005-2006 to 8.2% in 2007-2008 (Chi-square for trend=53.6, p<0.001. Coverage was generally higher among older and male HCWs whereas nurses and workers in surgical areas had lower vaccination rates. In the 2007-2008 season, absenteeism due to ILI in the vaccinated group was significantly less common than unvaccinated HCWs (3.3% vs 7.1%; p=0.04.

    Conclusions: Our experience encourages flu vaccination of HCWs and accentuates the importance of annual influenza vaccination programs

  1. Estimating burden of influenza-associated influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection at public healthcare facilities in Romania during the 2011/12-2015/16 influenza seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Pistol, Adriana; Popescu, Rodica; Popovici, Odette; Ciurea, Daniel; Dolk, Christiaan; Jit, Mark; Gross, Diane

    2018-01-01

    Influenza is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, but there is limited information on reliable disease burden estimates, especially from middle-income countries in the WHO European Region. To estimate the incidence of medically attended influenza-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalizations due to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) presenting to public healthcare facilities in Romania. Sentinel influenza surveillance data for ILI and SARI from 2011/12-2015/16, including virological data, were used to estimate influenza-associated ILI and SARI incidence/100 000 and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The overall annual incidence of ILI and influenza-associated ILI per 100 000 persons in Romania varied between 68 (95% CI: 61-76) and 318 (95% CI: 298-338) and between 23 (95% CI: 19-29) and 189 (95% CI: 149-240), respectively. The highest ILI and influenza incidence was among children aged 0-4 years. We estimated that SARI incidence per 100 000 persons was 6 (95% CI: 5-7) to 9 (95% CI: 8-10), of which 2 (95% CI: 1-2) to 3 (95% CI: 2-4) were due to influenza. Up to 0.3% of the Romanian population were annually reported with ILI, and 0.01% was hospitalized with SARI, of which as much as one-third could be explained by influenza. This evaluation was the first study estimating influenza burden in Romania. We found that during each influenza season, a substantial number of persons in Romania suffer from influenza-related ILI or are hospitalized due to influenza-associated SARI. © 2017 The World Health Organization. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Screening for influenza viruses in 7804 patients with influenza-like symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuehui Li; Nan Lv; Chen Hangwe; Lanhua You; Huimin Wang

    2010-01-01

    To screen a large number of patients with influenza-like symptoms by using the gold-immunochromatographic assay kit. All patients with influenza-like symptoms visiting the outpatient department of the General Hospital of Beijing Military Region, Beijing, China between May 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected immediately after the patient visited, then a gold-immunochromatographic assay was performed for screening of influenza A and B viruses according to the kit protocol. Among the 7804 patients enrolled in this study, 202 patients were influenza virus-positive; the positive cases accounted for 2.6% of all cases detected. Among the 202 influenza virus-positive patients, 171 patients were influenza virus A-positive, 24 were influenza virus B-positive, and 7 were co-infected with influenza virus A and B. More than 57% of the virus-positive patients were younger than 30 years old. Symptoms such as fever, sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and joint pain were more frequently observed in influenza virus A-positive patients than in influenza virus B-positive and influenza virus-negative patients. The gold immunochromatographic assay kit is very useful for screening a large number of patients with influenza-like symptoms. A higher number of influenza virus A-positive patients have sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and joint pain than influenza virus B-positive and influenza virus-negative patients (Author).

  3. Detection of human bocavirus from children and adults with acute respiratory tract illness in Guangzhou, southern China

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    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human bocavirus (HBoV is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positive samples from ARTI patients with a wide age distribution from Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=2811 were collected and analyzed from children and adults with ARTI over a 13-month period. The HBoV complete genome from a 60 year-old female patient isolate was also determined. Results HBoV DNA was detected in 65/2811 (2.3% samples, of which 61/1797 were from children (Mycoplasma pneumoniae had the highest frequency of 16.9% (11/65. Upper and lower respiratory tract illness were common symptoms, with 19/65 (29.2% patients diagnosed with pneumonia by chest radiography. All four adult patients had systemic influenza-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome revealed a close relationship with other HBoVs, and a more distant relationship with HBoV2 and HBoV3. Conclusions HBoV was detected from children and adults with ARTI from Guangzhou, southern China. Elderly people were also susceptive to HBoV. A single lineage of HBoV was detected among a wide age distribution of patients with ARTI.

  4. Adults hospitalised with acute respiratory illness rarely have detectable bacteria in the absence of COPD or pneumonia; viral infection predominates in a large prospective UK sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tristan W; Medina, Marie-jo; Batham, Sally; Curran, Martin D; Parmar, Surendra; Nicholson, Karl G

    2014-11-01

    Many adult patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness have viruses detected but the overall importance of viral infection compared to bacterial infection is unclear. Patients were recruited from two acute hospital sites in Leicester (UK) over 3 successive winters. Samples were taken for viral and bacterial testing. Of the 780 patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness 345 (44%) had a respiratory virus detected. Picornaviruses were the most commonly isolated viruses (detected in 23% of all patients). Virus detection rates exceeded 50% in patients with exacerbation of asthma (58%), acute bronchitis and Influenza-like-illness (64%), and ranged from 30 to 50% in patients with an exacerbation of COPD (38%), community acquired pneumonia (36%) and congestive cardiac failure (31%). Bacterial detection was relatively frequent in patients with exacerbation of COPD and pneumonia (25% and 33% respectively) but was uncommon in all other groups. Antibiotic use was high across all clinical groups (76% overall) and only 21% of all antibiotic use occurred in patients with detectable bacteria. Respiratory viruses are the predominant detectable aetiological agents in most hospitalised adults with acute respiratory illness. Antibiotic usage in hospital remains excessive including in clinical conditions associated with low rates of bacterial detection. Efforts at reducing excess antibiotic use should focus on these groups as a priority. Registered International Standard Controlled Trial Number: 21521552. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoramento da síndrome gripal em adultos nas capitais do Brasil e no Distrito Federal por meio de inquérito telefônico Influenza like illness monitoring in adults of the State Capitals and Federal District in Brazil by telephone survey

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    Priscilleyne Ouverney Reis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Com o objetivo de estimar a prevalência da síndrome gripal em adultos das capitais e regiões do Brasil, realizou-se monitoramento da ocorrência de sinais e sintomas compatíveis por inquérito telefônico (VIGITEL em 2010. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal que contou com 47.876 entrevistas nas capitais dos estados brasileiros e no Distrito Federal, com amostragem probabilística da população >18 anos, residente em domicílios com linha fixa de telefone. Foram analisadas as questões referentes à síndrome gripal e influenza pandêmica (H1N1 2009, no período de 10 de janeiro a 30 de novembro de 2010. Os percentuais foram calculados para as regiões do país e para o Brasil e ponderados segundo a distribuição sociodemográfica da PNAD 2008. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de indivíduos, com algum sinal ou sintoma de gripe nos 30 dias anteriores à entrevista, foi de 31,2% (IC95% 30,2-32,2%. O relato de síndrome gripal foi mais frequente entre as mulheres, adultos jovens (18 a 29 anos e aquelas pessoas com 9 a 11 anos de estudo. A maior prevalência de sinais ou sintomas gripais ocorreu na região Norte. Verificou-se tendência crescente com posterior decréscimo em todas as regiões, exceto na Nordeste. A procura pelo serviço de saúde foi relatada por 26,8% (IC95% 25,1-28,5 das pessoas que adoeceram. A suspeita médica de influenza pandêmica (H1N1 2009 ocorreu em 2,6% (IC95% 1,8-3,4 dos entrevistados que relataram ter procurado o serviço de saúde. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste inquérito forneceram informações oportunas e úteis, as quais não foram captadas pelo sistema de vigilância tradicional, como a ocorrência de sinal ou sintoma gripal e a procura pelo serviço de saúde.OBJECTIVES: In order to estimate the prevalence of influenza like illness (ILI in adults from all state capitals and geographic regions in Brazil, a periodical monitoring of ILI cases by the national telephone survey (VIGITEL was carried out in 2010

  6. Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS) for clinical detection of influenza in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jason B; Prasad, Priya A; Coffin, Susan E; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2014-10-01

    Validated clinical scales, such as the Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS), have not been used to differentiate influenza (FLU) from other respiratory viruses. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an influenza-like infection from 2008 to 2010. Subjects were children aged 0 to 19 years who had a venipuncture and respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction. Demographics and CARIFS items were assessed during the ED visit; comparisons were made between FLU and non-FLU subjects. The 203 subjects had median age 30.5 months; 61.6% were male. Comorbid conditions (51.2%) were common. FLU was identified in 26.6%, and were older than non-FLU patients (69.7 vs 47.9 months, P = .02). Demographic, household factors, and mean CARIFS score did not differ between FLU (33.7), and non-FLU (32.0) (mean difference 1.6, 95% CI: -2.0 to 5.2) groups. CARIFS cannot discriminate between FLU and non-FLU infection in ED children with influenza-like infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Influenza-like Illness Surveillance on the California-Mexico Border, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    trivalent inacti- vated or live- attenuated influenza vaccines are the best way to prevent the spread of influenza and reduce disease related morbidity and...Myers CA, Russell KL et al. Diagnostic discrimination of live attenuated influenza vaccine strains and community-acquired pathogenic strains in...among the first documented cases of 2009 H1N1. Additional pathogens included influenza B, adenovirus , parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus

  8. Revision of clinical case definitions: influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzner, Julia; Qasmieh, Saba; Mounts, Anthony Wayne; Alexander, Burmaa; Besselaar, Terry; Briand, Sylvie; Brown, Caroline; Clark, Seth; Dueger, Erica; Gross, Diane; Hauge, Siri; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Jorgensen, Pernille; Katz, Mark A; Mafi, Ali; Malik, Mamunur; McCarron, Margaret; Meerhoff, Tamara; Mori, Yuichiro; Mott, Joshua; Olivera, Maria Teresa da Costa; Ortiz, Justin R; Palekar, Rakhee; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Soetens, Loes; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Zhang, Wenqing; Vandemaele, Katelijn

    2018-01-01

    The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of

  9. Barriers to mask wearing for influenza-like illnesses among urban Hispanic households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferng, Yu-hui; Wong-McLoughlin, Jennifer; Barrett, Angela; Currie, Leanne; Larson, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    To identify barriers to mask wearing and to examine the factors associated with the willingness to wear masks among households. We used data sources from a study assessing the impact of 3 nonpharmaceutical interventions on the rates of influenza: exit interviews; home visits with a subset of the mask group; and a focus group. Risk perception score, univariate analysis, and logistic regression were conducted to identify the characteristics and predictors of mask use. Thematic barriers to mask wearing were identified from qualitative data obtained at home visits and focus group. Respondents from the mask group, when compared with the nonmask group, demonstrated higher risk perception scores concerning influenza (maximum score: 60, means: 37.6 and 30.2, pmask wearing (maximum score: 10, means: 7.8 and 7.3, p=.043). There was no significant association between demographic, attitudinal, or knowledge variables and adherence to wearing masks. Thematic barriers were identified such as social acceptability of mask use, comfort and fit, and perception of the risk/need for masks. Face masks may not be an effective intervention for seasonal or pandemic influenza unless the risk perception of influenza is high. Dissemination of culturally appropriate mask use information by health authorities and providers must be emphasized when educating the public. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Seasonality of absolute humidity explains seasonality of influenza-like illness in Vietnam

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    Pham Quang Thai

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Our results identify a role for AH in driving the epidemiology of ILI in a tropical setting. However, in contrast to temperate regions, high rather than low AH is associated with increased ILI activity. Fluctuation in AH may be the climate factor that underlies and unifies the seasonality of ILI in both temperate and tropical regions. Alternatively, the mechanism of action of AH on disease transmission may be different in cold-dry versus hot-humid settings.

  11. Integration of Biosensors and Drug Delivery Technologies for Early Detection and Chronic Management of Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viness Pillay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biosensor design and sensing efficacy need to be amalgamated with research in responsive drug delivery systems for building superior health or illness regimes and ensuring good patient compliance. A variety of illnesses require continuous monitoring in order to have efficient illness intervention. Physicochemical changes in the body can signify the occurrence of an illness before it manifests. Even with the usage of sensors that allow diagnosis and prognosis of the illness, medical intervention still has its downfalls. Late detection of illness can reduce the efficacy of therapeutics. Furthermore, the conventional modes of treatment can cause side-effects such as tissue damage (chemotherapy and rhabdomyolysis and induce other forms of illness (hepatotoxicity. The use of drug delivery systems enables the lowering of side-effects with subsequent improvement in patient compliance. Chronic illnesses require continuous monitoring and medical intervention for efficient treatment to be achieved. Therefore, designing a responsive system that will reciprocate to the physicochemical changes may offer superior therapeutic activity. In this respect, integration of biosensors and drug delivery is a proficient approach and requires designing an implantable system that has a closed loop system. This offers regulation of the changes by means of releasing a therapeutic agent whenever illness biomarkers prevail. Proper selection of biomarkers is vital as this is key for diagnosis and a stimulation factor for responsive drug delivery. By detecting an illness before it manifests by means of biomarkers levels, therapeutic dosing would relate to the severity of such changes. In this review various biosensors and drug delivery systems are discussed in order to assess the challenges and future perspectives of integrating biosensors and drug delivery systems for detection and management of chronic illness.

  12. Climate impact on spreading of airborne infectious diseases. Complex network based modeling of climate influences on influenza like illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Frank; Marwan, Norbert; Hoffmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In this study we combined a wide range of data sets to simulate the outbreak of an airborne infectious disease that is directly transmitted from human to human. The basis is a complex network whose structures are inspired by global air traffic data (from openflights.org) containing information about airports, airport locations, direct flight connections and airplane types. Disease spreading inside every node is realized with a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) compartmental model. Disease transmission rates in our model are depending on the climate environment and therefore vary in time and from node to node. To implement the correlation between water vapor pressure and influenza transmission rate [J. Shaman, M. Kohn, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 3243 (2009)], we use global available climate reanalysis data (WATCH-Forcing-Data-ERA-Interim, WFDEI). During our sensitivity analysis we found that disease spreading dynamics are strongly depending on network properties, the climatic environment of the epidemic outbreak location, and the season during the year in which the outbreak is happening.

  13. Deep sequence characterisation of a divergent HPIV-4a from an adult with prolonged influenza-like illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Arden

    2015-12-01

    Deep sequencing allowed identification and genomic characterisation of a possible pathogen from an ILI as well as being an important tool to aid future understanding of the linkages between viral genetic variation, transmission and disease prognosis.

  14. Revision of clinical case definitions: influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection/ Julia Fitzner ; Saba Qasmieh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fitzner, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Pärast 2009.- 2010. aasta gripi H1N1 pandeemiat algatas Maailma Terviseorganisatsioon (WHO) tehnilise konsultatsiooni ülemaailmse gripi seire kohta. WHO uute juhtumite määratluste ülemaailmne kasutamine aitab määrata globaalsete suundumuste näitajaid ja gripiviirustega kaasnevaid haigusi

  15. Association of history of allergies and influenza-like infections with laryngeal cancer in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Schwartz, Stephen M; Becker, Nikolaus; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Kirschfink, Michael; Dietz, Andreas; Becher, Heiko; Ramroth, Heribert

    2015-08-01

    Prior studies suggest that history of allergy and infections early in life might be inversely associated with cancer. We explored the association between allergies, recent influenza infections and laryngeal cancer risk. We used data from a case-control study which included 229 cases of laryngeal cancer and 769 population controls matched for age and sex. History of a physician-diagnosed allergy, influenza-like infections in the past 5 years, smoking, alcohol consumption and occupational exposure to carcinogens were self-reported. Allergies were classified into two groups (Type I and Type IV), according to the underlying immunologic mechanism. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted using laryngeal cancer as the outcome, adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption and occupational exposure and stratified for age and sex. Having any allergy was not associated significantly with laryngeal cancer. Although Type I and Type IV allergies were non-significantly associated with laryngeal cancer, Type IV allergies showed a strong inverse association after adjusting for smoking and alcohol (OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.22-1.2). Participants who reported at least one influenza-like infection during the past 5 years were significantly less likely to have laryngeal cancer (OR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.39-0.81). After considering fever (≥38.5 °C) as a criterion for influenza infection, the association between influenza infection and laryngeal cancer was even stronger (OR 0.29, 95 % CI 0.13-0.63). We found no significant association between any allergy and laryngeal cancer, some indication of an inverse association between Type IV allergy and laryngeal cancer, whereas recent influenza infections were inversely associated with laryngeal cancer risk.

  16. Inferior vena cava collapsibility detects fluid responsiveness among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corl, Keith A; George, Naomi R; Romanoff, Justin; Levinson, Andrew T; Chheng, Darin B; Merchant, Roland C; Levy, Mitchell M; Napoli, Anthony M

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of inferior vena cava collapsibility (cIVC) by point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been proposed as a viable, non-invasive means of assessing fluid responsiveness. We aimed to determine the ability of cIVC to identify patients who will respond to additional intravenous fluid (IVF) administration among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. Prospective observational trial of spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. cIVC was obtained 3cm caudal from the right atrium and IVC junction using POCUS. Fluid responsiveness was defined as a≥10% increase in cardiac index following a 500ml IVF bolus; measured using bioreactance (NICOM™, Cheetah Medical). cIVC was compared with fluid responsiveness and a cIVC optimal value was identified. Of the 124 participants, 49% were fluid responders. cIVC was able to detect fluid responsiveness: AUC=0.84 [0.76, 0.91]. The optimum cutoff point for cIVC was identified as 25% (LR+ 4.56 [2.72, 7.66], LR- 0.16 [0.08, 0.31]). A cIVC of 25% produced a lower misclassification rate (16.1%) for determining fluid responsiveness than the previous suggested cutoff values of 40% (34.7%). IVC collapsibility, as measured by POCUS, performs well in distinguishing fluid responders from non-responders, and may be used to guide IVF resuscitation among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a new point-of-care test for influenza A and B virus in travellers with influenza-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, T; Schnabel, E; Dieckmann, S; Börner, U; Schweiger, B

    2007-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) tests for influenza facilitate clinical case management, and might also be helpful in the care of travellers who are at special risk for influenza infection. To evaluate influenza POC testing in travellers, a new assay, the ImmunoCard STAT! Flu A and B, was used to investigate travellers presenting with influenza-like symptoms. Influenza virus infection was diagnosed in 27 (13%) of 203 patients by influenza virus-specific PCR and viral culture. The POC test had sensitivity and specificity values of 64% and 99% for influenza A, and 67% and 100% for influenza B, respectively. Combined sensitivity and specificity were 67% and 99%, respectively, yielding positive and negative predictive values of 95%, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of 117 and 0.34, respectively. The convenient application, excellent specificity and high positive likelihood ratio of the POC test allowed rapid identification of influenza cases. However, negative test results might require confirmation by other methods because of limitations in sensitivity. Overall, influenza POC testing appeared to be a useful tool for the management of travellers with influenza-like symptoms.

  18. Seasonality of Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Viruses and the Effect of Climate Factors in Subtropical-Tropical Asia Using Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance Data, 2010 -2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamigaki, Taro; Chaw, Liling; Tan, Alvin G; Tamaki, Raita; Alday, Portia P; Javier, Jenaline B; Olveda, Remigio M; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Tallo, Veronica L

    2016-01-01

    The seasonality of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is well known, and many analyses have been conducted in temperate countries; however, this is still not well understood in tropical countries. Previous studies suggest that climate factors are involved in the seasonality of these viruses. However, the extent of the effect of each climate variable is yet to be defined. We investigated the pattern of seasonality and the effect of climate variables on influenza and RSV at three sites of different latitudes: the Eastern Visayas region and Baguio City in the Philippines, and Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. Wavelet analysis and the dynamic linear regression model were applied. Climate variables used in the analysis included mean temperature, relative and specific humidity, precipitation, and number of rainy days. The Akaike Information Criterion estimated in each model was used to test the improvement of fit in comparison with the baseline model. At all three study sites, annual seasonal peaks were observed in influenza A and RSV; peaks were unclear for influenza B. Ranges of climate variables at the two Philippine sites were narrower and mean variables were significantly different among the three sites. Whereas all climate variables except the number of rainy days improved model fit to the local trend model, their contributions were modest. Mean temperature and specific humidity were positively associated with influenza and RSV at the Philippine sites and negatively associated with influenza A in Okinawa. Precipitation also improved model fit for influenza and RSV at both Philippine sites, except for the influenza A model in the Eastern Visayas. Annual seasonal peaks were observed for influenza A and RSV but were less clear for influenza B at all three study sites. Including additional data from subsequent more years would help to ascertain these findings. Annual amplitude and variation in climate variables are more important than their absolute values for determining their effect on the seasonality of influenza and RSV.

  19. Seasonality of Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Viruses and the Effect of Climate Factors in Subtropical-Tropical Asia Using Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance Data, 2010 -2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Kamigaki

    Full Text Available The seasonality of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is well known, and many analyses have been conducted in temperate countries; however, this is still not well understood in tropical countries. Previous studies suggest that climate factors are involved in the seasonality of these viruses. However, the extent of the effect of each climate variable is yet to be defined.We investigated the pattern of seasonality and the effect of climate variables on influenza and RSV at three sites of different latitudes: the Eastern Visayas region and Baguio City in the Philippines, and Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. Wavelet analysis and the dynamic linear regression model were applied. Climate variables used in the analysis included mean temperature, relative and specific humidity, precipitation, and number of rainy days. The Akaike Information Criterion estimated in each model was used to test the improvement of fit in comparison with the baseline model.At all three study sites, annual seasonal peaks were observed in influenza A and RSV; peaks were unclear for influenza B. Ranges of climate variables at the two Philippine sites were narrower and mean variables were significantly different among the three sites. Whereas all climate variables except the number of rainy days improved model fit to the local trend model, their contributions were modest. Mean temperature and specific humidity were positively associated with influenza and RSV at the Philippine sites and negatively associated with influenza A in Okinawa. Precipitation also improved model fit for influenza and RSV at both Philippine sites, except for the influenza A model in the Eastern Visayas.Annual seasonal peaks were observed for influenza A and RSV but were less clear for influenza B at all three study sites. Including additional data from subsequent more years would help to ascertain these findings. Annual amplitude and variation in climate variables are more important than their absolute values for determining their effect on the seasonality of influenza and RSV.

  20. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness among US Service Members, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    controlled studies. Vaccine 2012; 30:886–92. 11. Piedra PA, Gaglani MJ, Kozinetz CA, et al. Trivalent live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine...120:e553–64. 12. Halloran ME, Piedra PA, Longini IM Jr, et al. Efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine against influenza A (Fujian

  1. Health-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Versus Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness Among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-11

    are not well established, a sedentary lifestyle may result in adverse health consequences, while exercise has been shown to boost immunity [25–27...also appear with a sedentary lifestyle . Boosting of immunity and reduction in the number of days reporting upper respiratory symptoms among those

  2. Detecting critical illness outside the ICU: the role of track and trigger systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jan O; Cuthbertson, Brian H

    2010-06-01

    Critical illness is often preceded by physiological deterioration. Track and trigger systems are intended to facilitate the timely recognition of patients with potential or established critical illness outside critical care areas. The aim of this article is to review the evidence for the use of such systems. Existing track and trigger systems have low sensitivity, low positive predictive values, and high specificity. They often fail to identify patients who need additional care and have not been shown to improve outcomes. The development of such systems must be based on robust methodological and statistical principles. At present, few track and trigger systems meet these standards. Although track and trigger systems, combined with appropriate response algorithms, have the potential to improve the recognition and management of critical illness, further work is required to validate their utility.

  3. Facing possible illness detected through screening--experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59...... of a face-value review of participant experiences (naive reading), structural analysis and, critical interpretation of what it means to be potentially ill. The women were unprepared to find that their screening results showed abnormal cells, indicative of incipient genital cancer. They were frustrated...... by the results as they had not experienced any symptoms and felt well, despite being diagnosed with a potential disease. Being diagnosed with abnormal cells caused the participants to feel anxious. Their anxiety had subsided 6 months after the cells had been removed. For those who did not require treatment...

  4. A multiplex nested PCR for the detection and identification of Candida species in blood samples of critically ill paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Cleison Ledesma; Okay, Thelma Suely; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo; Ceccon, Maria Esther Jurfest Rivero; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2014-07-21

    Nosocomial candidaemia is associated with high mortality rates in critically ill paediatric patients; thus, the early detection and identification of the infectious agent is crucial for successful medical intervention. The PCR-based techniques have significantly increased the detection of Candida species in bloodstream infections. In this study, a multiplex nested PCR approach was developed for candidaemia detection in neonatal and paediatric intensive care patients. DNA samples from the blood of 54 neonates and children hospitalised in intensive care units with suspected candidaemia were evaluated by multiplex nested PCR with specific primers designed to identify seven Candida species, and the results were compared with those obtained from blood cultures. The multiplex nested PCR had a detection limit of four Candida genomes/mL of blood for all Candida species. Blood cultures were positive in 14.8% of patients, whereas the multiplex nested PCR was positive in 24.0% of patients, including all culture-positive patients. The results obtained with the molecular technique were available within 24 hours, and the assay was able to identify Candida species with 100% of concordance with blood cultures. Additionally, the multiplex nested PCR detected dual candidaemia in three patients. Our proposed PCR method may represent an effective tool for the detection and identification of Candida species in the context of candidaemia diagnosis in children, showing highly sensitive detection and the ability to identify the major species involved in this infection.

  5. Use of Indirect Calorimetry to Detect Overfeeding in Critically Ill Children: Finding the Appropriate Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerklaan, Dorian; Hulst, Jessie M; Verhoeven, Jennifer J; Verbruggen, Sascha C A T; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-10-01

    Overfeeding during critical illness is associated with adverse effects such as metabolic disturbances and increased risk of infection. Because of the lack of sound studies with clinical endpoints, overfeeding is arbitrarily defined as the ratio caloric intake/measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) or alternatively as a comparison of measured respiratory quotient (RQ) to the predicted RQ based on the macronutrient intake (RQmacr). We aimed to compare definitions of overfeeding in critically ill mechanically ventilated children based on mREE, RQ, and caloric intake to find an appropriate definition. Indirect calorimetry measurements were performed in 78 mechanically ventilated children, median age 6.3 months. Enteral and/or parenteral nutrition was provided according to the local guidelines. Definitions used to indicate overfeeding were the ratio caloric intake/mREE of >110% and >120% and by the measured RQ > RQmacr + 0.05. The proportion of patients identified as overfed varied widely depending on the definition used, ranging from 22% (RQ > RQmacr + 0.05), to 40% and 50% (caloric intake/mREE of >120% and >110%, respectively). Linear regression analysis showed that all patients would be identified as overfed with the definition RQ > RQmacr + 0.05 when the ratio caloric intake/mREE exceeded 165%. Caloric intake was higher in children with a standard deviation-score weight for age definition applied. These currently used definitions fail to take into account several relevant factors affecting metabolism during critical illness and are therefore not generally applicable to the pediatric intensive care unit population.

  6. Serum Creatinine Changes Associated with Critical Illness and Detection of Persistent Renal Dysfunction after AKI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolic, Ivana; Purdell-Lewis, Jeremy; Taylor, Rachelle; Pearse, Rupert M.; Kirwan, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives AKI is a risk factor for development or worsening of CKD. However, diagnosis of renal dysfunction by serum creatinine could be confounded by loss of muscle mass and creatinine generation after critical illness. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A retrospective, single center analysis of serum in patients surviving to hospital discharge with an intensive care unit admission of 5 or more days between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Results In total, 700 cases were identified, with a 66% incidence of AKI. In 241 patients without AKI, creatinine was significantly lower (Pcreatinine was significantly lower than baseline in all patients except those patients with severe AKI (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes category 3), who had no significant difference. In a multivariable regression model, median duration of hospitalization was associated with a predicted 30% decrease (95% confidence interval, 8% to 45%) in creatinine from baseline in the absence of AKI; after allowing for this effect, AKI was associated with a 29% (95% confidence interval, 10% to 51%) increase in predicted hospital discharge creatinine. Using a similar model to exclude the confounding effect of prolonged major illness on creatinine, 148 of 700 patients (95% confidence interval, 143 to 161) would have eGFRcreatinine (a 135% increase in potential CKD diagnoses; Pcreatinine that persist to hospital discharge, potentially causing inaccurate assessment of renal function at discharge, particularly in survivors of AKI. Prospective measurements of GFR and creatinine generation are required to confirm the significance of these findings. PMID:24742481

  7. Development of the Family Stigma Stress Scale (FSSS) for Detecting Stigma Stress in Caregivers of People With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Jian-An; Chang, Kun-Chia; Lin, Chung-Ying; Koschorke, Mirja; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-01-01

    People with mental illness and their family caregivers often perceive public stigma, which may lead to stigma-related stress (or stigma stress). However, no instruments have been developed to measure this stress for family caregivers of people with mental illness. We modified an instrument that measures the stigma stress of people with mental illness (i.e., the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor) and examined the psychometric properties of the scores of the newly developed instrument: the Family Stigma Stress Scale (FSSS). Primary family caregivers of people with mental illness in Southern Taiwan ( n = 300; mean age = 53.08 ± 13.80; 136 males) completed the FSSS. An exploratory factor analysis showed that the FSSS score had two factors; both factor scores had excellent internal consistency (α = .913 and .814) and adequate test-retest reliability ( r = .627 and .533; n = 197). Significant correlations between FSSS factor scores and other instruments supported its concurrent validity and the ability of the FSSS to differentiate between clinical characteristics, for example, having been previously hospitalized or not. The FSSS is a brief and effective measure of the stigma stress of family caregivers of people with mental illness.

  8. Detection of Circulating Mucorales DNA in Critically Ill Burn Patients: Preliminary Report of a Screening Strategy for Early Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Matthieu; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Boutin, Louis; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Maurel, Véronique; Soussi, Sabri; Benyamina, Mourad; Ferry, Axelle; Chaussard, Maïté; Hamane, Samia; Denis, Blandine; Touratier, Sophie; Guigue, Nicolas; Fréalle, Emilie; Jeanne, Mathieu; Shaal, Jean-Vivien; Soler, Charles; Mimoun, Maurice; Chaouat, Marc; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Bretagne, Stéphane; Alanio, Alexandre

    2016-11-15

     Invasive wound mucormycosis (IWM) is associated with an extremely poor outcome among critically ill burn patients. We describe the detection of circulating Mucorales DNA (cmDNA) for the early diagnosis of IWM in those patients and report the potential value of detecting cmDNA for treatment guidance.  Severely ill burn patients admitted to our tertiary referral center between October 2013 and February 2016 were included. Retrospective plasma samples were tested for the presence of cmDNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Patients were then prospectively screened twice a week, and liposomal amphotericin-B therapy initiated based on a positive qPCR. The primary endpoint was the time between cmDNA detection and standard diagnosis. Secondary endpoints were the time from cmDNA detection and treatment initiation and mortality.  Seventy-seven patients (418 samples) were included. The average age was 46 (28-60) years, abbreviated burn severity index was 8 (7-10), and simplified acute physiology score was 33 (23-46). The total body surface area was 33% (22%-52%). cmDNA was detected 11 (4.5-15) days before standard diagnosis. The in-hospital mortality was 62% for patients with IWM and 24% for those without (P = .03). The mortality due to IWM was 80% during period A and 33% during period B (P = .46).  This study suggests that the detection of cmDNA allows earlier diagnosis of IWM in severely ill burn patients and earlier initiation of treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm the impact of earlier treatment initiation on patient outcome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same time. For example, you may have depression and a substance use disorder. Complications Mental illness is a leading cause of disability. Untreated mental illness can cause severe emotional, behavioral and physical health problems. Complications sometimes linked to mental illness include: ...

  10. A review of influenza detection and prediction through social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessa, Ali; Faezipour, Miad

    2018-02-01

    Early prediction of seasonal epidemics such as influenza may reduce their impact in daily lives. Nowadays, the web can be used for surveillance of diseases. Search engines and social networking sites can be used to track trends of different diseases seven to ten days faster than government agencies such as Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC uses the Illness-Like Influenza Surveillance Network (ILINet), which is a program used to monitor Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) sent by thousands of health care providers in order to detect influenza outbreaks. It is a reliable tool, however, it is slow and expensive. For that reason, many studies aim to develop methods that do real time analysis to track ILI using social networking sites. Social media data such as Twitter can be used to predict the spread of flu in the population and can help in getting early warnings. Today, social networking sites (SNS) are used widely by many people to share thoughts and even health status. Therefore, SNS provides an efficient resource for disease surveillance and a good way to communicate to prevent disease outbreaks. The goal of this study is to review existing alternative solutions that track flu outbreak in real time using social networking sites and web blogs. Many studies have shown that social networking sites can be used to conduct real time analysis for better predictions.

  11. Elimination of CT-detected gas bubbles derived from decompression illness with abdominal symptoms after a short hyperbaric oxygen treatment in a monoplace chamber: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaizu, Takuya; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Tsujimoto, Toshihide; Kojima, Yasushi; Okawa, Atsushi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 54-year-old male compressed-air worker with gas bubbles detected by computed tomography (CT). He had complained of strong abdominal pain 30 minutes after decompression after working at a pressure equivalent to 17 meters of sea water for three hours. The initial CT images revealed gas bubbles in the intrahepatic portal vein, pulmonary artery and bilateral femoral vein. After the first hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO₂ at 2.5 atmospheres absolute/ATA for 150 minutes), no bubbles were detected on repeat CT examination. The patient still exhibited abdominal distension, mild hypesthesia and slight muscle weakness in the upper extremities. Two sessions of U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6 (TT6) were performed on Days 6 and 7 after onset. The patient recovered completely on Day 7. This report describes the important role of CT imaging in evaluating intravascular gas bubbles as well as eliminating the diagnosis of other conditions when divers or compressed-air workers experience uncommon symptoms of decompression illness. In addition, a short treatment table of HBO₂ using non-TT6 HBO₂ treatment may be useful to reduce gas bubbles and the severity of decompression illness in emergent cases. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  12. Toward unsupervised outbreak detection through visual perception of new patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lévy Pierre P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical algorithms are routinely used to detect outbreaks of well-defined syndromes, such as influenza-like illness. These methods cannot be applied to the detection of emerging diseases for which no preexisting information is available. This paper presents a method aimed at facilitating the detection of outbreaks, when there is no a priori knowledge of the clinical presentation of cases. Methods The method uses a visual representation of the symptoms and diseases coded during a patient consultation according to the International Classification of Primary Care 2nd version (ICPC-2. The surveillance data are transformed into color-coded cells, ranging from white to red, reflecting the increasing frequency of observed signs. They are placed in a graphic reference frame mimicking body anatomy. Simple visual observation of color-change patterns over time, concerning a single code or a combination of codes, enables detection in the setting of interest. Results The method is demonstrated through retrospective analyses of two data sets: description of the patients referred to the hospital by their general practitioners (GPs participating in the French Sentinel Network and description of patients directly consulting at a hospital emergency department (HED. Informative image color-change alert patterns emerged in both cases: the health consequences of the August 2003 heat wave were visualized with GPs' data (but passed unnoticed with conventional surveillance systems, and the flu epidemics, which are routinely detected by standard statistical techniques, were recognized visually with HED data. Conclusion Using human visual pattern-recognition capacities to detect the onset of unexpected health events implies a convenient image representation of epidemiological surveillance and well-trained "epidemiology watchers". Once these two conditions are met, one could imagine that the epidemiology watchers could signal epidemiological alerts

  13. The Diagnostic Value of Capillary Refill Time for Detecting Serious Illness in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Susannah; Gill, Peter; Jones, Caroline; Taylor, James A.; Van den Bruel, Ann; Heneghan, Carl; Roberts, Nia; Thompson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Importance Capillary refill time (CRT) is widely recommended as part of the routine assessment of unwell children. Objective To determine the diagnostic value of capillary refill time for a range of serious outcomes in children. Methods We searched Medline, Embase and CINAHL from inception to June 2014. We included studies that measured both capillary refill time and a relevant clinical outcome such as mortality, dehydration, meningitis, or other serious illnesses in children aged up to 18 years of age. We screened 1,265 references, of which 24 papers were included in this review. Where sufficient studies were available, we conducted meta-analysis and constructed hierarchical summary ROC curves. Results Meta-analysis on the relationship between capillary refill time and mortality resulted in sensitivity of 34.6% (95% CI 23.9 to 47.1%), specificity 92.3% (88.6 to 94.8%), positive likelihood ratio 4.49 (3.06 to 6.57), and negative likelihood ratio 0.71 (0.60 to 0.84). Studies of children attending Emergency Departments with vomiting and diarrhea showed that capillary refill time had specificity of 89 to 94% for identifying 5% dehydration, but sensitivity ranged from 0 to 94%. This level of heterogeneity precluded formal meta-analysis of this outcome. Meta-analysis was not possible for other outcomes due to insufficient data, but we found consistently high specificity for a range of outcomes including meningitis, sepsis, admission to hospital, hypoxia, severity of illness and dengue. Conclusions Our results show that capillary refill time is a specific sign, indicating that it can be used as a “red-flag”: children with prolonged capillary refill time have a four-fold risk of dying compared to children with normal capillary refill time. The low sensitivity means that a normal capillary refill time should not reassure clinicians. PMID:26375953

  14. Enhancing spatial detection accuracy for syndromic surveillance with street level incidence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemi Farrokh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Department of Defense Military Health System operates a syndromic surveillance system that monitors medical records at more than 450 non-combat Military Treatment Facilities (MTF worldwide. The Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE uses both temporal and spatial algorithms to detect disease outbreaks. This study focuses on spatial detection and attempts to improve the effectiveness of the ESSENCE implementation of the spatial scan statistic by increasing the spatial resolution of incidence data from zip codes to street address level. Methods Influenza-Like Illness (ILI was used as a test syndrome to develop methods to improve the spatial accuracy of detected alerts. Simulated incident clusters of various sizes were superimposed on real ILI incidents from the 2008/2009 influenza season. Clusters were detected using the spatial scan statistic and their displacement from simulated loci was measured. Detected cluster size distributions were also evaluated for compliance with simulated cluster sizes. Results Relative to the ESSENCE zip code based method, clusters detected using street level incidents were displaced on average 65% less for 2 and 5 mile radius clusters and 31% less for 10 mile radius clusters. Detected cluster size distributions for the street address method were quasi normal and sizes tended to slightly exceed simulated radii. ESSENCE methods yielded fragmented distributions and had high rates of zero radius and oversized clusters. Conclusions Spatial detection accuracy improved notably with regard to both location and size when incidents were geocoded to street addresses rather than zip code centroids. Since street address geocoding success rates were only 73.5%, zip codes were still used for more than one quarter of ILI cases. Thus, further advances in spatial detection accuracy are dependant on systematic improvements in the collection of individual

  15. Maritime illness and death reporting and public health response, United States, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Caroline E; Rice, Marion E; Washburn, Faith M; Krohn, Kristopher J; Bannerman, Millicent; Regan, Joanna J

    2017-09-01

    Deaths and certain illnesses onboard ships arriving at US ports are required to be reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and notifications of certain illnesses are requested. We performed a descriptive analysis of required maritime illness and death reports of presumptive diagnoses and requested notifications to CDC's Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, which manages CDC's Quarantine Stations, from January 2010 to December 2014. CDC Quarantine Stations received 2891 individual maritime case reports: 76.8% (2221/2891) illness reports, and 23.2% (670/2891) death reports. The most frequent individual illness reported was varicella (35.9%, 797/2221) and the most frequently reported causes of death were cardiovascular- or pulmonary-related conditions (79.6%, 533/670). There were 7695 cases of influenza-like illness received within aggregate notifications. CDC coordinated 63 contact investigations with partners to identify 972 contacts; 88.0% (855/972) were notified. There was documentation of 6.5% (19/293) receiving post-exposure prophylaxis. Three pertussis contacts were identified as secondary cases; and one tuberculosis contact was diagnosed with active tuberculosis. These data provide a picture of US maritime illness and death reporting and response. Varicella reports are the most frequent individual disease reports received. Contact investigations identified few cases of disease transmission. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Self-collected mid-turbinate swabs for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E Larios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gold standard for respiratory virus testing is a nasopharyngeal (NP swab, which is collected by a healthcare worker. Midturbinate (MT swabs are an alternative due to their ease of collection and possible self-collection by patients. The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory virus isolation of flocked MT swabs compared to flocked NP swabs. METHODS: Beginning in October 2008, healthy adults aged 18 to 69 years were recruited into a cohort and followed up for symptoms of influenza. They were asked to have NP and MT swabs taken as soon as possible after the onset of a fever or two or more respiratory symptoms with an acute onset. The swabs were tested for viral respiratory infections using Seeplex® RV12 multiplex PCR detection kit. Seventy six pairs of simultaneous NP and MT swabs were collected from 38 symptomatic subjects. Twenty nine (38% of these pairs were positive by either NP or MT swabs or both. Sixty nine (91% of the pair results were concordant. Two samples (3% for hCV OC43/HKU1 and 1 sample (1% for rhinovirus A/B were positive by NP but negative by MT. One sample each for hCV 229E/NL63, hCV OC43/HKU1, respiratory syncytial virus A, and influenza B were positive by MT but negative by NP. CONCLUSIONS: Flocked MT swabs are sensitive for the diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses. Given the ease of MT collection and similar results between the two swabs, it is likely that MT swabs should be the preferred method of respiratory cell collection for outpatient studies. In light of this data, larger studies should be performed to ensure that this still holds true and data should also be collected on the patient preference of collection methods.

  17. Diarrheal Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    Dr. Steve Monroe, director of CDC’s Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, discusses diarrheal illness, its causes, and prevention.  Created: 8/30/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/31/2011.

  18. The prevalence and preventive measures of the respiratory illness among Malaysian pilgrims in 2013 Hajj season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Suhana; Ayub, Zeti N; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Hasan, Habsah; Harun, Azian; Ismail, Nabilah; Rahman, Zaidah A; Suraiya, Siti; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Aziz, Aniza A

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory illness continues to exert a burden on hajj pilgrims in Makkah. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of respiratory illness and its associated factors among Malaysian hajj pilgrims in 2013 and to describe its preventive measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Makkah and Malaysia during the 2013 hajj season. A self-administered proforma on social demographics, previous experience of hajj or umrah, smoking habits, co-morbid illness and practices of preventive measures against respiratory illness were obtained. A total of 468 proforma were analysed. The prevalence of the respiratory illness was 93.4% with a subset of 78.2% fulfilled the criteria for influenza-like illness (ILI). Most of them (77.8%) had a respiratory illness of food supplement. Malaysian hajj pilgrims with previous experience of hajj (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10-0.56) or umrah (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.07-0.52) and those who have practiced good hand hygiene (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.16-0.79) were found to be significantly associated with lower risk of having respiratory illness. Otherwise, pilgrims who had contact with those with respiratory illness (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.12-6.09) was associated with higher risk. The prevalence of respiratory illness remains high among Malaysian hajj pilgrims despite having some practices of preventive measures. All preventive measures which include hand hygiene, wearing face masks and influenza vaccination must be practiced together as bundle of care to reduce respiratory illness effectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International society of travel medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Foodborne Illness

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhan; Liu, Xuan; Li, Renjie

    2008-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses are a significant public health challenge in the world. Preventing foodborne disease in meat processing is an essential point to insure food safety and quality. HACCP systems currently are used for food processor to identify food safety hazards and prevent food is contaminated. By the introducing HACCP system into China in 1990s, Chinese government and enterprises have took more attention to control and monitoring the flow of food to insure food quality in processors. Meat...

  20. Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    contaminate different dietary constituents. These toxins may be of biologic origin (microbial. plant, or animal toxins) or they may be inorganic or...food mine if similar illness has occurred concomitantly poisoning for planning specific therapy, for esti- in companions or family members. Seek to...gin 4 to 8 hours after ingestion of the toxin and speciated botulinum immunoglobulin of equine include severe retching, vomiting, diarrhea, and

  1. Novel Use of Flu Surveillance Data: Evaluating Potential of Sentinel Populations for Early Detection of Influenza Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughton, Ashlynn R; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2-8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009-2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. This study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.

  2. First reported detection of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 in turkeys in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott M; Cox, William J; Ceeraz, Vanessa; Sutton, David; Essen, Steve C; Howard, Wendy A; Slomka, Marek J; Irvine, Richard M; Brown, Ian H

    2012-12-01

    We report the first occurrence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] infection on two epidemiologically linked turkey breeder premises in the United Kingdom during December 2010 and January 2011. Clinically, the birds showed only mild signs of disease, with the major presenting sign being an acute and marked reduction in egg production, leading to the prompt reporting of suspected avian notifiable disease for official investigation. Presence of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in the United Kingdom turkey breeder flocks was confirmed by detailed laboratory investigations including virus isolation in embryonated specific pathogen-free fowls' eggs, two validated real-time reverse transcription-PCR tests, and nucleotide sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. These investigations revealed high nucleotide identity with currently circulating human A(H1N1)pdm09 strains, suggesting that human-to-poultry transmission (reverse zoonosis) was the most likely route of infection. Peak levels of human influenza-like illness community transmission also coincided with the onset of clinical signs in both affected turkey breeder flocks. This case demonstrated the value of the existing passive surveillance framework and associated veterinary and laboratory infrastructure that enables the detection and management of both exotic and new and emerging disease hazards and risks. The case also presents further evidence of the susceptibility of turkeys to infection with influenza A viruses of nonavian origin.

  3. Detecting acute distress and risk of future psychological morbidity in critically ill patients: validation of the intensive care psychological assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Dorothy M; Hankins, Matthew; Smyth, Deborah A; Rhone, Elijah E; Mythen, Michael G; Howell, David C J; Weinman, John A

    2014-09-24

    The psychological impact of critical illness on a patient can be severe, and frequently results in acute distress as well as psychological morbidity after leaving hospital. A UK guideline states that patients should be assessed in critical care units, both for acute distress and risk of future psychological morbidity; but no suitable method for carrying out this assessment exists. The Intensive care psychological assessment tool (IPAT) was developed as a simple, quick screening tool to be used routinely to detect acute distress, and the risk of future psychological morbidity, in critical care units. A validation study of IPAT was conducted in the critical care unit of a London hospital. Once un-sedated, orientated and alert, critical care patients were assessed with the IPAT and validated tools for distress, to determine the IPAT's concurrent validity. Fifty six patients took IPAT again to establish test-retest reliability. Finally, patients completed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety questionnaires at three months, to determine predictive validity of the IPAT. One hundred and sixty six patients completed the IPAT, and 106 completed follow-up questionnaires at 3 months. Scale analysis showed IPAT was a reliable 10-item measure of critical care-related psychological distress. Test-retest reliability was good (r =0.8). There was good concurrent validity with measures of anxiety and depression (r =0.7, P psychological morbidity was good (r =0.4, P psychological morbidity (AUC =0.7). The IPAT was found to have good reliability and validity. Sensitivity and specificity analysis suggest the IPAT could provide a way of allowing staff to assess psychological distress among critical care patients after further replication and validation. Further work is also needed to determine its utility in predicting future psychological morbidity.

  4. Teacher led school-based surveillance can allow accurate tracking of emerging infectious diseases - evidence from serial cross-sectional surveys of febrile respiratory illness during the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh Shu E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are important foci of influenza transmission and potential targets for surveillance and interventions. We compared several school-based influenza monitoring systems with clinic-based influenza-like illness (ILI surveillance, and assessed the variation in illness rates between and within schools. Methods During the initial wave of pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1 infections from June to Sept 2009 in Singapore, we collected data on nation-wide laboratory confirmed cases (Sch-LCC and daily temperature monitoring (Sch-DTM, and teacher-led febrile respiratory illness reporting in 6 sentinel schools (Sch-FRI. Comparisons were made against age-stratified clinic-based influenza-like illness (ILI data from 23 primary care clinics (GP-ILI and proportions of ILI testing positive for pdmH1N1 (Lab-ILI by computing the fraction of cumulative incidence occurring by epidemiological week 30 (when GP-ILI incidence peaked; and cumulative incidence rates between school-based indicators and sero-epidemiological pdmH1N1 incidence (estimated from changes in prevalence of A/California/7/2009 H1N1 hemagglutination inhibition titers ≥ 40 between pre-epidemic and post-epidemic sera. Variation in Sch-FRI rates in the 6 schools was also investigated through a Bayesian hierarchical model. Results By week 30, for primary and secondary school children respectively, 63% and 79% of incidence for Sch-LCC had occurred, compared with 50% and 52% for GP-ILI data, and 48% and 53% for Sch-FRI. There were 1,187 notified cases and 7,588 episodes in the Sch-LCC and Sch-DTM systems; given school enrollment of 485,723 children, this represented 0.24 cases and 1.6 episodes per 100 children respectively. Mean Sch-FRI rate was 28.8 per 100 children (95% CI: 27.7 to 29.9 in the 6 schools. We estimate from serology that 41.8% (95% CI: 30.2% to 55.9% of primary and 43.2% (95% CI: 28.2% to 60.8% of secondary school-aged children were infected. Sch-FRI rates were similar across

  5. Mental Illness Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...

  6. Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balish, Amanda; Garten, Rebecca; Klimov, Alexander; Villanueva, Julie

    2013-07-01

    The performance of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) that detect influenza viral nucleoprotein (NP) antigen has been reported to be variable. Recent human infections with variant influenza A viruses that are circulating in pigs prompted the investigation of the analytical reactivity of RIDTs with these variant viruses. To determine analytical reactivity of seven FDA-cleared RIDTs with influenza A variant viruses in comparison with the reactivity with recently circulating seasonal influenza A viruses. Tenfold serial dilutions of cell culture-grown seasonal and variant influenza A viruses were prepared and tested in duplicate with seven RIDTs. All RIDTs evaluated in this study detected the seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus, although detection limits varied among assays. All but one examined RIDT identified the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. However, only four of seven RIDTs detected all influenza A(H3N2)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H1N1)v viruses. Reduced sensitivity of RIDTs to variant influenza viruses may be due to amino acid differences between the NP proteins of seasonal viruses and the NP proteins from viruses circulating in pigs. Clinicians should be aware of the limitations of RIDTs to detect influenza A variant viruses. Specimens from patients with influenza-like illness in whom H3N2v is suspected should be sent to public health laboratories for additional diagnostic testing. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Measuring (1,3)-β-D-glucan in tracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum for detection of suspected Candida pneumonia in immunocompromised and critically ill patients: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kang-Cheng; Chou, Kun-Ta; Hsiao, Yi-Han; Tseng, Ching-Min; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Lee, Yu-Chin; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Kou, Yu Ru

    2017-04-08

    While Candida pneumonia is life-threatening, biomarker measurements to early detect suspected Candida pneumonia are lacking. This study compared the diagnostic values of measuring levels of (1, 3)-β-D-glucan in endotracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum to detect suspected Candida pneumonia in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. This prospective, observational study enrolled immunocompromised, critically ill, and ventilated patients with suspected fungal pneumonia in mixed intensive care units from November 2010 to October 2011. Patients with D-glucan confounding factors or other fungal infection were excluded. Endotracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were collected from each patient to perform a fungal smear, culture, and D-glucan assay. After screening 166 patients, 31 patients completed the study and were categorized into non-Candida pneumonia/non-candidemia (n = 18), suspected Candida pneumonia (n = 9), and non-Candida pneumonia/candidemia groups (n = 4). D-glucan levels in endotracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage were highest in suspected Candida pneumonia, while the serum D-glucan level was highest in non-Candida pneumonia/candidemia. In all patients, the D-glucan value in endotracheal aspirate was positively correlated with that in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. For the detection of suspected Candida pneumonia, the predictive performance (sensitivity/specificity/D-glucan cutoff [pg/ml]) of D-glucan in endotracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was 67%/82%/120 and 89%/86%/130, respectively, accounting for areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.833 and 0.939 (both P pneumonia in the absence of concurrent candidemia. D-glucan levels in both endotracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage, but not in serum, provide good diagnostic values to detect suspected Candida pneumonia and to serve as potential biomarkers for early detection in this patient population.

  8. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oades, Robert D; Wild-Wall, Nele; Juran, Stephanie A; Sachsse, Jan; Oknina, Ljubov B; Röpcke, Bernd

    2006-02-08

    The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN) registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively). MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis), the right temporal locus extended more antero-laterally (illness progression), and the right frontal source moved

  9. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachsse Jan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively. Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis, the right temporal locus extended more antero

  10. Single assay for simultaneous detection and differential identification of human and avian influenza virus types, subtypes, and emergent variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metzgar

    Full Text Available For more than four decades the cause of most type A influenza virus infections of humans has been attributed to only two viral subtypes, A/H1N1 or A/H3N2. In contrast, avian and other vertebrate species are a reservoir of type A influenza virus genome diversity, hosting strains representing at least 120 of 144 combinations of 16 viral hemagglutinin and 9 viral neuraminidase subtypes. Viral genome segment reassortments and mutations emerging within this reservoir may spawn new influenza virus strains as imminent epidemic or pandemic threats to human health and poultry production. Traditional methods to detect and differentiate influenza virus subtypes are either time-consuming and labor-intensive (culture-based or remarkably insensitive (antibody-based. Molecular diagnostic assays based upon reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR have short assay cycle time, and high analytical sensitivity and specificity. However, none of these diagnostic tests determine viral gene nucleotide sequences to distinguish strains and variants of a detected pathogen from one specimen to the next. Decision-quality, strain- and variant-specific pathogen gene sequence information may be critical for public health, infection control, surveillance, epidemiology, or medical/veterinary treatment planning. The Resequencing Pathogen Microarray (RPM-Flu is a robust, highly multiplexed and target gene sequencing-based alternative to both traditional culture- or biomarker-based diagnostic tests. RPM-Flu is a single, simultaneous differential diagnostic assay for all subtype combinations of type A influenza viruses and for 30 other viral and bacterial pathogens that may cause influenza-like illness. These other pathogen targets of RPM-Flu may co-infect and compound the morbidity and/or mortality of patients with influenza. The informative specificity of a single RPM-Flu test represents specimen-specific viral gene sequences as determinants of virus type, A

  11. Single assay for simultaneous detection and differential identification of human and avian influenza virus types, subtypes, and emergent variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzgar, David; Myers, Christopher A; Russell, Kevin L; Faix, Dennis; Blair, Patrick J; Brown, Jason; Vo, Scott; Swayne, David E; Thomas, Colleen; Stenger, David A; Lin, Baochuan; Malanoski, Anthony P; Wang, Zheng; Blaney, Kate M; Long, Nina C; Schnur, Joel M; Saad, Magdi D; Borsuk, Lisa A; Lichanska, Agnieszka M; Lorence, Matthew C; Weslowski, Brian; Schafer, Klaus O; Tibbetts, Clark

    2010-02-03

    For more than four decades the cause of most type A influenza virus infections of humans has been attributed to only two viral subtypes, A/H1N1 or A/H3N2. In contrast, avian and other vertebrate species are a reservoir of type A influenza virus genome diversity, hosting strains representing at least 120 of 144 combinations of 16 viral hemagglutinin and 9 viral neuraminidase subtypes. Viral genome segment reassortments and mutations emerging within this reservoir may spawn new influenza virus strains as imminent epidemic or pandemic threats to human health and poultry production. Traditional methods to detect and differentiate influenza virus subtypes are either time-consuming and labor-intensive (culture-based) or remarkably insensitive (antibody-based). Molecular diagnostic assays based upon reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) have short assay cycle time, and high analytical sensitivity and specificity. However, none of these diagnostic tests determine viral gene nucleotide sequences to distinguish strains and variants of a detected pathogen from one specimen to the next. Decision-quality, strain- and variant-specific pathogen gene sequence information may be critical for public health, infection control, surveillance, epidemiology, or medical/veterinary treatment planning. The Resequencing Pathogen Microarray (RPM-Flu) is a robust, highly multiplexed and target gene sequencing-based alternative to both traditional culture- or biomarker-based diagnostic tests. RPM-Flu is a single, simultaneous differential diagnostic assay for all subtype combinations of type A influenza viruses and for 30 other viral and bacterial pathogens that may cause influenza-like illness. These other pathogen targets of RPM-Flu may co-infect and compound the morbidity and/or mortality of patients with influenza. The informative specificity of a single RPM-Flu test represents specimen-specific viral gene sequences as determinants of virus type, A/HN subtype, virulence

  12. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Wishes Visiting The ER Who Takes Care Of You In An Emergency? Checking Into ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  13. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. Five dramas of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2007-01-01

    First-person narratives of illness experience are dramatic: the narrator, who is also the sufferer, is caught in conflicts of forces that permit understanding more than control. Among the dramas of illness, five occur frequently in autobiographical accounts of illness. These dramas overlap and have varying emphases in different people's stories. They are the drama of genesis (what instigated the illness); the drama of emotion work (what emotional displays are required or prohibited); the drama of fear and loss; the drama of meaning; and finally, the drama of self. This five-drama framework can focus critical and clinical attention on which conflicting forces the ill person is working to reconcile, what makes that work difficult, and how conceiving of one's illness as a drama can be a source of meaning and value.

  11. Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Chris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5% and 99% specificity, the WCR and

  12. Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance) for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR) of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum) and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT) of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5%) and 99% specificity, the WCR and threshold methods

  13. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  14. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  15. Foodborne Germs and Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What Causes Food Poisoning? Many different disease-causing germs can contaminate ... email address: Enter Email Address What’s this? Submit What's this? Submit Button ... of Foodborne Illness in the U.S. Food Safety is a CDC Winnable Battle Foodborne Illness ...

  16. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus not detected in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan, March 2010 to September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Payne, D. C.; Lu, X.; Erdman, D.; Wang, L.; Faouri, S.; Shehabi, A.; Johnson, M.; Becker, M. M.; Denison, M. R.; Williams, J. V.; Halasa, N. B.

    2015-01-01

    Hospitalized children < 2 years of age in Amman, Jordan, admitted for fever and/or respiratory symptoms, were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): MERS-CoV by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). This was a prospective year-round viral surveillance study in children <2 years of age admitted with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever from March 2010 to September 2012 and enrolled from a government-run hospital, Al-Bashir in Amman, Jordan. Clinical and demographic data, including antibiotic use, were collected. Combined nasal/throat swabs were collected, aliquoted, and frozen at −80°C. Specimen aliquots were shipped to Vanderbilt University and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and tested by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the 2433 subjects enrolled from 16 March 2010 to 10 September 2012, 2427 subjects had viral testing and clinical data. Of 1898 specimens prospectively tested for other viruses between 16 March 2010 and 18 March 2012, 474 samples did not have other common respiratory viruses detected. These samples were tested at CDC for MERS-CoV and all were negative by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the remaining 531 samples, collected from 19 March 2012 to 10 September 2012 and tested at Vanderbilt, none were positive for MERS-CoV. Our negative findings from a large sample of young Jordanian children hospitalized with fever and/or respiratory symptoms suggest that MERS-CoV was not widely circulating in Amman, Jordan, during the 30-month period of prospective, active surveillance occurring before and after the first documented MERS-CoV outbreak in the Middle East region. PMID:24313317

  17. Domestic sheep show average Coxiella burnetii seropositivity generations after a sheep-associated human Q fever outbreak and lack detectable shedding by placental, vaginal, and fecal routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ryan D.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Pabilonia, Kristy L.; Highland, Margaret A.; Taylor, J. Bret; Knowles, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a globally distributed zoonotic bacterial pathogen that causes abortions in ruminant livestock. In humans, an influenza-like illness results with the potential for hospitalization, chronic infection, abortion, and fatal endocarditis. Ruminant livestock, particularly small ruminants, are hypothesized to be the primary transmission source to humans. A recent Netherlands outbreak from 2007–2010 traced to dairy goats resulted in over 4,100 human cases with estimated costs of more than 300 million euros. Smaller human Q fever outbreaks of small ruminant origin have occurred in the United States, and characterizing shedding is important to understand the risk of future outbreaks. In this study, we assessed bacterial shedding and seroprevalence in 100 sheep from an Idaho location associated with a 1984 human Q fever outbreak. We observed 5% seropositivity, which was not significantly different from the national average of 2.7% for the U.S. (P>0.05). Furthermore, C. burnetii was not detected by quantitative PCR from placentas, vaginal swabs, or fecal samples. Specifically, a three-target quantitative PCR of placenta identified 0.0% shedding (exact 95% confidence interval: 0.0%-2.9%). While presence of seropositive individuals demonstrates some historical C. burnetii exposure, the placental sample confidence interval suggests 2016 shedding events were rare or absent. The location maintained the flock with little or no depopulation in 1984 and without C. burnetii vaccination during or since 1984. It is not clear how a zero-shedding rate was achieved in these sheep beyond natural immunity, and more work is required to discover and assess possible factors that may contribute towards achieving zero-shedding status. We provide the first U.S. sheep placental C. burnetii shedding update in over 60 years and demonstrate potential for C. burnetii shedding to reach undetectable levels after an outbreak event even in the absence of targeted interventions, such

  18. Domestic sheep show average Coxiella burnetii seropositivity generations after a sheep-associated human Q fever outbreak and lack detectable shedding by placental, vaginal, and fecal routes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Oliveira

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is a globally distributed zoonotic bacterial pathogen that causes abortions in ruminant livestock. In humans, an influenza-like illness results with the potential for hospitalization, chronic infection, abortion, and fatal endocarditis. Ruminant livestock, particularly small ruminants, are hypothesized to be the primary transmission source to humans. A recent Netherlands outbreak from 2007-2010 traced to dairy goats resulted in over 4,100 human cases with estimated costs of more than 300 million euros. Smaller human Q fever outbreaks of small ruminant origin have occurred in the United States, and characterizing shedding is important to understand the risk of future outbreaks. In this study, we assessed bacterial shedding and seroprevalence in 100 sheep from an Idaho location associated with a 1984 human Q fever outbreak. We observed 5% seropositivity, which was not significantly different from the national average of 2.7% for the U.S. (P>0.05. Furthermore, C. burnetii was not detected by quantitative PCR from placentas, vaginal swabs, or fecal samples. Specifically, a three-target quantitative PCR of placenta identified 0.0% shedding (exact 95% confidence interval: 0.0%-2.9%. While presence of seropositive individuals demonstrates some historical C. burnetii exposure, the placental sample confidence interval suggests 2016 shedding events were rare or absent. The location maintained the flock with little or no depopulation in 1984 and without C. burnetii vaccination during or since 1984. It is not clear how a zero-shedding rate was achieved in these sheep beyond natural immunity, and more work is required to discover and assess possible factors that may contribute towards achieving zero-shedding status. We provide the first U.S. sheep placental C. burnetii shedding update in over 60 years and demonstrate potential for C. burnetii shedding to reach undetectable levels after an outbreak event even in the absence of targeted

  19. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; headache; dizziness; weakness; feeling exhausted; heavy sweating; nausea; ... stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; ...

  20. Heat Related Illnesses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, R; Cheuvront, S. N; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... The risk of serious heat illness can be markedly reduced by implementing a variety of countermeasures, including becoming acclimated to the heat, managing heat stress exposure, and maintaining hydration...

  1. Obesity and Mental Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    People with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese can benefit from taking part in a fitness program called InSHAPE where they receive help with fitness, weight loss, and even grocery shopping on a budget.

  2. Caregivers and Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toll on you. You may experience distress, anxiety, depression, exhaustion, and worsening of your own physical and emotional well-being. As a result of these types of stress, your health can suffer. FAMILIES AND SERIOUS ILLNESS You are ...

  3. Cholera Illness and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is spread by ingestion of contaminated food or water. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, ...

  4. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or ... the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about ...

  5. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ICE” in Your Cell Phone Prepare for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your ... Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  6. Neutrophils in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Braedon

    2018-03-01

    During critical illness, dramatic alterations in neutrophil biology are observed including abnormalities of granulopoeisis and lifespan, cell trafficking and antimicrobial effector functions. As a result, neutrophils transition from powerful antimicrobial protectors into dangerous mediators of tissue injury and organ dysfunction. In this article, the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of critical illness (sepsis, trauma, burns and others) will be explored, including pathological changes to neutrophil function during critical illness and the utility of monitoring aspects of the neutrophil phenotype as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognostication. Lastly, we review findings from clinical trials of therapies that target the harmful effects of neutrophils, providing a bench-to-bedside perspective on neutrophils in critical illness.

  7. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outbreaks of mass psychogenic illness show us how stress affects us. Think of how stage fright can cause nausea, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, a racing heart, a stomachache, or diarrhea. ...

  8. Differential diagnosis of illness in travelers arriving from Sierra Leone, Liberia, or Guinea: a cross-sectional study from the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, Andrea K; Esposito, Douglas H; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Ansdell, Vernon; Beeching, Nicholas J; Campion, Daniel; Castelli, Francesco; Caumes, Eric; Chappuis, Francois; Cramer, Jakob P; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Grobusch, Martin P; Hagmann, Stefan H F; Hynes, Noreen A; Lim, Poh Lian; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Malvy, Denis J M; Mendelson, Marc; Parola, Philippe; Sotir, Mark J; Wu, Henry M; Hamer, Davidson H

    2015-06-02

    The largest-ever outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), ongoing in West Africa since late 2013, has led to export of cases to Europe and North America. Clinicians encountering ill travelers arriving from countries with widespread Ebola virus transmission must be aware of alternate diagnoses associated with fever and other nonspecific symptoms. To define the spectrum of illness observed in persons returning from areas of West Africa where EVD transmission has been widespread. Descriptive, using GeoSentinel records. 57 travel or tropical medicine clinics in 25 countries. 805 ill returned travelers and new immigrants from Sierra Leone, Liberia, or Guinea seen between September 2009 and August 2014. Frequencies of demographic and travel-related characteristics and illnesses reported. The most common specific diagnosis among 770 nonimmigrant travelers was malaria (n = 310 [40.3%]), with Plasmodium falciparum or severe malaria in 267 (86%) and non-P. falciparum malaria in 43 (14%). Acute diarrhea was the second most common diagnosis among nonimmigrant travelers (n = 95 [12.3%]). Such common diagnoses as upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and influenza-like illness occurred in only 26, 9, and 7 returning travelers, respectively. Few instances of typhoid fever (n = 8), acute HIV infection (n = 5), and dengue (n = 2) were encountered. Surveillance data collected by specialist clinics may not be representative of all ill returned travelers. Although EVD may currently drive clinical evaluation of ill travelers arriving from Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea, clinicians must be aware of other more common, potentially fatal diseases. Malaria remains a common diagnosis among travelers seen at GeoSentinel sites. Prompt exclusion of malaria and other life-threatening conditions is critical to limiting morbidity and mortality. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  9. The illness/non-illness model: hypnotherapy for physically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, Shaul

    2014-07-01

    This article proposes a focused, novel sub-set of the cognitive behavioral therapy approach to hypnotherapy for physically ill patients, based upon the illness/non-illness psychotherapeutic model for physically ill patients. The model is based on three logical rules used in differentiating illness from non-illness: duality, contradiction, and complementarity. The article discusses the use of hypnotic interventions to help physically ill and/or disabled patients distinguish between illness and non-illness in their psychotherapeutic themes and attitudes. Two case studies illustrate that patients in this special population group can be taught to learn the language of change and to use this language to overcome difficult situations. The model suggests a new clinical mode of treatment in which individuals who are physically ill and/or disabled are helped in coping with actual motifs and thoughts related to non-illness or non-disability.

  10. On being Credibly Ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2011-01-01

    unexplained symptoms. The study is conducted in Denmark using qualitative interviews with welfare officers and clients. The paper's focus is on how issues of gender and class intersect in the negotiation of illness among welfare officers and clients. The particular client group in question consists...... of individuals that are defined by their lack of a bio-medical diagnosis. Their ‘lack’ of identity accentuates how gender and class become central in the categorisation practices, constructing the ill person as either bio-medically sick or as a person who may be suffering but only from diffuse psychological...

  11. Study about Illness: Through the Narrative of "Illness Image"

    OpenAIRE

    岩城, 晶子

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the meaning of the illness was studied from the perpective of Image. From listening to the narrative about two types of Illness Image, i.e., "my illness" and "A's illness, " we found that there was a characteristic that the Illness Image was similar to the real image. In addition, there were several differences between 2 images, which indicated that distance between the narrator and these images had an influence. From the syudy of two cases, it was indicated that Illness Ima...

  12. Major Mental Illness in Those Who Sexually Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulden, Heather M; Marshall, Liam E

    2017-11-09

    There is evidence showing an increasing prevalence of mental illness in those in conflict with the law. However, there are many factors affecting the detection, treatment, and management of criminals who are mentally ill. Sex offenders with major mental illness present many challenges to those providing treatment and management services. For example, it is important to consider whether sexually offensive behavior is the cause of criminal behavior or whether it is reflective of an antisocial orientation. Recent evidence suggests it may help better understand and inform risk assessment and management. This paper will review the literature on mental illness among sexual offenders, present a typology to aid in the assessment, treatment, and management of sexual offender with mental illness, and highlight important considerations when providing treatment to sexual offenders with mental illness.

  13. Illness management and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Korsbek, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach. The program has been evaluated in different settings; however evidence for the effects of IMR is still deficient. The aim of this trial was to investigate the benefits and harms...

  14. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease, for example. Research also suggests that people with depression are at higher risk for osteoporosis relative to others. The reasons are not yet clear. One factor with some of these illnesses is that many ...

  15. Conceptualizing Health and Illness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2008), s. 59-80 ISSN 0047-2662 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA900090603; GA ČR(CZ) GP401/07/P293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : health * illness * existence * finitude Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  16. Foodborne Illness Retrospective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-07

    Dr. Paul Mead and Dr. Peter Drotman discuss the historic October 1999 article, Food-related Illness and Death in the United States.  Created: 5/7/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/7/2015.

  17. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  18. ILL. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976 the three major functions of ILL continued to be generally satisfactorily performed (provision of neutron beams at the high flux reactor, development of advanced instrumentation, establishment of a forum). The implementation of the programme of measurements approved by the Scientific Council was again given absolute priority. This report gives a survey of the state of the experimental facilities at ILL and the scientific work carried out in 1976, and of the main technical and administrative activities of the Institute Chapters correspond to the various colleges (theory, fundamental and nuclear physics, excitations, structures liquid, gases and amorphous materials, impurities, structural biology and chemistry), reactor operation and instrument support services, computing services... A second volume of this report contains more detailed descriptions of the individual experiments

  19. High altitude illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Ksycińska, Anna; Kluz-Zawadzka, Jolanta; Lewandowski, Bogumił

    High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber. Because of the popularity of high-mountain sports and tourism better education of the population at risk is essential.

  20. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  1. ILL. Annual report 1979. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This second volume, entitled 'Annex to the Annual Report' deals in more detail with the scientific work of the I.L.L. The scientific activity of theoreticians at the I.L.L. for 1979 is described. The experimental reports giving details on the experiments performed at the I.L.L. up to October 1, 1979 have been compiled. They are published here under their proposal number within the classification cheme in use at the I.L.L

  2. ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This annual report provides a general view of the activities of the different sections of the ILL. In 1974, twenty-two different neutron spectrometers with different characteristics were available on a regular basis. Moreover, a number of special neutron sources were employed for on-line experiments. The major effort was devoted to an increase in experimental systems and to the development of new measurement techniques [fr

  3. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  4. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  5. Estimation of community-level influenza-associated illness in a low resource rural setting in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Siddhartha; Gupta, Vivek; Dawood, Fatimah S; Broor, Shobha; Lafond, Kathryn E; Chadha, Mandeep S; Rai, Sanjay K; Krishnan, Anand

    2018-01-01

    To estimate rates of community-level influenza-like-illness (ILI) and influenza-associated ILI in rural north India. During 2011, we conducted household-based healthcare utilization surveys (HUS) for any acute medical illness (AMI) in preceding 14days among residents of 28villages of Ballabgarh, in north India. Concurrently, we conducted clinic-based surveillance (CBS) in the area for AMI episodes with illness onset ≤3days and collected nasal and throat swabs for influenza virus testing using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Retrospectively, we applied ILI case definition (measured/reported fever and cough) to HUS and CBS data. We attributed 14days of risk-time per person surveyed in HUS and estimated community ILI rate by dividing the number of ILI cases in HUS by total risk-time. We used CBS data on influenza positivity and applied it to HUS-based community ILI rates by age, month, and clinic type, to estimate the community influenza-associated ILI rates. The HUS of 69,369 residents during the year generated risk-time of 3945 person-years (p-y) and identified 150 (5%, 95%CI: 4-6) ILI episodes (38 ILI episodes/1,000 p-y; 95% CI 32-44). Among 1,372 ILI cases enrolled from clinics, 126 (9%; 95% CI 8-11) had laboratory-confirmed influenza (A (H3N2) = 72; B = 54). After adjusting for age, month, and clinic type, overall influenza-associated ILI rate was 4.8/1,000 p-y; rates were highest among children value of influenza vaccination among target groups.

  6. 2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2007 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Xiao-ping; Jiang, Tao; Li, Yong-qiang; Lin, Fang; Liu, Hong; Chang, Guo-hui; Zhu, Qing-yu; Qin, E-de; Qin, Cheng-feng; Yang, Yin-hui

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was improved for simultaneous detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 (2009) influenza virus, which is suitable for early diagnosis of influenza-like patients and for epidemiological surveillance. The sensitivity of this duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was 0.02 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose) for H5N1 and 0.2 TCID50 for the pandemic H1N1, which was the same a...

  19. Gaius Caligula's mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned.

  20. [Medicines reconciliation in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Martin, C; Aquerreta, I; Faus, V; Idoate, A

    2014-01-01

    Medicines reconciliation plays a key role in patient safety. However, there is limited data available on how this process affects critically ill patients. In this study, we evaluate a program of reconciliation in critically ill patients conducted by the Intensive Care Unit's (ICU) pharmacist. Prospective study about reconciliation medication errors observed in 50 patients. All ICU patients, excluding patients without regular treatment. Reconciliation process was carried out in the first 24h after ICU admission. Discrepancies were clarified with the doctor in charge of the patient. We analyzed the incidence of reconciliation errors, their characteristics and gravity, the interventions made by the pharmacist and their acceptance by physicians. A total of 48% of patients showed at least one reconciliation error. Omission of drugs accounted for 74% of the reconciliation errors, mainly involving antihypertensive drugs (33%). An amount of 58% of reconciliation errors detected corresponded to severity category D. Pharmacist made interventions in the 98% of patients with discrepancies. A total of 81% of interventions were accepted. The incidence and characteristics of reconciliation errors in ICU are similar to those published in non-critically ill patients, and they affect drugs with high clinical significance. Our data support the importance of the stablishment of medication reconciliation proceedings in critically ill patients. The ICU's pharmacist could carry out this procedure adequately. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Illness perceptions amongst individuals with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafla, A C; Villalobos-Galvis, F H; Heft, M W

    2018-03-01

    To assess individuals' perception of dental caries, in order to explain how illness representations might influence their coping with the disease. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. 520 consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) of the General Dentistry Clinic at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto, Colombia who had experienced dental caries. Illness perception of dental caries was assessed using the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R). The most frequent self-reported symptoms associated with dental caries were "toothache" (56.2%), "tooth sensitivity" (53.8%) and "mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking" (51.2%). The dimensions of illness perception were related to socio-economic status (SES). Symptoms of "loose or separating teeth" and "pus in your tooth" were associated with dental caries by low SES participants, while "bleeding while brushing, flossing or eating hard food" and "mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking something sweet, hot or cold" were related more to higher SES. Perceptions of caries were related to socioeconomic status. Interventions to promote health literacy in order to improve the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic oral health information could increase an early detection of caries. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  2. ILL Annual report 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2{pi} image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron {beta}-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL`s neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  3. Decompression illness - critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Mohanty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decompression illness is caused by intravascular or extravascular bubbles that are formed as a result of reduction in environmental pressure (decompression. The term covers both arterial gas embolism, in which alveolar gas or venous gas emboli (via cardiac shunts or via pulmonary vessels are introduced into the arterial circulation, and decompression sickness, which is caused by in-situ bubble formation from dissolved inert gas. Both syndromes can occur in divers, compressed air workers, aviators, and astronauts, but arterial gas embolism also arises from iatrogenic causes unrelated to decompression. Risk of decompression illness is affected by immersion, exercise, and heat or cold. Manifestations range from itching and minor pain to neurological symptoms, cardiac collapse, and death. First-aid treatment is 1 0 0 % oxygen and definitive treatment is recompression to increased pressure, breathing 1 0 0 % oxygen. Adjunctive treatment, including fluid administration and prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism in paralysed patients, is also recommended Treatment is, in most cases, effective although residual deficits can remain in serious cases, even after several recompressions.

  4. ILL Annual report 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2{pi} image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron {beta}-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL`s neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  5. ILL. Annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1977 the three major functions of ILL continued to be performed (provision of neutron beams at the high flux reactor, development of advanced instrumentation, workshop organization). An integrated programme of improvement to the existing instruments and of new instrument construction, was carried out. A high priority was given to finishing instruments in the course of construction and both the ultra cold neutron source, PN5, and spin echo spectrometer, IN11, came into operation. No new instrument construction was started; even so, the completion of D18 (the interferometer) and IN12 (the cold three-axis machine) was delayed until 1978. Some advantage was taken of the delay to implement a new system of three-axis drive mechanics and interfacing electronics. This report gives a survey of the state of the experimental facilities at ILL and the scientific work carried out in 1977, and of the main technical and administrative activites of the Institute. Chapters correspond to the various colleges (theory, fundamental and nuclear physics, excitations, structures, liquid, gases and amorphous materials, impurities, structural biology and chemistry), reactor operation and instrument support services, computing services... A second volume of this report contains more detailed descriptions of the individual experiments [fr

  6. Unrealistic optimism and 'nosognosia': illness recognition in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Buchmann, Andreas; Germann, Nicole; Yu, Shancong; Brugger, Peter

    2014-12-01

    At the centenary of research on anosognosia, the time seems ripe to supplement work in anosognosic patients with empirical studies on nosognosia in healthy participants. To this end, we adopted a signal detection framework to investigate the lateralized recognition of illness words--an operational measure of nosognosia--in healthy participants. As positively biased reports about one's current health status (anosognosia) and future health status (unrealistic optimism) have both been associated with deficient right hemispheric functioning, and conversely with undisturbed left hemispheric functioning, we hypothesised that more optimistic participants would adopt a more conservative response criterion, and/or display less sensitivity, when identifying illnesses in our nosognosia task; especially harmful illnesses presented to the left hemisphere via the right visual field. Thirty-two healthy right-handed men estimated their own relative risk of contracting a series of illnesses in the future, and then completed a novel computer task assessing their recognition of illness names presented to the left or right visual field. To check that effects were specific to the recognition of illness (rather than reflecting recognition of lexical items per se), we also administered a standard lateralized lexical decision task. Highly optimistic participants tended to be more conservative in detecting illnesses, especially harmful illnesses presented to the right visual field. Contrary to expectation, they were also more sensitive to illness names in this half-field. We suggest that, in evolutionary terms, unrealistic optimism may be an adaptive trait that combines a high perceptual sensitivity to threat with a high threshold for acknowledging its presence. The signal detection approach to nosognosia developed here may open up new avenues for the understanding of anosognosia in neurological patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Illness Identity in Adults with a Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oris, Leen; Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Goubert, Liesbet; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Arat, Seher; Vandenberghe, Joris; Westhovens, René; Moons, Philip

    2018-02-21

    The present study examines the concept of illness identity, the degree to which a chronic illness is integrated into one's identity, in adults with a chronic illness by validating a new self-report questionnaire, the Illness Identity Questionnaire (IIQ). Self-report questionnaires on illness identity, psychological, and physical functioning were assessed in two samples: adults with congenital heart disease (22-78 year old; n = 276) and with multisystem connective tissue disorders (systemic lupus erythematosus or systemic sclerosis; 17-81 year old; n = 241). The IIQ could differentiate four illness identity states (i.e., engulfment, rejection, acceptance, and enrichment) in both samples, based on exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. All four subscales proved to be reliable. Rejection and engulfment were related to maladaptive psychological and physical functioning, whereas acceptance and enrichment were related to adaptive psychological and physical functioning. The present findings underscore the importance of the concept of illness identity. The IIQ, a self-report questionnaire, is introduced to measure four different illness identity states in adults with a chronic illness.

  8. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  9. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component...

  10. Cohort profile: China respiratory illness surveillance among pregnant women (CRISP), 2015–2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lin; Tan, Yayun; Sheng, Falin; Song, Ying; Zhang, Ran; Danielle Iuliano, A; Thompson, Mark G; Greene, Carolyn M; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We established the China Respiratory Illness Surveillance among Pregnant women (CRISP) to conduct active surveillance for influenza-associated respiratory illness during pregnancy in China from 2015 to 2018. Among annual cohorts of pregnant women, we assess the incidence of acute respiratory illness (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection and the seroconversion proportion during the winter influenza season. We also plan to examine the effect of influenza virus infection on adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant health outcomes with cumulative data from the three annual cohorts. Participants Cohort nurses enrol pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy from prenatal care facilities in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Pregnant women who plan to deliver in the study facilities are eligible. Pregnant women who are seeking care for anything other than routine prenatal care, such as confirmation of low progesterone and threatened miscarriage, are excluded. At enrolment, study nurses collect baseline information on demographics, education-level attained, underlying medical conditions, seasonal influenza vaccination receipt, risk factors for influenza infection, gravidity and parity and contact information. For each participant, cohort nurses conduct twice weekly follow-up contacts, one phone call and one WeChat message (free instant messaging), from the time of enrolment until delivery or termination of pregnancy. During follow-up, study nurses ask about symptoms, timing and characteristics of ARI, healthcare-seeking behaviour and medications taken for participants reporting respiratory illness since the last contact. In addition, we collect combined nasal and throat swabs for identified ARI to test for influenza viruses. We collect paired sera before and after the influenza season. Active respiratory illness surveillance and seroinfection data during pregnancy of participants are linked to their

  11. Cohort profile: China respiratory illness surveillance among pregnant women (CRISP), 2015-2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liling; Zhou, Suizan; Zhang, Zhongwei; Wang, Yan; Bao, Lin; Tan, Yayun; Sheng, Falin; Song, Ying; Zhang, Ran; Danielle Iuliano, A; Thompson, Mark G; Greene, Carolyn M; Zhang, Jun

    2018-04-28

    We established the China Respiratory Illness Surveillance among Pregnant women (CRISP) to conduct active surveillance for influenza-associated respiratory illness during pregnancy in China from 2015 to 2018. Among annual cohorts of pregnant women, we assess the incidence of acute respiratory illness (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection and the seroconversion proportion during the winter influenza season. We also plan to examine the effect of influenza virus infection on adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant health outcomes with cumulative data from the three annual cohorts. Cohort nurses enrol pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy from prenatal care facilities in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Pregnant women who plan to deliver in the study facilities are eligible. Pregnant women who are seeking care for anything other than routine prenatal care, such as confirmation of low progesterone and threatened miscarriage, are excluded. At enrolment, study nurses collect baseline information on demographics, education-level attained, underlying medical conditions, seasonal influenza vaccination receipt, risk factors for influenza infection, gravidity and parity and contact information. For each participant, cohort nurses conduct twice weekly follow-up contacts, one phone call and one WeChat message (free instant messaging), from the time of enrolment until delivery or termination of pregnancy. During follow-up, study nurses ask about symptoms, timing and characteristics of ARI, healthcare-seeking behaviour and medications taken for participants reporting respiratory illness since the last contact. In addition, we collect combined nasal and throat swabs for identified ARI to test for influenza viruses. We collect paired sera before and after the influenza season. Active respiratory illness surveillance and seroinfection data during pregnancy of participants are linked to their medical record and the

  12. Illness perceptions among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Fielding, Richard; Soong, Inda; Chan, Karen K K; Tsang, Janice; Lee, Victor; Lee, Conrad; Ng, Alice; Sze, Wing Kin; Tin, Pamela; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to document in Hong Kong Chinese cancer survivors cross-sectional associations between illness perceptions, physical symptom distress and dispositional optimism. A consecutive sample of 1036 (response rate, 86.1%, mean age 55.18 years, 60% female) survivors of different cancers recruited within 6 months of completion of adjuvant therapy from Hong Kong public hospitals completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), Chinese version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short-Form (MSAS-SF), and the revised Chinese version of Life Orientation Test (C-LOT-R), respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analyses examined adjusted associations. IPQ seriousness, symptom identity, illness concern, and emotional impact scores varied by cancer type (p Stress-related, lifestyle, environment, psychological/personality, and health-related factors were most frequently attributed causes of cancer. After adjustment for sample differences, physical symptom distress was significantly associated with all illness perception dimensions (p differences by cancer type were eliminated by adjustment for sample characteristics. Illness perceptions did not differ by cancer type. Greater physical symptom distress and lower levels of optimism were associated with more negative illness perceptions. Understanding how cancer survivors make sense of cancer can clarify an important aspect of adaptation. This in turn can inform interventions to facilitate adjustment. Knowledge contributions include evidence of physical symptom distress correlating with most dimensions of illness perception. Optimism was also associated with cancer survivors' illness perceptions.

  13. ILL Annual report 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2π image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron β-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL's neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  14. Youth blogging and serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesby, Linda; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of young people who experience illness tend to blog about it. In this paper, we question whether and how illness blogs illustrate the intercommunicative aspect of blogging by bringing forth both the literary concept of the implied reader and the sociological concepts of empowerment and agency in the analysis. We argue that young people blogging about serious illness demonstrate the inherent intercommunicative potential of blogging. We also argue that youth blogging about serious illness may represent a fruitful strategy for ill young people to create meaning, stay front-stage in youth communities and build self-esteem and confidence out of chaos. Furthermore, we argue that these blogs may contribute rather unique experience-based knowledge and reflections about existential issues to other young blog readers, who may otherwise not get access to this aspect of life. Youth blogging about serious illness thereby reflects a patient group so far not very visible and through the genre youth stand out as more competent when it comes to illness and healthcare issues than what is often presumed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. A novel early risk assessment tool for detecting clinical outcomes in patients with heat-related illness (J-ERATO score: Development and validation in independent cohorts in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Hayashida

    Full Text Available We sought to develop a novel risk assessment tool to predict the clinical outcomes after heat-related illness.Prospective, multicenter observational study. Patients who transferred to emergency hospitals in Japan with heat-related illness were registered. The sample was divided into two parts: 60% to construct the score and 40% to validate it. A binary logistic regression model was used to predict hospital admission as a primary outcome. The resulting model was transformed into a scoring system.A total of 3,001 eligible patients were analyzed. There was no difference in variables between development and validation cohorts. Based on the result of a logistic regression model in the development phase (n = 1,805, the J-ERATO score was defined as the sum of the six binary components in the prehospital setting (respiratory rate≥22 /min, Glasgow coma scale0.2 by Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The observed proportion of hospital admission increased with increasing J-ERATO score (score = 0, 5.0%; score = 1, 15.0%; score = 2, 24.6%; score = 3, 38.6%; score = 4, 68.0%; score = 5, 85.2%; score = 6, 96.4%. Multivariate analyses showed that the J-ERATO score was an independent positive predictor of hospital admission (adjusted OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.06-2.87; P<0.001, intensive care unit (ICU admission (3.73; 2.95-4.72; P<0.001 and in-hospital mortality (1.65; 1.18-2.32; P = 0.004.The J-ERATO score is simply assessed and can facilitate the identification of patients with higher risk of heat-related hospitalization. This scoring system is also significantly associated with the higher likelihood of ICU admission and in-hospital mortality after heat-related hospitalization.

  16. Disaster related heat illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasufumi

    2012-01-01

    Explained and discussed are the outline of heat illness (HI), its raised risk and measures taken at the disaster of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FNPPA; Mar. 2011). High temperature and humid environment induce HI through the fervescence and dehydration resulting in the intestinal ischemia/hypoxia and organ failure. Epidemiologic data of the heatstroke in Japan suggest its seemingly parallel incidence to seasonal hotness of the summer. HI is classified in either classical (non-exertional) or exertional heatstroke, both with severity of I (slight), II (slight symptom of the central nervous system (CNS); necessary for consultation) and III (most serious; having dysfunction of CNS, organ or coagulation). Therapy depends on the severity: I for the first aid on site, II necessary for carrying to hospital and III for hospitalization. Protection is possible by personal, neighbors' and managers' carefulness, and supply of sufficient water and minerals. Risk of HI was suddenly raised at taking measures to meet with the FNPPA. Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) promptly organized JAAM-FNPPA Working Group to treat the emergent multiple incidents including the radiation exposure and HI as well. Exertional HI was mainly in labors wearing rather sealed closes to protect radiation to work for steps of the Accident, and which was similar to evacuees temporarily entering the evacuation area for visit to their own vacant houses. In the summer, classical HI was also a problem mainly in elderly living in the evacuation dwellings. Document of HI incidents and patients at FNPPA should be recorded for the reference to possible disaster in future. (T.T.)

  17. Cost of illness and illness perceptions in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Vera M; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; Olde Hartman, Tim C; Cats, Hans A; van Helmond, Toon; van der Laan, Willemijn H; Geenen, Rinie; van den Ende, Cornelia H

    2016-01-01

    The disease impact and economic burden of fibromyalgia (FM) are high for patients and society at large. Knowing potential determinants of economic costs may help in reducing this burden. Cognitive appraisals (perceptions) of the illness could affect costs. The present study estimated costs of illness in FM and examined the association between these costs and illness perceptions. Questionnaire data of FM severity (FIQ), illness perceptions (IPQ-R-FM), productivity losses (SF-HLQ) and health care use were collected in a cohort of patients with FM. Costs were calculated and dichotomised (median split). Univariate and hierarchic logistic regression models examined the unique association of each illness perception with 1) health care costs and 2) costs of productivity losses. Covariates were FM severity, comorbidity and other illness perceptions. 280 patients participated: 95% female, mean age 42 (SD=12) years. Annualised costs of FM per patient were €2944 for health care, and €5731 for productivity losses. In multivariate analyses, a higher disease impact (FIQ) and two of seven illness perceptions (IPQ-R-FM) were associated with high health care costs: 1) high scores on 'cyclical timeline' reflecting a fluctuating, unpredictable course and 2) low scores on 'emotional representations', thus not perceiving a connection between fibromyalgia and emotions. None of the variables was associated with productivity losses. Our study indicates that perceiving a fluctuating course and low emotional representation, which perhaps reflects somatic fixation, are associated with health care costs in FM. Future studies should examine whether targeting these illness perceptions results in reduction of costs.

  18. Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... disease is the most common illness caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Learn More Parvovirus B19 infection can cause ...

  19. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Caring for a Seriously Ill Child KidsHealth / For Parents / Caring for a Seriously Ill ... helping hand. Explaining Long-Term Illness to a Child Honest communication is vital to helping a child ...

  20. Impact of influenza vaccination on respiratory illness rates in children attending private boarding schools in England, 2013-2014: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R

    2015-12-01

    Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings.

  1. Improving Communication About Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-07

    Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

  2. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  3. Living with Mentally Ill Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Buldukoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.

  4. Transfusion in critically ill children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, E L; Stensballe, J; Afshari, A

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products is a cornerstone in managing many critically ill children. Major improvements in blood product safety have not diminished the need for caution in transfusion practice. In this review, we aim to discuss the interplay between benefits and potential adverse effects...... of transfusion in critically ill children by including 65 papers, which were evaluated based on previously agreed selection criteria. Current practice on transfusing critically ill children is mainly founded on the basis of adult studies, common practices with cut-off values, and expert opinions, rather than...... evidence-based medicine. Paediatric patients have explicit physiological challenges and requirements to be addressed. Critically ill children often suffer from anaemia, have substantial iatrogenic blood loss with subsequent transfusions, and are at a higher risk of complications, often due to human errors...

  5. Parasitic Diseases and Psychiatric Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Mitchell Gralnick

    1994-01-01

    Distinguishing parasitic diseases from other infections and tropical medical disorders based on microbiological classification is a matter of convenience. Organic brain syndromes are associated with both protozoan and helminthic infections; side-effects of drugs commonly used to treat parasitoses may impair mood and cause anxiety, agitation or psychosis. Emotional states may in turn affect the experience of medical illness. Psychiatrically significant features of medical illness are determine...

  6. Cost-of-illness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderda, Gary M

    2003-01-01

    Cost-of-illness studies measure the overall economic impact of a disease on society. Such studies are important in setting public health priorities and for economic evaluation of new treatments. These studies should take the societal perspective and include both direct and indirect costs. Often indirect costs exceed direct costs. Comparison of cost-of-illness studies from different countries is difficult because of differences in population, currency, the way health care is provided, and other social and political factors.

  7. Assessment of Meat and Poultry Product Recalls Due to Salmonella Contamination: Product Recovery and Illness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Scott A; Sampedro, Fernando; Hedberg, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Data from the recalls of meat and poultry products from 2000 through 2012 due to Salmonella contamination were used to assess the factors associated with the recovery of the recalled product and to develop quantitative models to estimate the number of illnesses prevented by recalls. The percentage of product recovered following a recall action was not dependent on establishment size, recall expansions, complexity of the distribution chain, type of distribution, amount of time between the production and recall dates, or number of pounds of product recalled. However, illness-related recalls were associated with larger amounts of recalled product, smaller percentages of recalled product recovered, a greater number of days between the production date and recall date, and nationwide distribution than were recalls that were not illness related. In addition, the detection of recall-associated illnesses appeared to be enhanced in states with strong foodborne illness investigation systems. The number of Salmonella illnesses prevented by recalls was based on the number of illnesses occurring relative to the number of pounds consumed, which was then extrapolated to the number of pounds of recalled product recovered. A simulation using a program evaluation and review technique probability distribution with illness-related recalls from 2003 through 2012 estimated that there were 19,000 prevented Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Recalls not associated with illnesses from 2000 through 2012 prevented an estimated additional 8,300 Salmonella illnesses, after adjusting for underdiagnosis. Although further improvements to ensure accurate and complete reporting should be undertaken, our study demonstrates that recalls are an important tool for preventing additional Salmonella illnesses. Moreover, additional training resources dedicated to public health agencies for enhancing foodborne illness detection, investigations, and rapid response and reporting would

  8. Healthcare disparities in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Graciela J; Martin, Greg S; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-12-01

    To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness, such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Study findings are presented according to their association with the prevalence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data are organized along the course of acute critical illness. The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research.

  9. Dependency in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumei Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By necessity, critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs have a high level of dependency, which is linked to a variety of negative feelings, such as powerlessness. However, the term dependency is not well defined in the critically ill patients. The concept of “dependency” in critically ill patients was analyzed using a meta-synthesis approach. An inductive process described by Deborah Finfgeld-Connett was used to analyze the data. Overarching themes emerged that reflected critically ill patients’ experience and meaning of being in dependency were (a antecedents: dependency in critically ill patients was a powerless and vulnerable state, triggered by a life-threatening crisis; (b attributes: the characteristic of losing “self” was featured by dehumanization and disembodiment, which can be alleviated by a “self”-restoring process; and (c outcomes: living with dependency and coping with dependency. The conceptual model explicated here may provide a framework for understanding dependency in critically ill patients.

  10. Detection of bacterial and viral pathogens in hospitalized children with acute respiratory illness and determination of different socio demographic factors as important cause of the disease in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyalaxmi Biswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper an attempt has been made to analysis the status of acute respiratory tract infection among children in India. In the present study we aimed to present first time the detection of viruses, bacteria and mix infection of viruses and bacteria in hospitalized children with ARI and also to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status of parent in two divergent geographical settings of Odisha. Hospitalized children with ARI aged <5 were recruited from July 2014 to June 2015. Nasopharyngeal/Oropharyngial swabs were collected for detection of common respiratory viruses by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Bacteria were isolated by routine culture methods. Bivitiate analysis including chi square was used as test of significance. The analysis revealed 150 (56% were detected with ≥1 bacteria, 40 (15% with ≥ 1virus, 22 (8.2% with ≥ 2 bacteria and 20 (7-4% with both bacteria and virus. Most frequently detected pathogens were Klebsiella pneumonae (18.3%, Sptrptococcus pneumonae (12.7%, Parainfluenza A (36.6% and Influenza- A18 (30%. Incidences of pathogens were detected more among children <1 year, Gender discrimination in the form of dietary neglect of the female children has also been noted mostly in case of tribal patients. The present study had identified low socioeconomic status, poor housing conditions, illiterate mothers, birth weight, tobacco smoking families and nutritional status as important determinants for ARI. Interventions to improve these modifiable risk factors can significantly reduce the ARI burden among children especially in tribal population.

  11. Psychodynamics in medically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sara Siris; Kent, Laura K; Muskin, Philip R

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of psychodynamics as it applies to the understanding and treatment of medically ill patients in the consultation-liaison psychiatry setting. It provides historical background that spans the eras from Antiquity (Hippocrates and Galen) to nineteenth-century studies of hysteria (Charcot, Janet, and Freud) and into the twentieth century (Flanders Dunbar, Alexander, Engle, and the DSM). The article then discusses the effects of personality on medical illness, treatment, and patients' ability to cope by reviewing the works of Bibring, Kahana, and others. The important contribution of attachment theory is reviewed as it pertains the patient-physician relationship and the health behavior of physically ill patients. A discussion of conversion disorder is offered as an example of psychodynamics in action. This article highlights the important impact of countertransference, especially in terms of how it relates to patients who are extremely difficult and "hateful," and explores the dynamics surrounding the topic of physician-assisted suicide, as it pertains to the understanding of a patient's request to die. Some attention is also given to the challenges surrounding the unique experience of residents learning how to treat medically ill patients on the consultation-liaison service. Ultimately, this article concludes that the use and understanding of psychodynamics and psychodynamic theory allows consultation-liaison psychiatrists the opportunity to interpret the life narratives of medically ill patients in a meaningful way that contributes importantly to treatment.

  12. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  13. Modernization of ILL instrument electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, F.

    1999-01-01

    We have built new general purpose cards for data acquisition taking advantage of recent developments in electronics. At the end of the year, most scheduled instruments at the ILL will be running under UNIX with VME electronics front-end. As the VME electronics of the ILL was designed at the beginning of the eighties, the instrument control section (SCI) at ILL has prepared a renewal plan for two reasons: - first, all the processor cards of the Institute are based on MIZAR processor boards and MIZAR stopped the production of this card last year, as the market was shrinking; - in addition, processors and programmable electronics are now 10 times faster. The electronics services want to take full advantage of these new performances. (author)

  14. Cost of illness and illness perceptions in patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, V.M.C.; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Olde Hartman, T.C.; Cats, H.A.; van Helmond, T.; Van der Laan, W.H.; Geenen, R.; Van den Ende, C.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The disease impact and economic burden of fibromyalgia (FM) are high for patients and society at large. Knowing potential determinants of economic costs may help in reducing this burden. Cognitive appraisals (perceptions) of the illness could affect costs. The present study estimated

  15. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions....... The purpose of this study is to explore frequency of qualitative, not-yet-psychotic, anomalies of subjective experience in patients with residual schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness in remission. METHOD: The patients were examined with the Danish version of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic...... differential diagnosis and therefore potentially useful in the preonset detection of the schizophrenia spectrum illness....

  16. Estimation of community-level influenza-associated illness in a low resource rural setting in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Saha

    Full Text Available To estimate rates of community-level influenza-like-illness (ILI and influenza-associated ILI in rural north India.During 2011, we conducted household-based healthcare utilization surveys (HUS for any acute medical illness (AMI in preceding 14days among residents of 28villages of Ballabgarh, in north India. Concurrently, we conducted clinic-based surveillance (CBS in the area for AMI episodes with illness onset ≤3days and collected nasal and throat swabs for influenza virus testing using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Retrospectively, we applied ILI case definition (measured/reported fever and cough to HUS and CBS data. We attributed 14days of risk-time per person surveyed in HUS and estimated community ILI rate by dividing the number of ILI cases in HUS by total risk-time. We used CBS data on influenza positivity and applied it to HUS-based community ILI rates by age, month, and clinic type, to estimate the community influenza-associated ILI rates.The HUS of 69,369 residents during the year generated risk-time of 3945 person-years (p-y and identified 150 (5%, 95%CI: 4-6 ILI episodes (38 ILI episodes/1,000 p-y; 95% CI 32-44. Among 1,372 ILI cases enrolled from clinics, 126 (9%; 95% CI 8-11 had laboratory-confirmed influenza (A (H3N2 = 72; B = 54. After adjusting for age, month, and clinic type, overall influenza-associated ILI rate was 4.8/1,000 p-y; rates were highest among children <5 years (13; 95% CI: 4-29 and persons≥60 years (11; 95%CI: 2-30.We present a novel way to use HUS and CBS data to generate estimates of community burden of influenza. Although the confidence intervals overlapped considerably, higher point estimates for burden among young children and older adults shows the utility for exploring the value of influenza vaccination among target groups.

  17. Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on the Burden and Severity of Influenza Illness in Malawian Adults: A Prospective Cohort and Parallel Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Antonia; Aston, Stephen J; Jary, Hannah; Mitchell, Tamara; Alaerts, Maaike; Menyere, Mavis; Mallewa, Jane; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Everett, Dean; Heyderman, Robert S; French, Neil

    2018-03-05

    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on influenza incidence and severity in adults in sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected persons in developed settings but is rarely implemented in Africa. We conducted a prospective cohort study to compare the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza illness between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in Blantyre, Malawi. In a parallel case-control study, we explored risk factors for severe influenza presentation of severe (hospitalized) lower respiratory tract infection, and mild influenza (influenza-like illness [ILI]). The cohort study enrolled 608 adults, of whom 360 (59%) were HIV infected. Between April 2013 and March 2015, 24 of 229 ILI episodes (10.5%) in HIV-infected and 5 of 119 (4.2%) in HIV-uninfected adults were positive for influenza by means of polymerase chain reaction (incidence rate, 46.0 vs 14.5 per 1000 person-years; incidence rate ratio, 2.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-7.44; P = .03; adjusted for age, sex, household crowding, and food security). In the case-control study, influenza was identified in 56 of 518 patients (10.8%) with hospitalized lower respiratory tract infection, and 88 or 642 (13.7%) with ILI. The HIV prevalence was 69.6% and 29.6%, respectively, among influenza-positive case patients and controls. HIV was a significant risk factor for severe influenza (odds ratio, 4.98; 95% confidence interval, 2.09-11.88; P factor for influenza-associated ILI and severe presentation in this high-HIV prevalence African setting. Targeted influenza vaccination of HIV-infected African adults should be reevaluated, and the optimal mechanism for vaccine introduction in overstretched health systems needs to be determined. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Effect of a Probiotic Preparation (VSL#3 on Cardiovascular Risk Parameters in Critically-Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Administration of probiotics in critically ill patients reduced the levels of TG and hs-CRP and increased HDL-C levels. However, no significant change was detected in levels of total cholesterol or LDL-C.

  19. Molecular detection and characterization of Influenza 'C' viruses from western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, V A; Hinge, D D; Dakhave, M R; Manchanda, A; Jadhav, N; Kulkarni, P B; Chadha, M S

    2017-10-01

    Since 2003, India has had a well-established influenza surveillance network, though Influenza C virus was not the focus of study. We therefore retrospectively analyzed clinical samples from Pune, western India collected during January 2009 to August 2015, by real-time RT-PCR. Three of 2530 samples of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) showed positivity for Influenza C virus infection, while 105 and 31 samples were positive for Influenza A and B viruses respectively. Influenza C viruses were successfully isolated using the embryonated egg system and whole genomes were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. HE gene-based phylogeny showed that two viruses C/India/P119564/2011 and C/India P121719/2012 clustered with the C/Sao Paulo/378/82 (SP82) lineage, whereas C/India/P135047/2013 clustered with the C/Kanagawa/1/76 (KA76) lineage. The internal gene of these viruses grouped in two lineages. The PB1, PB2, M and NS genes of the study viruses grouped with C/Yamagata/26/81 (YA81), while the P3 (PA) and NP genes grouped with C/Mississippi/80 (MS80). Bayesian clock studies conclude that the Indian strains may have emerged through multiple reassortment events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dogs as a diagnostic tool for ill health in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Deborah L

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia. The author describes the research carried out in this area and evaluates it in an effort to determine whether dogs have a role to play in modern health care as an alert tool or screening system for ill health. Where necessary, the author has highlighted weaknesses in the work and proposed directions for future studies.

  1. A pill for every ill?

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In the US, non-medical use of prescription drugs is second only to marijuana. Marc Buhagiar meets up with Prof. Marilyn Clark to investigate just how dangerous this problem is around Europe. Illustrations by Sonya Hallett. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/a-pill-for-every-ill/

  2. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  3. New chopper control at ILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descamps, F [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Proper phasing is an essential characteristic of the chopper systems used at ILL. A wide variety of choppers and selectors differing in weight, speed and bearing types are controlled by a unique electronic card performing digital adaptative filtering. The chopper regulation system is described. (author).

  4. Hemodynamic monitoring in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voga, G

    1995-06-01

    Monitoring of vital functions is one of the most important and essential tools in the management of critically ill patients in the ICU. Today it is possible to detect and analyze a great variety of physiological signals by various noninvasive and invasive techniques. An intensivist should be able to select and perform the most appropriate monitoring method for the individual patient considering risk-benefit ratio of the particular monitoring technique and the need for immediate therapy, specific diagnosis, continuous monitoring and evaluation of morphology should be included. Despite rapid development of noninvasive monitoring techniques, invasive hemodynamic monitoring in still one of the most basic ICU procedures. It enables monitoring of pressures, flow and saturation, pressures in the systemic and pulmonary circulation, estimation of cardiac performance and judgment of the adequacy of the cardiocirculatory system. Carefully and correctly obtained information are basis for proper hemodynamic assessment which usually effects the therapeutic decisions.

  5. Rhabdomyolysis in Critically Ill Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Cvetkovska, Emilija; Kuzmanovski, Igor; Jankulovski, Nikola; Shosholcheva, Mirjana; Kartalov, Andrijan; Spirovska, Tatjana

    2016-07-27

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome of injury of skeletal muscles associated with myoglobinuria, muscle weakness, electrolyte imbalance and often, acute kidney injury as severe complication. of this study is to detect the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), and to raise awareness of this medical condition and its treatment among the clinicians. A retrospective review of all surgical and trauma patients admitted to surgical ICU of the University Surgical Clinic "Mother Teresa" in Skopje, Macedonia, from January 1 st till December 31 st 2015 was performed. Patients medical records were screened for available serum creatine kinase (CK) with levels > 200 U/l, presence of myoglobin in the serum in levels > 80 ng/ml, or if they had a clinical diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis by an attending doctor. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the collected data. Out of totally 1084 patients hospitalized in the ICU, 93 were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis during the course of one year. 82(88%) patients were trauma patients, while 11(12%) were surgical non trauma patients. 7(7.5%) patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that required dialysis. Average values of serum myoglobin levels were 230 ng/ml, with highest values of > 5000 ng/ml. Patients who developed AKI had serum myoglobin levels above 2000 ng/ml. Average values of serum CK levels were 400 U/l, with highest value of 21600 U/l. Patients who developed AKI had serum CK levels above 3000 U/l. Regular monitoring and early detection of elevated serum CK and myoglobin levels in critically ill surgical and trauma patients is recommended in order to recognize and treat rhabdomyolysis in timely manner and thus prevent development of AKI.

  6. Correlates of Illness Severity in Infectious Mononucleosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Odame

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the spectrum and frequencies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV complications and markers of illness severity in immunocompetent patients with primary EBV infection will inform management of patients with EBV-related illnesses.

  7. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how you can help. By Mayo Clinic Staff Mental illness in children can be hard for parents to ... help they need. Understand the warning signs of mental illness in children and how you can help your ...

  8. Clinical accuracy of a PLEX-ID flu device for simultaneous detection and identification of influenza viruses A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Lowery, Kristin S; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C; Chappell, James D; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E; Parker, Michelle L; Ortenberg, Elaine V; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A and B viruses often present nonspecifically, and a rapid, high-throughput laboratory technique that can identify influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. The PLEX-ID Flu assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL) incorporates multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to detect and differentiate influenza A 2009 H1N1 (H1N1-p), seasonal H1N1 (H1N1-s), influenza A H3N2, and influenza B viruses in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens. The clinical performance characteristics of the PLEX-ID Flu assay in symptomatic patients were determined in this multicenter trial. A total of 2,617 prospectively and retrospectively collected NPS specimens from patients with influenza-like illness between February 2008 and 28 May 2010 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each specimen was tested in parallel by the PLEX-ID Flu assay and by the Prodesse ProFLU+ assay (Prodesse Inc., Madison, WI), to detect influenza A and B viruses. Specimens testing positive for influenza A virus by ProFLU+ were subtyped as H1N1-p, H1N1-s, or H3N2 by using the ProFAST+ assay (Gen-Probe Prodesse Inc.). The reproducibility of the PLEX-ID Flu assay ranged from 98.3 to 100.0%, as determined by testing a nine-specimen panel at three clinical sites on each of 5 days. Positive percent agreements (PPAs) and negative percent agreements (NPAs) of the PLEX-ID Flu assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for influenza A virus and 96.0% and 99.9% for influenza B virus, respectively. For the influenza A virus subtyping characterization, the PLEX-ID Flu assay had PPAs and NPAs of 98.3% and 97.5% for H1N1-p, 88.6% and 100.0% for H1N1-s, and 98.0% and 99.9% for H3N2, respectively. The overall agreements between the PLEX-ID and Prodesse ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were 97.1 to 100.0%. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing analysis revealed that 87.5% of 96 discrepant results between the PLEX-ID Flu and ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were found upon

  9. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  10. Depressive illness delayed Hamlet's revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A B; Pickering, Neil

    2002-12-01

    If Hamlet had not delayed his revenge there would have been no play. Many explanations of the delay have been offered in the last four centuries. None is convincing. The interpretation which best fits the evidence best is that Hamlet was suffering from an acute depressive illness, with some obsessional features. He could not make a firm resolve to act. In Shakespeare's time there was no concept of acute depressive illness, although melancholy was well known. Melancholy, however, would have been seen as a character defect. In the tragic model the hero brings himself and others to ruin because of a character defect. Thus, at the time, the play conformed to the tragic model. With today's knowledge, it does not. This analysis adds to, but does not replace, other insights into the play.

  11. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  12. Anxiety in Medically Ill Children/Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pao, Maryland; Bosk, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are thought to be one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in children/adolescents. Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of an anxiety disorder and the prevalence rate of anxiety disorders among youths with chronic medical illnesses is higher compared to their healthy counterparts. Anxiety disorders may develop secondary to predisposing biological mechanisms related to a child’s specific medical illness, as a response to being ill or i...

  13. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.-C.; Lee, T.-K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  14. Diaphragm Dysfunction in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supinski, Gerald S; Morris, Peter E; Dhar, Sanjay; Callahan, Leigh Ann

    2018-04-01

    The diaphragm is the major muscle of inspiration, and its function is critical for optimal respiration. Diaphragmatic failure has long been recognized as a major contributor to death in a variety of systemic neuromuscular disorders. More recently, it is increasingly apparent that diaphragm dysfunction is present in a high percentage of critically ill patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In these patients, diaphragm weakness is thought to develop from disuse secondary to ventilator-induced diaphragm inactivity and as a consequence of the effects of systemic inflammation, including sepsis. This form of critical illness-acquired diaphragm dysfunction impairs the ability of the respiratory pump to compensate for an increased respiratory workload due to lung injury and fluid overload, leading to sustained respiratory failure and death. This review examines the presentation, causes, consequences, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders that result in acquired diaphragm dysfunction during critical illness. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Illness perceptions of cancer patients: relationships with illness characteristics and effects on coping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, E.P.C.; Rijken, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Illness perceptions have proven to be predictive of coping and adjustment in many chronically ill patients. Insights into illness perceptions of cancer patients are however scarce. The purpose of the present study was to explore how people with cancer perceive their illness. Moreover, we

  16. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Bobby K; Chiao, Joan Y

    2012-10-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one's reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one's attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness.

  17. Irradiation's promise: fewer foodborne illnesses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.

    1986-01-01

    Food irradiation offers a variety of potential benefits to the food supply. It can delay ripening and sprouting of fruits and vegetables, and substitute for chemical fumigants to kill insects. However, one of the most important benefits of food irradiation is its potential use for destroying microbial pathogens that enter the food supply, including the two most common disease causing bacteria: salmonella and campylobacter. Animal products are one of the primary carriers of pathogens. Food borne illnesses are on the rise, and irradiation of red meats and poultry could significantly reduce their occurrence. Food irradiation should be examined more closely to determine its possible benefits in curtailing microbial diseases

  18. Ethics and mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  19. Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H

    1989-07-01

    Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed.

  20. Identification and Epidemiology of Severe Respiratory Disease due to Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 Virus Infection in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zahariadis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In March 2009, global surveillance started detecting cases of influenza-like illness in Mexico. By mid-April 2009, two pediatric patients were identified in the United States who were confirmed to be infected by a novel influenza A (H1N1 strain. The present article describes the first identified severe respiratory infection and the first death associated with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 in Canada.

  1. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    lateral positioning in critically ill adults. We included manual or automated turns but limited eligibility to studies that included duration of body position of 10 minutes or longer. We examined each lateral position versus at least one comparator (opposite lateral position and/or another body position) for single therapy effects, and the lateral positioning schedule (repeated lateral turning) versus other positioning schedules for repetitive therapy effects. We pre-specified methods to be used for data collection, risk of bias assessment and analysis. Two independent review authors carried out each stage of selection and data extraction and settled differences in opinion by consensus, or by third party adjudication when disagreements remained unresolved. We planned analysis of pair-wise comparisons under composite time intervals with the aim of considering recommendations based on meta-analyses of studies with low risk of bias. We included 24 studies of critically ill adults. No study reported mortality as an outcome of interest. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examined lateral positioning for pulmonary morbidity outcomes but provided insufficient information for meta-analysis. A total of 22 randomized trials examined effects of lateral positioning (four parallel-group and 18 cross-over designs) by measuring various continuous data outcomes commonly used to detect adverse cardiopulmonary events within critical care areas. However, parallel-group studies were not comparable, and cross-over studies provided limited data as the result of unit of analysis errors. Eight studies provided some data; most of these were single studies with small effects that were imprecise. We pooled partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) as a measure to detect hypoxaemia from two small studies of participants with unilateral lung disease (n = 19). The mean difference (MD) between lateral positions (bad lung down versus good lung down) was approximately 50 mmHg (MD -49.26 mmHg, 95

  2. Mass psychogenic illness after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C John

    2003-01-01

    When vaccines are administered to groups, the physical reactions of the recipients may be similar, causing a form of mass reaction, the mechanism for which is the same as that for mass reactions from other causes. These phenomena have been categorised as mass psychogenic illness (MPI), and have been defined as the collective occurrence of a constellation of symptoms suggestive of organic illness but without an identified cause in a group of people with shared beliefs about the cause of the symptom(s). A review of the literature shows that such outbreaks have been reported in differing cultural and environmental settings including developing and industrialised countries, in the work place, on public transport, in schools, and the military. The perceived threats have been against agents such as food poisoning, fire and toxic gases. Whatever the place or perceived threat, the response seems to be similar. The symptoms generally included headache, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Once under way, MPIs are not easy to stop. Incidents reported in the literature show that they can quickly gather momentum and can be amplified by the press who disseminate information rapidly, escalating the events. Management of such mass events can be extremely difficult. Should the public health official in charge continue to try and determine the cause, or should this person call off the entire investigation? It is suggested here that once vaccines are identified as a probable cause of the phenomenon, a dismissive approach may actually be harmful. Unless the spokesperson has already earned a high level of trust, the public are not likely to be convinced easily that nothing was wrong with the vaccine until it has been tested. An increased awareness of MPIs on the part of organisers of future mass vaccination campaigns seems appropriate. Immunisation managers should be aware that mass immunisation campaigns could generate such mass reactions. It is therefore essential that

  3. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Bobby K.; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2012-01-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one’s reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and expli...

  4. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    OpenAIRE

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive eff...

  5. Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0480 TITLE: Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D...Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0480 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ashok K...biodegradable polymer nanosystems (nCUR) for alleviating cognitive, memory and mood impairments in a rat model of gulf war illness (GWI). Specific

  6. The Fight against Stigma toward Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Cam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 71-78

  7. Children coping with a serious illness

    OpenAIRE

    Pretzlik, Ursula

    1996-01-01

    A solid empirical base is needed to expand our understanding of coping in children who are seriously ill. The six studies reported were designed to describe the ways seriously ill children cope with their illness and treatment, and to explore factors (both individual and familial) which influence their coping. The choice of instniments and design were influenced by the Lazanis and Folkman transactional model of stress and coping (1984), especially their concept of coping. In the first study t...

  8. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Looking after chronically ill dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    thus face similar challenges when caring for their animals. This qualitative study uncovers impacts on an owner's life, when attending to the care of an aged or chronically ill dog and reflects on the differing roles of caregivers with animal and human patients. Twelve dog owners were selected for in......-depth interviews based on the dogs' diagnoses, and the choice of treatments and care expected to affect the owner's life. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. The dog owners reported several changes in their lives due to their dog's condition: practicalities like extra care, changes...... in use of the home, and restrictions relating to work, social life, and finances. These were time-consuming, tough, and annoying, but could often be dealt with through planning and prioritizing. Changes in the human–dog relationship and activities caused sadness and frustration, which in turn led...

  10. Food hygiene, deprivation, types of premises and rates of gastrointestinal illnesses in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    To understand more about the relationship between economic deprivation, types of premises, food hygiene scores and rates of gastrointestinal illness in the UK. Data were extracted from the UK Food Standards Agency for about 300 000 UK premises which had hygiene scores based on visits from local authority food safety officers. These scores were analysed by type of premises, deprivation and local authority. Local authority-level average scores were mapped and compared with rates of laboratory-detected gastrointestinal illness from the Health Protection Agency. UK. UK premises (n 311 458) from 341 local authority areas that sell or produce food. There was a modest but statistically significant relationship between average food hygiene score and deprivation, which was caused by deprived areas having more of the categories of premises with significantly lower hygiene scores; these were pub/club (n 40 525), restaurant/café/canteen (n 73 052), small retailer (n 42 932) and takeaway (n 36 708). No relationship was established between local authority average food hygiene scores and rates of laboratory-detected gastrointestinal illness; however, this result does not preclude a relationship between food hygiene and rates of gastrointestinal illnesses, as laboratory-detected illness rates make up only a small proportion of actual rates of illness in the community. Certain types of UK premises are more likely to have low hygiene scores, which means that they should be targeted more for enforcement. These types of premises are more prevalent in the most economically deprived areas.

  11. [Antibiotics in the critically ill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Radmila R

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotics are one the most common therapies administered in the intensive care unit setting. This review outlines the strategy for optimal use of antimicrobial agents in the critically ill. In severely ill patients, empirical antimicrobial therapy should be used when a suspected infection may impair the outcome. It is necessary to collect microbiological documentation before initiating empirical antimicrobial therapy. In addition to antimicrobial therapy, it is recommended to control a focus of infection and to modify factors that promote microbial growth or impair the host's antimicrobial defence. A judicious choice of antimicrobial therapy should be based on the host characteristics, the site of injection, the local ecology, and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of antibiotics. This means treating empirically with broad-spectrum antimicrobials as soon as possible and narrowing the spectrum once the organism is identified (de-escalation), and limiting duration of therapy to the minimum effective period. Despite theoretical advantages, a combined antibiotic therapy is nor more effective than a mono-therapy in curing infections in most clinical trials involving intensive care patients. Nevertheless, textbooks and guidelines recommend a combination for specific pathogens and for infections commonly caused by these pathogens. Avoiding unnecessary antibiotic use and optimizing the administration of antimicrobial agents will improve patient outcomes while minimizing risks for the development of bacterial resistance. It is important to note that each intensive care unit should have a program in place which monitors antibiotic utilisation and its effectiveness. Only in this way can the impact of interventions aimed at improving antibiotic use be evaluated at the local level.

  12. Illness Uncertainty and Illness Intrusiveness as Predictors of Depressive and Anxious Symptomology in College Students with Chronic Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Alexandria J.; Gamwell, Kaitlyn L.; Sharkey, Christina M.; Bakula, Dana M.; Tackett, Alayna P.; Suorsa, Kristina I.; Chaney, John M.; Mullins, Larry L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors of psychological functioning in college students with chronic illnesses. Participants: Participants (N = 1413) included 364 students with self-reported diagnoses of asthma or allergies, 148 students with other chronic illnesses (eg, epilepsy, type 1 diabetes), and 901 healthy students. Data were collected between…

  13. Unusually High Mortality in Waterfowl Caused by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Sturm-Ramirez, K.; Khan, S. U.

    2017-01-01

    a survey in three of these villages to identify suspected human influenza-like illness cases and collected nasopharyngeal and throat swabs. We tested all swabs by real-time RT-PCR, sequenced cultured viruses, and examined tissue samples by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to detect and characterize...... and immunohistochemistry staining of avian influenza viral antigens were recognized in the brain, pancreas and intestines of ducks and chickens. We identified ten human cases showing signs compatible with influenza-like illness; four were positive for influenza A/H3; however, none were positive for influenza A/H5......Mortality in ducks and geese caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) infection had not been previously identified in Bangladesh. In June-July 2011, we investigated mortality in ducks, geese and chickens with suspected H5N1 infection in a north-eastern district of the country to identify...

  14. World survey of mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Neil; Tang, Sabrina; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Ing, Alton

    2016-01-15

    To obtain rapid and reproducible opinions that address mental illness stigma around the world. Random global Web users were exposed to brief questions, asking whether they interacted daily with someone with mental illness, whether they believed that mental illness was associated with violence, whether it was similar to physical illness, and whether it could be overcome. Over a period of 1.7 years, 596,712 respondents from 229 countries completed the online survey. The response rate was 54.3%. China had the highest proportion of respondents in daily contact with a person with mental illness. In developed countries, 7% to 8% of respondents endorsed the statement that individuals with mental illness were more violent than others, in contrast to 15% or 16% in developing countries. While 45% to 51% of respondents from developed countries believed that mental illness was similar to physical illness, only 7% believed that mental illness could be overcome. To test for reproducibility, 21 repeats of the same questions were asked monthly in India for 21 months. Each time, 10.1 ± 0.11% s.e., of respondents endorsed the statement that persons who suffer from mental illness are more violent than others, indicating strong reproducibility of response. This study shows that surveys of constructs such as stigma towards mental illness can be carried out rapidly and repeatedly across the globe, so that the impact of policy interventions can be readily measured. The method engages English speakers only, mainly young, educated males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Illness narratives of people who are homeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Håkanson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony. The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.

  16. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  17. A Platform for Crowdsourced Foodborne Illness Surveillance: Description of Users and Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Patrick; Nsoesie, Elaine Okanyene

    2017-07-05

    Underreporting of foodborne illness makes foodborne disease burden estimation, timely outbreak detection, and evaluation of policies toward improving food safety challenging. The objective of this study was to present and evaluate Iwaspoisoned.com, an openly accessible Internet-based crowdsourcing platform that was launched in 2009 for the surveillance of foodborne illness. The goal of this system is to collect data that can be used to augment traditional approaches to foodborne disease surveillance. Individuals affected by a foodborne illness can use this system to report their symptoms and the suspected location (eg, restaurant, hotel, hospital) of infection. We present descriptive statistics of users and businesses and highlight three instances where reports of foodborne illness were submitted before the outbreaks were officially confirmed by the local departments of health. More than 49,000 reports of suspected foodborne illness have been submitted on Iwaspoisoned.com since its inception by individuals from 89 countries and every state in the United States. Approximately 95.51% (42,139/44,119) of complaints implicated restaurants as the source of illness. Furthermore, an estimated 67.55% (3118/4616) of users who responded to a demographic survey were between the ages of 18 and 34, and 60.14% (2776/4616) of the respondents were female. The platform is also currently used by health departments in 90% (45/50) of states in the US to supplement existing programs on foodborne illness reporting. Crowdsourced disease surveillance through systems such as Iwaspoisoned.com uses the influence and familiarity of social media to create an infrastructure for easy reporting and surveillance of suspected foodborne illness events. If combined with traditional surveillance approaches, these systems have the potential to lessen the problem of foodborne illness underreporting and aid in early detection and monitoring of foodborne disease outbreaks. ©Patrick Quade, Elaine Okanyene

  18. Illness perceptions of cancer patients: relationships with illness characteristics and coping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, P.; Rijken, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Illness perceptions have proven to be predictive of coping and adjustment in many chronically ill patients. However, insights into illness perceptions of cancer patients are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to explore how a heterogeneous sample of cancer patients perceive

  19. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  20. Clinical Pharmacology Studies in Critically Ill Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Nilay; Salerno, Sara; Hornik, Christoph P.; Gonzalez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Developmental and physiological changes in children contribute to variation in drug disposition with age. Additionally, critically ill children suffer from various life-threatening conditions that can lead to pathophysiological alterations that further affect pharmacokinetics (PK). Some factors that can alter PK in this patient population include variability in tissue distribution caused by protein binding changes and fluid shifts, altered drug elimination due to organ dysfunction, and use of medical interventions that can affect drug disposition (e.g., extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous renal replacement therapy). Performing clinical studies in critically ill children is challenging because there is large inter-subject variability in the severity and time course of organ dysfunction; some critical illnesses are rare, which can affect subject enrollment; and critically ill children usually have multiple organ failure, necessitating careful selection of a study design. As a result, drug dosing in critically ill children is often based on extrapolations from adults or non-critically ill children. Dedicated clinical studies in critically ill children are urgently needed to identify optimal dosing of drugs in this population. This review will summarize the effect of critical illness on pediatric PK, the challenges associated with performing studies in this vulnerable subpopulation, and the clinical PK studies performed to date for commonly used drugs. PMID:27585904

  1. Illness representations in patients with hand injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2009-07-01

    Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

  2. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  3. Mental illness among journalists: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Malcolm, Estelle; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire

    2013-06-01

    Mass media depictions of people with mental illness have a strong influence on public attitudes, to the extent that changes in these depictions can reduce public stigmatization of people with such illness. Journalists' mental health may influence their depiction of those with mental illness, but little is known about this. To investigate mental illness among journalists in five key areas: (1) journalists' mental health status; (2) journalists' personal attitudes towards mental illness; (3) attitudes and support journalists expect or have experienced from colleagues when they have a mental health problem; (4) effect of journalism's professional culture on the course of mental illness; and (5) effect of journalism's professional culture on mass media depictions of people with mental illness. We performed a systematic screening of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library regarding the study aims. We identified 19, 12, seven and four studies for aims 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. No articles were found for aim 5. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among journalists is higher than that among the general population. Journalists have positive personal attitudes towards mental illness, but there are perceived workplace disincentives to disclose mental health problems.

  4. New U.S. Foodborne Illness Estimate

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses CDC's report on new estimates of illnesses due to eating contaminated food in the United States. Dr. Elaine Scallan, assistant professor at the University of Colorado and former lead of the CDCs FoodNet surveillance system, shares the details from the first new comprehensive estimates of foodborne illness in the U.S. since 1999.

  5. Nutrition, Illness, and Injury in Aquatic Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyne, D.B.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Mountjoy, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of

  6. Inequality in the social consequences of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Whitehead, M; Lindholm, C

    2000-01-01

    those people with chronic illness. The study tests two opposing hypotheses: (1) the increasingly flexible, deregulated labor market in Britain would result in an increased number of new jobs, and thus better employment opportunities for unskilled workers, including those with chronic illness; (2...

  7. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  8. Outbreak of Mysterious Illness Among Hospital Staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitals are rarely reported as settings for mass psychogenic illness (MPI). The present report scrutinizes an outbreak of probable MPI among hospital staff, with medical intervention reinforcing the course of the illness. CASE REPORT: Four of seven staff members in an emergency...

  9. Social Work Faculty and Mental Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…

  10. Administrative Segregation for Mentally Ill Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.

    2007-01-01

    Largely the result of prison officials needing to safely and efficiently manage a volatile inmate population, administrative segregation or supermax facilities are criticized as violating basic human needs, particularly for mentally ill inmates. The present study compared Colorado offenders with mental illness (OMIs) to nonOMIs in segregated and…

  11. Illness in Children and Parental Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractMost children suffer from illnesses from time to time. In only a small part of these ill children parents decide to seek professional help. So, most child health care is carried out by parents. In general, this phenomenon is called the iceberg of symptoms. The part of the iceberg under

  12. Illness perceptions in patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ittersum, M. W.; van Wilgen, C. P.; Hilberdink, W. K. H. A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Objective: Former studies in chronic diseases showed the importance of patients' beliefs and perceptions. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire was developed to assess these illness perceptions. Our goal was to investigate psychometric properties of the IPQ-R for Fibromyalgia Dutch language

  13. Mental illness - stigma and discrimination in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their illness on the one side, and widespread stigma and discrimination on the other. Evidence from North America and paralleling findings from research in Western Europe suggest that stigma and discrimination are major problems in the community, with negative attitudes and behaviour towards people with mental illness ...

  14. Mental illness stigma, secrecy and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, N; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Kilian, R; Müller, M; Rodgers, S; Xu, Z; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-02-01

    Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled 'mentally ill'. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking. Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled 'mentally ill'. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted. While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness. Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled 'mentally ill', mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with

  15. Integrated management of childhood illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Millones de defunciones en niños menores de 5 años se podrían prevenir en países en desarrollo si se aplicaran las medidas de control y los tratamientos eficaces que se usan normalmente en países desarrollados. Conscientes de la necesidad de hacer frente a las principales causas de enfermedad y muerte en la infancia (infecciones respiratorias agudas, enfermedades diarreicas, desnutrición, malaria y enfermedades prevenibles por medio de la vacunación mediante una iniciativa global, la OMS y el UNICEF han desarrollado una estrategia conocida por Atención Integrada de las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, IMCI. Sus oficinas regionales para las Américas, que son la OPS y el UNICEF-TACRO, han aceptado los objetivos y actividades descritos en el presente informe a fin de reorientar su labor y dirigirla hacia el mejoramiento del estado de salud infantil en este hemisferio.

  16. Molecular genetics in affective illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendlewicz, J.; Sevy, S.; Mendelbaum, K. (Erasme Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    Genetic transmission in manic depressive illness (MDI) has been explored in twins, adoption, association, and linkage studies. The X-linked transmission hypothesis has been tested by using several markers on chromosome X: Xg blood group, color blindness, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), factor IX (hemophilia B), and DNA probes such as DXS15, DXS52, F8C, ST14. The hypothesis of autosomal transmission has been tested by association studies with the O blood group located on chromosome 9, as well as linkage studies on chromosome 6 with the Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) haplotypes and on Chromosome 11 with DNA markers for the following genes: D2 dopamine receptor, tyrosinase, C-Harvey-Ras-A (HRAS) oncogene, insuline (ins), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Although linkage studies support the hypothesis of a major locus for the transmission of MDI in the Xq27-28 region, several factors are limiting the results, and are discussed in the present review. 105 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

  18. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimidis Steven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes

  19. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  20. The psychological impact of arthritis: the effects of illness perception and coping.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zyrianova, Y

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Coping and illness perception are considered to be important contributors in the relationship between physical and psychological factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the complex relationship of coping and illness perception on physical and psychological factors in RA using a structural model. METHODS: We assessed coping, illness perception, depression, anxiety, pain, arthritis-related disability and perceived social support in 68 adults with RA. RESULTS: Greater pain was detected in patients with increased scores on passive coping scale, greater severity of physical disability and increased depression and anxiety. Illness perception was found to be a mediator in the relationship between physical disability and passive coping on one hand and depression, anxiety and pain on the other. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesised structural model has proven to be a useful paradigm for understanding the associations between multiple factors in RA presentation: clinical, emotional, personal and cognitive.

  1. Illness Perceptions and Fatigue in Systemic Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Peter C.; Amudala, Naomi A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Leduc, Renée L.; Shereff, Denise; Richesson, Rachel; Fraenkel, Liana; Merkel, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare illness perceptions among patients with different forms of vasculitis, identify risk factors for negative illness perceptions, and determine the association between illness perceptions and fatigue. Methods Participants were recruited from an online registry in vasculitis to complete the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Mean scores on each IPQ-R dimension were compared across types of vasculitis. Cluster analysis and stepwise regression identified predictors of negative illness perception. Fatigue was measured using the general subscale of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). Patient-reported measures of disease activity and IPQ-R dimensions were assessed in relation to MFI scores using linear regression in sequential, additive models with model-fit comparisons. Results 692 participants with 9 forms of vasculitis completed the IPQ-R. For 6 out of 8 IPQ-R dimensions, there were no significant differences in mean scores between the different vasculitides. Scores in identity and cyclical dimensions were significantly higher in Behçet’s disease compared to other types of vasculitis (13.5 vs 10.7; 4.0 vs 3.2, pvasculitis, and younger age is a risk factor for negative illness perceptions. Illness perceptions explain differences in fatigue scores beyond what can be explained by measures of disease activity. PMID:23861259

  2. Mental illness in Disney animated films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrea; Fouts, Gregory

    2004-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of verbalizations about mental illness in the animated feature films of The Walt Disney Company (TWDC). We discuss the results within the context of children's repeated exposure to popular animated movies and their learning of labels and stereotypes associated with mental illness. We recommend further research on this topic. We coded 34 animated feature films produced by TWDC for mental illness references (for example, "crazy" or "nuts"). We developed a coding manual to systematize the content analysis, to ensure accuracy of the data, and to ascertain intercoder reliability. Most of the films (that is, 85%) contain verbal references to mental illness, with an average of 4.6 references per film. The references were mainly used to set apart and denigrate the characters to whom they referred. Twenty-one percent of the principal characters were referred to as mentally ill. We discuss the contributions and limitations of the study. The findings have implications for child viewers in terms of their potentially learning prejudicial attitudes and distancing behaviours toward individuals perceived as being mentally ill. To further verify this connection, an assessment of the incidence of Disney film exposure and attitudes toward people with a mental illness, using a sample of school-aged children, is needed.

  3. ILL experimental reports and theory college activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This volume is the collection of reports describing experimental work performed at the I.L.L. They have been arranged by subject (from the I.L.L. classification scheme) and are published under their proposal number. (Only those reports received up to Jan. 19, 1987 have been included). In order to have connection between the theory group and the experimental activities of the I.L.L., scientific activity of theoreticians has been included in the form of a personal review of activity. For any further details, readers should contact directly individual scientists

  4. Skeletal Muscle Ultrasonography in Nutrition and Functional Outcome Assessment of Critically Ill Children: Experience and Insights From Pediatric Disease and Adult Critical Care Studies [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chengsi; Lee, Jan Hau; Leow, Melvin K S; Puthucheary, Zudin A

    2017-09-01

    Evidence suggests that critically ill children develop muscle wasting, which could affect outcomes. Muscle ultrasound has been used to track muscle wasting and association with outcomes in critically ill adults but not children. This review aims to summarize methodological considerations of muscle ultrasound, structural findings, and possibilities for its application in the assessment of nutrition and functional outcomes in critically ill children. Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched up until April 2016. Articles describing skeletal muscle ultrasound in children and critically ill adults were analyzed qualitatively for details on techniques and findings. Thickness and cross-sectional area of various upper and lower body muscles have been studied to quantify muscle mass and detect muscle changes. The quadriceps femoris muscle is one of the most commonly measured muscles due to its relation to mobility and is sensitive to changes over time. However, the margin of error for quadriceps thickness is too wide to reliably detect muscle changes in critically ill children. Muscle size and its correlation with strength and function also have not yet been studied in critically ill children. Echogenicity, used to detect compromised muscle structure in neuromuscular disease, may be another property worth studying in critically ill children. Muscle ultrasound may be useful in detecting muscle wasting in critically ill children but has not been shown to be sufficiently reliable in this population. Further study of the reliability and correlation with functional outcomes and nutrition intake is required before muscle ultrasound is routinely employed in critically ill children.

  5. An investigation of models of illness in carers of schizophrenia patients using the Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowclough, C; Lobban, F; Hatton, C; Quinn, J

    2001-11-01

    Although carers' reactions to schizophrenic illness in a close family member may have important implications for the patient and for themselves, little is known of factors that influence the way carers respond. In the area of physical health problems, people's models of their illness or illness representations have been found to be related to the ways they react and cope with their illness. This study examines the use of a modified form of the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ) to investigate illness models in a sample of carers of schizophrenia patients. Forty-seven carers participated. The psychometric properties of the modified IPQ were examined, and a number of carer and patient outcomes were investigated in relation to carer scores on the illness identity, consequences, control-cure and timeline subscales of the modified IPQ. These outcomes included measures of carer distress and burden, expressed emotion dimensions, and patient functioning. The modified IPQ was found to be a reliable measure of carers' perceptions of schizophrenia. Carer functioning, the patient-carer relationship and patient illness characteristics were associated with different dimensions of illness perceptions. The findings support the proposal that carer cognitive representations of the illness may have important implications for both carer and patient outcomes in schizophrenia.

  6. Toward a theory of online communication in illness: concept analysis of illness blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilferty, Catherine McGeehin

    2009-07-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of illness blogs and their relevance to nursing research on communication during illness. Blogs are being used by patients and family members to describe the experience of illness, but very little is known about this phenomenon. Seventeen English language databases and one Internet search engine were searched from 1990 to 2007 using the truncated term 'blog*'. Specific illness terms together with 'blog*', for example, blog* and diabetes; and blog* and cancer, were used to expand the search. Reports were included if they were of qualitative or quantitative research that included a definition of blogs or blogging and some identification or description of blog uses pertinent to the discipline. Specific emphasis was placed on blog use by individuals coping with illness experiences. 'Meta' writings by authors about their own blogging intentions and experiences were excluded. An illness blog is the online expression of the narrative of illness. Theoretical and operational definitions, defining attributes, uses, antecedents and consequences were developed. The literature search returned 45 works from 17 disciplines referring to the definition and uses of blogging. Support is offered from the review of literature and analysis of the concept for the development of a theory of online communication during illness. Reading and incorporating illness blogs into care will enhance patient-provider relationships. Analysis of the narratives being created online about the illness experience will contribute significantly to nursing's body of knowledge.

  7. Gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders in critically ill dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, KimMi; Cortes, Yonaira; Eirmann, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To review the human and veterinary literature regarding gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility disorders in respect to pathogenesis, patient risk factors, and treatment options in critically ill dogs and cats. GI dysmotility is a common sequela of critical illness in people and small animals. The most common GI motility disorders in critically ill people and small animals include esophageal dysmotility, delayed gastric emptying, functional intestinal obstruction (ie, ileus), and colonic motility abnormalities. Medical conditions associated with the highest risk of GI dysmotility include mechanical ventilation, sepsis, shock, trauma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ failure. The incidence and pathophysiology of GI dysmotility in critically ill small animals is incompletely understood. A presumptive diagnosis of GI dysmotility is often made in high-risk patient populations following detection of persistent regurgitation, vomiting, lack of tolerance of enteral nutrition, abdominal pain, and constipation. Definitive diagnosis is established via radioscintigraphy; however, this diagnostic tool is not readily available and is difficult to perform on small animals. Other diagnostic modalities that have been evaluated include abdominal ultrasonography, radiographic contrast, and tracer studies. Therapy is centered at optimizing GI perfusion, enhancement of GI motility, and early enteral nutrition. Pharmacological interventions are instituted to promote gastric emptying and effective intestinal motility and prevention of complications. Promotility agents, including ranitidine/nizatidine, metoclopramide, erythromycin, and cisapride are the mainstays of therapy in small animals. The development of complications related to GI dysmotility (eg, gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration) have been associated with increased mortality risk. Institution of prophylaxic therapy is recommended in high-risk patients, however, no consensus exists regarding optimal

  8. Mechanisms in Chronic Multisympton Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    related to spinal cord injury [25], and in restless leg syndrome [26]. The caudate nucleus receives a large nociceptive input from spinal pain...Deutsch G: Familial painful restless legs syndrome correlates with pain dependent variation of blood flow to the caudate, thalamus, and anterior cingulate...imaging sequence commonly used in clinical practice to detection early ischemia (19). Diffusion tensor imaging ( DTI ) yields quantitative measures for

  9. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  10. Oral hygiene care in critically ill patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... conditions, treatment interventions, equipment, and the patient's inability to attend to his or her ... practices for a critically ill patient include assessment of the oral cavity, brushing the teeth, moisturising the lips and mouth and ...

  11. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahimana, Didace; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  12. Exertional Heat Illness and Human Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonna, L.A; Sawka, M. N; Lilly, C. M

    2007-01-01

    Microarray analysis of gene expression at the level of RNA has generated new insights into the relationship between cellular responses to acute heat shock in vitro, exercise, and exertional heat illness...

  13. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  14. Oxygen supplementation for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, M; Schjørring, O L; Jakobsen, J C

    2018-01-01

    . The objective of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of higher versus lower inspiratory oxygen fractions or targets of arterial oxygenation in critically ill adult patients. METHODS: We will search for randomised clinical trials in major......BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients, hypoxaemia is a common clinical manifestation of inadequate gas exchange in the lungs. Supplemental oxygen is therefore given to all critically ill patients. This can result in hyperoxaemia, and some observational studies have identified harms with hyperoxia...... in international guidelines despite lack of robust evidence of its effectiveness. To our knowledge, no systematic review of randomised clinical trials has investigated the effects of oxygen supplementation in critically ill patients. This systematic review will provide reliable evidence to better inform future...

  15. RelaisILL instructions in English

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Julie Cassone

    . RelaisILL is IDRC's document delivery and interlibrary loan request and tracking system. Follow the steps below to order journal articles and books through interlibrary loan. Note: Grantees can only request articles and book chapters, which ...

  16. Physiotherapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ambrosino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged stay in Intensive Care Unit (ICU can cause muscle weakness, physical deconditioning, recurrent symptoms, mood alterations and poor quality of life.Physiotherapy is probably the only treatment likely to increase in the short- and long-term care of the patients admitted to these units. Recovery of physical and respiratory functions, coming off mechanical ventilation, prevention of the effects of bed-rest and improvement in the health status are the clinical objectives of a physiotherapy program in medical and surgical areas. To manage these patients, integrated programs dealing with both whole-body physical therapy and pulmonary care are needed.There is still limited scientific evidence to support such a comprehensive approach to all critically ill patients; therefore we need randomised studies with solid clinical short- and long-term outcome measures. Resumo: Uma estadia prolongada na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI pode causar fraqueza muscular, descondicionamento físico, sintomas recorrentes, alterações de humor e má qualidade de vida.A fisioterapia é, provavelmente, o único tratamento com potencial para aumentar nos cuidados a curto e longo prazo aos pacientes internados nestas unidades. A recuperação das funções físicas e respiratórias, retirar a ventilação mecânica, prevenção de efeitos do repouso na cama e melhoria do estado de saúde são objectivos clínicos de um programa de fisioterapia nas áreas médicas e cirúrgicas. Para tratar estes pacientes, são necessários programas integrados que englobem tanto a fisioterapia global como os cuidados respiratórios necessários.A evidência científica para apoiar esta abordagem abrangente para todos os doentes críticos é ainda limitada; portanto, são necessários estudos aleatorizados com medidas de resultados a curto e longo prazo. Keywords: Rehabilitation, Mechanical ventilation, Physiotherapy, Weaning, Palavras-chave: Reabilitação, Ventilação mec

  17. Correlates of illness severity in infectious mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odame, John; Robinson, Joan; Khodai-Booran, Nasser; Yeung, Simon; Mazzulli, Tony; Stephens, Derek; Allen, Upton D

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Understanding the spectrum and frequencies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) complications and markers of illness severity in immunocompetent patients with primary EBV infection will inform management of patients with EBV-related illnesses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and laboratory correlates of illness severity among infants, children and youth with infectious mononucleosis (IM). METHODS: Study subjects with confirmed IM were prospectively enrolled. Illness severity was assessed at baseline and at six weeks using a scoring tool. Peripheral blood viral loads served as a measure of viral burden. RESULTS: Among 32 children and young adults with IM, the median age was 16 years (range two to 24 years). The predominant clinical findings were lymphadenopathy (23 of 32 [72%]), pharyngitis (16 of 32 [50%]), fever (nine of 32 [28%]) and splenomegaly (six of 32 [19%]). With respect to symptoms or signs that persisted to at least six weeks after illness onset, the predominant complaint was lymphadenopathy in 35% of subjects available for reassessment. Deranged liver function tests were present at presentation in up to 44% of subjects. Patients with the highest viral loads at presentation had significantly higher illness severity scores associated with fatigue (P=0.02). Other than the scores associated with fatigue, viral load values were not significantly correlated with the illness severity scores at baseline and at six weeks. CONCLUSION: In IM, viral loads are not necessarily correlated with illness severity, with the exception of fatigue. EBV-related hepatitis is common in IM, confirming the status of this virus as a relatively common cause of transient hepatitis in children and youth. This entity is not necessarily a marker of disease severity. PMID:25371691

  18. ILL. Annex to the annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first volume of the Annual Report gives a general survey of the activities in the various sections of the ILL, whereas this second volume, deals in more detail with the individual works carried out at the ILL from 1st October 1975 up to 1st October 1976. Main chapters correspond to theory, nuclear physics, excitations, magnetic and crystallographic structures, liquids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology and chemistry. (Only those reports received up to 1st February 1977 have been included)

  19. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    . Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis......Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity......, and to assist individuals to work through the false analogy between illness and identity while supporting the transformation from patient to person. It is also necessary for clinicians to develop a clear understanding of peoples’ actual needs and gain more knowledge about peoples’ own views and experiences...

  20. The children of mentally ill parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattejat, Fritz; Remschmidt, Helmut

    2008-06-01

    The children of mentally ill parents have a higher risk of developing mental illnesses themselves over the course of their lives. This known risk must be taken into account in the practical provision of health care. Selective literature review. The increased psychiatric risk for children of mentally ill parents is due partly to genetic influences and partly to an impairment of the parent-child interaction because of the parent's illness. Furthermore, adverse factors are more frequent in these families, as well as a higher risk for child abuse. Genetic and psychosocial factors interact with one another. For example, genetic factors moderate environmental effects; that is, the effect of adverse environmental factors depends on the genetic substrate. Preventive measures for children of mentally ill parents urgently need improvement. In this article, positively evaluated programs of preventive measures are discussed. Essential prerequisites for success include appropriate, specialized treatment of the parental illness, psychoeducative measures, and special support (e.g. self-help groups) as indicated by the family's particular needs.

  1. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  2. Influenza surveillance in Europe. Comparing intensity levels calculated using the Moving Epidemic Method.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vega, Tomás

    2015-05-30

    Although influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) surveillance are well established in Europe, the comparability of intensity among countries and seasons remains an unresolved challenge.

  3. Gastric residual volume in critically ill patients: a dead marker or still alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elke, Gunnar; Felbinger, Thomas W; Heyland, Daren K

    2015-02-01

    Early enteral nutrition (EN) is consistently recommended as first-line nutrition therapy in critically ill patients since it favorably alters outcome, providing both nutrition and nonnutrition benefits. However, critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation are at risk for regurgitation, pulmonary aspiration, and eventually ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). EN may increase these risks when gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is present. Gastric residual volume (GRV) is considered a surrogate parameter of GI dysfunction during the progression of enteral feeding in the early phase of critical illness and beyond. By monitoring GRV, clinicians may detect patients with delayed gastric emptying earlier and intervene with strategies that minimize or prevent VAP as one of the major risks of EN. The value of periodic GRV measurements with regard to risk reduction of VAP incidence has frequently been questioned in the past years. Increasing the GRV threshold before interrupting gastric feeding results in marginal increases in EN delivery. More recently, a large randomized clinical trial revealed that abandoning GRV monitoring did not negatively affect clinical outcomes (including VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. The results have revived the discussion on the role of GRV monitoring in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients receiving early EN. This review summarizes the most recent clinical evidence on the use of GRV monitoring in critically ill patients. Based on the clinical evidence, it discusses the pros and cons and further addresses whether GRV is a dead marker or still alive for the nutrition management of critically ill patients. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Validation of a Brief PTSD Scale for Clients with Severe Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are more common in severe mental illnesses (SMI) clients than in the general population, yet brief screens for detecting probable PTSD in SMI clients are nonexistent. In a two-part study, the authors used correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to develop and…

  5. Chronic Physical Illness and Mental Health in Children. Results from a Large-Scale Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Elgen, Irene; Gillberg, Christopher; Lie, Stein Atle; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in detecting emotional and behavioural problems among children with chronic illness (CI). Methods: Parents and teachers of a population of primary school children in Norway (n = 9430) completed a…

  6. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, Usha; Kedlaya, Prashanth G; Gokulnath

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

  7. Beliefs regarding diet during childhood illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha D Benakappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fifty percent to 70% of the burden of childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections is attributable to undernutrition. It is compounded by food restriction during illness due to false beliefs, leading to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. In the long run, it decreases the child′s productivity, which is an obstacle to sustainable socioeconomic development. Objectives: To assess the dietary practices during different illnesses, to study the role of education, culture and religion in feeding an ill child and to create awareness against detrimental practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 126 caregivers of ill children using an open-ended pretested questionnaire. Statistical package for social sciences software was used for data analysis. Simple proportions, percentages and Chi-square were used. Results: Caregivers believed that a child must be fed less during illness. Educational status did not play a role in maintaining beliefs, but elders and religion did. Doctors too were responsible for unwanted dietary restrictions. Media did not have an impact in spreading nutrition messages. Decreased breast feeds, initiating bottle feeds, feeding diluted milk and reducing complementary feeds during illness was widely practiced. Calorie intake during illness was very less and statistically significant. Firmly rooted beliefs about "hot" and "cold" foods lead to restriction of food available at home. Conclusions: Healthy feeding practices were few, and inappropriate ones predominant. Dietary education was overlooked. While planning community-based nutrition programs, firmly rooted beliefs should be kept in mind. Involving the elderly caregivers and mothers actively along with the health workers is the need of the hour.

  8. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapat Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily acti-vities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among pa-tients on hemodialysis (HD and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering socio-demographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was ca-rried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were ana-lyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 ± 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%, 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear fami-lies. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 ± 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%, work (70% finance (55%, diet (50% sexual life (38% and psychological status (25%. Illness had not intruded in areas of rela-tionship with spouse (67%, friends (76%, family (79%, social (40% and religious functions (72%. Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02.

  9. Linking Drugs to Obscure Illnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Charles L; Starko, Karen M; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2012-01-01

    Identification of serious adverse drug reactions (sADRS) associated with commonly used drugs can elude detection for years. Reye's syndrome (RS), nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients were recognized in 1951, 2000, and 1998......-savings considerations, and a European regulatory requirement requiring removal of albumin as a stabilizer, led to toxicity. Overall, 81, 13, and 17 years elapsed between drug introduction into practice and identification of a causal relationship for aspirin, erythropoietin, and gadodiamide, respectively. A substantial...... decline in new cases of these sADRs occurred within two years of identification of the offending drug. Clinicians should be vigilant for sADRs, even for frequently-prescribed pharmaceuticals, particularly in settings where formulation or regulatory changes have occurred, or when over-the-counter, off...

  10. Towards Improving Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Non-malaria Febrile Illness: A Metabolomics Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Decuypere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-malaria febrile illnesses such as bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI are a leading cause of disease and mortality in the tropics. However, there are no reliable, simple diagnostic tests for identifying BSI or other severe non-malaria febrile illnesses. We hypothesized that different infectious agents responsible for severe febrile illness would impact on the host metabolome in different ways, and investigated the potential of plasma metabolites for diagnosis of non-malaria febrile illness.We conducted a comprehensive mass-spectrometry based metabolomics analysis of the plasma of 61 children with severe febrile illness from a malaria-endemic rural African setting. Metabolite features characteristic for non-malaria febrile illness, BSI, severe anemia and poor clinical outcome were identified by receiver operating curve analysis.The plasma metabolome profile of malaria and non-malaria patients revealed fundamental differences in host response, including a differential activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A simple corticosteroid signature was a good classifier of severe malaria and non-malaria febrile patients (AUC 0.82, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93. Patients with BSI were characterized by upregulated plasma bile metabolites; a signature of two bile metabolites was estimated to have a sensitivity of 98.1% (95% CI: 80.2-100 and a specificity of 82.9% (95% CI: 54.7-99.9 to detect BSI in children younger than 5 years. This BSI signature demonstrates that host metabolites can have a superior diagnostic sensitivity compared to pathogen-detecting tests to identify infections characterized by low pathogen load such as BSI.This study demonstrates the potential use of plasma metabolites to identify causality in children with severe febrile illness in malaria-endemic settings.

  11. Life satisfaction post stroke : The role of illness cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, M. L.; van Heugten, C. M.; Post, M. W. M.; de Kort, P. L. M.; Visser-Meily, J. M. A.

    Objective: To describe illness cognitions two months and two years post stroke and to investigate changes in illness cognitions over time. We also examined the associations between illness cognitions and life satisfaction at two months and two years post stroke and investigated if changes in illness

  12. The Stigma of Mental Illness and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2017-12-01

    Stigma and recovery "from" and "in" mental illness are associated in many various ways. While recovery gives opportunities, makes person stronger, gives purpose and meaning to their lives and leads to social inclusion, in the same time stigma reduces opportunities, reduces self-esteem and self-efficacy, reduces the belief in own abilities and contributes to social exclusion through discrimination. The recovery of a person with mental illness means to get and keep hope, to understand their own possibilities and impossibilities, active living, to be autonomous, to have a social identity and to give meaning and purpose of our own lives. The care system, recovery-oriented, provides help and support to people with mental disorders in his/her recovery, which contributes to reduction of self-stigma, to the elimination of stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs in mental health services which consequently may have a positive reflection in reducing the stigma of mental illness in the community. It is important to look at the stigma and recovery from the perspective of individual experience of each person with a mental illness in the process of recovery. A support to the recovery concept and the development of a recovery-oriented system of care should be one of the key segments of any strategy to combat the stigma of mental illness. Also, the cultural and the social stigma aspects of stigma would be taken into account in the developing of the recovery concept and on the recovery-oriented care system.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of linezolid in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazdanovic, Predrag; Jankovic, Slobodan M; Kostic, Marina; Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Stefanovic, Srdjan

    2016-06-01

    Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antibiotic active against Gram-positive bacteria, and is most commonly used to treat life-threatening infections in critically ill patients. The pharmacokinetics of linezolid are profoundly altered in critically ill patients, partly due to decreased function of vital organs, and partly because life-sustaining drugs and devices may change the extent of its excretion. This article is summarizes key changes in the pharmacokinetics of linezolid in critically ill patients. The changes summarized are clinically relevant and may serve as rationale for dosing recommendations in this particular population. While absorption and penetration of linezolid to tissues are not significantly changed in critically ill patients, protein binding of linezolid is decreased, volume of distribution increased, and metabolism may be inhibited leading to non-linear kinetics of elimination; these changes are responsible for high inter-individual variability of linezolid plasma concentrations, which requires therapeutic plasma monitoring and choice of continuous venous infusion as the administration method. Acute renal or liver failure decrease clearance of linezolid, but renal replacement therapy is capable of restoring clearance back to normal, obviating the need for dosage adjustment. More population pharmacokinetic studies are necessary which will identify and quantify the influence of various factors on clearance and plasma concentrations of linezolid in critically ill patients.

  14. Perceived Social Support among Mentally Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Pokharel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social support is the perception that one is cared for, has assistance available from significant others and its benefit is by buffering stress by influencing the ability to adjust and live with illness. Social support can uplift the quality and subjective wellbeing of people. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived social support and factors influencing it among mentally ill patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Ninety cases aged more than 18 years visiting outpatient of psychiatric department and diagnosed as a case of mental illness for at least a year were included. Instruments used were self-developed proforma and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Interview technique was used to collect the data. Results: Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family, 28% of the patients perceive social support from significant others. Regression analysis showed that the perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. It is not influenced by gender, subjective financial status and frequency of hospitalization. Conclusion: Perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family.

  15. Nutritional requirements of the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel L

    2004-02-01

    The presence or development of malnutrition during critical illness has been unequivocally associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people. Recognition that malnutrition may similarly affect veterinary patients emphasizes the need to properly address the nutritional requirements of hospitalized dogs and cats. Because of a lack in veterinary studies evaluating the nutritional requirements of critically ill small animals, current recommendations for nutritional support of veterinary patients are based largely on sound clinical judgment and the best information available, including data from experimental animal models and human studies. This, however, should not discourage the veterinary practitioner from implementing nutritional support in critically ill patients. Similar to many supportive measures of critically ill patients, nutritional interventions can have a significant impact on patient morbidity and may even improve survival. The first step of nutritional support is to identify patients most likely to benefit from nutritional intervention. Careful assessment of the patient and appraisal of its nutritional needs provide the basis for a nutritional plan, which includes choosing the optimal route of nutritional support, determining the number of calories to provide, and determining the composition of the diet. Ultimately, the success of the nutritional management of critically ill dogs and cats will depend on close monitoring and frequent reassessment.

  16. Stress in adolescents with a chronically ill parent: inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Dikkers, A.L.C.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland’s Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in

  17. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  18. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  19. Influenza-like syndrome in homosexual men: a prospective diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, F.; Lange, J. M.; Bakker, M.; Tjong-A-Hung, S.; Hooykaas, C.; Coutinho, R.; van der Noordaa, J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of a prospective study of the prevalence and incidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and risk factors for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome among 961 homosexual men, 97 initially HIV antibody seronegative men reported a febrile period lasting at least

  20. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed.

  1. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-08-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive effect was observed for smoking and duration of employment as a painter. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between years worked as a painter and a decrement in FEV1 equal to about 11 ml for each year worked. This association was larger among painters who had smoked. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with increased use of spray application methods.

  2. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  3. Feelings of children when witnessing parents' illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wakiuchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to learn the experiences of children who witness their parents' illness due to cancer. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, with six children between 10 and 12 years of age, children of cancer patients assisted by a support institution. The data were collected from July to August 2015, based on the guiding question:    "How do you feel about your father/mother's illness?" From the analysis, two categories emerged: Recognizing the disease and the possibility of the parents 'death and, Growing as a child and living as an adult: the repercussions of parents with cancer in their children's lives, which reveal that children understand cancer and the possibility of death of their parents, being also affected by the disease. By experiencing the fears and repercussions of cancer, children need assistance by the family and health team during their parents' illness.

  4. Witchcraft illness in the Evuzok nosological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimera, L M

    1978-12-01

    The Evuzok nosological system is structured with respect to two frames of reference, one designating illness as an empirical reality (descriptive subsystem), the other designating it according to its religious, magical and social significance (etiological subsystem). The articulation of these two subsystems is brought about in the process of diagnosis. Having examined this system as a whole, the author devotes his attention to a particular set of etiological categories, those which associate illness with witchcraft (nocturnal illnesses). He attempts to define their distinctive traits and, from this, to determine their common elemental structure. This study, based on a number of years of fieldwork, is part of an ongoing research program on African folk-medicine pursued by the Laboratoire d'Ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative of the Université de Paris X.

  5. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  6. The costs of repatriating an ill seafarer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby, Mads D; Jensen, Olaf C; Hjarnoe, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    ) mainly due to large variations in the average direct costs which ranged between 9560 euro in the malaria case and 77,255 in the AMI case. Repatriating an ill seafarer is a costly operation and employers have a financial interest in promoting the health of seafarers by introducing or further strengthen......Seafarers sail the high seas around the globe. In case of illness, they are protected by international regulations stating that the employers must pay all expenses in relation to repatriation, but very little is known about the cost of these repatriations. The objective of this study...... was to estimate the financial burden of repatriations in case of illness. We applied a local approach, a micro-costing method, with an employer perspective using four case vignettes: I) Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), II) Malignant hypertension, III) Appendicitis and IV) Malaria. Direct cost data were derived...

  7. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Critical illness is associated with uncontrolled inflammation and vascular damage which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties but the efficacy and any harmful effects of AT III supplementation...... in critically ill patients are unknown. This review was published in 2008 and updated in 2015.  Objectives: To examine: 1. The effect of AT III on mortality in critically ill participants. 2. The benefits and harms of AT III. We investigated complications specific and not specific to the trial intervention......, bleeding events, the effect on sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in hospital in general.  Search methods: We searched the following databases from inception to 27 August 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...

  8. Stigmatising of persons with a mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...... or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark.......Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...

  9. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all

  10. Probiotic (VSL 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H. CONTRACTING...NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0593 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ashok...intestinal symptoms (fatigue, joint pain, insomnia, general stiffness and headache) associated with IBS. All of these symptoms are part of the Gulf War

  11. Law & psychiatry: Murder, inheritance, and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Azgad; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-07-01

    Should a murderer be allowed to inherit the victim's estate? The question dates from biblical times, but most jurisdictions today have statutes in place that bar inheritance by convicted murderers. However, a special problem arises when the killer has a severe mental illness and has been found not guilty by reason of insanity. Should such people, who have not been convicted of a crime, be permitted to collect their inheritance? Jurisdictions vary in their responses, with the rules reflecting a mix of practical and moral considerations influenced by different perspectives about what determines the behavior of persons with mental illness.

  12. New U.S. Foodborne Illness Estimate

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast discusses CDC's report on new estimates of illnesses due to eating contaminated food in the United States. Dr. Elaine Scallan, assistant professor at the University of Colorado and former lead of the CDCs FoodNet surveillance system, shares the details from the first new comprehensive estimates of foodborne illness in the U.S. since 1999.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/15/2010.

  13. Melatonin Secretion Pattern in Critically Ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Holst, René; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    effect of remifentanil on melatonin secretion. We found that the risk of atypical sleep compared to normal sleep was significantly lower (p REM) sleep was only observed during the nonsedation period. We found preserved diurnal pattern of melatonin...... secretion in these patients. Remifentanil did not affect melatonin secretion but was associated with lower risk of atypical sleep pattern. REM sleep was only registered during the period of nonsedation.......Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin...

  14. Glucose metabolism in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    glucose (BG). This is taken advantage of in the treatment of patients with T2DM, for whom GLP-1 analogs have been introduced during the recent years. Infusion of GLP-1 also lowers the BG level in critically ill patients without causing severe hypoglycemia. The T2DM and critical illness share similar......, stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon release both in healthy individuals and in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Compared to insulin, GLP-1 appears to be associated with a lower risk of severe hypoglycemia, probably because the magnitude of its insulinotropic action is dependent on blood...

  15. Stigmatising of persons with a mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...... or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark....

  16. An implicit measure of associations with mental illness versus physical illness: response latency decomposition and stimuli differential functioning in relation to IAT order of associative conditions and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarini, Stefania; Boffo, Marilisa

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at the definition of a latent measurement dimension underlying an implicit measure of automatic associations between the concept of mental illness and the psychosocial and biogenetic causal explanatory attributes. To this end, an Implicit Association Test (IAT) assessing the association between the Mental Illness and Physical Illness target categories to the Psychological and Biologic attribute categories, representative of the causal explanation domains, was developed. The IAT presented 22 stimuli (words and pictures) to be categorized into the four categories. After 360 university students completed the IAT, a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM) modelling approach was applied. The model specified a person latency parameter and a stimulus latency parameter. Two additional parameters were introduced to denote the order of presentation of the task associative conditions and the general response accuracy. Beyond the overall definition of the latent measurement dimension, the MFRM was also applied to disentangle the effect of the task block order and the general response accuracy on the stimuli response latency. Further, the MFRM allowed detecting any differential functioning of each stimulus in relation to both block ordering and accuracy. The results evidenced: a) the existence of a latency measurement dimension underlying the Mental Illness versus Physical Illness - Implicit Association Test; b) significant effects of block order and accuracy on the overall latency; c) a differential functioning of specific stimuli. The results of the present study can contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of an implicit measure of semantic associations with mental illness and give a first blueprint for the examination of relevant issues in the development of an IAT.

  17. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Needs of people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can

  19. Mass sociogenic illness in a youth center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desenclos, J C; Gardner, H; Horan, M

    1992-01-01

    In July, 1989, 63 (42%) of 150 children ages 4-14 years attending an outreach program at a youth center in Florida, but no employees, developed acute and rapidly resolving upper gastrointestinal symptoms 2 to 40 minutes after a prepackaged lunch. All ill children were sent to 3 local hospital emergency departments for evaluation. However, clinical evaluation was normal for all. Of 102 children who ate any prepackaged foods, 48 (47%) became ill compared to 1/19 (5%) for children who did not eat (rate ratio [RR] = 8.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-60.9). No employees ate any of the food items served. Consumption of sandwiches was associated with a moderate increased risk of illness (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.9). The attack rate did not differ by age, but was greater for girls (39/56, 70%) than for boys (9/46, 20%; [RR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.9-6.6]). Over 3,000 similar prepackaged meals from the same caterer were served in the same area of Florida that day. An inquiry in the area documented absence of similar symptoms elsewhere. Unopened meal samples tested negative for pesticide residues, heavy metals, staphylococcal toxin, or Bacillus cereus. We diagnosed the outbreak as mass sociogenic illness. Complaints of a bad tasting sandwich by the index case and possible staff anxiety about food poisoning may have contributed to the development of the outbreak.

  20. New European policy toward chronically ill employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.; Haafkens, J.; Elling, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current policies related to the chronically ill employees in the Netherlands. Different levels of policy are discussed: those formulated at the European, Dutch and organizational levels. A significantg percentage of Dutch employees suffer from longstanding

  1. Doing gender, doing away with illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    fieldwork conducted among men and women who are living with type 2 diabetes in conditions of urban poverty in Northeast Brazil, this article examines how the men’s illness experiences are interwoven with the changes they concomitantly experienced in their sexuality. By examining the disruptiveness...

  2. Home treatment for acute psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, C; Gadd, E M

    1990-11-03

    To determine the factors influencing the successful outcome of community treatment for severe acute psychiatric illnesses that are traditionally treated in hospital. All patients from a single electoral ward who were either admitted to hospital or treated at home over a two year period (1 October 1987 to 30 September 1989) were included in the study and their case notes audited. The second year of the study is reported. Electoral ward of Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 99 Patients aged 16-65 with severe acute psychiatric illness. 65 Patients were managed by home treatment alone; 34 required admission to hospital. The location of treatment was significantly (all p less than 0.05) influenced by social characteristics of the patients (marital state, age (in men), ethnicity, and living alone) and by characteristics of the referral (occurring out of hours; assessment taking place at hospital or police station). DSM-III-R diagnosis was more weakly associated with outcome. Violence during the episode was significantly related to admission, although deliberate self harm was not. Home treatment is feasible for most patients with acute psychiatric illness. A 24 hour on call assessment service increases the likelihood of success because admission is determined more strongly by social characteristics of the patient and the referral than by illness factors. Admission will still be required for some patients. A locally based mental health resource centre, a 24 hour on call service, an open referral system, and an active follow up policy increase the effectiveness of a home treatment service.

  3. RelaisILL instructions in English

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Julie Cassone

    RelaisILL: Solicitudes de préstamos interbibliotecarios y entrega de ... Los usuarios pueden ver el estado de una solicitud y su historial, así como comunicarse ... 4) De ahora en adelante, los resultados en Google Scholar mostrarán el enlace ...

  4. The incretin effect in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Janum, Susanne; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit often develop hyperglycaemia, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully described. The incretin effect is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and critical illness have phenotypical similarities, such as hyper...

  5. Caring for a critically ill Amish newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Elizabeth A

    2008-10-01

    This article describes a neonatal nurse's personal experience in working with a critically ill newborn and his Amish family in a newborn intensive care unit in Montana. The description includes a cultural experience with an Amish family with application to Madeleine Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality.

  6. Development of neutron optical components at ILL

    CERN Document Server

    Courtois, P; Humblot, H; Alianelli, L; Pfeiffer, F O

    2002-01-01

    The neutron optics laboratory at ILL carries out an innovative research program in various fields of neutron optics with the aim of developing new and improved tools for neutron instrumentation. An overview of some recent highlights is presented, indicating the breadth of the potential applications. (orig.)

  7. Legionnaire's disease - a puzzling pneumonic illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, P.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of a pneumonic illness are described, produced by a newly discovered causal organism. This is the weakly gram negative bacterium Legionelle pneumophila. The organisms is found intracellularly and can be recognised by direct or indirect immunofluorescence or the Dieterle staining. The clinical picture is characterised by a fulminating pneumonia with accompanying diarrhoea. Treatment of choice is intravenous erythromycin. (orig.) [de

  8. Illness denial questionnaire for patients and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Ferrario, Silvia; Giorgi, Ines; Baiardi, Paola; Giuntoli, Laura; Balestroni, Gianluigi; Cerutti, Paola; Manera, Marina; Gabanelli, Paola; Solara, Valentina; Fornara, Roberta; Luisetti, Michela; Omarini, Pierangela; Omarini, Giovanna; Vidotto, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Interest in assessing denial is still present, despite the criticisms concerning its definition and measurement. We tried to develop a questionnaire (Illness Denial Questionnaire, IDQ) assessing patients' and caregivers' denial in relation to their illness/disturbance. After a preliminary study, a final version of 24 dichotomous items (true/false) was selected. We hypothesized a theoretical model with three dimensions: denial of negative emotions, resistance to change, and conscious avoidance, the first two composing the actual Denial and the last representing an independent component of the illness denial behavior. The IDQ was administered to 400 subjects (219 patients and 181 caregivers) together with the Anxiety-Depression Questionnaire - Reduced form (AD-R), in order to assess concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency indices (Cronbach's α and McDonald's ω), and test-retest analysis were performed. CFA and internal consistency indices (Cronbach's α: 0.87-0.96) indicated a clear and meaningful three-factor structure of IDQ, for both patients and caregivers. Further analyses showed good concurrent validity, with Denial and its subscale negatively associated with anxiety and depression and avoidance positively associated with anxiety and depression. The IDQ also showed a good stability ( r from 0.71 to 0.87). The IDQ demonstrated good psychometric properties. Denial of negative emotions and resistance to change seem to contribute to a real expression of denial, and conscious avoidance seems to constitute a further step in the process of cognitive-affective elaboration of the illness.

  9. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and 140°F, so summer heat makes the basics of food safety especially important. “Fortunately, there are a lot of steps consumers can take to keep family and friends from becoming ill,” says Marjorie Davidson, Ph.D., education team leader in FDA’s Center for Food Safety ...

  10. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from becoming ill,” says Marjorie Davidson, Ph.D., education team leader in FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Wash hands. It seems basic, but not everyone does it. Wash hands well ...

  11. Nurses' attitudes to terminally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, E M; Sorribes, E; Ezquerro, O

    2001-05-01

    The care of terminally ill patients is a challenge for nurses that has raised special interest in recent years. Several studies have shown a stereotyped negative attitude in nurses towards terminally ill patients. However, all have used methods with several limitations. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to identify the nurses' attitude to the terminally ill patient in Catalonia, Spain, and the relationship of this attitude to different socio-demographic data (type of centre, shift, years of experience, age and sex) by means of a new quantitative method based on the free word-association test. One hundred and seventy-five nurses working in 18 hospitals and hospices in Catalonia, Spain were included in the study. Data were analysed by the Associative Semantic Field Differential method by means of the computer programme CONTEXT and a quantitative evaluation of the degree of attitudes positivity was obtained. The study revealed a general slight negative trend in attitudes towards the terminally ill patient. A more positive attitude was observed in older caregivers and in women. The positivity in attitude decreased from morning to night shift. No differences were observed between nurses working in hospitals and those working in hospices. We conclude that nursing attitudes can be analysed by methods such as that used in this study. Attempts can be made to modify this attitude in caregivers by means of training programmes and stimulating awareness of an adequate professional approach.

  12. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from becoming ill,” says Marjorie Davidson, Ph.D., education team leader in FDA’s Center for Food Safety ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  13. Carrion’s disease: an eradicable illness?

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Cláudia; Pons, Maria J.; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana Mercedes; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Carrion's disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, a vector-borne pathogen restricted to the Andean valleys of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. Carrion's disease is a biphasic illness; in the acute phase the case-fatality rate can be as high as 88 %, related to high parasitemia, arriving to almost all erythrocytes, and secondary bacterial infections c...

  14. Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Annex to the ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The volume deals with the scientific work carried out at ILL during 1974 using the HFR (Grenoble), cold and hot neutron sources. Theory, nuclear physics, pure crystals, crystalline and magnetic structures, liquids gases, amorphous substances, imperfections, biochemistry and physical chemistry are subject areas covered [fr

  16. Coping with Mental Illness in the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Agnes B.

    Utilizing the conceptual framework of coping theory, 30 family care-givers of mentally ill family members were interviewed to determine the relationship between coping effectiveness and such variables as patient characteristics, factors of the care-givers life situation, and the availability and adequacy of community supports. Care-givers were…

  17. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  18. Remote Intimations: Performance Art and Environmental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Stephen; Laffin, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article explores and documents the work of leading Midwestern performance artist Julie Laffin, in the years since she developed a serious form of environmental illness (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity). This condition has effectively rendered her housebound and unable to appear in public, so that her previous live performance practice--which…

  19. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  20. Illness behavior in patients with musculoskeletal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, A.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis studies the influence of psychological factors in illness behavior in different hand and upper extremity conditions encountered in the practice of a hand surgeon. The importance of the language used by the patient and the amount of shared decision making in an orthopaedic practice is

  1. Psychological and Spiritual Factors in Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)

  2. Diagnosing Febrile Illness in a Returned Traveler

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-01

    This podcast will assist health care providers in diagnosing febrile illness in patients returning from a tropical or developing country.  Created: 3/1/2012 by National Center for Enteric, Zoonotic, and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/1/2012.

  3. Examining the Education Gradient in Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    We examine the education gradient in diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. We take into account diagnosed as well as undiagnosed cases and use methods accounting for the possibility of unmeasured factors that are correlated with education and drive both the likelihood of having illness and the propensity to be diagnosed. Data come from the…

  4. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  5. Illness perceptions predict survival in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcot, Joseph; Wellsted, David; Farrington, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Illness perceptions have been shown to be important determinants of functional and psychosocial outcomes, including quality of life and treatment adherence in end-stage renal disease patients. The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether haemodialysis patients' illness perceptions impact upon survival. Haemodialysis patients from a UK renal service completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire. Over the study period (May 2007 to December 2010), all-cause mortality was recorded as the endpoint. 223 patients were followed up for a median of 15.9 months (min. 10 days, max. 42.7 months). The median dialysis vintage was 17.6 months (min. 4 days, max. 391.3 months). Treatment control perceptions demonstrated a significant association with mortality (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99, p = 0.03). After controlling for covariates, including age, albumin, extra renal comorbidity and depression scores, perception of treatment control remained a significant predictor of mortality (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99, p = 0.03). Patients' perceptions of treatment control (dialysis therapy) predict survival independently of survival risk factors, including comorbidity. Studies are required to test whether psychological interventions designed to modify maladaptive illness perceptions influence clinical outcomes in this patient setting. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Communication with older, seriously ill patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, L.M. van; Lindenberger, E.; Weert, J.C.M. van

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to provide more insight into effective communication with older people with serious illness and their surrogates/caregivers. To do so, if focusses on specific skills in three core functions of communication (i) empathic behavior, (ii) information provision and (iii) enabling

  7. Mental illness stigma among medical students and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušková, Miroslava; Weissová, Aneta; Formánek, Tomáš; Pasz, Jiří; Bankovská Motlová, Lucie

    2017-12-01

    Medical school curriculum contributes to future doctors' attitude formation towards people with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to compare stigmatizing attitudes between medical students and faculty, analyse stigmatizing attitudes among students from different years of study and identify factors predicting stigma. A cross-sectional study with the use of scales measuring attitudes and social distance was designed. Online questionnaires were distributed to all students and teachers at a medical faculty in the Czech Republic. The response rate was 32.1% ( n = 308) among students and 26.7% ( n = 149) among teachers. Teachers had a greater prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes than students. Increased tolerant attitudes in students were detected after the fourth year, that is, following introduction to psychiatry. Preferred specialization in psychiatry and attending two psychiatry courses predicted more tolerant attitudes. Among both students and teachers, men possessed more stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness. Age was an important predictor of stigmatizing attitudes among teachers. Educators should pay closer attention to the role of medical psychology and communication training implementation, which may be beneficial to improving skills and increasing medical students' self-esteem and feeling of competence throughout their psychiatry rotation.

  8. Effects of Omalizumab on Rhinovirus Infections, Illnesses, and Exacerbations of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Ann; Busse, William W; Calatroni, Agustin; Togias, Alkis G; Grindle, Kristine G; Bochkov, Yury A; Gruchalla, Rebecca S; Kattan, Meyer; Kercsmar, Carolyn M; Khurana Hershey, G; Kim, Haejin; Lebeau, Petra; Liu, Andrew H; Szefler, Stanley J; Teach, Stephen J; West, Joseph B; Wildfire, Jeremy; Pongracic, Jaqueline A; Gern, James E

    2017-10-15

    Allergic inflammation has been linked to increased susceptibility to viral illnesses, but it is unclear whether this association is causal. To test whether omalizumab treatment to reduce IgE would shorten the frequency and duration of rhinovirus (RV) illnesses in children with allergic asthma. In the PROSE (Preventative Omalizumab or Step-up Therapy for Severe Fall Exacerbations) study, we examined children with allergic asthma (aged 6-17 yr; n = 478) from low-income census tracts in eight U.S. cities, and we analyzed virology for the groups randomized to treatment with guidelines-based asthma care (n = 89) or add-on omalizumab (n = 259). Weekly nasal mucus samples were analyzed for RVs, and respiratory symptoms and asthma exacerbations were recorded over a 90-day period during the fall seasons of 2012 or 2013. Adjusted illness rates (illnesses per sample) by treatment arm were calculated using Poisson regression. RVs were detected in 97 (57%) of 171 exacerbation samples and 2,150 (36%) of 5,959 nonexacerbation samples (OR, 2.32; P Omalizumab decreased the duration of RV infection (11.2 d vs. 12.4 d; P = 0.03) and reduced peak RV shedding by 0.4 log units (95% confidence interval, -0.77 to -0.02; P = 0.04). Finally, omalizumab decreased the frequency of RV illnesses (risk ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.84). In children with allergic asthma, treatment with omalizumab decreased the duration of RV infections, viral shedding, and the risk of RV illnesses. These findings provide direct evidence that blocking IgE decreases susceptibility to RV infections and illness. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01430403).

  9. Hyperglycemia and acute kidney injury in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordillo R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Gordillo,1 Tania Ahluwalia,2 Robert Woroniecki3 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, IL, USA; 3Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Stony Brook Children’s Hospital, Stony Brook, NY, USA Background: Hyperglycemia and acute kidney injury (AKI are common in critically ill children and have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI in children is difficult to estimate because of the lack of a standard definition for AKI. The pediatric RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease criteria can be used to define AKI in children. Various biomarkers in urine and blood have been studied to detect AKI in critically ill children. However, it is not clear whether hyperglycemia is associated with AKI. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of hyperglycemia on kidney function and its effect on neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL in children. Methods: We studied retrospective and prospective cohorts of pediatric critically ill subjects admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU. We analyzed data from admission that included estimated glomerular filtration rate, plasma and urine NGAL, serum glucose and peak glycemia (highest glycemia during PICU admission, and length of hospital and PICU stay from two different institutions. Results: We found that the prevalence of hyperglycemia was 89% in the retrospective cohort and 86% in the prospective cohort, P=0.99. AKI was associated with peak glycemia, P=0.03. There was a statistically significant correlation between peak glycemia and hospital and PICU stays, P=<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively. Urine NGAL and plasma NGAL were not statistically different in subjects with and without hyperglycemia, P=0.99 and P=0.85, respectively. Subjects on vasopressors had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher

  10. Effect Evaluation of a Randomized Trial to Reduce Infectious Illness and Illness-Related Absenteeism Among Schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denbæk, Anne Maj; Andersen, Anette; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring

    2018-01-01

    -based multi-component intervention to improve hand washing among schoolchildren, the Hi Five study, succeeded in reducing infectious illness and illness-related absenteeism in schools. METHODS: The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 43 randomly selected Danish...... schools; two intervention arms involving 14 schools each, and 15 control schools. Infectious illness days, infectious illness episodes and illness-related absenteeism were estimated in multilevel regressions, based on available cases of text messages answered by parents and based on questionnaire data.......84-1.16)) or in reporting illness-related absenteeism(OR I-arm I : 1.09 (0.83-1.43) & ORI-arm II: 1.06 (0.81-1.40)). CONCLUSIONS: The multi component Hi Five intervention achieved no difference in the number of illness days, illness episodes or illness-related absenteeism among children in intervention schools compared...

  11. The Stigma of Mental Illness as a Barrier to Self Labeling as Having a Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Susanne; Freitag, Simone; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Muehlan, Holger; Schmidt, Silke; Schomerus, Georg

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether personal stigma decreases self-identification as having a mental illness in individuals with untreated mental health problems. We interviewed 207 persons with a currently untreated mental health problem as confirmed by a structured diagnostic interview. Measures included symptom appraisal, self-identification as having a mental illness (SELFI), self-labeling (open-ended question on the nature of their problem) stigma-related variables (explicit and implicit), as well as sociodemographics, current symptom severity, and previous treatment. Support for discrimination and implicit stigmatizing attitude were both associated with lower likelihood of self-identification. More social distance and support for discrimination were associated with less self-labeling. Previous treatment was the strongest predictor of symptom appraisal, SELFI, and self-labeling. Destigmatizing mental illness could increase awareness of personal mental health problems, potentially leading to lower rates of untreated mental illness.

  12. Portrayal of Mental Illness on the TV Series Monk: Presumed Influence and Consequences of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Cynthia A; Cohen, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    This study of responses to the TV series Monk, about a detective with obsessive-compulsive disorder, examines perceptions and behaviors related to mental illness. A total of 172 respondents completed an online survey. A parasocial bond with Monk was associated with lower stereotypes of mental illness and less social distance. Predictors and outcomes of perceived influence of the series on self and others were also examined. Perceived (positive) influence of the series on others' attitudes was predicted by respondents' favorable evaluation of the series's depiction of mental illness, as well as greater perceived exposure to and favorable evaluations among family and friends. Perceived influence on others also was associated with greater willingness to disclose mental health treatment, but only among people without personal or family experience with mental illness. In contrast, perceived influence of the series on self was predicted only by respondents' own evaluations of the series, and was related to willingness to seek mental health treatment-but only among those who had personally dealt with mental illness.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in critically ill and non-critically ill AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, T W; Vandenbroucke, A; Fong, I W

    1995-01-01

    Current dosage regimens of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole used to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients have been based on data from healthy subjects or patients without AIDS. The clearance and absorption characteristics of the drugs may potentially be different between patients with and without AIDS. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in critically ill and non-critically ill AIDS patients treated for P. carinii pneumonia. P...

  14. Sleep quality in patients with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Mary; O'Toole, Sinead; O'Toole, Conor

    2016-11-01

    To explore sleep quality in patients with chronic illness in primary care. Many people suffer from chronic illness with the numbers increasing. One common issue arises from problems that people have with their quality of sleep: a largely under-researched topic. This study exploring poor quality sleep allowed patients to describe their daily struggles with poor sleep in their own lives. This allowed the development of a deeper understanding of what it means to sleep poorly and find out how participants cope with not sleeping well. A qualitative approach enabling a deep exploration of patient's experiences of sleep quality was used. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of nine participants from a primary care clinic. Analysis utilised an interpretative approach. Data analysed produced four recurrent themes that were grouped into two categories. First, themes that identified the recognition by participants that 'something was wrong' were abrupt beginning and impact on their life. Second, themes that identified that the participants considered there was 'nothing wrong' were I am fine and I just carry on. Data revealed that poor quality sleep can have a profound effect on quality of life. Participants lived without good quality sleep for years. They had come to accept two seemingly irreconcilable ideas that not being able to sleep is an enduring problem with a distinct starting point, and paradoxically, this is not a problem that deserves much professional attention. Important original data were generated on the impact of poor quality sleep indicating that chronically disturbed sleep can increase the disease burden on patients with chronic illness. The results of this study suggest healthcare professionals need to understand how sleep quality issues impact on patient's experience of chronic illness. Data from this study will help nurses and other health professionals to deepen their understanding of the profound impact of poor quality sleep on patients with

  15. Pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patinets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mehmood, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To find out the pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patients in a tertiary care health facility. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of pathology, Combined Military Hospital Kharian from January 2013 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients suffering from various diseases and presenting with exacerbation of their clinical conditions were studied. These patients were hospitalized and managed in acute care units of the hospital. Arterial blood gases were analysed to detect acid base status and their correlation with their clinical condition. Concomitant analysis of electrolytes was carried out. Tests related to concurrent illnesses e.g. renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes and plasma glucose were assayed by routine end point and kinetic methods. Standard reference materials were used to ensure internal quantify control of analyses. Results: Two hundred and fifteen patients out of 250 studied suffered from acid base disorders. Gender distribution showed a higher percentage of male patients and the mean age was 70.5 ± 17.4 years. Double acid base disorders were the commonest disorders (34%) followed by metabolic acidosis (30%). Anion gap was calculated to further stratify metabolic acidosis and cases of diabetic ketoacidosis were the commonest in this category (47%). Other simple acid base disorders were relatively less frequent. Delta bicarbonate was calculated to unmask the superimposition of respiratory alkalosis or acidosis with metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. Though triple acid base disorders were noted in a small percentage of cases (05%), but were found to be the most complicated and challenging. Mixed acid base disorders were associated with high mortality. Conclusion: A large number of critically ill patients manifested acid base abnormalities over the full spectrum of these disorders. Mixed acid base disorders were

  16. Heat-related illness in the African wilderness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wilderness heat-related illnesses span a continuum of medical problems caused by ... of modern science, clothing technology, and an understanding of physiology ..... guidelines for wilderness emergency care, heat-related illnesses, and EAH ...

  17. Illness Perceptions and Depression in Relation to Self-care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depression and illness beliefs influence self-care behaviour. Keywords: Illness ... patients in Rwanda will provide new information on which to base further ... English, to facilitate the data collection process we used a translated version of the ...

  18. Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Enda D

    2009-12-01

    Neuromuscular weakness, a frequent complication of prolonged bed rest and critical illness, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Mobilisation physiotherapy has widespread application in patients hospitalised with non-critical illness.

  19. Assessment of Household Management of the Mentally Ill in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    sufferers of mental illness in Nigeria, span the social, psychological, and economic .... from the ground to eat, that schizophrenia will remain incurable. .... Figure 1: Household coping strategies for the mentally ill. Strategies aimed at Health care ...

  20. Consent to research by mentally ill children and adolescents: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the Act's statutory requirements relating to the informed consent to participation in clinical research by mentally ill children and adolescents in South Africa are examined. The necessity of doing clinical research in mentally ill children and ...

  1. Living with a chronic illness - reaching out to others

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a home health aide, or other services. References American Psychological Association. Coping with a diagnosis of chronic illness. Updated August 2013. www.apa.org/helpcenter/chronic-illness.aspx . Accessed November 3, ...

  2. History of febrile illness and variation in semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a history of febrile illness on semen quality.......The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a history of febrile illness on semen quality....

  3. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.W.N. Nijsten (Maarten); T.C. Jansen (Tim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIncreased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased

  4. The discovery of drug-induced illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jick, H

    1977-03-03

    The increased use of drugs (and the concurrent increased risks of drug-induced illness) require definition of relevant research areas and strategy. For established marketed drugs, research needs depend on the magnitudes of risk of an illness from a drug and the base-line risk. With the drug risk high and the base-line risk low, the problem surfaces in premarketing studies or through the epidemic that develops after marketing. If the drug adds slightly to a high base-line risk, the effect is undetectable. When both risks are low, adverse effects can be discovered by chance, but systematic case-referent studies can speed discovery. If both risks are high, clinical trials and nonexperimental studies may be used. With both risks intermediate, systematic evaluations, especially case-referent studies are needed. Newly marketed drugs should be routinely evaluated through compulsory registration and follow-up study of the earliest users.

  5. Activity in the chronically critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Chris; Higgins, Patricia A; Chen, Yea-Jyh Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Although therapeutic activity prevents functional decline and reduces mortality, little is known about typical levels of activity among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This report of a preliminary study describes typical therapeutic activity and compares the use of two measures of activity in a small sample of chronically critically ill adults. Type, frequency, and duration of therapeutic activity were measured simultaneously with direct observation and actigraphy. The only consistent activity documented was turning (frequency: 3 turns/8 hours; duration: mean average of 11 minutes). Analysis demonstrated acceptable agreement between the two measures of activity for both frequency and duration of therapeutic but not for type of activity. Congruence between measures for duration of activity was also supported. This study provides information for investigators and practitioners who are interested in measuring or implementing therapeutic activity in selected critically ill adults.

  6. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace mineral essential to health and has an important role in immunity, defence against tissue damage and thyroid function. Improving selenium status could help protect against overwhelming tissue damage and infection in critically ill adults. This Cochrane review...... was originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...... supplementation and number of infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and length of hospital stay. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 5); MEDLINE (Ovid SP...

  7. Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental il...

  8. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. Arts Therapies and Progressive Illness: Nameless Dread

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Diane E.

    2002-01-01

    Arts Therapies and Progressive Illness is a guide to the use of arts therapies in the treatment of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. In the last few years arts therapies have been used in an increasingly wide range of applications with new groups of patients, such as patients in palliative care, or with learning disabilities - Diane Waller has been a driving force behind this expansion.\\ud This book covers treatment such as art therapy, dance movement therapy and mus...

  10. Injury and Illness Among Deer Hunters

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, Shelagh M.

    1989-01-01

    General practice and out-patient emergency records for a five-year period were reviewed for injuries and illnesses that occurred during the week of deer rifle hunting on Manitoulin Island. Of 65 hunters who were identified, most had lacerations secondary to knife injuries. There were two deaths (one shooting and one in a motor vehicle accident), and 19 persons required hospitalization. More than half of these serious accidents occurred on the weekends immediately preceding or following the hu...

  11. Probiotic (VSL# 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H. CONTRACTING...THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED October 2017 Annual 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for...determine whether probiotic VisbiomeTMwill improve 1) Intestinal symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and 2) Non-intestinal symptoms (fatigue, joint

  12. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friends from becoming ill,” says Marjorie Davidson, Ph.D., education team leader in FDA’s Center for Food ... 文 | Tiếng Việt | 한êµì–´ | Tagalog | Русский | العر ...

  13. Life after critical illness: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Janice

    2014-03-01

    To illustrate the potential physical and psychological problems faced by patients after an episode of critical illness, highlight some of the interventions that have been tested and identify areas for future research. Recovery from critical illness is an international problem and as an issue is likely to increase. For some, recovery from critical illness is prolonged, subject to physical and psychological problems that may negatively impact upon health-related quality of life. The literature accessed for this review includes the work of a number of key researchers in the field of critical care research. These were identified from a number of sources include (1) personal knowledge of the research field accumulated over the last decade and (2) using the search engine 'The Knowledge Network Scotland'. Fatigue and weakness are significant problems for critical care survivors and are common in patients who have been in ICU for more than one week. Psychological problems include anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, delirium and cognitive impairment. Prevalence of these problems is difficult to establish for a number of methodological reasons that include the use of self-report questionnaires, the number of different questionnaires used and the variation in administration and timing. Certain subgroups of ICU survivors especially those at the more severe end of the illness severity spectrum are more at risk and this has been demonstrated for both physical and psychological problems. Findings from international studies of a range of potential interventions are presented. However, establishing effectiveness for most of these still has to be empirically demonstrated. What seems clear is the need for a co-ordinated, multidisciplinary, designated recovery and rehabilitation pathway that begins as soon as the patient is admitted into an intensive care unit. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  15. Energy expenditure of acutely ill hospitalised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariballa Salah

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To measure energy expenditure of acutely ill elderly patients in hospital and following discharge in the community. Design Sixty-three consecutive hospitalised acutely ill elderly patients were recruited. Eight patients were studied to assess the reliability of the Delta Tract Machine as a measure of energy expenditure; 35 patients had their energy expenditure studied in hospital on two occasions and 20 patients had their energy expenditure measured in hospital and at 6 weeks in the community Results Men had higher basal energy expenditure (BMR values compared to women however the difference was not statistically significant [Men, mean (SD 1405 (321 Kcal, women 1238 (322 kcal; mean difference (95% CI 166 kcal (-17 to 531, p = 0.075]. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index both medication and C-reactive protein (CRP, concentrations showed significant correlation with measured energy expenditure in hospital, (r = -0.36, "p Conclusion Tissue inflammation and medications were associated with change in measured energy expenditure in acutely ill patients.

  16. Illness perspectives of Thais diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanseeha, Ladda; Chontawan, Ratanawadee; Sethabouppha, Hunsa; Disayavanish, Chamlong; Turale, Sue

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the perceptions of 18 people diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1-10 years to uncover how they perceived themselves and their illness. It also involved 12 family members who added their perceptions. The data were collected using in-depth interviews, reflective journaling, and observations. The data were analyzed through the lens of Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology. Four themes emerged: perceptions of mental illness, perceptions of the causes of illness, perceptions of discrimination, and attempting to live with schizophrenia. The findings included strong underlying cultural and spiritual beliefs, and attitudes unique to the Thai participants, including the causation of schizophrenia by supernatural powers, black magic, and bad karma stemming from past deeds. Understanding the perceptions of the participants might help health-care providers to be more sensitive to those living with schizophrenia in Thailand and elsewhere. In particular, the findings could be useful in informing psychiatric careproviders about developing better caring systems for clients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This should help the sufferers of schizophrenia to live their lives to their own satisfaction and as normally as possible.

  17. Parenteral nutrition in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Jan; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2017-04-01

    Feeding guidelines have recommended early, full nutritional support in critically ill patients to prevent hypercatabolism and muscle weakness. Early enteral nutrition was suggested to be superior to early parenteral nutrition. When enteral nutrition fails to meet nutritional target, it was recommended to administer supplemental parenteral nutrition, albeit with a varying starting point. Sufficient amounts of amino acids were recommended, with addition of glutamine in subgroups. Recently, several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have yielded important new insights. This review summarizes recent evidence with regard to the indication, timing, and dosing of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients. One large RCT revealed no difference between early enteral nutrition and early parenteral nutrition. Two large multicenter RCTs showed harm by early supplementation of insufficient enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition, which could be explained by feeding-induced suppression of autophagy. Several RCTs found either no benefit or harm with a higher amino acid or caloric intake, as well as harm by administration of glutamine. Although unanswered questions remain, current evidence supports accepting low macronutrient intake during the acute phase of critical illness and does not support use of early parenteral nutrition. The timing when parenteral nutrition can be initiated safely and effectively is unclear.

  18. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for the...

  19. Social inequalities in the experience of illness in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    -manual female workers report more severe illness, but not non-severe illness, than intermediate/higher-level non-manual working females. The observed class differences in experience of severity of illness are partly explained by the factors investigated (job demands, personal economic difficulties, smoking...

  20. Resolving mental illness stigma: should we seek normalcy or solidarity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Two approaches have emerged to deal with the stigma of mental illness: normalcy, where people with mental illness are framed as 'just like everyone else'; and solidarity, where the public agrees to stand with those with mental illness regardless of their symptoms. Pros and cons of each approach are considered. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  1. 77 FR 18307 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report AGENCY: Department...) established the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA policies and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The GWVI-TF...

  2. Illness perception in eating disorders and psychosocial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Terol Cantero, Ma Carmen; Romero Escobar, Cristina; Pagán Acosta, Gonzalo

    2007-09-01

    The current study is based on the framework of the Self-Regulatory Model of Illness (SRM). The aim of this work was to examine perception of illness in eating disorder (ED) patients and investigate whether illness perception is related to psychosocial adaptation in these patients. A total of 98 female ED patients completed the specific eating disorders Spanish version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and a range of adjustment variables including the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). ED patients reported a moderate number of physical symptoms, and perceived their illness as controllable, treatable, highly distressing, as a chronic condition and with serious consequences. Emotional representation was the most significant dimension related to emotional adjustment. Illness identity and cure dimensions were the most significant dimensions associated with psychosocial adaptation. This study shows that patients' illness perceptions are related to illness adaptation. Illness identity was associated with emotional and psychosocial adjustment, and having faith that treatment may control the illness was related to positive benefits for ED. These results suggest that a psychological intervention, which addresses patients' illness representations, may assist in their adjustment to ED. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  3. The Stigma of Dying: Attitudes Toward the Terminally Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Rita J.; McCaghy, Charles H.

    1978-01-01

    Using a range of semantic differential adjectives, 233 college students indicated attitudes toward young and old people who were healthy, ill, or terminally ill. Attitudes toward each state of health category separate into three factors: attitudes toward healthy, ill, and dying persons. (Author)

  4. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  5. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

  6. Pattern of mental illness among women attending an infertility clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female infertility is highly co-morbid with mental illness. In Nigeria, very few studies have been conducted to determine the pattern of mental illness among women with infertility. We aimed to determine the pattern of mental illness in a sample of women with female infertility as well as its associated correlates.

  7. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  8. Tailoring nutrition therapy to illness and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2017-12-28

    Without doubt, in medicine as in life, one size does not fit all. We do not administer the same drug or dose to every patient at all times, so why then would we live under the illusion that we should give the same nutrition at all times in the continuum of critical illness? We have long lived under the assumption that critical illness and trauma lead to a consistent early increase in metabolic/caloric need, the so-called "hypermetabolism" of critical illness. What if this is incorrect? Recent data indicate that early underfeeding of calories (trophic feeding) may have benefits and may require consideration in well-nourished patients. However, we must confront the reality that currently ICU nutrition delivery worldwide is actually leading to "starvation" of our patients and is likely a major contributor to poor long-term quality of life outcomes. To begin to ascertain the actual calorie and protein delivery required for optimal ICU recovery, an understanding of "starvation" and recovery from starvation and lean body mass (LBM) loss is needed. To begin to answer this question, we must look to the landmark Minnesota Starvation Study from 1945. This trial defines much of the world's knowledge about starvation, and most importantly what is required for recovery from starvation and massive LBM loss as occurs in the ICU. Recent and historic data indicate that critical illness is characterized by early massive catabolism, LBM loss, and escalating hypermetabolism that can persist for months or years. Early enteral nutrition during the acute phase should attempt to correct micronutrient/vitamin deficiencies, deliver adequate protein, and moderate nonprotein calories in well-nourished patients, as in the acute phase they are capable of generating significant endogenous energy. Post resuscitation, increasing protein (1.5-2.0 g/kg/day) and calories are needed to attenuate LBM loss and promote recovery. Malnutrition screening is essential and parenteral nutrition can be safely

  9. Is quality of life related to illness and acceptance of illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kocjan

    2015-06-01

    SUMMARY Introduction: Although, that the general well-being is extensively studied in wide range of contexts, still little place is devoting to relationship between acceptance of illness (AIS and quality of life (QoL, especially among cardiac patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to: (1 determine an association between these two variables; (2 examine relationship between selected variables (age, sex, education level, NYHA class, time since CVDs diagnosis, cardiosurgery intervention and presence of comorbid diseases and quality of life. Material and methods: The study included 172 patients with diagnose cardiac disease. All participants were examined used standardized questionnaires: Short Form of health survey (SF-36 questionnaire and Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS. Results: The patients presented moderate level of illness acceptance and quality of life level. Over than half of participants did not accept their illness. Significant, positive relatioship between AIS and QoL were noted. NYHA class, number of cardiac hospitalization and time since cardiovascular disease diagnosis was negatively correlated with QoL. Conclusions: Findings presented in this study demonstrated, that AIS is strongly related with QoL.    Key words: illness acceptance, quality of life, AIS, QoL, cardiac diseases.

  10. Illness Among Paralympic Athletes: Epidemiology, Risk Markers, and Preventative Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Dina Christina; Schwellnus, Martin; Derman, Wayne; Webborn, Nick

    2018-05-01

    Paralympic athletes have unique preexisting medical conditions that predispose them to increased risk of illness, but data are limited to studies conducted during the last 3 Paralympic Games. This article reviews the epidemiology of illness (risk, patterns, and predictors) in Paralympic athletes and provides practical guidelines for illness prevention. The incidence rate of illness (per 1000 athlete-days) in Paralympic athletes is high in Summer (10.0-13.2) and Winter (18.7) Paralympic Games. The authors propose general and specific guidelines on preventative strategies regarding illness in these athletes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2005-12-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma we discuss two leading concepts of mental illness stigma and consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment and fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services. Finally, we discuss three main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- and give examples of current anti-stigma campaigns. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma.

  12. Diagnostic dilemma of pulmonary tuberculosis among adults with severe mental illness in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yan, Qiuli; Lu, Jie; Gao, Baoyin; Zhao, Yanlin; Pang, Yu

    2017-01-18

    Although the prevalence of tuberculosis has decreased significantly over the past decades, the certain populations with mental illness are at increased risk for tuberculosis infection and transmission. However, no studies have examined the performance of different laboratory examination methods among people with severe mental illness in China. In this study, we firstly performed a retrospective study to evaluate the feasibility of three routine laboratory methods, including sputum microscopy, solid culture and GeneXpert, to diagnose tuberculosis patients with mental illness. During August 2010 and March 2013, a total of 251 TB patients based on clinical and radiographic criteria with severe mental illness were enrolled in this study. The majority of patients was homeless (97/251, 38.6%), and the other 62 (24.7%) and 92 (36.7%) were from urban and rural region, respectively. The most frequently diagnosed mental illness was schizophrenia, accounting for 84.1% (211/251) of patients available for analysis. In addition, the laboratory received 753 sputum samples collected from these 251 TB patients, of which 76.0% (572/753) of samples were classified as salivary sputum, which were unqualified for microscopy and culture. When the test results were analyzed by patients, the positive numbers of TB patients detected by sputum microscopy, solid culture and GeneXpert were 3 (1.2%), 5 (2.0%) and 5 (2.0%), respectively. In conclusion, our findings reveal that the current laboratory examinations based on sputum samples seem not to be suitable for the diagnosis of active TB in the persons with severe mental illness. The products using a non-invasive specimen such as urine deserve further evaluation, which may generate benefit for the early diagnosis of TB in this special population.

  13. Developing a multi-component immune model for evaluating the risk of respiratory illness in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B; Elkington, Lisa J; Hall, Sharron T; Attia, John R; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wood, Lisa G; Callister, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory identification of the underlying risk of respiratory illness in athletes has proved problematic. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical data, combined with immune responses to standardised exercise protocols and genetic cytokine polymorphism status, could identify the risk of respiratory illness (symptoms) in a cohort of highly-trained athletes. Male endurance athletes (n=16; VO2max 66.5 ± 5.1 mL.kg-1.min-1) underwent a clinical evaluation of known risk factors by a physician and comprehensive laboratory analysis of immune responses both at rest and after two cycling ergometer tests: 60 min at 65% VO2max (LONG); and 6 x 3 min intervals at 90% VO2max (INTENSE). Blood tests were performed to determine Epstein Barr virus (EBV) status and DNA was genotyped for a panel of cytokine gene polymorphisms. Saliva was collected for measurement of IgA and detection of EBV DNA. Athletes were then followed for 9 months for self-reported episodes of respiratory illness, with confirmation of the underlying cause by a sports physician. There were no associations with risk of respiratory illness identified for any parameter assessed in the clinical evaluations. The laboratory parameters associated with an increased risk of respiratory illnesses in highly-trained athletes were cytokine gene polymorphisms for the high expression of IL-6 and IFN-ɣ; expression of EBV-DNA in saliva; and low levels of salivary IgA concentration. A genetic risk score was developed for the cumulative number of minor alleles for the cytokines evaluated. Athletes prone to recurrent respiratory illness were more likely to have immune disturbances that allow viral reactivation, and a genetic predisposition to pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to intense exercise. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Exercise and Immunology. All rights reserved.

  14. ["Accepting Demented Minds". Opinion Group, Information and Support on Stigma of Mental Illness on Facebook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Katherine Cárdenas; De Santacruz, Cecilia; Salamanca, Mayra Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Mental illness is one of the diseases that generates more disability worldwide, and it is estimated that one in four people has or has had this kind of illness during their lives. Since the beginning, mental illness has been frequently linked to stigma and prejudice, which has important implications for the exercise of their human rights, including the right to health, as these preconceptions can delay their early detection and timely treatment. Eliminating stigma requires multiple interventions, in which the participation of people with these illnesses can be very helpful. Social networks portray an alternative for them and for people interested in this topic, helping them interact, clarify some concerns and doubts, and perhaps even modify their exclusion status. Describing the experience of the opinion and support group on Facebook called "Aceptando mentes dementes" ("Accepting Demented Minds"), created for people with mental illnesses, their families and any person interested in this matter, which seeks to make the impact and consequences that result from stigma more noticable. Analysis of qualitative and quantitative data collected over two and a half years of operation of the group, formed by 764 members from different countries. The aims of the group, as regards the spreading of information, interaction through shared experiences, and obtaining support were reached. Social networks allow the creation of communities that share specific needs, such as understanding and support, and all this at low cost. Knowing and being conscious about the stigma linked to mental illness helps raise awareness and generate options for change. To maintain and link it to other resources, the group will be included in the web site www.mentalpuntoapoyo.com. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Acid base imbalances in ill neonatal foals and their association with survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viu, J; Armengou, L; Ríos, J; Cesarini, C; Jose-Cunilleras, E

    2017-01-01

    Acid-base imbalances observed in human paediatric patients are associated with outcome. Likewise, neonatal foals may have different acid-base imbalances associated with diagnosis or prognosis. To determine acid-base imbalances by the quantitative method in ill neonatal foals and assess their association with diagnosis and prognosis. Observational prospective clinical study. This study included 65 ill neonatal foals (32 septic, 33 nonseptic) admitted to an equine referral hospital from 2005 to 2011with acid-base parameters determined on admission and a control group of 33 healthy neonatal foals. Blood pH, pCO 2 , sodium, potassium, chloride, L-lactate, albumin and phosphate concentrations were determined. Bicarbonate, globulin, measured strong ion difference (SID m ), nonvolatile weak buffer concentrations (A tot ), base excess and its components were calculated. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multiple linear regression statistical analyses were performed. Results are summarised as mean ± s.d. for normally distributed variables and median [25-75th percentiles] for non-normally distributed ones. A total of 63% of ill foals had respiratory alkalosis and 58.5% had SID m acidosis. The combination of both alterations was detected in 21 of 65 ill foals and abnormal pH was found in 24 of 65. Compared with healthy foals, ill foals had significantly lower SID m (nonseptic 31.6 ± 6.3 [Pacid-base imbalances observed in ill foals were respiratory alkalosis, SID m acidosis or mixed respiratory alkalosis with strong ion acidosis. Increased venous pCO 2 and blood L-lactate concentration were associated with poor outcome. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Self-reported illness and household strategies for coping with health-care payments in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Saito, Eiko; Sultana, Papia; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate self-reported illness and household strategies for coping with payments for health care in a city in Bangladesh. Methods A cluster-sampled probability survey of 1593 households in the city of Rajshahi, Bangladesh, was conducted in 2011. Multilevel logistic regression – with adjustment for any clustering within households – was used to examine the risk of self-reported illness in the previous 30 days. A multilevel Poisson regression model, with adjustment for clustering within households and individuals, was used to explore factors potentially associated with the risk of health-care-related “distress” financing (e.g. paying for health care by borrowing, selling, reducing food expenditure, removing children from school or performing additional paid work). Findings According to the interviewees, about 45% of the surveyed individuals had suffered at least one episode of illness in the previous 30 days. The most frequently reported illnesses among children younger than 5 years and adults were common tropical infections and noncommunicable diseases, respectively. The risks of self-reported illness in the previous 30 days were relatively high for adults older than 44 years, women and members of households in the poorest quintile. Distress financing, which had been implemented to cover health-care payments associated with 13% of the reported episodes, was significantly associated with heart and liver disease, asthma, typhoid, inpatient care, the use of public outpatient facilities, and poverty at the household level. Conclusion Despite the subsidization of public health services in Bangladesh, high prevalences of distress financing – and illness – were detected in the surveyed, urban households. PMID:24052682

  17. The changing face of newspaper representations of the mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Neil A; Fatoye, Francis; Wibberley, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Negative stereotypes presented in the media may contribute to the stigma associated with mental illness. People's attitudes towards the mentally ill are initially influenced and subsequently maintained in part by the frequent media presentation of negative stereotypes of mental illness. This could result in social rejection of individuals with mental illnesses. To explore how four main U.K. national newspapers reported on mental health/mental illness stories over a 10-year period. This study utilised content analysis to identify words, themes and trends of representation related to the mentally ill in articles from the four newspapers. The findings indicated that there was an increase in the number of articles related to mental health/illness over the time of the study. The rate of increase was far greater than that for the increase in the total number of articles carried in the press over this time period. It was also identified that pejorative terms were used, in a number of the articles, to describe the mentally ill person. Many of the newspaper reports highlighted the need for protection of the general public from the mentally ill, and that the mentally ill were in some way different to the general public. In particular, both the words "violence" and "drugs" were linked to mental health/mental illness in these articles.

  18. The social construction of illness: key insights and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Peter; Barker, Kristin K

    2010-01-01

    The social construction of illness is a major research perspective in medical sociology. This article traces the roots of this perspective and presents three overarching constructionist findings. First, some illnesses are particularly embedded with cultural meaning--which is not directly derived from the nature of the condition--that shapes how society responds to those afflicted and influences the experience of that illness. Second, all illnesses are socially constructed at the experiential level, based on how individuals come to understand and live with their illness. Third, medical knowledge about illness and disease is not necessarily given by nature but is constructed and developed by claims-makers and interested parties. We address central policy implications of each of these findings and discuss fruitful directions for policy-relevant research in a social constructionist tradition. Social constructionism provides an important counterpoint to medicine's largely deterministic approaches to disease and illness, and it can help us broaden policy deliberations and decisions.

  19. Comorbidities and psychotic illness. Part 1: Philosophy and clinical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Aquilina, Francesca Falzon

    2014-11-01

    This article aims at addressing the implications of defining 'comorbidity' within the field of psychiatry. We have looked at the standard definition of comorbidity and then discussed whether this definition can be applied to comorbidities in psychiatry. While comorbidities in physical illness are clearly the coexistence of two independent illnesses, Comorbidities in Mental illness are the result of the polygenic nature of mental illnesses, especially in psychotic illness whether schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. As a consequence, often the comorbidities of psychiatric illness are caused by two conditions which have in common the presence of particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps), which regulate the metabolism of neurotransmitters or the presence of neurotrophic factors . Thus inevitably, many such comorbidities are inextricably linked. We discuss the consequences of this form of comorbidity for the description, classification, and risk profile of mental illness.

  20. [The stigma of mental illness: concepts, forms, and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2005-07-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. We aim to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss important consequences for people with mental illness. A search of scientific literature on mental illness stigma was conducted with a focus on conceptually relevant empirical studies. After giving a conceptual overview of stigma, we elaborate on the consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment, coping behaviour, fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services, and on structural discrimination. Main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- are discussed. Stigma is of central importance to persons with mental illness, both to how they experience their illness and its consequences and whether they use available health services. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish the impact of mental illness stigma.

  1. BURDEN AND QUALITY OF LIFE– A COMPARISON OF THOSE CARING FOR PSYCHIATRICALLY ILL AND MEDICALLY ILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Rupendu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Despite epidemiological transitions, communicable diseases are widely prevalent world over, concomitantly non-communicable diseases are also on the rise. Mental and behavioural disorders account for 12% of the global burden of disease. Caregiving for both groups of patients, rests with an identified primary caregiver. Caregiving lays a great deal of burden on the caregiver, adversely affecting his quality of life. These factors influence the quality of caregiving, and thereby the long-term well-being of the patient. Differences between the two groups of caregivers has not been studied, more so in the Indian context. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 caregivers of psychiatrically ill and 63 caregivers of the medically ill were studied. Burden of care was assessed using Elmstahl burden scale, and quality of life (QOL using WHOQOL BREF. RESULTS The socio demographic profile of both groups was similar. All subjects experienced a burden of care, with those caring for the psychiatrically ill experiencing a greater burden. QOL was poorer in the care givers of the psychiatrically ill, especially in those married, employed, and in a lower income group. The female care giver, mostly the spouse, experienced a greater burden of care and a poorer QOL. CONCLUSION Chronicity, stigma, poor insight and disabling dependence of the psychiatrically ill, are probably contributory. A higher caregiver burden and a lower QOL will influence quality of caregiving, and have an adverse effect on the course and prognosis of the illness. There is thus a need for routine assessment of the caregiver, and planned intervention for the same.

  2. Mental Illness and Mental Healthcare Receipt among Hospitalized Veterans with Serious Physical Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Melissa M; Prigerson, Holly G; Neupane, Suvam; Penrod, Joan D; Johnson, Christopher E; Boockvar, Kenneth S

    2017-03-01

    Psychosocial distress among patients with limited life expectancy influences treatment decisions, treatment adherence, and physical health. Veterans may be at elevated risk of psychosocial distress at the end of life, and understanding their mental healthcare needs may help identify hospitalized patients to whom psychiatric services should be targeted. To examine mental illness prevalence and mental health treatment rates among a national sample of hospitalized veterans with serious physical illnesses. Design, Subjects, and Measurements: This was a retrospective study of 11,286 veterans hospitalized in a Veterans Health Administration acute care facility in fiscal year 2011 with diagnoses of advanced cancer, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or advanced HIV/AIDS. Prevalent and incident mental illness diagnoses during and before hospitalization and rates of psychotherapy and psychotropic use among patients with incident depression and anxiety were measured. At least one-quarter of the patients in our sample had a mental illness or substance use disorder. The most common diagnoses at hospitalization were depression (11.4%), followed by alcohol abuse or dependence (5.5%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (4.9%). Of the 831 patients with incident past-year depression and 258 with incident past-year anxiety, nearly two-thirds received at least some psychotherapy or guideline-concordant medication within 90 days of diagnosis. Of 191 patients with incident depression and 47 with incident anxiety at time of hospitalization, fewer than half received mental healthcare before discharge. Many veterans hospitalized with serious physical illnesses have comorbid mental illnesses and may benefit from depression and anxiety treatment.

  3. Psychiatric diagnoses and psychoactive medication use among nonsurgical critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunsch, Hannah; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Johansen, Martin B

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The relationship between critical illness and psychiatric illness is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study in Denmark of critically ill patien...

  4. [Illness concepts of children. Validation of a modified locus of control test in illness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Altmann-Herz, U

    1992-12-01

    We investigated the health and illness concepts of 53 healthy children aged 8 to 14 years using a modified illness and health locus of control scale (KKG, Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) with the scales internal, external-p (powerful others) and external-c (chance). A comparison of the results with those on self-esteem (FSK 4-6), anxiety (CMAS-R) and hopelessness (HSC) scales showed a decrease in externality, but not an increase in internality, with increasing age and a correlation between self-confidence and a more internal locus of control. The influence of children's health locus of control on treatment compliance is discussed.

  5. Injury and illness in college outdoor education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports

  6. Mental Health and Illness in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...... and racism - problems that are increasingly prevalent in many cities world wide. Finally, it looks at the increasing challenges of mental disorders in rapidly growing cities. The book is aimed at an international audience and includes contributions from clinicians and researchers worldwide....

  7. Nutritional support for critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari; Anton, Natalie; Lequier, Laurance; Vandermeer, Ben; Tjosvold, Lisa; Larsen, Bodil; Hartling, Lisa

    2016-05-27

    Nutritional support in the critically ill child has not been well investigated and is a controversial topic within paediatric intensive care. There are no clear guidelines as to the best form or timing of nutrition in critically ill infants and children. This is an update of a review that was originally published in 2009. . The objective of this review was to assess the impact of enteral and parenteral nutrition given in the first week of illness on clinically important outcomes in critically ill children. There were two primary hypotheses:1. the mortality rate of critically ill children fed enterally or parenterally is different to that of children who are given no nutrition;2. the mortality rate of critically ill children fed enterally is different to that of children fed parenterally.We planned to conduct subgroup analyses, pending available data, to examine whether the treatment effect was altered by:a. age (infants less than one year versus children greater than or equal to one year old);b. type of patient (medical, where purpose of admission to intensive care unit (ICU) is for medical illness (without surgical intervention immediately prior to admission), versus surgical, where purpose of admission to ICU is for postoperative care or care after trauma).We also proposed the following secondary hypotheses (a priori), pending other clinical trials becoming available, to examine nutrition more distinctly:3. the mortality rate is different in children who are given enteral nutrition alone versus enteral and parenteral combined;4. the mortality rate is different in children who are given both enteral feeds and parenteral nutrition versus no nutrition. In this updated review we searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 2); Ovid MEDLINE (1966 to February 2016); Ovid EMBASE (1988 to February 2016); OVID Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews; ISI Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded (1965 to February 2016); Web

  8. Research using ultracold neutrons at the ILL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this talk I will make no effort to give an exhaustive, detailed description of the well-published results of recent work with ultracold neutrons (UCN) at the ILL. Instead, there will be a biased selection of some topics in which author happens to be most interested, though in some cases as a spectator from a considerable distance than as an actor. The selection includes the recent lifetime experiment using a Fomblin-coated bottle, the continuing search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron and some ideas on high precision neutron optics experiments

  9. Illness denial questionnaire for patients and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Ferrario S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Rossi Ferrario,1 Ines Giorgi,2 Paola Baiardi,3 Laura Giuntoli,4 Gianluigi Balestroni,1 Paola Cerutti,1 Marina Manera,2 Paola Gabanelli,2 Valentina Solara,5 Roberta Fornara,6 Michela Luisetti,1 Pierangela Omarini,1 Giovanna Omarini,1 Giulio Vidotto4 1Psychology Unit, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SpA SB, Veruno, NO, Italy; 2Psychology Unit, 3Scientific Direction, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SpA SB, Pavia, Italy; 4Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 5Department of Neurology, ALS Centre, “Maggiore della Carita`” University Hospital, Novara, Italy; 6Psychology Unit, SS Trinità Hospital, Borgomanero, NO, Italy Purpose: Interest in assessing denial is still present, despite the criticisms concerning its definition and measurement. We tried to develop a questionnaire (Illness Denial Questionnaire, IDQ assessing patients’ and caregivers’ denial in relation to their illness/disturbance. Patients and methods: After a preliminary study, a final version of 24 dichotomous items (true/false was selected. We hypothesized a theoretical model with three dimensions: denial of negative emotions, resistance to change, and conscious avoidance, the first two composing the actual Denial and the last representing an independent component of the illness denial behavior. The IDQ was administered to 400 subjects (219 patients and 181 caregivers together with the Anxiety–Depression Questionnaire – Reduced form (AD-R, in order to assess concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s α and McDonald’s ω, and test–retest analysis were performed. Results: CFA and internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s α: 0.87–0.96 indicated a clear and meaningful three-factor structure of IDQ, for both patients and caregivers. Further analyses showed good concurrent validity, with Denial and its subscale negatively associated with anxiety and depression and

  10. Acute Muscular Sarcocystosis: an international investigation among ill travelers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two provider-based traveler-focused networks allowed for the detection of a large outbreak of acute muscular sarcocystosis (AMS). Clinicians evaluating travelers returning ill from Malaysia with fever and myalgia noted the biphasic aspect of the disease, the later onset of elevated CPK and eosinophi...

  11. Biogenetic models of psychopathology, implicit guilt, and mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2010-10-30

    Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person ("genetic essentialism"), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, was assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with not only less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Community Perceptions of Mental Illness in Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeeta, S J; Mathew, K J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding and perceptions about mental illness vary among individuals based on their experience with the illness or their contact with the people affected by it. These may be further influenced by the individuals' sociocultural background. This study aimed to understand the differences in the beliefs about, understanding of, and explanations for mental illness between different population groups of Jharkhand, India. During July 2014 to February 2016, we recruited the following 3 groups of individuals aged between 18 and 60 years: individuals with mental illness (group 1, n = 240), relatives of individuals with mental illness (group 2, n = 240), and the general public (group 3, n = 240). Qualitative and quantitative findings were combined in this study, and participants were asked about their beliefs about, understanding of, and explanations about mental illness. Individuals with mental illness and their relatives shared similar beliefs whereas the general public held a different opinion in various domains. There were significant differences among all groups in their understanding of various aspects of mental illnesses including the definition, causes, signs and symptoms, treatment, and outcomes. Individuals' perception towards different aspects of mental illness varies, despite they are sharing the same sociocultural milieu. Differences in beliefs, understanding, and explanations may lead to conflicts in treatment goals and expectations, and hamper the intervention strategies that promote mental health and patient care. Focused strategies to develop uniformity in beliefs and explanations about various aspects of mental illness may help to develop collaboration with different community groups that may in turn help in developing effective interventions and treatment.

  13. Climate Change, Foodborne Pathogens and Illness in Higher-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, I R; Barker, G C

    2018-03-01

    We present a review of the likely consequences of climate change for foodborne pathogens and associated human illness in higher-income countries. The relationships between climate and food are complex and hence the impacts of climate change uncertain. This makes it difficult to know which foodborne pathogens will be most affected, what the specific effects will be, and on what timescales changes might occur. Hence, a focus upon current capacity and adaptation potential against foodborne pathogens is essential. We highlight a number of developments that may enhance preparedness for climate change. These include the following: Adoption of novel surveillance methods, such as syndromic methods, to speed up detection and increase the fidelity of intervention in foodborne outbreaks Genotype-based approaches to surveillance of food pathogens to enhance spatiotemporal resolution in tracing and tracking of illness Ever increasing integration of plant, animal and human surveillance systems, One Health, to maximise potential for identifying threats Increased commitment to cross-border (global) information initiatives (including big data) Improved clarity regarding the governance of complex societal issues such as the conflict between food safety and food waste Strong user-centric (social) communications strategies to engage diverse stakeholder groups The impact of climate change upon foodborne pathogens and associated illness is uncertain. This emphasises the need to enhance current capacity and adaptation potential against foodborne illness. A range of developments are explored in this paper to enhance preparedness.

  14. The Emerging Field of Quantitative Blood Metabolomics for Biomarker Discovery in Critical Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkova, Natalie J.; Standiford, Theodore J.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics, a science of systems biology, is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and represents a “snapshot” reading of gene function, enzyme activity, and the physiological landscape. Metabolite detection, either individual or grouped as a metabolomic profile, is usually performed in cells, tissues, or biofluids by either nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry followed by sophisticated multivariate data analysis. Because loss of metabolic homeostasis is common in critical illness, the metabolome could have many applications, including biomarker and drug target identification. Metabolomics could also significantly advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of acute illnesses, such as sepsis and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite this potential, the clinical community is largely unfamiliar with the field of metabolomics, including the methodologies involved, technical challenges, and, most importantly, clinical uses. Although there is evidence of successful preclinical applications, the clinical usefulness and application of metabolomics in critical illness is just beginning to emerge, the advancement of which hinges on linking metabolite data to known and validated clinically relevant indices. In addition, other important aspects, such as patient selection, sample collection, and processing, as well as the needed multivariate data analysis, have to be taken into consideration before this innovative approach to biomarker discovery can become a reliable tool in the intensive care unit. The purpose of this review is to begin to familiarize clinicians with the field of metabolomics and its application for biomarker discovery in critical illnesses such as sepsis. PMID:21680948

  15. A controlled trial of mental illness related stigma training for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leese Morven

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence base for mental illness related stigma interventions in health care professionals and trainees is underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the impact of mental illness related stigma training on third year medical students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour related to people with mental illness. Methods A non-randomised controlled trial was conducted with 110 third year medical students at a medical school in England to determine the effectiveness of a mental illness related stigma training package that targeted their knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Results We detected a significant positive effect of factual content and personal testimonies training upon an improvement in knowledge, F(1, 61 = 16.3, p = 0.0002. No such difference was determined with attitudes or for behaviour. Conclusions Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour may need to be separately targeted in stigma reduction interventions, and separately assessed. The inter-relationships between these components in mental health promotion and medical education warrant further research. The study next needs to be replicated with larger, representative samples using appropriate evaluation instruments. More intensive training for medical students may also be required.

  16. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J.F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were USD 32 and 47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between USD 28 and USD 206, depending on hospitalization. Patient costs of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  17. Hyperglycemia and mortality in critically ill patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvanfar, M.R.; Dalvandy, M.; Emami, A.R.; Rafiee, M.; Eshratee, B.

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the relation between serum glucose concentration and hospital outcome across the critically ill patients. A single-centre, retrospective study was performed at surgical and medical intensive care unit. Admission glucose, mean morning glucose, mean glucose, maximal glucose and time-averaged glucose levels were calculated for each patient. The time-averaged hyperglycemia was defined as the area under the curve above the upper limit of normal, divided by the total length of stay. Of 300 patients with a median stay of 16 days, the mortality rate was 32%. Mean fasting glucose was 121 mg/dl in survivors versus 160 mg/dl in non survivors (P=0.001). Mean admission glucose was 127 mg/dl in survivors versus 142 mg/dl in non survivors (0.03). Median time-averaged hyperglycemia was 4 mg/dl in survivors versus 17.5 mg/dl in non survivors (P < 0.006). The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.59 for time-averaged glucose and 0.73 for mean fasting glucose. Whereas time-averaged hyperglycemia is a useful assessment for glucose control in critically ill patients, it has no priority to admission glucose and mean fasting glucose for outcome prediction. (author)

  18. Enhancement Approach in Well&Illness Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The component of tourism preparatory parties is to make tourists, whether they are medical or companion, feel more comfortable and bring back home good health attached to good memories. In order to lead a satisfactory discussion primarily wellness and illness tourism concepts are properly described. After explaining their dynamics, factors which are constitutive in these kind of touristic activities, mainly tourists‟ motivations are mentioned. As being a new era of medical tourism, it is shown that facilitators are of great significance. They offer medical value tourism by eliminating too many unknowns for the tourist. Not only empathy but queries also enable highlighting the tourists‟ expectations, experiences and showing the ways of understanding their situation better. New medical hubs and the future ones have to take into account, promote consumer researches that they can advance themselves in the light of new information. The best way to develop well&illness tourism is to make tourist, patient and their companion satisfied with their activities and/or treatment.

  19. Motherhood in women with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benders-Hadi, Nikole; Barber, Mary; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of motherhood among inpatient females at a large state psychiatric hospital in suburban New York, as well as develop an understanding of the characteristics and needs of this unique population. Data on motherhood status was gathered from October 2010 through April 2011 via medical records. Data on custody status, frequency of contacts with children, and effect of mental illness on parenting was assessed through patient surveys and focus groups. 38.5 % of female inpatients were found to be mothers, almost half of whom reported at least weekly contact with children despite their inpatient status. The majority of identified mothers reported having maintained custody of their minor children and expressed great pride at being primary caretakers for their children, yet also emphasized the challenging effects of stigma associated with mental illness and parenting. A significant proportion of women at this psychiatric hospital were found to be mothers. Although acknowledged by some clinicians at the individual level, motherhood appears to remain a forgotten role systemically. Determining motherhood status and recognizing the varied roles our patients have is one more way mental health providers can model and promote recovery-oriented care.

  20. Picturing Illness: History, Poetics, and Graphic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavi Ravi Kasthuri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comics have often been treated as a juvenile and sub-literary art form; however, taking cues from the new-found cultural acceptance of comics, particularly with the publication of Art Spiegelman’s Maus (1986, Chris Ware’s Jimmy Corrigan: The Smartest Kid on Earth (2000, and Alison Bechdel’s Fun Home: A Family Tragedy (2006, there have emerged, over the past decade, a new breed of comics dealing with the patient/caregivers’ experiences, perspectives and identities. Christened as graphic medicine, these illness narratives use comics as a medium to address wide ranging disease/illness related issues. The present review examines the following issues: What is graphic medicine? Is there a tangible relationship between underground comics and graphic medicine? If so, can we regard underground comics as historical precedent to graphic medicine? What are the uses of comics in medicine? Broadly put, drawing examples from various graphic medical narratives, the paper seeks to trace the history and poetics of graphic medicine.

  1. Assessing Hopelessness in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: Development of the Hopelessness Assessment in Illness Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Lewis, Charles; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Sachs, Emily; Amakawa, Lia; Kolva, Elissa; Brescia, Robert; Breitbart, William

    2011-01-01

    Hopelessness has become an increasingly important construct in palliative care research, yet concerns exist regarding the utility of existing measures when applied to patients with a terminal illness. This article describes a series of studies focused on the exploration, development, and analysis of a measure of hopelessness specifically intended…

  2. PCR Analysis of Egyptian Respiratory Adenovirus Isolates, Including Identification of Species, Serotypes, and Coinfections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metzgar, David; Osuna, Miguel; Yingst, Samuel; Rakha, Magda; Earhart, Kenneth; Elyan, Diaa; Esmat, Hala; Saad, Magdi D; Kajon, Adriana; Wu, Jianguo; Gray, Gregory C; Ryan, Margaret A; Russell, Kevin L

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-eight adenovirus (Ad) isolates and associated clinical data were collected from walk-in patients with influenza-like illness in Egypt during routine influenza surveillance from 1999 through 2002...

  3. Nitrogen Balance and Protein Requirements for Critically Ill Older Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland N. Dickerson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill older patients with sarcopenia experience greater morbidity and mortality than younger patients. It is anticipated that unabated protein catabolism would be detrimental for the critically ill older patient. Healthy older subjects experience a diminished response to protein supplementation when compared to their younger counterparts, but this anabolic resistance can be overcome by increasing protein intake. Preliminary evidence suggests that older patients may respond differently to protein intake than younger patients during critical illness as well. If sufficient protein intake is given, older patients can achieve a similar nitrogen accretion response as younger patients even during critical illness. However, there is concern among some clinicians that increasing protein intake in older patients during critical illness may lead to azotemia due to decreased renal functional reserve which may augment the propensity towards worsened renal function and worsened clinical outcomes. Current evidence regarding protein requirements, nitrogen balance, ureagenesis, and clinical outcomes during nutritional therapy for critically ill older patients is reviewed.

  4. Environmental sensitivity: equivocal illness in the context of place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Christopher M

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a phenomenologically oriented description of the interaction of illness experience, social context, and place. This is used to explore an outbreak of environmental sensitivities in Nova Scotia, Canada. Environmental Sensitivity (ES) is a popular designation for bodily reactions to mundane environmental stimuli that are insignificant for most people. Mainstream medicine cannot support the popular models of this disease process and consequently illness experience is subject to ambiguity and contestation. As an 'equivocal illness', ES generates considerable social action around the nature, meaning and validity of suffering. Sense of place plays an important role in this process. In this case, the meanings that accrue to illness experience and that produce salient popular disease etiology are grounded in the experience and social construction of the Nova Scotian landscape over time. Shifting representations of place are reflected in illness experience and the meanings that arise around illness are emplaced in landscape.

  5. Coping and resilience of children of a mentally ill parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Pirjo; Ervast, Sari-Anne; Huupponen, Marika

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the needs and stress reactions of children of mentally ill parents, as well as coping and resilience. The study is based on the interviews of six 9-11 years old children and narratives of seventeen female grown up children of mentally ill parents. The younger and older children of the mentally ill parents had not been informed about their parent's illness. The illness of the parent aroused a variety of emotions in them. The children used both practical problem solving and emotional coping mechanisms. Informal social support was available to them but seldom from the public services. It is recommended that professionals in mental health and child welfare services clarify their roles when working with mentally ill parents. The best interest of the child and the parenting they need should be carefully assessed. Open care measures should be offered to families early enough to prevent serious child welfare and mental problems.

  6. Household illness, poverty and physical and emotional child abuse victimisation: findings from South Africa's first prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Physical and emotional abuse of children is a large scale problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. Although chronic household illness has shown to be a predictor for physical and emotional abuse, no research has thus far investigated the different pathways from household chronic illness to child abuse victimisation in South Africa. Confidential self-report questionnaires using internationally utilised measures were completed by children aged 10-17 (n = 3515, 56.7% female) using door-to-door sampling in randomly selected areas in rural and urban locations of South Africa. Follow-up surveys were conducted a year later (96.7% retention rate). Using multiple mediation analyses, this study investigated direct and indirect effects of chronic household illness (AIDS or other illness) on frequent (monthly) physical and emotional abuse victimisation with poverty and extent of the ill person's disability as hypothesised mediators. For children in AIDS-ill families, a positive direct effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, positive indirect effects through poverty and disability were established. For boys, a positive direct and indirect effect of AIDS-illness on emotional abuse through poverty were detected. For girls, a positive indirect effect through poverty was observed. For children in households with other chronic illness, a negative indirect effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, a negative indirect effect through poverty and positive indirect effect through disability was established. For boys, positive and negative indirect effects through poverty and disability were found respectively. For girls, a negative indirect effect through poverty was observed. These results indicate that children in families affected by AIDS-illness are at higher risk of child abuse victimisation, and this risk is mediated by higher levels of poverty and disability. Children affected by other chronic illness are at lower risk for

  7. Acute kidney injury in critically ill child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jboor, Wejdan; Almardini, Reham; Al Bderat, Jwaher; Frehat, Mahdi; Al Masri, Hazem; Alajloni, Mohammad Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in patients in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). We conducted this study to estimate the incidence and the mortality rate of AKI in critically ill children as well as to describe some other related factors. A retrospective study was conducted at PICU of Queen Rania Abdulla Children Hospital, Amman, Jordan for the period extending from May 2011 to June 2013. The medical records of all patients admitted during this period, and their demographic data were reviewed. Patients with AKI were identified, and management and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. AKI was evaluated according to modified RIFLE criteria. Of the 372 patients admitted to PICU, 64 (17.2%) patients developed AKI. Of these 64 patients who had AKI, 28 (43.7%) patients reached RIFLE max of risk, 21 (32.8%) patients reached injury, and 15 (23.4%) reached failure. Mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality II score at admission was significantly higher in patients with AKI than those without P <0.001. The age ranged between one month and 14 years with the median age as 5.4 year. Thirty-five (54.7%) were males. Sepsis was the most common cause of AKI. The mortality rate in critically ill children without AKI was 58.7%, whereas increased in children with AKI to 73.4%. The mortality rate in patients who received renal replacement therapy was 71.4% and was higher (81.5%) in patients who received mechanical ventilation (95%, [confidence interval (CI)] 79.3-83.4%) and was significantly higher in patients with multi-organ system dysfunction 90.3% (95%, [CI] 88.7-92.5%). The incidence of AKI in critically ill children is high and increased their mortality rate and higher mortality seen in the younger age group, especially those below one year. High mortality rate was associated with multi-organ system dysfunction and the need for mechanical ventilation.

  8. Class differences in the social consequences of illness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, C; Burström, B; Diderichsen, F

    2002-01-01

    with eight years interval 1979-89 and 1986-97. Sociodemographic characteristics, self reported longstanding illness, employment situation and financial conditions were measured at baseline. Social consequences (economic inactivity, unemployment, financial difficulties) of limiting longstanding illness were......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate adverse social consequences of limiting longstanding illness and the modifying effect of socioeconomic position on these consequences. DESIGN: Cohort study on the panel within the annual Swedish Survey of Living Conditions where participants were interviewed twice...

  9. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. Experiencing stigma as a nurse with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A L

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Stigma involves connecting individuals with a particular label to negative characteristics; this is based not on the stigmatized condition itself, but cultural reactions to it. Stigma exists towards nurses with mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper offers a first-person account of experiencing stigma as a nurse with a mental illness. This paper incorporates the existing literature to offer a broader cultural perspective on the experiences of a nurse with a mental illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses are likely to encounter a nurse with a mental illness at some point in their practice. Nurses' reactions towards colleagues with mental illness can have significant implications for those colleague(s)' wellbeing. Nurses with mental illness will have to navigate their person and professional journey while giving consideration to the attitudes of their nursing peers and leaders. Limited research has been done on the stigma faced by nurses with mental illness from their nursing peers. Mental illness is not generally considered acceptable within the context of nursing culture, so when nurses do experience mental illness, their experiences in a professional context may be influenced by stereotypes, particularly those relating to dangerousness. Using autoethnography as a research method, the author examines her own subjective experiences of stigma as a nurse with a mental illness, and draws upon existing literature on stigma, deviance and the phenomenon of mental illness in nurses to analyse broader cultural implications for nursing. Assessment of suitability to return to work arises throughout the narratives, and consideration is given to the way that risk assessment by nursing leaders is impacted by negative stereotypes that surround mental illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Social support, health, and illness: a complicated relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, R

    2011-01-01

    .... A useful resource for clinical practitioners and researchers, Social Support, Health, and Illness addresses the effects of intimate support on a wide variety of medical and psychiatric conditions...

  5. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Brien, Irene

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child\\'s siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. AIM: This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. METHOD: A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: \\'siblings\\

  6. Yoruba world view and the nature of psychotic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugbile, O; Zachariah, M P; Kuyinu, A; Coker, A; Ojo, O; Isichei, B

    2009-05-01

    The Yoruba are an ethnic group in southern Nigeria. It is said that their world view centers around a continuous battle between forces of good and evil. Adverse events such as illness are due to the malevolence of enemies, using metaphysical means. Remedy often involves corrective metaphysical intervention, either exclusively or in addition to other methods, such as 'western Medicine'. This 'rule' is said to fit mental illness more than any other type of illness, although there is a lack of empirical data on the subject. This study is aimed at identifying elements of a Yoruba world view, and factors relevant to the perception and treatment of psychotic illness. 500 Yorubas in Lagos were randomly sampled (with a questionnaire), and 100 'home video' films were analyzed. Data were analyzed for: elements of world view; elements that pertain to illness in general; elements that pertain to psychotic illness; how such illness is to be treated. The world view has a significant influence on perception of psychotic illness. It is necessary to understand a people's world view in order to understand (and influence) attitudes towards psychotic illness in themselves and other people.

  7. Illness beliefs and psychological outcome in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane; Lekwuwa, Godwin; Crawford, Trevor

    2013-06-01

    Illness beliefs are important predictors of psychological outcome in people with chronic illness and evidence suggests these could also be significant in furthering our understanding of psychological functioning in people with Parkinson's disease. Illness beliefs are specific, dynamic representations of an illness and cover dimensions such as cause, identity, consequences and controllability. Eighty-one people with Parkinson's disease completed a series of questionnaires to provide demographic, clinical and psychosocial data, which were then used to assess the relative impact of illness beliefs on their psychological functioning. Psychological functioning was assessed by measuring levels of depression, anxiety, stress, positive affect and emotional well-being. Hierarchical block regression indicated that illness beliefs were important independent predictors across some but not all outcomes and the results emphasised the importance of testing new predictors against more established predictors of outcome such as physical functioning and self-esteem. The illness beliefs most important in psychological outcome in people with PD were causal beliefs (particularly in psychosocial causes) and illness coherence (the level of understanding of the illness). The therapeutic potential of psychosocial variables was discussed given that these can be modified during therapy and this change can positively influence psychological outcome.

  8. Insight and illness perception in Mexican patients with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2015-03-01

    Insight and illness perception are two concepts of interest in the study of factors related to clinical outcome in patients with psychosis. Insight implies a risk of emotional distress for the patient. Illness perceptions, regardless of their accuracy, might be favorable or not to illness. Literature provides evidence of significant correlates of these factors with clinical outcome, but they are rarely included in a single study. 1) assessing insight and illness perception in a sample of Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and, 2) analyzing how insight and illness perception relate to each other and how they relate to clinical status (i.e., positive, negative, and general psychopathology, depression, and anxiety). Sixty-one participants (55.7% females) were recruited from a public psychiatric hospital; insight and illness perceptions were assessed with the SUMD and the Brief-IPQ, respectively. Clinical status was assessed with the PANSS, CDS and BAI scales. Participants showed good insight, favorable illness perceptions for the cognitive and comprehension dimensions, but unfavorable for the emotional dimension. Clinical status of sample was characterized by mild symptoms. Poor insight related to positive symptoms and general psychopathology. Cognitive and emotional perceptions of illness were significantly associated to most clinical status parameters, whereas comprehension showed no significant results. The study not only replicates the significant association on insight and illness perception with clinical outcome, but shows how their patterns of interactions are different, reinforcing the idea that they are two distinct factors worthy of being habitually acknowledged in research and clinical practice.

  9. Adolescent construction of mental illness: implication for engagement and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Katharine; Patterson, Paul; Greenfield, Sheila; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max

    2016-05-11

    Understanding how adolescents perceive mental illness is important for clinicians wishing to improve engagement, and for the development of educational programmes and health-behaviour directed policies. The current research aimed to develop a preliminary model of how adolescents perceive mental illness and construct their understanding of mental health. Forty-six participants aged 11-18 from six schools in Birmingham, UK, took part in one of 12 group interviews. A thematic analysis highlighted a dual perception of mental illness. Adolescents discussed stereotypes and extreme examples of illness, but also displayed an insightful understanding of mental distress which had developed through participants' own experiences. Participants attempted to reconcile and negotiate these conflicting perceptions by creating distinctions between concepts of 'craziness' and 'normality', and reported experiencing negative emotions relating to both perceptions of illness. The findings suggest that once media stereotypes have been acknowledged, adolescents demonstrate a relatively sophisticated understanding of mental illness, although one which differed at times from the diagnostic medical model of mental illness. Focusing on individual symptoms, prevalence rates and prior contact adolescents have had with individuals with mental illnesses provides a framework to discuss mental health and ill-health with adolescents. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Approach to the critically ill camelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenice, Daniela

    2009-07-01

    The estimation of fluid deficits in camelids is challenging. However, early recognition and treatment of shock and hypovolemia is instrumental to improve morbidity and mortality of critically ill camelids. Early goal-directed fluid therapy requires specific knowledge of clinical indicators of hypovolemia and assessment of resuscitation endpoints, but may significantly enhance the understanding, monitoring, and safety of intravenous fluid therapy in South American camelids (SAC). It is important to recognize that over-aggressive fluid resuscitation is just as detrimental as under resuscitation. Nonetheless, a protocol of conservative fluid management is often indicated in the treatment of camelids with pulmonary inflammation, to counteract edema formation. The early recognition of lung dysfunction is often based on advanced diagnostic techniques, including arterial blood gas analysis, diagnostic imaging, and noninvasive pulmonary function testing.

  11. Modern Christian healing of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, A R

    1982-06-01

    Healing of mental illness through religious practices was a key element of early Christianity. In the early twentieth century such healing was associated with blue-collar and rural Fundamentalists, but religious healing practices have gained widespread acceptance by many middle-class, conservative Christian groups. "Evil demons" are now equated with envy, pride, avarice, hatred, and obsessions with alcohol and gambling. Many psychotherapeutic techniques of modern Christian healers appear to be rediscoveries of psychoanalytic insights expressed in religious metaphors. Most responsible healers encourage clients to seek medical and psychiatric help, especially for serious mental disorders. Psychiatrists need not share patients' religious beliefs, but for treatment to be effective these beliefs must be understood and respected.

  12. in Critically Ill Patients: Success and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrate anticoagulation has risen in interest so it is now a real alternative to heparin in the ICUs practice. Citrate provides a regional anticoagulation virtually restricted to extracorporeal circuit, where it acts by chelating ionized calcium. This issue is particularly true in patients ongoing CRRT, when the “continuous” systemic anticoagulation treatment is per se a relevant risk of bleeding. When compared with heparin most of studies with citrate reported a longer circuit survival, a lower rate of bleeding complications, and transfused packed red cell requirements. As anticoagulant for CRRT, the infusion of citrate is prolonged and it could potentially have some adverse effects. When citrate is metabolized to bicarbonate, metabolic alkalosis may occur, or for impaired metabolism citrate accumulation leads to acidosis. However, large studies with dedicated machines have indeed demonstrated that citrate anticoagulation is well tolerated, safe, and an easy to handle even in septic shock critically ill patients.

  13. Air Transportation of Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Rodionov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Napoleonic wars, balloon evacuation of the wounded was the first to be made in the history when Paris was being defended. In the USA, casualty helicopters are being used in 20% of cases on evacuating the victims from the accident scene and in 80% during interhospital transportation. Russia also shows an ambiguous approach to employing air medical service — from the wide use of air transportation in the country’s regions that are difficult of access to its almost complete refusal in the regions with the well-developed transportation system. Long-distance transportation of critically ill patients by chartered or commercial planes is the reality of our time. In each region, continuing specialized teams of qualified medical workers who have a good knowledge of altitude pathophysiology and handle the obligatorily certified equipment should be created on the basis of large-scale medical centers.

  14. Mass Shootings, Mental Illness, and Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott-Jones, Sean

    2018-03-01

    In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem. Both sides are wrong. Mass shootings are indeed partially a mental health problem, albeit one poorly addressed by our current laws and policies. But the solution to mass shootings also needs to consider strategies that may reduce gun violence in general. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  15. ILL2020 Vision - Posters and Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.L.; Bocian, A.; Bousige, C.; Cermak, P.; Cooper, J.F.K.; Cronenberg, G.; Ford, S.; Hennig, M.; Jones, A.O.F.; Knoll, W.; Leung, K.; Mourigal, M.; Sigrist, M.S.; Trapp, M.; Wang, Weiwei; Martinez Pena, J.L.; Ruegg, C.; Bramwell, S.; Klotz, S.; Fragneto, G.; Fouquet, P.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Harrison, A.; Andersen, K.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Schober, H.; Enderle, M.; Jobic, H.; Wilson, C.C.; Teschner, D.; Bourges, P.; Braden, M.; McMorrow, D.; Snogerup Linse, S.; Podjarny, A.; Richardson, J.; Schurtenberger, P.; Farago, B.; Pfrang, C.; Simpson, G.; Plonka-Spehr, C.; Nuttall, W.J.; Chapon, L.C.; Koza, M.M.; Withers, P.J.; Zabel, H.; Lyonnard, S.; Morineau, D.; Salmon, P.S.; Johnson, M.; Forsyth, T.; Wagner, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Millennium Programme is to maintain and develop the ILL's instrument suite as the world reference, as well as to upgrade our support facilities and basic neutron technologies so that they continue to satisfy changing demands from the user community. This document gathers the abstracts of the poster session and the paper abstracts. The posters present the latest achievements in the application of neutrons diffraction for instance to the dynamics of molecules or the study of magnetism. The topics of the papers is more about the need for new equipment than about research topics. The proposals for new or upgraded equipment includes neutron spin-echo spectrometers, multimodal diffractometers, time-of-flight spectrometers, small angle neutron spectrometers, and high magnetic field devices for spectroscopy

  16. Predictors of agitation in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Ruth S; Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Schubert, Christine M; Sessler, Curtis N

    2014-09-01

    Agitation in critically ill adults is a frequent complication of hospitalization and results in multiple adverse outcomes. Potential causes of agitation are numerous; however, data on factors predictive of agitation are limited. To identify predictors of agitation by examining demographic and clinical characteristics of critically ill patients. A medical record review was performed. Documentation of agitation was indicated by scores on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale or the use of an agitation keyword. Records of 200 patients from 1 medical and 1 surgical intensive care unit were used for the study. Risk factors were determined for 2 points in time: admission to the intensive care unit and within 24 hours before the first episode of agitation. Data on baseline demographics, preadmission risk factors, and clinical data were collected and were evaluated by using logistic multivariable regression to determine predictors of agitation. Predictors of agitation on admission to intensive care were history of use of illicit substances, height, respiratory and central nervous system subscores on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and use of restraints. Predictors of agitation within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were history of psychiatric diagnosis, height, score on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen less than 200, serum pH, percentage of hours with restraints, percentage of hours of mechanical ventilation, pain, and presence of genitourinary catheters. Predictors of agitation on admission and within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were primarily clinical variables. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  17. Loucuras da fome Hunger and mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda Maria de Vargas Rebello

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Com base em uma reportagem publicada recentemente sobre a tríade seca/fome/doença mental, cuja idéia central é a de que a miséria decorrente possa estar provocando distúrbios comportamentais na população nordestina atingida, buscamos refletir sobre o que essa suposta 'loucura' poderia estar representando para esse grupo de pessoas. Procuramos fazer uma leitura que envolvesse várias disciplinas e que ultrapassasse as explicações meramente causais, levando em conta que os transtornos relatados teriam significação a partir da articulação de elementos cognitivos, afetivos e experienciais, calcados nas relações sociais e culturais dos indivíduos. Nessa perspectiva, o discurso vai assumindo outras interpretações, mostrando que a enfermidade é um processo singular de construção.Based on a recently-published article on the triad of drought, hunger, and mental illness, in which the main idea is that destitution may be leading to behavioral disorders in the drought-plagued population of the Brazilian Northeast, we reflect on what this so-called "madness" may represent for this group of people. We attempt to analyze the issue from various disciplinary perspectives, going beyond merely causal explanations and taking into account that the reported disorders entail meanings following the articulation of cognitive, affective, and experiential elements founded on the social and cultural relations of individuals. From this point of view, the respective discourse assumes other interpretations, showing that illness is a singular process of construction.

  18. Phenytoin pharmacokinetics in critically ill trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, B A; Rodman, J H; Jaresko, G S; Rasmussen, S N; Watridge, C B; Fabian, T C

    1988-12-01

    Preliminary data have suggested that phenytoin systemic clearance may increase during initial therapy in critically ill patients. The objectives for this study were to model the time-variant phenytoin clearance and evaluate concomitant changes in protein binding and urinary metabolite elimination. Phenytoin was given as an intravenous loading dose of 15 mg/kg followed by an initial maintenance dose of 6 mg/kg/day in 10 adult critically ill trauma patients. Phenytoin bound and unbound plasma concentrations were determined in 10 patients and urinary excretion of the metabolite p-hydroxyphenyl phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH) was measured in seven patients for 7 to 14 days. A Michaelis-Menten one-compartment model incorporating a time-variant maximal velocity (Vmax) was sufficient to describe the data and superior to a conventional time-invariant Michaelis-Menten model. Vmax for the time-variant model was defined as V'max + Vmax delta (1 - e(-kindt)). Vmax infinity is the value for Vmax when t is large. The median values (ranges) for the parameters were Km = 4.8 (2.6 to 20) mg/L, Vmax infinity = 1348 (372 to 4741) mg/day, and kind = 0.0115 (0.0045 to 0.132) hr-1. Phenytoin free fraction increased in a majority of patients during the study period, with a binding ratio inversely related to albumin. Measured urinary p-HPPH data were consistent with the proposed model. A loading and constant maintenance dose of phenytoin frequently yielded a substantial, clinically significant fall in plasma concentrations with a pattern of apparently increasing clearance that may be a consequence of changes in protein binding, induction of metabolism, or the influence of stress on hepatic metabolic capacity.

  19. Assessing the Decision-Making Capacity of Terminally Ill Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Saracino, Rebecca

    2018-05-01

    Despite the clinical, ethical, and legal magnitude of end-of-life decision-making, the capacity of terminally ill patients to make the medical decisions they often face is largely unknown. In practice, clinicians are responsible for determining when their patients are no longer competent to make treatment decisions, yet the accuracy of these assessments is unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore decision-making capacity and its assessment in terminally ill cancer patients. Fifty-five patients with advanced cancer receiving inpatient palliative care and 50 healthy adults were administered the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) to evaluate decision-making capacity with regard to the four most commonly used legal standards: Choice, Understanding, Appreciation, and Reasoning. Participants made a hypothetical treatment decision about whether to accept artificial nutrition and hydration for treatment of cachexia. Participants' physicians independently rated their decision-making capacity. Terminally ill participants were significantly more impaired than healthy adults on all MacCAT-T subscales. Most terminally ill participants were able to express a treatment choice (85.7%), but impairment was common on the Understanding (44.2%), Appreciation (49.0%), and Reasoning (85.4%) subscales. Agreement between physician-rated capacity and performance on the MacCAT-T subscales was poor. The use of the MacCAT-T revealed high rates of decisional impairment in terminally ill participants. Participants' physicians infrequently detected impairment identified by the MacCAT-T. The findings from the present study reinforce the need for engagement in advance care planning for patients with advanced cancer. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin E-de

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay was improved for simultaneous detection of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 (2009 influenza virus, which is suitable for early diagnosis of influenza-like patients and for epidemiological surveillance. The sensitivity of this duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was 0.02 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose for H5N1 and 0.2 TCID50 for the pandemic H1N1, which was the same as that of each single-target RT-PCR for pandemic H1N1 and even more sensitive for H5N1 with the same primers and probes. No cross reactivity of detecting other subtype influenza viruses or respiratory tract viruses was observed. Two hundred and thirty-six clinical specimens were tested by comparing with single real-time RT-PCR and result from the duplex assay was 100% consistent with the results of single real-time RT-PCR and sequence analysis.