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Sample records for detain journalist spark

  1. State security agents detain journalist, spark major political backlash

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Leedu julgeolekuameti peadirektor Avydas Pocius lasi läbi otsida ajalehe Laisvas Laikrastis toimetuse, süüdistades ajalehte riigisaladuse kuritarvitamises. Ajakirjanikud nimetavad seda ajakirjandusvabaduse rikkumiseks

  2. The Virtuous Journalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhorn, Michael J.

    Virtue in journalism implies a clearsighted expansion of outlook and requires determined attempts to cross boundaries separating the journalist from society, journalist from subject, journalist from journalist, journalist from ideas, journalist from sentiments and feelings, and journalist from "inner abundance." Some of the requirements for the…

  3. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  4. Journalistic Text Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Rikke Hartmann

    JOURNALISTIC TEXT PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY ON REVISIONS OF CONTENT AND FORM ABSTRACT • This paper provides insights into journalists’ revisions of content and linguistic form when producing newspaper articles. • By use of keystroke logging, participant observation and retrospective interviews...... different overall purposes: one in which the journalists produce (more) text for the newspaper article, and one in which they evaluate, and especially, reduce the length of the article. EXTENDED SUMMARY News products provide much of the foundation for what we know about the world we live in. However, we...... journalists make as regards content and linguistic form when composing news articles (NN 2016). More specifically, the study investigated revisions that were carried out by journalists during text production as these revisions yield insights into the progression of the text and thus contribute to our...

  5. CZĘSTOCHOWA JOURNALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dzierżyńska-Mielczarek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article characterises a local journalist environment. The analysis was conducted on the example of Częstochowa—a city that is identified with the Pauline monastery of Jasna Góra by most Europeans. Symbolically, that identification seems reasonable, but Częstochowa is also an independent urban organism carrying out not only religious tasks. The Częstochowa journalist environment, along with local press, arose in the late 19th century. Because the city at that time had a population of only a few thousand residents and was under Russian occupation, the environment was represented by just several people, mostly originating from other cities or the Catholic clergy. Journalists in Częstochowa became a separate professional group between 1918 and 1939. Their number at that time did not exceed one hundred. They were decimated during World War II. In the People’s Republic of Poland, the Częstochowa journalists were deprived of their independence and forced to engage in numerous propaganda activities. The uniformisation of the press also caused a significant reduction on the part of the examined group, which from 1945–1989 numbered less than one hundred. Thanks to sociological research, we know that between 1989–2007, over 200 journalists worked in the Częstochowa media. In the overwhelming majority of cases, they performed their journalist work in a regular and systematic manner, receiving a salary that was their primary or only source of income.

  6. Assessing fitness to detain in police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Matthew

    2015-11-11

    This article outlines the role of the custody nurse in assessing an individual's fitness to be detained. It addresses all aspects of the assessment, including consent, responsibilities and the structure of the clinical examination. It explores ways to ensure that the detainee's rights and welfare are maintained and their healthcare needs are met. It offers guidance on preparing a care plan for detained individuals that the police can implement.

  7. [Journalists to the rescue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanassawa, M F

    1994-12-01

    In October 1993, about 30 journalists from Chad participated in a seminar on population and development. The new division of population in the Ministry of Planning and Cooperation organized the seminar. The seminar aimed to inform the journalists of the objectives, strategies, and actions of the Declaration of Population Policy. It also intended to sensitize the journalists to the population problems facing Chad and to mobilize them in population sensitization operations. The seminar hoped to lead the journalists to regularly dedicate articles, reports, reporting, and investigations to population problems in relation to the process of socioeconomic development. Audiovisual presentations at the seminar included a slide show on the interrelationships of population and development in Chad, a presentation of the Declaration of Population Policy, and a report on journalism and population problems in reference to the Sahelian experience. These presentations allowed the journalists to engage in a strong enriching debate in which the basic principles of relations between population and development were discussed. Population problems are, to a great extent, the consequence of choices, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals, couples, and families. They participate in the culture and in civilization. The repercussions of these choices often constitute a restraint in terms of education, health for all, and adequate employment. After the seminar, the journalists seemed to have understood that their mission will be to convince populations to adopt behaviors and attitudes compatible with sustainable development objectives. Journalists from Chad hope that such seminars, especially workshops, will expand in order to allow them to better understand the demographic elements necessary to their work.

  8. English for international journalists

    CERN Document Server

    Gandon, Mike

    2013-01-01

    English for International Journalists is a clear and engaging step-by-step guide for non-native speakers using English in journalism across all forms of media. In-depth language analysis is provided in the specialised context of journalism, as well as a comprehensive approach to the rules and guidelines necessary for avoiding the pitfalls and errors that undermine accuracy and clarity. The book, written by Mike Gandon and edited by Heather Purdey, covers a broad range of vital subjects, including: Making contact Interviewing Grammar and journalistic writing Sensitive issues The language of argument The language of impartial and accurate reporting Bloggers and broadcasters Reporting economy, health and the environment. The book is closely supported by online resources concentrating on the spoken word, intonation and pronunciation, and also features an expansive range of exercises and tests, suitable for self-study or to be set as coursework. English for International Journalists presents readers with ...

  9. Educating journalists about nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    Co-operating with the journalists for many years, I believe that I managed to win their trust and goodwill. This capital was not easy to acquire, but it is very easy to squander. Because one has to remember that the relations between the nuclear community and the media are very sensitive. Their fragile balance can be easily disturbed or even totally destroyed. Drawing on the last year experiences and lessons from my relations with the journalists in my role of a spokesman, I would like to present several messages, which I believe to be useful for the PIME audience. (author)

  10. Journalists as Tastemakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten; From, Unni

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a comparative content analysis of the ways in which journalists have engaged with and defined what counts as good taste and cool culture in relation to the internationally successful Danish TV series Borgen in three national news brands: The Telegraph from United Kingdom...

  11. A journalist remembers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishlock, D.

    1984-01-01

    The development of nuclear activities over the past four decades, is assessed by a journalist. The pioneering men behind the nuclear science-based industry in Britain are mentioned. Uses of nuclear technology in industry, energy production, medicine, recycling of nuclear fuel and weapons are briefly described. Nuclear energy, public relations and public opinion in the seventies and eighties are discussed. (U.K.)

  12. A journalist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudret, Paul

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the result of five years of experience with the nuclear world in Switzerland (five Swiss nuclear plants) from the point of view of a journalist, who doesn't pretend to know everything; who is neither scientific nor a technical journalist, he is writing for the man in the street, and works for a daily paper i.e. has to work very fast and as close to the reality as possible. Understanding and mutual confidence between the nuclear industry and media is emphasised as essential. 'Nuclear' people are specialists and are warned about the fact that they are dealing with non-specialists, journalists and the public who would like to understand what are the processes that might affect them and do not have a dictionary of technical terminology at hand. It is pointed out that the nuclear industry should speak openly about problems and accept being criticised if they want to restore confidence with the media and with the public

  13. Mental Illness Drives Hospitalizations for Detained California Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoshiravani, Arash; Saynina, Olga; Chamberlain, Lisa; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Huffman, Lynne C; Wang, N Ewen; Wise, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe inpatient hospitalization patterns among detained and non-detained youth in a large, total population of hospitalized adolescents in California. Methods We examined the unmasked California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development Patient Discharge Dataset from 1997-2011. We considered hospitalized youth aged 11-18 years “detained” if admitted to California hospitals from detention, transferred from hospital to detention, or both. We compared discharge diagnoses and length of stay (LOS) between detained youth and their non-detained counterparts in the general population. Results There were 11,367 hospitalizations for detained youth. Hospitalizations differed for detained versus non-detained youth: 63% of all detained youth had a primary diagnosis of mental health disorder (compared to 19.8% of non-detained youth). Detained girls were disproportionately affected, with 74% hospitalized for a primary mental health diagnosis. Detained youth hospitalized for mental health disorder had an increased median LOS compared to non-detained inpatient youth with mental illness (≥6 days versus 5 days, respectively). This group difference was heightened in the presence of minority status, public insurance, and concurrent substance abuse. Hospitalized detained youth discharged to chemical dependency treatment facilities had the longest hospital stays (≥43 days). Conclusions Detained juvenile offenders are hospitalized for very different reasons than the general adolescent population. Mental illness, often with comorbid substance abuse, requiring long inpatient stays, represents the major cause for hospitalization. These findings underscore the urgent need for effective, well-coordinated mental health services for youth before, during, and after detention. PMID:26208862

  14. Ethical Dilemmas and Modern Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Ralph S.; Hesterman, Vicki

    In a study to examine journalistic integrity, two recent surveys answered by a combined total of 1,936 American journalists requested responses to questions as well as to specific hypothetical ethical dilemmas. In Survey A (conducted in 1983), questions were structured to provide information on beliefs and/or news media policy in four categories…

  15. Venezuelans Journalists in Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Harris

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Venezuelan journalists’ profiles in Twitter. The research is based on theoretical references from Cobos (2010, Arcila (2008 and Crucianelli (2010. It’s a descriptive and analytical study, with a non-experimental design. Among 621 journalists registered in Twitter, we chose a sample of 83 for a survey and a sample of 10 (the top ten for a content analysis. According to the findings this social network tends to be politicized and users are mainly under 30 from Central and Western Venezuela. The study recommends the creation or reformulation of degrees on Media, Communications and Journalism, in order to teach the potential of social networks in the profession.

  16. Self Censorship among Icelandic Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on media self-censorship has flourished in Iceland after the attacks on the Charlie Hebdo editorial offices in January 2015 and after some dramatic changes in the top management and owner-groups of some of the media firms. But what is this experience that journalists describe as self censorship? This paper attempts to answer two main research questions. On the one hand the question how journalists understand the concept of selfcensorship. On the other hand the question: what is the experience of Icelandic journalist of self-censorship? The approach is the one of a qualitative research and is based on interviews with six experienced journalists. The main findings suggest important influence of the social discourse on news and news values of journalists and their tendency for self-censorship. This discourse is partly directed by politicians and influential bloggers and also by a massive discussion by active social media users. Furthermore the findings suggest, that ownership and the location of the particular medium where a journalist works in the lineup of different commercial-political blocks in the media market, is important for self-censorship. Finally it seems that journalists understand the concept selfcensorship in a different manner and that it is important to define the term carefully if it is to be used as an analytical tool.

  17. Medical advocacy on behalf of detained immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Homer D; Foote, Mary; Keller, Allen S

    2011-06-01

    Detention of immigrants by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a rapidly growing form of incarceration in the U.S. with almost 400,000 people detained in 2008 (Schriro in Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 2009, http://www.ice.gov/doclib/091005_ice_detention_report-final.pdf ). ICE detainees are predominantly from Mexico and Latin America and only a small minority of detainees are asylum seekers. Immigrant detainees lack a legal guarantee of medical care (unlike criminal arrestees and prisoners) and face challenges in receiving medical care, particularly those with chronic medical conditions (Venters and Keller in J Health Care Poor Underserved 20:951-957, 2009). Although we and others have long been involved in advocating for detained asylum seekers, few resources are dedicated to medical advocacy for the broader population of ICE detainees. At the NYU Center for Health and Human Rights (CHHR), a program of medical advocacy was initiated in 2007 on behalf of ICE detainees focused on improvement of care in detention and medical parole. Our preliminary efforts reveal a pressing need for more involvement by physicians and other health advocates in this area.

  18. 28 CFR 2.32 - Parole to local or immigration detainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parole to local or immigration detainers... § 2.32 Parole to local or immigration detainers. (a) When a State or local detainer is outstanding... wishes to parole a prisoner subject to a detainer filed by Federal immigration officials, the Commission...

  19. THE JOURNALISTIC UTTERANCE ON TWITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Oliveira Teixeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the impact of the characteristics of the Twitter platform on the application of standard journalistic technique (TRAQUINA, 2008 during the creation and production of news releases as tweets and, at the same time, it seeks to identify their specifications regarding traditional journalistic utterances. Through the analysis of 134 tweets collected from newspaper profiles of Folha de S. Paulo, Zero Hora and Diário Popular, we have obtained indications that led us to confirm our central assumption. In other words, the hierarchical pattern and purpose that guide the creation of standard news, and therefore, the special language that characterizes traditional journalism, begin to give way to models that are more horizontal and interactive, that redesign the standard technique (based on the model of the Inverted Pyramid and thus, modify journalistic writing - interfering in its discursive effects (GOMES, 2000.

  20. Fastdata processing with Spark

    CERN Document Server

    Karau, Holden

    2013-01-01

    This book will be a basic, step-by-step tutorial, which will help readers take advantage of all that Spark has to offer.Fastdata Processing with Spark is for software developers who want to learn how to write distributed programs with Spark. It will help developers who have had problems that were too much to be dealt with on a single computer. No previous experience with distributed programming is necessary. This book assumes knowledge of either Java, Scala, or Python.

  1. The Digital Journalist : the journalistic field, boundaries, and disquieting change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldridge II, Scott; Franklin, Bob; Eldridge II, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at WikiLeaks and other ‘Interloper Media’ (Eldridge 2013, 2014) to explore the boundaries and identity dimensions of ‘being’ a digital journalist. Media technologies have long been connected with a disruption of journalism’s norms, and this disruption has been pronounced with

  2. Management of journalists professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rvović Jelena J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted with the purpose of identifying the causes of stress (stressors within the journalists' work in Serbia, their intensity and frequency, as well as their negative impact on health on one hand, and on the other hand to identify what is the role of Human Resources Management within the media in overcoming journalists' stress caused by identified stressors. . The research method, a Questionnaire (N=60 was created as a combination of modified pSS (perceived Stress Scale and a Questionnaire proposed by Cousins et al. (2004 for measuring of work-related stress intensity, adapted to the specific features of this research. Results have revealed a large number of stressors that can and must be managed; therefore the specific goal of this research would include the creation of a draft template for management of journalists' professional stress. If the media in Serbia wish to be organizations that care about their journalists' health, they will have to adopt certain activities through a department of HR management to prevail over stress at work, due to permanent exposure of journalists to their great professional demands. However, human resources management in the media can not protect the health of their journalists most efficiently by one activity only, considering that a large number of stressors have been identified in the research. The proposed activities of HR management in overcoming the work-related stress represent only a macro-framework for outlining this phenomenon in Serbia, because we shall not be able to ascertain that the proposed template for journalists' professional stress management is completely efficient, before its application is proven empirically, i.e. in practice. This should not be regarded as a limitation to this research, considering that only a small number of credible studies in the world are using quantified data for verifying their conclusions. In any case the need for a study based on evidence

  3. Public Perceptions of Journalists' Ethical Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voakes, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    Finds starkly different conceptions of journalistic ethics, with members of the public believing the journalists' ethics are guided primarily by occupational norms and competitive pressures, whereas journalists themselves cited organizational policies, the relevant law, and their individual reasoning as primary influences on their ethical decision…

  4. The Online Journalist between Ideals and Audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2013-01-01

    How do online journalists define themselves? Journalistic self-perception plays a big part in understanding developments in the practice of online journalism in newsrooms. This article presents an analysis of the self-perceptions of online journalists using the theoretical framework of Pierre...... Bourdieu and data from empirical longitudinal observations based on ethnographic fieldwork in three Danish newsrooms. The analytical concepts “journalistic doxa”, “news habitus” and “editorial capital” are applied in an analysis both of ethnographic observations of journalistic practice, and a series...

  5. Can Universities Make Good Journalists?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, R.

    2014-01-01

    Journalism education in the UK has experienced a pattern of explosive growth since the 1970s without agreement over the range and scope of the subject as an academic discipline. Taught mainly by journalists who move into academia later in life, alongside skills of reporting and knowledge of law and public affairs, students can be required to develop complex sets of qualities, skills, behaviours and dispositions without detailed consideration of the attributes and behaviours they may involve. ...

  6. Optical spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    An optical spark chamber developed for use in the Omega spectrometer. On the left the supporting frame is exceptionally thin to allow low momentum particles to escape and be detected outside the magnetic field.

  7. SparkJet Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabaei-Asl, Mona; Knight, Doyle; Anderson, Kellie; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for determining the thermal efficiency of the SparkJet is proposed. A SparkJet is attached to the end of a pendulum. The motion of the pendulum subsequent to a single spark discharge is measured using a laser displacement sensor. The measured displacement vs time is compared with the predictions of a theoretical perfect gas model to estimate the fraction of the spark discharge energy which results in heating the gas (i.e., increasing the translational-rotational temperature). The results from multiple runs for different capacitances of c = 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 micro-F show that the thermal efficiency decreases with higher capacitive discharges.

  8. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  9. SparkRS - Spark for Remote Sensing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is Spark-RS, an open source software project that enables GPU-accelerated remote sensing workflows in an Apache Spark distributed computing...

  10. Working with numbers and statistics a handbook for journalists

    CERN Document Server

    Livingston, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Working With Numbers and Statistics: A Handbook for Journalists will bolster math skills and improve math confidence for journalists at all skill levels. Authors Charles Livingston and Paul Voakes developed this resource book to improve journalist

  11. Australian Journalists' Professional and Ethical Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, John

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the first comprehensive national study of Australian journalists. Finds that Australian journalists are similar to their United States colleagues in distributions of age, sex, and socioeconomic background, but have less formal education. Shows that Australians have mixed professional and ethical values and are committed both to…

  12. Recruiting Native Journalists: The New Storytellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Candy

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to increase the number of Native American journalists, summer programs at the University of North Dakota and the University of Wisconsin give Native American high school students hands-on, culturally relevant journalism experience. The Native American Journalists Association offers college scholarships in journalism for American…

  13. Perception of agricultural biotechnology among farmers, journalists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to establish the perception of farmers, journalists and scientists of genetically-modified (GM) crops in Tanzania. Its specific objectives were to determine the perception of GM Crops among farmers, journalists and scientists in Tanzania, and to determine the factors that influence their perception.

  14. Trauma and psychological distress observed in journalists: a comparison of Israeli journalists and their Western counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaot, Yael; Sinyor, Mark; Feinstein, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    There is limited evidence on how reporting war influences journalists' psychological wellbeing. A significant minority of journalists may develop symptoms of emotional distress; however it is unclear whether the type and amount of distress differs between those journalists who report from potentially dangerous areas within their own country compared to those who do so from war zones in other countries. We compared indices of psychological health in 38 Israeli journalists with 38 Western journalists whose careers have been defined by work in war zones. While both groups reported high levels of exposure to traumatic events, there were no significant differences in frequency or type of exposure between the groups. Western journalists reported more frequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), intrusion-type symptoms and drank more alcohol while Israeli journalists reported higher levels of depression, anxiety and somatic distress. This pattern of results suggests that social circumstances and environmental factors may influence how different groups of individuals respond to traumatic events.

  15. Clinicians and journalists responding to disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Elana; Shapiro, Bruce

    2014-02-01

    Mass casualty events pose dilemmas for community clinicians, often challenging their existing clinical toolkits. However, few clinicians were trained to be experts in explaining the unfolding events to the community, creating resources, and interacting with journalists. The objective of this article is to explain knowledge, skills, and attitudes that mental health professionals need to consider when working with journalists, especially those covering children affected by disaster. In service of these objectives, this article reviews controversies, evidence, and best practices to facilitate effective collaborations and consultations with journalists. Advice includes information on how to be a good source to journalists. Clinicians can ethically and effectively help journalists tell accurate and compelling stories about the psychological effects of disasters when they understand and respect the aims, culture, and ethics of journalism.

  16. Mental illness among journalists: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Malcolm, Estelle; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire

    2013-06-01

    Mass media depictions of people with mental illness have a strong influence on public attitudes, to the extent that changes in these depictions can reduce public stigmatization of people with such illness. Journalists' mental health may influence their depiction of those with mental illness, but little is known about this. To investigate mental illness among journalists in five key areas: (1) journalists' mental health status; (2) journalists' personal attitudes towards mental illness; (3) attitudes and support journalists expect or have experienced from colleagues when they have a mental health problem; (4) effect of journalism's professional culture on the course of mental illness; and (5) effect of journalism's professional culture on mass media depictions of people with mental illness. We performed a systematic screening of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library regarding the study aims. We identified 19, 12, seven and four studies for aims 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. No articles were found for aim 5. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among journalists is higher than that among the general population. Journalists have positive personal attitudes towards mental illness, but there are perceived workplace disincentives to disclose mental health problems.

  17. English for journalists twentieth anniversary edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, Wynford

    2013-01-01

    English for Journalists has established itself as an invaluable guide to the basics of English in newsrooms the world over, focusing on the essential aspects of writing, from reporting speech to the house styles and jargon central to the language of journalism.Written in a highly accessible and engaging style, English for Journalists covers the fundamentals of grammar, spelling, punctuation and journalistic writing, with all points illustrated through a series of concise and illuminating examples. The book features practical, easy to follow rules, the correct and incorrect ways to report stori

  18. Traumatic stress in Japanese broadcast journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Miho; Matsui, Yutaka; Ando, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Kako; Fukuoka, Yoshiharu; Koshiro, Eiko; Itamura, Hidenori

    2010-02-01

    Job-related traumatic stress experienced by broadcast journalists in Japan was investigated. A questionnaire inquiring about the most traumatic event they faced when covering the news and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were administered to 270 journalist participants working for Japanese news companies. Of these, 6% met the IES-R criterion for potential posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, posttraumatic stress reactions at the time of the survey were strongly related to symptoms of stress experienced during the stressful assignment. The early assessment of stress symptoms in journalists that experience traumatic news coverage is important for preventing the development of PTSD symptoms.

  19. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a news...

  20. Traveling Seminar Exposes Students to Top Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, M. Timothy

    1979-01-01

    Provides details about a program that allows junior and senior journalism majors to meet and interview such journalists as Walter Cronkite, Ben Bradlee, Harry Reasoner, and the editors of "Time" magazine during a unique one-week traveling seminar. (RL)

  1. Socialising journalist trainees in the newsroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravengaard, Gitte; Rimestad, Lene

    2014-01-01

    In this article we investigate socialisation practices in the newsroom. The analyses demonstrate how journalist trainees are socialised into this particular professional culture and community of practice. Theoretically, we combine the traditional news ethnography with linguistic anthropology...

  2. Digitalization and journalists in the BRICS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Pasti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the social profile of journalists and their well-being in the profession within the context of the digitalization of their profession. The analysis focuses on five aspects of the qualitative (in-depth interview study of BRICS journalists carried out between 2012 and 2015 under funding from the Academy of Finland. The aspects of interest are: workplace preference (traditional or online news, education, professional age, gender, and well-being. The BRICS study sample includes 729 journalists representing both traditional (484 respondents and online news media (245 respondents from twenty cities, ten metropolitan and ten provincial. The comparative analysis across the five BRICS countries reveals some connections between digitalization and the journalists’ profile and well-being and also specifies the political, economic and social-professional conditions in which the journalists work and live.

  3. Representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Resende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the technological advance, which enhances the production of mediatic discourses, and the notion of a libidinal power installed in our globalized societies, reflecting upon representation of differences seems to be a major issue. This essay discusses the production of journalistic discourses from an epistemological perspective. The field of media is taken as constituted by a triple component – discourse/narrative/machines – and we suggest that this triad has proved to be incomplete: discourse and narrative, once they really are vertexes of the triangle, are absences. Two journalistic-documentary productions – which intend to represent life in the slums of Brazil – are compared in order to reflect upon representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse. In view of the up-to-date polarization and pulverization of discourses, we suggest that in the perspective of the journalistic discourse, one can only speak about alterity if one tries to comprehend the ways news is staged.

  4. The Behavior of Contemporary Journalist Oscillates between Socially Responsible Behavior Journalist and the Journalist who Voluntarily Conform Public Opinion and Public Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stefanov

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary journalist usually acts on the six pillars of social responsibility and in order to serve the public interest and public information and training. New media, the new status of the journalist and new implications of global phenomena determine changing the role of the journalist and mostly voluntary compliance of his needs and dues community to which he belongs. The risk of the future is the appearance of the journalist who is acting only under pressure from the community which...

  5. Childhood maltreatment and psychiatric disorders among detained youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Devon C; Abram, Karen M; Romero, Erin G; Washburn, Jason J; Welty, Leah J; Teplin, Linda A

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of childhood maltreatment and its relationship with current psychiatric disorders among detained youths. Clinical research interviewers assessed history of childhood maltreatment with the Child Maltreatment Assessment Profile and psychiatric diagnosis with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, version 2.3, in a stratified, random sample of 1,829 youths detained at the Cook Country Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (final sample, N=1,735). History of maltreatment was also ascertained from Cook County Court Child Protection Division records. More than three-quarters of females and more than two-thirds of males had a history of physical abuse (moderate or severe). More than 40% of females and 10% of males had a history of sexual abuse. Females and non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment. Among females, sexual abuse was associated with every type of psychiatric disorder. Females who experienced various types of abuse were 2.6 to 10.7 times as likely as females with no maltreatment to have any disorder. Among males, maltreatment was associated with every disorder except anxiety disorders (range of odds ratios, 1.9-7.9). Among youths who were sexually abused, abuse with force was associated with anxiety and affective disorders among females and attention-deficit hyperactivity or disruptive behavior disorders and substance use disorders among males. Childhood maltreatment is common among detained youths and is also highly associated with psychiatric disorders. The mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice systems must collaborate to ensure that youths receive protection and care when they return to their communities.

  6. The mental health of detained asylum seeking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Matthew

    2010-07-01

    European Union policy is to restrict the entry into the EU of asylum seekers. This has resulted in the detention of many thousands of asylum seekers including children and adolescents in prison-like environments. The available evidence suggests this practice is associated with high levels of psychological distress, anxiety, affective and posttraumatic stress disorder, and deliberate self-harm. Significant numbers of detained asylum seekers are released and some would benefit from contact with child mental health professionals. It is suggested that in keeping with EU policy aims alternatives to detention should be sought.

  7. Noise pollution and detaining captured persons at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, S; Milner, R

    2014-01-01

    During the course of military operations, the UK Armed Forces may have to capture and detain individuals. International law sets down a framework for the minimum basic standards that are applicable in these circumstances, and it is the responsibility of the UK Armed Forces to understand and implement these. This case review looks at a specific example of this issue related to noise pollution and appropriate detention facilities during anti-piracy operations, and how a flexible approach combined with good understanding of the regulations ensured compliance with these basic standards.

  8. Self-reported psychopathic-like traits as predictors of recidivism in detained male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colins, O.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; de Bolle, M.; Broekaert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether psychopathic-like traits predict recidivism in detained youth. The current study investigated the predictive validity of self-report of psychopathic-like traits for official recidivism. Participants were 223 detained male adolescents from all three Flemish youth

  9. Detained adolescent females' multiple mental health and adjustment problem outcomes in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Krabbendam, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Jansen, L.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 (SD = 0.6)

  10. Detained Adolescent Females' Multiple Mental Health and Adjustment Problem Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…

  11. Fast data processing with Spark

    CERN Document Server

    Sankar, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Fast Data Processing with Spark - Second Edition is for software developers who want to learn how to write distributed programs with Spark. It will help developers who have had problems that were too big to be dealt with on a single computer. No previous experience with distributed programming is necessary. This book assumes knowledge of either Java, Scala, or Python.

  12. Primary Science Interview: Science Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…

  13. Conflict fields of journalistic praxis in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousbeh Legatis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chronic uncertainty for journalists and editors in carrying out their professional work in Colombia has many sources and has been serious for decades. Currently – besides indicators of extreme physical violence (such as daily attacks, abuse, kidnappings and murders – problem areas are strongly marking journalistic work in Colombia that are often neglected in the international discussion, such as inadequate training offerings, unsatisfactory infrastructure in the workplace, precarious wage situations, lack of independence in relationship to editors and a poorly taught understanding of professional ethics. These structural problems produce qualitative deficiencies – especially in conflict reportage. But instead of stagnation, change is occurring. Colombian journalists are revising their self-image, at the same time developing a problem consciousness in their own work, and are actively trying to correct the deficiencies.

  14. Journalists like the rest of them?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    journalistic work routines in the paid press. This article addresses that gap with a case study of the Danish free newspaper Metroxpress. After identifying the economic, political and digital forces shaping the contents at Metroxpress, the article maps the newspaper’s news net, analyse efforts put......Academics have paid little attention to the practice of journalism at free newspapers since the free daily press emerged in 1995. A few studies have looked at the contents of free newspapers but not at the way journalism is practiced at free newspapers and whether these practices are different from...... into newsgathering and compare them to the newsgathering efforts of other Danish news brands. Findings indicate that while the news net is smaller than those of other Danish newspapers, journalists at Metroxpress have similar work routines to other journalists, and their work is routinely recognised by peers...

  15. Nanoparticle-detained toxins for safe and effective vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-12-01

    Toxoid vaccines--vaccines based on inactivated bacterial toxins--are routinely used to promote antitoxin immunity for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. Following chemical or heat denaturation, inactivated toxins can be administered to mount toxin-specific immune responses. However, retaining faithful antigenic presentation while removing toxin virulence remains a major challenge and presents a trade-off between efficacy and safety in toxoid development. Here, we show a nanoparticle-based toxin-detainment strategy that safely delivers non-disrupted pore-forming toxins for immune processing. Using erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles and staphylococcal α-haemolysin, we demonstrate effective virulence neutralization via spontaneous particle entrapment. Compared with vaccination with heat-denatured toxin, mice vaccinated with the nanoparticle-detained toxin showed superior protective immunity against toxin-mediated adverse effects. We find that the non-disruptive detoxification approach benefited the immunogenicity and efficacy of toxoid vaccines. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of antitoxin vaccines against the many virulence factors that threaten public health.

  16. The Work of the Television Journalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Robert

    This book describes the various functions of the television journalist--in the United States and Great Britain--and supplies knowledge enabling members of a television team to work successfully as a unit. Separate chapters are devoted to discussions of (1) the world of television journalism, (2) writing for television, (3) the role of the…

  17. The Black Journalist in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachten, William A.

    The role of the black journalist in South Africa is contradictory, precarious, and permeated with politics. There is little freedom of expression for blacks in South Africa, yet white-owned newspapers have expanded their coverage of black news, and some have special editions for black readers. As a result, the English language press is using more…

  18. Common Sense and Education of Young Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Theodore L.; Ettema, James S.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the criteria used in deciding news value has little to do with how editors and reporters operate in the everyday world of journalism. Contends that journalists' knowledge of news is reducible to their common-sensical understanding of it. (MS)

  19. The Development of Professional Values of Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; And Others

    To determine the impact of college and professional experiences on journalists, interviews were conducted with graduating journalism majors at three universities in the springs of 1980 through 1982. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed in the summer following graduation. In another phase of the project, questionnaires were given to 485 journalists…

  20. REPRESENTATION OF DIFFERENCES IN BRAZILIAN JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Resende

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the technological advance, which enhances the
    production of mediatic discourses, and the notion of a libidinal power installed in our globalized societies, reflecting upon representation of differences seems to be a major issue. This essay discusses the production of journalistic discourses from an epistemological perspective. The field of media is taken as constituted by a triple component – discourse/narrative/machines – and we suggest that this triad has proved to be incomplete: discourse and narrative, once they really are vertexes of the triangle, are absences. Two journalistic-documentary productions – which intend to represent life in the slums of Brazil – are compared in order to reflect upon representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse. In view of the up-to-date polarization and pulverization of discourses, we suggest that in the perspective of the journalistic discourse, one can only speak about alterity if one tries to comprehend the ways news is staged.

  1. A journalist's guide to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, Michele

    1988-12-01

    This guidebook is meant to assist journalists in communicating information about nuclear power. It provides basic information about the CANDU reactor and its use by Ontario Hydro, radiation, and fission, as well as background and statistics on the use of nuclear power in Canada and around the world

  2. Ethnographic Fieldwork: Studying Journalists at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Hassall

    2014-01-01

    research was biased – a fact that I reflected on both during and after fieldwork. This case study is an account of how I used ethnographic methods such as participant observation to study the everyday work of journalists. It presents the uses of ethnographic fieldwork as well as some of the obstacles...

  3. From larval journalist to cyber-journalist: evolution of the journalism concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andrés Pampillón Ponce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the evolutionary definition of the concept of journalist through a diachronic study using hemerographic and bibliographic research, together with evidence from interviews applied to well-known figures in the sector. The evolutionary scale proposed is from larval journalism to cyber-journalism. The research results show a dynamic concept depending on historical and cultural context that accompanies it. At first (before the nineteenth century the journalist term is linked to a person who publishes periodically primarily through written press. However, since the nineties, and in view of the widespread use of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, somehow everyone can be a communicator now through media such as the Internet. In conclusion, the debate on the figure of the journalist is especially complex and denotes the exaltation of ethical and moral values, imperative for the work of a journalist.

  4. Attitude and Knowledge of Print Media Journalists towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valid knowledge is important as it predisposes journalists to report with precision, yet journalists' behaviours need to be influenced so as to increase awareness and dissemination of climate change news. The study investigated the attitude of print media journalists towards the coverage of climate change news in Nigeria.

  5. Professional Autonomy and Security Risks of Journalists in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Garcés Prettel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between professional autonomy and security risks of journalists in Colombia. A correlational-transversal research was conducted with a sample of 751 journalists who filled out the questionnaire “Worlds of Journalism Study”. The results show significant differences on the attacks received by the journalists depending on gender, news beat, region, news media, years of experience, capacity and educational level of journalists. Attacks on journalists correlates positively with the autonomy to publish and write news on governments, armed forces, criminal gangs and structural social problems (poverty, status of ethnic minorities, socioeconomic inequality, environmental damage the latter being a predictor of high risk security.

  6. The Behavior of Contemporary Journalist Oscillates between Socially Responsible Behavior Journalist and the Journalist who Voluntarily Conform Public Opinion and Public Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stefanov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary journalist usually acts on the six pillars of social responsibility and in order to serve the public interest and public information and training. New media, the new status of the journalist and new implications of global phenomena determine changing the role of the journalist and mostly voluntary compliance of his needs and dues community to which he belongs. The risk of the future is the appearance of the journalist who is acting only under pressure from the community which will cause deformation of public interest and public opinion under the pressure of selfish and individualistic communities.

  7. Nonbehavioral correlates of juvenile delinquency : Communications of detained and nondetained young people about social limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grietens, H.; Rink, J.E.; Hellinckx, W

    Focusing an nonbehavioral correlates of juvenile delinquency, young people's attitudinal reactions toward social limits were measured by means of the Standard Reaction Instrument (SRI). Responses of 85 detained young offenders were compared with those of 390 nondetained controls Relationships

  8. Contributions of Qualitative Research to Journalistic Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Franciscato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to discuss the eff ective gains journalism could have with the introduction of scientifi c research methods as tools for journalistic data verifi cation. For this, we will analyze some experiments that characterize specifi c modalities of this application, for the purpose of raising open questions about the conception of journalism, research in journalism, and the increasing of reporting techniques.

  9. Become a contact person for journalists

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Are you a scientist in one of CERN's fields of excellence (theoretical or experimental physics, technology or computing)? Have you been at CERN for at least two years and are you familiar with its activities? Do you enjoy communicating and are you able to convey your knowledge to others? Are you available to provide answers to journalists'questions as and when necessary? If so, the Communications Group would like to hear from you. Every year, the Press Office welcomes over 500 journalists who come to visit the Laboratory and find out about its research activities and the technologies developed here. As the commissioning of the LHC approaches, the number of journalists will increase. The Communications Group is offering you the opportunity to become a contact person for media representatives coming to CERN. In order to prepare you for your role, the HR Training and Development Group and the Communications Group have put together a training course on communicating with the media. The course lasts one day and...

  10. Burnout in journalists: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine B. MacDonald

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to provide a concise, comprehensive, and systematic review of the quantitative literature relating to the experience of burnout in journalists of various specialties and mediums. The systematic review method adopted is that prescribed by Fink (2010, which contains three main elements: Sampling the literature, screening the literature, and extracting data. Results indicate that journalists most at risk of burnout are females who are younger, with fewer years of journalism experience, working in small circulation newspapers. Editors and reporters seem to experience higher levels of burnout than those in other roles, as do journalists in non-management positions. The thorough and structured process adopted in this review provides the ability to assert with some degree of certainty what areas within the burnout and journalism literature require further consideration. This review emphasises and problematises the large focus on male reporters in newspaper settings, settings that are becoming less significant over time. Studies have tended to focus on reporters, without providing a convincing a priori rationale. What is lacking is consideration of other role groups central to broadcast news, such as camera-operators. A range of methodological and theoretical issues and future areas of research are discussed.

  11. Are Crab nanoshots Schwinger sparks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, Albert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yoo, Hojin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The highest brightness temperature ever observed are from "nanoshots" from the Crab pulsar which we argue could be the signature of bursts of vacuum e± pair production. If so this would be the first time the astronomical Schwinger effect has been observed. These "Schwinger sparks" would be an intermittent but extremely powerful, ~103 L, 10 PeV e± accelerator in the heart of the Crab. These nanosecond duration sparks are generated in a volume less than 1 m3 and the existence of such sparks has implications for the small scale structure of the magnetic field of young pulsars such as the Crab. As a result, this mechanism may also play a role in producing other enigmatic bright short radio transients such as fast radio bursts.

  12. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  13. JOURNALISTIC USE OF EXEMPLARS TO HUMANIZE HEALTH NEWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Amanda; Len-Ríos, María E.; Young, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Health journalists often use personal stories to put a “face” on a health issue. This research uses a sociology-of-news approach, based on data collected from 42 in-depth interviews and three surveys with health journalists and editors [national (N = 774), state (N = 55), and purposive (N = 180)], to provide a first look at how important journalists think exemplars are to their stories. Results show journalists select exemplars to inform, inspire, and/or sensationalize a health issue. Some of the strategies journalists use to locate exemplars pose ethical concerns. Further, journalists rank the use of exemplars lower in aiding audience understanding compared with the use of experts, data and statistics, and definitions of technical terms. PMID:24376370

  14. JOURNALISTIC USE OF EXEMPLARS TO HUMANIZE HEALTH NEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Amanda; Len-Ríos, María E; Young, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Health journalists often use personal stories to put a "face" on a health issue. This research uses a sociology-of-news approach, based on data collected from 42 in-depth interviews and three surveys with health journalists and editors [national (N = 774), state (N = 55), and purposive (N = 180)], to provide a first look at how important journalists think exemplars are to their stories. Results show journalists select exemplars to inform, inspire, and/or sensationalize a health issue. Some of the strategies journalists use to locate exemplars pose ethical concerns. Further, journalists rank the use of exemplars lower in aiding audience understanding compared with the use of experts, data and statistics, and definitions of technical terms.

  15. Internalizing and externalizing problems, depression, and self-esteem in non-detained male juvenile offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of mental disorders have been found in detained juvenile offenders, whereas the role of psychopathology in non-detained offenders is less clear. Therefore, the present study compared psychopathology in male non-detained delinquent juveniles and two matched samples from the community and an adolescent psychiatric clinic. Methods 125 male adolescents aged 11 to 19 years (m = 16.2 years, SD = 1.5 years) from an outpatient adolescent forensic clinic were compared to a community sample from the Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS) and a referred sample from a psychiatric clinic matched for age and nationality. All subjects responded to questionnaires measuring internalizing and externalizing problems, depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Results The sample of non-detained juvenile offenders showed similar rates of self-reported internalizing and externalizing problems when compared to the community sample, whereas the clinic sample displayed an increased rate of various disturbances. Similar results were found also for self-esteem. In agreement with these findings, non-detained juvenile offenders less frequently had a psychiatric diagnosis after full clinical assessment when compared to the clinical sample. However, a diagnosis of conduct disorders and a lower IQ range was found more frequently in non-detained juvenile offenders. Offenders with serious delinquent acts and involving weapons showed higher depression scores than the rest of the offenders. Conclusion In non-detained assessment situations before court examination, juvenile offenders present rather normal behaviour. Their lack of awareness of potential behavioural problems should be considered during assessment and treatment of this group of offenders. PMID:23445953

  16. Icelandic Journalists & the Question of Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The question whether journalism constitutes a profession or not has been widely discussed in the literature in recent decades without a definite conclusion. Indeed some suggest that much of the contradictory views on professionalism and the professionalization of journalism may be traced to the unclear meaning of the very term “professionalism” or “professionalization” (Nolan 2008. Thus it is possible to put simultaneously forth plausible arguments suggesting de-professionalization of journalism on the one hand, and further professionalization of journalism on the other, based on different interpretations of the term “professionalism”. The terms “professional” and “professionalism” can refer to different social phenomena in different contexts. Thus an ongoing professionalization of journalism can be taking place in one sense at the same time as de-professionalization in a different sense, and of course, these different trends can also be taking place simultaneously in different parts of the media environment (Nolan, 2008; Hallin&Mancini, 2004; Witschge&Nygren, 2009; Schudson, 2001. In determining an approach to the concept of a profession it is helpful to establish some general criteria, against which journalistic practice may be measured. In finding these criteria, guidelines are given by the discussion of traditional professions - doctors, lawyers – and on that basis some characteristics can been said to signify a profession. To what extent is the work of Icelandic journalists characterised by professionalism, and to what extent do they, as an occupational group, exhibit the features normally associated with professions? The following analysis suggests that Icelandic journalists fulfil many of the key conditions associated with professions and their development in recent decades has been one of increased professionalism.

  17. The interaction between experts and journalists in news journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates why journalists choose to use experts as sources in their news coverage and the nature of the interaction of experts and journalists. During a month-long period in 2003, both journalists and experts were contacted on the day a news article appearing in one of the three...... largest national Danish newspapers referred to experts. In the vast majority of the cases, the contact comes as the result of initiatives taken by the journalists (approximately 90% of the cases), not the other way around (1 — 2% of the cases). Relatively active interaction proceeds between experts...

  18. Detained adolescent females' multiple mental health and adjustment problem outcomes in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Krabbendam, A A; Beekman, A T F; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C

    2013-09-01

    Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 (SD=0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age=20.0, SD=1.4) on mental health and adjustment outcomes. Associations between these outcomes and detained females' behavior problems and offense history were examined. In the total sample, 59.0% had one or more mental health problems at follow-up, whereas 96.2% were facing at least one adjustment problem. Subjects with a personality disorder (PD) reported more adjustment problems compared to subjects without PD. Mental health and adjustment problems in young adulthood were predicted by detained adolescent females' behavior problems and offense history. Detained adolescent females suffered from multiple mental health and adjustment problems in young adulthood. Females who developed PD were most impaired. Results of this study underline the compelling need for continued and gender-specific interventions. The identification of predictors during detention for poor adult outcomes can serve as targets for intervention. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Journalists, you are welcome at CERN!

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    The easiest way for journalists from all over the world to really grasp what happens here at CERN is to come and have a guided tour of the facilities and get the information directly from selected scientists. Renilde Vanden Broeck, senior CERN Press Officer, is there to organize the visit and take the best care of them.   Renilde Vanden Broeck during the fact-finding visit by Ron Howard and his team before filming "Angel and Demons" in 2007. Visit requests from the media come in through different channels, mostly by e-mail or phone, and after that the CERN Press Office talks to the journalists directly to make sure that the visit matches their requirements as closely as possible. "The various kinds of media - the written press, radio, agencies, photographers and TV - all have different needs, and each visit is individually tailored", says Renilde. For several years now, there has been a lot of interest from the media in covering CERN, the LHC and its experiment...

  20. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  1. Starving the messenger: A study of journalists' conditions of service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Media owners seemed unwilling to engage in any debate about their journalist employees' welfare. The study concludes that under such circumstances, many Malawian journalists were likely to be tempted to take bribes and engage in other forms of corruption as coping mechanisms. Key words: Afriethics, umunthu, ubuntu ...

  2. How Freelance Journalists Can Help Shape Journalism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Eileen Fredman

    2016-01-01

    Despite shrinking newsrooms, we have more journalism choices, in part because of freelance journalists. Freelancing creates workers who are particularly adaptive and creative; skills educators want to instill in students. I interviewed and surveyed more than 50 freelance journalists in several countries, including Turkey, Egypt, Colombia, Israel,…

  3. Journalists\\' Knowledge of AIDS and Attitude to Persons Living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study surveyed 254 journalists from the seven media organisations in Ibadan, Nigeria, to assess their knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), attitude to persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) and reports of AIDS-related issues. The journalists\\' overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 10.6 out of 14 ...

  4. Comparison of Journalistic Values of Television Reporters and Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Conrad; Becker, Lee B.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the contention that television producers are representative of the show business side of news production whereas the reporter is the protector of the more noble journalistic goals. Finds little evidence that reporters are fighting producers to protect journalistic integrity. (RS)

  5. The Journalist's Role in Coverage of Terrorist Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Robert G.

    Journalists have typically employed four rhetorical traditions--information, sensationalism, feature story, and the didactic approach--in conveying news; these affect the meaning received by audiences. Journalists play a variety of roles in this persuasive atmosphere and are deeply involved in the construction of rhetorical visions about terrorism…

  6. Assessment of Nigerian Journalists' Attitude towards the Use of New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings revealed that few journalists make use of e-mails, facebook, twitter, blogging and podcasts in their daily operations. It was also revealed that financial constraints, lack of encouragement from employers as well as lack of constant supply of electricity, pose as setbacks to the use of New Media forms by journalists.

  7. Keena v Ireland and the Protection of Journalistic Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ó Fathaigh, R.

    2016-01-01

    In two decades of jurisprudence since Goodwin v UK on the protection of journalistic sources, the European Court of Human Rights has usually been called upon to consider two issues, namely: court orders compelling journalists to reveal a source or a source’s document; or police seizure of

  8. Mexican journalists: an investigation of their emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Mexican journalists are frequently the victims of violence, often drug related. The purpose of the study was to assess their mental well-being. Of 104 journalists recruited from 3 news organizations, those who had stopped working on drug-related stories because of intimidation from the criminal drug cartels (n = 26) had significantly greater social dysfunction (p = .024); and more depressive (p = .001) and higher intrusive (p = .027), avoidance (p = .005), and arousal (p = .033) symptoms than journalists living and working under threat in regions of drug violence (n = 61). They also had more arousal (p = .05) and depressive (p = .027) symptoms than journalists (n = 17) never threatened before and living in regions without a drug problem. These findings provide preliminary data on the deleterious effects of drug-related violence on the Mexican media, amplifying the concerns expressed by journalist watchdog organizations monitoring the state of the press in the country. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Delayering journalistic genres in the praxis of the new media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Boban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With this work we actualize the problem of application of journalistic genres in contemporary production of the press, radio, television and new media. We provide an overview of the different uses of journalistic genres in contemporary media, including identifying deviations and declination from the standardized norms for writing certain journalistic genres. We start from the premise that journalistic forms / shapes grouped into functional genres and, as such, represent the linguistic, narrative and discursive basis of each media. By this way we base our argument on the necessity of the existence of the necessary level of conventionality and standards setting writing techniques and construction of journalistic genres with the aim to preserve and improve the overall media discourse, language standard and increase the informativeness of the media as the most important communicative value and function. In this paper we point out the most common forms of deviation and destruction of some forms / shapes within the genres of contemporary journalism practice. The deviations we see as opportunity to improve the function of the journalistic narrative, but more often we see the danger of destruction of tissue and textual stratification of genres, forms of journalistic expression to new, hybrid and uncomplete forms that reduce the informativeness and increase ancillary or related attributes of journalistic text. In particular, we draw attention to the appearance of hybrid genres that intensify the relationship with the audience, actualize psycho-social relations and suggest value and differential categories and changes in audience behavior. The origin of the work we provide definition of layering genres and point to the potential dangers of disintegration threaten journalistic narrative. We point out potential solutions, the place and role of professional journalistic community, education institutions, science and public institutions in preventing and

  10. Perception of Journalists on the Role of Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Grasu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relations with the media are the main activity performed by the public relations specialists for maintaining a positive image of the organization they represent. This relation between public relations and journalists can become, sometimes, a conflicting one, but both of them admit that they need each other. On the on hand, communication specialists try to satisfy journalists‟ information needs, and on the other hand, the journalists satisfy PR-ists needs to put in a favorable light the organization they represent. In this study we intend to identify the opinion of journalists on public relations and spokesperson in relation to the work of the journalist and also to identify the reasons of journalists for not trust the profession of media relationist. The questionnaire was applied in the range 1 to 20 March 2014. The sampling was non-probabilistic one, the only criterion for selection of respondents being the status of journalist. The questionnaire answered 50 journalists from central and local press. In terms of the positions held by the respondents, the sample is as follows: 12% are director, 24% have editor function, 14% are editors and 34% are reporters.

  11. A Common Opinion on Croatian Journalists Tested by PR Profesionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sušić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Journalists in Croatia do not enjoy formidable reputation among the public due to the beliefs that their writing is, inter alia, biased, inclined to sensationalism and manipulation, and that they lack analytical skills (see also Kanižaj and Skoko, 2010; Jokoš and Kanižaj, 2012. The aim of this research is to verify how journalistic work and journalistic profession in Croatia is perceived by corporate sector PR professionals who cooperate with them on a daily basis. Using the method of in-depth interviews conducted with eight PR professionals, the reputation of Croatian journalists has been put to the test. The research revealed that the interviewed PR professionals perceive Croatian journalists mostly as superficial and biased reporters who search for sensation rather than the truth. However, it turned out that the interviewees do not percieve journalists as being envious, irresponsible or corruptible. They even demonstrated true understanding of the difficulties that journalists encounter, especially in the context of the economic crisis.

  12. New spark test device for material characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Kildemo, Morten

    2004-01-01

    An automated spark test system based on combining field emission and spark measurements, exploiting a discharging capacitor is investigated. In particular, the remaining charge on the capacitor is analytically solved assuming the field emitted current to follow the Fowler Nordheim expression. The latter allows for field emission measurements from pA to A currents, and spark detection by complete discharge of the capacitor. The measurement theory and experiments on Cu and W are discussed.

  13. Psychotic-like symptoms as a risk factor of violent recidivism in detained male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colins, O.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.; Noom, M.; Broekaert, E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychotic-like symptoms (PLSs) are positively associated with violent recidivism and whether this relation is stronger when PLSs co-occur with substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 224 detained male adolescents from all youth

  14. Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youths: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…

  15. Gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem among detained adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Lore; Colins, Olivier F; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2014-12-30

    Detained minors display substantial mental health needs. This study focused on two features (psychopathology and self-esteem) that have received considerable attention in the literature and clinical work, but have rarely been studied simultaneously in detained youths. The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem, and to test the hypothesis that the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed in 440 Belgian, detained adolescents using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Self-esteem was assessed using the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents. Model-based cluster analyses were performed to identify youths with lower and/or higher levels of self-esteem across several domains. Girls have higher rates for most psychiatric disorders and lower levels of self-esteem than boys. A higher number of clusters was identified in boys (four) than girls (three). Generally, the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that the detection of low levels of self-esteem in adolescents, especially girls, might help clinicians to identify a subgroup of detained adolescents with the highest prevalence of psychopathology.

  16. Back to Basics: Detaining Our Enemies in a Confused Legal Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    States are the al Qaeda and Taliban forces most likely to inflict real harm on the United States. 17 Designation of Enemies One basic question...policy to a basic principle; you detain your enemy when you are at war. 24 25 Endnotes 1 Lyric Wallwork, ―A Marine‘s toughest

  17. Latent Personality Profiles and the Relations with Psychopathology and Psychopathic Traits in Detained Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F.; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish…

  18. 28 CFR 511.18 - When Bureau staff can arrest and detain a non-inmate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When Bureau staff can arrest and detain a non-inmate. 511.18 Section 511.18 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... secured, using minimally necessary force and restraints, in a private area of the facility away from...

  19. Reduction to spark coordinates of data generated by automatic measurement of spark chamber film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybury, R.; Hart, J.C.

    1976-09-01

    The initial stage in the data reduction for film from two spark chamber experiments is described. The film was automatically measured at the Rutherford Laboratory. The data from these measurements were reduced to a series of spark coordinates for each gap of the spark chambers. Quality control checks are discussed. (author)

  20. Science journalists' perceptions and attitudes to pseudoscience in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortiñas-Rovira, Sergi; Alonso-Marcos, Felipe; Pont-Sorribes, Carles; Escribà-Sales, Eudald

    2015-05-01

    Using interviews and questionnaires, we explored the perceptions and attitudes of 49 Spanish science journalists regarding pseudoscience. Pseudoscience, understood as false knowledge that endeavours to pass as science, is a controversial and complex matter that potentially poses a risk to society. Given that concern over this issue has grown in recent years in Spain, our aim was to evaluate how pseudoscience operates in journalistic practice in Spanish media. Our data reveal not only a lack of editorial policies in regard to pseudoscience, but also the existence of a significant number of science journalists who make light of the potential threat implied by the pseudosciences in the media. Some journalists point to the lack of scientific training of editors and media managers as one of the reasons for the proliferation of the pseudosciences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. How Silicon Valley Journalists Talk about: Independence in Innovation Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten; Nordfors, David

    2010-01-01

    as a keyword. The valley culture is known to stress the value of trust-based personal contacts. This applies also to journalists and their access to sources. This paper discusses how this relates to traditional journalism norms that stress journalists’ independence from sources. Based on explorative, semi......-structured interviews with journalists who cover the innovation economy in Silicon Valley, the paper seeks to understand the professional challenges the network structure create for journalists and the strategies they apply. Comparing the results with previous research in journalism norms, this study suggests...... that as access to powerful sources becomes scarce and controlled journalists tend to be more innovative and diverse in shaping professional norms to balance access to sources with their readers’ mandate. The continued development of this diversity of norms, and its impact on society needs to be further explored....

  2. The Student as Journalist: New Approaches to Teen Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Elizabeth

    1978-01-01

    Describes Youth Communication, a journalistic network in which students--many from inner city schools--assume full responsibility for managing, preparing, and marketing professional-type publications. (KS)

  3. Objectivity, Journalistic Ethics, and Reporting in Crisis Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Barović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the theoretical approaches and models of objectivity. The very notion of objectivity is displayed by two opposing theories: the empathic and the factual. As such, these theories are studied as a framework towards the deeper understanding of the problem of objectivity, which at its core, makes up the very essence of ethics. Journalistic ethics, in particular, are considered to be the most fundamental segment for objective reporting in all conditions, especially in crisis situations, or ratherthose considered the most complex conditions of journalistic engagement. This essay seeks to present the most important theories utilized in the exploration of journalistic objectivity in crisis situations. The aim is to present the problems incurred in the study of journalistic objectivity and ethics in a crisis where these elements are too often violated. In assessing the value of the various arguments presented, this paper shall utilize comparative and analytical methodologies.

  4. A Training Model for Improving Journalists' Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodero, Emma; Diaz-Rodriguez, Celia; Larrea, Olatz

    2017-06-06

    Voice education is a crucial aspect for professionals (journalists, teachers, politicians, actors, etc.) who use their voices as a working tool. The main concerns about such education are that, first, there is little awareness of the importance of voice education, and second there is little research devoted to it. The consequences of this lack of training are indeed visible in professionals who suffer voice pathologies or work with little effectiveness. This study seeks to overcome this deficiency by proposing a training model tested with a control group and a pilot study. Speech samples from a group of experimental participants-journalism students-were collected before and after a training course designed to improve their main vocal and prosodic features. These samples were contrasted with a control group without training. Results indicated significant differences in all tested voice elements (breathing, articulation, loudness, pitch, jitter, speech rate, pauses, and stress) except for shimmer and harmonics. The participants were able to enhance their main vocal and prosodic elements, and therefore their expressiveness maintaining optimal vocal hygiene. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SOCIAL VIGILANCE OF SCHOOL JOURNALISTS: COGNITIVE ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Sidorova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article one of the stages and results of an ascertaining experiment aimed at identification of the level of high school students’ social vigilance formation are described. The scientific novelty of this work is to implement the pedagogical interpretation of the concept "social vigilance", and also in the selection and creation of valid methods for studying the phenomenon. Ascertaining experiment on cognitive criteria included a test on facts of social reality knowledge, the methods developed by the author "The analysis of the communicative situation," and “Continue the report”, content analysis of texts. The results show that teenagers’ social vigilance largely developed in respect of the microprocesses, but it’s low in respect of macroprocesses. The young journalists have little knowledge about the various social groups, social stratum. The obtained data show the directions of teaching activities to develop students’ social vigilance. Experimental results, methods and forms of research can be extrapolated to other types of educational activities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-49

  6. Deux journalistes afghanes effectuent une tournée pancanadienne ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 janv. 2011 ... À l'occasion de l a 17e Journée de soutien aux journalistes emprisonnés, le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) et Reporters sans frontières Canada ont invité deux journalistes afg hanes à faire une tournée dans cinq villes canadiennes pour y parler de la liberté de presse et ...

  7. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  8. Journalists and public health professionals: challenges of a symbiotic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubens, Pauline

    2015-02-01

    Journalists and health professionals share a symbiotic relationship during a disease outbreak as both professions play an important role in informing the public's perceptions and the decisions of policy makers. Although critics in the United States have focused on US reporters and media outlets whose coverage has been sensationalist and alarmist, the discussion in this article is based on the ideal--gold standard--for US journalists. Journalists perform three primary functions during times of health crises: disseminating accurate information to the public, medical professionals, and policy makers; acting as the go-between for the public and decision makers and health and science experts; and monitoring the performance of institutions responsible for the public health response. A journalist's goal is to responsibly inform the public in order to optimize the public health goals of prevention while minimizing panic. The struggle to strike a balance between humanizing a story and protecting the dignity of patients while also capturing the severity of an epidemic is harder in the era of the 24-7 news cycle. Journalists grapple with dueling pressures: confirming that their information is correct while meeting the demand for rapid updates. Just as health care professionals triage patients, journalists triage information. The challenge going forward will be how to get ahead of the story from the onset, racing against the pace of digital dissemination of misinformation by continuing to refine the media-science relationship.

  9. Spark gap produced plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A Spark Gap (Applied voltage : 2-8KV, Capacitor : 4 Micro F. Dia of the tube : 1 inch, Electrode distance : .3 ∼.5 inch) was made to generate a small size dynamic plasma. To measure the plasma density and temperature as a function of time and position, we installed and have been installing four detection systems - Mach-Zehnder type Interferometer for the plasma refractivity, Expansion speed detector using two He-Ne laser beams, Image Processing using Lens and A Optical-Fiber Array for Pointwise Radiation Sensing, Faraday Rotation of a Optical Fiber to measure the azimuthal component of B-field generated by the plasma drift. These systems was used for the wire explosion diagnostics, and can be used for the Laser driven plasma also

  10. GeoSpark SQL: An Effective Framework Enabling Spatial Queries on Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data, Internet-based geospatial information services such as various LBS apps are deployed everywhere, followed by an increasing number of queries against the massive spatial data. As a result, the traditional relational spatial database (e.g., PostgreSQL with PostGIS and Oracle Spatial cannot adapt well to the needs of large-scale spatial query processing. Spark is an emerging outstanding distributed computing framework in the Hadoop ecosystem. This paper aims to address the increasingly large-scale spatial query-processing requirement in the era of big data, and proposes an effective framework GeoSpark SQL, which enables spatial queries on Spark. On the one hand, GeoSpark SQL provides a convenient SQL interface; on the other hand, GeoSpark SQL achieves both efficient storage management and high-performance parallel computing through integrating Hive and Spark. In this study, the following key issues are discussed and addressed: (1 storage management methods under the GeoSpark SQL framework, (2 the spatial operator implementation approach in the Spark environment, and (3 spatial query optimization methods under Spark. Experimental evaluation is also performed and the results show that GeoSpark SQL is able to achieve real-time query processing. It should be noted that Spark is not a panacea. It is observed that the traditional spatial database PostGIS/PostgreSQL performs better than GeoSpark SQL in some query scenarios, especially for the spatial queries with high selectivity, such as the point query and the window query. In general, GeoSpark SQL performs better when dealing with compute-intensive spatial queries such as the kNN query and the spatial join query.

  11. The Journalist on journalism (1867-1771: unionism contribution to the Portuguese journalistic thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pedro Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available By using qualitative discourse analysis, the present work describes the conception of the condition of journalist in Journalismo (Journalism, an organ of the Sindicato Nacional dos Jornalistas de Portugal (National Union of Portuguese  ournalists, between 1967 and 1971, during the time of the Portuguese Dictatorship, but also a flourishing and rejuvenating time for journalism. It has found out that the writers of this union periodical were less concerned about the theoretical discussion of this professional area and the definition of journalism than about the acknowledgement and recognition of this profession, both as a way of reinforcing class identity and as a basis for claiming better conditions in the exercise of journalism.

  12. Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Lucres MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83% was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality. Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention, although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.

  13. Bubbles, sparks, and the postwar laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galison, P.

    1989-01-01

    The development and use of bubble chambers and spark chambers in the 1950s form the main thrust of this article, the bubble chamber as an example of ''image-producing'' instruments and the spark chamber as a ''logic'' device. Work on a cloud chamber by Glaser led to the development of the bubble chamber detector using liquid hydrogen, which was later linked to a computer for accurate automatic track analysis. It made possible demonstrations of the existence of a particle or interaction. Spark chambers were easier to build and so soon became common, various types being developed across the world. The development of spark chambers originated in the need for timing devices for the Manhattan Project, but work on their design occurred in a number of units worldwide. (UK)

  14. Women Journalists Working Conditions and Their Suitability in the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sasikala

    2016-05-01

    technique. The sample frame for the study includes both male and female journalists of print and electronic media. The respondents comprised of editors, sub- editors, reporters, programme executives and free lancers in both print and electronic media. The data was obtained using the questionnaire and it was analyzed using percentage analysis method. The findings reveals that women journalists are encouraged and given freedom to organize their work and do not face major discrimination in their working spot on the basis of gender and they are also given decision – making position in the media and their positions in the media is satisfactory. Regarding, importance given for women issues in the media, both men and women journalist consider women issues as one of the important issue and women issues are portrayed adequately in the media.

  15. Indonesian journalistic competitions: tribute or threat for press practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, P. A. R.; Aji, G. G.; Sukardani, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to Investigate journalists’ understanding toward glittering generalities practice - positive and good coverage of the caused by the Journalistic contests, the prices are attracting them, Reviews their motives to Participate, and their beliefs about ethics al thing. It is also retrieve how the chief editor, as a decision maker in the mass media taking his responsibility on the glittering news. This research uses a case study method by conducting indepth interviews on journalists, editors, and professional the alliance to collect the data and analyse it based on critical paradigm. The results show that journalist believe that competition is good, and there is no violation as long as the stick to the press code of conduct, but for chief editors and professional alliance, they begin to aware the damage of the contest. The findings of this work will be valuable to develop critical thinking of press workers and promote awareness to the society to control the media practice.

  16. A statement of principles for health care journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzer, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Many journalism organizations have published codes of ethics in recent years. The Association of Newspaper Editors, for example, lists 47 different codes on its website. But an organization of health care journalists felt that none of those codes addressed the unique challenges of covering complex health care topics. The Association of Health Care Journalists (AHCJ) is an independent, non-profit organization dedicated to advancing public understanding of health care issues. Its mission is to improve the quality, accuracy and visibility of health care reporting, writing and editing. AHCJ has written a statement of principles for its 750 members. In it, AHCJ states some of the unique challenges faced by journalists covering health care, and offers suggestions on how to face those challenges. Bioethicists are invited to comment on the statement, and to help generate continued discussion of the issues addressed therein.

  17. Journalistic neutralism and personalisation in the accountability interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla

    as truth claims in the accountability interview. The case is critical because the specific news interview was framed and marketed as an adversarial interview with a personalised “signature host”. Accordingly, it can be assumed that neutralism can still be a resource for political sources to challenge......Through a study of a so-called “critical” case, the article examines the political accountability interview as an interactional negotiation between two clusters of truth claims of journalistic legitimacy. The first relates to the practice of ‘neutralism’ and the second to ‘personalisation...... against accusations of personal evaluations in the accountability interview. However, personalisation is a strong claim in overt journalistic commentary and to some extent in the journalistic contextualisation of the interview. The study concludes that personalisation and neutralism exist side by side...

  18. Resistance of a water spark.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2005-11-01

    The later time phase of electrical breakdown in water is investigated for the purpose of improving understanding of the discharge characteristics. One dimensional simulations in addition to a zero dimensional lumped model are used to study the spark discharge. The goal is to provide better electrical models for water switches used in the pulse compression section of pulsed power systems. It is found that temperatures in the discharge channel under representative drive conditions, and assuming small initial radii from earlier phases of development, reach levels that are as much as an order of magnitude larger than those used to model discharges in atmospheric gases. This increased temperature coupled with a more rapidly rising conductivity with temperature than in air result in a decreased resistance characteristic compared to preceding models. A simple modification is proposed for the existing model to enable the approximate calculation of channel temperature and incorporate the resulting conductivity increase into the electrical circuit for the discharge channel. Comparisons are made between the theoretical predictions and recent experiments at Sandia. Although present and past experiments indicated that preceding late time channel models overestimated channel resistance, the calculations in this report seem to underestimate the resistance relative to recent experiments. Some possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  19. The psychological wellbeing of Iranian journalists: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Feinstein, Saul; Behari, Maziar; Pavisian, Bennis

    2016-12-01

    Iran ranks 173 out of 180 countries on an index of press freedom. The purpose of the study was to assess the psychological wellbeing of Iranian journalists and document the stressors encountered in their work. A secure website was established and participants were given their unique identifying number and password to access the site. Newsrooms in Iran and the diaspora. Responses were received from 114 journalists (76%) of whom 65.8% were living in the diaspora. The mean age was 37.8 years (SD = 7.30) and 57% male. Type of stressor and behavioural data: Impact of Event Scale-revised for posttraumatic stress disorder, Beck Depression Inventory-II for depression. Stressors include arrest (41.2%), torture (19.3%), assault (10.5%), intimidation (51.4%) and family threatened (43.1%). Eighty nine (78.1%) journalists had stopped working on a story because of intimidation. Arrest, torture, intimidation and family threatened were associated with more intrusive and arousal PTSD symptoms (p < .01 to .001) and assault and intimidation with more depressive symptoms (p < .05). Almost a third of Iranian journalists regularly used barbiturates, with use correlating with symptoms of intrusion (p < .0001), avoidance (p < .01), arousal (p < .0001) and depression (p < .0001). 46.5% of Iranian journalists were not receiving therapy for their distress. The findings, the first of their kind, provide data highlighting the extraordinary degree of danger confronted by Iranian journalists, their emotional distress in response to this and their proclivity to self-medicate with barbiturates.

  20. Opinions of Cordoba's politicians and journalists on atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossa, Pedro; Fracassa, Laura; Martin, Hugo R.

    2006-01-01

    The perception of the nuclear energy of journalist of the Cordoba city and of the member of the legislative body of the Province was investigated. In general a high degree of ignorance on nuclear energy and its uses was found. The majority of them considers nuclear energy a great danger for the society and describes it as a potential damage for health and environment. Little is known about medical applications, food irradiation, etc. As a consequence nuclear energy has no priority in journalist and lawmakers agendas. (author)

  1. Different roles, different content? A four-country comparison of the role conceptions and reporting style of political journalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, A.; de Vreese, C.H.; Albæk, E.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between journalistic role conceptions and news content is central for the understanding of differences in journalistic cultures. Previous research has shown that the professional roles of individual journalists can influence their behaviour and that occupational socialization leads to

  2. 'It really is a craft' - Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners' talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; Hoof, A. van; Sanders, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more

  3. “It really is a craft” Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners’ talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; van Hoof, A.M.J.; Sanders, J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more

  4. “It really is a craft” - Repertoires in journalistic frontrunners’ talk on audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; Costera Meijer, I.; Hoof, A. van; Sanders, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of participatory journalism demonstrate that professional journalism can be resistant to change. Journalists and news organizations do wish to encourage audience contribution and digital innovation, but find it difficult to reconcile traditional journalistic values and practices with more

  5. Journalists' information needs, seeking behavior, and its determinants on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Aghili, Omid; Sanderson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We describe the results of a qualitative study on journalists' information seeking behavior on social media. Based on interviews with eleven journalists along with a study of a set of university level journalism modules, we determined the categories of information need types that lead journalists to social media. We also determined the ways that social media is exploited as a tool to satisfy information needs and to define influential factors, which impacted on journalists' information seekin...

  6. Communicating Science: The Profile of Science Journalists in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassany, Roger; Cortiñas, Sergi; Elduque, Albert

    2018-01-01

    Science journalists are mainly responsible for publicly communicating science, which, in turn, is a major indicator of the social development of democratic societies. The transmission of quality scientific information that is rigorously researched and understandable is therefore crucial, and demand for this kind of information from both…

  7. Wat iedere journalist moet weten van marktonderzoek : Doorvragen bij wie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Edith|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073351385

    Een gouden regel in de journalis-tiek vormen de vijf W’s (en een H). Een goede onderzoeksjournalist zal altijd vragen: wie, waarom, wat, waar, wanneer en hoe. Het zijn prima basisvragen, maar wanneer een journalist een item voorbereidt en daarbij gebruik maakt van marktonderzoek, moet er nog even

  8. Spanish Journalists' Perception about Their Professional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berganza, Rosa; Lavín, Eva; Piñeiro-Naval, Valeriano

    2017-01-01

    International empirical research on the perception that journalists have of their professional roles and functions has increased considerably in recent years, although not in the case of Spain. The present research, included within the transnational comparative study "The Worlds of Journalism Study", analyses data from a survey conducted…

  9. Outside In: The Practices and Perceptions of Iranian Diaspora Journalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Brouillette, A.; Smith, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Iran Media Program conducted a survey of Iranian journalists living and working outside Iran. Our aim was to examine more closely the role and relationship between Iranian reporters abroad and their international and domestic audiences, as well as to broaden our knowledge of the Iranian diaspora

  10. Afghan journalists tour Canada to share "Afghanistan's Story" | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... ... 2006 where they spoke about the status of women in Afghan society and the state of the Afghan media. The public events included the screening of Afghanistan Unveiled, a documentary shot in 2003 by the first team of women video journalists trained in Afghanistan. The 14 young women, including Azizi, ...

  11. A Study of Journalists' Conditions of Service in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zeleza

    1980) which emphasises that Muslim journalists ought to promotion of Islamic values and. Shariah, all media guidelines, from the Sigma Delta Chi of 1932, through the Swedish Code of. Ethics for the Press, Radio and Television, to the Media Council of Malawi Code of Ethics and. Standards (Media Council of Malawi, ...

  12. Journalists and Terrorism: Captives of the Libertarian Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaehnig, Walter B.

    Because modern terrorism threatens democratic values such as personal liberty, free expression, and the limitation of institutional authority, it raises ethical problems for journalists who are drawn into a symbiotic relationship with those who threaten or use violence against a community. Recent terrorist incidents in the United States involving…

  13. A Predictive Framework for Determining How Journalists Determine News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, James L.

    To determine how to articulate a concrete definition of the substance of the journalist's occupation, this paper offers a propositional framework of news value based on Kurt Lewin's gatekeeper model. First, the paper follows the established suggestion that news decisions are best studied from a gatekeeping perspective or that "news is…

  14. Secret of radiation - journalist training course at STUK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, J.; Isaksson, R.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation issues are complicated for journalists. It is important to have smooth cooperation with them. Stuk, known as leading radiation and nuclear expert in Finland, presents its vision and goals and the content of course devoted in its training course. (A.L.B.)

  15. Nigerian journalists and ethical dilemmas: the ' SAD ' imperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basically, the objective of this paper is to research into the ethical dilemmas that hamstring the practice of journalism in Nigeria. Relying on secondary data, this paper radically explores the subject matter vis-à-vis the major reasons that orchestrate journalists' vulnerability to such dilemmas. In conclusion, the paper submits ...

  16. The Study of Religion and the Education of Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Eric Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a national survey of journalists and program administrators regarding whether they see religion as an important individual topic in American society. Finds the administrators believe religion is a difficult and involved topic; there is not enough coverage of it; all reports need a basic understanding of it; and that most reporters cover…

  17. Ethical Idealism: A Look at Journalists and Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald K.

    Despite a strong concern for ethical and responsible journalism, journalists themselves disagree as to whether their practice is a profession and if it is, which of the many definitions of "profession" describes it. Judged according to the following criteria sometimes used to describe other professions, journalism cannot be classified as a…

  18. The Need to Help Journalists with Data and Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Susan

    2017-01-01

    As news migrates to mobile phones, media companies are turning to data visualization to wet readers' appetites for stories they can read at length on their home or work computers. Journalists are trained to write stories, not in statistics or coding, however. The big news organizations have the funds to hire computer graphics experts, but local news organizations need help.

  19. Scattering profiles of sparks and combustibility of filter against hot sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asazuma, Shinichiro; Okada, Takashi; Kashiro, Kashio

    2004-01-01

    The glove-box dismantling facility in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility is developed to dismantle after-service glove-boxes with remote-controlled devices such as an arm-type manipulator. An abrasive wheel cutter, which is used to size reduce the gloveboxes, generates sparks during operation. This dispersing spark was a problem from the fire prevention point of view. A suitable spark control measures for this operation were required. We developed panels to minimize spark dispersion, shields to prevent the income of sparks to the pre-filter, and incombustible pre-filters. The equipment was tested and effectiveness was confirmed. This report provides the results of these tests. (author)

  20. [Can we consider the journalist an actor in suicide prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notredame, C-E; Pauwels, N; Vaiva, G; Danel, T; Walter, M

    2016-10-01

    After more than 50 years of dedicated research, media coverage of suicide is now well known to have a significant influence on the suicide epidemiology. This influence is supposed to result from two opposite effects. The Werther effect (WE) refers to the robust increase of suicide rates following the publication of a suicide story. This specific kind of mass cluster implies a suggestion process, i.e. imitation of the depicted death by vulnerable persons. In contract, the preventive potential of medias has been labeled the "Papageno effect" (PE). Although more recently discovered and far less known, PE predicts that journalists can help prevent suicidal behaviors beyond a simple WE reduction. Because PE and WE directly bridge journalistic productions to suicidal events, several national and international health organisms (including the World Health Organization) started to see the media as new prevention opportunities. In this paper, we intend to assess the extent to which journalists can be considered as public health actors in the specific field of suicide prevention. Based on a critical review of the so-called Media effect studies, we explore the opportunities, limits and constraints of collaborating with media professionals for public health actions. For that purpose, we focus on the main strategy employed so far, namely providing recommendations for more cautious coverage of suicide. An overview of the efficacy of these recommendations serves not only as a starting point for understanding how public health and journalistic perspectives can confront, but also how they can be combined in a fertile way. Numerous suicide prevention organisms developed strategies in order to assist journalists in reporting suicide stories in a safer way. As a formal support to these strategies, around 30 national or international guides have been produced around the word, with the shared aim of reducing WE and, eventually, promoting PE. The recommendations about articles' style

  1. Every Now And Then: Journalists and Twitter Use in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Akdenizli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on Lasorsa, Lewis & Holton’s (2012 work, and on a studyby the Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (PEW Journalism, HowMainstream Media Outlets Use Twitter (2012; and focuses on how journalists in Turkey behave on Twitter. It aims to explore what kind of information Turkish journalists share online and how they share it, if and how they engage with fellow users; and how their overall Twitter practice influences, and in some cases, redefines their role as professional journalists. To answer these research questions a list of the 20 most-read Turkish journalists and their 1715 tweets between March 5, 2012 and March 19, 2012 were analyzed. The study revealed that the journalists observed varied widely in how frequently they posted, and on what topics they posted. Data showed that journalists in some cases used the retweet function to share information mainstream media was perhaps not able to cover live or with people on site. In terms of retweeting there was a fair share of selfpromotion going on in terms of publicizing one’s own story and also other stories from the journalist’s news organization. Journalists also answered specific questions about their work or were asked to elaborate on certain matters. There was also a fair share of satire and lighthearted commentary on popular culture, food, travel and aging. This study representsa first-of-a-kind content analysis of Twitter use by journalists in Turkey. As Twitter becomes more mainstream its use patterns are likely to evolve as well, yet at this point the study suggests that, generally speaking, Twitter use by journalists for reporting purposes is in its infancy in 2012. The study provides a snapshot of a certain period and can serve as a benchmark for further studies of Twitter use among journalists in Turkey. Cette étude s’appuie sur le travail de Lasorsa, Lewis & Holton (2012 et sur une étude du Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (PEW Journalism

  2. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Steven [Morgantown, WV; McIntyre, Dustin L [Morgantown, WV

    2008-09-02

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  3. Self-Harm among Young People Detained in the Youth Justice System in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushan V. Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-harm is prevalent in incarcerated adults, yet comparatively few studies of self-harm in detained youth (and even fewer in low- and middle-income countries have been published. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a sample of 181 young people (mean age 15.0 years, SD = 2.3 detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka. Structured face-to-face questionnaires assessed demographic characteristics, family and social background, substance use, self-harm history (including frequency, method, and intention, bullying victimization, physical and sexual abuse (victimization and perpetration, and exposure to self-harm/suicide by others. Seventy-seven participants (43% reported a lifetime history of self-harm, 19 of whom (25% who reported doing so with suicidal intent. Fifty participants (65% of those with a history of self-harm reported engaging in self-harm impulsively, with no prior planning. A history of self-harm was associated with being female, prior sexual abuse victimization, prior exposure to self-harm by friends, and a lifetime history of self-harm ideation. High rates of substance use, bullying victimization, parental incarceration, and exposure to suicide were reported across the sample. Young people detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka are a vulnerable group with high rates of self-harm, substance use, and psychosocial risk factors. Strategies for identifying and preventing self-harm, and targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, may contribute to more positive outcomes in this marginalised population.

  4. Self-Harm among Young People Detained in the Youth Justice System in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Lushan V; Kinner, Stuart A; Tibble, Holly; Borschmann, Rohan

    2018-01-26

    Self-harm is prevalent in incarcerated adults, yet comparatively few studies of self-harm in detained youth (and even fewer in low- and middle-income countries) have been published. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a sample of 181 young people (mean age 15.0 years, SD = 2.3) detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka. Structured face-to-face questionnaires assessed demographic characteristics, family and social background, substance use, self-harm history (including frequency, method, and intention), bullying victimization, physical and sexual abuse (victimization and perpetration), and exposure to self-harm/suicide by others. Seventy-seven participants (43%) reported a lifetime history of self-harm, 19 of whom (25%) who reported doing so with suicidal intent. Fifty participants (65% of those with a history of self-harm) reported engaging in self-harm impulsively, with no prior planning. A history of self-harm was associated with being female, prior sexual abuse victimization, prior exposure to self-harm by friends, and a lifetime history of self-harm ideation. High rates of substance use, bullying victimization, parental incarceration, and exposure to suicide were reported across the sample. Young people detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka are a vulnerable group with high rates of self-harm, substance use, and psychosocial risk factors. Strategies for identifying and preventing self-harm, and targeted psychological interventions designed specifically to address impulsivity, may contribute to more positive outcomes in this marginalised population.

  5. Understanding Psychosocial and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Detained Juveniles: A Descriptive Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Madison L; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Cartier, Jeanne; Best, Candace; Walker, Veronica; Schwartz, David; Yoo, Wonsuk

    2015-12-30

    African American women are disproportionately impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, which are known risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. STIs, particularly chlamydia and gonorrhea, are even more prevalent among young African American women with a juvenile detention history. The population with experiences with the criminal justice system has greater rates of STIs and is diagnosed more often with mental health issues, often related to sexual abuse or intimate partner violence, compared to peers who have not been detained by law enforcement. Psychosocial factors, especially those related to intimate relationships (ie, the imperativeness of being in a relationship and the power one has in their relationship), have emerged as important explanatory factors for acquiring STIs, including HIV, and a component of risk reduction interventions. To investigate more comprehensively the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and STIs, including HIV, as it relates to reduction and prevention of these diseases. The long-term goal is to improve the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions with a major focus on intimate relationship dynamics. This descriptive study surveys young women (ages 13-17) who have been detained (incarcerated) by a department of juvenile justice. In addition to being female and detained, eligibility criteria include being detained longer than 30 days and being free of cognitive impairments. This study will include young women from one juvenile detention center. The primary outcomes to be measured are STI knowledge, intimate relationship dynamics (ie, imperativeness and power), and high-risk sexual behaviors. High-risk sexual behaviors will be assessed using data extracted from health records. Preliminarily, we have received assent from 26 primarily young African American women. The majority of participants (81%) had inadequate knowledge about STIs, 52% perceived a lack of

  6. Using SPARK as a Solver for Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip; Moshier, Michael A.; Sowell, Edward F.

    2008-06-30

    Modelica is an object-oriented acausal modeling language that is well positioned to become a de-facto standard for expressing models of complex physical systems. To simulate a model expressed in Modelica, it needs to be translated into executable code. For generating run-time efficient code, such a translation needs to employ algebraic formula manipulations. As the SPARK solver has been shown to be competitive for generating such code but currently cannot be used with the Modelica language, we report in this paper how SPARK's symbolic and numerical algorithms can be implemented in OpenModelica, an open-source implementation of a Modelica modeling and simulation environment. We also report benchmark results that show that for our air flow network simulation benchmark, the SPARK solver is competitive with Dymola, which is believed to provide the best solver for Modelica.

  7. Spark - a modern approach for distributed analytics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Kothuri, Prasanth

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storing and processing big data. It is a very popular system for implementing data warehouses and data lakes. Spark has also emerged to be one of the leading engines for data analytics. The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. By attending the session, a participant will acquire knowledge of the essential concepts need to benefit from the parallel data processing offered by Spark framework. The session is structured around practical examples and tutorials. Main topics: Architecture overview - work distribution, concepts of a worker and a driver Computing concepts of transformations and actions Data processing APIs - RDD, DataFrame, and SparkSQL

  8. High performance Spark best practices for scaling and optimizing Apache Spark

    CERN Document Server

    Karau, Holden

    2017-01-01

    Apache Spark is amazing when everything clicks. But if you haven’t seen the performance improvements you expected, or still don’t feel confident enough to use Spark in production, this practical book is for you. Authors Holden Karau and Rachel Warren demonstrate performance optimizations to help your Spark queries run faster and handle larger data sizes, while using fewer resources. Ideal for software engineers, data engineers, developers, and system administrators working with large-scale data applications, this book describes techniques that can reduce data infrastructure costs and developer hours. Not only will you gain a more comprehensive understanding of Spark, you’ll also learn how to make it sing. With this book, you’ll explore: How Spark SQL’s new interfaces improve performance over SQL’s RDD data structure The choice between data joins in Core Spark and Spark SQL Techniques for getting the most out of standard RDD transformations How to work around performance issues i...

  9. La légitimation des journalistes professionnels en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Leteinturier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le statut juridique des journalistes français a été établi par une loi du 29 mars 1935 complétée par un décret du 17 janvier 1936. Ce statut est caractérisé par la mise en place d’une carte de journaliste professionnel et surtout par l’instauration de procédures particulières de rupture de contrat de travail (articles L-7611 & sq. du Code du Travail français. Toutefois l’accès à l’activité de journalistes reste très ouvert car la détention de la carte n’est pas obligatoire pour son exercice. La reconnaissance symbolique du professionnalisme des journalistes français passe donc par l’obtention d’une carte professionnelle, dite carte de presse, délivrée par une Commission - la Commission de la carte d’identité des journalistes professionnels / CCIJP - composée, à parts égales, de représentants des journalistes et de représentants des patrons de médias et renouvelée tous les trois ans. C’est une organisation indépendante qui attribue, en toute autonomie de jugement la carte professionnelle à ceux des journalistes qui en font la demande en prenant en compte la situation personnelle de chaque demandeur, en interprétant l’ensemble des textes réglementaires qui régissent à la fois l’activité des journalistes et celle des entreprises médiatiques. Elle a ainsi construit des règles d’attribution ce qui, à l’inverse, l’amène à définir les conditions de non-attribution, donc de refus de la carte. C’est précisément ce dernier point que nous allons analyser ici, à partir d’un corpus de 585 refus prononcés en 2010. Nous montrons comment la CCIJP fonctionne, quels sont les arguments qu’elle utilise pour refuser la carte et donc comment elle délimite le territoire, les « frontières » du journalisme professionnel légitime. L’existence d’une Commission supérieure d’appel, composée majoritairement de magistrats, ouvre un espace de tension autour des décisions de la CCIJP

  10. Chaotic combustion in spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendeker, Miroslaw; Czarnigowski, Jacek; Litak, Grzegorz; Szabelski, Kazimierz

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the combustion process in a spark ignition engine using the experimental data of an internal pressure during the combustion process and show that the system can be driven to chaotic behaviour. Our conclusion is based on the observation of unperiodicity in the time series, suitable stroboscopic maps and a complex structure of a reconstructed strange attractor. This analysis can explain that in some circumstances the level of noise in spark ignition engines increases considerably due to nonlinear dynamics of a combustion process

  11. The suppression of destructive sparks in parallel plate proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, R.A.; Mason, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The authors find that high energy background events produce localised sparks in parallel plate counters when operated in the proportional mode. These sparks increase dead-time and lead to degradation ranging from electrode damage to spurious pulsing and continuous breakdown. The problem is particularly serious in low energy photon detectors for X-ray astronomy which are required to have lifetimes of several years in the high radiation environment of space. For the parallel plate imaging detector developed for the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) they investigate quantitatively the spark thresholds, spark rates and degradation processes. They discuss the spark mechanism, pointing out differences from the situation in spark chambers and counters. They show that the time profile of the sparks allows them to devise a spark suppression system which reduces the degradation rate by a factor of ''200.

  12. Spark Length and the Van de Graaff Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Suthinand Jirakulpatana

    2007-01-01

    The maximum discharge spark length of a Van de Graaf generator as a function of belt speed was studied. It was found that the maximum spark length was proportional to the square root of the belt speed.

  13. Spark Length and the Van de Graaff Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthinand Jirakulpatana

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The maximum discharge spark length of a Van de Graaf generator as a function of belt speed was studied. It was found that the maximum spark length was proportional to the square root of the belt speed.

  14. Doing Your Own Time: Peer Integration, Aggression and Mental Health in Dutch Male Detainment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Palmen, Hanneke; Dirkzwager, Anja J.E.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior research demonstrates a strong positive association between social integration (e.g., strong social ties) and individual health. However, researchers also emphasize that this correlation may vary by context and potentially reverse direction under certain conditions. In this study, we draw on competing criminological theories of peer relations to examine if social integration, measured by trust in peers, is positively or negatively associated with violence and mental health of men detained in pre-trial confinement facilities. Methods We test our hypotheses with peer network and health data from 502 Dutch male pre-trial detainees. Results Results suggest that peer trust has no direct association with reported rates of peer aggression while detained and low peer trust is generally protective for mental health. Conclusions Our study thus adds to a small body of literature finding that social integration within certain correctional settings may not operate in the same way that it does in the general population and may actually contribute to adverse mental health outcomes. PMID:26794247

  15. Marx As Journalist: Revisiting The Free Speech Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Shaw

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Marx was a practicing journalist for most of his adult life. He was editor, columnist and special correspondent at different times and his journalistic work provided significant inputs for his later theoretical work. Marx, through his engagement with the political revolutions of 19th century Europe, developed one of the finest arguments in defence of free speech and the need for expanding bourgeois democratic freedoms in the process of transition to socialism. This paper describes the role of the Marxist parties and intellectuals in India in using and expanding the democratic freedoms available in India. The paper concludes that there is a gap between the Marx’s ideological position on free speech and the praxis of Marxist parties. In contemporary India, there is urgent need to protect free speech, fight censorship and strengthen independent constitutional authorities that are governed by democratic principles.

  16. NEWS WITHOUT JOURNALISTS: Real threat or horror story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Neveu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Journalism as a profession and know-how is caught up in awhirlwind of changes. The end of the newspaper would notautomatically mean the end of journalism or of journalists, but itis difficult to imagine how the institution´s collapse could occurwithout triggering an earthquake in the definition and practiceof journalism. Journalism as a professional culture with codifiedabilities and characteristics runs the risk of being diluted andtransformed into the vague continuum of those who are alreadyknown as “information workers”. This article will suggest howseveral contemporary trends are challenging and redefiningjournalistic practice. The objective of this article is to advocatethe possibility of defining the journalist as someone who collectsfacts that are not on a screen in his office, as someone who talksto the audiences that are not just consumers and as someone whomaintains sufficient autonomy to practice the skills of a criticalverifier of the news.

  17. From the experience of spokesman's interactions with journalists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    In Poland, the relations between the nuclear community (and its spokesmen) and the media are rather special, as the nuclear energy industry does not exist. Since the withdrawal from nuclear power plant construction in Zarnowiec (in 1990), which was forced by firm public opposition against the application of Russian technology in Poland, nuclear community relations with media have been focused mainly on convincing journalists that it is necessary to familiarize the public with ionizing radiation. All sociological studies indicate that Poles associate the radiation (and nuclear energy) with hazards for human health and environment. The situation is further complicated by the fact that Poland borders Russia, Lithuania and Ukraine, i.e. the countries where RBMK reactors are in operation, which - especially after the Chernobyl disaster - has been the reason of grave public concerns. The fears of radiation hazards probably account for the aversion of the majority of Poles to nuclear power in our country and for their susceptibility to various unfounded (and often improbable) rumours of nuclear accidents in the neighbouring countries. A way to overcome the fear of nuclear is to demonstrate the benefits gained from nuclear technologies and to show by personal testimony that nuclear reactors are no more dangerous than other industrial facilities are. Journalists have a special role to play here, as their readers, listeners and viewers trust them more than representatives of nuclear sector. Thus, before journalists decided to persuade the public, it was necessary to persuade the journalists themselves. The following factors are considered important in the contacts with the media: prompt, accurate and specific answers, the respondent's authority, honesty, truthfulness and knowledge, and - as far as possible - 'face to face' communication. The ability to supply additional background information is also valuable, as well as that to communicate in a language easily

  18. Suivi sur le programme de mentorat de journalistes scientifiques des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 oct. 2010 ... Il doit rédiger un article sur l'éducation et les droits de l'homme. Mais les chercheurs refusent de communiquer leurs informations, le journaliste doit présenter une requête par écrit. Ce qu'il fait. Godefroy Chabi n'obtiendra jamais de réponse. Une entrave intolérable aux libertés d'accès à l'information ?

  19. Modelling Spark Integration in Science Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paz E. Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study critically explored how a PASCO-designed technology (SPARK ScienceLearning System is meaningfully integrated into the teaching of selected topics in Earth and Environmental Science. It highlights on modelling the effectiveness of using the SPARK Learning System as a primary tool in learning science that leads to learning and achievement of the students. Data and observation gathered and correlation of the ability of the technology to develop high intrinsic motivation to student achievement were used to design framework on how to meaningfully integrate SPARK ScienceLearning System in teaching Earth and Environmental Science. Research instruments used in this study were adopted from standardized questionnaires available from literature. Achievement test and evaluation form were developed and validated for the purpose of deducing data needed for the study. Interviews were done to delve into the deeper thoughts and emotions of the respondents. Data from the interviews served to validate all numerical data culled from this study. Cross-case analysis of the data was done to reveal some recurring themes, problems and benefits derived by the students in using the SPARK Science Learning System to further establish its effectiveness in the curriculum as a forerunner to the shift towards the 21st Century Learning.

  20. SparkJet Actuators for Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    characteristics 5. Computational Predictions Both 2D and 3D time-dependent Navier -Stokes calculations of the SparkJet operation have been conducted using the...single sheet of stainless steel shim stock . This metal structure is oriented vertically and clamped at the top and bottom in a Lexan® fixture. The

  1. Magnetite Nanoparticles Prepared By Spark Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorov M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, we study a possibility of using the electric spark erosion method as an alternative to the method of chemical co-precipitation for preparation of magnetic nanoparticles. Initiation of high frequency electric discharge between coarse iron particles under a layer of distilled water allows obtaining pure magnetite nanoparticles.

  2. Magnetite Nanoparticles Prepared By Spark Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorov, M.; Blums, E.; Kronkalns, G.; Krumina, A.; Lubane, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the present research, we study a possibility of using the electric spark erosion method as an alternative to the method of chemical co-precipitation for preparation of magnetic nanoparticles. Initiation of high frequency electric discharge between coarse iron particles under a layer of distilled water allows obtaining pure magnetite nanoparticles.

  3. Magnetite Nanoparticles Prepared By Spark Erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Maiorov M.; Blums E.; Kronkalns G.; Krumina A.; Lubane M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we study a possibility of using the electric spark erosion method as an alternative to the method of chemical co-precipitation for preparation of magnetic nanoparticles. Initiation of high frequency electric discharge between coarse iron particles under a layer of distilled water allows obtaining pure magnetite nanoparticles.

  4. Book Review of Nicholas Sparks' Safe Haven

    OpenAIRE

    Putriyani, Maygananda

    2015-01-01

    Safe Haven (2010) is a novel written by Nicholas Sparks. It is a story about a woman who suffers from traumatic experience due to her abusive husband. She manages to escape to a safe place and find happiness in that place. The woman wants to start a new life even though the shadow of the past will always haunt her.

  5. Generation of Nanoparticles by Spark Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salman Tabrizi, N.

    2009-01-01

    Spark discharge is a method for producing nanoparticles from conductive materials. Besides the general advantages of nanoparticle synthesis in the gas phase, the method offers additional advantages like simplicity, compactness and versatility. The synthesis process is continuous and is performed at

  6. Origin and simulation of sparks in MPGD

    CERN Document Server

    Procureur, S; Ball, J; Charles, G; Moreno, B; Moutarde, H; Sabatié, F

    2012-01-01

    The development of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for high luminosity experiments requires a better understanding of the origin of the sparks in these detectors. Assuming a spark occurs whenever the electron number reaches the well known Raether limit, previous Geant4 simulations quantitatively reproduced the spark rate observed in Micromegas with high energy hadron beams. Large release of energies are provided by fragments from nuclear interactions between the beam and the detector material. In order to further check the validity of our simulation, hadron beam tests have been performed at the CERN/SPS and PS on Micromegas and hybrid Micromegas-GEM detectors. In particular, large variations of the spark rate have been observed in positively charged hadron beams below 1 GeV/c, which are well described by the simulation. The role of the charge density has also been investigated with measurements in magnetic fields and with a Micromegas-GEM. The simulation has therefore been upgraded to take into account the tr...

  7. Ambient fields generated by a laser spark

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohlena, Karel; Mašek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 119-124 ISSN 0029-5922 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser spark * radiation chemistry * field generation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016

  8. Efficiency calibration of solid track spark auto counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin; Zhu Tonghua

    2008-01-01

    The factors influencing detection efficiency of solid track spark auto counter were analyzed, and the best etch condition and parameters of charge were also reconfirmed. With small plate fission ionization chamber, the efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experiment assemblies was re-calibrated. The efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experimental conditions was obtained. (authors)

  9. Science journalists learn of scientific renaissance at Doha conference

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies

    2011-01-01

    Last week, over 700 science journalists from around the world made their way to Doha, Qatar, for the World Conference of Science Journalists. This meeting takes place every two years, and is the largest gathering of science writers in the world. Established in the early 1990s, this is the first time that a Middle Eastern country has hosted the conference, and it was quite an eye opener.   American-Egyptian Nobel Prize winner Ahmed Zewail delivers a keynote address at the World Conference of Science Journalists. Firstly, the large number of participants shows clearly that reports of the demise of science journalism seem to have been widely exaggerated. But it’s not only the number or participants that’s impressive: it’s also where they came from. Thanks in part to grants from the Qatar Foundation, 90 countries were represented with around 50% of participants coming from the developing world. One real eye-opener was the state of science in the Middle East. Originally s...

  10. Trauma-related guilt and posttraumatic stress among journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tess; Evangeli, Michael; Greenberg, Neil

    2012-04-01

    This study explored the psychological impact of exposure to work-related trauma among journalists. It was hypothesised that positive associations would exist between (a) exposure and PTSD symptoms, (b) exposure and guilt cognitions, and (c) guilt cognitions and PTSD symptoms, and that the relationship between exposure and PTSD symptoms would be mediated by guilt cognitions. The sample consisted of 50 journalists (response rate = 15%), who had recently been exposed to work-related trauma. They were predominantly male, aged 40 years or older, well-educated, and most had worked in journalism for at least 15 years. Participants completed an online questionnaire that explored their work-related experiences of trauma, PTSD symptoms, and trauma-related guilt cognitions. The findings showed that higher levels of exposure to work-related trauma were significantly associated with higher levels of PTSD symptoms (r = .36) and trauma-related guilt cognitions (r = .29). Guilt cognitions were significantly and positively independently associated with PTSD symptoms (r = .12) and were consistent with partial mediation of relationship between exposure to work-related trauma and PTSD symptoms. This study provides greater insight into the psychological processing of work-related traumatic events among journalists and emphasizes the importance of posttrauma appraisals of guilt regarding their experiences. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  11. 21 CFR 1.382 - What labeling or marking requirements apply to a detained article of food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What labeling or marking requirements apply to a detained article of food? 1.382 Section 1.382 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for...

  12. 21 CFR 1.380 - Where and under what conditions must the detained article of food be held?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where and under what conditions must the detained article of food be held? 1.380 Section 1.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for...

  13. 21 CFR 1.383 - What expedited procedures apply when FDA initiates a seizure action against a detained perishable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What expedited procedures apply when FDA initiates a seizure action against a detained perishable food? 1.383 Section 1.383 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption General Provisions § 1.383 What expedited...

  14. 8 CFR 241.13 - Determination of whether there is a significant likelihood of removing a detained alien in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of this chapter; (ii) Aliens subject to a final order of removal who are still within the removal... Service is continuing its efforts to remove the alien, there is no presumptive period of time within which... significant likelihood of removing a detained alien in the reasonably foreseeable future. 241.13 Section 241...

  15. 3 CFR 13492 - Executive Order 13492 of January 22, 2009. Review and Disposition of Individuals Detained At the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interests of the United States and the interests of justice, I hereby order as follows: Section 1... years, and most have been detained for at least 4 years. In view of the significant concerns raised by... interests of justice. Merely closing the facilities without promptly determining the appropriate disposition...

  16. Intershield to tank sparks at the Daresbury tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.N.

    1983-04-01

    The causes of serious metallic melting and denting due to discharges in the insulating gas of the Daresbury tandem are examined. In order to explain the melting, high oscillating currents have to flow in the spark channels, and those can only be expected when return strokes excite local electromagnetic modes at the site of the origin of breakdown. In the case of intershield to tank sparks, evidence that magnetic confinement of the spark channel produces denting is presented. A model which accounts for the differences between sparks at Oak Ridge and sparks at Daresbury is also presented. (author)

  17. Political Detainment in the German Democratic Republic: Public Discourse and Personal Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Horvay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1976 and 1989, about 60,000 East German citizens were in political detention in the former GDR, a fact which was disclaimed by the GDR government. In this article, I focus on the auto-biographies which were collected by the use of narrative interviews. How do people who were politically persecuted and imprisoned remember their detainment now? Are they able to integrate this event in their life history and talk about it in their social environment? On the basis of biographical case-reconstructions and global analysis, I present four types of memory and biographical work. The analysis shows that the limited reprocessing prior to 1989 as well as the political discourse after 1990 about the GDR past produced a politicization of their imprisonment by the biographers, for example, in the construction of their identity as a political opponent. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110218

  18. Psychopathy in Detained Boys: The Search for Primary and Secondary Variants in a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Olivier F; Fanti, Kostas A; Salekin, Randall T; Mulder, Eva; Andershed, Henrik

    2017-12-14

    This study investigates whether primary and secondary variants of psychopathy can be identified in an applied, forensic setting based on self-reports of psychopathy and anxiety. Data were available for two samples of detained boys (Sample A: N = 847, Sample B: N = 749). Using three psychopathy dimensions and anxiety as clustering variables, latent profile analysis arrived at 4 latent classes (LCs) that were tentatively labeled as control (LC1), high anxiety (LC2), moderate psychopathy (LC3), and high psychopathy (LC4). Boys in LC4 engaged in higher levels of alcohol/drug use, conduct problems, reactive and proactive aggression than their counterparts in LC1 and in higher levels of conduct problems, alcohol/drug use, and proactive aggression than boys in LC3. Findings further indicated that the risk for future nonviolent arrests was the highest in LC4 as compared with LC2 and LC3, though no class differences in risk for future violent arrests emerged. Overall, these findings were well replicated in Sample B. Exploratory analyses included additional measures of negative affect (depressed feeling and anger-irritability), maltreatment, and/or number of past arrests (as proxy of a 4th psychopathy dimension) as clustering variables and identified all but 1 (LC3) of the 4 aforementioned LCs. Notwithstanding that our findings challenge the expected relevance of differentiating primary and secondary variants of youth psychopathy, they do suggest that it is possible to identify detained boys with high levels of psychopathic traits who display features associated with adult psychopathy. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Characteristics of a miniature vacuum spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. S.; Ong, C. X.; Chin, O. H.; Lee, S.; Choi, P.

    1989-12-01

    The characteristics of a miniature vacuum spark device are investigated. It is powered by a 2-stage 50 kV Marx and operated without an external triggering source. Discharge initiation is effected by an electron beam produced by the Pseudospark effect behind the hollow cathode. For discharges performed in air at a pressure of below 10-2 mbar, intense X-ray is detected. Although this X-ray has been found to consist of predominantly the Fe-Kα line produced by the electron beam bombardment of the stainless steel anode, its high intensity, singly-pulsed short-duration temporal structure and nearly monochromatic spectrum make the present vacuum spark an ideal pulsed X-ray source for many applications. The device is also compact, low cost and easy to operate. As an example of its applications, the contact radiography of a living lizard has been obtained using this X-ray source.

  20. “It’s like a family!” How Danish journalists unite across broadcasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Hassall

    2018-01-01

    Today, journalists in traditional TV newsrooms around the world are challenged like never before to produce fast and engaging content. And while the profession is challenged, the bond among journalists is increasingly strengthened.This unity connects with a shared pride in working as a journalist......, a pride that simultaneously unites all staff and distances them from those outside the profession. This chapter is based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork of newsrooms at the Danish broadcasters TV2 and DR....

  1. FALSE, INACCURATE AND INCOMPLETE NEWS: CHALLENGES FACING JOURNALISTS INVOLUNTARY RECTIFICATION. THE SPANISH EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ángeles Fernández Barrero; Antonio López Hidalgo

    2013-01-01

    Journalists must verify information provided by their sources. However, factors such as job precariousness, urgency and the credibility they give to mainly institutional sources mean that journalists do not verify information. Most codes of conduct recommend the duty to correct information as soon as an unintentionally committed error is discovered, but journalists dislike recognising their own errors and even more so correcting them publicly. These circumstances affect adversely the quality ...

  2. Shifting Roles, Enduring Values: The Credible Journalist in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A.; Singer, J.; Ceppos, J.

    2007-01-01

    When everyone can be a publisher, what distinguishes the journalist? This article considers contemporary challenges to institutional roles in a digital media environment, then focuses on three broad journalistic normative values -- authenticity, accountability and autonomy -- that affect the credibility of both the journalist and the content he or she provides. A set of questions that can help citizens determine the trustworthiness of the information available to them also is provided.

  3. Help or hinder? : Journalists affecting the future of female genital mutilation in a patriarchal society

    OpenAIRE

    Hallonsten, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to cover an issue as a journalist to the extent that you are practically a human rights activist, and still contribute to its continuation by unconsciously upholding the values causing the issue? This study asks the question if journalists help or hinder the elimination of female genital mutilation (FGM), and puts forth the thesis that journalists as a collective in fact are affecting the development more negatively through their attitudes than positively through their actions....

  4. Journalistic Texts in Training Russian as Foreign Language Genre-Orientation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vorobjeva, Lyudmila V.; Kazakova, Olga A.; Frik, Tatyana B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains the use of journalistic texts on foreign language lessons. The contribution of journalistic texts to realization of the purposes of training is characterized. Need of continuous updating of methodical materials in journalistic texts is approved in the paper. For the first time authors suggest using in work with foreign students' genres of modern Russian Language internet mass-media 'travel sketch' and 'politic comment'. In this paper the role of genres in formation of fore...

  5. The journalist and the other: on the vestiges of investigation and writing

    OpenAIRE

    Reges Schwaab; Angela Zamin Zamin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and writing journalistic narratives as developments in a unique relationship with time itself as well as questioning issues intrinsic to the profession is healthy. The current research examines books written by journalists as a space to pursue such understanding. More broadly, we aim to stress the relationship between media narratives with contemporary issues in a lapsed conceptual space. Thus, our examination takes into consideration three works by Portuguese journalist and wri...

  6. Trace amount analysis using spark mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Rene

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of spark mass spectrometers (ion source, properties of the ion beam, ion optics, and performance) and their use in qualitative and quantitative analysis are described. This technique is very interesting for the semi-quantitative analysis of trace amounts, down to 10 -8 atoms. Examples of applications such as the analysis of high purity materials and non-conducting mineral samples, and determination of carbon and gas trace amounts are presented. (50 references) [fr

  7. SPARK Version 1.1 user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenburger, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the input required to use Version 1.1 of the SPARK computer code. SPARK 1.1 is a library of FORTRAN main programs and subprograms designed to calculate eddy currents on conducting surfaces where current flow is assumed zero in the direction normal to the surface. Surfaces are modeled with triangular and/or quadrilateral elements. Lorentz forces produced by the interaction of eddy currents with background magnetic fields can be output at element nodes in a form compatible with most structural analysis codes. In addition, magnetic fields due to eddy currents can be determined at points off the surface. Version 1.1 features eddy current streamline plotting with optional hidden-surface-removal graphics and topological enhancements that allow essentially any orientable surface to be modeled. SPARK also has extensive symmetry specification options. In order to make the manual as self-contained as possible, six appendices are included that present summaries of the symmetry options, topological options, coil options and code algorithms, with input and output examples. An edition of SPARK 1.1 is available on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center at Livermore, California. Another more generic edition is operational on the VAX computers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and is available on magnetic tape by request. The generic edition requires either the GKS or PLOT10 graphics package and the IMSL or NAG mathematical package. Requests from outside the United States will be subject to applicable federal regulations regarding dissemination of computer programs. 22 refs

  8. SI Engine with repetitive NS spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheshniy, Sergey; Nikipelov, Andrey; Anokhin, Eugeny; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Laplase Team; Mipt Team; Pu Team

    2013-09-01

    Now de-facto the only technology for fuel-air mixtures ignition in IC engines exists. It is a spark discharge of millisecond duration in a short discharge gap. The reason for such a small variety of methods of ignition initiation is very specific conditions of the engine operation. First, it is very high-pressure of fuel-air mixture - from 5-7 atmospheres in old-type engines and up to 40-50 atmospheres on the operating mode of HCCI. Second, it is a very wide range of variation of the oxidizer/fuel ratio in the mixture - from almost stoichiometric (0.8-0.9) at full load to very lean (φ = 0.3-0.5) mixtures at idle and/or economical cruising mode. Third, the high velocity of the gas in the combustion chamber (up to 30-50 m/s) resulting in a rapid compression of swirling inlet flow. The paper presents the results of tests of distributed spark ignition system powered by repetitive pulse nanosecond discharge. Dynamic pressure measurements show the increased pressure and frequency stability for nanosecond excitation in comparison with the standard spark plug. Excitation by single nanosecond high-voltage pulse and short train of pulses was examined. In all regimes the nanosecond pulsed excitation demonstrate a better performance.

  9. Who Justifies Questionable Reporting Practices? Answers from a Representative Survey of Journalists in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Baugut

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a secondary analysis of representative survey data of journalists in Germany (n= 1536, this paper draws attention to two variables that are important when it comes to explain whether journalists accept questionable reporting practices, such as paying people to obtain information or using confidential government documents without permission. First, perceived role achievement is important, as journalists who do not feel able to achieve an active role tend to accept questionable reporting practices more often. Second, however, this relationship is only true for journalists having a moderate tendency to the political left. Findings are explained by means of the theory of cognitive dissonance.

  10. Journalism and reputation of journalists in times of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Ortiz de Guinea Ayala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The reputation of journalists is seen as a line of research, that aims at analysing professional practices from the perspective of reputation. The framework within which this research falls, constitutes an area of convergence, between studies on the professionalism of the seventies and eighties, with their own analysis of reputation in the field of organizations. This, observed through the prism of an economic crisis that has produced not only a crisis in  prevailing professional values but also in the social recognition of information professionals.

  11. Are Journalists to be Punished for Doing their Job?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Trine

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the current position of journalists’ criminal responsibility regarding criminal offences perpetrated during their job. The standpoint is taken at the principle of freedom of expression and the bedrock principle of the free press and emphasises the importance of these principles...... in a democratic society. At the same time the right to privacy is pointed out. A distinction is made between criminal law provisions that by their nature constitute a limitation of freedom of expression and criminal law provisions where this is not the case. Different types of journalistic working methods...

  12. xxi Century Latin American Journalists: Beyond Post-Truth Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of circumstances that journalism is facing, academia should rethink the classical conceptions of the profession, especially when they reduce journalism to abstract models disregarding reporters’ actual practices. Results of a global research propose a new definition of journalism, a profession caught between conflicting interests that lack the supremacy of news production, as it used to be in the past century. It is all about broadening the debate to reconsider the role of the journalist in the contemporary information report, beyond current concepts such as post-truth.

  13. How Silicon Valley Journalists Talk about: Independence in Innovation Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Kirsten; Nordfors, David

    2010-01-01

    Silicon Valley has become known for innovations that have led to substantial changes for citizens around the world. In 1960s’-80s’ the innovation had to do with computers and electronics, 1990s-00s’ it was on Internet and Web services. Since the later part of the 00’s, clean tech has emerged as a keyword. The valley culture is known to stress the value of trust-based personal contacts. This applies also to journalists and their access to sources. This paper discusses how this relates to tradi...

  14. Canaries in a coal-mine? What the killings of journalists tell us about future repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohdes, Anita R; Carey, Sabine C

    2017-03-01

    An independent press that is free from government censorship is regarded as instrumental to ensuring human rights protection. Yet governments across the globe often target journalists when their reports seem to offend them or contradict their policies. Can the government's infringements of the rights of journalists tell us anything about its wider human rights agenda? The killing of a journalist is a sign of deteriorating respect for human rights. If a government orders the killing of a journalist, it is willing to use extreme measures to eliminate the threat posed by the uncontrolled flow of information. If non-state actors murder journalists, it reflects insecurity, which can lead to a backlash by the government, again triggering state-sponsored repression. To test the argument whether the killing of journalists is a precursor to increasing repression, we introduce a new global dataset on killings of journalists between 2002 and 2013 that uses three different sources that track such events across the world. The new data show that mostly local journalists are targeted and that in most cases the perpetrators remain unconfirmed. Particularly in countries with limited repression, human rights conditions are likely to deteriorate in the two years following the killing of a journalist. When journalists are killed, human rights conditions are unlikely to improve where standard models of human rights would expect an improvement. Our research underlines the importance of taking the treatment of journalists seriously, not only because failure to do so endangers their lives and limits our understanding of events on the ground, but also because their physical safety is an important precursor of more repression in the future.

  15. Big Data Analytics with Datalog Queries on Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkapsky, Alexander; Yang, Mohan; Interlandi, Matteo; Chiu, Hsuan; Condie, Tyson; Zaniolo, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in exploiting the opportunity provided by cloud computing platforms for large-scale analytics. Among these platforms, Apache Spark is growing in popularity for machine learning and graph analytics. Developing efficient complex analytics in Spark requires deep understanding of both the algorithm at hand and the Spark API or subsystem APIs (e.g., Spark SQL, GraphX). Our BigDatalog system addresses the problem by providing concise declarative specification of complex queries amenable to efficient evaluation. Towards this goal, we propose compilation and optimization techniques that tackle the important problem of efficiently supporting recursion in Spark. We perform an experimental comparison with other state-of-the-art large-scale Datalog systems and verify the efficacy of our techniques and effectiveness of Spark in supporting Datalog-based analytics.

  16. Liquid-Arc/Spark-Excitation Atomic-Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagen, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Constituents of solutions identified in situ. Liquid-arc/spark-excitation atomic-emission spectroscopy (LAES) is experimental variant of atomic-emission spectroscopy in which electric arc or spark established in liquid and spectrum of light from arc or spark analyzed to identify chemical elements in liquid. Observations encourage development of LAES equipment for online monitoring of process streams in such industries as metal plating, electronics, and steel, and for online monitoring of streams affecting environment.

  17. Internet adoption in the newsroom: Journalists' use of the Internet explained by attitudes and perceived functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.A.H.M.; Vergeer, M.R.M.; Pleijter, A.R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Journalists differ in the degree to which they have adopted the Internet professionally. While earlier studies were predominantly descriptive, this study explains why journalists differ in the amount (time spent on the Internet) and nature (diversity of Internet applications) of their use of the

  18. The Woman Journalist of the 1920s and 1930s in Fiction and in Autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Donna

    A study examined the portrait of the woman journalist as revealed through the autobiographies of eight women journalists whose careers spanned the decades of the 1920s and 1930s. The portrait was derived from several factors in the autobiographies: education and career commitment, character of personality traits, jobs in the profession, statements…

  19. Media and juvenile delinquency : A study into the relationship between journalists, politics, and public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, Nel; Van Atteveldt, Wouter; Gagestein, Sarah; Jacobi, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2011, the number of registered juvenile suspects declined by 44 percent, but the Dutch public did not feel any safer. In this research, we study media coverage of youth crime and interview journalists and their sources in order to investigate the relationship between journalists,

  20. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Renita

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  1. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  2. Inner-Directed and Other-Directed Values of Professional Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stuart H.

    1978-01-01

    Reports that an analysis of the responses of 35 journalists to 50 value items revealed two types of journalists: the inner-directed high professional and the other-directed low professional. Discusses attitudes and values of the two types. (GT)

  3. Journalists' and Public Relations Practitioners' News Values: Perceptions and Cross-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallot, Lynne M.; Steinfatt, Thomas M.; Salwen, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on the relationship between journalism and public relations by surveying journalists and public relations practitioners. Shows that the two groups share generally similar news values, but that journalists were largely unaware of this similarity. Finds that practitioners, expecting contributions of social good by public…

  4. The Professional Journalist: A Guide to the Practices and Principles of the News Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenberg, John

    This handbook examines the role and the skills of professional journalists in newspaper, radio, magazine, and television reporting. It is designed for use in the college classroom and in professional courses aimed at improving the skills of newsmen. It can also serve as a handbook for the practicing journalist wishing to increase his knowledge…

  5. Journalists' Occupational Stress: A Comparative Study between Reporting Critical Events and Domestic News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Susana; Marques-Pinto, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    Nowadays, journalism is considered a stressful occupation, not only due to the stress perceived in journalists' daily work but also due to the critical, potentially traumatic events they report. However, research on journalists' occupational stress in both these professional settings is still scarce. This study aims to characterize and compare occupational stress variables perceived by journalists in their daily work and in critical scenarios. Taking the Holistic Model of Occupational Stress by Nelson and Simmons (2003) as a framework, 25 Portuguese journalists, all with experience in reporting critical events, were interviewed on their perceptions of some core variables of the model: occupational stressors, distress and eustress emotional reactions, and the consequences of these experiences on their well-being. Differences among these core variables, according to the number of deployments to a critical event, were statistically analysed in order to ascertain whether repeated exposure to trauma influenced journalists' occupational stress perceptions. The data content analysis showed that occupational stressors and emotional reactions differed across settings, while the consequences associated with journalists' experiences were perceived as being mainly negative in both occupational contexts. Significant differences were identified in some of these variables according to the number of deployments to a critical event (p < .05). These findings may contribute to a reflection on the role of media organizations in preparing and supporting journalists in their work performance, and on the promotion of occupational health within the scope of journalists' daily work and critical events. The article closes with considerations for future studies.

  6. The Role of Corporate and Government Surveillance in Shifting Journalistic Information Security Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies have fundamentally altered how journalists communicate with their sources, enabling them to exchange information through social media as well as video, audio, and text chat. Simultaneously, journalists are increasingly concerned with corporate and government surveillance as a threat to their ability to speak with sources in…

  7. Tomorrow's Journalists: In-Groups, Out-Groups, and News Topic Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzley, Sara Baker; Banning, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored whether student journalists believed they shared news topic preferences with the public. Previous research suggests journalists are very different from the audiences they serve, which may influence their perceptions of audience story preferences because of the social identity theory and the social distance corollary. A national…

  8. Sparking investment in Ontario's power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the business strategy needed to spark investment in Ontario's power generation industry. It examines the process of decision making and investing in an uncertain environment. The paper suggests that any strategy based on one view of the future courts trouble and that strategic flexibility can prepare for what cannot be predicted. Finally the paper suggests that Ontario needs to create a stable policy and regulatory environment that allows investors to fulfill reasonable expectations and investors need to place bets that provide the flexibility to respond quickly to changing market conditions

  9. Hybrid employment recommendation algorithm based on Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoquan; Lin, Yubei; Zhang, Xingming

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the real-time application of collaborative filtering employment recommendation algorithm (CF), a clustering collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm (CCF) is developed, which applies hierarchical clustering to CF and narrows the query range of neighbour items. In addition, to solve the cold-start problem of content-based recommendation algorithm (CB), a content-based algorithm with users’ information (CBUI) is introduced for job recommendation. Furthermore, a hybrid recommendation algorithm (HRA) which combines CCF and CBUI algorithms is proposed, and implemented on Spark platform. The experimental results show that HRA can overcome the problems of cold start and data sparsity, and achieve good recommendation accuracy and scalability for employment recommendation.

  10. Anticipating Change, Sparking Innovation: Framing the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, John R.; Spencer, Harrison C.

    2015-01-01

    As the 100th anniversary of the 1915 Welch-Rose report approaches, the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH) has been pursuing two initiatives to spark innovation in academic partnerships for enhancing population health: (1) Framing the Future: The Second 100 Years of Education for Public Health and (2) Reconnecting Public Health and Care Delivery to Improve the Health of Populations. We describe how ASPPH-member schools and programs accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health, along with their extraordinarily diverse array of partners, are working to improve education that better prepares health professionals to meet 21st-century population health needs. PMID:25706017

  11. Sliding-spark spectrometry of sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeyo, H; Flórían, K; Golloch, A; Vojtekovà, V

    2002-10-01

    Direct analysis of non-conducting solids and dielectric surface layers for elements at trace levels has been shown to be feasible by the new so-called sliding-spark spectroscopy, in which a discharge plasma is bound by, and propagates on, the surface of a dielectric sample matrix. By using a river sediment as a model matrix, bound in PVC to improve elemental atomization and excitation efficiency, as a result of the formation of volatile chlorides, the potential of the technique for environmental applications has been investigated by studying the characteristic UV-visible radiation emitted in the wavelength range 210-510 nm for the elements Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, V, Ti, and Mn. The radiation was detected by means of a CCD spectrometer and analysed for spectral line identification, selection, and the linearity of the spectral response, to determine whether this was suitable for establishing a calibration strategy for quantitative analysis using the sliding-spark source.

  12. The imaginaries of the future journalists in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Santos-Sainz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how differently future journalists perceive the professional and social realities of journalism according to their gender and socio-economic background. The study is based on two methods. The first method is the empirical analysis of the social features of the students of the schools of journalism of the public universities of Strasbourg, Bordeaux, Tours and Marseille, at the start of their studies. The second method is a series of in-depth interviews that investigate the family history, values and perceptions about journalism of the students of the Institute of Journalism of Bordeaux. The results show that journalism students are not a homogeneous group. Their social backgrounds are remarkably different and greatly influence their perception of the profession of journalism.

  13. When the Journalist Meet to the New Media: Some Reflections on the Interactions between Journalist and New Media Driven Journalism in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Kaymas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is deal with the technological changes which is affected the news production and journalistic routines within the case of Turkey‟s online journalism experiences. New information and communication technologies are certainly paved the way of the new dynamics of the interaction between journalist and news production globally, and in this respect, some positive consequences such as establishment of new channels in which the hope for pluralism and democratic communication possibilities have emerged in the media sector. But, as a parallel of these on-going transformation processes, the main problems have been continued in the logic of new media ecology. In this regard, pluralisation in the media markets, media ownership diversity, digital divide and at the hearth of the knowledge society the greater disparity of the accessibility of the information sources is being triggered by the unsuitable law framework, freedom of expression and of course intensified ethical problems are continued in the new media driven journalism and as a result this, journalists working conditions has been affected worse. Therefore, it should be said that the changes in the technologies of news production do not simply adjust journalistic practices; they also modified what might be considered technologically specific forms of work. These new work forms are rooted in the affordances of novel technical capacities while also making claims about the journalistic nature of such work. In summary, the seeking an answer a question is ever more important and meaningful than before. Each mode in this study, it is argued that, points to different understandings of the relationship between journalistic work and technology and carries different implications about the changing nature of journalism in the digital age. The aim of the study is to explore the link of the journalist and the new media nexus. In this respect, the study is based on 22 in-depth interviews of online

  14. Living with Control, Working with Control: Reflections of Israeli Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglė Bareikytė

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, liberal democracy is problematized by examining one paradox inherent to its conceptualization and practice: the possibility for those elected in to power to call out the state of exception, thereby implementing mechanisms of control through the system of law. At the same time, our assumption is that people are not only controlled by instruments of the state, but also by their self-imposed control and built-in processes of socialization and adaption. Thus we conceptualize a theoretical framework where the use of big words like “democracy” and “freedom” is changed into the analysis of external and internal control mechanisms in a democracy based on the idea of sovereignty. To combine this theoretical groundwork with empirical practice, we conducted qualitative interviews with Israeli journalists. In doing so, we wanted to analyze their reflections on what could be considered the potential control of a professional group of media practitioners whose role it is to expose the misuse of power, and act as a watchdog in a democratic society. Israel is used as an intensified example, because it is a liberal democracy where the state of emergency has endured for over fifty years. This has affected its media landscape through control mechanisms, such as media censorship or gag orders. The reflections of these Israeli journalists did pave the way for our explorative research to question the extent of “freedom” in any democracy that is based on the idea of sovereignty and focus on the mechanisms which limit and control their actions.

  15. Development of a SPARK Training Dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Amanda M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olson, Jarrod R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In its first five years, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) sponsored more than 400 undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral students in internships and research positions (Wyse 2012). In the past seven years, the NGSI program has, and continues to produce a large body of scientific, technical, and policy work in targeted core safeguards capabilities and human capital development activities. Not only does the NGSI program carry out activities across multiple disciplines, but also across all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/NNSA locations in the United States. However, products are not readily shared among disciplines and across locations, nor are they archived in a comprehensive library. Rather, knowledge of NGSI-produced literature is localized to the researchers, clients, and internal laboratory/facility publication systems such as the Electronic Records and Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). There is also no incorporated way of analyzing existing NGSI literature to determine whether the larger NGSI program is achieving its core safeguards capabilities and activities. A complete library of NGSI literature could prove beneficial to a cohesive, sustainable, and more economical NGSI program. The Safeguards Platform for Automated Retrieval of Knowledge (SPARK) has been developed to be a knowledge storage, retrieval, and analysis capability to capture safeguards knowledge to exist beyond the lifespan of NGSI. During the development process, it was necessary to build a SPARK training dataset (a corpus of documents) for initial entry into the system and for demonstration purposes. We manipulated these data to gain new information about the breadth of NGSI publications, and they evaluated the science-policy interface at PNNL as a practical demonstration of SPARK’s intended analysis capability. The analysis demonstration sought to answer the

  16. Investigating the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of traumatized detained youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diana C; Modrowski, Crosby A; Kerig, Patricia K; Chaplo, Shannon D

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we tested the validity of a dissociative subtype in a sample of 225 detained adolescents (142 boys, 83 girls) likely meeting full or partial criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Competing theories of dissociation pose controversy regarding dissociation as a taxon versus a continuum, and results of the current study contribute to this debate by providing evidence of distinct group differences between those high and low in dissociation. Mixture modeling revealed 2 groups of youth with differing levels of depersonalization/derealization dissociative symptoms. Differences between the 2 groups of youth were investigated regarding trauma exposure and several posttraumatic reactions: posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), emotion dysregulation, and emotional numbing. Compared with youth classified in the low-dissociation group, youth who exhibited high levels of dissociation demonstrated higher levels of total PTSS, posttraumatic symptom clusters of emotional numbing, intrusion, and associated features, as well as reporting more difficulties with emotion dysregulation. To test theory regarding the factors that increase the likelihood of persistent dissociation, bootstrapped regression analyses were performed to examine the possibility of an indirect effect of peritraumatic dissociation. Results consistent with statistical mediation suggested that the presence of peritraumatic dissociation at the time of trauma may contribute to the continuation of dissociative symptoms as a more generalized pattern. The results of the current study have implications for clinical treatment with traumatized youth. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Detained introns are a novel, widespread class of post-transcriptionally spliced introns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutz, Paul L; Bhutkar, Arjun; Sharp, Phillip A

    2015-01-01

    Deep sequencing of embryonic stem cell RNA revealed many specific internal introns that are significantly more abundant than the other introns within polyadenylated transcripts; we classified these as "detained" introns (DIs). We identified thousands of DIs, many of which are evolutionarily conserved, in human and mouse cell lines as well as the adult mouse liver. DIs can have half-lives of over an hour yet remain in the nucleus and are not subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Drug inhibition of Clk, a stress-responsive kinase, triggered rapid splicing changes for a specific subset of DIs; half showed increased splicing, and half showed increased intron detention, altering transcript pools of >300 genes. Srsf4, which undergoes a dramatic phosphorylation shift in response to Clk kinase inhibition, regulates the splicing of some DIs, particularly in genes encoding RNA processing and splicing factors. The splicing of some DIs-including those in Mdm4, a negative regulator of p53-was also altered following DNA damage. After 4 h of Clk inhibition, the expression of >400 genes changed significantly, and almost one-third of these are p53 transcriptional targets. These data suggest a widespread mechanism by which the rate of splicing of DIs contributes to the level of gene expression. © 2015 Boutz et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Simulation of the Electromagnetic Properties of a Pestov Spark Counter

    CERN Document Server

    Pestov, Yu N; CERN. Geneva; Schmidt, H R; Thoma, P

    1997-01-01

    Both the electrostatic and the electromagnetic properties of the proposed Pestov Spark counter for the CERN-LHC experiment ALICE were calculated employing the HF simulation package MAFIA. The simulations helped to design a frontend readout board of high bandwidth for the transmission of the very fast signal induced by the spark to the frontend electronics.

  19. Detector for recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.S.; Asatiani, T.L.; Ivanov, V.I.; Mkrtchyan, G.G.; Pikhtelev, R.N.

    1974-01-01

    A detector consisting of the combination of a drift and a wide gap spark chambers and designed to detect recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas is described. It is shown, that by using an appropriate discrimination the detector allows to detect reliably the recoil nuclei in the presence of intensive electron and γ-quanta beams

  20. knock characteristics analysis of a supercharged spark ignition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and manufacturing of spark ignition engines with improved performance. Understanding factors influencing knock in spark ignition engines will help designers understand how to manage knock in engines. Various designs over the years have been introduced in internal combustion engines with the aim of improving.

  1. Protection of neutral-beam-accelerator electrodes from spark discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The high-voltage (HV) electrodes of neutral beam sources (NBS's) must be protected from occasional sparks to ground. Spark currents can be limited with special transformers and reactors which introduce time delays that are long enough to quench the spark or to disconnect the energy source. A saturated time delay transformer (STDT) connected in series with the HV power supply detects spark faults and limits the current supplied by the power supply and its capacitance to ground; it also initiates spark quenching. Nonsaturated, longitudinal reactors limit the discharge current supplied by the energy stored in the circuit capacitance of the NBS filament and arc power supplies long enough to discharge this capacitance into a resistor. The design principles of these protective circuits are presented in this paper

  2. Protection of neutral-beam accelerator electrodes from spark discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    The high-voltage (HV) electrodes of neutral beam sources (NBS's) must be protected from occasional sparks to ground. Spark currents can be limited with special transformers and reactors which introduce time delays that are long enough to quench the spark or to disconnect the energy source. A saturated time delay transformer (STDT) connected in series with the HV power supply detects spark faults and limits the current supplied by the power supply and its capacitance to ground; it also initiates spark quenching. Nonsaturated, longitudinal reactors limit the discharge current supplied by the energy stored in the circuit capacitance of the NBS filament and arc power supplies long enough to discharge this capacitance into a resistor. The design principles of these protective circuits are presented

  3. Media roles, and ethics: perceptions of Brazilian, American and French journalist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza Herckovitz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes self-perceptions of media roles and ethics of a sample of Brazilian journalists and compares them with American and French journalists. French and American styles of journalism have had major infl uences on Brazilian newspapers at different points in time. The study included a self-administered survey with 402 journalists working for 13 leading news organizations and personal interviews with renowned journalists of Sao Paulo- Brazil’s main media hub.  The typical Brazilian journalist in this study was a young white middle-class male, politically left leaning oriented, more likely to be married and Catholic. Respondents held a pluralistic view regarding media roles and expressed higher tolerance of controversial journalistic practices compared to that of their counterparts. Findings are in line with the social-political environment in which journalists operate. They do not enjoy special rights of access to government information, tend to distrust public institutions and have still been adapting to press freedom since the country’s redemocratization.

  4. Journalistic identity and audience perceptions: paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  5. Journalistic identity and audience perceptions: paradigm and models under construction in the African Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  6. The Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflicts: How Can They Be Better Safeguarded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Düsterhöft

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The years 2011 and 2012 were among the most deadly for journalists reporting from conflict situations worldwide. The numbers of assaults, arrests and attacks have been on a constant rise and portray a dramatic image of the journalistic profession. In light of the increasing threats in armed conflicts, being a war reporter has become an inherently dangerous task. Journalists are not only at risk of becoming so-called collateral damage during military operations, they are also increasingly targeted. Their role as a watchdog and witness to the horrors of war, in addition to the undeniable power of the word and image they spread, has made them popular targets. It is therefore essential that the international community re-evaluate journalists' de jure and de facto protections in armed conflicts to allow for better safeguards and consequently less casualties in the imminent future. This article examines the current protections afforded to journalists and aims at detecting proposals for enhanced safeguards that are most likely to effectively improve journalists' safety in the field. In this regard, this article will argue that the legal protections are in fact sufficient and hardly amendable and that therefore, a more practical, hands-on approach to implementation of those protections must be the focus of future actions. This goal can only be achieved by a comprehensive mission jointly pursued by governments, militaries, journalists, media, NGOs and society.

  7. The Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflicts: How Can They Be Better Safeguarded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Düsterhöft

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The years 2011 and 2012 were among the most deadly for journalists reporting from conflict situations worldwide. The numbers of assaults, arrests and attacks have been on a constant rise and portray a dramatic image of the journalistic profession. In light of the increasing threats in armed conflicts, being a war reporter has become an inherently dangerous task. Journalists are not only at risk of becoming so-called collateral damage during military operations, they are also increasingly targeted. Their role as a watchdog and witness to the horrors of war, in addition to the undeniable power of the word and image they spread, has made them popular targets. It is therefore essential that the international community re-evaluate journalists' de jure and de facto protections in armed conflicts to allow for better safeguards and consequently less casualties in the imminent future. This article examines the current protections afforded to journalists and aims at detecting proposals for enhanced safeguards that are most likely to effectively improve journalists' safety in the field. In this regard, this article will argue that the legal protections are in fact sufficient and hardly amendable and that therefore, a more practical, hands-on approach to implementation of those protections must be the focus of future actions. This goal can only be achieved by a comprehensive mission jointly pursued by governments, militaries, journalists, media, NGOs and society.

  8. Ethical attitudes of Andalusian journalists to deal with especially sensitive issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Suárez Villegas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This research article analyses the positions of Andalusian journalists in relation to especially sensitive issues. Methods. The study combines qualitative and quantitative techniques: in-depth interviews and a questionnaire-based survey, respectively. Results. The professional work of Andalusian journalists is based more on the predominant values of their communities than on the deontological codes of the profession, which are unknown by the vast majority. Conclusions. Journalists exhibit a liberal spirit, which is characteristic of a secular society, and believe that the freedom of expression should be respected when dealing with especially sensitive issues, which must be resolved according to the particular circumstances of each case.

  9. ‘It’s like a family!’ - The Unity and Community of Journalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Hassall

    the strong practice-community bonds existing between journalists employed at competing traditional broadcast media. Drawing on a two-year period of ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the newsrooms of BBC News, ITV News, TV Avisen and TV2 Nyhederne, the paper presents an anthropological approach to studying......To journalists at traditional broadcast media these are times of insecurity and opportunity, rapid change and ever-growing competition. In the face of growing pressure, the unity and community of journalists employed at traditional broadcast media is increasingly strengthened. This paper explores...

  10. Screening for PTSD among detained adolescents: Implications of the changes in the DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrowski, Crosby A; Bennett, Diana C; Chaplo, Shannon D; Kerig, Patricia K

    2017-01-01

    Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly relevant for youth involved in the juvenile justice system given their high rates of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, to date, no studies have investigated the implications of the recent revisions to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (5th ed., DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) diagnostic criteria for PTSD for screening in this population. To this end, the present study compared PTSD screening rates using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev., DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2013) versus DSM-5 criteria in a group of detained adolescents. Participants included 209 youth (60 girls) aged 13-19 (M = 15.97, SD = 1.24). Youth completed measures of lifetime trauma exposure and past-month posttraumatic stress symptoms. Over 95% of youth in the sample reported exposure to at least 1 type of traumatic event. Approximately 19.60% of the sample screened positive for PTSD according to the DSM-5 compared to 17.70% according to the DSM-IV-TR. Girls were more likely than boys to screen positive for PTSD according to the DSM-IV-TR compared to the DSM-5. The main factors accounting for the differences in screening rates across the versions of PTSD criteria involved the removal of Criterion A2 from the DSM-5, the separation of avoidance symptoms (Criterion C) into their own cluster, the addition of a cluster involving negative alterations in cognitions and mood (Criterion D), and revisions to the cluster of arousal symptoms (Criterion E). Future research should continue to investigate gender differences in PTSD symptoms in youth and consider the implications of these diagnostic changes for the accurate diagnosis and referral to treatment of adolescents who demonstrate posttraumatic stress reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Unraveling the Image of Commutation Spark Generated in Universal Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazawa, Tamio; Almazroui, Ali; Egashira, Torao

    A universal motor, which is mainly used in vacuum cleaners, generates commutation sparks at the moment when the brush and the commutator segment are separated from each other during rotation. This study investigates the mechanism of commutation spark generation by analyzing high-speed camera images and its electrical aspect. We invented a new external trigger method that used laser light as the trigger signal for the shuttering a high-speed camera. This method enabled us to photograph sparks on any desired commutator segments during high-speed rotation, and that made the analysis after photographing easier. This paper shows that commutation sparks in universal motors are generated on every other commutator segment and at the peak of pulses in the voltage between the brush and commutator segment. Other aspects are also clarified, such as the generation of the singular and plural number of sparks on one commutator segment at a time, the time from the moment of spark generation to extinction, and spark generation during a single rotation.

  12. The prospective usefulness of callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder in predicting treatment engagement among detained girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Olivier F; Van Damme, Lore; Fanti, Kostas A; Andershed, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Although treatment engagement (TE) is crucial for treatment success it is not well known how likely detained girls are to engage in treatment and what features may impede them from doing so. This study is the first to examine the prognostic usefulness of two features of potential interest, being callous-unemotional (CU) traits and conduct disorder (CD), in relation to TE. Detained girls and their parents (n = 75) were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children to assess CD, and completed the Antisocial Process Screening Device to assess CU traits dimensionally and categorically as in the new diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) CU-based specifier. One to two months later, the girls reported how much they engaged in treatment. At the zero-order level, self-, but not parent-reported CU traits and CD were predictive of lower levels of TE. The incorporation of CU traits into a diagnosis of CD identified girls with lower levels of future TE, a finding that held across different informants. Of note, the aforementioned findings only became apparent when using a dimensional measure of CU traits, and not when using the categorical measure of CU traits currently included in DSM-5. This study showed that CU traits can help developing an understanding of what factors hinder TE among detained girls. Our findings also support recommendations to incorporate CU traits into the CD diagnosis, and suggest that dimensional approaches to do so may yield relevant information about future levels of TE.

  13. Elderly arrestees in police custody cells: implementation of detention and medical decision on fitness to be detained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Aurélie; Belmenouar, Otmane; Chariot, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Most individuals detained in police custody are male adolescents or young adults. Demeaning custody conditions, which are common in French police cells, bring to light legitimate questions about the detention of elderly people. We aimed to determine the proportion of detainees over age 60, their health characteristics and conditions of detention, and the factors included in medical decisions on fitness to be detained. We studied all arrestees over age 60 examined in one year (January 1st-December 31st, 2009) by forensic physicians from our department. We collected data concerning their medical histories, their experiences in police custody, and their reported assaults. Individuals over 60 accounted for 180 of 15,481 detainees (1%) and were predominantly male (92%). Some arrestees were examined several times during one or more detentions such that a total of 265 medical examinations were performed. Most individuals (133 of 172, 77%) reported one or more chronic somatic disorders and 115 of 160 (72%) were currently receiving treatment for a condition. Less half of two detainees (78 of 170, 46%) expressed some complaints during examination, commonly including pain (54 of 170, 32%), and 115 of 160 arrestees (72%) received medication while in custody. Detainees were considered to be completely fit for police custody in 119 of 259 cases (46%), and 25 of 259 cases (10%) were considered to be unfit to be detained. The harsh conditions of police custody are particularly inappropriate for elderly individuals. Guidelines for custody officers and attending physicians that take the specific health needs of older detainees into account should be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Journalists' Privilege to Withhold Information in Judicial and Other Proceedings: State Shield Statutes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Henry

    2007-01-01

    .... To date, 33 states and the District of Columbia have recognized a journalists' privilege through the enactment of press "shield laws," which protect the relationship between reporters, their source...

  15. FALSE, INACCURATE AND INCOMPLETE NEWS: CHALLENGES FACING JOURNALISTS INVOLUNTARY RECTIFICATION. THE SPANISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Fernández Barrero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Journalists must verify information provided by their sources. However, factors such as job precariousness, urgency and the credibility they give to mainly institutional sources mean that journalists do not verify information. Most codes of conduct recommend the duty to correct information as soon as an unintentionally committed error is discovered, but journalists dislike recognising their own errors and even more so correcting them publicly. These circumstances affect adversely the quality of discourse and the credibility of mass-media. Ombudsmen partially bridge this gap. As a result, false, mistaken, wrong or biased pieces of news are published and journalists, against the rules of truth and honesty, rarely rectify on their own initiative. This article analyses the coverage of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction, in which the game of mimicry saw the same mistake repeated in different media and in different countries, although prestigious newspapers published an unusual public apology.

  16. False, inaccurate and incomplete news: challenges facing journalists involuntary rectification. The Spanish experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio López Hidalgo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Journalists must verify information provided by their sources. However, factors such as job precariousness, urgency and the credibility they give to mainly institutional sources mean that journalists do not verify information. Most codes of conduct recommend the duty to correct information as soon as an unintentionally committed error is discovered, but journalists dislike recognising their own errors and even more so correcting them publicly. These circumstances affect adversely the quality of discourse and the credibility of mass-media. Ombudsmen partially bridge this gap. As a result, false, mistaken, wrong or biased pieces of news are published and journalists, against the rules of truth and honesty, rarely rectify on their own initiative. This article analyses the coverage of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction, in which the game of mimicry saw the same mistake repeated in different media and in different countries, although prestigious newspapers published an unusual public apology.

  17. Hazardous Waste Management: The Role of Journalists in Decision Making Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerskov-Klika, M.; Lokner, V.; Subasiae, D.; Schaller, A.

    2002-01-01

    The journalists are crucial for informing and education of general public about facts related to hazardous and radioactive waste management. Radio programs, TV and newspapers are daily reporting on relevant facts and news. In general, it is true that the majority of journalists are interested more in so called daily politics than in educating general public on certain technical or scientific topics. Therefore, hazardous and radioactive waste management was introduced to Croatian general public in last ten years mainly through various news on site selection of radioactive waste disposal facilities and some problems related to hazardous waste management. This paper presents APO's experience with journalists in last ten years includes program and activities referring informing and educating of journalists from all media

  18. Hazardous Waste Management: The Role of Journalists in Decision Making Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerskov-Klika, M.; Lokner, V.; Subasiae, D.; Schaller, A.

    2002-02-28

    The journalists are crucial for informing and education of general public about facts related to hazardous and radioactive waste management. Radio programs, TV and newspapers are daily reporting on relevant facts and news. In general, it is true that the majority of journalists are interested more in so called daily politics than in educating general public on certain technical or scientific topics. Therefore, hazardous and radioactive waste management was introduced to Croatian general public in last ten years mainly through various news on site selection of radioactive waste disposal facilities and some problems related to hazardous waste management. This paper presents APO's experience with journalists in last ten years includes program and activities referring informing and educating of journalists from all media.

  19. [Storytelling in Health Journalism: Online Survey of Health Journalists on Definition and Use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimes, S

    2016-12-01

    Background: Although health information is of great interest and plays an important role in almost all media, there are very few studies on the actual work of health journalists. Methods: A quantitative online survey with qualitative elements on the definition and use of storytelling in health journalism was carried out among members of various professional journalists' associations (n=86). Results: The results suggest that health journalists understand storytelling especially as a term used when an article has a dramatic construction, and the story is about real people. As reasons for using storytelling, health journalists primarily name the understandable and clear presentation of medical issues. They see better chances for identification and establishing a relationship to the readers' lives. Of particular importance seems to be that narrative elements do not distort the facts and protect the privacy rights of persons mentioned in case reports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Target fabrication using laser and spark erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1982-01-01

    Fabrication of laser fusion targets requires a number of special techniques. We have developed both laser and spark erosion machining to produce minute parts of complex targets. A high repetition rate YAG laser at double frequency is used to etch various materials. For example, marks or patterns are often necessary on structured or advanced targets. The laser is also used to thin down plastic coated stalks. A spark erosion system has proved to be a versatile tool and we describe current fabrication processes like cutting, drilling, and ultra precise machining. Spark erosion has interesting features for target fabrication: it is a highly controllable and reproducible technique as well as relatively inexpensive

  1. Communication with the public: a journalist's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungblut, M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the proper role of the media in the nuclear debate, and the way the nuclear industry can itself contribute to a better understanding of its problems and of the contribution it can make to a secure and safe energy supply. It is possible that the nuclear industry could be the first in modern history whose growth and development might be seriously hampered, or even stopped, by a broad public movement. The economic future of the nuclear industry is also endangered by the fact that even those power plants already in use or under construction are becoming more and more expensive because of the abundance of security equipment imposed by a frightened bureaucracy. All this is due to a remarkable change in public opinion during the 1970s. This change was not, I think, initiated by the press. But once started, many journalists joined the movement, or at least broadly reported the arguments of the anti-nuclear fighters, and in this way attracted the attention of the general public. The question is whether or not the press is to blame. (author)

  2. Automatic classification of journalistic documents on the Internet1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Online journalism is increasing every day. There are many news agencies, newspapers, and magazines using digital publication in the global network. Documents published online are available to users, who use search engines to find them. In order to deliver documents that are relevant to the search, they must be indexed and classified. Due to the vast number of documents published online every day, a lot of research has been carried out to find ways to facilitate automatic document classification. The objective of the present study is to describe an experimental approach for the automatic classification of journalistic documents published on the Internet using the Vector Space Model for document representation. The model was tested based on a real journalism database, using algorithms that have been widely reported in the literature. This article also describes the metrics used to assess the performance of these algorithms and their required configurations. The results obtained show the efficiency of the method used and justify further research to find ways to facilitate the automatic classification of documents.

  3. Division in the land of ‘the unspoken’: Examining journalistic practice in contemporary New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie M'Balla-Ndi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While the Kanaks’ (local indigenous population of New Caledonia pro-independence protests against the French settlers and, more broadly, the French Republic, have been extensively documented in the global media and academic literature, another protest - more subtle and diffused, but deeply embedded - is taking place in New Caledonia. New Caledonia is a South Pacific archipelago colonised by the French in 1853 and set to decide whether to remain in the French Republic or become independent in a referendum between 2014 and 2019. This paper suggests that there is a polarisation in the New Caledonian media sphere, which deeply affects journalistic practices with tendencies to resist Western impositions, standards and dominance (for Kanak journalists and their leaders, while metropolitan journalists (who have settled in New Caledonia from France tend to often reject customs or indigenous rules shaping general and media communication within local communities.  Both tendencies also have a significant impact on which material the journalists will be able to collect for their news organisations, as well as an impact on the relationships these journalists will maintain (or not with local communities and personalities. This paper examines some aspects of Pacific knowledge (including traditions, values, beliefs and protocols and explores the nuances of a complex socio-political ‘liquid modern’ context in order to present examples of how developments inherent from tradition, colonisation and decolonisation aspirations, affect the work of local journalists (both metropolitan journalists, and Kanak journalists.  Drawing on data collected during periods of archival research, participant observation and interviews conducted at both the metropolitan daily newspaper, Les Nouvelles Calédoniennes, and the pro-independence radio station, Radio Djiido, this paper demonstrates how local journalists problematically navigate, and often contest, diverse socio

  4. The Portrayal of Journalists in Turkish Cinema: A Study about Journalism Ethics through Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses journalism and how well this profession is framed according to the professional codes of journalism. It focuses on Turkish films made between 1980 and 1990. In the early 1980s, journalism became an important issue with the coercion of the mass media under the Turkish Republic. Gazeteci (The Journalist), Rahmet ve Gazap (Rahmet and Gazap), and Uyanık Gazeteci (The Vigilant Journalist) are the films based on the profession of journalism made during this era. The selected fi...

  5. Journalistic construction on women’s participation in politics and organized crime

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Téllez, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to identify and disclose the gender stereotypes and assumptions on the journalistic agenda of the City of Mexico, with regard to two issues on participation of women: federal elections of 2009 and drug trafficking and kidnapping.Methodology:a critical review of journalistic discourse and sociocultural rules was performed. The stated hypothesis was whether the press realizes the real role of women within society, beyond public policy and social imagination that spread equality and ...

  6. Journalistic construction on women’s participation in politics and organized crime

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Téllez, Josefina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to identify and disclose the gender stereotypes and assumptions on the journalistic agenda of the City of Mexico, with regard to two issues on participation of women: federal elections of 2009 and drug trafficking and kidnapping.Methodology: a critical review of journalistic discourse and sociocultural rules was performed. The stated hypothesis was whether the press realizes the real role of women within society, beyond public policy and social imagination that spread equality and...

  7. The psychological effects of reporting extreme violence: a study of Kenyan journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Wanga, Justus; Owen, John

    2015-09-01

    To assess the psychological health of journalists in Kenya who have reported on, and been exposed to, extreme violence. Descriptive. Psychological responses were elicited to two stressors, the ethnic violence surrounding the disputed 2007 general election and the Al-Shabab attack on the Westgate Mall in Nairobi. A representative sample of 90 Kenyan journalists was enrolled. Newsrooms of two national news organizations in Kenya. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (Impact of Event Scale-revised), depression (Deck Depression inventory-revised) and general psychological wellbeing (General Health Questionnaire). Of the 90 journalists approached 57 (63.3%) responded. Journalists covering the election violence (n = 23) reported significantly more PTSD type intrusion (p = 0.027) and arousal (p = 0.024) symptoms than their colleagues (n = 34) who had not covered the violence. Reporting the Westgate attack was not associated with increased psychopathology. Being wounded (n = 11) emerged as the most robust independent predictor of emotional distress. Journalists covering the ethnic violence compared to colleagues who did not were not more likely to receive psychological counselling. These data, the first of their kind from an African country, replicate findings over a decade old from Western media, namely that journalists asked to cover life-threatening events may develop significant symptoms of emotional difficulties and fail to receive therapy for them. Good journalism, a pillar of civil society, depends on healthy journalists. It is hoped that these data act as a catalyst encouraging news organisations sending journalists into harm's way to look out for their psychological health in doing so.

  8. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Communication between Public Institutions and Journalists through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Păun

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialist...

  9. The social group influences of US health journalists and their impact on the newsmaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M P; Blake, K D; Meissner, H I; Viswanath, K

    2013-04-01

    The news media play a vital role in disseminating health information, yet little is known about the social characteristics of health journalists or the impact they have on the newsmaking process. This study examines how the social group influences of US health journalists impact two important aspects of news production--'media agenda-setting' and 'framing'. Using data from a national survey of health and medical science journalists, the authors conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to study the links between the gender, age and race/ethnicity of respondents, and the ways in which they utilized news sources, other resources, news priorities and story angles. Female respondents were more likely than males to say that educating people to make informed decisions and disseminating new, accurate information are important priorities. Female and minority journalists were more likely than white males to use a variety of sources, and to say it is important to develop the health and scientific literacy of audiences and influence public health behaviors. The gender and race/ethnicity of journalists play an important role in the production of health news. Health educators can foster improved coverage by learning more about the life experiences of health journalists and developing better working relationships with them.

  10. Exploring the Performance of Spark for a Scientific Use Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehrish, Saba [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, Jim [Fermilab; Paterno, Marc [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the performance of a Spark implementation of a classification algorithm in the domain of High Energy Physics (HEP). Spark is a general engine for in-memory, large-scale data processing, and is designed for applications where similar repeated analysis is performed on the same large data sets. Classification problems are one of the most common and critical data processing tasks across many domains. Many of these data processing tasks are both computation- and data-intensive, involving complex numerical computations employing extremely large data sets. We evaluated the performance of the Spark implementation on Cori, a NERSC resource, and compared the results to an untuned MPI implementation of the same algorithm. While the Spark implementation scaled well, it is not competitive in speed to our MPI implementation, even when using significantly greater computational resources.

  11. Phase characterisation in spark plasma sintered TiPt alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikosha, S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions drawn from this presentation are that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of equiatomic BE TiPt powder produces fully sintered specimens, with incomplete homogenisation. There is a need for improved furnace atmosphere control so...

  12. Pulse-actuated fuel-injection spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ian; Tatro, Clement A.

    1978-01-01

    A replacement spark plug for reciprocating internal combustion engines that functions as a fuel injector and as a spark plug to provide a "stratified-charge" effect. The conventional carburetor is retained to supply the main fuel-air mixture which may be very lean because of the stratified charge. The replacement plug includes a cylindrical piezoelectric ceramic which contracts to act as a pump whenever an ignition pulse is applied to a central rod through the ceramic. The rod is hollow at its upper end for receiving fuel, it is tapered along its lower length to act as a pump, and it is flattened at its lower end to act as a valve for fuel injection from the pump into the cylinder. The rod also acts as the center electrode of the plug, with the spark jumping from the plug base to the lower end of the rod to thereby provide spark ignition that has inherent proper timing with the fuel injection.

  13. Multiple Spark-Generated Bubble Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Boo Cheong; Adikhari, Deepak; Fong, Siew Wan; Klaseboer, Evert

    The complex interactions of two and three spark-generated bubbles are studied using high speed photography. The corresponding simulations are performed using a 3D Boundary Element Method (BEM) code. The bubbles generated are between 3 to 5 mm in radius, and they are either in-phase or out-of-phase with one another. The possible interaction phenomena between two identically sized bubbles are summarized. Depending on their relative distances and phase differences, they can coalesce, jet towards or away from one another, split into smaller bubbles, or 'catapult' away from one another. The 'catapult' effect can be utilized to generated high speed jet in the absence of a solid boundary or shockwave. Also three bubble interactions are highlighted. Complicated phenomena such as bubble forming an elliptical shape and bubble splitting are observed. The BEM simulations provide insight into the physics of the phenomena by providing details such as detailed bubble shape changes (experimental observations are limited by the temporal and spatial resolution), and jet velocity. It is noted that the well-tested BEM code [1,2] utilized here is computationally very efficient as compared to other full-domain methods since only the bubble surface is meshed.

  14. Radiofrequency spark chambers and delay line resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayag, Jacques

    1971-01-01

    According to a suggestion of A. Kastler, a spark chamber was excited by an undamped radiofrequency pulse and tracks about 1 mm wide obtained; the result was interpreted by computation of the coefficients of electronic amplification and partial ambipolar diffusion. This work led us to the construction of a new fast triggering undamped wave-train generator of very high tension (patent taken out by the C.E.A. under the no.: EN 7 134 650 the 27.9.1971). Since this apparatus uses a resonant storage line, its design implied a precise knowledge of high impedance delay lines. The experimental radiofrequency spectra of the input impedance of opened or short-circuited lines were plotted completely and analysed by the circuits theory, new measuring methods were established, dispersion relations accurately checked and the equivalence of the formulas, within the third order, with theses of Debye's Dipolar Absorption demonstrated. General properties of Hilbert's transform were also investigated. From the experimental point of view, the electromagnetic energy storage process was extended to the case of a liquid nitrogen-immersed resonant delay line. The good behavior of the cryogenic experiment, where the main difficulty of icing was overcame by the construction of special electrodes, offers great promise for extrapolation to superconductivity. (author) [fr

  15. Oppositional defiant disorder dimensions and subtypes among detained male adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Barra, Steffen; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Walitza, Susanne; Plattner, Belinda

    2016-06-01

    In adolescent offenders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and its dimensions/subtypes have been frequently ignored due to the stronger focus on criminal behaviours. The revised criteria of the DSM-5 now allow diagnosing ODD in older youths independent of conduct disorder (CD). This study aimed at analysing ODD dimensions/subtypes and their relation to suicidality, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and criminal behaviours after release from detention in a sample of detained male adolescents. Suicidality and psychiatric disorders (including ODD symptoms) were assessed in a consecutive sample of 158 male adolescents (Mage  = 16.89 years) from the Zurich Juvenile Detention Centre. Based on previous research findings, an irritable ODD dimension and a defiant/vindictive ODD dimension based on ODD symptoms were defined. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct subtypes of adolescent offenders according to their ODD symptom profiles. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyse the relations of ODD dimensions/ODD subtypes to comorbid psychopathology and criminal reoffenses from official data. The ODD-irritable dimension, but not the ODD defiant/vindictive dimension predicted comorbid anxiety, suicidality and violent reoffending. LCA identified four subtypes, namely, a no-ODD subtype, a severe ODD subtype and two moderate ODD subtypes with either defiant or irritable symptoms. The irritable ODD subtype and the severe ODD subtype were related to suicidality and comorbid affective/anxiety disorders. The irritable ODD subtype was the strongest predictor of criminal (violent) reoffending even when controlling for CD. The present findings confirm the presence of ODD dimensions/subtypes in a highly disturbed adolescent offender sample. Irritable youths were at risk of suicide and persistent criminal behaviours. Due to the severe consequences of irritability, a standardized assessment approach and a specific treatment is needed in prison to

  16. [Application of spark erosion technology in manufacture of implant prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H Y; DI, P; Li, J H; Lin, Y; Liu, R R

    2015-04-18

    To evaluate the influence of the implant-supported porcelain bridges made from non-precious metals using spark erosion techniques, and to discuss the feasibility and details of making the implant restoration by spark erosion technique. The study included 12 patients (9 males and 3 females) with 92 units implant-supported non-precious porcelain bridge from Sep. 2011 to Feb. 2013. All the patients received implant treatment in Department of Oral Implantology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The total of 52 implants, were from Nobel Biocare implant system, Camlog implant system and Ankylos implant system. The implant analogs were connected in sequence with a copper wire to guarantee conductivity. The implant electrodes represented one electrode and the superstructure the other. During spark-erosion machining, the cast holding the implant electrodes and the prosthetic framework were moved toward one another, causing an electrical erosion of the protruding elements. After the spark-erosion machining, the minimum gap between the framework and abutment was 0.21 mm, which was two units bridge. The maximum was 2.59 mm, which was 11 units bridge with 6 implants. The average gap was 0.68 mm. After the spark-erosion machining, the bridge fitted well with the passive position stability. The method of making implant-supported non-precious porcelain bridge reduces costs on patients. Spark erosion has the potential to provide implant framework with an excellent fit. The patients are satisfied with the clinical results.

  17. Detained Male Adolescent Offender's Emotional, Physical and Sexual Maltreatment Profiles and Their Associations to Psychiatric Disorders and Criminal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Plattner, Belinda

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse patterns of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment in detained male juvenile offenders using latent class analysis (LCA). The association of maltreatment related LCA profiles with psychopathology and criminal behaviors was also studied. LCA based on the items of the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was performed in a sample of 260 male adolescent offenders (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.29 years). Chi square tests and general linear models were performed to assess the associations of CTQ profiles with categorical interview-based psychiatric disorders, dimensional Youth Self-Report problem scales, and officially registered offenses. LCA suggested a three class solution: (1) a no/mild trauma (NM; 76 %) (2) emotional and physical trauma (EP; 18 %) and (3) emotional, physical, and sexual trauma (EPS; 8 %). The classes EP and EPS were related to a variety of psychiatric disorders and self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, EPS showed higher presence of a subsequent re-incarceration compared to NM. A majority of sexually abused juveniles also experienced emotional and physical abuse reflecting gravely disturbed family systems. Multiple abuse in childhood was associated with a broad variety of disorders including externalizing disorders and repeated criminal offending. Such findings indicate that trauma assessment is also relevant in externalizing youth. A comprehensive treatment approach for detained boys with multiple abuse experiences is required targeting both mental health needs and the reduction of criminal behaviors.

  18. Are patients deemed 'dangerous and severely personality disordered' different from other personality disordered patients detained in forensic settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rick; Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Lumsden, John

    2012-02-01

    In 1999, the UK government initiated a programme for the assessment and treatment of individuals deemed to have 'dangerous and severe personality disorder' (DSPD). After over 10 years of specialist service development, it is not clear whether DSPD patients represent a distinct group. The aim of this study was to establish whether people admitted to DSPD hospital units could be distinguished in presentation or personality traits from people with personality disorder admitted to standard secure hospital services. Thirty-eight men detained in high-security hospital DSPD units were compared with 62 men detained in conventional medium or high security hospital units, using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and other standard personality disorder, clinical and offending measures. Compared with their counterparts in standard services, the DSPD group had higher scores on PCL-R psychopathy, significantly more convictions before age 18 years, greater severity of institutional violence and more prior crimes of sexual violence. Regression analysis confirmed that only PCL-R Factor 1, reflecting core interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy, predicted group membership. The DSPD group emerged as having higher psychopathy scores, but as there is currently no evidence that the core personality features of psychopathy are amenable to treatment, there is little justification for treating high-psychopathy forensic patients differently from those with other disorders of personality. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Parent-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and subtypes of conduct disorder as risk factor of recidivism in detained male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colins, O.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Vahl, P.; Markus, M.; Broekaert, E.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Parents are considered to be crucial informants in child psychiatry, particularly for disorders in which age of onset is included in the diagnostic criteria. In detained adolescents, however, parents all too often are difficult to reach or reluctant to cooperate. The clinical relevance of

  20. 21 CFR 1.381 - May a detained article of food be delivered to another entity or transferred to another location?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption General Provisions § 1.381 May a detained article of food... a detention order under this subpart may not be delivered under the execution of a bond...

  1. What makes African American health disparities newsworthy? An experiment among journalists about story framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C et al. Unintended effects of emphasizing disparities in cancer communication to African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 2946–52). They found that black adults are more interested in cancer screening after reading about the progress African Americans have made in fighting cancer than after reading stories emphasizing disparities between blacks and whites. This study builds on past findings by (i) examining how health journalists judge the newsworthiness of stories that report race-specific health information by emphasizing disparities versus progress and (ii) determining whether these judgments can be changed by informing journalists of audience reactions to disparity versus progress framing. In a double-blind-randomized experiment, 175 health journalists read either a disparity- or progress-framed story on colon cancer, preceded by either an inoculation about audience effects of such framing or an unrelated (i.e. control) information stimuli. Journalists rated the disparity-frame story more favorably than the progress-frame story in every category of news values. However, the inoculation significantly increased positive reactions to the progress-frame story. Informing journalists of audience reactions to race-specific health information could influence how health news stories are framed. PMID:21911844

  2. JOURNALISTIC COMPETENCE AS A CONDITION OF FORMATION EROTIC CULTURE IN NATIONAL JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Evgenevich Petropavlovsky

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article:- analysis of the professional competence of  Russian journalists in the erotic industry;- a comparison of the factors affecting the development of professionalism in the erotic themes in Russian journalism;- formulation of the criteria to be met by a modern journalist while covering an erotic theme.The novelty of this work lies in the fact that the value of erotic themes in modern journalism is a problem little studied by science.In the article the following conclusions.The importance of competence journalist on erotic themes in coverage erotic sphere is a scientific problem.The question of raising the level of training of journalists in educational institutions in view of specialization is very relevant in Russia.Covering and analysis erotic culture of modern Russia should only highly competent media professionals.In modern Russia journalism often refers to the erotic category just for economic gain. Professional and competent journalist can find a compromise between the financial side and the quality coverage of the problem.

  3. Power and control in interactions between journalists and health-related industries: the view from industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Bronwen; Lipworth, Wendy L; Forsyth, Rowena; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The mass media is a major source of health information for the public, and as such the quality and independence of health news reporting is an important concern. Concerns have been expressed that journalists reporting on health are increasingly dependent on their sources--including representatives of industries responsible for manufacturing health-related products--for story ideas and content. Many critics perceive an imbalance of power between journalists and industry sources, with industry being in a position of relative power, however the empirical evidence to support this view is limited. The analysis presented here--which is part of a larger study of industry-journalist relationships--draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with representatives of health-related industries in Australia to inductively examine their perceptions of power relations between industry and journalists. Participants painted a picture in which journalists, rather than themselves, were in a position to control the nature, extent, and outcome of their interactions with industry sources. Our results resonate with the concept of "mediatisation" as it has been applied in the domain of political reporting. It appears that, from the perspective of industry representatives, the imposition of media logic on health-related industries may inappropriately influence the information that the public receives about health-related products.

  4. Media coverage of health issues and how to work more effectively with journalists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Julie; Hooker, Claire; King, Catherine

    2010-09-08

    The mass media has enormous potential to influence health-related behaviours and perceptions. Much research has focused on how the media frames health issues. This study sought to explore how journalists in Australia select and shape news on health issues. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 16 journalists from major Australian print, radio and television media organisations reporting on avian influenza and pandemic planning. Journalists, including reporters, editors and producers, were interviewed between October 2006 and August 2007. Thematic analysis was used to draw out major lessons for health communicators. Journalists routinely attempted to balance different, sometimes competing, aims amidst significant operational constraints. They perceived the most trusted sources on health issues to be respected and independent doctors. Specialist health and medical reporters had a more sound technical knowledge, channels to appropriate sources, power within their organisations, and ability to advocate for better quality coverage. An awareness of how to work with the media is essential for health communicators. This includes understanding journalists' daily routines, being available, providing resources, and building relationships with specialist health reporters.

  5. Covering traumatic news stories: Factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, River J; Drevo, Susan; Newman, Elana

    2017-08-22

    The current study examined personal and environmental factors that placed 167 U.S. journalists from diverse media organizations at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after covering work-related traumatic stories. These factors included exposure to traumatic stressors in their personal lives, work-related traumatic stressors, and general organizational stressors. Further, personality attributes and coping styles associated with risk and resiliency were examined. Regression analyses identified avoidant emotional coping, higher levels of perceived organizational stressors, intensity of exposure to work-related traumatic stressors, and personal trauma history as statistically significant risk factors for PTSD. The results provide empirical support for the negative impact of organizational stressors and avoidant emotional coping on journalists covering trauma-related stories. Understanding the organizational climate journalists are working in, as well as the manner in which journalists manage work-related stressors, is important in the development of a more comprehensive model of who may develop work-related PTSD symptoms. Opportunities for news organizations to reduce PTSD risk among journalists are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A SPARK BASED COMPUTING FRAMEWORK FOR SPATIAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel Apache Spark-based framework for spatial data processing is proposed, which includes 4 layers: spatial data storage, spatial RDDs, spatial operations, and spatial query language. The spatial data storage layer uses HDFS to store large size of spatial vector/raster data in the distributed cluster. The spatial RDDs are the abstract logical dataset of spatial data types, and can be transferred to the spark cluster to conduct spark transformations and actions. The spatial operations layer is a series of processing on spatial RDDs, such as range query, k nearest neighbour and spatial join. The spatial query language is a user-friendly interface which provide people not familiar with Spark with a comfortable way to operation the spatial operation. Compared with other spatial frameworks based on Spark, it is highlighted that spatial indexes like grid, R-tree are used for data storage and query. Extensive experiments on real system prototype and real datasets show that better performance can be achieved.

  7. Sparking protection for MFTF-B neutral beam power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the upgrade of MFTF-B Neutral Beam Power Supplies for sparking protection. High performance ion sources spark repeatedly so ion source power supplies must be insensitive to sparking. The hot deck houses the series tetrode, arc and filament supplies, and controls. Hot deck shielding has been upgraded and a continuous shield around the arc, filament, gradient grid, and control cables now extends from the hot deck, through the core snubber, to the source. The shield carries accelerating current and connects only to the source. Shielded source cables go through an outer duct which now connects to a ground plane under the hot deck. This hybrid transmission line is a low inductance path for sparks discharging the stray capacitance of the hot deck and isolation transformers, reducing coupling to building steel. Parallel dc current return cables inside the duct lower inductance to reduce inductive turn-off transients. MOVs to ground further limit surges in the remote power supply return. Single point grounding is at the source. No control or rectifier components have been damaged nor are there any known malfunctions due to sparking up to 80 kV output

  8. Journalism ethics and acceptance of gifts: a view from Madrid journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Herrera Damas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the partial results of a larger research project on journalistic ethics from the point of view of the professionals themselves. Specifically, the following pages analyze the perception of Madrid journalists with respect to the legitimacy of accepting various gifts when carrying out their work. The results of 30 in-depth interviews and 410 surveys of newspaper, radio, television, online and press office journalists who carry out their professional activity in the Autonomous Community of Madrid show that this group is very reluctant to accept gifts with a monetary value of over €200, or to carry out activities financed by a news source. Fewer problems arise regarding acceptance of presents of nominal value of a promotional merchandising nature, free tickets to shows and exhibitions, or paid meals and trips.

  9. JOURNALISM ETHICS AND ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS: A view from Madrid journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Maciá Baber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the partial results of a largerresearch project on journalistic ethics from the point of view of the professionals themselves. Specifically, the following pages analyze the perception of Madrid journalists with respect to the legitimacy of accepting various gifts when carrying out their work. The results of 30 in-depth interviews and 410 surveys of newspaper, radio, television, online and press office journalists who carry out their professional activity in the Autonomous Community of Madrid show that this group is very reluctant to accept gifts with a monetary value of over €200, or to carry out activities financed by a news source. Fewer problems arise regarding acceptance of presents of nominal value of a promotional merchandising nature, free tickets to shows and exhibitions, or paid meals and trips.

  10. The Portrayal of Journalists in Turkish Cinema: A Study about Journalism Ethics through Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Gürkan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses journalism and how well this profession is framed according to the professional codes of journalism. It focuses on Turkish films made between 1980 and 1990. In the early 1980s, journalism became an important issue with the coercion of the mass media under the Turkish Republic. Gazeteci (The Journalist, Rahmet ve Gazap (Rahmet and Gazap, and Uyanık Gazeteci (The Vigilant Journalist are the films based on the profession of journalism made during this era. The selected films discuss the freedom of the press, expression, and media ethics, and these themes are intertwined with the melodramatic element of ‘love’. In the films, many dialogues show that the duty of the press is aiding justice or that a journalist must always defend press freedom and write the truth. Social obedience throughout the history of the Turkish Republic is also emphasised in these films.

  11. Widening the debate about conflict of interest: addressing relationships between journalists and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian; Sweet, Melissa; Jordens, Christopher; Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Forsyth, Rowena

    2012-08-01

    The phone-hacking scandal that led to the closure of the News of the World newspaper in Britain has prompted international debate about media practices and regulation. It is timely to broaden the discussion about journalistic ethics and conduct to include consideration of the impact of media practices upon the population's health. Many commercial organisations cultivate relationships with journalists and news organisations with the aim of influencing the content of health-related news and information communicated through the media. Given the significant influence of the media on the health of individuals and populations, we should be alert to the potential impact of industry-journalist relationships on health care, health policy and public health. The approach taken by the medical profession to its interactions with the pharmaceutical industry provides a useful model for management of industry influence.

  12. Mapping the minds of the mediators: The cognitive frames of climate journalists from five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engesser, Sven; Brüggemann, Michael

    2016-10-01

    This article is based on the premise that journalists play an important role as mediators of scientific information and their interpretations of climate change influence media debates and public opinion. The study maps the minds of climate journalists from five different countries (Germany, India, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and different types of leading media outlets. It identifies five cognitive frames that vary between attributing the responsibility for climate change to lobbying and national interests, blaming consumerist culture and the capitalist system, and expressing technological optimism. The study provides evidence for the emergence of a sustainability frame, indicates a "blame game" between industrialized countries and emerging economies, and shows the demand for a global ecological discourse. Finally, it explores how individual factors such as specialization, professional aims, and political alignment correlate with the cognitive frames of journalists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The problematization of transmediation in the journalistic context: an analysis of transmedia storytelling from feature articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Borges de Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of transmedia storytelling (JENKINS, 2009a has been gaining acceptance and application in the most diverse fields of communication, including journalism. However, such uses do not often take into account the characteristics of the area studied. This paper aims to problematize the transmedia storytelling (TS within the field of journalism through three sources: the concept developed by Fechine et al. (2011, 2012, 2013 throughout a much wider phenomenon, the transmediation; studies that aim to characterize the journalistic discourse (CHARAUDEAU, 2009a, 2009b; and the theoretical tradition about newsmaking. Therefore, we propose the concepts of “transmedia journalistic content” and “transmedia journalism”, which subsume transmedia storytelling itself. Lastly, it will be presented an analysis on how transmedia storytelling takes place in two specific journalistic productions in order to characterize its place in a broader problematization of transmediation in journalism.

  14. Medical reporting recommendations: a gap between practical and theoretical approach of journalists in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Croce, Marianna; Vercellesi, Luisa; Laccisaglia, Martina; Bruno, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    This survey involved medical reporters to identify degrees of theoretical and actual compliance to recommendations for health reporting. The questionnaire was addressed to 450 Italian journalists and obtained a redemption of 23.1%. Major gaps between theoretical agreement and professional practice were: need of scientific background and continuing education; importance of avoiding sensationalism, assessment of scientific protocols and results, reporting of results as absolute risk and numbers needed to treat, attention to the conflict of interest. Two homogeneous profiles emerged. Group 1 includes journalists working in newspapers and shows a large gap between theory and practice. Group 2 includes mainly journalists working in technical medical media and shows a higher consistency between the two settings. An improvement in theoretical understanding of medical literature is advisable, but interventions are needed in the working practice in particular in newspapers, a setting where approaches are more difficult.

  15. Medical reporting recommendations: a gap between practical and theoretical approach of journalists in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Di Croce

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This survey involved medical reporters to identify degrees of theoretical and actual compliance to recommendations for health reporting. METHODS: The questionnaire was addressed to 450 Italian journalists and obtained a redemption of 23.1%. RESULTS: Major gaps between theoretical agreement and professional practice were: need of scientific background and continuing education; importance of avoiding sensationalism, assessment of scientific protocols and results, reporting of results as absolute risk and numbers needed to treat, attention to the conflict of interest. Two homogeneous profiles emerged. Group 1 includes journalists working in newspapers and shows a large gap between theory and practice. Group 2 includes mainly journalists working in technical medical media and shows a higher consistency between the two settings. DISCUSSION: An improvement in theoretical understanding of medical literature is advisable, but interventions are needed in the working practice in particular in newspapers, a setting where approaches are more difficult.

  16. The journalist and the other: on the vestiges of investigation and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Schwaab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and writing journalistic narratives as developments in a unique relationship with time itself as well as questioning issues intrinsic to the profession is healthy. The current research examines books written by journalists as a space to pursue such understanding. More broadly, we aim to stress the relationship between media narratives with contemporary issues in a lapsed conceptual space. Thus, our examination takes into consideration three works by Portuguese journalist and writer Alexandra Lucas Coelho: Afghan Notebook (2009, Viva Mexico (2013 and Tahrir! The Days of the Revolution (2011, exploring what they tell us about Journalism and its processes of writing and investigating the concepts of time and of the Other.

  17. Measurements of Radon Concentration in Yemen Using Spark Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, W.; Abou-Leila, M.; Hafiz, M.E.; Al-Glal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spark counter has been designed and realized and the optimum applied voltage was found to be 600 V. Excellent consistent agreements was observed between counted number of tracks by spark counter and reading by optical microscope. Radon concentration in some houses in Sana'a and Hodeidah cities in Yemen had been performed using LR-115 SSNTD and spark counter system. The average radon concentration in both cities was far lower the alert value. The results showed that radon concentration in the metropolitan area Sana'a was higher than that in Hodeidah city. Also, it was observed that old residential houses had higher levels of radon concentrations have compared to newly built houses in the metropolitan area Sana'a

  18. A miniature spark counter for public communication and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, C.H.; Weng, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication of a miniature spark counter for public communication and education using naturally occurring radon as a radioactive source without involving any man-made radioactivity is described. The battery-powered miniature spark counter weighs 2.07 kg with a volume of 4.844 x 10/sup -4/ m/sup 3/. The circuitry consists of seven major components: timer, high-voltage power supply, attenuator, noninverting amplifier, low-pass filter, one-shot generator, and counter. Cellulose nitrate films irradiated with alpha particles from radon emanating from soil were etched and counted. The visible sparks during counting are rather heuristic, which can be used to demonstrate naturally occurring radioactivity in classrooms or showplaces

  19. Spark plasma sintering of hydrothermally synthesized bismuth ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Branković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3 (BFO, powder was synthesized by hydrothermal method from Bi(NO33·5 H2O and Fe(NO33·9 H2O as precursors. The synthesized powder was further sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS. The sintering conditions were optimized in order to achieve high density, minimal amount of secondary phases and improved ferroelectric and magnetic properties. The optimal structure and properties were achieved after spark plasma sintering at 630 °C for 20 min, under uniaxial pressure of 90 MPa. The composition, microstructure, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the SPS samples were characterized and compared to those of conventionally sintered ceramics obtained from the same powder. Although the samples sintered using conventional method showed slightly lower amount of secondary phases, the spark plasma sintered samples exhibited favourable microstructure and better ferroelectric properties.

  20. SparkClouds: visualizing trends in tag clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bongshin; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Karlson, Amy K; Carpendale, Sheelash

    2010-01-01

    Tag clouds have proliferated over the web over the last decade. They provide a visual summary of a collection of texts by visually depicting the tag frequency by font size. In use, tag clouds can evolve as the associated data source changes over time. Interesting discussions around tag clouds often include a series of tag clouds and consider how they evolve over time. However, since tag clouds do not explicitly represent trends or support comparisons, the cognitive demands placed on the person for perceiving trends in multiple tag clouds are high. In this paper, we introduce SparkClouds, which integrate sparklines into a tag cloud to convey trends between multiple tag clouds. We present results from a controlled study that compares SparkClouds with two traditional trend visualizations—multiple line graphs and stacked bar charts—as well as Parallel Tag Clouds. Results show that SparkClouds ability to show trends compares favourably to the alternative visualizations.

  1. Le CRDI à la Conférence mondiale des journalistes scientifiques de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2017 ... Six journalistes de pays à faible revenu ou à revenu intermédiaire de l'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes, de l'Asie et de l'Afrique de l'Ouest ont bénéficié de bourses de déplacement remises par le CRDI afin d'assister à la dixième Conférence mondiale des journalistes scientifiques qui s'est déroulée du 25 ...

  2. How U.S. TV Journalists talk about objectivity in 9/11 Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The article is based on interviews with some of the journalists who covered the events on September 11, 2001, for ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN, MSNBC and FOX News. They discuss different aspect of objectivity in a professional context including balanced sourcing and a full and fair description.......The article is based on interviews with some of the journalists who covered the events on September 11, 2001, for ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN, MSNBC and FOX News. They discuss different aspect of objectivity in a professional context including balanced sourcing and a full and fair description....

  3. Vacuum spark breakdown model based on exploding metal wire phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, J.

    1984-06-01

    Spark source mass spectra (SSMS) indicates that ions are extracted from an expanding and decaying plasma. The intensity distribution shows no dependance on vaporization properties of individual elements which indicates explosive vapour formation. This seems further to be a requirement for bridging a vacuum gap. A model including plasma ejection from a superheated anode spot by a process similar to that of an exploding metal wire is proposed. The appearance of hot plasma points in low inductance vacuum sparks can then be explained as exploding micro particles ejected from a final central anode spot. The phenomenological model is compared with available experimental results from literature, but no extensive quantification is attempted

  4. Theory and technique of spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, R.

    1968-01-01

    Trace analysis in solids by spark source mass spectrometry involves complicated phenomena: element ionization in spark and blacking of sensitive emulsion by focused ion beam. However the principal risk of selectivity lies in analyser system, which realizes double focusing only for a part of the ions. Therefore, each analyst has to known ionic optics of his apparatus, for ensuring the transmission of mean energetic ions, which are representative of sample composition. By a careful photometry of mass spectrum, good reproducibility can be obtained. Thereafter accuracy depends on the knowledge of sensitivity coefficients proper to this apparatus. (author) [fr

  5. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  6. Spark channel characteristics of a large Van de Graaff generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, J. A.; Charlesworth, T. R.

    1981-09-01

    The current in a spark channel following voltage breakdown between the high voltage terminal and pressure vessel wall of a large single-ended Van de Graaff machine has been measured. The current waveform is oscillatory and has an envelope which is damped with time. The observed damping coefficient is compared with that obtained using a theoretical expression for the variation of the spark channel resistance with time. Reasonable agreement has been achieved. It is also shown that the initial stored energy on the terminal is rapidly absorbed by the insulating gas during discharge.

  7. A note on preserving the spark of a matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Skrzynski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Let Mm× n(F be the vector space of all m× n matrices over a field F. In the case where m ≥ n, char (F ≠ 2 and F has at least five elements, we give a complete characterization of linear maps Φ : Mm× n(F → Mm× n(F such that spark(Φ (A = spark(A for any A ∈ Mm× n(F.

  8. New particle detector - a spark counter with a localized discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, V.D.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Petrovykh, N.V.; Sannikov, B.P.; Fedotovich, G.V.

    1978-01-01

    Described is a plane spark counter with a localized discharge, which provides better time and X-Y resolution over a large area and at a high counting speed. Unlike conventional counters, in case of puncture, voltage applied to the counter plates is taken off in a limited area round the discharge. Main characteristics of the counter with 0.1 mm gap between electrodes are given. It is shown that time resolution of spark counters with a localized discharge is better than that for other types of counters

  9. Too Powerful or Just Doing Their Job? Explaining Differences in Conceptions of Media Power Among Politicians and Journalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Skovsgaard, M.; Van Aelst, P.; Walgrave, S.

    2017-01-01

    Within the broader debate about media and politics, a remarkable observation is that journalists and politicians evaluate the size of the political influence of the media fundamentally differently. While politicians tend to emphasize the strong influence of media over their work, journalists tend to

  10. Journalism of Relation. Social constructions of 'whiteness' and their implications in contemporary Danish journalistic practice and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaagaard, B.B.B.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is focused on the journalistically practiced and mediated self-other relation in the contemporary cultural and postcolonial context of Denmark. As part of the ‘western’ world Denmark’s journalistic endeavours and explorations reflect and engage the cultural memory and thus the

  11. Training Tomorrow's Environmental Journalists: Assessing the Extent of Environmental-Themed Training in College-Level Journalism Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans C.

    2017-01-01

    While the scale of the environmental problems facing the planet mean that effective environmental journalism is now more important than ever, the environmental beat can be extremely challenging for journalists. One way to address this is by providing specialized training for future journalists. This study involves an investigation of the extent to…

  12. Peers and Sources as Social Capital in the Production of News. Online Social Networks as Communities of Journalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a very short time span, Twitter has become a major force in modern societies and also in the production of news by journalists. How journalists use Twitter is studied extensively, particularly on a small scale (i.e., qualitative research, specific events, mostly descriptive). However, studies on

  13. The challenges of science journalism: The perspectives of scientists, science communication advisors and journalists from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Douglas James

    2016-04-01

    The news media play an important role in informing the public about scientific and technological developments. Some argue that restructuring and downsizing result in journalists coming under increased pressure to produce copy, leading them to use more public relations material to meet their deadlines. This article explores science journalism in the highly commercialised media market of New Zealand. Using semi-structured interviews with scientists, science communication advisors and journalists, the study finds communication advisors and scientists believe most media outlets, excluding public service media, report science poorly. Furthermore, restructuring and staff cuts have placed the journalists interviewed under increasing pressure. While smaller newspapers appear to be printing press releases verbatim, metropolitan newspaper journalists still exercise control over their use of such material. The results suggest these journalists will continue to resist increasing their use of public relations material for some time to come. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Measurement of spark probability of GEM detector for CBM muon chamber (MUCH)

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, S.; Frankenfeld, U.; Garabatos, C.; Hehner, J.; Kleipa, V.; Morhardt, T.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schmidt, H.R.; Wiechula, J.

    2015-11-11

    The stability of triple GEM detector setups in an environment of high energetic showers is studied. To this end the spark probability in a shower environment is compared to the spark probability in a pion beam.

  15. Blogginh in Russia. The Platform LiveJournal as a professional tool of Russian journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Johansson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Russian media model combines elements of Western market economy with the considerable influence of the political elite. In regard to professional journalism, it is characterized by state control of media, restriction of journalistic autonomy, and censorship (including self-censorship. The Russian media system today is a hybrid composed of the main public sphere — that is, state-owned mainstream media — and a parallel public sphere or counter-sphere, consisting of mainstream media relatively disloyal to the Kremlin, and social media. The technological developments that led to the introduction of social media changed traditional journalists’ practices, challenged their professional roles, and created new conditions for journalists worldwide. Russian journalists actively use new social media services, and especially blogs. LiveJournal, one of the most popular and relatively non-controlled blog platforms, is considered a core medium of political and public discourse in Russia. As one of the basic components of the new media system, it has great potential as a useful tool for professional journalistic work. The present study is based on an analysis of one hundred journalist’s blogs maintained on the LiveJournal platform in during the 2012 presidential election in Russia. The findings show to what extent journalists’ blogging (called “j-blogging” might assist them in their working routine and can be used as a compensatory medium or a tool for professional and personal self-expression in conditions of editorial restrictions.

  16. Negotiation Games : Play metaphors in the journalist-source relationship between political PR and talk shows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohaus, B.; Broersma, M.; Wijfjes, H.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the interpretive repertoires used by public relations (PR) advisors of Dutch politicians to describe their relations with talk show journalists. A qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews revealed that the dominant repertoires come from the realm of play. PR advisors

  17. Blogging in Russia. THE BLOG PLATFORM LIVEJOURNAL AS A PROFESSIONAL TOOL OF RUSSIAN JOURNALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Johansson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Russian media model combines elements of Western market economy with the considerable influence of the political elite. In regard to professional journalism, it is characterized by state control of media, restriction of journalistic autonomy, and censorship (including self-censorship. The Russian media system today is a hybrid composed of the main public sphere — that is, state-owned mainstream media — and a parallel public sphere or counter-sphere, consisting of mainstream media relatively disloyal to the Kremlin, and social media. The technological developments that led to the introduction of social media changed traditional journalists’ practices, challenged their professional roles, and created new conditions for journalists worldwide. Russian journalists actively use new social media services, and especially blogs. LiveJournal, one of the most popular and relatively non-controlled blog platforms, is considered a core medium of political and public discourse in Russia. As one of the basic components of the new media system, it has great potential as a useful tool for professional journalistic work. The present study is based on an analysis of one hundred journalist’s blogs maintained on the LiveJournal platform in during the 2012 presidential election in Russia. The findings show to what extent journalists’ blogging (called “j-blogging” might assist them in their working routine and can be used as a compensatory medium or a tool for professional and personal self-expression in conditions of editorial restrictions

  18. Forging a Mestiza Rhetoric: Mexican Women Journalists' Role in the Construction of a National Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Cristina D.

    2009-01-01

    This author investigates Mexican women journalists' writing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These women were at the center of the Latin American transnational experience--as female pioneers in the creation of a new mestiza rhetoric that reflected writing from the standpoint of inclusion that was resistant to oppressive ideologies. A…

  19. Privacy Issues: Journalists Should Balance Need for Privacy with Need to Cover News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plopper, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Notes that journalists have to balance their desire to print the news with personal rights to privacy. Argues that a working knowledge of ethics and law helps journalism students resolve such issues. Discusses ethical issues; legal aspects of privacy; and "training" administrators. Offers a list of questions to ask, six notable court…

  20. Embedded Journalists Are Uniquely Qualified to Convey the Experience of a Combat Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    journalist may have experienced the feelings of homesickness and loneliness while far away from home, dealt with death in his or her personal life...City, and people put up skyscrapers and there’s a lot of construction, and there are workplace accidents all the time. Guys falling off skyscrapers and

  1. Justification and Persuasion about Cloning: Arguments in Hwang's Paper and Journalistic Reported Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar; Federico-Agraso, Marta

    2009-01-01

    We examine the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.'s (2004) paper about human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, or "therapeutic cloning"), contrasted with four Journalistic Reported Versions (JRV) of it, and with students' summaries of one JRV. As the evaluation of evidence is one of the critical features of argumentation…

  2. Peer-to-Peer Mentoring of Science Journalists in Asia and Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC agreed to provide support to SjCOOP's expansion to two other regions - Latin America and the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. This expansion will provide at least 150 journalists in these two regions Latin America the opportunity to benefit from mentoring and to learn how to use accessible language to communicate ...

  3. Donkor: A Case Study of the Safety of Journalists in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... the face of the desire to maintain principles, and advertisers use all sorts of strategems and blackmail to cow the press into submission under the threat of withholding advertisements which constitute a decisive source of income for press operations. Thus, it looks as if the journalist can never win, but that is ...

  4. Hero or Anti-Hero? : Narratives of newswork and journalistic identity construction in complex digital megastories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldridge, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Exploring constructions of journalistic identity in a digital age has been a lively area of scholarship as the field of digital journalism studies has grown. Yet despite many approaches to understanding digital change, key avenues for understanding changing constructions of identity remain

  5. new actors in journalistic practice: the case of a kenyan radio station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study interrogates changes that have developed with the incorporation of digital technologies in journalistic practice at a commercial radio station in Kenya. Prior research on journalism in Kenya had focused on print or multi-platform news organizations leading to a paucity of scholarship on exclusively ...

  6. Mentorat par les pairs de journalistes scientifiques d'Asie et d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis 2006, le CRDI appuie le projet SjCOOP (Science Journalism Cooperation) en collaboration avec la Fédération mondiale des journalistes scientifiques (WFSJ). ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for ...

  7. Personal Branding on Twitter : How employed and freelance journalists stage themselves on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brems, Cara; Temmerman, Martina; Graham, Todd; Broersma, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Social media are increasingly embedded into everyday communication. This challenges journalism to anticipate the changes that social media trigger in the use and production of (news) media. In this paper, we focus on personal branding on Twitter. Journalists are increasingly encouraged to develop a

  8. Managing Perceptions of Public Opinion: Candidates' and Journalists' Reactions to the 1992 Polls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sandra; Herbst, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory, interpretive study of campaign rhetoric, specifically the discourse surrounding opinion polls. Analyzes how candidates, their managers, and journalists reacted to polling results during the 1992 presidential race. Finds that political actors reify public opinion by speaking of survey data as though it were independent of…

  9. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  10. Mentorat par les pairs de journalistes scientifiques d'Asie et d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis 2006, le CRDI appuie le projet SjCOOP (Science Journalism Cooperation) en collaboration avec la Fédération mondiale des journalistes scientifiques (WFSJ) ... Le CRDI investit dans des solutions locales aux problèmes auxquels l'Inde est confrontée, comme le stress thermique, la gestion de l'eau et les migrations ...

  11. Scientists in the public sphere: Interactions of scientists and journalists in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Peters, Hans P

    2016-06-07

    In order to map scientists' views on media channels and explore their experiences interacting with journalists, the authors conducted a survey of about 1,000 Brazilian scientists. Results indicate that scientists have clear and high expectations about how journalists should act in reporting scientific information in the media, but such expectations, in their opinion, do not always seem to be met. Nonetheless, the results show that surveyed scientists rate their relation with the media positively: 67% say that having their research covered by media has a positive impact on their colleagues. One quarter of the respondents expressed that talking to the media can facilitate acquisition of more funds for research. Moreover, 38% of the total respondents believe that writing about an interesting topic for release on media channels can also facilitate research publication in a scientific journal. However, 15% of the respondents outright agree that research reported in the media beforehand can threaten acceptance for publication by a scientific journal. We hope that these results can foster some initiatives for improving awareness of the two cultures, scientists and journalists; increasing the access of journalists to Brazilian scientific endeavors; stimulating scientists to communicate with the public via social networks.

  12. Peer-to-Peer Mentoring of Science Journalists in Asia and Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 2006, IDRC has supported the Science Journalism Cooperation (SjCOOP) project in partnership with the World Federation of Science Journalists. Arguably the most ambitious project of its kind, SjCOOP's initial efforts involved promoting the development of science journalism in Africa and the Middle East through an ...

  13. Learning in the Beat: What Influences Environmental Journalists' Perception of Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Tandoc, Edson C., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey of environmental journalists in the United States to explore individual, routine, and organizational influences on perceived knowledge of environmental issues. Using the gatekeeping theory, we found that routine and organizational factors, such as orientation to particular sources and affiliation to an organization, predict…

  14. Effect of Newsroom Management Styles on Journalists: A Case Study of Two Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziano, Cecilie; Coulson, David C.

    A case study of two metropolitan newspapers examined whether there was a relationship between type of newsroom management style--"authoritarian" or "democratic"--and journalists' perceptions of management style and leadership, editors' roles, career goals and job satisfaction, readers' news source contact, and community…

  15. [Early thrombogenic problems in the sparks-prothesis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, H O; Stockmann, U

    1975-04-01

    Some patients with Sparks arterial bypass graft show just during the operation a thrombosis in the prothesis. After the rubber rod has been pulled off, thrombogenic substances can be washed out of the prothesis-lumen. They shorten the clotting time of the patients' venous blood. 1000 ml 0.0% NaCl prevent this early thrombosis in the arterial bypass graft.

  16. knock characteristics analysis of a supercharged spark ignition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    KNOCK CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF SUPERCHARGED SPARK IGNITION ENGINE USING THREE GRADES OF FUELS,. D. C. Uguru-Okorie .... pressure with the engine crank angle. The data acquisition system was controlled by a LabView script written which acquired pressure data at a sampling rate of 200 kHz.

  17. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  18. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Ye

    Full Text Available Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes.This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  19. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Tafti, Ahmad P; He, Karen Y; Wang, Kai; He, Max M

    Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  20. Assembly of optical spark chambers for the experiment Nue

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To continue the research on neutral currents after their discovery in Gargamelle in 1973, the Aachen-Padua Collaboration set up in the neutrino beam of the PS South-East Area, behind Gargamelle, an assembly of 150 optical spark chambers, 2x2 m2 extending over 8 m (experiment T230, Nue). Hans Reithler stands on the right.

  1. Enrichment of colloidal solutions by nanoparticles in underwater spark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopat'ko, K.; Aftandiliants, Y.; Veklich, A.; Boretskij, V.; Taran, N.; Batsmanova, L.; Trach, V.; Tugai, T.

    2015-01-01

    The underwater spark discharge between manganese granules was studied. Optical emission spectroscopy methods were used for diagnostics of such discharge plasma. The colloidal solution with manganese nanoparticles was produced by this discharge. The biological applications of this colloid were analyzed. The mechanism of metallic nanoparticle action and their transformation at interacting with biological objects were studied in Alternaria alternata culture

  2. Joining of β-SiC by spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grasso, S.; Tatarko, Peter; Rizzo, S.; Porwal, H.; Hu, Ch.; Katoh, Y.; Salvo, M.; Reece, M. J.; Ferraris, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 7 (2014), s. 1681-1686 ISSN 0955-2219 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 - GLACERCO Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : β-SiC * joining * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.947, year: 2014

  3. Multi-spark discharge system for preparation of nutritious water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Kusumawan, Sholihatta Aziz; Shimomura, Tomoya; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2018-01-01

    The nitrogen compound concentration in water is increased by atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge treatment. A rod-to-water electrode discharge treatment system using plasma discharge has been developed by our group to obtain water with a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, and this plasma-treated water improves the growth of chrysanthemum roots. However, it is difficult to apply the system to the agriculture because the amount of treated water obtained by using the system too small. In this study, a multi-spark discharge system (MSDS) equipped multiple spark plugs is presented to obtain a large amount of plasma-treated water. The MSDS consisted of inexpensive parts in order to reduce the system introduction cost for agriculture. To suppress the temperature increase of the spark plugs, the 9 spark plugs were divided into 3 groups, which were discharged in order. The plasma-treated water with a NO3- concentration of 50 mg/L was prepared using the MSDS for 90 min, and the treatment efficiency was about 6 times higher than that of our previous system. It was confirmed that the NO2-, O3, and H2O2 concentrations in the water were also increased by treating the water using the MSDS.

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-63 - Spark arrester-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spark arrester-TB/ALL. 30.10-63 Section 30.10-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-63 Spark arrester—TB/ALL. The term spark arrester means any device, assembly, or method of a...

  5. Testing of the J-2X Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI) and Its Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Reliable operation of the spark ignition system electronics in the J-2X Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI) is imperative in assuring ASI ignition and subsequent Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) ignition events are reliable in the J-2X Engine. Similar to the man-rated J-2 and RS-25 engines, the J-2X ignition system electronics are equipped with spark monitor outputs intended to indicate that the spark igniters are properly energized and sparking. To better understand anomalous spark monitor data collected on the J-2X development engines at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), a comprehensive subsystem study of the engine's low- and high-tension spark ignition system electronics was conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Spark monitor output data were compared to more detailed spark diagnostics to determine if the spark monitor was an accurate indication of actual sparking events. In addition, ignition system electronics data were closely scrutinized for any indication of an electrical discharge in some location other than the firing tip of the spark igniter - a problem not uncommon in the development of high voltage ignition systems.

  6. Journalists' working conditions in Chiapas/ La condición laboral del periodista en Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ddo. Hugo A. Villar Pinto; hvillar@unach.mx

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if they are at the center of the opinion and the information, journalists are not well-known. In fact, we know little about them: their salary, the relationships they establish with their sources, the values they profess, their level of education, their social security benefits and their work routines. In the absence of studies about journalists in the context of Chiapas, Mexico, this work aims to investigate the conditions under which journalists perform, the average salary they receive, their benefits and the social organizations they belong to. In Chiapas, there are approximately 300 journalists; the remaining employees are sometimes involved in the tasks of information and opinion. We have focused on these 300 journalists in order to do this project. They have become the object of our study. We surveyed 158 journalists who live in different parts of the state and, afterwards, we interviewed 88 of them. The article shows the workings conditions in which the Chiapas journalists perform their job: low wages and little support from their companies to carry out their task of providing information.Aunque están en el centro de la opinión y de la información, los periodistas son poco conocidos. Se sabe escasamente de ellos: salarios, relaciones que establecen con sus fuentes, valores que profesan, grados de estudio, prestaciones sociales y rutinas laborales. Ante la inexistencia de estudios sobre el periodista chiapaneco en el contexto de Chiapas, México, este trabajo tiene como objetivo indagar las condiciones en que se desempeña el periodista, el salario promedio que percibe, prestaciones sociales y las organizaciones a las que pertenece.El número aproximado de periodistas en Chiapas es de 300; el restante son colaboradores que participan ocasionalmente en las labores de información y opinión. En esos 300 nos hemos centrado para hacer este trabajo. Ellos fueron nuestro objeto de estudio. Encuestamos a 158 comunicadores que viven en

  7. INFLUENCE OF ELECTRIC SPARK ON HARDNESS OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is an estimation of influence of an electric spark treatment on the state of mouldable superficial coverage of carbon steel. Methodology. The steel of fragment of railway wheel rim served as material for research with chemical composition 0.65% С, 0.67% Mn, 0.3% Si, 0.027% P, 0.028% S. Structural researches were conducted with the use of light microscopy and methods of quantitative metallography. The structural state of the probed steel corresponded to the state after hot plastic deformation. The analysis of hardness distribution in the micro volumes of cathode metal was carried out with the use of microhardness tester of type of PMT-3. An electric spark treatment of carbon steel surface was executed with the use of equipment type of EFI-25M. Findings. After electric spark treatment of specimen surface from carbon steel the forming of multi-layered coverage was observed. The analysis of microstructure found out the existence of high-quality distinctions in the internal structure of coverage metal, depending on the probed area. The results obtained in the process are confirmed by the well-known theses, that forming of superficial coverage according to technology of electric spark is determined by the terms of transfer and crystallization of metal. The gradient of structures on the coverage thickness largely depends on development of structural transformation processes similar to the thermal character influence. Originality. As a result of electric spark treatment on the condition of identical metal of anode and cathode, the first formed layer of coverage corresponds to the monophase state according to external signs. In the volume of coverage metal, the appearance of carbide phase particles is accompanied by the decrease of microhardness values. Practical value. Forming of multi-layered superficial coverage during electric spark treatment is accompanied by the origin of structure gradient on a thickness. The effect

  8. Climate Change Media Forum - for Enhanced Communication between Journalists and Climate Scientists in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Maeda, Y.; Emori, S.; Takahashi, K.; Aoyagi-Usui, M.; Fukushi, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Fukuda, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Asakura, A.; Hiramatsu, A.; Sumi, A.

    2011-12-01

    For researchers, being reported by mass media is an effective way to share their studies with others, although some have concerns that scientific results are often exaggerated by highlighting sensational parts and ignoring essential results by the media. Obviously, journalists have their own criteria of effective science reporting for their newspapers or magazines which do not necessarily conform to how researchers report their results. Climate Change Media Forum was started in 2009 by researchers specializing in climate science and communication to fill such gaps and enhance communication between climate scientists and journalists as part of a climate change research project funded by the Ministry of Environment of Japan. Since its start, forum events have been held once a year to exchange ideas on reporting of climate change science through mass media. At the first event in March, 2009, we started with learning about what actually the journalists and researchers think about media reports on climate change sciences. Using onsite questionnaire surveys, the participants (39 journalists and 31 researchers) discussed their problems on reporting climate change and what they would like to tell to the public. Some of the survey results suggested that researchers are willing to emphasize more about the conditions and assumptions of studies, while journalists would like to know more about current and short-term impacts. From the second year, two journalists joined the committee to make the events more meaningful for journalists. For the event in March, 2010, three months after COP15 in Copenhagen, the 2 degrees temperature target, which was the only written number on the Copenhagen Accord, was selected as a timely topic. Although researchers understand that a specific target is necessary for setting a concrete pathway, many of them also feel uncomfortable about selecting one single value from the temperature range with uncertainty. After two lectures on the history of the

  9. A Seismic Shift: Evaluating Changes in Scientists' Attitudes Regarding Journalists and Science Communication After Media Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, S.; Herbulock, D.

    2015-12-01

    Providing natural hazards scientists the opportunity to question and engage directly with journalists in a workshop setting proved effective at shifting scientists' attitudes on their role in media and public communication during natural disasters. Scientists surveyed after the encounter expressed a more responsive attitude to communicating during crises, increased willingness to support scientific peers' communication efforts and more realistic perspectives on journalists' needs and objectives. Geoscientists experienced unprecedented and intensive media and public scrutiny during the Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes of 2010-2012. Following major quakes and aftershocks, there was a sustained high level of public demand for information and expert analysis of the underlying geological events and ongoing hazards and risks. Once the crisis ended, a period of reflection gave rise to understanding of the need for further media and communication training amongst natural hazards scientists. A workshop designed to explore scientists' attitudes to public communication during disasters and challenge their views on media, press offices and the expectations of the public was developed and implemented by the Science Media Centre, New Zealand and Massey University. This research was developed as an evaluation of this workshop. Quantitative analysis with some qualititive analysis were the methods used. Some findings include: a shift in how journalists were perceived by scientists after the workshop, largely influenced by perspectives shared during a panel where invited journalists reflected on their own experiences and answered questions from scientists. discussions on different spokespeople from different science institutions contributing to the public discussion showed a change in perception from a preference for one central spokesperson to increased support for a variety of perspectives from multiple scientists. This was influenced by insight provided by journalists during

  10. "The stakes are so high": interviews with progressive journalists reporting on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Herold, Stephanie; Woodruff, Katie

    2017-12-01

    Because news frames can influence public and policy agendas, proponents of abortion access should be concerned with how this issue is covered in the news. While previous research has examined the content of news on abortion, this analysis explores the process of newsmaking on abortion, examining how journalists understand their role in and experience of covering abortion. We recruited journalists with experience reporting on abortion through listservs for progressive and feminist reporters. Thirty-one participants, with experiences at 75 diverse media outlets, completed in-depth, open-ended interviews. We used grounded theory to code interview transcripts in Dedoose to identity emergent themes. Journalists described many challenges that applied to reporting generally, but that they perceived to be more difficult around abortion: grappling with the meaning of "neutrality" on this issue, finding new angles for articles, and handling editors with varying knowledge of abortion. Over one-third (n=13) of participants mentioned feeling that the stakes were higher around abortion: this urgency and polarization left journalists frustrated by efforts to find new sources or angles on abortion stories. Finally, over 80% (n=28) of participants reported experiencing anti-abortion harassment as a result of their abortion work. The difficulties journalists described when reporting on abortion were often rooted in abortion stigma and the political polarization around the issue. This pattern was true even for reporters who worked to counter abortion stigma through their reporting. Advocates interested in accurate, destigmatizing news frames might work pro-actively to educate editors and increase reporters' access to providers, patients, and advocates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The mediating effect of depression between exposure to potentially traumatic events and PTSD in news journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Backholm

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: News journalists are an occupational group with a unique task at the scene of an unfolding crisis—to collect information and inform the public about the event. By being on location, journalists put themselves at risk for being exposed to the potentially traumatic event. Objective: To compare potentially traumatic exposure during work assignments at a crisis scene and in personal life as predictors of the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in news journalists. Further, to investigate the mediating effect of depression between the predictor and predicted variables. Method: With a web-based questionnaire, information from a sample of Finnish news journalists (n=407 was collected. The data collected included details on the range of potentially traumatic assignments (PTAs at the crisis scene during the past 12 months, lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs in personal life, PTSD symptoms, and level of depression. Results: Approximately 50% of the participants had worked with a PTA during the past 12 months. Depression had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between PTAs at the scene and symptoms of PTSD. A similar result was found regarding the relationship between personal life PTEs and PTSD. Depression had a complete indirect effect in the case of PTAs and a partial indirect effect in regard to PTE exposure in personal life. Conclusions: Exposure to PTAs is common within journalistic work. The results reflect the importance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of the measured symptoms (PTSD, depression in relation to trauma history. The main limitations of the study include the cross-sectional design and the nature of the instruments used for the collection of work-related trauma history.

  12. The mediating effect of depression between exposure to potentially traumatic events and PTSD in news journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backholm, Klas; Björkqvist, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    News journalists are an occupational group with a unique task at the scene of an unfolding crisis-to collect information and inform the public about the event. By being on location, journalists put themselves at risk for being exposed to the potentially traumatic event. To compare potentially traumatic exposure during work assignments at a crisis scene and in personal life as predictors of the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in news journalists. Further, to investigate the mediating effect of depression between the predictor and predicted variables. With a web-based questionnaire, information from a sample of Finnish news journalists (n=407) was collected. The data collected included details on the range of potentially traumatic assignments (PTAs) at the crisis scene during the past 12 months, lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs) in personal life, PTSD symptoms, and level of depression. Approximately 50% of the participants had worked with a PTA during the past 12 months. Depression had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between PTAs at the scene and symptoms of PTSD. A similar result was found regarding the relationship between personal life PTEs and PTSD. Depression had a complete indirect effect in the case of PTAs and a partial indirect effect in regard to PTE exposure in personal life. Exposure to PTAs is common within journalistic work. The results reflect the importance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of the measured symptoms (PTSD, depression) in relation to trauma history. The main limitations of the study include the cross-sectional design and the nature of the instruments used for the collection of work-related trauma history.

  13. Erosion on spark plug electrodes; Funkenerosion an Zuendkerzenelektroden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rager, J.

    2006-07-01

    Durability of spark plugs is mainly determined by spark gap widening, caused by electrode wear. Knowledge about the erosion mechanisms of spark plug materials is of fundamental interest for the development of materials with a high resistance against electrode erosion. It is therefore crucial to identify those parameters which significantly influence the erosion behaviour of a material. In this work, a reliable and reproducible testing method is presented which produces and characterizes electrode wear under well-defined conditions and which is capable of altering parameters specifically. Endurance tests were carried out to study the dependence of the wear behaviour of pure nickel and platinum on the electrode temperature, gas, electrode gap, electrode diameter, atmospheric pressure, and partial pressure of oxygen. It was shown that erosion under nitrogen is negligible, irrespective of the material. This disproves all common mechanism discussed in the literature explaining material loss of spark plug electrodes. Based on this observation and the variation of the mentioned parameters a new erosion model was deduced. This relies on an oxidation of the electrode material and describes the erosion of nickel and platinum separately. For nickel, electrode wear is caused by the removal of an oxide layer by the spark. In the case of platinum, material loss occurs due to the plasma-assisted formation and subsequent evaporation of volatile oxides in the cathode spot. On the basis of this mechanism a new composite material was developed whose erosion resistance is superior to pure platinum. Oxidation resistant metal oxide particles were added to a platinum matrix, thus leading to a higher erosion resistance of the composite. However, this can be decreased by a side reaction, the separation of oxygen from the metal oxides, which effectively assists the oxidation of the matrix. This reaction can be suppressed by using highly stable oxides, characterized by a large negative Gibbs

  14. JOURNALISTIC IDENTITY AND AUDIENCE PERCEPTIONS: PARADIGM AND MODELS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN THE AFRICAN GREAT LAKES REGIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a research conducted in three African countries (Burundi, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, focusing on the recent evolution of the journalistic profession and the way journalists are perceived today and represented by members of the audience polled in five localities of the region. In the last twenty years, journalism has been deeply transformed, following the liberalization of the media sector, on one hand, and the murderous civil wars which marked the three countries on the other hand. New formats and new roles have appeared for the media, as well as new professional standards for journalists (codes of ethics, regulations from regulatory authorities, journalists education and training curricula, professional associations, often encouraged by foreign donors and international NGOs. This paper aims at showing that, behind these changes, a new « journalistic paradigm » has taken shape, a consequence of both internal dynamics within the profession and external assignments (imposed by the State and the evolution of the market, and also of new demands emanating from the public. In an unstable political, economic and security context, the changes of the journalistic paradigm have transfigured media content, as well as the perception by the local public of the role that journalists have to play in society, and of what the citizens may expect from them, in a region where democracy is still widely under construction.

  15. Health journalists' perceptions of their communities and implications for the delivery of health information in the news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Tanner, Andrea; Rose, India D

    2014-04-01

    Journalists have a unique opportunity to educate the community about public health and health care. In order for health communication messages to be effective, characteristics of the intended audience must be considered. Limited attention has been given to health journalists' perceptions of their target communities and little is known about how journalists' perceptions may impact the delivery of health information in the news. Fifteen in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with health journalists from varying geographic regions and media market sizes. Interview questions examined health journalists' perceptions of their target communities, the content and delivery of their health-related stories, and the current state of health journalism. Interviews were audio-recorded for transcription and thematic analysis. Health journalists perceived their audiences to be primarily mothers and adults with limited education. Participants reported they often used personal stories and strong headlines to engage their communities. They also stated that their news stories were quite technical and may not have been written at an appropriate reading level for their audience. When asked about the current state of health journalism, participants reported that there were areas for improvement. Journalists stated that increased collaborations with public health practitioners would improve their own understanding of health and medical information and allow them to develop health news content that was more appropriate for their target communities.

  16. Professional Development Workshops for the Media: A Model for Engaging Scientists and Journalists in Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobabe-Ammann, E.; Jakosky, B.

    2007-12-01

    Historically, there has been a delineation between those activities that promote the education of the general public (formal and information education) and those that involve journalists and the media (public affairs). However, over the last several years, there has been recognition that in the interest of "full spectrum science communication", journalists, who deliver more than 85% of the science news and content to the general public, may be legitimately seen as an audience for education activities. The goal of these activities is not primarily to promote a specific story, event or theme, but instead to broaden and deepen journalists' understanding of space science and to promote increased communication and understanding among journalists, scientists and educators. In the last several years, the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics has initiated workshops for the professional development of journalists as a cornerstone of its Education program. To date, workshops have covered Mars System Science, Life in Extreme Environments, Extrasolar Planets, Out Planets, and soon, the Role of Uncertainty in Climate Change. These programs bring together 20 elite journalists from both print and broadcast and 6-8 internationally recognized scientists in a 3-4 day encounter. Evaluation of past workshops suggests that the journalists not only feel that these workshops are a worthwhile use of their time, but that they impact the quality of their writing. Several indicated that the quality of the writing and its content had been noticed by their editor and allowed them to more easily 'pitch' space science stories when they were in the news. Many, including several regional journalists, commented that the workshop provided a level of background information that would help them for years to come. In this talk, we present the LASP media workshop model, talk about editorial barriers for journalists and the impact of the workshops, and discuss lessons learned that increase

  17. Juridicisation du champ journalistique et luttes pour la visibilité des journalistes pigistes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faïza Naït-Bouda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Véritable exception française d’un point de vue tant socioculturel que juridico-légal, les journalistes pigistes relèvent du régime salarial commun aux journalistes titularisés. En dépit de leur statut salarial et de subordonné prévu par la loi Cressard (1974, ils restent le plus souvent décrits comme freelance (ou indépendant et massifiés en cohorte de « précaires » condamnés au silence et à l’invisibilité ; représentation que le patronat de presse n’a pas manqué d’instrumentaliser sur le terrain juridique pour finir par lui donner un « effet de réalité ». Or, depuis peu, l’on assiste à un usage circulaire du droit dans la régulation des relations entre ces journalistes et leurs employeurs, chacune des parties recourant au droit sur un registre à la fois offensif et défensif. En effet, les journalistes pigistes tendent à user des mêmes « armes » qui ont conduit à leur stigmatisation et à ainsi convertir la contrainte en valeur mobilisatrice. Cet article entend déterminer la place du droit dans les stratégies de mise en visibilité et de reconnaissance que les journalistes pigistes déploient peu à peu. La procéduralisation du droit progressivement opérée par ces journalistes est questionnée à l’aune du processus de juridicisation des rapports sociaux, lequel traduit l’aspiration croissante des individus et des groupes à la reconnaissance sociale. Nous postulons que cet appel au droit participe d’un travail d’accession à l’« ordre du visible » engagé depuis peu par les journalistes pigistes de manière à gagner en visibilité et en reconnaissance au sein du champ journalistique et, plus largement, au sein de l’espace social. Couplé à la rhétorique de la précarité, catégorie largement plébiscitée par des discours publics empathiques pour caractériser une frange massifiée de la population, le recours au droit concèderait aux journalistes pigistes une entr

  18. The Journalistic Path of Pamfil Şeicaru (I from “The Quiver” to “The Word”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel Teodorascu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pamfil Şeicaru is one of the most important journalists that Romania had. In his long journalistic career, the terrible journalist created newspapers and magazines, impressed the audience with his writing, faced the powerful men of that time and contributed to strengthen the role of media in the Romanian society. Even if he was not enrolled politically or held political and ministerial positions, after creating The Current newspaper, Şeicaru became one of the most powerful people inthe interwar Romania. The journalist’s path of knowledge to glory was not easy. Şeicaru experienced both success and the bitter taste of defeat.

  19. Development of Augmented Spark Impinging Igniter System for Methane Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Osborne, Robin J.; Greene, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) program is establishing multiple no-funds-exchanged Space Act Agreement (SAA) partnerships with U.S. private sector entities. The purpose of this program is to encourage the development of robotic lunar landers that can be integrated with U.S. commercial launch capabilities to deliver payloads to the lunar surface. As part of the efforts in Lander Technologies, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) engine technology to share with the Lunar CATALYST partners. Liquid oxygen and liquid methane propellants are attractive owing to their relatively high specific impulse for chemical propulsion systems, modest storage requirements, and adaptability to NASA's Journey to Mars plans. Methane has also been viewed as a possible propellant choice for lunar missions, owing to the performance benefits and as a technology development stepping stone to Martian missions. However, in the development of methane propulsion, methane ignition has historically been viewed as a high risk area in the development of such an engine. A great deal of work has been conducted in the past decade devoted to risk reduction in LOX/CH4 ignition. This paper will review and summarize the history and results of LOX/CH4 ignition programs conducted at NASA. More recently, a NASA-developed Augmented Spark Impinging (ASI) igniter body, which utilizes a conventional spark exciter system, is being tested with LOX/CH4 to help support internal and commercial engine development programs, such as those in Lunar CATALYST. One challenge with spark exciter systems, especially at altitude conditions, is the ignition lead that transmits the high voltage pulse from the exciter to the spark igniter (spark plug). The ignition lead can be prone to corona discharge, reducing the energy delivered by the spark and potentially causing non-ignition events. For the current work, a

  20. Spark-erosion characteristics of graphite and CO gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, K.J.; Hanks, K.W.; Willis, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The spark erosion characteristic of high-purity graphite and CO for 1-kHz gas blown rail-gap applications has been experimentally evaluated. The test configuration simulates a single channel, 1650-A arc discharge per linear inch of electrode length, with a 44-kV self-breakdown voltage and a transverse gas flow of 98 m/s. The dielectric gas was seeded with a small quantity of azulene vapor and a downstream uv preionization spark was used to assist the self-breakdown of the test electrodes. The erosion characteristics of other, more conventional electrode materials and dielectric gases were also examined and the results are presented graphically. Commerically pure tungsten in air was determined to exhibit the least erosion rate (2.1 x 10 -6 cc/C) for this duty, as compared to graphite and CO

  1. Practical internal combustion engine laser spark plug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Guo, Baoping; Yang, Chengxin; Hardy, Christopher R.

    2007-09-01

    Fundamental studies on laser ignition have been performed by the US Department of Energy under ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engines Systems) and by the California Energy Commission under ARICE (Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine). These and other works have reported considerable increases in fuel efficiencies along with substantial reductions in green-house gas emissions when employing laser spark ignition. Practical commercial applications of this technology require low cost high peak power lasers. The lasers must be small, rugged and able to provide stable laser beam output operation under adverse mechanical and environmental conditions. New DPSS (Diode Pumped Solid State) lasers appear to meet these requirements. In this work we provide an evaluation of HESP (High Efficiency Side Pumped) DPSS laser design and performance with regard to its application as a practical laser spark plug for use in internal combustion engines.

  2. 100 kV reliable accurately-synchronized spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosamykin, V.S.; Gerasimov, A.I.; Zenkov, D.I.

    1987-01-01

    100 kV three-electrode spark gap filled with 40% SF 6 +60% N 2 mixture under the pressure of ∼ 1 MPa, which has spread Δt ≤ ± 5 ns of operating time delay in the range of 10 4 triggerings and commutation energy of 2.5 kJ, providing electric strength is 100%, is described; at 10 kJ Δt is less than ± 10 ns for 10 3 triggerings. Parallel connection of 16 groups, each consisting of 5 spark gaps with series connection, electric strength being 100%, in the pulse charging unit of Arkadiev-Marx generator being in operation for several years manifested their high efficiency; mutual group spread is ≤ ± 15 ns

  3. Large area spark counters with fine time and position resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Fujiwara, N.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Sugahara, R.

    1983-10-01

    Spark counters trace their history back over three decades but have been used in only a limited number of experiments. The key properties of these devices include their capability of precision timing (at the sub 100 ps level) and of measuring the position of the charged particle to high accuracy. At SLAC we have undertaken a program to develop these devices for use in high energy physics experiments involving large detectors. A spark counter of size 1.2 m x 0.1 m has been constructed and has been operating continuously in our test setup for several months. In this talk I will discuss some details of its construction and its properties as a particle detector. 14 references

  4. Particular bi-fuel application of spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raţiu, S.; Alexa, V.; Kiss, I.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative test concerning the operation of a spark-ignition engine, make: Dacia 1300, model: 810.99, fuelled alternatively with gasoline and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). The tests carried out show, on the one hand, the maintenance of power and torque performances in both engine fuelling cases, for all the engine operation regimes, and, on the other hand, a considerable decrease in CO and HC emissions when using poor mixtures related to LPG fuelling.

  5. The Use of Spark Ignition Engine in Domestic Cogeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiza Memet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration plants are strongly sustained by EU energy policies, one of the best beneficiary of this technology being residential buildings. This paper focus on spark ignition engine as a cogeneration application in order to supply energy for domestic consumers. Are considered two aspects of this solution: the energetic aspect and the environmental one. The energetic aspect deals with the energetic ratios, while the environmental aspect refers to the nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions.

  6. SparkJet characterizations in quiescent and supersonic flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, T.; Ali, M. Y.; Foster, C.; Alvi, F. S.; Popkin, S.

    2014-12-01

    The aerodynamic community has studied active flow control actuators for some time, and developments have led to a wide variety of devices with various features and operating mechanisms. The design requirements for a practical actuator used for active flow control include reliable operation, requisite frequency and amplitude modulation capabilities, and a reasonable lifespan while maintaining minimal cost and design complexity. An active flow control device called the SparkJet actuator has been developed for high-speed flight control and incorporates no mechanical/moving parts, zero net mass flux capabilities and the ability to tune the operating frequency and momentum throughput. This actuator utilizes electrical power to deliver high-momentum flow with a very fast response time. The SparkJet actuator was characterized on the benchtop using a laser-based microschlieren visualization technique and maximum blast wave and jet front velocities of ~400 and ~310 m/s were, respectively, measured in the flowfield. An increase in jet front velocity from 240 to 310 m/s during subatmospheric (60 kPa) testing reveals that the actuator may have greater control authority at lower ambient pressures, which correspond to high-altitude flight conditions for air vehicles. A SparkJet array was integrated into a flat plate and tested in a Mach 1.5 crossflow. Phase-conditioned shadowgraph results revealed a maximum flow deflection angle of 5° created by the SparkJet 275 µs after the actuator was triggered in single-shot mode. Burst mode operation of frequencies up to 700 Hz revealed similar results during wind tunnel testing. Following these tests, the actuator trigger mechanism was improved and the ability of the actuator to be discharged in burst mode at a frequency of 1 kHz was achieved.

  7. The time response function of spark counters and RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbi, A.; Mangiarotti, A.

    2003-01-01

    The fluctuation theory for the avalanche growth with and without space charge effects is briefly summarized and compared to a broad field of applications. These include spark counters as well as timing and trigger RPCs operated in avalanche mode. A large domain in electrical field strength, pressure, gap size and gas mixture type is covered. A reasonable agreement with the experiment is observed, giving confidence on the validity of both assumptions and treatment of the theory

  8. Loits skandaalitses gaalal. Sparks Rabarockil. Pärimusmuusika Ait

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu Kontserdimajas Eesti muusikaauhindade galal üle astunud rockansambel Loits röövis koostöös kultuskirjaniku Sven Kivisildnikuga aasta metal/punk-artisti auhinna, mis pidi minema industrial-metal-artistile Finish Me Off. Ameerika bänd Sparks 14. juunil Järvakandis Rabarockil. Viljandis Tasuja pst.6 avati Eesti Pärimusmuusika Keskuse uus kodu - Pärimusmuusika Ait

  9. High repetition rate burst-mode spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Reginato, L.; Hester, R.; Chesterman, A.; Cook, E.; Yokota, T.; Dexter, W.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented on the design and testing of a pressurized gas blown spark gap switch capable of high repetition rates in a burst mode of operation. The switch parameters which have been achieved are as follows: 220-kV, 42-kA, a five pulse burst at 1-kHz, 12-ns risetime, 2-ns jitter at a pulse width of 50-ns

  10. CMS Analysis and Data Reduction with Apache Spark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutsche, Oliver [Fermilab; Canali, Luca [CERN; Cremer, Illia [Magnetic Corp., Waltham; Cremonesi, Matteo [Fermilab; Elmer, Peter [Princeton U.; Fisk, Ian [Flatiron Inst., New York; Girone, Maria [CERN; Jayatilaka, Bo [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, Jim [Fermilab; Khristenko, Viktor [CERN; Motesnitsalis, Evangelos [CERN; Pivarski, Jim [Princeton U.; Sehrish, Saba [Fermilab; Surdy, Kacper [CERN; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey [Princeton U.

    2017-10-31

    Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the world's largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was among the first to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems for distributed data processing, collectively called "Big Data" technologies have emerged from industry and open source projects to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (filtering and transforming experiment-specific data formats), these new technologies use different approaches and tools, promising a fresh look at analysis of very large datasets that could potentially reduce the time-to-physics with increased interactivity. Moreover these new tools are typically actively developed by large communities, often profiting of industry resources, and under open source licensing. These factors result in a boost for adoption and maturity of the tools and for the communities supporting them, at the same time helping in reducing the cost of ownership for the end-users. In this talk, we are presenting studies of using Apache Spark for end user data analysis. We are studying the HEP analysis workflow separated into two thrusts: the reduction of centrally produced experiment datasets and the end-analysis up to the publication plot. Studying the first thrust, CMS is working together with CERN openlab and Intel on the CMS Big Data Reduction Facility. The goal is to reduce 1 PB of official CMS data to 1 TB of ntuple output for analysis. We are presenting the progress of this 2-year project with first results of scaling up Spark-based HEP analysis. Studying the second thrust, we are presenting studies on using Apache Spark for a CMS Dark Matter physics search, comparing Spark's feasibility, usability and performance to the ROOT-based analysis.

  11. NEUTRON IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON SPARK PLASMA SINTERED BORON CARBIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Buyuk, Bulent; Cengiz, Meral; Tugrul, A. Beril

    2015-01-01

    In this study, spark plasma sintered boron carbide (B4C) was examined against neutrons. The specimens were irradiated by reactor neutrons (include both thermal and fast neutrons) up to fluence of 1.37x1021n m-2. Thermal and fast neutrons cause swelling by different interactions with boron (10B) atoms in the related materials. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were investigated for initial and irradiated samples. In addition, lattice parameters and ...

  12. effect of gasket of varying thickness on spark ignition engines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    In the study of Toyota, In-line, 4 cylinders, spark ignition engine using gaskets of varying thicknesses. (1.75mm, 3.5mm, 5.25mm, 7mm and 8.75mm) between the cylinder head and the engine block, the performance characteristics of the engine was investigated via the effect of engine speed on brake power, brake thermal ...

  13. Review of the Soft Sparking Issues in Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dah-Shyang Tsai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A dense inner layer is highly valued among the surface coatings created through plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO treatment, because the PEO coating has been troubled by inherent porosity since its conception. To produce the favored structure, a proven technique is to prompt a soft sparking transition, which involves a sudden decrease in light and acoustic emissions, and a drop in anodic voltage under controlled current mode. Typically these phenomena occur in an electrolyte of sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide, when an Al-based sample is oxidized with an AC or DC (alternating or direct current pulse current preset with the cathodic current exceeding the anodic counterpart. The dense inner layer feature is pronounced if a sufficient amount of oxide has been amassed on the surface before the transition begins. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to understand soft sparking at the metal–oxide–electrolyte interface. Studies on aluminum alloys reveal that the dense inner layer requires plasma softening to avoid discharge damages while maintaining a sufficient growth rate, a porous top layer to retain heat for sintering the amassed oxide, and proper timing to initiate the transition and end the surface processing after transition. Despite our understanding, efforts to replicate this structural feature in Mg- and Ti-based alloys have not been very successful. The soft sparking phenomena can be reproduced, but the acquired structures are inferior to those on aluminum alloys. An analogous quality of the dense inner layer is only achieved on Mg- and Ti-based alloys with aluminate anion in the electrolytic solution and a suitable cathodic current. These facts point out that the current soft sparking knowledge on Mg- and Ti-based alloys is insufficient. The superior inner layer on the two alloys still relies on rectification and densification of aluminum oxide.

  14. Hélène de Maleissye, Le filtre médiatique, paroles de journaliste

    OpenAIRE

    Saadaoui, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Comment les journalistes sélectionnent-ils l’information ? De quelle manière celle-ci émerge-t-elle dans les médias ? Telle sont les questions au fondement de la recherche menée par Hélène de Maleisseye, enseignante à Sciences Po Paris et directrice d’un cabinet de conseil en communication et marketing. Pour la confection de son ouvrage Le filtre médiatique, paroles de journaliste, 51 professionnels œuvrant au sein des principaux médias de l’Hexagone ont été interrogés dans le but d’identifie...

  15. Linguistic issues in reports about the Lisbon Earthquake of 1755, typical of pre-journalistic speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena LEAL ABAD

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The reports that constitute the corpus of study for this work describe the devastating effects of the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. The fact that natural disasters are a thematic invariant of informative discourse will allow us better to trace the evolution of the syntax used in this type of discourse. It should be noted, however, that not all reports have the same syntactic formation: some belong fully to what we could call the discourse of modernity, more closely connected, therefore, with the language of journalistic discourse today. Others, notwithstanding the date, have a more archaic and extremely complex syntax, which cannot be taken as the origin of modern expository discourse. This analysis will provide a clear evidential basis that will serve as a starting point to then analyse the evolution of journalistic language in relation to the textual changes that would gradually consolidate new information genres.

  16. Teaching Journalistic Texts in Science Classes: the Importance of Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Avshalom; Tal, Tali

    2017-11-01

    This study employs a single framework for investigating both environmental journalistic texts published on news websites, and science teachers' choices of such texts for their teaching. We analyzed 188 environmental items published during 2 months in seven news websites to determine popularity of topics. Then, 64 science junior high school teachers responded to a closed questionnaire to identify their preferred topics for using in the classroom and patterns of using environmental news items. In a second, open-ended questionnaire, responded by 50 teachers, we investigated the teachers' media literacy in terms of identifying text types and writers of environmental news items. Good alignment was found between the published topics on the websites and teachers' choices, with somewhat different distribution of topics, which could be explained by curriculum requirements. Teachers' identification of text types and writer types was inaccurate, which implied that their media literacy is inadequate. We argue that media literacy is required for effective use of journalistic texts in science teaching.

  17. Synthesis of the panel information principles for nuclear regulators: the journalist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippman, T.W.

    1994-01-01

    The four journalists who participated in the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency seminar were M. Thomas Lippman, United States; Ms. Anna Schytt, Sweden; M. Michel Lemeret, Belgium; and M. Francis Sorin, France. Although the nuclear industry is structured differently in each of these countries, the journalists who have written about it for many years agreed on certain basic points. In order to have the confidence of the public, nuclear regulators must function openly, provide accurate and dispassionate information, have a reservoir of available technical knowledge and be independent of government and politics. Their purpose should be to regulate, rather than to promote the nuclear energy industry. The participants agreed that it is part of the regulators' role to provide information to the public on a regular basis, to forestall misunderstanding and potential panic. But this must be done in a way that does not appear to be promoting the nuclear power industry as such. (author)

  18. Too Human versus the enthusiast press: Video game journalists as mediators of commodity value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Carlson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of mediators in the production of commodity value, arguing that there is a rise in a kind of immaterial labor, shaped by contemporary conditions of late capitalism, that functions explicitly as a mediating force. In this example, video game journalists are understood as actively engaged in producing and negotiating the value and meaning of video games for both producers and consumers. By specifically examining a moment of value contestation, a podcast debate between a journalist and a game developer, this article traces the mediating practices of the enthusiast gaming press and examines the way their history with and relationship to the video game industry continue to structure their ability to filter knowledge and shape desires.

  19. The Newspaper Editorial Board, the Strength of the Journalistic Success (The Case of Curentul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel Teodorascu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Curentul newspaper and Pamfil Seicaru, its owner and director, practically changed the interwar journalism. The editorial board was made up of well-known journalists, with extensive experience and aspecial polemic verve. Due to them, Curentul newspaper soon became a distinctive voice in the interwar media, its sources of information being among the most consistent and extensive. As a consequence,Seicaru’s newspaper held a primacy of information during that age, being a paper of wide circulation, moulding the public to like sensational and shocking news, those who read it accidentally. In one way or another, the journalistic method of the editorial staff is similar in many ways to that of a tabloid as it was conceived in the interwar years. At the same time, Curentul was a real newspaper of civic opinion and firm political attitude, despite some ideological and inherent derailments in the interwar years preceding theSecond World War.

  20. Research on retailer data clustering algorithm based on Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuman; Zhou, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Big data analysis is a hot topic in the IT field now. Spark is a high-reliability and high-performance distributed parallel computing framework for big data sets. K-means algorithm is one of the classical partition methods in clustering algorithm. In this paper, we study the k-means clustering algorithm on Spark. Firstly, the principle of the algorithm is analyzed, and then the clustering analysis is carried out on the supermarket customers through the experiment to find out the different shopping patterns. At the same time, this paper proposes the parallelization of k-means algorithm and the distributed computing framework of Spark, and gives the concrete design scheme and implementation scheme. This paper uses the two-year sales data of a supermarket to validate the proposed clustering algorithm and achieve the goal of subdividing customers, and then analyze the clustering results to help enterprises to take different marketing strategies for different customer groups to improve sales performance.

  1. The Softening of Journalistic Political Communication: A Comprehensive Framework Model of Sensationalism, Soft News, Infotainment, and Tabloidization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, L.; Glogger, I.; Boukes, M.

    Despite the scholarly popularity of important developments of political communication, concepts like soft news or infotainment lack conceptual clarity. This article tackles that problem and introduces a multilevel framework model of softening of journalistic political communication, which shows that

  2. Cleansing among Czech Journalists after World War II and a Comparison with the Situation in France and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cebe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available After the end of World War II Czechoslovakia was faced with the task of punishing its Nazi collaborators. Besides sentencing traitors by the special people’s courts, Czech journalists themselves also started the cleansing among their own ranks. The cleansing committee of the Czech Journalists’ Union investigated some 400 journalists and imposed some sort of penalties on more than 200 people. The article also presents a brief a comparison with the situation in France and the Netherlands. The cleansing among Czech journalists was very rigorous, even in comparison to other European countries. In contrast to Western countries, and due to the subsequent political developments, the journalists punished were often prohibited from resuming their profession.

  3. [Vladimir Zederbaum" (1883-1942): Physician, journalist, contributor to the Russian "Jewish, Encyclopedia". A research report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Vol. 15 o f the "Jewish Encyclopedia" (St. Petersburg 1908-1913) contains an article on Freud, signed by Vladimir Zederbaum. The data for the article were provided by Max Eitingon. This paper addresses the question of whether Zederbaum himself was Eitingon's contact. Several archives produced a lot of information about Zederbaum's medical and journalistic activities in St. Petersburg. However, to date no connection between the two men could be established.

  4. Autonomous Journalists and Anonymous Politicians? Norwegian Media Coverage of then NSA and the "Snowden Affair"

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Elisabeth; Lånkan, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    The NSA/Snowden revelations represent a case for studying the degree of journalistic autonomy versus the political field, in a situation where national and international security is at stake. In an era of rapid digital transition the revelations constitute a unique moment for studying field relations. This article examines the coverage of the NSA/Snowden revelations of massive transnational surveillance in six national Norwegian newspapers, with a main emphasis on opinionated articles. By way...

  5. ‘Our newsroom in the cloud’: Slack, virtual newsrooms and journalistic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bunce, Melanie; Wright, Kate; Scott, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Virtual newsrooms have enormous potential: enabling journalists around the world to pool their knowledge, skills and perspectives within joint projects, such as the Panama Papers. These virtual newsrooms are supported by Online Collaborative Software (OCS), the most popular of which is Slack. But although many of the world’s top news organisations now use Slack, there is no empirical research examining its impact on workplace processes or culture. This article presents the results of a year-l...

  6. Experiences of a newspaper journalist with the official information policy of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppelstaetter, H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the biggest problems for a newspaper journalist is to communicate highly specialist statements about technical matters to the reader in comprehensible form. This calls for total confidence in the information at the nuclear facility, i.e. the press spokesman. A number of impressions of experiences as a newspaper editor attempting to obtain information following an accident, i.e. the extent and background of Chernobyl, are outlined. (DG)

  7. La « niche fiscale » des journalistes et la morphologie des mondes de l’information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Bastin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Les journalistes français bénéficient depuis les années 1930 d’un important avantage fiscal. Celui-ci leur permet, du fait de leur profession, de payer moins d’impôts que les autres contribuables. Cette « niche fiscale » est analysée dans cet article sur un plan morphologique pour le groupe des journalistes. On examine d’un côté ses effets sur les équilibres en matière d’emploi ou de revenus sur lesquels est fondé le journalisme en France et, de l’autre, ses effets sur l’identité des journalistes. Les deux formes idéal-typiques que cet avantage a prises dans l’histoire du journalisme français sont rappelées : l’abattement proportionnel au revenu des origines, conçu comme un moyen de lutter contre la paupérisation des journalistes et d’unifier la profession ; l’abattement fixe qui prévaut depuis 1998 et qui répond à un critère d’équité fiscale dans un contexte de précarisation du travail des journalistes. L’abattement fiscal s’apparente aujourd’hui à une forme de socialisation partielle de l’engagement dans les mondes de l’information, notamment pour ceux qui viennent d’y arriver et n’y occupent pas des positions stables. Cependant, ses effets sur la morphologie du groupe des journalistes sont ambigus. On observe d’un côté un effet de renforcement de ce groupe, du fait de la socialisation (même limitée du revenu des journalistes permise par l’abattement. De l’autre côté l’abattement participe à affaiblir le groupe, notamment parce qu’il place les journalistes en position de devoir se justifier professionnellement face à l’administration fiscale dans les cas de contentieux sur cet abattement ou, très régulièrement aussi, face à un nouvel acteur désireux d’intervenir dans la définition du mandat social des journalistes : le public. French journalists have benefited from significant tax breaks since the 1930’s which allow them, by virtue of their profession

  8. Partnerships and Public Service: Normative Issues for Journalists in Converged Newsrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, J.

    2006-01-01

    As media companies test and implement newsroom “convergence,” growing numbers of journalists are producing content not only for their own employer but also for other media outlets with which that employer has a business relationship. This article, based on case studies in four converged news markets, explores journalists’ perceptions of normative pressures in this new media environment, particularly in relation to the overarching concept of public service. The findings suggest that although j...

  9. Witnessing images of extreme violence: a psychological study of journalists in the newsroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Audet, Blair; Waknine, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    User Generated Content - photos and videos submitted to newsrooms by the public - has become a prominent source of information for news organisations. Journalists working with uncensored material can frequently witness disturbing images for prolonged periods. How this might affect their psychological health is not known and it is the focus of this study. Descriptive, exploratory. The newsrooms of three international news organisations. One hundred and sixteen journalists working with User Generated Content material. Psychometric data included the re-experiencing, avoidance and autonomic arousal indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (Impact of Event Scale-revised), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI-II), a measure of psychological distress (GHQ-28), the latter comprising four subscales measuring somatisation, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression, and mean weekly alcohol consumption divided according to gender. Regression analyses revealed that frequent (i.e. daily) exposure to violent images independently predicted higher scores on all indices of the Impact of Event Scale-revised, the BDI-II and the somatic and anxiety subscales of the GHQ-28. Exposure per shift only predicted scores on the intrusion subscale of the Impact of Event Scale-revised. The present study, the first of its kind, suggests that frequency rather than duration of exposure to images of graphic violence is more emotionally distressing to journalists working with User Generated Content material. Given that good journalism depends on healthy journalists, news organisations will need to look anew at what can be done to offset the risks inherent in viewing User Generated Content material. Our findings, in need of replication, suggest that reducing the frequency of exposure may be one way to go.

  10. Challenges in covering health disparities in local news media: an exploratory analysis assessing views of journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly D; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K

    2010-10-01

    News coverage of health topics influences knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at the individual level, and agendas and actions at the institutional and policy levels. Because disparities in health often are the result of social inequalities that require community-level or policy-level solutions, news stories employing a health disparities news frame may contribute to agenda-setting among opinion leaders and policymakers and lead to policy efforts aimed at reducing health disparities. This study objective was to conduct an exploratory analysis to qualitatively describe barriers that health journalists face when covering health disparities in local media. Between June and October 2007, 18 journalists from television, print, and radio in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts, were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone, and the crystallization/immersion method was used to conduct a qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Our results revealed that journalists said that they consider several angles when developing health stories, including public impact and personal behavior change. Challenges to employing a health disparities frame included inability to translate how research findings may impact different socioeconomic groups, and difficulty understanding how findings may translate across racial/ethnic groups. Several journalists reported that disparities-focused stories are "less palatable" for some audiences. This exploratory study offers insights into the challenges that local news media face in using health disparities news frames in their routine coverage of health news. Public health practitioners may use these findings to inform communication efforts with local media in order to advance the public dialogue about health disparities.

  11. First SPARK-STREAM Workshop on livelihoods and languages, Bangkok, Thailand, 9-11 April 2003. Livelihoods and languages: a SPARK-STREAM learning and communications process

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The First SPARK-STREAM Workshop on Livelihoods and Languages took place in Bangkok, Thailand, from 9-11 April 2003. It was the first activity in a SPARK-STREAM learning and communications process around livelihoods and languages. (PDF contains 53 pages)

  12. Values of journalists in Russia: following historical evolution and modern empirical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Gavra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates professional values shaped in the Russian journalistic community. The main attention in this regard is paid to the historical development of these values and their transformation nowadays, in the years of modern political transformation of Russia. The comparative analysis of different historical periods in the history of Russia helps to highlight how journalistic values changed. In order to be provable, the authors envisage the results of their empirical survey, conducted in two Russian cities: St. Petersburg and Ekaterinburg. The former relates to metropolitan cities, whereas the latter can be attributed to provincial cities, and this defines the difference in journalistic values. The survey was carried out within the international research project ‘Media Systems in Flux: The Challenge of the BRICS countries” supported by the Academy of Finland for 2012-2016. The authors discuss the outlines of journalism as a social actor and independent profession given the context of modern media transformation and new information trends which became noticeable following the appearance of online and digital journalisms emerging as one of the most pivotal tendencies (Deuze, 2003; Deuze, Blank, Speers, 2010. These processes are especially intensive in big cities, an audience of which, to the very much extent, relies on new social media as trustworthy sources of political, economic and cultural information.

  13. Wiews and Perceptions of Journalists about the Archaeological Heritage. The case of Olavarria (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Conforti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The circulation of archaeological knowledge through local media contributes to the visibility and social significance of the discipline. In this sense, the media are considered to be non-formal education spaces due to their influence on the public. This communication is mediated by journalists, who are considered key actors. In this paper their opinions and perceptions are analyzed in relation to archeology and archaeological heritage in the city of Olavarria, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The 'newsworthiness' potential of this information is also discussed. Interviews with journalists have allowed showing their lack of scientific knowledge and heritage awareness. Both aspects generate a stereotyped view of the past with no links with the present, which justify its exclusion from the media agenda. Nevertheless, there is a shared responsibility between archaeologists and journalists in order to find engaging ways to provide information. Taking the general lack of knowledge concerning the past as a starting point to give 'newsworthiness' to scientific information may promote a positive change, provide a better understanding of its value and contribute to form committed and sensitive citizens with their social and cultural contexts.

  14. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Communication between Public Institutions and Journalists through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Păun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialists in public institutions were focused on the use, the extent of this use, and the perceived value of various social media as sources contributing to agenda building (Cobb, Elder 1983. If journalists are regularly monitoring sites and forums for story ideas and information, it is necessary for PR professionals within each industry to carefully monitor the information placed there and perhaps engage content producers. In this paper, I conclude that social media is an alternative instrument to encourage a two-way communication channel between government and publics. In public relations, the emergence of social media challenges the traditional instruments of government public relations. Responding to the development of information and communication technology (ICT, social media is considered as an alternative communication channel of government public relations efforts.

  15. Cultural Mediators Seduced by Mad Men::How cultural journalists legitimized a quality TV series in the Nordic Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard; Hellman, Heikki; Riegert, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Based on theories about the role of cultural mediators in cultural production and using the TV series Mad Men as a case, this article investigates how cultural journalists in the Nordic countries have contributed to legitimizing “quality TV series” as a worthy field of aesthetic consumption. Key analytical points are as follows: (1) cultural journalists legitimize Mad Men’s quality by addressing aspects internal (aesthetic markers) and aspects external (culture industry markers) to the series...

  16. Le journaliste et le griot: les traces de l'oralité dans la presse écrite africaine

    OpenAIRE

    M.-S. Frère

    1999-01-01

    This paper will show the similarities between the journalist's role and narrative style and those of the griot', a key player the traditional exercise of power. The new private press appeared in French-speaking Africa as a part of the democratic process at the beginning of the 1990's, in the context of politic liberalization (multipartism, institutional renewal) and in the flow of a new type of political speech that allows contradictions, critiques and debates. The journalist, that had mostly...

  17. Journalists and Communicators' Perceptions of Their Graduate Training in Environmental Reporting: An Application of Knowledge-Based Journalism Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Takahashi; Perry Parks

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the educational and post-graduation experiences of graduates of a master's program with a focus on environmental journalism. The study uses the framework of knowledge-based journalism to qualitatively examine how the competencies of journalistic skills, general and content-specific knowledge, learning communication theory, and developing journalistic values allowed graduates to develop a niche in their professional careers. Results show respondents placed disproportionate ...

  18. Bloggers, Journalists and Epistemic Responsibility. A Particular Type of Self-Regulation in the Romanian Online Media

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    The passage from traditional press to digital media requires from professional journalists not only an improvement of their technological skills, but also a special kind of awareness of the new deontological challenges. Our attempt is to identify the novel dimensions of responsibility, accuracy and truthfulness in digital journalism and the "intellectual virtues" that online journalists should embody. We will identify these virtues starting from the criticism brought by Romania...

  19. Media and Information Literacy (MIL) in journalistic learning: strategies for accurately engaging with information and reporting news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayatillah, F.

    2018-01-01

    In the era of digital technology, there is abundant information from various sources. This ease of access needs to be accompanied by the ability to engage with the information wisely. Thus, information and media literacy is required. From the results of preliminary observations, it was found that the students of Universitas Negeri Surabaya, whose major is Indonesian Literature, and they take journalistic course lack of the skill of media and information literacy (MIL). Therefore, they need to be equipped with MIL. The method used is descriptive qualitative, which includes data collection, data analysis, and presentation of data analysis. Observation and documentation techniques were used to obtain data of MIL’s impact on journalistic learning for students. This study aims at describing the important role of MIL for students of journalistic and its impact on journalistic learning for students of Indonesian literature batch 2014. The results of this research indicate that journalistic is a science that is essential for students because it affects how a person perceives news report. Through the reinforcement of the course, students can avoid a hoax. MIL-based journalistic learning makes students will be more skillful at absorbing, processing, and presenting information accurately. The subject influences students in engaging with information so that they can report news credibly.

  20. X-ray Production in Laboratory Sparks in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Cooray, G. V.; Rakov, V. A.

    2007-12-01

    Dwyer et al. [2005] recently observed X-ray bursts (in the 30 to 150 keV range) from high-voltage laboratory sparks (positive and negative; 5 cm - 2 m) in air. In this paper, we present results of an independent experiment conducted at a different high-voltage facility and using different instrumentation to confirm (or refute) the production of X-rays by laboratory discharges. The experiment was conducted at the high-voltage laboratory of Uppsala University, Sweden. A spark was created in air at atmospheric pressure applying a standard lightning impulse voltage (1.2/50 impulse; front time: 1.2 μs, time to half-value: 50 μs) to an 80-cm long rod-to-hemisphere air gap. In this experiment the generator was charged to 1 MV with negative polarity. The voltage across the gap at breakdown, the current in the spark, the visible optical radiation from the spark, and the emission of X-rays produced by the spark were measured. The emission of X-rays was detected by a barium fluoride (BaF2) crystal scintillator which had a shape of frustum of a right cone (front diameter: 2.2 cm, rear diameter: 4 cm, and length: 4 cm). The scintillator was attached to a 51 mm PMT (Photonis XP2020/URQ, rise time 1.4 ns, spectral sensitivity 200-550 nm). The ungrounded, light-tight, and electromagnetically sealed metal cabinet having the complete X-ray detector, optical measuring system, oscilloscope and power supplies, was placed about 1 m away from the spark gap so that the center of the crystal was a few centimetres below the high voltage rod electrode. A total of 83 negative voltage impulses were applied across the gap and in 49 cases (59% of the events) the X-ray signals were detected. In 23 cases, the X-ray signal appeared before the collapse of the applied voltage across the gap and about 1 μs prior to onset of the main discharge current. In 26 cases, the X-ray signal appeared at around the main discharge current peak. A rough estimation of total deposited energy in the crystal was

  1. Spark Ignition Characteristics of a LO2/LCH4 Engine at Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of non-toxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost effective mission scenarios. One promising "green" alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane/liquid oxygen. To demonstrate performance and prove feasibility of this propellant combination, a 100lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed and tested under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project. Since high ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination, a test program was performed to explore ignition performance and reliability versus delivered spark energy. The sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also examined. Three different exciter units were used with the engine's augmented (torch) igniter. Propellant temperature was also varied within the liquid range. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks (in quiescent, room air). The escalating pressure and flow environment increases spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter.s ability to deliver a spark. Reduced spark energies of these sparks result in more erratic ignitions and adversely affect ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1-6mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55-75mJ were required for reliable ignition. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition coincided with propellant introduction to the igniter and engine. Shifts of ignition timing were manifested by changes in the characteristics of the resulting ignition.

  2. Spark Ignition Characteristics of a L02/LCH4 Engine at Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of non-toxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost effective mission scenarios. One promising "green" alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane/liquid oxygen. To demonstrate performance and prove feasibility of this propellant combination, a 100lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed and tested under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project. Since high ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination, a test program was performed to explore ignition performance and reliability versus delivered spark energy. The sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also examined. Three different exciter units were used with the engine s augmented (torch) igniter. Propellant temperature was also varied within the liquid range. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks (in quiescent, room air). The escalating pressure and flow environment increases spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter s ability to deliver a spark. Reduced spark energies of these sparks result in more erratic ignitions and adversely affect ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1-6mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55-75mJ were required for reliable ignition. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition coincided with propellant introduction to the igniter and engine. Shifts of ignition timing were manifested by changes in the characteristics of the resulting ignition.

  3. The spark-plug imitates the lightning; La bougie s'inspire de la foudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaufils, Ph.

    2003-12-01

    The researchers-engineers of Renault company, the French car maker, have developed a spark-plug capable to generate a spark 3 to 6 times more longer than with a classical plug. The geometry of the different parts of the plug keeps the spark (electron avalanche) along the dielectric ceramic insulator between the central electrode and the socket. With this plug, the ignition of heterogenous mixtures is more efficient and the voltage necessary to generate the spark remains below 20000 V (with respect to 40000 V with a classical plug). Short paper. (J.S.)

  4. Development of Augmented Spark Impinging Igniter System for Methane Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Osborne, Robin J.; Greene, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) program is establishing multiple no-funds-exchanged Space Act Agreement (SAA) partnerships with U.S. private sector entities. The purpose of this program is to encourage the development of robotic lunar landers that can be integrated with U.S. commercial launch capabilities to deliver payloads to the lunar surface. NASA can share technology and expertise under the SAA for the benefit of the CATALYST partners. MSFC seeking to vacuum test Augmented Spark Impinging (ASI) igniter with methane and new exciter units to support CATALYST partners and NASA programs. ASI has previously been used/tested successfully at sea-level, with both O2/CH4 and O2/H2 propellants. Conventional ignition exciter systems historically experienced corona discharge issues in vacuum. Often utilized purging or atmospheric sealing on high voltage lead to remedy. Compact systems developed since PCAD could eliminate the high-voltage lead and directly couple the exciter to the spark igniter. MSFC developed Augmented Spark Impinging (ASI) igniter. Successfully used in several sea-level test programs. Plasma-assisted design. Portion of ox flow is used to generate hot plasma. Impinging flows downstream of plasma. Additional fuel flow down torch tube sleeve for cooling near stoichiometric torch flame. Testing done at NASA GRC Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) facility 2000-lbf class facility with altitude simulation up to around 100,000 ft. (0.2 psia [10 Torr]) via nitrogen driven ejectors. Propellant conditioning systems can provide temperature control of LOX/CH4 up to test article.

  5. Veulent-ils encore une carte de presse ? Les jeunes journalistes de Belgique francophone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Standaert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article questionne les formes identitaires développées par les jeunes journalistesbelges lorsque se pose à eux la question de la possession de la carte de presse. La méthodologie s’appuie sur une étude descriptive du profil professionnel des jeunes journalistes et sur des entretiens non directifs menés auprès de journalistes, encartés ou non, ayant moins de cinq ans d’ancienneté. Il apparaît qu’une part importante d’entre eux ne répond plus, et ce durant une période de plus en plus longue, aux critères stricts d’obtention de la carte de presse tels que définis par les autorités belges. La carte de presse est par conséquent souvent sollicitée après l’insertion effective sur le marché du travail. Ceci peut s’expliquer par la précarisation des conditions d’insertion dans le groupe professionnel des journalistes. La montée de la précarisation au sein des médias d’information générale est une des hypothèses explicatives du décalage fréquemment constaté entre les formes identitaires traditionnelles, attachées à la carte de presse, et celles des jeunes journalistes, dominées par la figure de l’individu précaire, flexible et substituable en dépit d’une vocation affichée. Les entretiens mettent cependant en évidence un discours ambivalent où une rhétorique d’indifférence, de questionnement, voire de rejet par rapport à tout document se donnant un pouvoir d’authentifier qui est journaliste et qui ne l’est pas, côtoie un discours de conciliation et d’adhésion, mettant en avant la force symbolique de cette carte et la forme d’aboutissement identitaire que sa délivrance continue d’incarner. Il est significatif de noter que les instances d’agréation adaptent leurs pratiques, plus que leurs discours, à ces nouvelles situations professionnelles et aux identités qui en découlent : la délivrance de la carte de presse se fait de plus en plus au cas par cas, et avec une certaine

  6. Relationships between occupational functioning and stress among radio journalists – Assessment by means of the psychosocial risk scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Najder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Job characteristics and the consequences of everyday stress among radio journalists who are not exposed to traumatic events have not been studied sufficiently before. We aimed at determining the most common job characteristics and their stressfulness; relationships between stress exposure, health and occupational functioning; differences between radio journalists and other journalists, and also the psychosocial risk for health and functioning in this group. Material and Methods: The studied group involved 208 journalists, 134 of whom worked in radio stations. The respondents filled in the Psychosocial Risks Scale (PRS developed by the Department of Health and Work Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. Results: Requirement of mental effort and readiness to response quickly for most of the time as well as limited possibilities for promotion were the most frequent journalists’ complaints. We confirmed that higher levels of stress resulted in worse functioning – the radio journalists who experienced lower stress assessed their health status and ability to work better, were more satisfied with particular aspects of their work, and were more involved in their work. They also presented a significantly lower turnover intention. Moreover, the radio journalists were more involved in their work than other journalists, but experienced lower satisfaction, took more sick leaves and had more days of absence. Conclusions: Well-known relationships between stress level, satisfaction and occupational functioning were confirmed. The most important conclusion refers to the fact that psychosocial risks and stress analysis should be based on the understanding of specificity of each occupation or even position. It is so, because the same job characteristic may pose a challenge for one person, while for another – it can result in extreme discomfort and anxiety – such an attitude broadens understanding of the

  7. Assessing U.S. Health Journalists' Beliefs About Medical Overtreatment and the Impact of Related News Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Childers, Kim; Braddock, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    The United States spends more on health care than any other country in the world, but often experiences poorer health outcomes and lower patient satisfaction than other developed countries. One possible explanation for this paradox is overtreatment, the use of medical tests and treatment for which harms outweigh benefits. Because journalists play a key role in informing people about the health care system, including issues such as overtreatment, it is important to understand how they define the issue and its importance. This qualitative study of health news journalists offers an analysis of journalists' perspectives on overtreatment coverage. The interviews produced four major themes in regard to journalists' beliefs about overtreatment and its coverage: journalists' roles and responsibilities, the medical context, causes of overtreatment, and economics/costs. Journalists view overtreatment as an important but complex issue driven by Americans' faith in medicine and cultural norms that make uncertainty unacceptable. The medical contexts most associated with overtreatment are cancer testing and treatment and overprescribing. Journalists see themselves as providing information to help consumers make personal treatment decisions, rather than helping audiences understand health policy. For decades, the American public has expressed dissatisfaction with the U.S. health system; in one recent assessment, two-thirds of Americans graded the overall quality of health care in the country at a "C" or worse (Blendon, Benson, SteelFisher, & Weldon, 2011; Blendon, Brodie, Benson, Altman, & Buhr, 2006). A study of patient satisfaction in 11 Western countries showed greater dissatisfaction with the U.S. system than with those in any of the comparison countries, with more than one-quarter of Americans saying the U.S. health system needs to be completely rebuilt (Papanicolas, Cylus, & Smith, 2013).

  8. Search for an optimum time response of spark counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devismes, A.; Finck, Ch.; Kress, T.; Gobbi, A.; Eschke, J.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Koczon, P.; Petrovici, M.

    2002-01-01

    A spark counter of the type developed by Pestov has been tested with the aim of searching for an optimum time response function, changing voltage, content of noble and quencher gases, pressure and energy-loss. Replacing the usual argon by neon has brought an improvement of the resolution and a significant reduction of tails in the time response function. It has been proven that a counter as long as 90 cm can deliver, using neon gas mixture, a time resolution σ<60 ps with about 1% absolute tail and an efficiency of about 90%

  9. Feasibility of X-ray laser by Underwater Spark Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The method of Underwater Spark Discharges(USD) is one of the most effective ways for generating extremely compressed atomic clusters (called itonic clusters or micro Ball Lightning(BL)). It is also associated with energetic X-rays, which are caused by the break up of the itonic electrons. Despite of low voltage discharges of about 50 V, the high energy X-rays up to 150 keV can be generated. This paper proposed two methods of generating X-ray laser by using micro BL: (1) micro BL on surfaces of regularly arrayed wire cathodes and (2) gas of micro BL generated by USD. (author)

  10. A Scalable Smart Meter Data Generator Using Spark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Danalachi, Sergiu

    2017-01-01

    Today, smart meters are being used worldwide. As a matter of fact smart meters produce large volumes of data. Thus, it is important for smart meter data management and analytics systems to process petabytes of data. Benchmarking and testing of these systems require scalable data, however, it can...... be challenging to get large data sets due to privacy and/or data protection regulations. This paper presents a scalable smart meter data generator using Spark that can generate realistic data sets. The proposed data generator is based on a supervised machine learning method that can generate data of any size...

  11. Spark plasma sintering of commercial and development titanium alloy powders

    OpenAIRE

    Weston, N.S.; Derguti, F.; Tudball, A.; Jackson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging lower cost titanium metal powder produced via an electrolytic method has been fully consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) generating microstructures comparable to those observed in Ti–6Al–4V PM product. This is the first time powder from an alternative titanium extraction method has been processed via SPS and it is benchmarked with commercial alloys (CP–Ti, Ti–6Al–4V, and Ti–5Al–5V–5Mo–3Cr). The effect of powder feedstock size, morphology, and alloy chemistry on the consoli...

  12. Low temperature spark plasma sintering of YIG powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L.; Suarez, M.; Menendez, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A transition from a low to a high spin state in the magnetization saturation between 1000 and 1100 o C calcination temperature is observed in YIG powders prepared by oxides mixture. Spark plasma sintering of these powders between 900 and 950 o C leads to dense samples with minimal formation of YFeO 3 , opening the way to co-sintering of YIG with metals or metallic alloys. The optical properties depend on the sintering stage: low (high) density samples show poor (bulk) optical absorption.

  13. Analysis of solids by spark-source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, R.; Desjardins, M.; Brun, J.C.; Cornu, A.; Bourguillot, R.

    1965-01-01

    Spark source mass spectrometer MS7 has been designed to determine traces of impurities in solids without standards. An atlas of 12 000 lines, assembled in the Grenoble laboratory, allows a quick investigation of mass spectra, notwithstanding their complexity due to multiply charged and polyatomic darkening. Photometric measurements increase accuracy calibration curve is known for each photo-plate. Further, reproducibility is better, if random fluctuations of matrix line darkening are corrected. So far, in a concentration range of 0,01 to 1 000 ppm (atomic), reproducibility is approximately 20 per cent, but absolute value of results depends on 'sensitivity coefficients'. (authors) [fr

  14. Manufacturing of metal supported BSCF membranes by spark plasma sintering

    OpenAIRE

    Laptev, Alexander; Bram, Martin; Zivcec, Maria; Baumann, Stefan; Jarligo, Maria Ophelia; Sebold, Doris; Pfaff, Ewald; Broeckmann, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS), also known as field assisted sintering technique (FAST), is a relatively new method for rapid consolidation of metallic or ceramic powders. In the present work, its suitability for the manufacturing of metal supported Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) based membrane by co-sintering of functional ceramic BSCF layer and porous metallic support has been investigated. The BSCF based membranes are highly attractive for oxygen separation from air due to mixed ionic and e...

  15. Compaction of lithium-silicate ceramics using spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Lukáč, František; Mušálek, Radek; Brožek, Vlastimil; Stehlíková, K.; Chráska, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-44 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Li2Si2O5 * Li2SiO3 * Spark plasma sintering (SPS) * Quantitative Rietveld refinement * X-ray diffraction (XRD) Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/index.php?page=cs_detail_doi&id=789

  16. Low temperature spark plasma sintering of YIG powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Suarez, M., E-mail: m.suarez@cinn.e [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Fundacion ITMA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428, Llanera (Spain); Menendez, J.L. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain)

    2010-07-16

    A transition from a low to a high spin state in the magnetization saturation between 1000 and 1100 {sup o}C calcination temperature is observed in YIG powders prepared by oxides mixture. Spark plasma sintering of these powders between 900 and 950 {sup o}C leads to dense samples with minimal formation of YFeO{sub 3}, opening the way to co-sintering of YIG with metals or metallic alloys. The optical properties depend on the sintering stage: low (high) density samples show poor (bulk) optical absorption.

  17. Mentorat par les pairs de journalistes scientifiques dans les pays en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce réseau, établi à Londres, exploite des noeuds régionaux dans les pays en développement; il a joué un rôle de premier plan à l'occasion de la quatrième Conférence mondiale des journalistes scientifiques (102484). Le projet de formation entre pairs est issu de la conférence. Par l'entremise de la Fédération mondiale ...

  18. The confusion of a genre’s definitions: non-fiction or journalistic novel?

    OpenAIRE

    Petrulionytė, Justina

    2012-01-01

    his article discusses two definitions of the genre of novels mixing fact and fiction: “non-fiction novel” (in American usage) and “journalistic novel” (most frequent in Lithuanian usage) and compares the genre-related features of these novels as they are given in literary theory and criticism. The aim of this research is to find out whether the content inherent in these definitions is similar or even identical. The argument for this investigation is that, as opposed to American literary pract...

  19. Journalists' Perceptions of Nomenklatura Networks and Media Ownership in Post-communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Trifonova Price

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the former communist party elite (the nomenklatura in the Bulgarian post-communist media landscape in relation to media ownership and the origin of media outlets’ capital. The spotlight is on Bulgarian journalists’ perceptions explored in semi-structured interviews with media professionals from the capital city, Sofia. The findings indicate that Bulgarian journalists are strongly interested in, and concerned with, the influence of members of the former nomenklatura and their informal networks on the Bulgarian media landscape and particularly on the way Bulgarian media in Bulgaria have been owned and financed since 1989.

  20. Journalists and Audience in Bulgarian Online Media – the New Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Yoshkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses the changes in the traditional roles of journalists and audience in some of the most popular web sites of Bulgarian traditional media. It examines the levels of interactivity and personalization which enable the audience to create and share its own texts, recordings, news emissions, and also to set its own agenda and take part in the gatekeeping process, etc. The paper defines the status of Bulgarian “citizen journalism”, making the conclusion that the audience’s new role has some similarities with the traditional journalists’ role

  1. COP15 for journalists: a guide to the UN climate change summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Mike

    2009-11-15

    Governments gather in Denmark in December 2009 for what is perhaps the most important meeting since the end of the second world war. December is the deadline they have set themselves for agreeing on action to tackle climate change, and the COP15 conference in Copenhagen is where hopes are high that a new global deal can be struck. This briefing is a guide for journalists reporting on this event, its buildup and its aftermath. It explains key processes, major actions to be agreed and possible outcomes.

  2. Establishing media relations. Journalist and PR professional: Pulling together to achieve the same goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonogina, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Full text: RADON-PRESS has contacts with more than 40 newspapers and magazines. The main principle of our co-operation with them is that we seek to act as their partner rather than a mass media agent. We cannot provide information on the subject of radiation safety and let a newspaper, a radio station or a television channel use them as they see fit. Even a year ago we used to fax messages and press releases to editorial offices. We called this work 'informational initiative' and viewed it as a service to society. But what happened after our information reached reporters? All too often, they used it to advance the interests of their publications. Sometimes they introduced it into other materials which, they thought (often mistakenly), dealt with the same subject. Not infrequently, they added unverified facts to add spice if they felt that the paper needed more popularity. They were known to doctor facts and figures causing unnecessary upset among readers. Thus, they exaggerated radon content on school premises. As a result, until we insisted on a retraction, parents and school administrations of a large Moscow suburb remained in a state of agitation. These are the reasons why we revised the procedure of supplying information to journalists. We are trying to enlist their co-operation on the basis of the principle of social responsibility. If a journalist wishes to disseminate information that has to do with public safety and health, he or she must have a good grasp of the subject. With this end in view, we at the agency organised training seminars on environmental journalism for the publications that wish to use RADON-PRESS information. In the past six months, 30 journalists working for leading newspapers took this course, receiving a better idea of radiation and radio-ecology and the operation of specialised services in charge of radiation safety. They were issued relevant printed matter, such as the leaflet, '10 Questions about Radiation' intended for the general

  3. A new and efficient mechanism for spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadloo, M.S.; Poultangari, R.; Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi, M.Y.; Rashidi, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new slider–crank mechanism, with superior performance is presented. • Thermodynamic processes as well as vibration and internal forces have been modeled. • Comparison with the conventional four-stroke spark ignition engines is made. • Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed mechanism are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper a new symmetrical crank and slider mechanism is proposed and a zero dimensional model is utilized to study its combustion performance enhancement in a four-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine. The main features of this new mechanism are superior thermodynamic efficiency, lower internal frictions, and lower pollutants. Comparison is made between its performance and that of the conventional four-stroke SI engines. Presented mechanism is designed to provide better fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. These advantages over standard engine are achieved through synthesis of new mechanism. Numerical calculation have been performed for several cases of different mechanism parameters, compression ratio and engine speed. A comprehensive comparison between their thermodynamic processes as well as vibration and internal forces has been done. Calculated efficiency and power diagrams are plotted and compared with performance of a conventional SI engine. Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed mechanism are discussed in details

  4. Spark and HPC for High Energy Physics Data Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehrish, Saba; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc

    2017-05-01

    A full High Energy Physics (HEP) data analysis is divided into multiple data reduction phases. Processing within these phases is extremely time consuming, therefore intermediate results are stored in files held in mass storage systems and referenced as part of large datasets. This processing model limits what can be done with interactive data analytics. Growth in size and complexity of experimental datasets, along with emerging big data tools are beginning to cause changes to the traditional ways of doing data analyses. Use of big data tools for HEP analysis looks promising, mainly because extremely large HEP datasets can be represented and held in memory across a system, and accessed interactively by encoding an analysis using highlevel programming abstractions. The mainstream tools, however, are not designed for scientific computing or for exploiting the available HPC platform features. We use an example from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland. The LHC is the highest energy particle collider in the world. Our use case focuses on searching for new types of elementary particles explaining Dark Matter in the universe. We use HDF5 as our input data format, and Spark to implement the use case. We show the benefits and limitations of using Spark with HDF5 on Edison at NERSC.

  5. Turbulent spark-jet ignition in SI gas fuelled engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a thermodynamic analysis of a new combustion system that allows the combustion of stratified gas mixtures with mean air excess coefficient in the range 1.4-1.8. Spark ignition was used in the pre-chamber that has been mounted in the engine cylinder head and contained a rich mixture out of which a turbulent flow of ignited mixture is ejected. It allows spark-jet ignition and the turbulent combustion of the lean mixture in the main combustion chamber. This resulted in a two-stage combustion system for lean mixtures. The experimental study has been conducted using a single-cylinder test engine with a geometric compression ratio ε = 15.5 adapted for natural gas supply. The tests were performed at engine speed n = 2000 rpm under stationary engine load when the engine operating parameters and toxic compounds emissions have been recorded. Analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the evaluated combustion system offers large flexibility in the initiation of charge ignition through an appropriate control of the fuel quantities supplied into the pre-chamber and into the main combustion chamber. The research concluded with determining the charge ignition criterion for a suitably divided total fuel dose fed to the cylinder.

  6. Advances in the electro-spark deposition coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.; Sheldon, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    Electro-spark deposition (ESD) is a pulsed-arc micro-welding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit an electrode material on a metallic substrate. It is one of the few methods available by which a fused, metallurgically bonded coating can be applied with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperatures. The short duration of the electrical pulse allows an extremely rapid solidification of the deposited material and results in an exceptionally fine-grained, homogenous coating that approaches (and with some materials, actually is) an amorphous structure. This structure is believed to contribute to the good tribological and corrosion performance observed for hardsurfacing materials used in the demanding environments of high temperatures, liquid metals, and neutron irradiation. A brief historical review of the process is provided, followed by descriptions of the present state-of-the-art and of the performance and applications of electro-spark deposition coatings in liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactors

  7. VariantSpark: population scale clustering of genotype information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Aidan R; Saunders, Neil F W; Guo, Yi; Buske, Fabian A; Scott, Rodney J; Bauer, Denis C

    2015-12-10

    Genomic information is increasingly used in medical practice giving rise to the need for efficient analysis methodology able to cope with thousands of individuals and millions of variants. The widely used Hadoop MapReduce architecture and associated machine learning library, Mahout, provide the means for tackling computationally challenging tasks. However, many genomic analyses do not fit the Map-Reduce paradigm. We therefore utilise the recently developed SPARK engine, along with its associated machine learning library, MLlib, which offers more flexibility in the parallelisation of population-scale bioinformatics tasks. The resulting tool, VARIANTSPARK provides an interface from MLlib to the standard variant format (VCF), offers seamless genome-wide sampling of variants and provides a pipeline for visualising results. To demonstrate the capabilities of VARIANTSPARK, we clustered more than 3,000 individuals with 80 Million variants each to determine the population structure in the dataset. VARIANTSPARK is 80 % faster than the SPARK-based genome clustering approach, ADAM, the comparable implementation using Hadoop/Mahout, as well as ADMIXTURE, a commonly used tool for determining individual ancestries. It is over 90 % faster than traditional implementations using R and Python. The benefits of speed, resource consumption and scalability enables VARIANTSPARK to open up the usage of advanced, efficient machine learning algorithms to genomic data.

  8. Coverage of violence in risk areas: case of the Ciudad Juárez´Journalist Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González-Esteban

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the situation of journalism in a high risk area, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. The analysis is based on the knowledge and analysis of the training activity, violence and corruption denounced by Juarez Journalists Association, founded and run by women journalists. A meeting with journalists of the association and in-depth interviews are the main methodological tools to understand the meaning and value of this group of juarenses journalists. In the same way this article analyzes, through a quantitative methodology, the strategy of activism and the international projection of the association through their social networks. In addition, research is completed with a content analysis about the prevalence and significance of the ‘red note’ in El Diario de Juárez, the main newspaper in this border area, which even has a delegation in the US city of El Paso. Coverage of violence in high risk areas gives a special value to journalism in newspapers like the aforementioned and corporate work of this group of juarenses journalists.

  9. Benefits and applications of laser-induced sparks in real scale model measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Bolaños, Javier; Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Pulkki, Ville Topias

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of using a laser-induced spark as a monopole source in scale model measurements were assessed by comparison with an electric spark and a miniature spherical loudspeaker. Room impulse responses of first order directivity sources were synthesized off-line using six spatially dis...

  10. 77 FR 20388 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9655-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines; New Emission Standards and In-Use Fleet Requirements; Notice... emission standards and certification and test procedures for large spark-ignition nonroad engines and in...

  11. 76 FR 67184 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9484-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engines; Fleet Requirements for In-Use LSI Forklifts and Other... its emission standards and certification and test procedures for large spark-ignition nonroad engines...

  12. Preliminary Development of Spectrochemical Analysis of Superalloys with the Liquid-Layer Solid-Sample Spark Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnes, Ramon

    1969-01-01

    A comparison study is made, for the spectrochemical analysis of cobalt-base superalloys, between the liquid-layer solid-sample spark technique and the conventional point-to-plane spark analysis in air...

  13. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics for Scientific Data and Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will construct SciSpark, a scalable system for interactive model evaluation and for the rapid development of climate metrics and analyses. SciSpark directly...

  14. WORKING IN A DEVELOPING COMMUNICATION SPACE. FACEBOOK AND TWITTER AS JOURNALISTIC TOOLS FOR EUROPEAN INFORMATION PURE-PLAYER WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Tixier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the creation of the European Union, European information has been a very important issue of communication. Numerous Europe-specialized information websites were born in the first decade of the 21st century, thus creating a European informational landscape on the Internet. In a context of journalistic technological and economical evolutions, journalists have to adapt rapidly their ways of working. A new function in terms of management of socio-numeric networks has appeared: community management. This research aims at analyzing the uses of Facebook and Twitter in the community management of online European information websites. We will be specifically observing how information makers integrate these technologies, which originally were not part of the journalistic work patterns, and how they use these new means of communication to circulate European ideas through self-promotion practices.

  15. The social responsibility of journalists, a paradoxical injunction? Limitations and challenges of ethical discourse of French newspaper companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas PELISSIER

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to the theoretical and epistemological discussions about journalist’s social responsibility. Focused on the case of the ethical discourse of French journalists, it shows that this discourse is becoming more and more influent on the professional sphere, but also that journalists don’t really have the means to concretize their moral and civic intentions. Critical sociology provides many interpretations of this paradoxical observation. But to go beyond criticism and make the speeches become actions, it’s also important to show the precious contributions of "public journalism" and a pragmatic approach (inspired by Palo Alto School of the interactions between the journalists and their complex environment within the media system.

  16. Working in a developing communication space. Facebook and Twitter as journalistic tools for European information pure-player websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Tixier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the creation of the European Union, European information has been a very important issue of communication. Numerous Europe-specialized information websites were born in the first decade of the 21st century, thus creating a European informational landscape on the Internet. In a context of journalistic technological and economical evolutions, journalists have to adapt rapidly their ways of working. A new function in terms of management of socio-numeric networks has appeared: community management. This research aims at analyzing the uses of Facebook and Twitter in the community management of online European information websites. We will be specifically observing how information makers integrate these technologies, which originally were not part of the journalistic work patterns, and how they use these new means of communication to circulate European ideas through self-promotion practices.

  17. Journalists and Communicators' Perceptions of Their Graduate Training in Environmental Reporting: An Application of Knowledge-Based Journalism Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Takahashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the educational and post-graduation experiences of graduates of a master's program with a focus on environmental journalism. The study uses the framework of knowledge-based journalism to qualitatively examine how the competencies of journalistic skills, general and content-specific knowledge, learning communication theory, and developing journalistic values allowed graduates to develop a niche in their professional careers. Results show respondents placed disproportionate emphasis on the importance of journalistic skills and were ambivalent about the value of theory courses. The responses suggest scholars' idealistic conception of knowledge-based journalism is problematic when applied to the changing realities of journalism and the media industry in the U.S.

  18. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Multimedia

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Pinget, B

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processors modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a\

  19. SparkBLAST: scalable BLAST processing using in-memory operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Marcelo Rodrigo; Tostes, Catherine Dos Santos; Dávila, Alberto M R; Senger, Hermes; da Silva, Fabricio A B

    2017-06-27

    The demand for processing ever increasing amounts of genomic data has raised new challenges for the implementation of highly scalable and efficient computational systems. In this paper we propose SparkBLAST, a parallelization of a sequence alignment application (BLAST) that employs cloud computing for the provisioning of computational resources and Apache Spark as the coordination framework. As a proof of concept, some radionuclide-resistant bacterial genomes were selected for similarity analysis. Experiments in Google and Microsoft Azure clouds demonstrated that SparkBLAST outperforms an equivalent system implemented on Hadoop in terms of speedup and execution times. The superior performance of SparkBLAST is mainly due to the in-memory operations available through the Spark framework, consequently reducing the number of local I/O operations required for distributed BLAST processing.

  20. The simbolic and argumentative power of discourse in journalistic television shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Silva Lins Cajazeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the pedagogical-didatic discourse of the journalistic show Bem-Estar, specialized in the Health area, produced and published by the Journalism Department of Globo TV Network, in São Paulo, Brazil. In the analysis it was considered five editions of the show, from August 27th to the 31st of 2012. The objective was to verify the extent to which this discourse was established, through didatic e pedagogic resources, in the transmission of the themes. This study was structured in two investigation categories, the first being classified as usage (strategies and the second one as base (ending, which were used for the analysis of the research object. Thereafter, it was verified the interconnection between health questions and strategies of the symbolic and argumentative power of the journalistic discourse, in this media space, controlled by the media company. Thus, it was established an evaluation parameter to the interation process with the audience in the convergence between television and the Internet, in the Digital Age.

  1. Communiquer ! les bibliothécaires, les décideurs et les journalistes

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    L'enjeu de la communication en direction des élus, des décideurs, mais aussi des journalistes, est devenu vital pour les bibliothèques : il s'agit de donner à voir aux tutelles leurs activités, de rendre intelligible leur stratégie de développement, de construire une image institutionnelle forte. De quels moyens dispose la bibliothèque pour faire la preuve du bien-fondé de son existence ? Comment communiquer en direction d'un élu municipal ou régional, d'un responsable politique de la bibliothèque ? Que peut apporter une bonne collaboration avec des journalistes, avec les partenaires naturels ou hiérarchiques au sein de l'université ou de la collectivité territoriale ? Comment utiliser à bon escient les méthodes du lobbying et du marketing, ou l'emploi des réseaux sociaux ? Voilà quelques-unes des questions abordées ici.

  2. Aspects on Media Self Regulation Reflected in the Activity of Romanian Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Popa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The media organizations in Romania, reticent to the idea to constraint the press freedom, manage to understand the importance of implementing a system of media responsibility. Therefore, the present study is a research in incipient stage that begins with the identification of the initiatives of media self regulation as an alternative to the efforts of enacting press in Romania. The identification of the self regulating system in Romania will be accomplished through the description of the context of development of the media responsibility system in the Romanian journalistic culture and by underlining the self regulation initiatives. For the delineation and establishment of such important self regulation initiatives, the activity of an ethical instance is necessary, for the defense and solving cases of norms contained by the new deontological code. The establishment of such an instance in Romania will represent a viable solution for the development of a more ethical professional environment that confirms the assumption of media responsibility for the adhesion to quality journalistic standards.

  3. Mental models in journalistic discourse and on Facebook: the (reproduction of knowledge about #OcupeEstelita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jorge Nogueira Cavalcanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the comments written in response to a post by the action #OcupeEstelita on Facebook, and two newspaper stories in order to understand the cognitive-discursive relations established between distinct social groups. We adopted Van Dijk’s socio-cognitive perspective (2010, 2012, analyzing the categorization (LAKOFF, 1987; LANGACKER, 1987, the nominalization, and referentiation (MONDADA; DUBOIS, 2003 processes, as well as the manner how information is organized in news pieces (VAN DIJK, 1988, in order to recover the mental models created about the action, its representatives, and the social issues in question. We observed that the journalistic media tends to develop a pejorative conceptualization of the action; that the action places itself as the guardian of social-democratic interests; and that comments on Facebook tend to reproduce the same event models developed by the journalistic media. We realized, thus, that the role of conceptualization through discourse in the (reproduction of socially relevant knowledge is at stake in this discursive clash.

  4. Chernobyl: disinformation. 2000 dead in Chernobyl: they were made by journalists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    After having briefly recalled the scenario which resulted in the Chernobyl accident, the differences between the Chernobyl reactor and the French graphite-based reactors, and that some modifications have been introduced in the alarm system of the Bugey reactor, the author reviews the chronology of events and information after the accident. He recalls the Soviet way to deal with the information, states that the authorities did not immediately understand the severity of the accident. He notably outlines and comments a statement reporting that 2.000 people died just after the accident. Thus, it appears that both sides could be criticized, the Russian side for its slow reaction, and the Western side for disinformation. He also denounces a fake documentary report made by a French journalist (images pretended to have been taken in Chernobyl had been in fact shot in an Italian factory). He also evokes the reactions of people in front of this kind information about risks of exposure. He analyses the content of an article written by a French journalist who denounced some kinds of plots elaborated by oil companies, by the USSR, by anti-nuclear activists

  5. AN ETHNOGRAPHY OF JOURNALISTIC PRODUCTION – CASE STUDIES OF THE BRAZILIAN PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Travancas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, my objective is to discuss the production of news based upon ethnographic research that I undertook in Brazilian newsrooms. Journalists have their routines determined by the process of confirming, writing about and divulging information. At this moment in which journalism is undergoing far-reaching transformations, it is more important than ever that we discuss how news is made and according to what criteria.Here I analyze a major print newspaper, O Globo and the televised news program Jornal Nacional. I point out the similarities and difference between the professional practices of journalists working in these two media forms. Television has a structure and a form of functioning that is quite particular, as well as a more intense rhythm and relationship to imagery than is the case of newspapers. Newspapers, on the other hand, have similar organizations and routines, presenting information that is almost identical from one newspaper to another, even when there is much competition between them.

  6. From La Meduse to the Titanic: Gericault’s Raft in Journalistic Illustration up to 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Gretton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the practices of journalistic illustration in nineteenth-century weekly illustrated magazines in London: magazines such as the 'Illustrated London News 'and the 'Graphic'. It focuses on the way that Géricault’s schema for representing shipwreck survivors in rafts and boats, mostly in the processes of rescue, was a resource for journalistic illustration in London. It concentrates on the period after 1880, ending with a discussion of the presence of ‘The Raft’ in reports of the 'Titanic'’s sinking. The essay considers some of the ways in which Géricault’s schema may have been a resource in the mythopoetic response to the 'Titanic' disaster.   The essay discusses the persistence of hand-made illustrations in the period of the ‘domestication’ of the half-tone screen (from the 1890s onwards, which introduced the photographic image (as distinct from hand-drawn or wood-engraved images derived from photographs into magazine illustration. In doing this it engages with the ways in which the coexistence of (half-tone accounts of hand-made pictures and of (half-tone accounts of photographs in the pages of magazines of the 'ILN' genre destabilized the truth-effects of hand-made illustration and threw the relative lack of affective power of the reportorial photograph into relief. It also discusses the implications for journalistic illustration of the difference between the telegram-speed ‘global-village-ization’ of the news community in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the ‘snail-mail’ speed of transoceanic communication of pictures, until after the end of the First World War.   The essay aligns the picture-making logic of journalistic illustration with that of easel painting, to think about both these visual-culture-production milieux in terms of the manipulation of inherited visual resources, on the one hand in the praxis of picture-making, and on the other in pursuit of visible intertextualities

  7. Controlling spark timing for consecutive cycles to reduce the cyclic variations of SI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleli, Alirıza; Ceviz, Mehmet Akif; Erenturk, Köksal

    2015-01-01

    Minimization of the cyclic variations is one of the most important design goal for spark-ignited engines. Primary motivation of this study is to reduce the cyclic variations in spark ignition engines by controlling the spark timing for consecutive cycles. A stochastic model was performed between spark timing and in–cylinder maximum pressure by using the system identification techniques. The incylinder maximum pressure of the next cycle was predicted with this model. Minimum variance and generalized minimum variance controllers were designed to regulate the in–cylinder maximum pressure by changing the spark timing for consecutive cycles of the test engine. The produced control algorithms were built in LabView environment and installed to the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) chassis. According to the test results, the in–cylinder maximum pressure of the next pressure cycle can be predicted fairly well, and the spark timing can be regulated to keep the in–cylinder maximum pressure in a desired band to reduce the cyclic variations. At fixed spark timing experiments, the COV Pmax and COV imep were 3.764 and 0.677%, whereas they decreased to 3.208 and 0.533% when GMV controller was applied, respectively. - Highlights: • Cycle per cycle spark timing control was carried out. • A stochastic process model was described between P max and the spark timing. • The cyclic variations in P max was decreased by keeping it in a desired band. • Different controllers were used to adjust spark timing signal of the next cycle. • COV Pmax was decreased by about 15% by using GMV controller

  8. Underwater spark discharge with long transmission line for cleaning horizontal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kern; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, C. Y.

    2017-06-01

    A transmission line is discussed for application in an underwater spark-discharge technique in the cleaning of a horizontal well by incorporating a power-transmission model into the simulation. The pulsed-spark-discharge technique has been proposed for clogged-well rehabilitation, because it removes incrustations that are attached to well screens by using strong pressure waves that are generated by the rapid expansion of a spark channel. To apply the pulsed-spark-discharge technique to the cleaning of horizontal wells, the coaxial cable between the pulsed power supply and the spark gap as a load needs to be extended to a few hundred meters. Prior to field application, pulsed-spark-discharge experiments were conducted and the role of the transmission line was examined using an improved simulation model. In the model, a non-linear interaction of the spark channel and the capacitor bank is described by the pulse-forming action of the coaxial cable. Based on the accurate physical properties of the water plasma, such as the equation of state and electrical conductivity within the region of interest, the amount of energy contributed to the development of a shock wave was evaluated. The simulation shows that if the initial conditions of the spark channel are the same, no further reduction in strength of the pressure wave occurs, even if the cable length is increased above 50 m. Hence, the degraded peak pressure that was observed in the experiments using the longer cable is attributed to a change in the initial condition of the spark channel. The parametric study suggests that the low initial charging voltage, the high ambient water pressure, and the long cable length yield the low initial spark-channel density, which results in a reduced peak pressure. The simulation of line charging is presented to discuss the principle of disturbing the pre-breakdown process by an extended cable.

  9. Relationships between occupational functioning and stress among radio journalists--Assessment by means of the Psychosocial Risk Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najder, Anna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Wójcik, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Job characteristics and the consequences of everyday stress among radio journalists who are not exposed to traumatic events have not been studied sufficiently before. We aimed at determining the most common job characteristics and their stressfulness; relationships between stress exposure, health and occupational functioning; differences between radio journalists and other journalists, and also the psychosocial risk for health and functioning in this group. The studied group involved 208 journalists, 134 of whom worked in radio stations. The respondents filled in the Psychosocial Risks Scale (PRS) developed by the Department of Health and Work Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. Requirement of mental effort and readiness to response quickly for most of the time as well as limited possibilities for promotion were the most frequent journalists' complaints. We confirmed that higher levels of stress resulted in worse functioning--the radio journalists who experienced lower stress assessed their health status and ability to work better, were more satisfied with particular aspects of their work, and were more involved in their work. They also presented a significantly lower turnover intention. Moreover, the radio journalists were more involved in their work than other journalists, but experienced lower satisfaction, took more sick leaves and had more days of absence. Well-known relationships between stress level, satisfaction and occupational functioning were confirmed. The most important conclusion refers to the fact that psychosocial risks and stress analysis should be based on the understanding of specificity of each occupation or even position. It is so, because the same job characteristic may pose a challenge for one person, while for another--it can result in extreme discomfort and anxiety--such an attitude broadens understanding of the phenomenon. We also confirmed that the PRS is a well-designed method, appropriate to

  10. Neutron irradiation effects on spark plasma sintered boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyuk, B.; Cengiz, M.; Tugrul, A.; Ozer, S.; Yucel, O.; Goller, G.; Sahin, F.C.; Lastovski, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, spark plasma sintered boron carbide (B 4 C) was examined against neutrons. The specimens were ir-radiated by reactor neutrons (include both thermal and fast neutrons) up to fluence of 1.37x10 21 n*m -2 . Thermal and fast neutrons cause swelling by different interactions with boron ( 10 B) atoms in the related materials. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were investigated for initial and irradiated samples. In addition, lattice parameters and unit cell volumes were calculated for the samples. The swelling percentages were calculated to be within a range of 0.49-3.80 % (average 1.70 %) for the outer surface of the materials for applied neutron irradiation doses. (authors)

  11. Quartz crystal reinforced quartz glass by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, D.; Barazani, B.; Ono, E.; Santos, M.F.M.; Suzuki, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Spark Plasma Sintering presents fast processing time when compared to conventional sintering techniques. This allows to control the grain growth during sintering as well as the diffusion rate of a multi-material compounds, and make possible obtainment of functionally graded materials and nanostructured compounds. Powders of high purity silica glass and crystalline silica were sintered in a SPS equipment at temperatures around 1350° C, i.e., above the softening temperature of silica glass and below the melting temperature of quartz crystal. As a result, glass ceramics with pure silica glass matrix reinforced with crystalline alpha-quartz grains were fabricated at almost any desired range of composition, as well as controlled size of the crystalline reinforcement. X-ray diffraction and density measurements showed the possibility to manufacture a well controlled density and crystallinity glass-ceramic materials. (author)

  12. Development of microwave-enhanced spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Moon, Ahsa; Kaneko, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    We propose microwave-enhanced spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy with the same measurement and analysis processes as in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, but with a different plasma generation mechanism. The size and lifetime of the plasma generated can contribute to increased measurement accuracy and expand its applicability to industrial measurement, such as an exhaust gas analyzer for automobile engine development and its regulation, which has been hard to operate by laser at an engineering evaluation site. The use of microwaves in this application helps lower the cost, reduce the system size, and increase the ease of operation to make it commercially viable. A microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz was used to enhance the volume and lifetime of the plasma at atmospheric condition even at elevated pressure.

  13. Overvoltage protection by point-plane spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlett, W.R.; Riepe, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    In electron-beam-controlled discharge CO 2 lasers, such as those used in the Antares and Helios laser-fusion drivers at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), protection needs to be provided against possible damage due to overvoltage. A passive (self-breakdown) point-plane spark gap has been developed and successfully used in the Helios power amplifiers which operate at voltages up to 300 kV. A gap of similar design is planned for use in the Antares power amplifiers which operate at 550 kV. These gaps must reliably hold off the normal discharge voltage, but break down with short delay if overvoltaged, diverting the discharge energy to a resistor. A prototype of the Antares gap has been built and is undergoing tests. Parameters being investigated include voltage polarity, gap spacing, gas composition, and gas pressure. Results of these measurements and the operational experience of the Helios gaps will be presented

  14. Distributed Parallel Endmember Extraction of Hyperspectral Data Based on Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing dimensionality and volume of remotely sensed hyperspectral data, the development of acceleration techniques for massive hyperspectral image analysis approaches is a very important challenge. Cloud computing offers many possibilities of distributed processing of hyperspectral datasets. This paper proposes a novel distributed parallel endmember extraction method based on iterative error analysis that utilizes cloud computing principles to efficiently process massive hyperspectral data. The proposed method takes advantage of technologies including MapReduce programming model, Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS, and Apache Spark to realize distributed parallel implementation for hyperspectral endmember extraction, which significantly accelerates the computation of hyperspectral processing and provides high throughput access to large hyperspectral data. The experimental results, which are obtained by extracting endmembers of hyperspectral datasets on a cloud computing platform built on a cluster, demonstrate the effectiveness and computational efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. A prediction study of a spark ignition supercharged hydrogen engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. Sadiq.; Al-Janabi, Haroun A.K. Shahad

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen is found to be a suitable alternative fuel for spark ignition engines with certain drawbacks, such as high NO x emission and small power output. However, supercharging may solve such problems. In this study, the effects of equivalence ratio, compression ratio and inlet pressure on the performance and NO x emission of a four stroke supercharged hydrogen engine have been analyzed using a specially developed computer program. The results are verified and compared with experimental data obtained from tests on a Ricardo E6/US engine. A chart specifying the safe operation zone of the hydrogen engine has been produced. The safe operation zone means no pre-ignition, acceptable NO x emission, high engine efficiency and lower specific fuel consumption in comparison with the gasoline engine. The study also shows that supercharging is a more effective method to increase the output of a hydrogen engine rather than increasing the compression ratio of the engine at the knock limited equivalence ratio

  16. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of spark plasma sintered alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheb Nouari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report temperature-dependent thermal properties of alumina powder and bulk alumina consolidated by spark plasma sintering method. The properties were measured between room temperature and 250ºC using a thermal constants analyzer. Alumina powder had very low thermal properties due to the presence of large pores and absence of bonding between its particles. Fully dense alumina with a relative density of 99.6 % was obtained at a sintering temperature of 1400°C and a holding time of 10 min. Thermal properties were found to mainly dependent on density. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of the fully dense alumina were 34.44 W/mK, 7.62 mm2s-1, and 1.22 J/gK, respectively, at room temperature. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity decreased while specific heat increased with the increase in temperature from room temperature to 250ºC.

  17. Human resource recommendation algorithm based on ensemble learning and Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zihan; Zhang, Xingming; Wang, Haoxiang; Xu, Hongjie

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the problem of “information overload” in the human resources industry, this paper proposes a human resource recommendation algorithm based on Ensemble Learning. The algorithm considers the characteristics and behaviours of both job seeker and job features in the real business circumstance. Firstly, the algorithm uses two ensemble learning methods-Bagging and Boosting. The outputs from both learning methods are then merged to form user interest model. Based on user interest model, job recommendation can be extracted for users. The algorithm is implemented as a parallelized recommendation system on Spark. A set of experiments have been done and analysed. The proposed algorithm achieves significant improvement in accuracy, recall rate and coverage, compared with recommendation algorithms such as UserCF and ItemCF.

  18. What sparks interest in science? A naturalistic inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie Kay Cropper

    This study examined how career scientists became interested in science. Eight practicing scientists were asked a focus question, "What sparked your interest in science?" Their responses recorded during personal interviews and reported in correspondence frame this qualitative study. Analysis of the data revealed a variety of influences. The influences were coded, arranged into lists, and grouped by theme. A total of 18 themes emerged from the data. Five of the emerging themes were common across all of the participants. They were the influence of a family member, the influence of a teacher, being naturally curious, being interested in science, and reading books, magazines, and/or encyclopedias. Five themes were common among 5 to 7 participants. These themes included visiting museums, having broad exposure, enjoyment of mathematics, enjoying being outside, and freedom to play and explore. Eight themes were common among 2 to 4 of the participants. They were financial incentive, influence of religion, participation in science fairs, influence of the manned space program, having a scientist in the family, having the opportunity to teach others, not seeing self as a scientist, and first generation college graduate. The emerging themes were compared and contrasted with historical and contemporary literature. Vocational psychology's leading career choice and development literature was also aligned with the emerging themes. Data from this study supports tenets of Trait and Factor Theory, Developmental Theory, and Social Learning Theory. Reported data also supports the proposed movement toward a unified theory of career choice and development. A combination of personality traits, developmental stages, self-efficacy, and learning experiences influenced the vocational decisions of the scientists who participated in this study. The study concludes with suggestions for sparking and sustaining interest in science that people responsible for preparing future scientists may find

  19. SciSpark: In-Memory Map-Reduce for Earth Science Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, P.; Wilson, B. D.; Whitehall, K. D.; Palamuttam, R. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Shah, S.; Goodman, A.; Burke, W.

    2016-12-01

    We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark under a NASA AIST grant (PI Mattmann). Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based Apache Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk. SciSpark extends Spark to support Earth Science use in three ways: Efficient ingest of N-dimensional geo-located arrays (physical variables) from netCDF3/4, HDF4/5, and/or OPeNDAP URLS; Array operations for dense arrays in scala and Java using the ND4S/ND4J or Breeze libraries; Operations to "split" datasets across a Spark cluster by time or space or both. For example, a decade-long time-series of geo-variables can be split across time to enable parallel "speedups" of analysis by day, month, or season. Similarly, very high-resolution climate grids can be partitioned into spatial tiles for parallel operations across rows, columns, or blocks. In addition, using Spark's gateway into python, PySpark, one can utilize the entire ecosystem of numpy, scipy, etc. Finally, SciSpark Notebooks provide a modern eNotebook technology in which scala, python, or spark-sql codes are entered into cells in the Notebook and executed on the cluster, with results, plots, or graph visualizations displayed in "live widgets". We have exercised SciSpark by implementing three complex Use Cases: discovery and evolution of Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCCs) in storms, yielding a graph of connected components; PDF Clustering of atmospheric state using parallel K-Means; and statistical "rollups" of geo-variables or model-to-obs. differences (i.e. mean, stddev, skewness, & kurtosis) by day, month, season, year, and multi-year. Geo-variables are ingested and split across the cluster using methods on the sciSparkContext object including netCDFVariables() for spatial decomposition and wholeNetCDFVariables() for time-series. The

  20. Calcium Hex aluminate reaction sintering by Spark Plasma Sintering; Sinterizacion reactiva de Hexaluminato de Calcio mediante Spark Plasma Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesia, P. G. de la; Garcia-Moreno, O.; Torrecillas, R.; Menendez, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Calcium hex aluminate (CaAl{sub 1}2O{sub 1}9) is the most alumina-rich intermediate compound of the CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The formation of this aluminate is produced by the reaction between calcium oxide and alumina with the consequent formation of intermediates compounds with lower alumina content with increasing temperature (CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CaAl4O{sub 7}). In this study we studied the variation of sintering parameters for obtaining dense and pure calcium hex aluminate by reaction sintering by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). A mixing of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3} were used as reactive. Final densities close to the theoretical and phase transformation over 93% were achieved by this method. (Author) 22 refs.

  1. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Newspaper Journalists in Metropolitan Markets in the United States Regarding Food Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, Tom A.; Briers, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 88 journalists from metropolitan newspapers found a low level of knowledge about food biotechnology. Most considered genetic modification of plants acceptable, of animals somewhat acceptable. They trusted university scientists as sources and believed farmers would accept food biotechnology sooner than consumers would. (Contains 31…

  2. Megaphone Diplomacy in the Northern Irish Peace Process: Squaring the Circle by Talking to Terrorists through Journalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2001-01-01

    In early 1994, British and Irish mainstream media were instrumental in facilitating an indirect dialogue between their governments and the Irish Republican movement about the terms on which Sinn Fein, the political wing of the Irish Republican Army, could be admitted into political talks. This ar......In early 1994, British and Irish mainstream media were instrumental in facilitating an indirect dialogue between their governments and the Irish Republican movement about the terms on which Sinn Fein, the political wing of the Irish Republican Army, could be admitted into political talks....... This article provides evidence of this practice (labeled "megaphone diplomacy"), shows how it works, and discusses the advantages of using such a channel during delicate negotiations. Interviews with journalists working in Northern Ireland show that the channel can work without the active awareness...... of journalists, but also that it is possible for journalists to strengthen the process and yet stay within the journalistic paradigm. The article concludes with an assessment of the contributions of the media dialogue to the wider peace process....

  3. Civic and citizen demands of news media and journalists: what does the audience expect from good journalism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wurff, R.; Schoenbach, K.

    2014-01-01

    What do citizens in the Netherlands expect from journalism? A large-scale survey shows that many audience expectations align fairly well with what experts and journalists consider important democratic functions of the press. We refer to these expectations as Civic Demands. In addition, more at odds

  4. FBI Attempt to Screen Archive Prompts Fears: Journalist's Family Wants to Block Search of Papers Held by University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    During his life and career as a muckraking journalist in Washington, Jack Anderson cultivated secret sources throughout the halls of government--sources who passed on information that allowed Anderson to investigate and write about Watergate, CIA assassination schemes, and countless scandals. His syndicated column, Washington Merry-Go-Round,…

  5. (Revolution of Perspectives on Interactivity: from a Media-Centered to a Journalist-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Oblak Črnič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of new media since the late 1990s has launched a new period of revitalising the concept of interactivity but from very different angles and with several empirical research perspectives. The article’s main aim is to show the variety of ways in which researchers have conceptualised, examined and analysed interactivity within media and journalism studies. The paper provides insights into the various readings of the changes within the field and offers a cautious view of the concept’s potential. Based on a selective meta-analysis of different approaches, we propose to distinguish three perspectives on interactivity: communication- and media-centred perspectives, audience- or user-centred perspectives, and production- or journalist-centred perspectives. This distinction enables us to differentiate between what is considered interactive, and who this interaction involves according to several scholars within media and journalism studies.

  6. Law status of journalists and bloggers in the newest information legislation of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustina Anna Georgievna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author carries out a comparative analysis of Russian national rights and responsibilities of journalists and bloggers, distinguishes fundamental differences in the legal status of the subject of information relations, determines the trend of development of the Russian legislation activity regulation of participants of information relations in the Russian segment of the Internet. On August 1, 2014 the Law on bloggers entered into force that, on the one hand fixed the differences between journalism as a profession and the blogosphere as a kind of social activity. On the other hand, at the legislative level it has solved the problem of the responsible attitude to bloggers - often influential and popular sources of information - to the broadcasting of messages. It is obvious that in Russian Federation it is being actively formed a system of legal regulation of information relations on the Internet, existed for many years legal gaps in this area are gradually disappearing.

  7. The Structure and Content of Social Representations of Lawyers, Psychologists and Journalists about Mentally Ill People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakushenko A.V.,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the structure and content of social representations of the mentally ill people among the various professional groups of young people. This study involved 60 people aged 20 to 30 years (50% of respondents were girls, 50% were boys, specializing in psychology, law and journalism. We used semi-structured interview, associative method with elements of ranking and emotional attitude, and drawing techniques. We tested the following hypotheses: 1 the social representations of the mentally ill people contain elements with negative valence in all investigated occupational groups of young people; 2 social representations of the mentally ill people are based on such constructs as "otherness"; treatment (hospital, pills, experts; disease (synonyms, names of diseases, symptoms; the attitude of society; 3 social representations of the mentally ill people of lawyers and journalists are simpler and more consistent than those of psychologists. These hypotheses were supported by the empirical results

  8. Witnessing trauma in the newsroom: posttraumatic symptoms in television journalists exposed to violent news clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anke; Papsdorf, Jenny

    2010-04-01

    Employees working in television newsrooms are exposed to video footage of violent events on a daily basis. It is yet unknown whether they subsequently develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder as has been shown for other populations exposed to trauma through television. We conducted an internet-based survey with 81 employees. Nearly 80% of the sample reported being familiar with recurring intrusive memories. However, the sample's overall posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were low, although participants with a prior trauma, more general work stress, and a greater exposure to footage had a tendency to show more severe symptoms. Regarding general mental health, there were no differences compared with a journalistic control group. Results suggest that the population as such is not at a particular risk of developing mental problems.

  9. Multimedia Infographics as Journalistic Narratives and the Possibilities of Html5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Teixeira Lima Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a comparative study of multimedia infographic elaborated by the Clarín.com (Argentina and Folha.com, (Brazil websites. The objective is to verify and analyze how the two important Latin American mediums of online communication have utilized HTML5 technology and its interactive possibilities in journalistic narrating. The analysis will examine multimedia infographics which have gone through substantial technological changes, altering the format and content of news.  In order to understand the narrative possibilities of Flash and HTLM5 technologies for the production of interactive infographics this study will deal with the infographics section related to Folha.com and Especiales Multimedia from Clarin.com.  The study, both quantitative and qualitative, verified which narrative and informative resources, tools and Internet programming language technologies were utilized by the two mediums of communication based on the analysis model proposed by Albert Cairo in the book Infografia 2.0.

  10. Interface behavior of tungsten coating on stainless steel by electro spark deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuangang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of electro spark deposition method was put forward, which was based on the theory of electro spark deposition by changing the polarity in the liquid. Tungsten coating layers was produced on surface of Stainless Steel by electro spark deposition. The micro hardness, microstructure, chemical composition and phases of the coating layer were examined by means of hardness test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS analysis. The results showed that there was tungsten coating in the surface, which was discontinuous. Microhardness of the coating layer was about 3 times more than that of the substrate. The combination between coating layer and substrate was metallurgical bond.

  11. A time-varying copula mixture for hedging the clean spark spread with wind power futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Sønderby; Pircalabu, Anca; Høg, Esben

    2018-01-01

    trading in the spot clean spark spread and wind power futures. To facilitate hedging decisions, we propose a time-varying copula mixture for the joint behavior of the spot clean spark spread and the daily wind index. The model describes the data surprisingly well, both in terms of the marginals...... and the dependence structure, while being straightforward and easy to implement. Based on Monte Carlo simulations from the proposed model, the results indicate that significant benefits can be achieved by using wind power futures to hedge the spot clean spark spread. Moreover, a comparison study shows...

  12. Improving the Tribological Properties of Spark-Anodized Titanium by Magnetron Sputtered Diamond-Like Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxiang Chen; Xipeng Ren; Limei Ren; Tengchao Wang; Xiaowen Qi; Yulin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Spark-anodization of titanium can produce adherent and wear-resistant TiO2 film on the surface, but the spark-anodized titanium has lots of surface micro-pores, resulting in an unstable and high friction coefficient against many counterparts. In this study, the diamond-like carbon (DLC) was introduced into the micro-pores of spark-anodized titanium by the magnetron sputtering technique and a TiO2/DLC composite coating was fabricated. The microstructure and tribological properties of TiO2/DLC ...

  13. The secular and the supernatural: madness and psychiatry in the short stories of Muriel Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, A W

    2015-01-01

    Edinburgh-born Muriel Spark is one of modern Scotland's greatest writers. Examination of her work reveals that the subjects of madness and psychiatry are recurrent themes in her writing. She herself had a mental breakdown when she was a young woman and she took an interest in the world of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. In her short stories, Spark approaches the subject of madness in a variety of ways: she relates it to the supernatural; to writing fiction; and to religion. She frequently juxtaposes secular and supernatural explanations of mental disturbance. Spark adopts a sceptical and, at times, mocking view of psychiatrists and psychiatric treatment. Both psychoanalysis and pills are seen as problematic.

  14. Improving the quality of science reporting: a case study of Metcalf's Annual Science Immersion Workshop for Journalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Cara

    Environmental journalists and science writers express a strong desire for professional development opportunities. These groups often identify inadequate training in science and science writing as their biggest obstacles to accurate reporting. To fill these training gaps, science immersion workshops for journalists, focused on a particular specialization such as marine reporting, offer both practical and pedagogical advantages. However, few efforts have been made to evaluate the efficacy of these workshops in a quantitative way. This case study of the Annual Science Immersion Workshop for Journalists, offered by the Metcalf Institute for Marine and Environmental Reporting, aimed to determine whether journalists' reporting is more accurate as a result of program participation. Survey data, collected from 11 years of workshop alumni, indicate neutral to positive responses on all measures of change. Using an exploratory approach, this study analyzed survey results by five categories---year of attendance, education level and type, media format, and years of journalism experience---to investigate the role of demographic variables in participants' learning experience. Some results of these comparative analyses correlate with programmatic changes made during the 11 years surveyed. The presence or absence of specific workshop activities coincides with higher and lower levels of reported change for specific learning objectives targeted by those activities. Other results have possible implications for program design or participant eligibility to maximize program impact. Journalists with more formal education report more change on multiple learning objectives, such as data use, understanding of scientific uncertainty, desire to report on environmental topics, and communication with scientists. At the same time, journalists with less formal education and less professional experience are more likely to have recommended the program to others. Some confounding results suggest a

  15. Callous-unemotional traits and the emotional processing of distress cues in detained boys: testing the moderating role of aggression, exposure to community violence, and histories of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Munoz, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2008-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in antisocial youth have been associated with deficits in the processing of emotionally distressing stimuli in a number of past studies. In the current study, we investigated moderators of this association in a sample of 88 ethnically diverse detained boys (mean age = 15.57, SD = 1.28). Overall, emotional processing of distressing stimuli using a dot-probe task was not related to CU traits and there was no moderating effect of ethnicity. However, CU traits were related to deficits in emotional processing in youth high on aggression and youth high on exposure to community violence. Further, youth high on CU traits but with enhanced orienting to distressing stimuli had stronger histories of abuse, supporting the possibility that there may be environmentally influenced pathways in the development of these traits.

  16. High speed streak techniques for measuring the growth of spark channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleebka, P.

    1975-01-01

    The manner of expansion of an electric spark channel is of interest in the understanding of such phenomena as lightning. The development of a camera suitable for photography of this expansion is described, with some results for hydrogen. (author)

  17. An image scanner for real time analysis of spark chamber images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesaroni, F.; Penso, G.; Locci, A.M.; Spano, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The notes describes the semiautomatic scanning system at LNF for the analysis of spark chamber images. From the projection of the images on the scanner table, the trajectory in the real space is reconstructed

  18. Torch-Augmented Spark Igniter for Nanosat Launch Vehicle LOX/Propylene Rocket Engine, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical innovation proposed here is the introduction of torch-augmented spark ignition for high performance liquid oxygen (LOX) / propylene rocket engines now...

  19. Passenger Car Spark Ignition Data Base : Volume 3. Miscellaneous Data. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Test data was obtained from spark ignition production and preproduction engines at the engine and vehicle level. The engines were applicable for vehicles 2000 to 3000 pounds in weight. The data obtained provided trade-offs between fuel economy, power...

  20. Passenger Car Spark Ignition Data Base : Volume 3. Miscellaneous Data. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Test data was obtained from spark ignition production and preproduction engines at the engine and vehicle level. The engines were applicable for vehicles 2000 to 3000 pounds in weight. The data obtained provided trade-offs between fuel economy, power...

  1. Preparation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy by spark plasma sintering method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salvetr, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Novák, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2016), s. 804-808 ISSN 1213-2489 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ni-Ti alloy * Powder metallurgy * Reactive sintering * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  2. Status of the Pestov spark counter development for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badura, E.; Dodokhov, V.; Eschke, J.; Frolov, A.R.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Grigoriev, V.; Kaplin, V.; Kopf, U.; Lobanov, V.; Neyer, C.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Schulze, R.; Steinhaeuser, P.; Stelzer, H.; Tiunov, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    The performance of a new ALICE prototype Pestov spark counter was measured both in dedicated test beam as well as in a high multiplicity heavy-ion environment. Results in terms of time resolution and background behaviour are presented. (orig.)

  3. Spark PRM: Using RRTs within PRMs to efficiently explore narrow passages

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Kensen

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) have been successful for many high-dimensional motion planning problems. However, they encounter difficulties when mapping narrow passages. While many PRM sampling methods have been proposed to increase the proportion of samples within narrow passages, such difficult planning areas still pose many challenges. We introduce a novel algorithm, Spark PRM, that sparks the growth of Rapidly-expanding Random Trees (RRTs) from narrow passage samples generated by a PRM. The RRT rapidly generates further narrow passage samples, ideally until the passage is fully mapped. After reaching a terminating condition, the tree stops growing and is added to the roadmap. Spark PRM is a general method that can be applied to all PRM variants. We study the benefits of Spark PRM with a variety of sampling strategies in a wide array of environments. We show significant speedups in computation time over RRT, Sampling-based Roadmap of Trees (SRT), and various PRM variants.

  4. Shock-wave dynamics under expansion of the spark channel in gas

    CERN Document Server

    Korytchenko, K V; Chumakov, V I

    2001-01-01

    The process of formation of shock waves arising at a spark discharge is considered. According to analysis of experimental statistics the results of the various about dynamics of development of the spark channel are exposed to a doubt. The definition of a concept of time of formation of a shock wave is offered and its quantitative evaluation is carried out. It has allowed to distinguish the process of formation from the process of development of a shock wave,and also to explain the fact of formation of several shock waves at a spark discharge. The offered work can be put in a basis of a technique for evaluation of the intensity of a shock wave formed at a spark discharge.

  5. Analyzing large data sets from XGC1 magnetic fusion simulations using apache spark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, R. Michael [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-11-21

    Apache Spark is explored as a tool for analyzing large data sets from the magnetic fusion simulation code XGCI. Implementation details of Apache Spark on the NERSC Edison supercomputer are discussed, including binary file reading, and parameter setup. Here, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, k-means clustering, is applied to XGCI particle distribution function data, showing that highly turbulent spatial regions do not have common coherent structures, but rather broad, ring-like structures in velocity space.

  6. Utilization of waste glycerin to fuelling of spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Z.; Pietras, D.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discusses a possibilities of usage a simple alcohols to fuelling of spark ignition engines. Methanol and blends of methanol with glycerin, being a waste product from production of bio-components to fuels based on rapeseed oil, have been used in course of the investigations. The main objective of the research was to determine possibilities of utilization of glycerin to blending of engine fuels. The investigations have been performed using the Fiat 1100 MPI engine. Parameters obtained with the engine powered by pure methanol and by methanol- glycerin mixtures with 10÷30%vol content of glycerin were compared to parameters of the engine fuelled conventionally with the E95 gasoline. The investigations have shown increase of overall efficiency of the engine run on pure methanol with 2.5÷5.0%, and run on the mixture having 10% addition of glycerin with 2.0÷7.8%. Simultaneously, fuelling of the engine with the investigated alcohols results in reduced concentration of toxic components in exhaust gases like: CO, THC and NOx, as well as the greenhouse gas CO2.

  7. DEDICATED EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooraj Rehan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of high levels of EGR has been well documented to decrease fuel consumption and reduce emissions of spark ignition engines. But there are also many limitations associated with this technology like EGR control and tolerance, which can reduce the potential efficiency improvements. A new concept called D-EGR has been presented in which the exhaust from a sub group of power cylinders is channeled back to the intake of all the cylinders. In this literature review both experimental and numerical analysis of this technology is shown. In the former case experiments were performed on 2.0 L PFI engine with gasoline as a fuel in part and high load conditions and the results show that at part loads the D-EGR engine can lead to lower Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, lower HC and CO emissions and higher brake thermal efficiency. At high load operations the results show improved combustion stability and superior knock tolerance. In the numerical studies it shows comparable thermal efficiency with conventional SI engines and reduction in NOX emissions.

  8. Interactions of multiple spark-generated bubbles with phase differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Siew Wan; Adhikari, Deepak; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2009-04-01

    This paper aims to study the complex interaction between multiple bubbles, and to provide a summary and physical explanation of the phenomena observed during the interaction of two bubbles. High-speed photography is utilized to observe the experiments involving multiple spark-generated bubbles. Numerical simulations corresponding to the experiments are performed using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The bubbles are typically between 3 and 5 mm in radius and are generated either in-phase (at the same time) or with phase differences. Complex phenomena are observed such as bubble splitting, and high-speed jetting inside a bubble caused by another collapsing bubble nearby (termed the ‘catapult’ effect). The two-bubble interactions are broadly classified in a graph according to two parameters: the relative inter-bubble distance and the phase difference (a new parameter introduced). The BEM simulations provide insight into the physics, such as bubble shape changes in detail, and jet velocities. Also presented in this paper are the experimental results of three bubble interactions. The interesting and complex observations of multiple bubble interaction are important for a better understanding of real life applications in medical ultrasonic treatment and ultrasonic cleaning. Many of the three bubble interactions can be explained by isolating bubble pairs and classifying their interaction according to the graph for the two bubble case. This graph can be a useful tool to predict the behavior of multiple bubble interactions.

  9. Nanostructured CoSi Obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Marco; Viennois, Romain; Ravot, Didier; Robin, Jean-Jacques; Villeroy, Benjamin; Vaney, Jean-Baptiste; Candolfi, Christophe; Lenoir, Bertrand; Papet, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt monosilicide is a cheap, environmentally friendly thermoelectric material for medium temperatures (200-700°C). While its power factor is similar to the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials, its thermal conductivity is too large to reach high ZT values. Nanostructuring might be an interesting strategy to reduce the phonon mean free path thereby improving the thermoelectric performance. In this paper, we report on a 35% reduction of the thermal conductivity of n-type CoSi by a nanostructuring approach. CoSi nanostructured powders were synthesized by arc melting, followed by 4° h mechanical milling. By optimizing the spark plasma sintering thermal and pressure cycle, pellets with 5â€"10% porosity were obtained. During sintering, a small amount of Co2Si extra phase appeared and grains coarsened. After sintering, the pellets remained nanostructured, with an averaged grain size of 70 nm. The reduction of thermal conductivity is ascribed to a decrease in both the electronic and lattice contributions. The former is directly related to a decrease in the electrical conductivity, which appears to be the limiting factor preventing nanostructured CoSi from reaching enhanced thermoelectric performances.

  10. Synthesis of mixed metallic nanoparticles by spark discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, N. S.; Xu, Q.; van der Pers, N. M.; Lafont, U.; Schmidt-Ott, A.

    2009-07-01

    Short spark discharges (2 μs) were successfully applied to generate mixed particles a few nanometres in diameter by fast quenching. Alloyed Cr-Co electrodes were applied to demonstrate this. Further it was shown that if the anode and the cathode are different materials, the discharge process mixes the vapour of both materials, forming mixed nanoparticles. Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the collected particles to study their size, morphology, composition and structure. The average compositions of the particles were measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In addition, online measurements of the particle size distribution by mobility analysis were carried out. In the case of alloyed electrodes (Cr-Co), the relative concentration of the elements in the nanoparticulate sample was consistent with the electrode composition. When using electrodes of different metals (Au-Pd and Ag-Pd) the individual nanoparticles showed a range of mixing ratios. No surface segregation was observed in these mixed noble metal particles. Crystalline nanoparticulate mixed phases were found in all cases.

  11. Fuzzy Fireworks Algorithm Based on a Sparks Dispersion Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Barraza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to improve the performance of the Fireworks Algorithm (FWA. To improve the performance of the FWA we propose three modifications: the first modification is to change the stopping criteria, this is to say, previously, the number of function evaluations was utilized as a stopping criteria, and we decided to change this to specify a particular number of iterations; the second and third modifications consist on introducing a dispersion metric (dispersion percent, and both modifications were made with the goal of achieving dynamic adaptation of the two parameters in the algorithm. The parameters that were controlled are the explosion amplitude and the number of sparks, and it is worth mentioning that the control of these parameters is based on a fuzzy logic approach. To measure the impact of these modifications, we perform experiments with 14 benchmark functions and a comparative study shows the advantage of the proposed approach. We decided to call the proposed algorithms Iterative Fireworks Algorithm (IFWA and two variants of the Dispersion Percent Iterative Fuzzy Fireworks Algorithm (DPIFWA-I and DPIFWA-II, respectively.

  12. Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering: Successes and Challenges of Nanomaterial Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina V. Dudina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS, initially developed as an advanced sintering technique for consolidating nanopowders into nanostructured bulk materials, has been recently looked at in much broader perspective and gained a strong reputation of a versatile method of solid state processing of metals, ceramics, and composites. The powders in the SPS-dies experience the action of pulsed electric current and uniaxial pressure; they are heated at very high rates unachievable in furnace heating and sintered within shorter times and at lower temperatures than in conventional methods. The principle of SPS and convenient design of the facilities make it attractive for conducting solid state synthesis. In this paper, based on our own results and the literature data, we analyze the microstructure formation of the products of chemical reactions occurring in the SPS in an attempt to formulate the requirements to the microstructure parameters of reactant mixtures and SPS conditions that should be fulfilled in order to produce a nanostructured material. We present successful syntheses of nanostructured ceramics and metal matrix composite with nanosized reinforcements in terms of microstructure stability and attractive properties of the materials and discuss the challenges of making a dense nanostructured material when reaction and densification do not coincide during the SPS. In the final part of the paper, we provide an outlook on the further uses of reactive SPS in the synthesis of nanostructured materials.

  13. Consolidation of copper and aluminium powders by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiprasad, M.; Atchayakumar, R.; Thiruppathi, K.; Raghuraman, S.

    2016-09-01

    Processing in the powder metallurgy route has emerged as an economical process for the production of near net shaped components with a wide range of desired mechanical properties suitable for various applications of industrial needs. This research work was conducted with an objective of studying the improvisation of density and hardness of Copper-Aluminium alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering. Cu-Al alloy with a composition of 95% copper and 5% aluminium was prepared by SPS process. SPS is a low voltage, DC pulse current activated, pressure-assisted sintering, which enables sintering at lower temperatures and shorter durations. The combination offered by Cu-Al alloy of high strength and high corrosion resistance results their applications under a wide variety of conditions. The density and hardness of the prepared sample were measured by conducting appropriate tests. Apparently, the values of hardness and density of the specimen prepared by SPS seemed to be better than that of conventional sintering. The experimental procedure, testing methodologies and analysis are presented.

  14. Ca2+ sparks act as potent regulators of excitation-contraction coupling in airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ronghua; Bao, Rongfeng; Fogarty, Kevin E; Lifshitz, Lawrence M

    2010-01-15

    Ca2+ sparks are short lived and localized Ca2+ transients resulting from the opening of ryanodine receptors in sarcoplasmic reticulum. These events relax certain types of smooth muscle by activating big conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels to produce spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) and the resultant closure of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. But in many smooth muscles from a variety of organs, Ca2+ sparks can additionally activate Ca2+-activated Cl(-) channels to generate spontaneous transient inward current (STICs). To date, the physiological roles of Ca2+ sparks in this latter group of smooth muscle remain elusive. Here, we show that in airway smooth muscle, Ca2+ sparks under physiological conditions, activating STOCs and STICs, induce biphasic membrane potential transients (BiMPTs), leading to membrane potential oscillations. Paradoxically, BiMPTs stabilize the membrane potential by clamping it within a negative range and prevent the generation of action potentials. Moreover, blocking either Ca2+ sparks or hyperpolarization components of BiMPTs activates voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, resulting in an increase in global [Ca2+](i) and cell contraction. Therefore, Ca2+ sparks in smooth muscle presenting both STICs and STOCs act as a stabilizer of membrane potential, and altering the balance can profoundly alter the status of excitability and contractility. These results reveal a novel mechanism underlying the control of excitability and contractility in smooth muscle.

  15. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Fowler, T; Pinget, B

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processor modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a state where rapid degradation would occur. Above this level an interlock is raised and the high voltage is switched off. Additionally, all spark si...

  16. Experimental Investigation of Augmented Spark Ignition of a LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine at Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of nontoxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost-effective mission scenarios. One promising green alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane (LCH4) with liquid oxygen (LO2). A 100 lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development project and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center Altitude Combustion Stand in a low pressure environment. High ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination; so this ignition margin test program examined ignition performance versus delivered spark energy. Sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also explored. Three different exciter units were used with the engine s augmented (torch) igniter. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks. This suggests that rising pressure and flow rate increase spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter s ability to complete each spark. The reduced spark energies of such quenched deliveries resulted in more erratic ignitions, decreasing ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1 to 6 mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55 to 75 mJ were required for reliable ignition. Delayed spark application and reduced spark repetition rate both correlated with late and occasional failed ignitions. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition therefore coincides with propellant introduction to the igniter.

  17. Journalists and Their Role in Selecting and Building News on Contemporary Transnational Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Javorski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, Brazil has once more become a gateway for immigrants from different nations. This article presents a form for understanding the journalist’s role in selecting and building news on contemporary transnational migrations. In order to do this, a content analysis was made of excerpts from national and regional morning newscasts between 2014 and 2016 from Globo Network, Bom Dia Brasil and Bom Dia Paraná. The second stage of the investigation was a study of journalists from Paraná radio stations. This study consisted of a questionnaire and a focus group to help understand what kind of barriers journalists face when selecting news. The results show the limits for using personal experiences in news production and the social differences between journalists and sources; considered as an obstacle towards bringing minority issues and the dependence on bureaucratic sources to the forefront. O Brasil tornou-se, na última década, novamente a porta de entrada de imigrantes. É no sentido de compreender o papel do jornalista na seleção e construção da notícia sobre as migrações transnacionais contemporâneas que esse artigo se apresenta. Para tanto, foi realizada uma análise de conteúdo de peças encontradas nos telejornais matutinos de âmbito nacional e regional da TV Globo, Bom Dia Brasil e Bom Dia Paraná, entre 2014 e 2016. A segunda etapa da investigação consistiu em uma pesquisa com jornalistas de emissoras paranaenses por meio de questionários e da composição de um grupo focal na intenção de perceber, à luz da teoria do gatekeeping, quais as interferências sofridas pelos jornalistas na seleção das notícias. Os resultados apontam os limites da utilização das experiências pessoais na produção da notícia, as diferenças sociais entre jornalistas e fontes como empecilho para a visibilidade de assuntos referentes às minorias e a dependência das fontes burocráticas. El Brasil se ha convertido, en la

  18. SciSpark's SRDD : A Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset for Multidimensional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamuttam, R. S.; Wilson, B. D.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; McGibbney, L. J.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We have developed SciSpark, a robust Big Data framework, that extends ApacheTM Spark for scaling scientific computations. Apache Spark improves the map-reduce implementation in ApacheTM Hadoop for parallel computing on a cluster, by emphasizing in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and relying on lazy evaluation. Central to Spark is the Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD), an in-memory distributed data structure that extends the functional paradigm provided by the Scala programming language. However, RDDs are ideal for tabular or unstructured data, and not for highly dimensional data. The SciSpark project introduces the Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset (sRDD), a distributed-computing array structure which supports iterative scientific algorithms for multidimensional data. SciSpark processes data stored in NetCDF and HDF files by partitioning them across time or space and distributing the partitions among a cluster of compute nodes. We show usability and extensibility of SciSpark by implementing distributed algorithms for geospatial operations on large collections of multi-dimensional grids. In particular we address the problem of scaling an automated method for finding Mesoscale Convective Complexes. SciSpark provides a tensor interface to support the pluggability of different matrix libraries. We evaluate performance of the various matrix libraries in distributed pipelines, such as Nd4jTM and BreezeTM. We detail the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from model grids. These

  19. Lanthana-bearing nanostructured ferritic steels via spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasebani, Somayeh [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Charit, Indrajit, E-mail: icharit@uidaho.edu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Wu, Yaqiao; Burns, Jatuporn; Allahar, Kerry N.; Butt, Darryl P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Cole, James I. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Alsagabi, Sultan F. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A lanthana-containing nanostructured ferritic steel (NFS) was processed via mechanical alloying (MA) of Fe-14Cr-1Ti-0.3Mo-0.5La{sub 2}O{sub 3} (wt.%) and consolidated via spark plasma sintering (SPS). In order to study the consolidation behavior via SPS, sintering temperature and dwell time were correlated with microstructure, density, microhardness and shear yield strength of the sintered specimens. A bimodal grain size distribution including both micron-sized and nano-sized grains was observed in the microstructure of specimens sintered at 850, 950 and1050 °C for 45 min. Significant densification occurred at temperatures greater than 950 °C with a relative density higher than 98%. A variety of nanoparticles, some enriched in Fe and Cr oxides and copious nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm with faceted morphology and enriched in La and Ti oxides were observed. After SPS at 950 °C, the number density of Cr–Ti–La–O-enriched nanoclusters with an average radius of 1.5 nm was estimated to be 1.2 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −3}. The La + Ti:O ratio was close to 1 after SPS at 950 and 1050 °C; however, the number density of nanoclusters decreased at 1050 °C. With SPS above 950 °C, the density improved but the microhardness and shear yield strength decreased due to partial coarsening of the grains and nanoparticles.

  20. Generation of a Social Network Graph by Using Apache Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Belov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We plan to create a method of clustering a social network graph. For testing the method there is a need to generate a graph similar in structure to existing social networks. The article presents an algorithm for the graph distributed generation. We took into account basic properties such as power-law distribution of the users communities number, dense intersections of the social networks and others. This algorithm also considers the problems that are present in similar works of other authors, for example, the multiple edges problem in the generation process. A special feature of the created algorithm is the implementation depending on the communities number parameter rather than on the connected users number as it is done in other works. It is connected with a peculiarity of progressing the existing social network structure. There are properties of its graph in the paper. We described a table containing the variables needed for the algorithm. A step-by-step generation algorithm was compiled. Appropriate mathematical parameters were calculated for it. A generation is performed in a distributed way by Apache Spark framework. It was described in detail how the tasks division with the help of this framework runs. The Erdos-Renyi model for random graphs is used in the algorithm. It is the most suitable and easy one to implement. The main advantages of the created method are the small amount of resources in comparison with other similar generators and execution speed. Speed is achieved through distributed work and the fact that in any time network users have their own unique numbers and are ordered by these numbers, so there is no need to sort them out. The designed algorithm will promote not only the efficient clustering method creation. It can be useful in other development areas connected, for example, with the social networks search engines.

  1. Pseudo-spark switch (PSS) characteristics under different operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, B. H., E-mail: dr.bassmahussain@gmail.com; Ahmad, A. K., E-mail: ahmad.kamal@sc.nahrainuniv.edu.iq [College of Science, Al Nahrain University, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq); Lateef, K. H., E-mail: kamalhlatif@yahoo.com [Ministry of Science and Technology, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-08-15

    The present paper concentrates on the characteristics of the pseudospark switch (PSS) designed in a previous work. The special characteristics of PSS make it a replacement for other high voltage switches such as thyratrons and ordinary high-pressure spark gaps. PSS is characterized by short rise time and small jitter time. The pseudo park chamber consists of two hollow cylindrical electrodes made of a stainless steel material (type 306L) separated by an insulator. The insulator used in our design is a glazed ceramic 70 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm in thickness. A PSS with an anode voltage of 29.2 kV, and a current of 3.6 kA and 11 ns rise time was achieved and used successfully at a repetition rate of about 2.2 kHz. A simple trigger circuit designed, built, and used effectively reaching more than 1.56 kV trigger pulse which is sufficient to ignite the argon gas inside the cathode to cause a breakdown. A non-inductive dummy load is designed to be a new technique to find the accurate value of the PSS inductance. A jitter time of ±10 ns pulses is observed to occur in a reliable manner for more than 6 h of continuous operation. In this research, the important parameters of this switch like rise time, peak current, and anode voltage were studied at various values of charging capacitance. The lifetime of this system is depending on the kind of the electrode material and on the type of insulation material in the main gap of the pseudospark switch.

  2. Journalistic activity on mobile platforms: a study on autochthonous products and changes to the journalist’s professional profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is centred on a study of the empirical and theoretical-conceptual nature of autochthonous (original products for tablets, with a horizontal multiplatform logic, integrating the web, tablets, smartphones and PDF and page flip versions of printed editions in a dynamic, multimedia continuum launched as part of journalistic organizations’ strategies in compliance with journalistic convergence processes. The methodology includes a qualitative, empirical analysis of actual products (O Globo a Mais, Estadão Noite and Folha10 conducted in an ad hoc exploratory manner, associated to semi-structured interviews with editors and reporters. The results indicate changes to the profile of the professionals involved with production strategies for tablets, inserting new elements in autochthonous product narratives. A 3.0 transposition was simultaneously identified, as the exclusive content for tablet products is transferred to other platforms at a later date.

  3. The Relationship between journalists and PR practitioners in Romania – Somewhere in between co-operation and conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina COMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One constant idea emerges from all of the studies regarding the relationship between journalists and PR practitioners: this relationship is a complex and ambiguous one. It is quite obvious that both participants aim at holding control over the production and distribution of information; despite this aim, it is certain that none of the two can develop a monopoly over such a process. The inter-dependency between the actors involved in this game is based on the interest in mutual co-operation showed by each of the participants. This very study stands for the fact that by means of the values they referred to, the Romanian journalists and PR professionals express attitudes that are similar to those of their colleagues from other countries where these two professions have a longer tradition behind.

  4. JOURNALISTIC ACTIVITY ON MOBILE PLATFORMS: A STUDY ON AUTOCHTHONOUS PRODUCTS AND CHANGES TO THE JOURNALIST’S PROFESSIONAL PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is centred on a study of the empirical and theoretical-conceptual nature of autochthonous (original products for tablets, with a horizontal multiplatform logic, integrating the web, tablets, smartphones and PDF and page flip versions of printed editions in a dynamic, multimedia continuum launched as part of journalistic organizations’ strategies in compliance with journalistic convergence processes. The methodology includes a qualitative, empirical analysis of actual products (O Globo a Mais, Estadão Noite and Folha10 conducted in an ad hoc exploratory manner, associated to semi-structured interviews with editors and reporters. The results indicate changes to the profile of the professionals involved with production strategies for tablets, inserting new elements in autochthonous product narratives. A 3.0 transposition was simultaneously identified, as the exclusive content for tablet products is transferred to other platforms at a later date.

  5. Smileys Without Borders. A Critique of Transboundary Interaction Between Politicians, Journalists and PR Practitioners on Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Berglez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to contribute a critical theoretical understanding of cross-professional relations on social media, focusing on politicians, journalists and PR practitioners. It is well known that these professional groups establish personal and close relations in offline contexts, but more attention needs to be paid to the role of social media. Here, it is argued that, in the context of digital media use, semi-private chatting, humour, and mutual acknowledgement, including the use of likes, smileys, heart symbols, etc. are evidence of a 'neoliberalization' of cross-professional relations. The underlying idea is that the common practice of self-branding undermines representations of professional belonging and exacerbates the blurring of professional boundaries. The critical conceptualization of such 'transboundary' interaction between politicians, journalists and PR practitioners, which is guided by a cultural materialist approach, includes the presentation of examples deriving from the Swedish Twittersphere, and suggestions for empirical research.

  6. Nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure-the spark regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, David Z; Lacoste, Deanna A; Laux, Christophe O

    2010-01-01

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) spark discharges have been studied in atmospheric pressure air preheated to 1000 K. Measurements of spark initiation and stability, plasma dynamics, gas temperature and current-voltage characteristics of the spark regime are presented. Using 10 ns pulses applied repetitively at 30 kHz, we find that 2-400 pulses are required to initiate the spark, depending on the applied voltage. Furthermore, about 30-50 pulses are required for the spark discharge to reach steady state, following initiation. Based on space- and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy, the spark discharge in steady state is found to ignite homogeneously in the discharge gap, without evidence of an initial streamer. Using measured emission from the N 2 (C-B) 0-0 band, it is found that the gas temperature rises by several thousand Kelvin in the span of about 30 ns following the application of the high-voltage pulse. Current-voltage measurements show that up to 20-40 A of conduction current is generated, which corresponds to an electron number density of up to 10 15 cm -3 towards the end of the high-voltage pulse. The discharge dynamics, gas temperature and electron number density are consistent with a streamer-less spark that develops homogeneously through avalanche ionization in volume. This occurs because the pre-ionization electron number density of about 10 11 cm -3 produced by the high frequency train of pulses is above the critical density for streamer-less discharge development, which is shown to be about 10 8 cm -3 .

  7. Nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure—the spark regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, David Z.; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2010-12-01

    Nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) spark discharges have been studied in atmospheric pressure air preheated to 1000 K. Measurements of spark initiation and stability, plasma dynamics, gas temperature and current-voltage characteristics of the spark regime are presented. Using 10 ns pulses applied repetitively at 30 kHz, we find that 2-400 pulses are required to initiate the spark, depending on the applied voltage. Furthermore, about 30-50 pulses are required for the spark discharge to reach steady state, following initiation. Based on space- and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy, the spark discharge in steady state is found to ignite homogeneously in the discharge gap, without evidence of an initial streamer. Using measured emission from the N2 (C-B) 0-0 band, it is found that the gas temperature rises by several thousand Kelvin in the span of about 30 ns following the application of the high-voltage pulse. Current-voltage measurements show that up to 20-40 A of conduction current is generated, which corresponds to an electron number density of up to 1015 cm-3 towards the end of the high-voltage pulse. The discharge dynamics, gas temperature and electron number density are consistent with a streamer-less spark that develops homogeneously through avalanche ionization in volume. This occurs because the pre-ionization electron number density of about 1011 cm-3 produced by the high frequency train of pulses is above the critical density for streamer-less discharge development, which is shown to be about 108 cm-3.

  8. Jade and the journalists: media coverage of a young British celebrity dying of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Tony

    2010-09-01

    In contemporary western societies, dying usually occurs in old age, out of sight in hospitals and institutions; how then do lay people learn what dying is like? Since the 1970s, one source of information in Anglophone societies has come from individuals who have chosen to publicise their dying of cancer. This article examines the most high profile case of this to date in the UK; in 2009, celebrity Jade Goody publicised in tabloid newspapers and celebrity magazines the final weeks of her dying of cervical cancer. What did she and her media say and write about dying? This article examines the print coverage of her final weeks, and four different voices are identified: those of Goody, of journalists, of her publicist, and of photographers, each representing her dying somewhat differently. Two major themes are discussed: Jade's struggles to retain autonomy (challenged by her disease and by other people), and the framing of her final weeks not primarily as a typical media cancer story of heroism, but as one of redemption in which she attained social respectability through dying. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. JOURNALISTIC TRANSLATION OF DILMA ROUSSEFF’S IMPEACHMENT IN THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Reis Mendes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary society, where geographical and temporary barriers are getting smaller due to the popularization of internet, translation has an essential role, because it allows people from different cultural contexts to share real-time information. Translation is seen not only as the process of searching for semantic equivalences, but as resignification of contents in new contexts. This article purposes a reflection about the interface between journalism and translation, relating the pillars of these professions – search for objectivity and fidelity, respectively – and the influence of many constraints to each both professions are submitted to, through the Theories of Journalism and Translation Studies. This work aims to identify different approaches of the Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff’s impeachment process in the international media, by a sociolinguistic point of view, through the comparison of news published in English and Portuguese. We try to identify the linguistic choices which mark these approaches. To do so, we selected news published on the selected languages on Huffington Post and BBC, at the date of the impeachment voting by the Brazilian Congress, April 17th, 2016. This article presents a qualitative study to the light of Corpus Linguistics, with the aid of terminological tools, which allows the observation of many different aspects of the texts which are relevant to the linguistic research. The analysis showed us that journalistic translation goes beyond the semantic field, as it participates actively of the political games through semantic choices marked by ideologies of actors involved in the process.

  10. Scientists are From Venus, Journalists are From Mars: Bridging the Two Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, N.

    2006-12-01

    Media coverage of issues ranging from climate change to evolution often shapes public awareness and opinions about these topics and the science behind them. While scientists can play a critical social role as a resource for journalists and as a valuable information source for the public, they are often frustrated with how their work is portrayed in the press or choose to avoid public discussions completely. In order for science-based policy measures to succeed, scientists must engage in these public discussions and learn how to communicate more effectively - not only with each other, but also with the media, the public, and policy makers. This requires being able to put themselves in the shoes of their audiences. This presentation will provide insights into the world of journalism and offer practical steps that scientists can take to ensure that their research will register on the public's radar screen. Presenter Nancy Baron, Lead Communications Trainer for the Aldo Leopold Program (ALLP) and Ocean Science Outreach Director for COMPASS works closely with leading scientists to help them communicate the contents and importance of their work more effectively and make their science "news" without compromising scientific integrity or credibility.

  11. Justification and Persuasion about Cloning: Arguments in Hwang's Paper and Journalistic Reported Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar; Federico-Agraso, Marta

    2009-05-01

    We examine the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.’s (2004) paper about human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, or ‘therapeutic cloning’), contrasted with four Journalistic Reported Versions (JRV) of it, and with students’ summaries of one JRV. As the evaluation of evidence is one of the critical features of argumentation (Jiménez-Aleixandre 2008), the analysis focuses on the use of evidence, drawing from instruments to analyze written argumentation (Kelly et al. 2008) and from studies about the structure of empirical research reports (Swales 2001). The objectives are: 1) To examine the use of evidence and the argumentative structure of Hwang et al.’s Science, 303: 1669-1674 (2004) original paper in terms of the criteria: a) pertinence of the evidence presented to the claims; b) sufficiency of the evidence for the purpose of supporting the claims; and c) coordination of the evidence across epistemic levels. 2) To explore how the structure of Hwang’s paper translates into the JRV and into university students’ perceptions about the evidence supporting the claims. The argumentative structure of Hwang’s paper is such that its apparently ostensible main claim about NT constitutes a justification for a second claim about its therapeutic applications, for which no evidence is offered. However, this second claim receives prominent treatment in the JRV and in the students’ summaries. Implications for promoting critical reading in the classroom are discussed.

  12. Can journalistic "false balance" distort public perception of consensus in expert opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Derek J

    2016-03-01

    Media critics have expressed concern that journalistic "false balance" can distort the public's perceptions of what ought to be noncontroversial subjects (e.g., climate change). I report several experiments testing the influence of presenting conflicting comments from 2 experts who disagree on an issue (balance condition) in addition to a complete count of the number of experts on a panel who favor either side. Compared with a control condition, who received only the complete count, participants in the balance condition gave ratings of the perceived agreement among the experts that did not discriminate as clearly between issues with and without strong expert consensus. Participants in the balance condition also perceived less agreement among the experts in general, and were less likely to think that there was enough agreement among experts on the high-consensus issues to guide government policy. Evidently, "false balance" can distort perceptions of expert opinion even when participants would seem to have all the information needed to correct for its influence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A discourse analysis methodology based on semantic principles - an application to brands, journalists and consumers discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Grivel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a R&D Paper. It describes an analysis coming from a research project about opinion measurement and monitoring on the Internet. This research is realized within "Paragraphe" laboratory, in partnership with the market research institute Harris Interactive (CIFRE grant beginning July 2010. The purpose of the study was to define CRM possibilities. The targets of the study were self-employed workers and very small businesses. The discourses analysis is linked to a qualitative study. It turns around three types of discourses: brands, journalists and clients’ discourses. In the brand discourses analysis we benchmarked brand websites belonging to several businesses. In this first step, we tried to identify the most used words and promises by brands to the target we were studying. For that benchmark, we downloaded "Professionals" sections of the websites. Clients’ discourses analysis is based on opened answers coming from satisfaction questionnaires. The questions we are studying have been asked after a call to a hot line or after a technician intervention. Journalists’ discourses analysis is based on articles, published on information websites specialized in Harris Interactive's client sector. These websites were chosen because we considered them to be representative of information sources, which the target could consult.

  14. Internal combustion engines a detailed introduction to the thermodynamics of spark and compression ignition engines, their design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Rowland S

    1979-01-01

    Internal Combustion of Engines: A Detailed Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Spark and Compression Ignition Engines, Their Design and Development focuses on the design, development, and operations of spark and compression ignition engines. The book first describes internal combustion engines, including rotary, compression, and indirect or spark ignition engines. The publication then discusses basic thermodynamics and gas dynamics. Topics include first and second laws of thermodynamics; internal energy and enthalpy diagrams; gas mixtures and homocentric flow; and state equation. The text ta

  15. “Send pretty girls to the White House”: the role of gender in journalists – politicians’ interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila VORONOVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interrelations between politics and media are often described as a power-play, a rumba or even a danse macabre, and the key question of political communication is “who leads and who follows” in the “power-play between politicians and journalists” (Ross, 2010, p. 274. As today “[m]eaning, media and politics become blurred, but arguably in highly gendered ways” (Holmes, 2007, p. 12, gender inevitably enters the discussion of the journalists – politicians’ interactions. Based on interviews with 40 Russian and Swedish political reporters working for the “quality” press, this paper discusses the role of gender as a social practice (Löfgren Nilsson, 2010 in journalists – politicians’ communication in different political and cultural contexts, which Russia and Sweden represent. The paper answers the following questions: Do journalists perceive the interrelations with politicians as gendered? Do they use gendered interrelations strategically to acquire information efficiently? How do the gendered political communication practices differ dependent on the political and cultural context?

  16. Un « gouvernement des journalistes par le Pouvoir politique » par défaut ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Lardeau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les interactions de deux mouvements concomitants apparusprincipalement dans les décennies 1950 à 1970 dans le champ de la presse française : d’un côté les initiatives – consécutives à la démarche pionnière, en 1951, de création de la première Société des journalistes (SDJ au sein du Monde – menées par les journalistes de rédactions de quotidiens pour créer des SDJ dont la destination peut aller jusqu’à gouverner les journaux; de l’autre côté, les « réponses » apportées par les Pouvoirs politique et public pour contenir ces initiatives visant à étendre le pouvoir des journalistes dans la gestion et la gouvernance de leurs journaux. Cette étude exploratoire repose principalement sur l’analyse de deux types de littérature, souvent déconsidérés ou négligés par le champ académique, en dépit de leur grande richesse : (1 la littérature professionnelle, ayant pour principaux auteurs les journalistes et managers de presse (Périer Daville, Boegner, Pigasse, etc., florissante depuis 1944 et singulièrement durant les décennies 1960 et 1970 ; (2 la littérature grise constituée notamment par des rapports publics rédigés par des institutions comme les services du Premier ministre (commissions Lindon de 1970 et Serisé de 1972, le Conseil économique et social, etc. Nos principaux résultats montrent que les propositions ou actions menées par les journalistes (1 restent le plus souvent inexploitées in concreto par les journalistes eux-mêmes; (2 entrent le plus souvent en opposition avec les politiques de nouveaux actionnaires ou directions de journaux et avec les projets des autorités politiques et publiques qui cherchent à encadrer l’autonomie de la profession journalistique pour mieux gouverner celle-ci ; (3 combien in fine les représentants des différents acteurs impliqués s’accordent pour contenir l’émergence d’un « gouvernement des journalistes » par les

  17. Characterization of Erosion and Failure Processes of Spark Plugs After Field Service in Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Richards, Roger K [ORNL; Layton, David [National Transportation Research Center (NTRC)

    2005-01-01

    Microstructural and optical spectroscopic analyses were carried out on as-received and used spark plugs after field service in natural gas (NG) reciprocating engines. The objective of this work was to examine the corrosion and erosion mechanisms of natural gas engine spark plug as well as identify the primary life limiting processes during field operation. The optical emission spectroscopic analysis showed a strong Ca signal in the exposed spark plugs and scanning electron microscopy showed substantial formation of Ca-enriched glassy oxide phase(s) on the electrode surfaces. In addition, intergranular cracking was observed in the subsurface region of both iridium (Ir) and platinum-tungsten (Pt-W) alloy electrode insert tips. The coalescence and subsequent growth of these cracks would accelerate the wear of the electrodes and shorten the lifetime of the spark plugs. Also, extensive internal oxidation and subsequent crack generation occurred along the interface between Ni-base alloy electrode and Pt-W alloy tip insert during field service, which would result in substantial degradation in the ignitability and performance of the electrodes, and thus spark plug failure.

  18. THE EFFECT OF COMPRESSION RATIO VARIATIONS ON THE ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETRES IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup SEKMEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of the spark ignition engines may be increased by changing the geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging in cylinders. The designed geometrical compression ratio can be realized as an effective compression ratio under the full load and full open throttle conditions since the effective compression ratio changes with the amount of charging into the cylinder in spark ignition engines. So, this condition of the spark ignition engines forces designers to change their geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging into the cylinder for improvement of performance and fuel economy. In order to improve the combustion efficiency, fuel economy, power output, exhaust emissions at partial loads, compression ratio must be increased; but, under high load and low speed conditions to prevent probable knock and hard running the compression ratio must be decreased gradually. In this paper, relation of the performance parameters to compression ratio such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, cylindir pressure, exhaust gas temperature, combustion chamber surface area/volume ratio, thermal efficiency, spark timing etc. in spark ignition engines have been investigated and using of engines with variable compression ratio is suggested to fuel economy and more clear environment.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of aluminium–alumina micro- and nano-composites by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.; Chaira, D.; Ray, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The evolution of microstructure by varying the particle size of reinforcement in the matrix employing spark plasma sintering has been demonstrated here in Al–Al 2 O 3 system. An emphasis has been laid on varying the reinforcement particle size and evaluating the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size 2 O 3 micro- and nano-composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering. • Better matrix-reinforcement integrity in nanocomposites than microcomposites. • Spark plasma sintering method results in higher density and hardness values. • High density and hardness values of nanocomposites than microcomposites. • High dislocation density in spark plasma sintered Al–Al 2 O 3 composites. - Abstract: In the present study, an emphasis has been laid on evaluation of the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites by varying the reinforcement particle size. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size 2 O 3 nancomposites respectively. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification and matrix-reinforcement proximity which have been corroborated with the experimental results

  20. SparkBWA: Speeding Up the Alignment of High-Throughput DNA Sequencing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Abuín

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have led to a huge amount of genomic data that need to be analyzed and interpreted. This fact has a huge impact on the DNA sequence alignment process, which nowadays requires the mapping of billions of small DNA sequences onto a reference genome. In this way, sequence alignment remains the most time-consuming stage in the sequence analysis workflow. To deal with this issue, state of the art aligners take advantage of parallelization strategies. However, the existent solutions show limited scalability and have a complex implementation. In this work we introduce SparkBWA, a new tool that exploits the capabilities of a big data technology as Spark to boost the performance of one of the most widely adopted aligner, the Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA. The design of SparkBWA uses two independent software layers in such a way that no modifications to the original BWA source code are required, which assures its compatibility with any BWA version (future or legacy. SparkBWA is evaluated in different scenarios showing noticeable results in terms of performance and scalability. A comparison to other parallel BWA-based aligners validates the benefits of our approach. Finally, an intuitive and flexible API is provided to NGS professionals in order to facilitate the acceptance and adoption of the new tool. The source code of the software described in this paper is publicly available at https://github.com/citiususc/SparkBWA, with a GPL3 license.