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Sample records for detailed balance ii

  1. Surface hopping, transition state theory, and decoherence. II. Thermal rate constants and detailed balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Amber; Subotnik, Joseph E., E-mail: subotnik@sas.upenn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    We investigate a simple approach to compute a non-adiabatic thermal rate constant using the fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) dynamics. We study the effects of both decoherence (using our augmented-FSSH (A-FSSH) algorithm) and forbidden hops over a large range of parameters, including high and low friction regimes, and weak and strong electronic coupling regimes. Furthermore, when possible, we benchmark our results against exact hierarchy equations of motion results, where we usually find a maximum error of roughly a factor of two (at reasonably large temperatures). In agreement with Hammes-Schiffer and Tully, we find that a merger of transition state theory and surface hopping can be both accurate and efficient when performed correctly. We further show that detailed balance is followed approximately by A-FSSH dynamics.

  2. Statistical mechanics and the description of the early universe II. Principle of detailed balance and primordial 4He formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; F. Torres, Diego

    2001-01-01

    If the universe is slightly non-extensive, and the distribution functions are not exactly given by those of Boltzmann-Gibbs, the primordial production of light elements will be non-trivially modified. In particular, the principle of detailed balance (PDB), of fundamental importance in the standard...... the formation of Helium and Deuterium, and study the kind of deviation one could expect from the standard regime. The correction to the capture time, the moment in which Deuterium can no longer be substantially photo-disintegrated, is also presented. This allows us to take into account the process of the free...

  3. Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101275080

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying

  4. Generalized detailed balance theory of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchartz, Thomas

    2009-12-12

    The principle of detailed balance is the requirement that every microscopic process in a system must be in equilibrium with its inverse process, when the system itself is in thermodynamic equilibrium. This detailed balance principle has been of special importance for photovoltaics, since it allows the calculation of the limiting efficiency of a given solar cell by defining the only fundamental loss process as the radiative recombination of electron/hole pairs followed by the emission of a photon. In equilibrium, i.e. in the dark and without applied voltage, the absorbed and emitted photon flux must be equal due to detailed balance. This equality determines the radiative recombination from absorption and vice versa. While the classical theory of photovoltaic efficiency limits by Shockley and Queisser considers only one detailed balance pair, namely photogeneration and radiative recombination, the present work extends the detailed balance principle to any given process in the solar cell. Applying the detailed balance principle to the whole device leads to two major results, namely (i) a model that is compatible with the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit for efficient particle transport, while still being able to describe non-ideal and non-linear solar cells, and (ii) an analytical relation between electroluminescent emission and photovoltaic action of a diode that is applied to a variety of different solar cells. This thesis presents several variations of a detailed balance model that are applicable to different types of solar cells. Any typical inorganic solar cell is a mainly bipolar device, meaning that the current is carried by electrons and holes. The detailed balance model for pn-type and pin-type bipolar solar cells is therefore the most basic incorporation of a detailed balance model. The only addition compared to the classical diode theory or compared to standard one-dimensional device simulators is the incorporation of photon recycling, making the model

  5. Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Rau, Uwe [IEF5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The limiting efficiency of photovoltaic devices follows from the detailed balance of absorption and emission of a diode according to the Shockley-Queisser theory. However, the principle of detailed balance has more implications for the understanding of photovoltaic devices than only defining the efficiency limit. We show how reciprocity relations between carrier collection and dark carrier injection, between electroluminescence emission and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and between open circuit voltage and light emitting diode quantum efficiency all follow from the principle of detailed balance. We also discuss the validity range of the Shockley-Queisser limit and the reciprocity relations. Discussing the validity of the reciprocity relations helps to deepen the understanding of photovoltaic devices and allows us to identify interrelationships between the superposition principle, the diode ideality and the reciprocity relations. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Detailed balance of the Feynman micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Derek; Davis, Bruce R.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    1999-09-01

    One existing implication of micromotors is that they can be powered by rectifying non-equilibrium thermal fluctuations or mechanical vibrations via the so-called Feynman- micromotor. An example of mechanical rectification is found in the batteryless wristwatch. The original concept was described in as early as 1912 by Smoluchowski and was later revisited in 1963 by Feynman, in the context of rectifying thermal fluctuations to obtain useful motion. It has been shown that, although rectification is impossible at equilibrium, it is possible for the Feynman-micromotor to perform work under non-equilibrium conditions. These concepts can now be realized by MEMS technology and may have exciting implications in biomedicine - where the Feynman- micromotor can be used to power a smart pill, for example. Previously, Feynman's analysis of the motor's efficiency has been shown to be flawed by Parrondo and Espanol. We now show there are further problems in Feynman's treatment of detailed balance. In order to design and understand this device correctly, the equations of detailed balance must be found. Feynman's approach was to use probabilities based on energies and we show that this is problematic. In this paper, we demonstrate corrected equations using level crossing probabilities instead. A potential application of the Feynman-micromotor is a batteryless nanopump that consists of a small MEMS chip that adheres to the skin of a patient and dispense nanoliter quantities of medication. Either mechanical or thermal rectification via a Feynman- micromotor, as the power source, is open for possible investigation.

  7. General theory of the multistage geminate reactions of the isolated pairs of reactants. II. Detailed balance and universal asymptotes of kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipriyanov, Alexey A; Doktorov, Alexander B

    2014-10-14

    The analysis of general (matrix) kinetic equations for the mean survival probabilities of any of the species in a sample (or mean concentrations) has been made for a wide class of the multistage geminate reactions of the isolated pairs. These kinetic equations (obtained in the frame of the kinetic approach based on the concept of "effective" particles in Paper I) take into account various possible elementary reactions (stages of a multistage reaction) excluding monomolecular, but including physical and chemical processes of the change in internal quantum states carried out with the isolated pairs of reactants (or isolated reactants). The general basic principles of total and detailed balance have been established. The behavior of the reacting system has been considered on macroscopic time scales, and the universal long-term kinetics has been determined.

  8. Nuclear Weak Rates and Detailed Balance in Stellar Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misch, G. Wendell, E-mail: wendell@sjtu.edu, E-mail: wendell.misch@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-07-20

    Detailed balance is often invoked in discussions of nuclear weak transitions in astrophysical environments. Satisfaction of detailed balance is rightly touted as a virtue of some methods of computing nuclear transition strengths, but I argue that it need not necessarily be strictly obeyed in astrophysical environments, especially when the environment is far from weak equilibrium. I present the results of shell model calculations of nuclear weak strengths in both charged-current and neutral-current channels at astrophysical temperatures, finding some violation of detailed balance. I show that a slight modification of the technique to strictly obey detailed balance has little effect on the reaction rates associated with these strengths under most conditions, though at high temperature the modified technique in fact misses some important strength. I comment on the relationship between detailed balance and weak equilibrium in astrophysical conditions.

  9. Derivation of Markov processes that violate detailed balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julian

    2018-03-01

    Time-reversal symmetry of the microscopic laws dictates that the equilibrium distribution of a stochastic process must obey the condition of detailed balance. However, cyclic Markov processes that do not admit equilibrium distributions with detailed balance are often used to model systems driven out of equilibrium by external agents. I show that for a Markov model without detailed balance, an extended Markov model can be constructed, which explicitly includes the degrees of freedom for the driving agent and satisfies the detailed balance condition. The original cyclic Markov model for the driven system is then recovered as an approximation at early times by summing over the degrees of freedom for the driving agent. I also show that the widely accepted expression for the entropy production in a cyclic Markov model is actually a time derivative of an entropy component in the extended model. Further, I present an analytic expression for the entropy component that is hidden in the cyclic Markov model.

  10. Can quantum coherent solar cells break detailed balance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    Carefully engineered coherent quantum states have been proposed as a design attribute that is hypothesized to enable solar photovoltaic cells to break the detailed balance (or radiative) limit of power conversion efficiency by possibly causing radiative recombination to be suppressed. However, in full compliance with the principles of statistical mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics, specially prepared coherent quantum states do not allow a solar photovoltaic cell—a quantum threshold energy conversion device—to exceed the detailed balance limit of power conversion efficiency. At the condition given by steady-state open circuit operation with zero nonradiative recombination, the photon absorption rate (or carrier photogeneration rate) must balance the photon emission rate (or carrier radiative recombination rate) thus ensuring that detailed balance prevails. Quantum state transitions, entropy-generating hot carrier relaxation, and photon absorption and emission rate balancing are employed holistically and self-consistently along with calculations of current density, voltage, and power conversion efficiency to explain why detailed balance may not be violated in solar photovoltaic cells

  11. Testing for detailed balance in a financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, H. R.; Musgrove, D. P.

    2015-06-01

    We test a historical price-time series in a financial market (the NASDAQ 100 index) for a statistical property known as detailed balance. The presence of detailed balance would imply that the market can be modeled by a stochastic process based on a Markov chain, thus leading to equilibrium. In economic terms, a positive outcome of the test would support the efficient market hypothesis, a cornerstone of neo-classical economic theory. In contrast to the usage in prevalent economic theory the term equilibrium here is tied to the returns, rather than the price-time series. The test is based on an action functional S constructed from the elements of the detailed balance condition and the historical data set, and then analyzing S by means of simulated annealing. Checks are performed to verify the validity of the analysis method. We discuss the outcome of this analysis.

  12. Detailed balance theory of excitonic and bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Mattheis, Julian; Rau, Uwe

    2008-12-01

    A generalized solar cell model for excitonic and classical bipolar solar cells describes the combined transport and interaction of electrons, holes, and excitons in accordance with the principle of detailed balance. Conventional inorganic solar cells, single-phase organic solar cells and bulk heterojunction solar cells, i.e., nanoscale mixtures of two organic materials, are special cases of this model. For high mobilities, the compatibility with the principle of detailed balance ensures that our model reproduces the Shockley-Queisser limit irrespective of how the energy transport is achieved. For less ideal devices distinct differences become visible between devices that are described by linear differential equations and those with nonlinear effects, such as a voltage-dependent collection in bipolar p-i-n -type devices. These differences in current-voltage characteristics are also decisive for the validity of the reciprocity theorem between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electroluminescent emission. Finally, we discuss the effect of band offset at the heterointerface in a bulk heterojunction cell and the effect of the average distances between these heterointerfaces on the performance of a solar cell in order to show how our detailed balance model includes also these empirically important quantities.

  13. Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of Broadband-Pumped Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechayev, Sergey; Rotschild, Carmel

    2017-09-13

    Broadband light sources are a wide class of pumping schemes for lasers including LEDs, sunlight and flash lamps. Recently, efficient coupling of broadband light to high-quality micro-cavities has been demonstrated for on-chip applications and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers via cascade energy transfer. However, the conversion of incoherent to coherent light comes with an inherent price of reduced efficiency, which has yet to be assessed. In this paper, we derive the detailed balance limit of efficiency of broadband-pumped lasers and discuss how it is affected by the need to maintain a threshold population inversion and thermodynamically dictated minimal Stokes' shift. We show that lasers' slope efficiency is analogous to the nominal efficiency of solar cells, limited by thermalisation losses and additional unavoidable Stokes' shift. The lasers' power efficiency is analogous to the detailed balance limit of efficiency of solar cells, affected by the cavity mirrors and impedance matching factor, respectively. As an example we analyze the specific case of solar-pumped sensitized Nd 3+ :YAG-like lasers and define the conditions to reach their thermodynamic limit of efficiency. Our work establishes an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of broadband-pumped lasers. Our general, yet flexible model also provides a way to incorporate other optical and thermodynamic losses and, hence, to estimate the efficiency of non-ideal broadband-pumped lasers.

  14. Temperature Measurements of Dense Plasmas by Detailed Balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, A; Redmer, R; Ropke, G; Reinholz, H; Thiele, R; Fortmann, C; Forster, E; Cao, L; Tschentscher, T; Toleikis, S; Glenzer, S H

    2006-01-01

    Plasmas at high electron densities of n e = 10 20 - 10 26 cm -3 and moderate temperatures T e = 1 - 20 eV are important for laboratory astrophysics, high energy density science and inertial confinement fusion. These plasmas are usually referred to as Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and are characterized by a coupling parameter of Λ ∼> 1 where correlations become important. The characterization of such plasmas is still a challenging task due to the lack of direct measurement techniques for temperatures and densities. They propose to measure the Thomson scattering spectrum of vacuum-UV radiation off density fluctuations in the plasma. Collective Thomson scattering provides accurate data for the electron temperature applying first principles. Further, this method takes advantage of the spectral asymmetry resulting from detailed balance and is independent of collisional effects in these dense systems

  15. Alignment of the NPL Mark II watt balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I A

    2012-01-01

    To reach uncertainties in the region of 1 part in 10 8 a moving-coil watt balance not only requires the accurate measurement of voltage, resistance, velocity, mass and the acceleration due to gravity but, in addition, requires the apparatus to be adjusted correctly to minimize the second order effects which can reduce the accuracy of the measurement. This paper collects together the alignment and correction techniques that have been developed at NPL over many years and are required to minimize the uncertainty of the measurement. Some of these techniques are applicable to all watt balances, whilst a few are specific to watt balances that employ a conventional beam balance to support a circular coil in a radial magnetic field, such as the NPL Mark II watt balance, now known as the NRC watt balance. (paper)

  16. Detailed balance principle and finite-difference stochastic equation in a field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhamkulov, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    A finite-difference equation, which is a generalization of the Langevin equation in field theory, has been obtained basing upon the principle of detailed balance for the Markov chain. Advantages of the present approach as compared with the conventional Parisi-Wu method are shown for examples of an exactly solvable problem of zero-dimensional quantum theory and a simple numerical simulation

  17. Principle of detailed balance and the finite-difference stochastic equation in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhamkulov, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principle of detailed balance for the Markov chain is used to obtain a finite-difference equation which generalizes the Langevin equation in field theory. The advantages of using this approach compared to the conventional Parisi-Wu method are demonstrated for the examples of an exactly solvable problem in zero-dimensional quantum theory and a simple numerical simulation

  18. Escape rate for nonequilibrium processes dominated by strong non-detailed balance force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Xu, Song; Ao, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Quantifying the escape rate from a meta-stable state is essential to understand a wide range of dynamical processes. Kramers' classical rate formula is the product of an exponential function of the potential barrier height and a pre-factor related to the friction coefficient. Although many applications of the rate formula focused on the exponential term, the prefactor can have a significant effect on the escape rate in certain parameter regions, such as the overdamped limit and the underdamped limit. There have been continuous interests to understand the effect of non-detailed balance on the escape rate; however, how the prefactor behaves under strong non-detailed balance force remains elusive. In this work, we find that the escape rate formula has a vanishing prefactor with decreasing friction strength under the strong non-detailed balance limit. We both obtain analytical solutions in specific examples and provide a derivation for more general cases. We further verify the result by simulations and propose a testable experimental system of a charged Brownian particle in electromagnetic field. Our study demonstrates that a special care is required to estimate the effect of prefactor on the escape rate when non-detailed balance force dominates.

  19. Model reduction of detailed-balanced reaction networks by clustering linkage classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu; van der Schaft, Abraham; Findeisen, Rolf; Bullinger, Eric; Balsa-Canto, Eva; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model reduction method that involves sequential application of clustering of linkage classes and Kron reduction. This approach is specifically useful for chemical reaction networks with each linkage class having less number of reactions. In case of detailed balanced chemical reaction

  20. Detailed Balance of Thermalization Dynamics in Rydberg-Atom Quantum Simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosub; Park, YeJe; Kim, Kyungtae; Sim, H-S; Ahn, Jaewook

    2018-05-04

    Dynamics of large complex systems, such as relaxation towards equilibrium in classical statistical mechanics, often obeys a master equation that captures essential information from the complexities. Here, we find that thermalization of an isolated many-body quantum state can be described by a master equation. We observe sudden quench dynamics of quantum Ising-like models implemented in our quantum simulator, defect-free single-atom tweezers in conjunction with Rydberg-atom interaction. Saturation of their local observables, a thermalization signature, obeys a master equation experimentally constructed by monitoring the occupation probabilities of prequench states and imposing the principle of the detailed balance. Our experiment agrees with theories and demonstrates the detailed balance in a thermalization dynamics that does not require coupling to baths or postulated randomness.

  1. Detailed Balance of Thermalization Dynamics in Rydberg-Atom Quantum Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosub; Park, YeJe; Kim, Kyungtae; Sim, H.-S.; Ahn, Jaewook

    2018-05-01

    Dynamics of large complex systems, such as relaxation towards equilibrium in classical statistical mechanics, often obeys a master equation that captures essential information from the complexities. Here, we find that thermalization of an isolated many-body quantum state can be described by a master equation. We observe sudden quench dynamics of quantum Ising-like models implemented in our quantum simulator, defect-free single-atom tweezers in conjunction with Rydberg-atom interaction. Saturation of their local observables, a thermalization signature, obeys a master equation experimentally constructed by monitoring the occupation probabilities of prequench states and imposing the principle of the detailed balance. Our experiment agrees with theories and demonstrates the detailed balance in a thermalization dynamics that does not require coupling to baths or postulated randomness.

  2. Broken detailed balance and non-equilibrium dynamics in living systems: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnesotto, F. S.; Mura, F.; Gladrow, J.; Broedersz, C. P.

    2018-06-01

    Living systems operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Enzymatic activity can induce broken detailed balance at the molecular scale. This molecular scale breaking of detailed balance is crucial to achieve biological functions such as high-fidelity transcription and translation, sensing, adaptation, biochemical patterning, and force generation. While biological systems such as motor enzymes violate detailed balance at the molecular scale, it remains unclear how non-equilibrium dynamics manifests at the mesoscale in systems that are driven through the collective activity of many motors. Indeed, in several cellular systems the presence of non-equilibrium dynamics is not always evident at large scales. For example, in the cytoskeleton or in chromosomes one can observe stationary stochastic processes that appear at first glance thermally driven. This raises the question how non-equilibrium fluctuations can be discerned from thermal noise. We discuss approaches that have recently been developed to address this question, including methods based on measuring the extent to which the system violates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We also review applications of this approach to reconstituted cytoskeletal networks, the cytoplasm of living cells, and cell membranes. Furthermore, we discuss a more recent approach to detect actively driven dynamics, which is based on inferring broken detailed balance. This constitutes a non-invasive method that uses time-lapse microscopy data, and can be applied to a broad range of systems in cells and tissue. We discuss the ideas underlying this method and its application to several examples including flagella, primary cilia, and cytoskeletal networks. Finally, we briefly discuss recent developments in stochastic thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, which offer new perspectives to understand the physics of living systems.

  3. The detailed balance requirement and general empirical formalisms for continuum absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Two general empirical formalisms are presented for the spectral density which take into account the deviations from the Lorentz line shape in the wing regions of resonance lines. These formalisms satisfy the detailed balance requirement. Empirical line shape functions, which are essential to provide the continuum absorption at different temperatures in various frequency regions for atmospheric transmission codes, can be obtained by fitting to experimental data.

  4. Broken detailed balance and non-equilibrium dynamics in living systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnesotto, F S; Mura, F; Gladrow, J; Broedersz, C P

    2018-03-05

    Living systems operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Enzymatic activity can induce broken detailed balance at the molecular scale. This molecular scale breaking of detailed balance is crucial to achieve biological functions such as high-fidelity transcription and translation, sensing, adaptation, biochemical patterning, and force generation. While biological systems such as motor enzymes violate detailed balance at the molecular scale, it remains unclear how non-equilibrium dynamics manifests at the mesoscale in systems that are driven through the collective activity of many motors. Indeed, in several cellular systems the presence of non-equilibrium dynamics is not always evident at large scales. For example, in the cytoskeleton or in chromosomes one can observe stationary stochastic processes that appear at first glance thermally driven. This raises the question how non-equilibrium fluctuations can be discerned from thermal noise. We discuss approaches that have recently been developed to address this question, including methods based on measuring the extent to which the system violates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We also review applications of this approach to reconstituted cytoskeletal networks, the cytoplasm of living cells, and cell membranes. Furthermore, we discuss a more recent approach to detect actively driven dynamics, which is based on inferring broken detailed balance. This constitutes a non-invasive method that uses time-lapse microscopy data, and can be applied to a broad range of systems in cells and tissue. We discuss the ideas underlying this method and its application to several examples including flagella, primary cilia, and cytoskeletal networks. Finally, we briefly discuss recent developments in stochastic thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, which offer new perspectives to understand the physics of living systems.

  5. Detailed balance condition and ultraviolet stability of scalar field in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzou, Ahmad; Lin, Kai; Wang, Anzhong

    2011-01-01

    Detailed balance and projectability conditions are two main assumptions when Horava recently formulated his theory of quantum gravity - the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) theory. While the latter represents an important ingredient, the former often believed needs to be abandoned, in order to obtain an ultraviolet stable scalar field, among other things. In this paper, because of several attractive features of this condition, we revisit it, and show that the scalar field can be stabilized, if the detailed balance condition is allowed to be softly broken. Although this is done explicitly in the non-relativistic general covariant setup of Horava-Melby-Thompson with an arbitrary coupling constant λ, generalized lately by da Silva, it is also true in other versions of the HL theory. With the detailed balance condition softly breaking, the number of independent coupling constants can be still significantly reduced. It is remarkable to note that, unlike other setups, in this da Silva generalization, there exists a master equation for the linear perturbations of the scalar field in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background

  6. Preference for Well-Balanced Saliency in Details Cropped from Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeln, Jonas; Fresz, Leonie; Amirshahi, Seyed Ali; McManus, I. Chris; Koch, Michael; Kreysa, Helene; Redies, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Photographic cropping is the act of selecting part of a photograph to enhance its aesthetic appearance or visual impact. It is common practice with both professional (expert) and amateur (non-expert) photographers. In a psychometric study, McManus et al. (2011b) showed that participants cropped photographs confidently and reliably. Experts tended to select details from a wider range of positions than non-experts, but other croppers did not generally prefer details that were selected by experts. It remained unclear, however, on what grounds participants selected particular details from a photograph while avoiding other details. One of the factors contributing to cropping decision may be visual saliency. Indeed, various saliency-based computer algorithms are available for the automatic cropping of photographs. However, careful experimental studies on the relation between saliency and cropping are lacking to date. In the present study, we re-analyzed the data from the studies by McManus et al. (2011a,b), focusing on statistical image properties. We calculated saliency-based measures for details selected and details avoided during cropping. As expected, we found that selected details contain regions of higher saliency than avoided details on average. Moreover, the saliency center-of-mass was closer to the geometrical center in selected details than in avoided details. Results were confirmed in an eye tracking study with the same dataset of images. Interestingly, the observed regularities in cropping behavior were less pronounced for experts than for non-experts. In summary, our results suggest that, during cropping, participants tend to select salient regions and place them in an image composition that is well-balanced with respect to the distribution of saliency. Our study contributes to the knowledge of perceptual bottom-up features that are germane to aesthetic decisions in photography and their variability in non-experts and experts. PMID:26793086

  7. Detailed balance method for chemical potential determination in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, P.J.; Ray, J.R.; Wolf, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present a new, nondestructive, method for determining chemical potentials in Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. The method estimates a value for the chemical potential such that one has a balance between fictitious successful creation and destruction trials in which the Monte Carlo method is used to determine success or failure of the creation/destruction attempts; we thus call the method a detailed balance method. The method allows one to obtain estimates of the chemical potential for a given species in any closed ensemble simulation; the closed ensemble is paired with a ''natural'' open ensemble for the purpose of obtaining creation and destruction probabilities. We present results for the Lennard-Jones system and also for an embedded atom model of liquid palladium, and compare to previous results in the literature for these two systems. We are able to obtain an accurate estimate of the chemical potential for the Lennard-Jones system at higher densities than reported in the literature

  8. Exact correlations in the Lieb-Liniger model and detailed balance out-of-equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo De Nardis, Miłosz Panfil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the density-density correlation function of the 1D Lieb-Liniger model and obtain an exact expression for the small momentum limit of the static correlator in the thermodynamic limit. We achieve this by summing exactly over the relevant form factors of the density operator in the small momentum limit. The result is valid for any eigenstate, including thermal and non-thermal states. We also show that the small momentum limit of the dynamic structure factors obeys a generalized detailed balance relation valid for any equilibrium state.

  9. Ageing without detailed balance in the bosonic contact and pair-contact processes: exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Florian; Henkel, Malte; Pleimling, Michel; Richert, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Ageing in systems without detailed balance is studied in the exactly solvable bosonic contact process and the critical bosonic pair-contact process. The two-time correlation function and the two-time response function are explicitly found. In the ageing regime, the dynamical scaling of these is analysed and exact results for the ageing exponents and the scaling functions are derived. For the critical bosonic pair-contact process, the autocorrelation and autoresponse exponents agree but the ageing exponents a and b are shown to be distinct

  10. Communication: Proper treatment of classically forbidden electronic transitions significantly improves detailed balance in surface hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifain, Andrew E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Wang, Linjun [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Prezhdo, Oleg V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Surface hopping is the most popular method for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Many have reported that it does not rigorously attain detailed balance at thermal equilibrium, but does so approximately. We show that convergence to the Boltzmann populations is significantly improved when the nuclear velocity is reversed after a classically forbidden hop. The proposed prescription significantly reduces the total number of classically forbidden hops encountered along a trajectory, suggesting that some randomization in nuclear velocity is needed when classically forbidden hops constitute a large fraction of attempted hops. Our results are verified computationally using two- and three-level quantum subsystems, coupled to a classical bath undergoing Langevin dynamics.

  11. Steady state solution of the Fokker-Planck equation combined with unidirectional quasilinear diffusion under detailed balance conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hizanidis, K.

    1984-04-01

    The relativistic collisional Fokker-Planck equation combined with an externally imposed unidirectional quasilinear (rf) diffusion is solved for arbitrary values of rf diffusion coefficient under conditions of detailed balance of the staionary joint distribution involved. The detailed balance condition imposes a restriction on the functional form of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient which might be associated with the existence of a saturated spectrum of fluctuation in a quasilinearly rf-driven plasma

  12. Charge separation in excitonic and bipolar solar cells - A detailed balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Rau, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    A generalized solar cell model for excitonic and classical, bipolar solar cells is developed that describes the combined transport and interaction of electrons, holes and excitons. Both, conventional inorganic solar cells as well as organic solar cells, where excitons play a dominant role for energy transport, turn out to be special cases of this model. Due to the inclusion of photon recycling effects, the approach is compatible with the principle of detailed balance and the Shockley-Queisser limit. We show how varying the interaction between excitons and charge carriers as well as varying the respective mobilities of the different species changes the operation mode of the solar cell path between excitonic and bipolar

  13. Acceleration of Convergence to Equilibrium in Markov Chains by Breaking Detailed Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marcus; Jack, Robert L.; Zimmer, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    We analyse and interpret the effects of breaking detailed balance on the convergence to equilibrium of conservative interacting particle systems and their hydrodynamic scaling limits. For finite systems of interacting particles, we review existing results showing that irreversible processes converge faster to their steady state than reversible ones. We show how this behaviour appears in the hydrodynamic limit of such processes, as described by macroscopic fluctuation theory, and we provide a quantitative expression for the acceleration of convergence in this setting. We give a geometrical interpretation of this acceleration, in terms of currents that are antisymmetric under time-reversal and orthogonal to the free energy gradient, which act to drive the system away from states where (reversible) gradient-descent dynamics result in slow convergence to equilibrium.

  14. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  15. DETAILED FIT OF 'CRITICAL BALANCE' THEORY TO SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Miriam A.; Wicks, Robert T.; Horbury, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    We derive the reduced spectrum of turbulent magnetic fluctuations at different frequencies f which would be observed by a single spacecraft in the solar wind when the magnetic field was at an angle θ B to the solar wind flow, if the wavevector spectrum in the solar wind frame were in anisotropic 'critical balance' (CB) as proposed by Goldreich and Sridhar in 1995 (GS95). The anisotropic power spectrum in the inertial range, P(f, θ B ), is scaled onto one curve with f- 5/3 behavior at θ B near 90 0 and f -2 behavior at small θ B . The transition between the two limiting spectra depends on the form of the GS95 wavevector spectrum and the CB scaling parameter L. Using wavelet analysis of Ulysses magnetic field data in three 30-day periods in the high-latitude solar wind in 1995, we verify that the scaling of power with angle and frequency is qualitatively consistent with GS95 theory. However, the scale length L required to fit the observed P(f, θ B ) to the original CB theory is rather less than the scale predicted by that theory for the solar wind. Part, possibly all, of this discrepancy is removed when the GS95 theory modified for imbalanced turbulence is used.

  16. Eawag Forum Chriesbach - Detailed energy balance - Final report; Energie-Detailbilanz des Eawag Forum Chriesbach - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettinger, H.; Lichtensteiger, T.; Mauz, M. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz, EAWAG, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Velsen, S. van [3-Plan Haustechnik AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Lehmann, B.; Frank, T.; Dorer, V.; Beerle, D. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    In June 2006 Eawag moved into its new headquarters, Forum Chriesbach. The building's external appearance is striking owing to the 1232 blue glass panels which clad the compact 6-storey rectangular structure. Eawag Forum Chriesbach houses 150 workplaces, a staff cafeteria, meeting and seminar rooms as well as the library of Eawag and Empa. It is an exemplary illustration of 'sustainable' construction design and is one of the best known buildings in Switzerland. It has been awarded several prizes and described in numerous national and international publications. The building is modern, functional, aesthetic, and uses a unique array of sources for heating, including the sun as well as waste heat from light sources, electric appliances and people. Cooling requirements are very low. Only electricity requirements and the embedded energy of construction materials are of significance. Approximately one third of the electricity required, namely 70 MWh/a, is produced by photovoltaic panels on the roof, and the rest is purchased as renewable electricity from the utilities under the label 'nature-made star'. During a two-year optimization period the building's control system was adjusted and know-how was transferred from planners and builders to owners and facility managers. From autumn 2007 Eawag, Empa and 3-Plan Haustechnik AG carried out temperature and energy measurements to determine the extent to which original planning assumptions and simulation forecasts corresponded to actual experience. Computer simulations with TRNSYS have revealed the relative contribution of individual building components to the overall energy balance and their sensitivity to external parameters. Temperatures during hot summer days have remained in comfortable ranges below 26 {sup o}C and have usually ranged between 20 and 23 {sup o}C in winter. Although heating and electricity requirements have exceeded predicted levels, at 5.7 kWh/m{sup 2} weighted energy reference

  17. Purity Assessment of Organic Reference Materials with a Mass Balance Method: A Case Study of Endosulfan-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghyun; Lee, Joonhee; Ahn, Seonghee; Song, Youngsin; Kim, Dongkyun; Kim, Byungjoo

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance method established in this laboratory was applied to determine the purity of an endosulfan-II pure substance. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used to measure organic impurities. Total of 10 structurally related organic impurities were detected by GC-FID in the material. Water content was determined to be 0.187% by Karl-Fischer (K-F) coulometry with an oven-drying method. Nonvolatile residual impurities was not detected by Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) within the detection limit of 0.04% (0.7 μg in absolute amount). Residual solvents within the substance were determined to be 0.007% in the Endosulfan-II pure substance by running GC-FID after dissolving it with two solvents. The purity of the endosulfan-II was finally assigned to be (99.17 ± 0.14)%. Details of the mass balance method including interpretation and evaluating uncertainties of results from each individual methods and the finally assayed purity were also described

  18. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  19. Level 2 and level 2.5 large deviation functionals for systems with and without detailed balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppenau, J; Nickelsen, D; Engel, A

    2016-01-01

    Large deviation functions are an essential tool in the statistics of rare events. Often they can be obtained by contraction from a so-called level 2 or level 2.5 large deviation functional characterizing the empirical density and current of the underlying stochastic process. For Langevin systems obeying detailed balance, the explicit form of the level 2 functional has been known ever since the mathematical work of Donsker and Varadhan. We rederive the Donsker–Varadhan result using stochastic path-integrals. We than generalize the derivation to level 2.5 large deviation functionals for non-equilibrium steady states and elucidate the relation between the large deviation functionals and different notions of entropy production in stochastic thermodynamics. Finally, we discuss some aspects of the contractions to level 1 large deviation functions and illustrate our findings with examples. (paper)

  20. Modelling soot formation from wall films in a gasoline direct injection engine using a detailed population balance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Buyu; Mosbach, Sebastian; Schmutzhard, Sebastian; Shuai, Shijin; Huang, Yaqing; Kraft, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Soot formation from a wall film in a GDI engine is simulated. • Spray impingement and wall film evaporation models are added to SRM Engine Suite. • Soot is modelled using a highly detailed population balance model. • Particle size distributions are measured experimentally. • Evolution of wall region is shown in equivalence ratio-temperature diagrams. - Abstract: In this study, soot formation in a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine is simulated using a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM Engine Suite) which contains a detailed population balance soot model capable of describing particle morphology and chemical composition. In order to describe the soot formation originating from the wall film, the SRM Engine Suite is extended to include spray impingement and wall film evaporation models. The cylinder is divided into a wall and a bulk zone to resolve the equivalence ratio and temperature distributions of the mixture near the wall. The combustion chamber wall is assumed to exchange heat directly only with the wall zone. The turbulent mixing within each zone and between the two zones are simulated with different mixing models. The effects of key parameters on the temperature and equivalence ratio in the two zones are investigated. The mixing rate between the wall and bulk zone has a significant effect on the wall zone, whilst the mixing rate in the wall zone only has a negligible impact on the temperature and equivalence ratio below a certain threshold. Experimental data are obtained from a four-cylinder, gasoline-fuelled direct injection spark ignition engine operated stoichiometrically. An injection timing sweep, ranging from 120 CAD BTDC to 330 CAD BTDC, is conducted in order to investigate the effect of spray impingement on soot formation. The earliest injection case (330 CAD BTDC), which produces significantly higher levels of particle emissions than any other case, is simulated by the current model. It is found that the in-cylinder pressure

  1. CMHC research project: Testing of air barrier construction details, II: Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Air leakage control through the building envelope of wood framed houses is more important than ever. The leakage of air is controlled by the air barrier system. There are several new technologies to construct an air barrier system for the building envelope. These are the Poly Approach, the Air Drywall Approach and the EASE system. The development of these systems was undertaken primarily by the building community without significant research and development. The purpose of this study was to determine the actual performance of several different types of construction details for each of the different approaches. Each of these details was designed and constructed using one of the air barrier methods and tested in the laboratory. The test details included the sill plate, the partition wall, the stair stringer, the electrical outlets, the bathtub detail, the plumbing stack detail, the metal chimney detail, the bathroom fan detail and the EASE wall system.

  2. PTT functional recovery in early stage II PTTD after tendon balancing and calcaneal lengthening osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhault, Jean; Noël, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The decision to offer surgery for Stage II posterior tibial tendon deficiency (PTTD) is a difficult one since orthotic treatment has been documented to be a viable alternative to surgery at this stage. Taking this into consideration we limited our treatment to bony realignment by a lengthening calcaneus Evans osteotomy and tendon balancing. The goal of the study was to clinically evaluate PTT functional recovery with this procedure. The patient population included 17 feet in 13 patients. Inclusion was limited to early Stage II PTTD flatfeet with grossly intact but deficient PTT. Deficiency was assessed by the lack of hindfoot inversion during single heel rise test. The surgical procedure included an Evans calcaneal opening wedge osteotomy with triceps surae and peroneus brevis tendon lengthening. PTT function at follow up was evaluated by an independent examiner. Evaluation was performed at an average of 4 (range, 2 to 6.3) years. One case presented postoperative subtalar pain that required subtalar fusion. Every foot could perform a single heel rise with 13 feet having active inversion of the hindfoot during elevation. The results of this study provide evidence of PTT functional recovery without augmentation in early Stage II. It challenges our understanding of early Stage II PTTD as well as the surgical guidelines recommending PTT augmentation at this specific stage.

  3. Theory of hollow cathode arc discharges. II. Metastable state balance inside the cathode. Application to argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C.M.; Delcroix, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    In the hollow cathode the metastable species are created by fast electrons, which are emitted by the cathode wall and injected in the plasma across a space-charge sheath, and destroyed by Maxwellian electrons. A detailed analysis of the different electronic destruction mechanisms in argon shows that the re-excitation up to 3p 5 4p states plays a very important role. Solutions of the metastable balance equation were obtained in a wide range of variation of the discharge parameters displaying the best conditions of operation to obtain high concentrations [fr

  4. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E's perspective on how these systems will operate

  5. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters

  6. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  7. The PEP-II Asymmetric B Factory: Design details and R ampersand D results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.; DeStaebler, H.; Dorfan, J.

    1994-06-01

    PEP-II, a 9 GeV x 3.1 GeV electron-positron collider with a design luminosity of 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 has now been approved for construction by SLAC, LBL and LLNL for the purpose of studying CP violation in the B bar B system. This upgrade project involves replacing the vacuum and RF systeum of PEP, which will serve as the high-energy ring (HER), along with the addition of a new low-energy ring (LER) mounted atop the HER. Designs for both rings are described, and the anticipated project construction schedule is indicated. Collider operation will begin at the end of 1998. An aggressive R ampersand D program has been carried out to validate our design choices; key results in the areas of lattice design, vacuum, RF, and multibunch feedback are summarized

  8. EBRPOCO - a program to calculate detailed contributions of power reactivity components of EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The EBRPOCO program has been developed to facilitate the calculations of the power coefficients of reactivity of EBR-II loadings. The program enables contributions of various components of the power coefficient to be delineated axially for every subassembly. The program computes the reactivity contributions of the power coefficients resulting from: density reduction of sodium coolant due to temperature; displacement of sodium coolant by thermal expansions of cladding, structural rods, subassembly cans, and lower and upper axial reflectors; density reductions of these steel components due to temperature; displacement of bond-sodium (if present) in gaps by differential thermal expansions of fuel and cladding; density reduction of bond-sodium (if present) in gaps due to temperature; free axial expansion of fuel if unrestricted by cladding or restricted axial expansion of fuel determined by axial expansion of cladding. Isotopic spatial contributions to the Doppler component my also be obtained. (orig.) [de

  9. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Powder River II Project, Gillette Detail. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The Gillette Detail area (about 90 square miles) lies at the northern end of the Black Hills in northeastern Wyoming. The Bear Lodge Mountains are the dominant topographic features in the area, with elevations as high as 6658 feet. The Black Hills Uplift in this region contains a maximum of 5000 feet of Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata overlying Precambrian crystalline basement. The dominant local geologic structure is the Bear Lodge Pluton, an alkaline igneous complex, occupying 20% of the study area. Magnetic data clearly define the main portion of the Tertiary igneous complex and some surrounding smaller intrusives. A few small, inactive thorium--rare earth prospects represent the only known mining activity in the study area. A total of 14 groups of samples in the uranium window constitute anomalies as defined in this report. The anomalies are normally associated with the intrusive bodies though some are found in adjoining sedimentary units. The largest concentration of uranium in the central portion of the large intrusive body did not show as an anomaly due to low U/T ratios caused by extremely high thorium window count rates (maximum of 1354 cps). Three geochemical units were defined on the basis of radiometric criteria set forth in Volume I of this report. The spatial distributions of these geochemical units showed varying correlations (and contrasts) with the geologic, magnetic, and topographic variations within the study area

  10. Garzweiler II opencast mine - balance of interests between ecology and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the region including the three cities of Cologne, Aachen and Moenchengladbach the brown coal reserves amount to 55 Gt, of which about 7 Gt are located in the areas Bergheim, Inden, Hambach and Garzweiler in licensed opencast mines or in planned field extensions, with an overburden-to-coal ratio of less than 5.6:1. Favourable preconditions for profitable winning of the brown coal are created by the deposit conditions. At present, the yearly output lies between 105 and 110 Mt, of which about 85% are used to generate electricity, whilst 15% are supplied to the thermal energy market. In order to maintain the same coal output as hitherto, it is absolutely essential that winning should continue in the noth of the Rhineland mining area, that is in the Garzweiler II opencast mine extension. After extensive preliminary exploration the licensing procedure for this opencast mine commenced in 1987. Assuming that the procedure continues smoothly, it is anticipated that the crown coal development plan will be approved by the spring of 1995. With a project such as that of the Garzweiler II opencast mine different interests are involved. On the one hand, interest is focussed on a reliable and cheap supply of energy, on economically successful brown coal mining and on job security in the future. On the other hand, the planned opencast mine constitutes an encroachment of limited duration on a specific living space, economic region and natural environment. From the example of Garzweiler II it is clearly evident that the brown coal mining industry by adopting entirely new and highly efficient engineering techniques is making a significant contribution towards establishing a balance of interests. (orig.) [de

  11. Formation of solar-type stars in spherical symmetry. II. Effects of detailed constitutive relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.A.; Newman, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A time-dependent hydrodynamical calculation of the spherically symmetric self-gravitational collapse and accretion of a homogeneous Jeans unstable 1 M/sub sun/ protostellar cloud has been performed using the detailed equation-of-state tables of Fontaine, Graboske, and Van Horn. It is found that the inner 0.03 M/sub sun/ of the core enters a partially degenerate region during the main accretion phase. A well-pronounced off-center temperature maximum develops under the combined influences of electron degeneracy and pressure ionization. A hydrogen ionization zone within the quasi-hydrostatic core drives core oscillations with typical periods of a few months in the transition phase from the second (final) collpase to the accretion stage. A third collapse does not occur, because of the gradual (''soft'') ionization of hydrogen at high density (rhoapprox. =1 g cm -3 ). Gas opacities were taken from the King IVa tables of Cox and Tabor, and dust opacities from Bertout and Yorke. Energy transport by radiation was treated by solution of the time-dependent moment equations with an Eddington factor f derived from the static transport equation. The diffusion approximation with f=1/3 would offer an adequate description of the protostellar core, but the intensity of the constant luminosity radiation field becomes highly anisotropic in local optically thin regions of the envelope. The degree of anisotropy in optically thick regions is determined by the temperature dependence of the dust opacity and the depletion of matter from the envelope. Near the end of the accretion phase the entire envelope is characterized by complete anisotropy f=1

  12. Hydrogeological modelling of the eastern region of Areco river locally detailed on Atucha I and II nuclear power plants area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattone, Natalia I.; Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2009-01-01

    Water flow behaviour of Pampeano aquifer was modeled using Visual Mod-flow software Package 2.8.1 with the assumption of a free aquifer, within the region of the Areco river and extending to the rivers of 'Canada Honda' and 'de la Cruz'. Steady state regime was simulated and grid refinement allows obtaining locally detailed calculation in the area of Atucha I and II Nuclear power plants, in order to compute unsteady situations as the consequence of water flow variations from and to the aquifer, enabling the model to study the movement of possible contaminant particles in the hydrogeologic system. In this work the effects of rivers action, the recharge conditions and the flow lines are analyzed, taking always into account the range of reliability of obtained results, considering the incidence of uncertainties introduced by data input system, the estimates and interpolation of parameters used. (author)

  13. Development and integration of high straightness flexure guiding mechanisms dedicated to the METAS watt balance Mark II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosandier, F.; Eichenberger, A.; Baumann, H.; Jeckelmann, B.; Bonny, M.; Chatagny, V.; Clavel, R.

    2014-04-01

    There is a firm will in the metrology community to redefine the kilogram in the International System of units by linking it to a fundamental physical constant. The watt balance is a promising way to link the mass unit to the Planck constant h. At the Federal Institute of Metrology METAS a second watt balance experiment is under development. A decisive part of the METAS Mark II watt balance is the mechanical linear guiding system. The present paper discusses the development and the metrological characteristics of two guiding systems that were conceived by the Laboratoire de Systèmes Robotiques of EPFL and built using flexure mechanical elements. Integration in the new setup is also described.

  14. A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL-II FOR WORK-LIFE BALANCE OF IT PROFESSIONALS IN CHENNAI

    OpenAIRE

    Rashida A. Banu

    2016-01-01

    The study developed and tested a model of work life balance of IT professionals employing structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relationship between work place support (WPS) and work interference with personal life (WIPL), personal life interference with work (PLIW), satisfaction with work-life balance (SWLB) and improved effectiveness at work (IEW). The model fit the data well and hypotheses are generally supported. WPS and SWLB are negatively related to WIPL and P...

  15. A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL-II FOR WORK-LIFE BALANCE OF IT PROFESSIONALS IN CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida A. Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study developed and tested a model of work life balance of IT professionals employing structural equation modeling (SEM to analyze the relationship between work place support (WPS and work interference with personal life (WIPL, personal life interference with work (PLIW, satisfaction with work-life balance (SWLB and improved effectiveness at work (IEW. The model fit the data well and hypotheses are generally supported. WPS and SWLB are negatively related to WIPL and PLIW. However, there is a positive relationship between SWLB and IEW.

  16. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  17. Analysis of the type II robotic mixed-model assembly line balancing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Zeynel Abidin; Mete, Süleyman; Ağpak, Kürşad

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing trend towards using robots in production systems. Robots are used in different areas such as packaging, transportation, loading/unloading and especially assembly lines. One important step in taking advantage of robots on the assembly line is considering them while balancing the line. On the other hand, market conditions have increased the importance of mixed-model assembly lines. Therefore, in this article, the robotic mixed-model assembly line balancing problem is studied. The aim of this study is to develop a new efficient heuristic algorithm based on beam search in order to minimize the sum of cycle times over all models. In addition, mathematical models of the problem are presented for comparison. The proposed heuristic is tested on benchmark problems and compared with the optimal solutions. The results show that the algorithm is very competitive and is a promising tool for further research.

  18. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Cameron A, Arizona, detail area. Volume II A. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II A contains appendices for: stacked profiles; geologic histograms; geochemical histograms; speed and altitude histograms; geologic statistical tables; geochemical statistical tables; magnetic and ancillary profiles; and test line data

  19. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley B, Utah, detail area. Volume II A. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II A contains appendices for: stacked profiles; geologic histograms; geochemical histograms; speed and altitude histograms; geologic statistical tables; geochemical statistical tables; magnetic and ancillary profiles; and test line data

  20. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley B, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  1. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley A, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; multi-variant analysis maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  2. Program plan for the DOE Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Technology Program. Volume II. Detailed technical plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The four sections which comprise Part II describe in detail the technical basis for each of the four Program Elements (PE's) of the FWBS Engineering Technology Program (ETP). Each PE is planned to be executed in a number of phases. The purpose of the DTP's is to delineate detailed near-term research, development, and testing required to establish a FWBS engineering data base. Optimum testing strategies and construction of test facilities where needed are identified. The DTP's are based on guidelines given by Argonne National Laboratory which included the basic programmatic goals and the requirements for the types of tests and test conditions

  3. SLIM-MAUD: an approach to assessing human error probabilities using structured expert judgment. Volume II. Detailed analysis of the technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Humphreys, P.; Rosa, E.A.; Kirwan, B.; Rea, K.

    1984-07-01

    This two-volume report presents the procedures and analyses performed in developing an approach for structuring expert judgments to estimate human error probabilities. Volume I presents an overview of work performed in developing the approach: SLIM-MAUD (Success Likelihood Index Methodology, implemented through the use of an interactive computer program called MAUD-Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition). Volume II provides a more detailed analysis of the technical issues underlying the approach

  4. Mississippi burnout part II: satisfaction, autonomy and work/family balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossman, Jeralynn S; Street, Debra

    2009-10-01

    Documented Mississippi physician shortages' make evidence about factors shaping physicians' career choices especially important if Mississippi policymakers are to devise workable strategies to maximize the physician workforce. Work-life interactions influence physicians' choices about how they manage their careers and professional burnout is one documented cause of physicians' decisions to change work hours or to choose early retirement. We find that women and mid-career physicians are more likely than men or later career physicians to experience stress and burnout. Additionally, physicians who experience burnout are less likely to report being satisfied with nearly every aspect of their professional life and work-life balance indicating that burnout permeates several dimensions of physicians' lives. The associations in our findings are suggestive; however, to minimize deleterious effects of burnout on the Mississippi physician workforce, future research should examine the causal factors underlying stress and burnout.

  5. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango C, Colorado. Final report Volume II A. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Geology of Durango C detail area, radioactive mineral occurrences in Colorado, and geophysical data interpretation are included in this report. Eight appendices provide: stacked profiles, geologic histograms, geochemical histograms, speed and altitude histograms, geologic statistical tables, magnetic and ancillary profiles, and test line data

  6. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango D, Colorado. Final report Volume II A. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains geology of the Durango D detail area, radioactive mineral occurrences in Colorado, and geophysical data interpretation. Eight appendices provide: stacked profiles, geologic histograms, geochemical histograms, speed and altitude histograms, geologic statistical tables, geochemical statistical tables, magnetic and ancillary profiles, and test line data

  7. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango B, Colorado. Final report Volume II A. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The geology of the Durango B detail area, the radioactive mineral occurrences in Colorado and the geophysical data interpretation are included in this report. Seven appendices contain: stacked profiles, geologic histograms, geochemical histograms, speed and altitude histograms, geologic statistical tables, geochemical statistical tables, and test line data

  8. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango A, Colorado. Final report Volume II A. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains geology of the Durango A detail area, radioactive mineral occurences in Colorado, and geophysical data interpretation. Eight appendices provide the following: stacked profiles, geologic histograms, geochemical histograms, speed and altitude histograms, geologic statistical tables, geochemical statistical tables, magnetic and ancillary profiles, and test line data

  9. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango D, Colorado. Final report Volume II B. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume comprises eight appendices containing the following information for the Durango D detail area: flight line maps, geology maps, explanation of geologic legend, flight line/geology maps, radiometric contour maps, magnetic contour maps, multi-variant analysis maps, and geochemical factor analysis maps

  10. Elastase-2, a Tissue Alternative Pathway for Angiotensin II Generation, Plays a Role in Circulatory Sympathovagal Balance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becari, Christiane; Durand, Marina T; Guimaraes, Alessander O; Lataro, Renata M; Prado, Cibele M; de Oliveira, Mauro; Candido, Sarai C O; Pais, Paloma; Ribeiro, Mauricio S; Bader, Michael; Pesquero, Joao B; Salgado, Maria C O; Salgado, Helio C

    2017-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo experiments indicate that elastase-2 (ELA-2), a chymotrypsin-serine protease elastase family member 2A, is an alternative pathway for angiotensin II (Ang II) generation. However, the role played by ELA-2 in vivo is unclear. We examined ELA-2 knockout (ELA-2KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice and determined whether ELA-2 played a role in hemodynamics [arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR)], cardiocirculatory sympathovagal balance and baroreflex sensitivity. The variability of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and pulse interval (PI) for evaluating autonomic modulation was examined for time and frequency domains (spectral analysis), whereas a symbolic analysis was also used to evaluate PI variability. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity was examined using the sequence method. Cardiac function was evaluated echocardiographically under anesthesia. The AP was normal whereas the HR was reduced in ELA-2KO mice (425 ± 17 vs. 512 ± 13 bpm from WT). SAP variability and baroreflex sensitivity were similar in both strains. The LF power from the PI spectrum (33.6 ± 5 vs. 51.8 ± 4.8 nu from WT) and the LF/HF ratio (0.60 ± 0.1 vs. 1.45 ± 0.3 from WT) were reduced, whereas the HF power was increased (66.4 ± 5 vs. 48.2 ± 4.8 nu from WT) in ELA-2KO mice, indicating a shift toward parasympathetic modulation of HR. Echocardiographic examination showed normal fractional shortening and an ejection fraction in ELA-2KO mice; however, the cardiac output, stroke volume, and ventricular size were reduced. These findings provide the first evidence that ELA-2 acts on the sympathovagal balance of the heart, as expressed by the reduced sympathetic modulation of HR in ELA-2KO mice.

  11. Green rusts synthesis by coprecipitation of Fe II-Fe III ions and mass-balance diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Christian; Aïssa, Rabha; Géhin, Antoine; Cortot, Jérôme; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Génin, Jean-Marie

    2006-06-01

    A basic solution is progressively added to various mixed Fe II-Fe III solutions. The nature and the relative quantities of the compounds that form can be visualised in a mass-balance diagram. The formation of hydroxysulphate green rust {GR( SO42-)} is preceded by the precipitation of a sulphated ferric basic salt that transforms in a badly ordered ferric oxyhydroxide. Then octahedrally coordinated Fe II species and SO42- anions are adsorbed on the FeOOH surface and GR( SO42-) is formed at the solid/solution interface. By using the same method of preparation, other types of green rust were synthesised, e.g. hydroxycarbonate green rust {GR( CO32-)}. Like other layered double hydroxides, green rusts obey the general chemical formula [ṡ[ṡmHO]x+ with x⩽1/3. Al-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust consists of small hexagonal crystals with a lateral size ˜50 nm, which is significantly smaller than the size of the GR( SO42-) crystals (˜500 nm). To cite this article: C. Ruby et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  12. Evidences for balancing selection from PAH-BglII and PAH-EcoRI polymorphisms in Isfahan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Fazeli Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polymorphic markers including BglII and EcoRI, were identified at intron 1 and intron 5 of PAH gene. In order to test whether these polymorphisms are behaving as neutral alleles or are being subjected to selective pressures in Isfahan population, 110 individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. The Arlequin input file was prepared by use of phase-known haplotype data and Neutrality tests (Tajima D test and Fu’s Fs test were done using Arlequin program. 42 individuals were found heterozygous for both polymorphisms whose haplotype phase remained unknown. The BglII-EcoRI haplotype phase was known only at 68 individuals who were used for preparation of input file. Tajima's D value and Fs value at Isfahan population were 1.7 and 1.02, respectively. Positive values of Fs and D>0 indicated that these polymorphisms are under selection pressure at Isfahan population. Although these polymorphisms were in the non-coding region of PAH gene, but these were not neutral alleles and positive values of these tests provided evidence for balancing selection of these polymorphisms at Isfahan population. The results of this study could improve our understanding of evolutionary history and structure of Isfahan population.

  13. A Chemical Eight Group Separation Method for Routine Use in Gamma Spectrometric Analysis. II. Detailed analytical schema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1961-06-15

    A detailed ion-exchange procedure for the separation of chemical elements in eight groups suitable for subsequent gamma spectrometric analysis is described. The method has been in use for gamma spectrometry of some inorganic - but mostly organic - samples for one year. The separation time for inorganic samples, is usually about 1.5 hours and for organic samples as least 2 hours. One man can separate and count three samples per day. In comparative measurements of short-lived isotopes in biological material 10-12 elements can be analysed thus making possible 30 - 35 determinations per day for one man.

  14. Thermal Power Systems, Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology Project. Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 1978. Volume II. Detailed report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-15

    Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver technology is the goal of this Project. The energy thus produced must be economically competitive with other sources. This Project supports the industrial development of technology and hardware for extracting energy from solar power to achieve the stated goal. Present studies are working to concentrate the solar energy through mirrors or lenses, to a working fluid or gas, and through a power converter change it to an energy source useful to man. Rankine-cycle and Brayton-cycle engines are currently being developed as the most promising energy converters for our near future needs. Accomplishments on point-focusing technology in FY 1978 are detailed.

  15. HEAL G-C ICES, Phase II: detailed feasibility analysis and preliminary design. Final report, Stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    In this preliminary report for Phase II of Health Education Authority of Louisiana's (HEAL) ICES program, specific elements of the basic intitutional issues were readdressed, as requested by the U.S. Department of Energy. The draft environmental assessment was reassessed and updated. Thermal energy demand profiles for the major community sectors, i.e., the five institutions comprising the HEAL Complex, were refined on a month-by-month basis and resulted in establishing ICES plant systems design capacities of 121,500 pounds per hour demand and 418,175,000 pounds per year for steam; 10,000 tons demand and 38,885,000 ton-hours per year for cooling. From these values the concept of the plant was developed. The Phase I capital cost estimate was updated. Total capital cost is now indicated as $29,960,500. The Phase I operating cost estimate was updated, with that figure now $8,468,479. The Phase I financial analysis was updated, producing an estimated annual revenue level of $9,907,062.

  16. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 5: Design validation assessments and lists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. The following Code Evaluation analyzes the applicable sections of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101, Life Safety Code, 1994 Edition and the 1994 Edition of the Uniform Building Code (UBC) to the W113 Trench Enclosure. A Building Code Analysis generally establishes four primary design criteria: occupancy classification; separation requirements; egress requirements; and construction type. The UBC establishes requirements for all criteria. This analysis is limited to the Trench Enclosure Building. The General Office Building and the Retrieval Staff Change Building is not within the scope of this analysis

  17. A DETAILED STUDY OF SPITZER-IRAC EMISSION IN HERBIG-HARO OBJECTS. II. INTERACTION BETWEEN EJECTA AND AMBIENT GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Nisini, Brunella; Ray, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the physical conditions in three Herbig-Haro complexes (HH 54, HH 212, and the L 1157 protostellar jet) using archival data from the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. As described in detail in Paper I, the emission observed using the 4.5 μm filter is enhanced in molecular shocks (T = 1000-4000 K) at relatively high temperatures or densities compared with that observed with the 8.0 μm filter. Using these data sets, we investigate different distributions of gas between high and low temperatures/densities. Our analysis reveals the presence of a number of warm/dense knots, most of which appear to be associated with working surfaces such as the head of bow shocks and cometary features, and reverse shocks in the ejecta. These are distributed not only along the jet axis, as expected, but also across it. While some knotty or fragmenting structures can be explained by instabilities in shocked flows, others can be more simply explained by the scenario that the mass ejection source acts as a 'shot gun', periodically ejecting bullets of material along similar but not identical trajectories. Such an explanation challenges to some degree the present paradigm for jet flows associated with low-mass protostars. It also gives clues to reconciling our understanding of the mass ejection mechanism in high- and low-mass protostars and evolved stars.

  18. Simulating groundwater flow and runoff for the Oro Moraine aquifer system. Part II. Automated calibration and mass balance calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, J.; Frind, E. O.

    2001-03-01

    A steady-state groundwater model of the Oro Moraine aquifer system in Central Ontario, Canada, is developed. The model is used to identify the role of baseflow in the water balance of the Minesing Swamp, a 70 km 2 wetland of international significance. Lithologic descriptions are used to develop a hydrostratigraphic conceptual model of the aquifer system. The numerical model uses long-term averages to represent temporal variations of the flow regime and includes a mechanism to redistribute recharge in response to near-surface geologic heterogeneity. The model is calibrated to water level and streamflow measurements through inverse modeling. Observed baseflow and runoff quantities validate the water mass balance of the numerical model and provide information on the fraction of the water surplus that contributes to groundwater flow. The inverse algorithm is used to compare alternative model zonation scenarios, illustrating the power of non-linear regression in calibrating complex aquifer systems. The adjoint method is used to identify sensitive recharge areas for groundwater discharge to the Minesing Swamp. Model results suggest that nearby urban development will have a significant impact on baseflow to the swamp. Although the direct baseflow contribution makes up only a small fraction of the total inflow to the swamp, it provides an important steady influx of water over relatively large portions of the wetland. Urban development will also impact baseflow to the headwaters of local streams. The model provides valuable insight into crucial characteristics of the aquifer system although definite conclusions regarding details of its water budget are difficult to draw given current data limitations. The model therefore also serves to guide future data collection and studies of sub-areas within the basin.

  19. Optimising the use of marine tephrochronology in the North Atlantic: a detailed investigation of the Faroe Marine Ash Zones II, III and IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Adam J.; Davies, Siwan M.; Abbott, Peter M.; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Palmer, Adrian P.

    2014-12-01

    Tephrochronology is central to the INTIMATE goals for testing the degree of climatic synchroneity during abrupt climatic events that punctuated the last glacial period. Since their identification in North Atlantic marine sequences, the Faroe Marine Ash Zone II (FMAZ II), FMAZ III and FMAZ IV have received considerable attention due to their potential for high-precision synchronisation with the Greenland ice-cores. In order to optimise the use of these horizons as isochronous markers, a detailed re-investigation of their geochemical composition, sedimentology and the processes that deposited each ash zone is presented. Shard concentration profiles, geochemical homogeneity and micro-sedimentological structures are investigated for each ash zone preserved within core JM11-19PC, retrieved from the southeastern Norwegian Sea on the central North Faroe Slope. This approach allows a thorough assessment of primary ash-fall preservation and secondary depositional features and demonstrates its value for assessing depositional integrity in the marine environment. Results indicate that the FMAZ II and IV are well-resolved primary deposits that can be used as isochrons for high-precision correlation studies. We outline key recommendations for future marine tephra studies and provide a protocol for optimising the application of tephrochronology to meet the INTIMATE synchronisation goals.

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bipyridinium Tetrachloronickelate (II) and 4,4′-Bipyridine Dichloronickel (II) Complexes Abstract PDF · Vol 5, No 1 (2014) - Articles Characterization of Schiff base derived from 2-hydroxo-1-naphthaldehyde and Ethylenediammine and its Copper (II) ...

  1. Clinical feasibility of the Nintendo Wii™ for balance training post-stroke: a phase II randomized controlled trial in an inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kelly J; Clark, Ross A; McGinley, Jennifer L; Martin, Clarissa L; Miller, Kimberly J

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility and potential efficacy of the Nintendo Wii™ for balance rehabilitation after stroke. Phase II, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Inpatient rehabilitation facility. Thirty adults (mean age 63.6 (14.7) years) undergoing inpatient rehabilitation who were less than three months post-stroke and able to stand unsupported. Participants were allocated to a Balance Group, using the 'Wii Fit Plus' in standing, or Upper Limb Group, using the 'Wii Sports/Sports Resort' in sitting. Both groups undertook three 45 minute sessions per week over two to four weeks in addition to standard care. The primary focus was feasibility, addressed by recruitment, retention, adherence, acceptability and safety. Efficacy was evaluated by balance, mobility and upper limb outcomes. Twenty-one percent of individuals screened were recruited and 86% (n = 30) of eligible people agreed to participate. Study retention and session adherence was 90% and > 99%, respectively, at two weeks; dropping to 70% and 87% at four weeks due to early discharge. All participants reported enjoying the sessions and most felt they were beneficial. No major adverse events occurred. Wii use by the Balance Group was associated with trends for improved balance, with significantly greater improvement in outcomes including the Step Test and Wii Balance Board-derived centre of pressure scores. The Upper Limb Group had larger, non-significant changes in arm function. A Wii-based approach appears feasible and promising for post-stroke balance rehabilitation. A larger randomized controlled trial is recommended to further investigate efficacy. © The Author(s) 2014.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osunlaja, AA. Vol 8, No 1 (2009) - Articles Synthesis, physico-chemical and antimicrobial properties of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) mixed-ligand complexes of dimethylglyoxime - Part I Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... An algorithm to retrieve Land Surface Temperature using Landsat-8 Dataset Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2225-8531.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Vegetation under different tree species in Acacia woodland in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Preliminary evaluation of Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as a controller of Orobanche spp in Ethiopia Details PDF. ISSN: 2520–7997.

  6. Balances de elementos en un agroecosistema de caña de azúcar: II. Balance de Fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Hernández, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the application of the studies of nutrient cycling on the determination of phosphorus requirements in sugarcane plantations. The work was performed in a 4.5 ha experimental plot located in the valley of Yaracuy river in central, Venezuela. The plot was planted with the varieties Puerto Rico (PR 1028 and Venezuela (V 58-4. The principal flows of phosphorus, as well the quantities of this element in the soil-plant components were measured throughout the growing cycle of the crop (second ratoon. The inputs through precipitation (wet and dry were high, that was associated with the intense agricultural (prescribed burning of sugarcane plantation and industrial activities occurring in the area. The annual balance for both varieties was negative (-17 and - 23.3 kg.ha-1 for V 58-4 and PR 1028, respectively. The negative budget is mainly due to the important amounts of P that are exported with the cane stems. The losses must be compensated though fertilisation, nonetheless, preliminary results indicated no response to P dressing, suggesting that in the studied mollisol the internal processes e.g. Po mineralization and P solubilization, efficiently operate generating important available P levels. It was also found that the burning of the sugar cane plantation plays an important role in the recycling of phosphorus, since 25-30% of the P requirements of the varieties are reincorporated into the soil from the ashes.

  7. Low Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Variation in the Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Inferences About the Role of Balancing Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyang; Lin, Wenzhi; Zhou, Ruilian; Gui, Duan; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    It has been widely reported that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is under balancing selection due to its immune function across terrestrial and aquatic mammals. The comprehensive studies at MHC and other neutral loci could give us a synthetic evaluation about the major force determining genetic diversity of species. Previously, a low level of genetic diversity has been reported among the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using both mitochondrial marker and microsatellite loci. Here, the expression and sequence polymorphism of 2 MHC class II genes (DQB and DRB) in 32 S. chinensis from PRE collected between 2003 and 2011 were investigated. High ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates, codon-based selection analysis, and trans-species polymorphism (TSP) support the hypothesis that balancing selection acted on S. chinensis MHC sequences. However, only 2 haplotypes were detected at either DQB or DRB loci. Moreover, the lack of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg expectation at DRB locus combined with the relatively low heterozygosity at both DQB locus and microsatellite loci suggested that balancing selection might not be sufficient, which further suggested that genetic drift associated with historical bottlenecks was not mitigated by balancing selection in terms of the loss of MHC and neutral variation in S. chinensis. The combined results highlighted the importance of maintaining the genetic diversity of the endangered S. chinensis. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oluwole, A.O.. Vol 19, No 1 (2017) - Articles Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial studies of mixed nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of aroylhydrazones with 2, 21 - bipyridine and 1, 10-phenanthroline. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-4896. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrology of the Cenomanian Upper Member of the Mamfe Embayment, southwestern Cameroon Details · Vol 38, No 1 (2002) - Articles Sequence stratigraphy of Iso field, western onshore Niger Delta, Nigeria Details · Vol 39, No 2 (2003) - Articles Preliminary studies on the lithostratigraphy and depositional environment of ...

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    An Overview of Africa's Marine Resources: Their Utilization and Sustainable Management Details · Vol 12, No 3 (2000) - Articles EDITORIAL Ganoderma Lucidum - Paramount among Medicinal Mushrooms. Details · Vol 15, No 3 (2003) - Articles Editorial: Africa's Mushrooms: A neglected bioresource whose time has come

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 6 (2011) - Articles Mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a vertical wavy channel containing porous and fluid layer with traveling thermal waves. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 8 ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Singh, J. Vol 3, No 2 (2011) - Articles Plane waves in a rotating generalized thermo-elastic solid with voids. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-2839. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 12 (2008) - Articles On the wave equations of shallow water with rough bottom topography. Abstract · Vol 14 (2009) - Articles Energy generation in a plant due to variable sunlight intensity

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Iliopsoas haematoma in a rugby player. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-516X. AJOL African ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Ismail, A. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Investigate of wave absorption performance for oil palm frond and empty fruit bunch at 5.8 GHz. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Isa, M.F.M.. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Simulation on ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Duwa, S S. Vol 8 (2004) - Articles Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous charged dust beam. Abstract · Vol 9 (2005) - Articles The slide away theory of lower hybrid bursts

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 45 (2016) - Articles From vectors to waves and streams: An alternative approach to semantic maps1. Abstract PDF · Vol 48 (2017) - Articles Introduction: 'n Klein ietsie for Johan Oosthuizen

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... to blast loadings. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867.

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of injuries sustained during ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the ...

  3. Greenland Surface Mass Balance as Simulated by the Community Earth System Model. Part II: Twenty-First-Century Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.; Sacks, W.J.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first twenty-first-century projections of surface mass balance (SMB) changes for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) with the Community Earth System Model (CESM), which includes a new ice sheet component. For glaciated surfaces, CESM includes a sophisticated calculation of energy

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    Abstract · Vol 23, No 1 (2001) - Articles Bepaling van talentidentifiseringsdeterminante vir kruipslagswemprestasies by 14 jarige seuns : 'n kinantropometriese profiel. Abstract · Vol 20, No 1 (2016) - Articles Work-life balance, job satisfaction and turnover intention amongst information technology employees. Abstract PDF.

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    Onyesom, I. Vol 13, No 3 (2007) - Articles The TH1/TH2 balance in clinical course of burkitt's lymphoma. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Aderogba, KA. Vol 5, No 2 (2011) - Articles Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 5, No 5 (2011) - Articles Significance of Kaduna River to Kaduna Refining and Petrochemicals Complex: Some Checks and Balances Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2070-0083. AJOL African ...

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    Rogers, MW. Vol 23, No 3 (2011) - Articles Comparison of clinic-based versus home-based balance and agility training for the symptoms of knee osteo-arthritis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-516X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Vol 28 (2011) - Articles Supply Chain Network Design-Opportunities for Cost Reduction as Applied to East Africa Bottling Share Company in Ethiopia ... Assembly line balancing using simulation technique in a garment manufacturing firm ... Quality management: efforts and problems in Ethiopian manufacturing industries

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    Ajayi, Olasupo O. Vol 17, No 1 (2017) - Articles Multi-Class load balancing scheme for QoS and energy conservation in cloud computing. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1116-5405. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Fortification of cassava peel meals in balanced diets for rabbits. Abstract · Vol 31 (2004) - Articles Toxicological Assessment Of Veronia amygdaliana Leaf Meal In Nutrition Of Starter Broiler Chicks Abstract · Vol 31 (2004) - Articles Protein Quality Of Autoclaved Cowpea Varieties As Influenced By Anti-Nutritional Factors

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    Kassahun, TE. Vol 6, No 2 (2012) - Articles Ethiopia's WTO Accession and Financial Services Liberalization: Striking the Balance between Trade Liberalization and Domestic Policy Space Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 1 (2014) - Articles Rethinking Ethiopia's Bilateral Investment Treaties in light of Recent Developments in ...

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    Odunze, AC. Vol 3, No 2 (2010) - Articles Soil water balance approach in root zone of maize (95-TZEEY) using capacitance probe (Diviner 2000) in northen Guinea Savannah of Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 7, No 2 (2014) - Articles Forms of iron in soils on basement complex rocks of Kaduna state in northern guinea Savanna ...

  13. Blood pressure, magnesium and other mineral balance in two rat models of salt-sensitive, induced hypertension: effects of a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón, Lusliany Josefina; Marcano, Eunice; Rodríguez, Fátima; del Castillo, Jesús Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is critically involved in regulating arterial blood pressure (BP). Inappropriate angiotensin type-1 receptor activation by angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is related to increased arterial BP. Mg has a role in BP; it can affect cardiac electrical activity, myocardial contractility, and vascular tone. To evaluate the relationship between high BP induced by a high sodium (Na) diet and Mg, and other mineral balances, two experimental rat models of salt-sensitive, induced-hypertension were used: Ang-II infused and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We found that: 1) Ang-II infusion progressively increased BP, which was accompanied by hypomagnesuria and signs of secondary hyperaldosteronism; 2) an additive effect between Ang-II and a high Na load may have an effect on strontium (Sr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) balances; 3) Dahl SS rats fed a high Na diet had a slow pressor response, accompanied by altered Mg, Na, potassium (K), and phosphate (P) balances; and 4) losartan prevented BP increases induced by Ang II-NaCl, but did not modify mineral balances. In Dahl SS rats, losartan attenuated high BP and ameliorated magnesemia, Na and K balances. Mg metabolism maybe considered a possible defect in this strain of rat that may contribute to hypertension.

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register ... (2013) - Articles Technical Note: Development of a Photobioreactor for Microalgae Culture ... Design, Construction and Evaluation of Motorized Okra Slicer Abstract PDF ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to ... No 1 (2014) - Articles Knowledge and Attitudes towards Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) among Community Nurses in Remo Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get ... Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of medium voltage switchgear for data collection and transmission. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112- ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or ... The prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and infant feeding practices ... Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Design and Implementation of an M/M/1 Queuing Model Algorithm and its Applicability in ... Vehicle Identification Technology to Intercept Small Arms and Ammunition on Nigeria Roads

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    Ismagilov, I.I.. Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue - Articles General method of synthesis by PLIC/FPGA digital devices to perform discrete orthogonal transformations. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Craddock, Michelle. Vol 32, No 3 (2009) - Articles Reflexivity and the Grothendieck property for positive tensor products of Banach lattices-II Abstract. ISSN: 1727-933X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Meiotic study of Acrida turrita (Linnaeus 1758), Paracinema luculenta Karsch 1896 and Morphacris fasciata (Thunberg 1815) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) Abstract PDF · Vol 6, No 4 (2012) - Articles Cytogenetic characterization of Taphronota thaelephora Stal. 1873. (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) from Cameroon. II. Description of ...

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    The combined incidence of Grade II and Grade IV astrocytoma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing Yaji: A complex Nigerian Suya meat sauce. Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 4 (2012) - ... Liver weight changes in wistar rats treated with crude aqueous extracts of Mangifera indica stem bark. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2384-681X.

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    Ujaddughe, MO. Vol 1, No 4 (2012) - Articles The combined incidence of Grade II and Grade IV astrocytoma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing Yaji: A complex Nigerian Suya meat sauce. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 3 (2014) - Articles Liver weight changes in wistar rats treated with crude aqueous extracts of Mangifera ...

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    Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 4 (2012) - Articles The combined incidence of Grade II and Grade IV astrocytoma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing Yaji: A complex Nigerian Suya meat sauce ... Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 4 (2014) - Articles Human diseases and histories of treatment-drug lacunae: An Ebola induced reflection

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    Rogers, GG. Vol 45, No 3 (1971) - Articles Walk of jog for health: I Abstract PDF · Vol 45, No 3 (1971) - Articles Walk or jog for health: II Abstract PDF · Vol 45, No 6 (1971) - Articles Physiological effects of the amphetamines during exercise. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Adeboye, OO. Vol 17, No 3 (2015) - Articles Theoretical study of the characterization of mixed-ligand complexes of Ni (II) dimethylglyoxime. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-4896. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Eke, U.B.. Vol 22, No 1 (2017) - Articles Synthesis of new ruthenium (II) complexes containing isocyanide and labile nitrile ligands. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-0221. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Shelton, GR. Vol 4, No 3 (2014): Special Issue: Part II - Articles ICT in teaching and learning chemistry activities on the iPad. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2227-5835. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

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    Reitsma, GM. Vol 27 (1999) - Articles Thusa Phase II: The design of a nutrition intervention education programme. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0378-5254. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Ayodele, E.T., Ethiopia. Vol 15, No 1 (2001) - Articles Synthesis and fungicidal activity of substituted dibenzyl trisulfides. Abstract PDF · Vol 14, No 2 (2000) - Articles Kinetics of periodate oxidation of tris-(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) iron(II) in acid medium. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1726-801X. AJOL African Journals Online.

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    Dommisse, G.F.. Vol 45, No 7 (1971) - Articles Flat Foot II Abstract PDF · Vol 78, No 8 (1990) - Articles The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    Randhawa, G.S., Ethiopia. Vol 5, No 1 (1991) - Articles Co-ordination sites in biomolecules: Zn(II) complexes with some N-protected amino acids and dlpeptides. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1726-801X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Edwards, R A. Vol 3 (1996) - Articles Properties of paraffin/ethanol mixtures. II. Vapour pressures in paraffin/ethanol systems. Abstract PDF · Vol 3 (1996) - Articles Biological nitrogen fixation by inoculated soya beans in pure and mixed culture with maize as estimated by the Acetylene Reduction Assay. Abstract PDF.

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    Njubi, Francis. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles New Media, Old Struggles: Pan Africanism, Anti-racism and Information Technology Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Radwan M.D, Mona Ahmed. Vol 12, No 1 (2000) - Articles RELAPSING REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: CT AND MRI IMAGING VS CLINICAL FINDINGIN THE DIAGNOSIS AND DETERMINATION OF DISEASE ACTIVITY. Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

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    Comarof, Jean. Vol 1999, No 3-4 (1999) - Articles Alien-Nation: Zombies, Immigrants and Millennial Capitalism Details. ISSN: 0850-8712. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    NENTY, N. JOHNSON. Vol 7, No 3 (2001) - Articles Common errors and perfomance of students in junior secondary mathematics certificate examinations in Cross River State, Nigeria Details PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

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    A Preliminary Investigation of Relative Frequency of Undiagnosed and Previously Diagnosed Hypertension Before First Stroke in a Lagos Hospital Abstract · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Localised tetanus in Lagos, Nigeria Details · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Stroke with localised infarction of Wernicke's Area misdiagnosed ...

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    SAMA, G. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    QUAKYI, A.I.. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    KOUONTCHOU, Samuel. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles Prevalence of Multiple Concomitant Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Simbok a Malaria Endemic Village in Cameroon. Details PDF · Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial ...

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    ALAKE, J. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Rakotonirina, Alice. Vol 2, No 2 (2002) - Articles Effect of the decoction of rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus on bicuculline-, N-methyl-D-aspartate- and strychnine-induced behavioural excitation and convulsions in mice. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Love, Alison. Vol 29, No 2 (2002) - Articles Policy-makers, the Press and Politics: Reporting a Public Policy Document Details. ISSN: 0379-0622. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Focho, DA. Vol 2, No 1 (2002) - Articles Observations on the Meiotic Process in the African Pest Grasshopper Taphronota thaelephora Stal. (Orthoptera : Pyrgomorphidae) Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Idowu, OO. Vol 8, No 1 (2003) - Articles Evaluation of Different Substrates and Combinations on the Growth of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet (Sajor-caju) Details. ISSN: 1118-2733. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Ligthelm, A.A.. Vol 5, No 2 (2001) - Articles Community attitudes towards Casinos and the estimated magnitude of problem gambling The Mpumalanga case. Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Kioni, P N. Vol 9, No 1 (2007) - Articles Detailed structure of pipe flow with water hammer oscillations. Abstract. ISSN: 1561-7645. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Development of a trap to contaminate variegated grasshoppers (Zonocerus variegatus L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) with Metarrhyzium flavo-viride Gams & Rozsypal in the field. Details · Vol 40, No 1 (2007) - Articles Yam pests in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions of Ghana: A study of farmers\\' indigenous technical ...

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    Brown, Duncan. Vol 16, No 2 (2002): Continental Africans & the Question of Identity - Articles Environment and Identity: Douglas Livingstone's A Littoral Zone Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Aderinokun, GA. Vol 9, No 1 (1999) - Articles Relative Influence Of Sociodemographic Variables On Oral Health And Habits Of Some Nigerian School Children Abstract · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Oral health services in Nigeria Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    EKPA, O. D.. Vol 7, No 2 (2001) - Articles Variental differences AND polymorphism in palm oil: a case study of palm oils blended with coconut oil. Details PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    SONUGA, F A. Vol 6, No 1 (2000) - Articles Geophysical investigation of Karkarku earthdam embankment. Details. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Geotechnical properties of lateritic soil developed over quartz schist in Ishara area, south western Nigeria Details · Vol 44, No 1 (2008) - Articles Comparative study of the influence of cement and lime stabilization on geotechnical properties of lateritic soil derived from pegmatite in Ago-Iwoye area, southwestern Nigeria

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    McCarthy, Greg. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Legwaila, GM. Vol 12 (2003) - Articles Review of sweet sorghum: a potential cash and forage crop in Botswana Details. ISSN: 1021-0873. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Admasu, Assefa. Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Preliminary evaluation of Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as a controller of Orobanche spp in Ethiopia Details PDF. ISSN: 2520–7997. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Okeke, EO. Vol 10 (2006) - Articles Analysis of Stokes waves theory as a diffusion problem. Abstract · Vol 11 (2007) - Articles On the impact of wave-current on Stokes waves. Abstract. ISSN: 1116-4336. AJOL African ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Obtaining the green's function for electromagnetic waves propagating in layered in-homogeneous thin film media of spherical particles on a substrate. Abstract · Vol 20, No 2 (2008) - Articles solution growth and ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text ... Abstract · Vol 17 (2010) - Articles Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic Disease Model With No Disease Related Death (When The Spatial Spread Of The Susceptible Is Not Negligible). Abstract.

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 8 (2004) - Articles Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves. Abstract · Vol 11 (2007) - Articles On the effects of wave steepness on higher order Stokes waves. Abstract. ISSN: 1116-4336.

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    Akum, ZE. Vol 1, No 3 (2001) - Articles Basic home range characteristics for the conservation of the African grey parrot in the Korup national park, Cameroon Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Bobcokono, Irene Yatabene. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Utilisation du papier filtre dans la gestion de programme de lute contre le SIDA au Cameroun Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Lema, VM. Vol 80, No 9 (2003): - Articles Fournier's gangrene complicating vasectomy. Details PDF · Vol 86, No 6 (2009) - Articles Therapeutic misconception and clinical trials in sub-saharan Africa: A review. Abstract PDF · Vol 86, No 11 (2009) - Articles HIV/AIDS and pregnancy-related deaths in Blantyre, Malawi

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    Green, J.M.. Vol 10, No 1 (2001) - Articles Information from Radio Telemetry on movements and exploitation of naturalized Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Kenya cold water streams. Details. ISSN: 0002-0036. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Erasmus, GJ. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Genetic parameter estimates for growth traits in purebred Gudali and two-breed synthetic Wakwa beef cattle in a tropical environment. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Odigie, IP. Vol 10, No 4 (2000) - Articles High dose vitamin E administration attenuates hypertensin in 2-Kidney 1 Clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats. Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Motabagani, MA. Vol 80, No 9 (2003): - Articles Anomalies of the renal, phrenic and suprarenal arteries: Case Report Details PDF · Vol 81, No 3 (2004): - Articles Morphological study of the uncommon rectus sterni muscle in German cadavers. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

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    Ibeabuchi, NM. Vol 10, No 3 (2000) - Articles Comparison of the effects of Methylsalicylate Cream with cryotherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness. Details · Vol 22, No 2 (2012) - Articles X-ray Pelvimetry And Labour Outcome In Term Pregnancy In A Rural Nigerian Population Abstract. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African ...

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    Warnorff, DK. Vol 13, No 4 (2001) - Articles Development of a scoring system for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Details PDF. ISSN: 1995-7262. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

  11. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in winter wheat: II. alternative strategies using the CropSyst simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important, both for farmer profit and for the environment, to correctly dose fertilizer nitrogen (N for winter wheat growth. Balance-sheet methods are often used to calculate the recommended dose of N fertilizer. Other methods are based on the dynamic simulation of cropping systems. Aim of the work was to evaluate the balance-sheet method set up by the Region Emilia-Romagna (DPI, by comparing it with the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst (CS, and with an approach based on fixed supplies of N (T. A 3-year trial was structured as a series of N fertility regimes at 3 sites (Papiano di Marsciano, Ravenna, San Pancrazio. The N-regimes were generated at each site-year as separate trials in which 3 N rates were applied: N1 (DPI, N2 (DPI+50 kg ha-1 N at spike initiation, N3 (DPI + 50 kg ha-1 N at early booting. Above ground biomass and soil data (NO3-N and water were sampled and used to calibrate CS. Doses of fertilizer N were calculated by both DPI and CS for winter wheat included in three typical rotations for Central and Northern Italy. Both these methods and method T were simulated at each site over 50 years, by using daily generated weather data. The long-term simulation allowed evaluating such alternative fertilization strategies. DPI and CS estimated comparable crop yields and N leached amounts, and both resulted better than T. Minor risk of leaching emerged for all N doses. The N2 and N3 rates allowed slightly higher crop yields than N1.

  12. Reversible uptake of molecular oxygen by heteroligand Co(II)-L-α-amino acid-imidazole systems: equilibrium models at full mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pająk, Marek; Woźniczka, Magdalena; Vogt, Andrzej; Kufelnicki, Aleksander

    2017-09-19

    The paper examines Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems (where amino acid = L-α-amino acid: alanine, asparagine, histidine) which, when in aqueous solutions, activate and reversibly take up dioxygen, while maintaining the structural scheme of the heme group (imidazole as axial ligand and O 2 uptake at the sixth, trans position) thus imitating natural respiratory pigments such as myoglobin and hemoglobin. The oxygenated reaction shows higher reversibility than for Co(II)-amac systems with analogous amino acids without imidazole. Unlike previous investigations of the heteroligand Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems, the present study accurately calculates all equilibrium forms present in solution and determines the [Formula: see text]equilibrium constants without using any simplified approximations. The equilibrium concentrations of Co(II), amino acid, imidazole and the formed complex species were calculated using constant data obtained for analogous systems under oxygen-free conditions. Pehametric and volumetric (oxygenation) studies allowed the stoichiometry of O 2 uptake reaction and coordination mode of the central ion in the forming oxygen adduct to be determined. The values of dioxygen uptake equilibrium constants [Formula: see text] were evaluated by applying the full mass balance equations. Investigations of oxygenation of the Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems indicated that dioxygen uptake proceeds along with a rise in pH to 9-10. The percentage of reversibility noted after acidification of the solution to the initial pH ranged within ca 30-60% for alanine, 40-70% for asparagine and 50-90% for histidine, with a rising tendency along with the increasing share of amino acid in the Co(II): amino acid: imidazole ratio. Calculations of the share of the free Co(II) ion as well as of the particular complex species existing in solution beside the oxygen adduct (regarding dioxygen bound both reversibly and irreversibly) indicated quite significant values for the

  13. Models for mirror symmetry breaking via β-sheet-controlled copolymerization: (i) mass balance and (ii) probabilistic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Celia; Hochberg, David

    2012-12-06

    Experimental mechanisms that yield the growth of homochiral copolymers over their heterochiral counterparts have been advocated by Lahav and co-workers. These chiral amplification mechanisms proceed through racemic β-sheet-controlled polymerization operative in both surface crystallites as well as in solution. We develop two complementary theoretical models for these template-induced desymmetrization processes leading to multicomponent homochiral copolymers. First, assuming reversible β-sheet formation, the equilibrium between the free monomer pool and the polymer strand within the template is assumed. This yields coupled nonlinear mass balance equations whose solutions are used to calculate enantiomeric excesses and average lengths of the homochiral chains formed. The second approach is a probabilistic treatment based on random polymerization. The occlusion probabilities depend on the polymerization activation energies for each monomer species and are proportional to the concentrations of the monomers in solution in the constant pool approximation. The monomer occlusion probabilities are represented geometrically in terms of unit simplexes from which conditions for maximizing or minimizing the likelihood for mirror symmetry breaking can be determined.

  14. Academic detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  15. Detailed CO(J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2) observations toward an H II region RCW 32 in the Vela Molecular Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokiya, Rei; Sano, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tachihara, Kengo; Torii, Kazufumi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Ohama, Akio; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    We performed CO(J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2) observations toward an H II region RCW 32 in the Vela Molecular Ridge. The CO gas distribution associated with the H II region was revealed for the first time at a high resolution of 22″. The results revealed three distinct velocity components which show correspondence with the optical dark lanes and/or Hα distribution. Two of the components show complementary spatial distribution which suggests collisional interaction between them at a relative velocity of ˜ 4 km s-1. Based on these results, we present a hypothesis that a cloud-cloud collision determined the cloud distribution and triggered formation of the exciting star ionizing RCW 32. The collision time scale is estimated from the cloud size and the velocity separation to be ˜2 Myr and the collision terminated ˜1 Myr ago, which is consistent with the age of the exciting star and the associated cluster. By combing the previous works on the H II regions in the Vela Molecular Ridge, we argue that the majority (at least four) of the H II regions in the Ridge were formed by triggering of cloud-cloud collision.

  16. DYMAC digital electronic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.M.

    1980-06-01

    The Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System at LASL integrates nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments with interactive data-processing equipment to provide near-real-time accountability of the nuclear material in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. The most widely used NDA instrument in the system is the DYMAC digital electronic balance. The DYMAC balance is a commercial instrument that has been modified at LASL for weighing material in gloveboxes and for transmitting the weight data directly to a central computer. This manual describes the balance components, details the LASL modifications, reviews a DYMAC measurement control program that monitors balance performance, and provides instructions for balance operation and maintenance

  17. Fluorescence F 0 of photosystems II and I in developing C3 and C 4 leaves, and implications on regulation of excitation balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard B; Oja, Vello; Eichelmann, Hillar; Bichele, Irina; Dall'Osto, Luca; Laisk, Agu

    2014-10-01

    This work addresses the question of occurrence and function of photosystem II (PSII) in bundle sheath (BS) cells of leaves possessing NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 photosynthesis (Zea mays). Although no requirement for PSII activity in the BS has been established, several component proteins of PSII have been detected in BS cells of developing maize leaves exhibiting O2-insensitive photosynthesis. We used the basal fluorescence emissions of PSI (F 0I) and PSII (F 0II) as quantitative indicators of the respective relative photosystem densities. Chl fluorescence induction was measured simultaneously at 680 and 750 nm. In mature leaves, the F m(680)/F 0(680) ratio was 10.5 but less in immature leaves. We propose that the lower ratio was caused by the presence of a distinct non-variable component, F c, emitting at 680 and 750 nm. After F c was subtracted, the fluorescence of PSI (F 0I) was detected as a non-variable component at 750 nm and was undetectably low at 680 nm. Contents of Chls a and b were measured in addition to Chl fluorescence. The Chl b/(a + b) was relatively stable in developing sunflower leaves (0.25-0.26), but in maize it increased from 0.09 to 0.21 with leaf tissue age. In sunflower, the F 0I/(F 0I + F 0II) was 0.39 ± 0.01 independent of leaf age, but in maize, this parameter was 0.65 in young tissue of very low Chl content (20-50 mg m(-2)) falling to a stable level of 0.53 ± 0.01 at Chl contents >100 mg m(-2). The values of F 0I/(F 0I + F 0II) showed that in sunflower, excitation was partitioned between PSII and PSI in a ratio of 2:1, but the same ratio was 1:1 in the C4 plant. The latter is consistent with a PSII:PSI ratio of 2:1 in maize mesophyll cells and PSI only in BS cells (2:1:1 distribution). We suggest, moreover, that redox mediation of Chl synthesis, rather than protein accumulation, regulates photosystem assembly to ensure optimum excitation balance between functional PSII and PSI. Indeed, the apparent necessity for two

  18. Miniature free-piston homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-compressor concept - Part II: modeling HCCI combustion in small scales with detailed homogeneous gas phase chemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichlmayr, H.T.; Kittelson, D.B.; Zachariah, M.R. [The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States). Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry

    2002-10-01

    Operational maps for crankshaft-equipped miniature homogeneous charge compression ignition engines are established using performance estimation, detailed chemical kinetics, and diffusion models for heat transfer and radical loss. In this study, radical loss was found to be insignificant. In contrast, heat transfer was found to be increasingly significant for 10, 1, and 0.1 W engines, respectively. Also, temperature-pressure trajectories and ignition delay time maps are used to explore relationships between engine operational parameters and HCCI. Lastly, effects of engine operating conditions and design on the indicated fuel conversion efficiency are investigated. (author)

  19. Balance of life and death in alveolar epithelial type II cells: proliferation, apoptosis, and the effects of cyclic stretch on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Lynn M; Luellen, Charlean; Zhang, Zhihong; Tague, Larry L; Sinclair, Scott E; Waters, Christopher M

    2011-10-01

    After acute lung injury, repair of the alveolar epithelium occurs on a substrate undergoing cyclic mechanical deformation. While previous studies showed that mechanical stretch increased alveolar epithelial cell necrosis and apoptosis, the impact of cell death during repair was not determined. We examined epithelial repair during cyclic stretch (CS) in a scratch-wound model of primary rat alveolar type II (ATII) cells and found that CS altered the balance between proliferation and cell death. We measured cell migration, size, and density; intercellular gap formation; cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis; cytoskeletal organization; and focal adhesions in response to scratch wounding followed by CS for up to 24 h. Under static conditions, wounds were closed by 24 h, but repair was inhibited by CS. Wounding stimulated cell motility and proliferation, actin and vinculin redistribution, and focal adhesion formation at the wound edge, while CS impeded cell spreading, initiated apoptosis, stimulated cytoskeletal reorganization, and attenuated focal adhesion formation. CS also caused significant intercellular gap formation compared with static cells. Our results suggest that CS alters several mechanisms of epithelial repair and that an imbalance occurs between cell death and proliferation that must be overcome to restore the epithelial barrier.

  20. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  1. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey; Brushy Basin detail survey: Price/Salina national topographic map sheets, Utah. Volume III. Area II: graphic data, Section I-II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains all of the graphic data for Area II which consists of map lines 1660 to 3400 and 5360 to 5780, and tie lines 6100, 6120, and 6160. Due to the large map scale of the presented data (1:62,500), this sub-section was divided into eleven 7-1/2 min quadrant sheets

  2. EVIDENCE FOR ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. DETAILED PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF Fe K-SHELL ABSORPTION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s –1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ∼10,000 km s –1 (∼0.03c) up to ∼100,000 km s –1 (∼0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ∼42,000 km s –1 (∼0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ∼ 3-6 erg s –1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ∼ 4.2 erg s –1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N H ∼ 10 22 -10 24 cm –2 , with a mean value of N H ∼ 10 23 cm –2 . We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected

  3. DETAILS OF OPERATIONS PERFORMED BY THE REMOTE CONTROL ROBOT (CONCEPT TO THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNEL DURING DECOMMISSIONING PHASE OF NUCLEAR REACTOR CALANDRIA STRUCTURE. PART II: INSIDE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin POPESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors contribution to this paper is to present a concept solution of a remote control robot (RCR used for decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels pressure tube in the CANDU nuclear reactor. In this paper the authors highlight few details of geometry, operations, constraints by kinematics and dynamics of the robot movement inside of the reactor fuel channel. Inside operations performed has as the main steps of dismantling process the followings: unblock and extract the channel closure plug (from End Fitting - EF, unblock and extract the channel shield plug (from Lattice Tube - LT, cut the ends of the pressure tube, extract the pressure tube and cut it in small parts, sorting and storage extracted items in the safe robot container. All steps are performed in automatic mode. The remote control robot (RCR represents a safety system controlled by sensors and has the capability to analyze any error registered and decide next activities or abort the inside decommissioning procedure in case of any risk rise in order to ensure the environmental and workers protection.

  4. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  5. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully trust your sense of balance. Loss of balance also raises the risk of falls. This is a serious and even life-threatening ... 65. Balance disorders are serious because of the risk of falls. But occasionally balance problems may warn of another health condition, such ...

  6. Activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptor shifts the balance between excitation and inhibition towards excitation in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the rat prelimbic cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boon, F.S.; Werkman, T.R.; Schaafsma-Zhao, Q.; Houthuijs, K.; Vitalis, T.; Kruse, C.G.; Wadman, W.J.; Chameau, P.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system by exogenous cannabinoids (drug abuse) can alter the physiology of the brain circuits involved in higher-order cognitive functions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A proper balance between excitation and inhibition (E/I balance) is critical

  7. Feasibility and Efficacy of the Nintendo Wii Gaming System to Improve Balance Performance Post-Stroke: Protocol of a Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial in an Inpatient Rehabilitation Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kelly J; Clark, Ross A; McGinley, Jennifer L; Martin, Clarissa L; Miller, Kimberly J

    2013-04-01

    Balance deficits following stroke are common and debilitating. Commercially available gaming systems, such as the Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) Wii™, have been widely adopted clinically; however, there is limited evidence supporting their feasibility and efficacy for improving balance performance following stroke. The aim of this trial is to investigate the clinical feasibility and efficacy of using the Nintendo Wii gaming system as an adjunct to standard care to improve balance performance following stroke in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Thirty participants undergoing inpatient stroke rehabilitation will be recruited into this Phase II, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Participants will be allocated into a Balance or Upper Limb Group, and both groups will perform activities using the Nintendo Wii in addition to their standard care. Participants will attend three 45-minute sessions per week, for a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 4 weeks. The main focus of the study is to investigate the feasibility of the intervention protocol. This will be evaluated through recruitment, retention, adherence, acceptability, and safety. The Step Test and Functional Reach Test will be the primary efficacy outcomes. Secondary outcomes will include force platform, mobility, and upper limb measures. Assessments will occur at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after study entry. To the authors' knowledge, this will be the largest randomized clinical trial to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of the Nintendo Wii gaming system for improving balance performance in a stroke population. The results will inform the design of a Phase III multicenter trial.

  8. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  9. Chicken type II collagen induced immune balance of main subtype of helper T cells in mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes in rats with collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tong; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Ying-Qi; Chang, Yan; Wang, Qing-Tong; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Wei, Wei

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the oral administration of chicken type II collagen (CCII) on T cells from mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats immunized with CCII in Freund's complete adjuvant. CCII (10, 20, and 40 microg kg(-1) day(-1), i.g. x 7 days) was administered orally to rats from day 14 to 21 after immunization. Arthritis was evaluated by hind paw swelling and polyarthritis index, and MLNs and synovium were harvested for histological examination. Activity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in MLN lymphocyte supernatant was measured by ConA-induced splenocyte proliferation in C57BL/6J mice, and IL-4, IL-17, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) levels in MLN lymphocytes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and Th17 cells was determined by double-color labeling for flow cytometry analysis. The administration of CCII (10, 20, 40 microg/kg, i.g. x 7 days) suppressed secondary inflammatory reactions and histological changes in CIA model. The activity of IL-2 and IL-17 produced by MLN lymphocytes from CIA rats was significantly inhibited by the administration of CCII (10, 20, and 40 microg kg(-1) day(-1)). The levels of IL-4 and TGF-beta were increased in CCII (10, 20, and 40 microg kg(-1) day(-1)) groups. The flow cytometry analysis showed that CCII (10, 20, and 40 microg kg(-1) day(-1)) significantly increased the proportion of Treg and decreased the proportion of Th17. These results indicate that oral administration of CCII had therapeutic effects on CIA rats, which was related to decreased production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-2, IL-17) and increased production of anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-4, TGF-beta). This suggests that CCII plays an important role in regulating the immune balance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg in rats with CIA.

  10. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  11. Energy balance and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, R.

    1982-01-01

    The energy balance of the outer atmospheres of solarlike stars is discussed. The energy balance of open coronal regions is considered, discussing the construction and characteristics of models of such regions in some detail. In particular, the temperature as a function of height is considered, as are the damping length dependence of the global energy balance in the region between the base of the transition region and the critical point, and the effects of changing the amount of coronal heating, the stellar mass, and the stellar radius. Models of coronal loops are more briefly discussed. The chromosphere is then included in the discussion of the energy balance, and the connection between global energy balance and global thermal stability is addressed. The observed positive correlations between the chromospheric and coronal energy losses and the pressure of the transition region is qualitatively explained

  12. Fluid balance and chloride load in the first 24h of ICU admission and its relation with renal replacement therapies through a multicentre, retrospective, case-control study paired by APACHE-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, A; Ortiz-Lasa, M; Leizaola, O; Salgado, E; Irriguible, T; Sánchez-Satorra, M; Lomas-Fernández, C; Barral-Segade, P; Cordero-Vallejo, M; Rodrigo-Calabia, E; Dierssen-Sotos, T

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the association between water balance during the first 24h of admission to ICU and the variables related to chloride levels (chloride loading, type of fluid administered, hyperchloraemia), with the development of acute kidney injury renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT) during patients' admission to ICU. Multicentre case-control study. Hospital-based, national, carried out in 6 ICUs. Cases were patients older than 18 years who developed an AKI-RRT. Controls were patients older than 18 years admitted to the same institutions during the study period, who did not develop AKI-RRT during ICU admission. Pairing was done by APACHE-II. An analysis of unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, APACHE-II and water balance (in evaluating the type of fluid). We analysed the variables of 430 patients: 215 cases and 215 controls. An increase of 10% of the possibility of developing AKI-RRT per 500ml of positive water balance was evident (OR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.14]; P<.001). The study of mean values of chloride load administered did not show differences between the group of cases and controls (299.35±254.91 vs. 301.67±234.63; P=.92). The water balance in the first 24h of ICU admission relates to the development of IRA-TRR, regardless of chloraemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding brains: details, intuition, and big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Eve

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  14. Understanding Brains: Details, Intuition, and Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  15. Understanding brains: details, intuition, and big data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Marder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  16. Achieving work-life balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, part II: perspectives from head athletic trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ashley; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pitney, William A

    2015-01-01

    Work-life balance has been examined at the collegiate level from multiple perspectives except for the athletic trainer (AT) serving in a managerial or leadership role. To investigate challenges and strategies used in achieving work-life balance from the perspective of the head AT at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Qualitative study. Web-based management system. A total of 18 head ATs (13 men, 5 women; age = 44 ± 8 years, athletic training experience = 22 ± 7 years) volunteered. Participants journaled their thoughts and experiences in response to a series of questions. To establish data credibility, we included multiple-analyst triangulation, stakeholder checks, and peer review. We used a general inductive approach to analyze the data. Two higher-order themes emerged from our analysis of the data: organizational challenges and work-life balance strategies. The organizational challenges theme contained 2 lower-order themes: lack of autonomy and role demands. The work-life balance strategies theme contained 3 lower-order themes: prioritization of commitments, strategic boundary setting, and work-family integration. Head ATs are susceptible to experiencing work-life imbalance just as ATs in nonsupervisory roles are. Although not avoidable, the causes are manageable. Head ATs are encouraged to prioritize their personal time, make efforts to spend time away from their demanding positions, and reduce the number of additional responsibilities that can impede time available to spend away from work.

  17. Matters of Cost: Part I. Jones Learns about Balance Sheets: Part II. A Look at Budgetary Control: Part III. The Supervisor's "Do-It-Yourself" Series 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. E.; And Others

    This guide, which is intended for new supervisors and managers to use in an independent study setting, deals with costing, balance sheets, and budgetary control. The first section, "Matters of Cost" by J. E. and J. F. Smith, deals with the following topics: profits and productivity, principles of costing, cost control and cost reduction, fixed and…

  18. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part II: Intercomparison of eddy-covariance sensors and post-field data processing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauder, M.; Oncley, S.P.; Vogt, R.; Weidinger, T.; Ribeiro, L.; Bernhofer, C.; Foken, T.; Kohsiek, W.; Bruin, de H.A.R.; Liu, H.

    2007-01-01

    The eddy-covariance method is the primary way of measuring turbulent fluxes directly. Many investigators have found that these flux measurements often do not satisfy a fundamental criterion¿closure of the surface energy balance. This study investigates to what extent the eddy-covariance measurement

  19. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound......This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...

  20. Achieving Work-Life Balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting, Part II: Perspectives From Head Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ashley; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Work-life balance has been examined at the collegiate level from multiple perspectives except for the athletic trainer (AT) serving in a managerial or leadership role. Objective: To investigate challenges and strategies used in achieving work-life balance from the perspective of the head AT at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Web-based management system. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 head ATs (13 men, 5 women; age = 44 ± 8 years, athletic training experience = 22 ± 7 years) volunteered. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants journaled their thoughts and experiences in response to a series of questions. To establish data credibility, we included multiple-analyst triangulation, stakeholder checks, and peer review. We used a general inductive approach to analyze the data. Results: Two higher-order themes emerged from our analysis of the data: organizational challenges and work-life balance strategies. The organizational challenges theme contained 2 lower-order themes: lack of autonomy and role demands. The work-life balance strategies theme contained 3 lower-order themes: prioritization of commitments, strategic boundary setting, and work-family integration. Conclusions: Head ATs are susceptible to experiencing work-life imbalance just as ATs in nonsupervisory roles are. Although not avoidable, the causes are manageable. Head ATs are encouraged to prioritize their personal time, make efforts to spend time away from their demanding positions, and reduce the number of additional responsibilities that can impede time available to spend away from work. PMID:25098746

  1. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tollenaere, C.; Bryja, Josef; Galan, M.; Cadet, P.; Deter, J.; Chaval, Y.; Berthier, K.; Ribas Salvador, A.; Voutilainen, L.; Laakkonen, J.; Henttonen, H.; Cosson, J.-F.; Charbonnel, N.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2008), s. 1307-1320 ISSN 1010-061X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : co-inertia * DQA and DRB MHC gen es * immunogenetics * multivariate analysis * parasite-mediated balancing selection Subject RIV: EB - Gen etics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.471, year: 2008

  2. Workshop on energy data of developing countries. Volume II. Basic energy statistics and energy balances of developing countries, 1967 to 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Extensive data on energy sources and balances are presented for Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, and Venezuela. Domestic consumption, final consumption, and energy end uses by the various sectors of consumer transactions are indicated. Data are compiled on imports and exports, production, and flows of fuels (processes to provide another energy commodity).

  3. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part II: Intercomparison of eddy-covariance sensors and post-field data processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mauder, M.; Oncley, S.P.; Vogt, R.; Weidinger, T.; Ribeiro, L.; Bernhofer, C.; Foken, T.; Kohsiek, W.; Bruin, de, H.A.R.; Liu, H.

    2007-01-01

    The eddy-covariance method is the primary way of measuring turbulent fluxes directly. Many investigators have found that these flux measurements often do not satisfy a fundamental criterion¿closure of the surface energy balance. This study investigates to what extent the eddy-covariance measurement technology can be made responsible for this deficiency, in particular the effects of instrumentation or of the post-field data processing. Therefore, current eddy-covariance sensors and several pos...

  4. Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  5. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  6. Post Entitlement Management Information - Detail Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains data that supports the detailed and aggregate receipt, pending and clearance data, as well as other strategic and tactical MI for many Title II and Title...

  7. Well balanced finite volume methods for nearly hydrostatic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, N.; Klein, R.; Langenberg, S.; Luetzenkirchen, S.

    2004-01-01

    In numerical approximations of nearly hydrostatic flows, a proper representation of the dominant hydrostatic balance is of crucial importance: unbalanced truncation errors can induce unacceptable spurious motions, e.g., in dynamical cores of models for numerical weather prediction (NWP) in particular near steep topography. In this paper we develop a new strategy for the construction of discretizations that are 'well-balanced' with respect to dominant hydrostatics. The classical idea of formulating the momentum balance in terms of deviations of pressure from a balanced background distribution is realized here through local, time dependent hydrostatic reconstructions. Balanced discretizations of the pressure gradient and of the gravitation source term are achieved through a 'discrete Archimedes' buoyancy principle'. This strategy is applied to extend an explicit standard finite volume Godunov-type scheme for compressible flows with minimal modifications. The resulting method has the following features: (i) It inherits its conservation properties from the underlying base scheme. (ii) It is exactly balanced, even on curvilinear grids, for a large class of near-hydrostatic flows. (iii) It solves the full compressible flow equations without reference to a background state that is defined for an entire vertical column of air. (iv) It is robust with respect to details of the implementation, such as the choice of slope limiting functions, or the particularities of boundary condition discretizations

  8. Biomechanical assessment of dynamic balance: Specificity of different balance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringhof, Steffen; Stein, Thorsten

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic balance is vitally important for most sports and activities of daily living, so the assessment of dynamic stability has become an important issue. In consequence, a large number of balance tests have been developed. However, it is not yet known whether these tests (i) measure the same construct and (ii) can differentiate between athletes with different balance expertise. We therefore studied three common dynamic balance tests: one-leg jump landings, Posturomed perturbations and simulated forward falls. Participants were 24 healthy young females in regular training in either gymnastics (n = 12) or swimming (n = 12). In each of the tests, the participants were instructed to recover balance as quickly as possible. Dynamic stability was computed by time to stabilization and margin of stability, deduced from force plates and motion capture respectively. Pearson's correlations between the dynamic balance tests found no significant associations between the respective dynamic stability measures. Furthermore, independent t-tests indicated that only jump landings could properly distinguish between both groups of athletes. In essence, the different dynamic balance tests applied did not measure the same construct but rather task-specific skills, each of which depends on multifactorial internal and external constraints. Our study therefore contradicts the traditional view of considering balance as a general ability, and reinforces that dynamic balance measures are not interchangeable. This highlights the importance of selecting appropriate balance tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wooden houses in detail. Holzhaeuser im Detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruske, W. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    Under the serial title 'Planning and construction of wooden houses', WEKA will publish a number of books of which this is the first. Details of design and construction are presented, e.g.: Details of modern one-family houses; Fundamentals of design and hints for planning of wooden houses and compact wooden structures; Constructional ecology, wood protection, thermal insulation, sound insulation; Modular systems for domestic buildings; The 'bookshelf-type' house at the Berlin International Construction Exhibition (IBA); Experience with do-it-yourself systems. With 439 figs.

  10. Analysis of HLA class II haplotypes in the Cayapa indians of ecuador: A novel DRBI allele reveals evidence for convergent evolution and balancing selection at position 86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus-Trachtenberg, E.A.; Erlich, H. (Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA (United States)); Rickards, O.; De Stefano, G.F. (Universita di Roma, Rome (Italy))

    1994-07-01

    PCR amplification, oligonucleotide probe typing, and sequencing were used to analyze the HLA class II loci (DRB1, DQA1, DAB1, and DPB1) of an isolated South Amerindian tribe. Here the authors report HLA class II variation, including the identification of a new DRB1 allele, several novel DR/DQ haplotypes, and an unusual distribution of DPB1 alleles, among the Cayapa Indians (N=100) of Ecuador. A general reduction of HLA class II allelic variation in the Cayapa is consistent with a population bottleneck during the colonization of the Americas. The new Cayapa DRB1 allele, DRB1[sup *]08042, which arose by a G[yields]T point mutation in the parental DRB1[sup *]0802, contains a novel Val codon (GTT) at position 86. The generation of DRB1[sup *]08042 (Val-86) from DRB1[sup *]0802 (Gly-86) in the Cayapa, by a different mechanism than the (GT[yields]TG) change in the creation of DRB1[sub *]08041 (Val-86) from DRB1[sup *]0802 in Africa, implicates selection in the convergent evolution of position 86 DR[beta] variants. The DRB1[sup *]08042 allele has not been found in >1,800 Amerindian haplotypes and thus presumably arose after the Cayapa separated from other South American Amerindians. Selection pressure for increased haplotype diversity can be inferred in the generation and maintenance of three new DRB1[sup *]08042 haplotypes and several novel DR/DQ haplotypes in this population. The DPB1 allelic distribution in the Cayapa is also extraordinary, with two alleles, DPB1[sup *]1401, a very rare allele in North American Amerindian populations, and DPB1[sup *]0402, the most common Amerindian DPB1 allele, constituting 89% of the Cayapa DPB1. These data are consistent with the postulated rapid rate of evolution as noted for the class I HLA-B locus of other South American Indians. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. The Approach to Equilibrium: Detailed Balance and the Master Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Millard H.; Hall, Gregory E.; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The approach to the equilibrium (Boltzmann) distribution of populations of internal states of a molecule is governed by inelastic collisions in the gas phase and with surfaces. The set of differential equations governing the time evolution of the internal state populations is commonly called the master equation. An analytic solution to the master…

  12. Strong Interaction Effect on Jet Energy Loss with Detailed Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Ya; Cheng, Luan

    2017-10-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 11205024, and the Doctoral Scientific Fund Project of the Ministry of Education of China under Grant No 2012004112004.

  13. [Zaocys type II collagen regulates mesenteric lymph node Treg/Th17 cell balance in mice with collagen-induced arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Feng, Zhitao; Zhu, Junqing; Li, Juan

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of oral administration of Zaocys type II collagen (ZCII) on the percentages of Treg/Th17 cells in mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes (MLNLs) in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by immunization with chicken type II collagen. Three weeks later, ZCII, purified by pepsin digestion, was orally administered in the mice for 7 consecutive days (daily dose of 10, 20, or 40 µg/kg). The severity of arthritis in each limb was evaluated using a macroscopic scoring system, and histopathological changes of the joint were observed microscopically with HE staining. The percentages of Treg and Th17 cells in MLNLs was detected by flow cytometry, and the levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in the supernatant of MLNLs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with normal control mice, the mice with CIA had significantly higher scores for arthritis and histopathological changes, with also significantly increased percentages of Treg and Th17 cells in MLNLs and elevated levels of TGF-β and IL-17 in MLNL supernatant (P<0.05). In ZCII peptide-treated mice, the scores for arthritis and histopathological changes were significantly lower than those in CIA model group (P<0.05), and Treg cell percentage in MLNLs was up-regulated while Th17 cell percentage lowered; the level of TGF-β was increased but IL-17 was decreased significantly (P<0.05). Oral administration of ZCII improves CIA in mice by regulating the percentages of Treg/Th17 cells and the cytokine levels in MLNLs, suggesting the value of ZCII as a promising candidate agent for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vertigo. If you have additional problems with motor control, such as weakness, slowness, tremor, or rigidity, you can lose your ability to recover properly from imbalance. This raises the risk of falling and injury. What are some types of balance disorders? There are more than a dozen different ...

  15. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  16. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part II: Intercomparison of eddy-covariance sensors and post-field data processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauder, Matthias; Oncley, Steven P.; Vogt, Roland; Weidinger, Tamas; Ribeiro, Luis; Bernhofer, Christian; Foken, Thomas; Kohsiek, Wim; de Bruin, Henk A. R.; Liu, Heping

    2007-04-01

    The eddy-covariance method is the primary way of measuring turbulent fluxes directly. Many investigators have found that these flux measurements often do not satisfy a fundamental criterion—closure of the surface energy balance. This study investigates to what extent the eddy-covariance measurement technology can be made responsible for this deficiency, in particular the effects of instrumentation or of the post-field data processing. Therefore, current eddy-covariance sensors and several post-field data processing methods were compared. The differences in methodology resulted in deviations of 10% for the sensible heat flux and of 15% for the latent heat flux for an averaging time of 30 min. These disparities were mostly due to different sensor separation corrections and a linear detrending of the data. The impact of different instrumentation on the resulting heat flux estimates was significantly higher. Large deviations from the reference system of up to 50% were found for some sensor combinations. However, very good measurement quality was found for a CSAT3 sonic together with a KH20 krypton hygrometer and also for a UW sonic together with a KH20. If these systems are well calibrated and maintained, an accuracy of better than 5% can be achieved for 30-min values of sensible and latent heat flux measurements. The results from the sonic anemometers Gill Solent-HS, ATI-K, Metek USA-1, and R.M. Young 81000 showed more or less larger deviations from the reference system. The LI-COR LI-7500 open-path H2O/CO2 gas analyser in the test was one of the first serial numbers of this sensor type and had technical problems regarding direct solar radiation sensitivity and signal delay. These problems are known by the manufacturer and improvements of the sensor have since been made.

  17. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  18. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey; Brushy Basin detail survey: Price/Salina national topographic map sheets, Utah. Volume III. Area II: graphic data, Section III-IX Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains all of the graphic data for Area II, which include map lines 1660 to 3400 and 5360 to 5780 and tie lines 6100, 6120, and 6160. Due to the large map scale of the data presented (1:62,500), this area was further subdivided into eleven 7-1/2 min quadrant sheets. It should be noted that TL6100 resides in both Areas II and III. The graphic data for TL6100 are presented in Volume IV - Area III - Graphic Data of this report

  19. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  20. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  1. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  2. Political balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopmann, David Nicolas; Van Aelst, Peter; Salgado, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Before every election campaign, the French Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (CSA) publishes detailed rules on how much news coverage candidates are allowed to have vis-à-vis one another in the electronic media to ensure what it calls pluralisme politique (e.g., CSA 2011). Also outside election ...

  3. The balance principle in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Wang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles of balance, randomization, control and repetition, which are closely related, constitute the four principles of scientific research. The balance principle is the kernel of the four principles which runs through the other three. However, in scientific research, the balance principle is always overlooked. If the balance principle is not well performed, the research conclusion is easy to be denied, which may lead to the failure of the whole research. Therefore, it is essential to have a good command of the balance principle in scientific research. This article stresses the definition and function of the balance principle, the strategies and detailed measures to improve balance in scientific research, and the analysis of the common mistakes involving the use of the balance principle in scientific research.

  4. High efficiency orange-red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on a Pt(II)-pyridyltriazolate complex from a structure optimized for charge balance and reduced efficiency roll-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghang; Lin, Ming-Te; Shepherd, Nigel D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas (United States); Chen, Wei-Hsuan; McDougald, Roy Jr.; Arvapally, Ravi; Omary, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We report a high power efficiency (PE) of 44.7 {+-} 0.5 lm/W, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 19.7 {+-} 0.1% at 500 Cd/m{sup 2}, and efficiency roll-off of only 4% of the peak value at a useful brightness of 1000 Cd/m{sup 2} from orange-red emitting, organic light emitting diodes featuring 1,1-bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) as the hole transport layer/electron blocking layer, an emissive layer consisting of 65% bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II) (Pt(ptp){sub 2}) doped into 4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine (CBP), and 1,3,5-tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazolyl)-benzene (TPBI) as the electron transport layer (ETL). Based on a comparison of these structures with devices that did not incorporate an electron/exciton blocker and devices featuring N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) as the electron/exciton blocking layer, we ascribe the high efficiency and low efficiency roll-off to better charge balance, and enhanced confinement of excitons and the recombination zone to the emissive layer. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  6. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  7. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter' and ...

  8. Ruthenium(ii)-catalyzed olefination via carbonyl reductive cross-coupling† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04207h

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Dai, Xi-Jie; Wang, Haining; Li, Chenchen; Yang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Natural availability of carbonyl groups offers reductive carbonyl coupling tremendous synthetic potential for efficient olefin synthesis, yet the catalytic carbonyl cross-coupling remains largely elusive. We report herein such a reaction, mediated by hydrazine under ruthenium(ii) catalysis. This method enables facile and selective cross-couplings of two unsymmetrical carbonyl compounds in either an intermolecular or intramolecular fashion. Moreover, this chemistry accommodates a variety of substrates, proceeds under mild reaction conditions with good functional group tolerance, and generates stoichiometric benign byproducts. Importantly, the coexistence of KOtBu and bidentate phosphine dmpe is vital to this transformation. PMID:29568466

  9. Driving Improvement with a Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a school district's use of a transparent tool coalesced support for systemic improvement. The author was looking for a way to push improvement in his 4,000-student school system when he discovered the balanced scorecard, a strategic tool for performance management. The author details how the balanced scorecard helped him…

  10. THULE: A detailed description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, M.J.

    1964-07-01

    This report describes the THULE scheme of lattice physics calculation which has been developed in FORTRAN for the IBM 7090. This scheme predicts the neutron flux over energy and space, for many groups and regions, together with reactivity and reaction rate edits for both a single lattice cell and a reactor core. This report describes in detail the input requirements for the THULE programme which forms the main part of the scheme. Brief descriptions of the 7090 programmes TED 6 and NOAH are included as appendices. TED 6 will produce the THULE edits from a WDSN output tape and NOAH is a version of the METHUSELAH programme which contains many of the THULE edits and will also produce input cards for THULE. (author)

  11. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  12. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  13. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  14. E-detailing: information technology applied to pharmaceutical detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D

    2008-11-01

    E-detailing can be best described as the use of information technology in the field of pharmaceutical detailing. It is becoming highly popular among pharmaceutical companies because it maximizes the time of the sales force, cuts down the cost of detailing and increases physician prescribing. Thus, the application of information technology is proving to be beneficial to both physicians and pharmaceutical companies. When e-detailing was introduced in 1996, it was limited to the US; however, numerous other countries soon adopted this novel approach to detailing and now it is popular in many developed nations. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the rapid growth of e-detailing in the field of pharmaceutical marketing. A review of e-detailing literature was conducted in addition to personal conversations with physicians. E-detailing has the potential to reduce marketing costs, increase accessibility to physicians and offer many of the advantages of face-to-face detailing. E-detailing is gaining acceptance among physicians because they can access the information of a pharmaceutical product at their own time and convenience. However, the drug safety aspect of e-detailing has not been examined and e-detailing remains a supplement to traditional detailing and is not yet a replacement to it.

  15. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  16. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing.

  17. Energy balance in the ohmically heated FT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.; Brusati, M.; Cilloco, F.

    1981-01-01

    A typical discharge in the FT Tokamak at 60 kG has been studied in detail in order to derive the power balance between the ohmic input and the plasma losses. Impurity and radiation losses together with ion and electron energy balance are discussed. A power transport term for electrons is derived which is ascribed to anomalous thermal conduction. This resulting thermal transport is compared with those derived from different proposed scalings

  18. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Details in architecture have a significant influence on how architecture is experienced. One can touch the materials and analyse the detailing - thus details give valuable information about the architectural scheme as a whole. The absence of perceptual stimulation like details and materiality...... / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented...

  19. Interim balance: Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects: The ecology problem - world wide. Sectoral balances: The examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord. Conservatives in our political parties and their views on environmental protection. Alliance between reds and 'greens', integration between reds and greens. The Rhine initiative. Lead respects no borders, experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life'/A hearing on environmental protection. 4:96 - 'greens' in the Bremen Senate. Policy in a hard-hearing world/psychology of citizens' action groups. Critical ecological research and scientific establishment. Full productivity and ecology. The deluge to follow/Hints on how to build an ark. Symbiosis is more than coexistence/Ecologists' social theory. Throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science. Scientific journals. Alternative literature. Teaching model for a teaching subject 'ecology'. (orig.) [de

  20. Balanced Scorecard voor inkoop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Honing, R.; Schotanus, Fredo

    2003-01-01

    Een Balanced Scorecard kan ontwikkeld worden voor de hele organisatie, maar ook voor onderdelen daarvan. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkeling van een Balanced Scorecard voor de inkoopafdeling

  1. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals...... the creation and recreation of balanced relationships. Chapters in The Balanced Company ask and provide answers to questions about corporately responsible and ethically driven balanced decision making, such as: • How can a company and its stakeholders identify what should be taken into consideration - What...

  2. Hojas de balance de alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Nutrición; Centro de Investigaciones Agroalimentarias (CIAAL)

    2008-01-01

    Presentación SECCIÓN I: METODOLOGÍA 1.- Notas metodológicas generales 2.- Matrices de "Métodos de Cálculo" 3.- Matrices de Códigos de Fuentes 4.- Matrices de "Coeficientes y Factores" En estas matrices se explica la metodología específica utilizada en cada Grupo de Alimentos y en el de las Bebidas Alcohólicas SECCIÓN II: Hojas de balance de alimentos SECCIÓN III: Aportes nutricionales de las disponibilidades alimentarias SECCIÓN IV: APLICACIONES DE LA HOJA ...

  3. Chance for balance: Chance for balance

    OpenAIRE

    Sævild, Katariina; Skov Sørensen, Katrine; Kildahl Lauritsen, Louise; Fuglsang, Sofie Olivia; Arnbjerg, Stine Høegh

    2015-01-01

    This project investigates how (im) balance between family and career influences Danish women's desire to have children. In order to answer this question, we have chosen to use qualitative method and our analysis is based on two semi-structured research interviews with two chosen women. Thus these women’s definition of balance and their view on children define the project. We have chosen to use of work-life balance theories, Thomas Hoejrup’s lifeform-analysis and Anthony Giddens’ theories of s...

  4. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    teju

    2018-05-04

    May 4, 2018 ... ... selected candidate is required to work with Accounts Officer and assist in ... in website of Public Financial Management System etc., and carry out .... Duties also include coordination and liaison with Chief Editors and other ...

  5. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    IASc), an institution under the Department of Science &. Technology, Government of India publishes scholarly journals, thematic books and other publications. The Academy currently publishes 10 journals in various disciplines in science.

  6. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incumbent should have passed Diploma in Secretarial Practice or Bachelors of Commerce with at least 50% marks. Should be proficient in typing, shorthand and MS office. Age: Not more than. 25 years as on 1 April 2017. Preference will be given to male candidates. Experience: 2 years experience in the administrative ...

  7. Get the Balance Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Rebecca Jaurigue

    Today work goes on 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and is about acceleration and access. Workers need balance more than ever. In fact, recent college graduates value work/life balance as their key factor in selecting employers. This paper, written for career counselors, defines balance as encompassing emotional, spiritual, physical, and…

  8. The detail is dead - long live the detail!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper; Dalgaard, Kim; Kerstens, Vencent

    2018-01-01

    architecture when we look into architectural history. Too classic examples are; Adolf Loos who provoked already in 1908 with his statement; "Ornament and Crime", which contested the unconscious decorations of contemporary architects. Similarly, referring to the little need for superfluous detailing; "Less...... not change the fact that it is more important than ever to bring this 'small' architectural world to attention. Today, the construction industry is dictated by an economic management that does not leave much room for thorough studies of architectural details or visionary experiments. Today's more efficient......_Delft about the Symposium; "The Detail is Dead - Long Live the Detail". For this occasion a number of leading Danish and Northern European architects, researchers and companies were invited to discuss and suggest their 'architectural detail' and the challenges they face in today's construction. This book...

  9. Un Algoritmo Genético Especializado en Planeamiento de Redes de Distribución. Parte II. Detalles del algoritmo y su aplicación; A specialized Genetic Algorithm in Distribution Network planning. Part II. Algorithm details and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Nicolás Carvajal Pérez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En la Parte I de este articulo, se expusieron las características de la planificación de redes y su influencia en la selección de métodos específicos en cada uno de los procedimientos para desarrollar los pasos del algoritmo genético especializado. Aquí se exponen las interioridades del algoritmo y el trabajo experimental para fijar la magnitud de los parámetros generales de las poblaciones y la cantidad de éstas. Se presentan casos resueltos durante el ajuste del sistema de cálculo.  The first section explained the specifics characteristics of network planning and the selected method for genetic operators. In this papers, expose details about the algorithm steps, the mathematical procedures and some applications.

  10. Balance of Payments Constrained Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume V, Issue II, July 2017 ... between economic growth and current account balance equilibrium. .... With these precedents, there is a need to analyze the degree to which balance of payments .... With this result, we can now investigate the long run relationship between our variables.

  11. 1998 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the tenth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy Statistics

  12. 2000 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the eleventh issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy

  13. 2002 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the twelfth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy

  14. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  15. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    of balancing trust and control becomes an issue that deserve ongoing attention. This paper adds to the discussion on the relation between trust and control by showing that the process perspective reframes the problem of balancing trust and control. More generally, by demonstrating the importance of the process......The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust...... on trust and control made the problem of finding a balance between trust and control a once and for all decision the process perspective introduced here implies that balancing trust and control is an ongoing process of balancing and rebalancing. The implication for management is that the problem...

  16. Balance and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  17. Balance of power

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, James Raymond

    2012-01-01

    This Paper argues that the efficiency distribution of players in a game determines how aggressively these players interact. We formalize the idea of balance of power: players fight very inefficient players but play softly versus equally (or more) efficient players. This theory of conduct predicts that entry by new firms leads to a less aggressive outcome if it creates a balance of power. A balance of power is created if more players get technologies that are close to the most efficient techno...

  18. Work-Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasničková, Katarína

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is Work-Life Balance - the reconciliation of professional and personal lives. The primary objective of this work is to analyze employee satisfaction in achieving a balance between the professional and personal life and to develop recommendations for employer on that basis. The theoretical portion of this work defines the issues surrounding Work-Life Balance and tools that employees can use to harmonize the two with an analysis of applications in the Czech Republic a...

  19. Methodological Details and Full Bibliography

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset has several components, The first part describes fully our literature review, providing details not included in the text. The second part provides all...

  20. Digital optical computer II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.

    1991-12-01

    OptiComp is currently completing a 32-bit, fully programmable digital optical computer (DOC II) that is designed to operate in a UNIX environment running RISC microcode. OptiComp's DOC II architecture is focused toward parallel microcode implementation where data is input in a dual rail format. By exploiting the physical principals inherent to optics (speed and low power consumption), an architectural balance of optical interconnects and software code efficiency can be achieved including high fan-in and fan-out. OptiComp's DOC II program is jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO), NASA space station group and Rome Laboratory (USAF). This paper not only describes the motivational basis behind DOC II but also provides an optical overview and architectural summary of the device that allows the emulation of any digital instruction set.

  1. Market-consistent valuation of a pension product with guarantee in line with Solvency II : An applied case study to improve knowledge about how rationality and stressed conditions with respect to market- and insurance risk will impact the balance sheet.

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Isak; Stadig, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Traditional pension products have today been replaced by products that are linked directly to the unit value of some kind of investment portfolio. These products contribute to more vulnerable situations for insurance companies in terms of uncertainties of future obligations. This master thesis aims to create a general valuation model in line with Solvency II regulation, which is able to value the best estimate of the insurance liability. The model will use a state model, stochastic scenario g...

  2. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  3. Efeito do óleo de linhaça e do óleo de amendoim sobre a vulcanização da borracha natural (NR. parte II: modelo detalhado Effect of linseed oil and peanut oil upon natural rubber (NR vulcanization. part II: detailed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da substituição total ou parcial do ácido esteárico por óleos vegetais de linhaça e amendoim foi investigado em composições de borracha natural (NR. Um sistema de vulcanização convencional foi escolhido e os estudos cinéticos foram conduzidos nas temperaturas de 160 ºC, 170 ºC e 180 ºC. O modelo cinético detalhado permitiu estudar os diferentes estágios da vulcanização e verificar que na etapa de formação do precursor de ligações cruzadas (A → B houve diferenças significativas entre o ácido esteárico e os óleos vegetais. Tal resultado foi devido à presença expressiva de ácidos graxos insaturados na composição química dos óleos de linhaça e de amendoim (principalmente, os ácidos oléico e linolênico, o que facilitou a ocorrência de reações laterais inesperadas e, consequentemente, diminuiu o rendimento final de ligações cruzadas nos vulcanizados.The effect of the total or partial replacement of stearic acid with vegetable oils of linseed and peanut has been investigated in natural rubber (NR compositions. A conventional vulcanization system has been chosen and kinetic studies have been done in the temperatures of 160 ºC, 170 ºC and 180 ºC. The detailed kinetic model has allowed studying the different stages of vulcanization and verifying that in the formation of the crosslink precursor (A → B there were significant differences between stearic acid and the vegetable oils. This result has been attributed to the high concentration of unsaturated fat acids in the chemical composition of the vegetable oils (mainly, oleic and linolenic acids, which allowed unexpected side reactions and, consequently, diminished the final yield of crosslinking in the vulcanizates.

  4. The validity of METHUSELAH II in water moderated lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.; Hopkins, D.R.

    1964-09-01

    An improved version of the METHUSELAH code has been developed, which embodies some refinements in the treatment of the thermal spectrum, improved cross-section data, and a neutron balance output. The changes in nuclear data and physical models are summarised in this report; a detailed description of the programme modifications will be published separately. In this report METHUSELAH II predictions are compared with published lattice reactivity and reaction rate data. The systems examined include British S.G.H.W. type lattices (with H 2 O and D 2 O moderation), Canadian natural uranium/D 2 0 experiments, U.S. low enrichment H 2 O systems, and the Hanford Pu A1/H 2 O experiments. In general the agreement is sufficiently good to demonstrate the value of METHUSELAH II as an assessment tool and to indicate clear improvements over METHUSELAH I. A number of discrepancies are, however, observed and are the subject of comment. (author)

  5. Balance og stofskifte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Udstilling på Medicinsk Museion. Baseret på bevilling fra Assens Fond. Se mere på http://www.museion.ku.dk/whats-on/exhibitions/balance-and-metabolism/......Udstilling på Medicinsk Museion. Baseret på bevilling fra Assens Fond. Se mere på http://www.museion.ku.dk/whats-on/exhibitions/balance-and-metabolism/...

  6. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  7. A Smartphone Inertial Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-01-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  8. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  9. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This nerve sends signals to the brain that control hearing (auditory function) and help with balance (vestibular function). But the ears aren't the ... symptoms aren't necessarily a sign of a balance problem — or any other ... stumble and fall sometimes, especially toddlers just learning to walk and ...

  10. Trust-distrust Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jukka, Minna; Blomqvist, Kirsimarja; Li, Peter Ping

    2017-01-01

    notion of "guanxi" as personal ties. In contrast, the Finnish managers' view of trustworthiness was more associated with depersonalized organizational attributes. They emphasized the dimension of integrity, especially promise-keeping. In addition, tentative signs of trust ambivalence, as a balance...... opposites constitute a duality to be managed from the perspective of yin-yang balancing....

  11. Lust-Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Cas

    2007-01-01

    The concept of the lust-balance refers to the social organization and accompanying social codes (ideals and practices) regarding the relationship between the longing for sexual gratification and the longing for enduring relational intimacy. It thus draws attention to the balance between emotive

  12. Balancing for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    We present a method of balancing for nonlinear systems which is an extension of balancing for linear systems in the sense that it is based on the input and output energy of a system. It is a local result, but gives 'broader' results than we obtain by just linearizing the system. Furthermore, the

  13. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  14. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  15. A multi-level simulation platform of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid generation system - Part II. Balancing units model library and system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cheng; Cai, Ningsheng; Croiset, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Following our integrated hierarchical modeling framework of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (IRSOFC), this paper firstly introduces the model libraries of main balancing units, including some state-of-the-art achievements and our specific work. Based on gPROMS programming code, flexible configuration and modular design are fully realized by specifying graphically all unit models in each level. Via comparison with the steady-state experimental data of Siemens-Westinghouse demonstration system, the in-house multi-level SOFC-gas turbine (GT) simulation platform is validated to be more accurate than the advanced power system analysis tool (APSAT). Moreover, some units of the demonstration system are designed reversely for analysis of a typically part-load transient process. The framework of distributed and dynamic modeling in most of units is significant for the development of control strategies in the future.

  16. Self-reported balance status is not a reliable indicator of balance performance in adolescents at one-month post-concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Coralie; Walters-Stewart, Coren; Aglipay, Mary; Barrowman, Nick; Zemek, Roger; Sveistrup, Heidi

    2017-11-01

    To determine if self-reported balance symptoms can be used as a proxy for measures of the center of pressure (COP) to identify balance deficits in a group of concussed adolescents. Case-control. Thirteen adolescents 1-month post-concussion who reported ongoing balance problems (Balance+), 20 adolescent 1-month post-concussion who reported no balance problems (Balance-), and 30 non-injured adolescents (control) completed a series of balance tests. Participants completed two 2-min trials standing on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board™ during which the COP under their feet was recorded: i) double-leg stance, eyes open; ii) double-leg stance, eyes closed. Participants also completed a dual-task condition combining a double-leg stance and a Stroop Colour-word test. Participants in both the Balance+ and Balance- group swayed over a larger ellipse area compared to the control group while completing the Eyes Closed (Balance+, p=0.002; Balance-, p=0.002) and Dual-Task (Balance+, p=0.001; Balance-, p=0.004) conditions and performed the Dual-Task condition with faster medio-lateral velocity (Balance+, p=0.003; Balance-, p=0.009). The participants in the Balance- group also swayed over a larger ellipse area compared to the control group while completing the Eyes Open condition (p=0.005). No significant differences were identified between the Balance+ and Balance- groups. At 1-month post-concussion, adolescents demonstrated balance deficits compared to non-injured adolescents regardless of whether they reported balance problems. These results suggest that self-reported balance status might not be an accurate reflection of balance performance following a concussion in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  18. 1998 energy balance sheet of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the energy balance sheet of France for the year 1998 according to the data published by the energy observatory from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) and according to the press communication given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of the industry. The following points are commented: the energy balance sheet (national production and energy independence, the energy shares in the consumption), the decay of the energy bill, and the details of the bill by energy type. (J.S.)

  19. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  20. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  1. Dynamic power balance analysis in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, G F; Silburn, S A; Challis, C D; Iglesias, D; King, D; Eich, T; Sieglin, B; Contributors, JET

    2017-01-01

    The full scale realisation of nuclear fusion as an energy source requires a detailed understanding of power and energy balance in current experimental devices. In this we explore whether a global power balance model in which some of the calibration factors applied to the source or sink terms are fitted to the data can provide insight into possible causes of any discrepancies in power and energy balance seen in the JET tokamak. We show that the dynamics in the power balance can only be properly reproduced by including the changes in the thermal stored energy which therefore provides an additional opportunity to cross calibrate other terms in the power balance equation. Although the results are inconclusive with respect to the original goal of identifying the source of the discrepancies in the energy balance, we do find that with optimised parameters an extremely good prediction of the total power measured at the outer divertor target can be obtained over a wide range of pulses with time resolution up to ∼25 ms. (paper)

  2. Errors in potassium balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by 40 K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies

  3. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance...... of energy balance....

  4. A detailed framework to incorporate dust in hydrodynamical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Tommaso; Bovino, S.; Haugbølle, Troels; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Dust plays a key role in the evolution of the ISM and its correct modelling in numerical simulations is therefore fundamental. We present a new and self-consistent model that treats grain thermal coupling with the gas, radiation balance, and surface chemistry for molecular hydrogen. This method can be applied to any dust distribution with an arbitrary number of grain types without affecting the overall computational cost. In this paper we describe in detail the physics and the algorithm behin...

  5. Ecological, biological balances and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The scientific work within the activity ''ecological/biological balances and conservation'' is summarised in this report. The aims of the activity during its existence between 1992 and 1994 have been to: (i) arrange a workshop and publish the presentations on the environmental aspects of energy forest cultivations, (ii) perform joint scientific work together with the activity group on ''biological disposal of wastewaters and sludges'', that is closely related to environmental problems, and (iii) produce ecological guidelines concerning energy forestry, suitable for advisers and farmers dealing with bioenergy problems. The most important results from the workshop were the environmental benefits from energy forestry when compared with intensive agriculture and forestry. Energy forestry has positive influence on the carbon balances, nutrient recycling, and soil sustainability. The effects are also positive on the natural flora and fauna, which in most cases are enriched when compared with agricultural crops. From the joint efforts of the two activities the main result was a study tour, conference and workshop, concentrating on biological purification systems. The most promising system seems to be the vegetation filters of short rotation coppice. The report on ecological guidelines contains a number of ideas and recommendations for establishment, management, and harvesting of energy forests in an environmentally acceptable way. It also gives advice on how to locate the stands to minimise the risk of nutrient leakage from arable land. (Author)

  6. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  7. National Energy Balance - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.) [pt

  8. National Energy Balance - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Transmission on Balance 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    Every year he Dutch Transmission System Operator (TSO) TenneT issues the title publication 'Transmission on Balance'. This report provides information about the main technical operating results in the past year.

  10. The Balanced Literacy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Describes professional development program in Ontario school district to improve student reading and writing skills. Program used food-pyramid concepts to help teacher learn to provide a balanced and flexible approach to literacy instruction based on student needs. (PKP)

  11. National Energy Balance-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1987 showns energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1971 to 1986. (E.G.) [pt

  12. In Balance With

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Kessel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 'In Balance With' (2012 is a live performance with Courtney Kessel and her daughter, Chloé, sitting at opposite ends of a seesaw. During the 30-minute performance, Kessel adds items representative of their lives to Chloé's side of the seesaw. After each group of items is added, she returns to her side to check the balance. Toys, violin, research books, food, pots, tools, and laundry are strapped on to the seesaw. The audience witnesses the struggle to create a balance between work, home, research, and play as a single mother and artist. As equilibrium is achieved, Kessel stills labors to maintain the balance until Chloé is ready to get down, thus signaling that her work can only happen when her daughter is cared for and occupied.

  13. Energy balances 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The energy balances of the Danish Statistical Office are the designation of the goods balances, which are tabulated for each energy article in both physical entities (quantities) and in base rates (values). The balance concept is connected to the definition supply = use, which is the basis for the construction of the system. The supply is determined as the sum of two items: import and production while the total use is the sum of 138 items: export, waste and transmission loss, stock increase, input in lack of the 130 industries, and private consumption divided into 5 consumption groups. The statistical analysis is performed yearly in both quantities and values for 35 energy articles. Values are computed for base rates, profits, taxes, VAT and market prices (buyer's price), respectively. The energy balances from 1975 to 2000 are presented for comparison. (EHS)

  14. Balancing beyond the horizon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    2011-01-01

    The present article seeks to make sense of recent European Union (EU) naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory to the EU as a collective actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares two different strands of neorealist theory by deducing key predictions about the expecte......-term balancing strategy aimed at bolstering the autonomy and international influence of the Union vis-a`-vis other major powers, including the USA....

  15. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  16. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  17. Neuroinflammation: the devil is in the details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSabato, Damon J; Quan, Ning; Godbout, Jonathan P

    2016-10-01

    There is significant interest in understanding inflammatory responses within the brain and spinal cord. Inflammatory responses that are centralized within the brain and spinal cord are generally referred to as 'neuroinflammatory'. Aspects of neuroinflammation vary within the context of disease, injury, infection, or stress. The context, course, and duration of these inflammatory responses are all critical aspects in the understanding of these processes and their corresponding physiological, biochemical, and behavioral consequences. Microglia, innate immune cells of the CNS, play key roles in mediating these neuroinflammatory responses. Because the connotation of neuroinflammation is inherently negative and maladaptive, the majority of research focus is on the pathological aspects of neuroinflammation. There are, however, several degrees of neuroinflammatory responses, some of which are positive. In many circumstances including CNS injury, there is a balance of inflammatory and intrinsic repair processes that influences functional recovery. In addition, there are several other examples where communication between the brain and immune system involves neuroinflammatory processes that are beneficial and adaptive. The purpose of this review is to distinguish different variations of neuroinflammation in a context-specific manner and detail both positive and negative aspects of neuroinflammatory processes. In this review, we will use brain and spinal cord injury, stress, aging, and other inflammatory events to illustrate the potential harm and benefits inherent to neuroinflammation. Context, course, and duration of the inflammation are highly important to the interpretation of these events, and we aim to provide insight into this by detailing several commonly studied insults. This article is part of the 60th anniversary supplemental issue. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Implementation of MOAS II diagnosis system at the OECD Halden Reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Grini, R.E.; Nilsen, S.

    1995-01-01

    MOAS II is a surveillance and diagnosis system that uses several techniques for knowledge acquisition and diagnostic reasoning, e.g., goal tree-success tree, simplified directed graphs, diagnosis trees, and detailed knowledge of the process, such as mass or energy balance. This new approach was used at the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory of the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The performance of MOAS II, developed in G2 real-time expert system shell for the high-pressure preheaters of the NORS process, was tested against a variety of transient scenarios, including failures of control valves and sensors, and leakage of tubes of the preheaters. These tests showed that MOAS II successfully carried out its intended functions, i.e., quickly recognizing an occurring disturbance, correctly diagnosing its cause, and presenting advice on its control to the operator. The insights gained during the implementation are discussed

  19. Analysis of Detailed Energy Audits and Energy Use Measures of University Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Valančius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the results of a detailed energy audit of the buildings of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. Energy audits were performed with reference to the international scientific project. The article presents the methodology and results of detailed measurements of energy balance characteristics.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Detailed Assessment of the Kinetics of Hg-Cell Association, Hg Methylation, and Methylmercury Degradation in Several Desulfovibrio Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew M.; Bullock, Allyson L.; Maizel, Andrew C.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of inorganic Hg [Hg(II)i] association, methylation, and methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation were examined for a group of Desulfovibrio species with and without MeHg production capability. We employed a detailed method for assessing MeHg production in cultures, including careful control of medium chemistry, cell density, and growth phase, plus mass balance of Hg(II)i and MeHg during the assays. We tested the hypothesis that differences in Hg(II)i sorption and/or uptake rates drive observed differences in methylation rates among Desulfovibrio species. Hg(II)i associated rapidly and with high affinity to both methylating and nonmethylating species. MeHg production by Hg-methylating strains was rapid, plateauing after ∼3 h. All MeHg produced was rapidly exported. We also tested the idea that all Desulfovibrio species are capable of Hg(II)i methylation but that rapid demethylation masks its production, but we found this was not the case. Therefore, the underlying reason why MeHg production capability is not universal in the Desulfovibrio is not differences in Hg affinity for cells nor differences in the ability of strains to degrade MeHg. However, Hg methylation rates varied substantially between Hg-methylating Desulfovibrio species even in these controlled experiments and after normalization to cell density. Thus, biological differences may drive cross-species differences in Hg methylation rates. As part of this study, we identified four new Hg methylators (Desulfovibrio aespoeensis, D. alkalitolerans, D. psychrotolerans, and D. sulfodismutans) and four nonmethylating species (Desulfovibrio alcoholivorans, D. tunisiensis, D. carbinoliphilus, and D. piger) in our ongoing effort to generate a library of strains for Hg methylation genomics. PMID:22885751

  1. 1994 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the eighth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries and areas in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for each fuel utilized in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analyzing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis

  2. 1992 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the seventh issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistical Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected developing countries and areas in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for each fuel utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analyzing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis

  3. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (II) Physiological and Symptomatic Responses of Early-Postmenopausal Women to Standardized doses of Maca in Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Centre Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-corrected, outpatient, multi-centre (five sites) clinical study, in which a total of 168 Caucasian early-postmenopausal women volunteers (age>49 years) participated after fulfilling the criteria: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) >30 IU/ml and estrogen (E2) Maca (Maca-GO) treatment, according to different monthly treatment sequences scheduled for each site. Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day) during three (Trial I; n=102) or four (Trial II; n=66) months study periods. At the baseline and follow- up monthly intervals, blood levels of FSH, E2, progesterone (PRG) and lutinizing hormone (LH), as well as serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TRG), high- and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) were measured. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly results in one model and Maca versus Placebo contrast in another model. A total of 124 women concluded the study. Maca-GO significantly stimulated production of E2 (PMaca-GO significantly reduced both frequency and severity of individual menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweating in particular) resulting in significant (P<0.001) alleviation of KMI (from 22 to 10), thus, offering an attractive non-hormonal addition to the choices available to early-postmenopausal women in the form of a natural plant alternative to Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) - hence, reducing dependence on hormone therapy programs.

  4. Detailed clinical models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke; van der Zel, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Due to the increasing use of electronic patient records and other health care information technology, we see an increase in requests to utilize these data. A highly level of standardization is required during the gathering of these data in the clinical context in order to use it for analyses. Detailed Clinical Models (DCM) have been created toward this purpose and several initiatives have been implemented in various parts of the world to create standardized models. This paper presents a review of DCM. Two types of analyses are presented; one comparing DCM against health care information architectures and a second bottom up approach from concept analysis to representation. In addition core parts of the draft ISO standard 13972 on DCM are used such as clinician involvement, data element specification, modeling, meta information, and repository and governance. SIX INITIATIVES WERE SELECTED: Intermountain Healthcare, 13606/OpenEHR Archetypes, Clinical Templates, Clinical Contents Models, Health Level 7 templates, and Dutch Detailed Clinical Models. Each model selected was reviewed for their overall development, involvement of clinicians, use of data types, code bindings, expressing semantics, modeling, meta information, use of repository and governance. Using both a top down and bottom up approach to comparison reveals many commonalties and differences between initiatives. Important differences include the use of or lack of a reference model and expressiveness of models. Applying clinical data element standards facilitates the use of conceptual DCM models in different technical representations.

  5. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnech?re, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. Objective The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeabilit...

  6. Balanced articulated manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Daniel; Germond, J.-C.; Marchal, Paul; Vertut, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a manipulator of the type comprising a master arm and a slave arm, capable of working in a containment restricted by a wall fitted with an aperture to introduce the slave arm into the containment. According to the invention this manipulator is permanently balanced irrespective of its distortions when it is secured to the wall of the containment in which it is desired to work. The entire manipulator is also balanced when being set up and when moved outside the containment, in relation to a supporting axle. This result is achieved in a simplified manner by giving homothetic shapes to the various component parts of the slave and master arms, the master arm having at least one balancing weight [fr

  7. Balancing trust and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm-Jørgensen, Marie; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about how strategies of retaining patients are acted out by general practitioners (GPs) in the clinical encounter. With this study, we apply Grimens’ (2009) analytical connection between trust and power to explore how trust and power appear in preventive health checks...... of clinical encounters. Results: From the empirical data, we identified three dimensions of respect: respect for the patient’s autonomy, respect for professional authority and respect as a mutual exchange. A balance of respect influenced trust in the relationship between GP and patients and the transfer...... of power in the encounter. The GPs articulated that a balance was needed in preventive health checks in order to establish trust and thus retain the patient in the clinic. One way this balance of respect was carried out was with the use of humour. Conclusions: To retain patients without formal education...

  8. Energy balance of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demur Chomakhidze

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that, traditionally, the energy balance of Georgia is in deep deficit. The suggestions for its improvement are provided in the Article. The country imports almost all amount of oil and natural gas. Electricity balance is relatively stable. In the recent years, some amount of electricity is exported to the neighboring countries. Generally, the country satisfies only 30–35% of own energy consumption by local generation, and the rest amount of resources are imported from abroad. The reason of deficit to some extent is irrational and wasteful consumption of energy resources. The article examines the organizational difficulties in drawing up energy balance of Georgia and statistical problems of recording of energy production and consumption at the initial stage of market economy.

  9. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  10. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  11. Yin-Yang Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored.......The potential contribution of the Eastern frame of Yin-Yang Balancing lies in the mindset of "either/and", in contrast to Aristotle's either/or logic and Hegel's "both/or". Implications of this either/and thinking for science and management will be explored....

  12. Finding Your Balance

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Patterson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Balance isn't an issue of time, but an issue of choice. It's about living your values by aligning your behavior with what you believe is really important. Aligning your behavior with your values is much like any other developmental experience; the basic process involves assessment, challenge, and support. You need to determine where you are, define where you want to go, and then put into place the tools you need to get there.Balance is about more than how you spend your time. It's about how you live your life. It's about recognizing that you have control over the choices you make and aligning

  13. Application of Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Langpaulová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the Balanced Scorecard taking a part in the strategic management of a company, is a main focus of this thesis. There are the theoretical and methodological parts of the Balanced Scorecard characterized individually, as well as the development and the history of this concept. This thesis is dealing with a draft of the practical implementation of the mentioned methods. The practical part of the thesis is following the theoretical introduction where the practical part is focused o...

  14. Getting the balance right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This 8 page leaflet is published by the Nuclear Electricity Information Group (NEIG) which is made up of eight different bodies working within the nuclear industry. It aims to present a balanced outline of the facts needed to form an opinion about energy policy in the UK. It looks at the price of electricity, other sources of electricity, (oil and coal, solar power, wind power, water power), safety in the nuclear industry, nuclear waste disposal and risks from radiation. The NEIG is in favour of a balanced energy programme with nuclear energy being only a part of the overall scheme. (U.K.)

  15. In the balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    The present paper seeks to make sense of recent EU naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory on the EU as an international actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares three different strands of Neo-realist theory by deducting key predictions about the expected defense...... posture of the Union and the expected changes in naval capabilities. The predictions are subsequently held up against recent data on naval military build-up in the EU. The paper argues that the observed patterns are best explained not as bandwagoning with the United States, but as a long-term balancing...

  16. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  17. Devil's in the (diffuse) detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welberry, R.

    2006-07-01

    X-ray crystallography is an important workhorse in the world of solid-state chemistry. However, while it's a powerful tool in determining the average structure in a crystal lattice, conventional crystallography is very limited when it comes to understanding nano-scale disorder within that crystal structure. And when it comes to understanding the properties of many important materials, the devil is in the detail. X-ray diffraction is still one of the keys to understanding this finer scale structure but using it requires a capacity to read between the lines - to understand the diffuse diffraction that most crystallography ignores. Scientists at the Research School of Chemistry are leading the world in this field. Their work on modelling nano-scaled disorder using diffuse diffraction is opening up new possibilities in understanding and modifying many of our most important materials

  18. Load Balancing in Hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgosha, Payam; Anantharam, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    Consider a simple locally finite hypergraph on a countable vertex set, where each edge represents one unit of load which should be distributed among the vertices defining the edge. An allocation of load is called balanced if load cannot be moved from a vertex to another that is carrying less load. We analyze the properties of balanced allocations of load. We extend the concept of balancedness from finite hypergraphs to their local weak limits in the sense of Benjamini and Schramm (Electron J Probab 6(23):13, 2001) and Aldous and Steele (in: Probability on discrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 1-72, 2004). To do this, we define a notion of unimodularity for hypergraphs which could be considered an extension of unimodularity in graphs. We give a variational formula for the balanced load distribution and, in particular, we characterize it in the special case of unimodular hypergraph Galton-Watson processes. Moreover, we prove the convergence of the maximum load under some conditions. Our work is an extension to hypergraphs of Anantharam and Salez (Ann Appl Probab 26(1):305-327, 2016), which considered load balancing in graphs, and is aimed at more comprehensively resolving conjectures of Hajek (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 36(6):1398-1414, 1990).

  19. Strength and Balance Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... close to a wall, chair or table for balance. Action: Shift your weight onto one leg. Stand on that foot and stretch the other leg out in front of you, a few inches off the floor. Stand on one leg for eight counts. For an extra workout, flex and point your lifted foot. That is, bend the ankle ...

  20. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Lives in the Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time…

  2. Balance of Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that the efficiency distribution of players in a game determines how aggressively these players interact.We formalize the idea of balance of power: players fight very inefficient players but play softly versus equally (or more) efficient players.This theory of conduct predicts that

  3. National energy balance - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The national energy balance of the 1976 shows several modifications in relation to the last year. The historical serie is based in more confiable information, from several energy companies. The most greater modifications are on energy source of hard control, such as lignite and charcoal for non-siderurgic uses. (E.G.) [pt

  4. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Ballet Balance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic...

  6. Frihed, anerkendelse og balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen argumenterer for, at selv ikke den absolut mest familievenlige arbejdsplads vil kunne løse det psykologiske problem med at skabe balance mellem familie og arbejdsliv, fordi ubalancen grundlæggende handler om en anerkendelseskonflikt, som individet ikke altid selv er interesseret i at komme...

  7. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...

  8. National Energy Balance - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.) [pt

  9. Balancing Chemical Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study of students' ability to balance equations. Answers to a test on this topic were analyzed to determine the level of understanding and processes used by the students. Presented is a method to teach this skill to high school chemistry students. (CW)

  10. Energy balance in TM-1-MH Tokamak (ohmical heating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, J.; Koerbel, S.; Kryska, L.; Kopecky, V.; Dadalec, V.; Datlov, J.; Jakubka, K.; Magula, P.; Zacek, F.; Pereverzev, G. V.

    1981-10-01

    Plasma in the TM-1-MH Tokamak was experimentally studied in the parameter range: tor. mg. field B = 1,3 T, plasma current I sub p = 14 kA, electron density N sub E 3.10 to the 19th power cubic meters. The two numerical codes are available for the comparison with experimental data. TOKATA-code solves simplified energy balance equations for electron and ion components. TOKSAS-code solves the detailed energy balance of the ion component.

  11. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Relative and objective, on balance : Detailing the best systems analysis of laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialek, Max

    2017-01-01

    Variaties van de Beste Systemenanalyse (BSA) van natuurwetten leggen over het algemeen de nadruk op hoe aspecten van de BSA bij de eigenaardigheden van de wetenschappelijke praktijk kunnen passen. Die keuze geeft ertoe geleid dat dergelijke opvattingen veel goed doen bij het oplossen van oude en

  13. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  14. Implementace metody Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Neuwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zaměřena na hodnocení výkonnosti společnosti pomocí metody Balanced Scorecard. Teoretická část práce popisuje východiska měření výkonnosti, metody Balanced Scorecard a postup při její implementaci. Analytická část vychází z teoretických poznatků z první části a hodnotí situaci společnosti finanční analýzou poměrových ukazatelů, strategickou analýzou a následným sestavením návrhu implementace metody Balanced Scorecard v konkrétní společnosti. Thesis is focused on evaluati...

  15. Detailed Astrometric Analysis of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSSI, GUSTAVO B.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Camargo, J. I.; Assafin, M.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Pluto is the main representant of the transneptunian objects (TNO's), presenting some peculiarities such as an atmosphere and a satellite system with 5 known moons: Charon, discovered in 1978, Nix and Hydra, in 2006, P4 in 2011 and P5 in 2012. Until the arrival of the New Horizons spacecraft to this system (july 2015), stellar occultations are the most efficient method, from the ground, to know physical and dinamical properties of this system. In 2010, it was evident a drift in declinations (about 20 mas/year) comparing to the ephemerides. This fact motivated us to remake the reductions and analysis of a great set of our observations at OPD/LNA, in a total of 15 years. The ephemerides and occultations results was then compared with the astrometric and photometric reductions of CCD images of Pluto (around 6500 images). Two corrections were used for a refinement of the data set: diferential chromatic refraction and photocenter. The first is due to the mean color of background stars beeing redder than the color of Pluto, resulting in a slightly different path of light through the atmosphere (that may cause a difference in position of 0.1”). It became more evident because Pluto is crossing the region of the galactic plane. The photocenter correction is based on two gaussians curves overlapped, with different hights and non-coincident centers, corresponding to Pluto and Charon (since they have less than 1” of angular separation). The objective is to separate these two gaussian curves from the observed one and find the right position of Pluto. The method is strongly dependent of the hight of each of the gaussian curves, related to the respective albedos of charon and Pluto. A detailed analysis of the astrometric results, as well a comparison with occultation results was made. Since Pluto has an orbital period of 248,9 years and our interval of observation is about 15 years, we have around 12% of its observed orbit and also, our

  16. Sustainability as a part of balanced scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sara Zavodna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trend, which is more seriously discussed on the international and national level. But also companies in the local level are pushed to have strategies and visions, which enable better future for society, our planet and local economy. Sustainability is one of the conditions – it allows companies to implicate social, economic and environmental pillars to the company´s strategy and management. The question, which remains today is, how to measure social, economic and environmental impact on society? And more – how to enable future generations to have the same conditions as we have today? The paper provides format for a possible bridge between current strategic Balanced Scorecard system and future trend of sustainability. One of the special tools, which can be used for measuring sustainability, is Balanced Scorecard (by Kaplan and Norton in 1990s with the complement of sustainable metrics. The paper introduces three possible methods, which can be used by implementing sustainability into the Balanced Scorecard. One of these methods is described in detail. There is a focus on the sustainable indicators included as the fifth area in Balanced Scorecard model.

  17. SUSTAINABILITY AS A PART OF BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIE SARA ZAVODNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trend, which is more seriously discussed on the international and national level. But also companies in the local level are pushed to have strategies and visions, which enable better future for society, our planet and local economy. Sustainability is one of the conditions – it allows companies to implicate social, economic and environmental pillars to the company´s strategy and management. The question, which remains today is, how to measure social, economic and environmental impact on society? And more – how to enable future generations to have the same conditions as we have today? The paper provides format for a possible bridge between current strategic Balanced Scorecard system and future trend of sustainability. One of the special tools, which can be used for measuring sustainability, is Balanced Scorecard (by Kaplan and Norton in 1990s with the complement of sustainable metrics. The paper introduces three possible methods, which can be used by implementing sustainability into the Balanced Scorecard. One of these methods is described in detail. There is a focus on the sustainable indicators included as the fifth area in Balanced Scorecard model.

  18. Balancing mechanism status: November 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    RTE ensures the real-time balance between production and consumption and deals with congestion on the French electricity system. The Balancing Mechanism assists in the accomplishment of this task. As in many countries, and after extensive dialogue with representatives from the market's various players, RTE proposes a Balancing Mechanism in the form of a permanent and transparent system of calls for tender. The system is open to everyone and provides a real-time reserve of power that can be used for balancing either upward or downward. RTE takes advantage of these offers according to economic precedence, taking into account the system's operating conditions. It pays for them at the offer price. There are two types of offer: - Upward offer: increase in production, decrease in consumption, imports, - Downward offer: decrease in production, increase in consumption, exports. For a Balancing Entity, an offer systematically consists of: a balancing direction (upward/downward), a time period, a price that may vary according to six time slots. RTE publishes each month a Balancing Mechanism Report. which includes the following information: - energy volumes activated to ensure the balance of the system and to resolve congestion; - minimum and maximum prices of offers activated to balance the system; - daily trends calculated according to the predominant value of the overall upward or downward trend; - balancing shares by technology (nuclear, thermal, hydraulic); - characteristics of the five most activated balancing entities; - balances/imbalances accounts and production/consumption overcharge; - congestion curbing costs on the French electricity system; - energy volumes activated to ensure the balance of the system according to contracts between RTE and other Balance Responsible entities (UK, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Switzerland); - reliability of the provisional data supplied by RTE about the balancing trend; - availability of RTE's information services (planning, balancing

  19. Balancing mechanism status: May 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    RTE ensures the real-time balance between production and consumption and deals with congestion on the French electricity system. The Balancing Mechanism assists in the accomplishment of this task. As in many countries, and after extensive dialogue with representatives from the market's various players, RTE proposes a Balancing Mechanism in the form of a permanent and transparent system of calls for tender. The system is open to everyone and provides a real-time reserve of power that can be used for balancing either upward or downward. RTE takes advantage of these offers according to economic precedence, taking into account the system's operating conditions. It pays for them at the offer price. There are two types of offer: - Upward offer: increase in production, decrease in consumption, imports, - Downward offer: decrease in production, increase in consumption, exports. For a Balancing Entity, an offer systematically consists of: a balancing direction (upward/downward), a time period, a price that may vary according to six time slots. RTE publishes each month a Balancing Mechanism Report. which includes the following information: - energy volumes activated to ensure the balance of the system and to resolve congestion; - minimum and maximum prices of offers activated to balance the system; - daily trends calculated according to the predominant value of the overall upward or downward trend; - balancing shares by technology (nuclear, thermal, hydraulic); - characteristics of the five most activated balancing entities; - balances/imbalances accounts and production/consumption overcharge; - congestion curbing costs on the French electricity system; - energy volumes activated to ensure the balance of the system according to contracts between RTE and other Balance Responsible entities (UK, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Switzerland); - reliability of the provisional data supplied by RTE about the balancing trend; - availability of RTE's information services (planning, balancing

  20. Russia - Nato. The military balance

    OpenAIRE

    Daugaard, Søren Bech; Jacobsen, Karen Vestergård; Aigro, Signe; Skarequist, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neoclassical realist framework. The project consists in three analytical parts of respectively, 1: The military capabilities balance between NATO and Russia; 2: How the international system puts pressure on Russia; and 3: How the strategic culture of Russia can explain its balancing. This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neo...

  1. Assessment and balancing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, H.

    1982-01-01

    In 1981 nuclear energy had a share of ca. 17% in the electric power supply of the F.R. of Germany. The amount of nuclear fuels required is equal to ca. 15 million tce. In public technical discussions the economic importance which must be assigned to nuclear energy, e.g. with regard to curbing the energy price development or relieving our balance of payments, is discussed in detail. On the other hand, a number of industrial aspects of nuclear energy utilization - problems of commercial or fiscal law - have been little considered in the technical literature. The following contribution is to present the principles of commercial and fiscal law which have taken shape in connection with the assessment and balancing of the single stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Energy balance in tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The energy balance in tearing modes is described in terms of exact separate energy balance equations. Each of these equations describes identified physical processes, and their sum gives the conservation of total energy. One of the energy balance equations corresponds to Furth's description. (Author)

  3. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2007-09-01

    meet this challenge without a painful learning curve belongs to both the younger professionals, who must progress through the learning curve, and the more mature professionals who must create an appropriate environment for learning. In addition to mentorship, the detailed tracking of outcomes is an essential tool for mastering any learning curve. It is crucial to utilize a detailed database to track outcomes, to learn, and to protect both yourself and your patients. It is our professional responsibility to engage in self-evaluation, in part employing voluntary sharing of data. For cardiac surgical subspecialties, the databases now existing for The European Association for CardioThoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons represent the ideal tool for monitoring outcomes. Evolving initiatives in the fields of paediatric cardiology, paediatric critical care, and paediatric cardiac anaesthesia will play similar roles.A variety of professional and personal challenges must be met by all those working in health care. The acquisition of learned skills, and the use of special tools, will facilitate the process of conquering these challenges. Choosing appropriate role models and mentors can help progression through any learning curve in a controlled and protected fashion. Professional and personal satisfaction are both necessities. Finding the satisfactory balance between work and home life is difficult, but possible with the right tools, organization skills, and support system at work and at home. The concepts of mentorship, learning curves and balance cannot be underappreciated.

  4. Four Alternative Policies to Restore Balance of Payments Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1952-01-01

    textabstractStimulated by Fleming's study on a related subject, the author compares four methods to eliminate balance of payments disequilibria between high-employment countries forming a closed group: (i) "discriminatory" import duties and subsidies, (ii) "discriminatory" duties only or the

  5. Beta II compact torus experiment plasma equilibrium and power balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.C.; Goldenbaum, G.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Prono, D.S.; Hartman, C.W.; Taska, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we follow up some of our earlier work that showed the compact torus (CT) plasma equilibrium produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun is nearly force free and that impurity radiation plays a dominant role in determining the decay time of plasma currents in present generation experiments

  6. Rat1p maintains RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Schmid, Manfred; Malagon, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    . Here we describe a function of Rat1p in regulating phosphorylation levels of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest RNAPII subunit, Rpb1p, during transcription elongation. The rat1-1 mutant exhibits highly elevated levels of CTD phosphorylation as well as RNAPII distribution and transcription...... termination defects. These phenotypes are all rescued by overexpression of the CTD phosphatase Fcp1p, suggesting a functional relationship between the absence of Rat1p activity, elevated CTD phosphorylation, and transcription defects. We also demonstrate that rat1-1 cells display increased RNAPII...

  7. Electrostatic field in superconductors II: balance of forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipavský, P.; Koláček, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, 20-21 (2009), 4488-4495 ISSN 0217-9792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superconductivity * London theory of diamagnetic currents Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.408, year: 2009

  8. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  9. Strategic Balanced Scorecard Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how a System Dynamics Modelling approach can be integrated into the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) for a case company with special focus on the handling of causality in a dynamic perspective. The case company’s BSC model includes five perspectives and a number...... of financial and non-financial measures. The overall idea of BSC is to make the strategy operational, as proposed by Kaplan and Norton (1992; 1996; 2007) and to use the strategy for simulation. Our results indicate that a company may gain great learning insight from such simulation studies. The whole article...

  10. Pyrometer with tracking balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, D. B.; Zakharenko, V. A.; Shkaev, A. G.

    2018-04-01

    Currently, one of the main metrological noncontact temperature measurement challenges is the emissivity uncertainty. This paper describes a pyrometer with emissivity effect diminishing through the use of a measuring scheme with tracking balancing in which the radiation receiver is a null-indicator. In this paper the results of the prototype pyrometer absolute error study in surfaces temperature measurement of aluminum and nickel samples are presented. There is absolute error calculated values comparison considering the emissivity table values with errors on the results of experimental measurements by the proposed method. The practical implementation of the proposed technical solution has allowed two times to reduce the error due to the emissivity uncertainty.

  11. Energy balances 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Denmark's energy consumption was 800 PJ in 2005 when corrected for the fuel consumption used for producing electricity for export. The consumption is 0,5 % higher than in 2004. Since 1975, the energy consumption has been on the same level with minor fluctuations which are mainly due to the climate. The energy balances is an account of production, import and export, and consumption of energy. The consumption is accounted as physical amounts as well as gross consumption. Also, accounts are presented of the costs of energy in basis prices and in market prices, including excises on energy, CO 2 , and SO 2 . (LN)

  12. Balancing through episodic learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2013-01-01

    Peter Jarvis’s theory about learning suggests that human beings learn and change as a result of hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, and feeling. They change and learn by interacting with other humans, things, and events in certain time-space contexts and by reflecting upon these, as well...... as upon wished-for future states or past experiences, knowledge, and history, and upon what these experiences mean to one’s own self and identity. This chapter explores how female top managers have to reflect and find a balance in their work-family lives on the basis of interaction with, and inputs from...

  13. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  14. Effects of dynamic posturographic balance training versus conventional balance training on mobility and balance in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddiqi, F.A.; Masood, T.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of dynamic posturographic balance training versus conventional balance training in improving mobility and balance in elderly. Methodology: Forty subjects between 50 to 80 years of age were selected via non-probability convenience sampling technique, for this randomized controlled trial. Both females and males with no major co-morbid conditions and cognitive impairments were recruited and randomized via coin toss method into two equal groups: Dynamic Posturographic balance training (DPG) group and Conventional balance training (CBT) group. The DPG training was provided via Biodex Balance System (Static and Dynamic). Both groups received interventions 3 times (35 to 45min each day) a week for 8 weeks, after which terminal assessment was done. Data were collected on demographic profile, balance via berg balance score and mobility by using Timed Up and Go Test. Independent samples t test was used to check difference between CBT group and DPG Group and repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for within-group analysis. Results: Baseline analysis of Berg balance scale and timed up and go test between two groups showed no significant difference with (p 0.805 and 0.251, respectively). After 8 weeks of intervention, there was significant difference between the groups in both variables (p 0.019 and 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Dynamic posturographic balance training was more effective in improving dynamic balance and mobility in elderly population in comparison to conventional balance training. (author)

  15. Tai Chi and balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alice M K; Lan, Ching

    2008-01-01

    Balance function begins to decline from middle age on, and poor balance function increases the risk of fall and injury. Suitable exercise training may improve balance function and prevent accidental falls. The coordination of visual, proprioceptive, vestibular and musculoskeletal system is important to maintain balance. Balance function can be evaluated by functional balance testing and sensory organization testing. Tai Chi Chuan (TC) is a popular conditioning exercise in the Chinese community, and recent studies substantiate that TC is effective in balance function enhancement and falls prevention. In studies utilizing functional balance testing, TC may increase the duration of one-leg standing and the distance of functional reach. In studies utilizing sensory organization testing, TC improves static and dynamic balance, especially in more challenging sensory perturbed condition. Therefore, TC may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for elderly subjects or balance-impaired patients. Participants can choose to perform a complete set of TC or selected movements according to their needs. In conclusion, TC may improve balance function and is appropriate for implementation in the community.

  16. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-08-27

    Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board. A total of 6 subjects participated in the study and their balance was assessed using 4 different Wii Balance Boards. Trials were recorded simultaneously with Wii Balance Boards and with a laboratory force plate. Nine relevant clinical parameters were derived from center of pressure displacement data obtained from Wii Balance Board and force plate systems. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), F tests, and Friedman tests were computed to assess the agreement between trials and to compare the Wii Balance Board and force plate results. Excellent correlations were found between the Wii Balance Board and force plate (mean ρ =.83). With the exception of 2 parameters, strong to excellent agreements were found for the 7 remaining parameters (ICC=.96). No significant differences were found between trials recorded with different Wii Balance Boards. Our results indicate that for most of the parameters analyzed, balance and posture assessed with one Wii Balance Board were statistically similar to results obtained from another. Furthermore, the good correlation between the Wii Balance Board and force plate results shows that Wii Balance Boards can be reliably used for scientific assessment using most of the parameters analyzed in this study. These results also suggest that the Wii Balance Board could be used in multicenter studies and therefore, would allow for the creation of larger populations for clinical studies. Ethical Committee of the Erasme Hospital (CCB B406201215142

  17. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang; Wonka, Peter; Ghanem, Bernard; Jiang, Caigui

    2015-01-01

    Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed

  18. 2004 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    The Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles 2004 is the thirteenth issue in an internationally series of comparable energy data for selected developing countries. The data are arranged to show energy production, trade, conversion and consumption for each fuel used in the country. This publication is a source of overall consumption statistics of energy commodities in all sectors. Special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries are published to cover, exclusively, detailed information on production, trade and consumption of electricity, net installed capacity and thermal power plant input for selected developing countries

  19. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  20. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  1. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  2. Analysis on the heat balance between CEFR and the primary loop system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shangbo; Yang Hongyi; Li Jing; Wang Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    The heat balance ability of reactor is very important to design and operation. Special heat balance analysis and calculation software shall be available. This article analyzes and calculates in details the heat source and cooling power of the main cooling system of the primary loop in China Experimental Faster Reactor (CEFR), and develops a calculation code. By using the steady state heat balance data of 26.5% Pn and 40% Pn in CEFR during power start-up, the heat balance ability of the primary loop is verified. The results show that the calculation model is reliable, and can provide technical support to building heat balance in CEFR operation. (authors)

  3. The Fed's bloated balance sheet: how we got here and why it's familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Lowell R.; Waller, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative easing has led to the largest expansion of the Fed’s balance sheet since WW II. While this, naturally, leads to concern about inflation, the Fed has the tools to unwind the balance sheet once the economy builds steam.

  4. RTNS-II operations guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This guidebook is intended to provide training criteria, procedures and guidelines for operation of the RTNS-II neutron sources and ancilliary equipment. Use of this document requires full knowledge of the RTNS-II Facility Safety Procedure (FSP) and any Operational Safety Procedures (OSP) in effect. The RTNS-II FSP defines the hazards which may be encountered at RTNS-II and defines the procedures which must be followed in performing any task including operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a central source of detailed information concerning systems and equipment used in operating the RTNS-II neutron sources on a day-to-day basis. All members of the Operations Group are expected to be familiar with its contents. It is also intended to be used in training new members of the Operations Group

  5. Water balance disorders after neurosurgery: The triphasic response revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); R. Zietse (Bob)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWater balance disorders after neurosurgery are well recognized, but detailed reports of the triphasic response are scarce. We describe a 55-year-old woman, who developed the triphasic response with severe hyper- and hyponatraemia after resection of a suprasellar meningioma. The case

  6. Paradox applications integration ATP's for MAC and mass balance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, V.K.; Mullaney, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system were set up to run under one common applications program. This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness. The scope of the tests is minimal, since both MAC and MBA have already been tested in detail as stand-alone programs

  7. An energy balance concept for habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M

    2007-12-01

    Habitability can be formulated as a balance between the biological demand for energy and the corresponding potential for meeting that demand by transduction of energy from the environment into biological process. The biological demand for energy is manifest in two requirements, analogous to the voltage and power requirements of an electrical device, which must both be met if life is to be supported. These requirements exhibit discrete (non-zero) minima whose magnitude is set by the biochemistry in question, and they are increased in quantifiable fashion by (i) deviations from biochemically optimal physical and chemical conditions and (ii) energy-expending solutions to problems of resource limitation. The possible rate of energy transduction is constrained by (i) the availability of usable free energy sources in the environment, (ii) limitations on transport of those sources into the cell, (iii) upper limits on the rate at which energy can be stored, transported, and subsequently liberated by biochemical mechanisms (e.g., enzyme saturation effects), and (iv) upper limits imposed by an inability to use "power" and "voltage" at levels that cause material breakdown. A system is habitable when the realized rate of energy transduction equals or exceeds the biological demand for energy. For systems in which water availability is considered a key aspect of habitability (e.g., Mars), the energy balance construct imposes additional, quantitative constraints that may help to prioritize targets in search-for-life missions. Because the biological need for energy is universal, the energy balance construct also helps to constrain habitability in systems (e.g., those envisioned to use solvents other than water) for which little constraint currently exists.

  8. Typical balance exercises or exergames for balance improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Malliou, Paraskevi; Batzios, Stavros; Sofokleous, Polina; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kouli, Olga; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Godolias, George

    2013-01-01

    Balance training is an effective intervention to improve static postural sway and balance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus exercises for improving balance ability in healthy collegiate students in comparison with a typical balance training program. Forty students were randomly divided into two groups, a traditional (T group) and a Nintendo Wii group (W group) performed an 8 week balance program. The "W group" used the interactive games as a training method, while the "T group" used an exercise program with mini trampoline and inflatable discs (BOSU). Pre and Post-training participants completed balance assessments. Two-way repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to determine the effect of training program. Analysis of the data illustrated that both training program groups demonstrated an improvement in Total, Anterior-posterior and Medial Lateral Stability Index scores for both limbs. Only at the test performed in the balance board with anterior-posterior motion, the improvement in balance ability was greater in the "T group" than the "W group", when the assessment was performed post-training (p=0.023). Findings support the effectiveness of using the Nintendo Wii gaming console as a balance training intervention tool.

  9. Work-life balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Pat

    2011-03-15

    Gay Renouf has opted for a work/life balance; with a chemistry degree she joined the Saskatchewan Research Council out of graduate school in 1986. She first worked on understanding surfactants in emulsions and then dealt more with petroleum engineering issues like pipeline specifications. She is looking at waterfloods in heavy and medium gravity pools and has discovered factors helping to produce heavy oil waterfloods. But all Renouf's life is not devoted to her work: she has been working part-time, spending her free time being a parent, training for marathons and being a running coach. Renouf believes that her passion for running is consistent with her work as a scientist.

  10. Balancing Family and Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.

  11. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in attaining language mastery with students from diverse language backgrounds and levels of ability confront educators around the world. Experiments, research, and experience see positive effects of adding sign language in communication methods to pre-school and K-12 education. Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages. Theories of learning that embrace play, drama, motion, repetition, socializing, and self-efficacy connect to the options for using sign language with learners in inclusive and mainstream classes. The methodical use of sign language by this researcher-educator over two and a half decades showed signing does build thinking skills, add enjoyment, stimulate communication, expand comprehension, increase vocabulary acquisition, encourage collaboration, and helps build appreciation for cultural diversity.

  12. [Balanced scorecard in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton-Pavez, Carolina Elena; Huerta-Riveros, Patricia Carolina; Paúl-Espinoza, Iván Renato

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the installation of strategies in the higher complexity hospitals (HMC, in Spanish) of public health in Chile starting from the results of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), during the years 2011-2012. The implementation of the BSC is described, the strategies and indicators identified, and the results of the 57 HMC compared and analyzed. Starting from the comparison of the results it is discovered that the BSC allows to evaluate the installation of the strategies. Differences are identified in the installation of the strategies by geographical area, with North presenting a higher score (20.21), followed by Center (10.41) and South (19.50), which can be explained by the size and complexity of this establishments, variables that should be incorporated in the evaluation of the results of the BSC.

  13. The world's reactors No. 82: Atucha II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed information on Atucha II, a 745 MWe pressure-vessel PHWR, is presented in the form of a wall chart. Plant specifications and full colour cutaway drawings of the power station are included. (U.K.)

  14. THE LIMITS OF BASEL II ACCORD

    OpenAIRE

    Zapodeanu Daniela; Gall Raluca Dorina

    2009-01-01

    Even though the actual Basel II Settlement has many advantages like: more transparent and detailed bank information, the rating systems, the internal models of evaluation for risks, the three pillars which represent a whole, an equitable bank competition,

  15. TRUPACT-II container maintenance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document details the maintenance/repair and replacement of components, as well as the documentation required and the procedures to be followed to maintain the integrity of the TRUPACT-II container

  16. Modelling and Analysis of a New Piezoelectric Dynamic Balance Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Xun Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new piezoelectric dynamic balance regulator, which can be used in motorised spindle systems, is presented. The dynamic balancing adjustment mechanism is driven by an in-plane bending vibration from an annular piezoelectric stator excited by a high-frequency sinusoidal input voltage. This device has different construction, characteristics and operating principles than a conventional balance regulator. In this work, a dynamic model of the regulator is first developed using a detailed analytical method. Thereafter, MATLAB is employed to numerically simulate the relations between the dominant parameters and the characteristics of the regulator based on thedynamic model. Finally, experimental measurements are used to certify the validity of the dynamic model. Consequently, the mathematical model presented and analysed in this paper can be used as a tool for optimising the design of a piezoelectric dynamic balance regulator during steady state operation.

  17. Wind farm balance of plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, L.; Liebmann, C.

    1992-01-01

    The study consisted of a detailed investigation of the infrastructure required for the construction and operation of a windfarm in the UK. Costing of the equipment and installation was carried out for three UK sites, with different physical characteristics. A literature survey was carried out to determine current practice in the siting of turbines within windfarms in Europe and the USA. Wind turbines were then laid out on the sites selected for study. Requirements and costs for roads, foundations and site buildings, site electrical system and grid connection, the supervisory control and data acquisition system were discussed and evaluated. A comparison between the balance of plant costs for the 33-metre MS-3 400 kW wind turbine and the 50-metre LS-2 1 MW wind turbine was made for each area of study. Overall balance of plant costs was reviewed, with an investigation of the cost components which are most sensitive to variations. The balance of plant costs averaged over the three sites were 13.0 p/kWh/annum for the MS3 windfarms and 10.6 p/kWh/annum for the LS-2 windfarms. Maps of the sites under investigation, design drawings and tables of costs are included to give supporting information to the text. (author)

  18. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  19. Psychology of the nuclear balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonntag, P

    1981-10-01

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament.

  20. Australian Government Balance Sheet Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Au-Yeung; Jason McDonald; Amanda Sayegh

    2006-01-01

    Since almost eliminating net debt, the Australian Government%u2019s attention has turned to the financing of broader balance sheet liabilities, such as public sector superannuation. Australia will be developing a significant financial asset portfolio in the %u2018Future Fund%u2019 to smooth the financing of expenses through time. This raises the significant policy question of how best to manage the government balance sheet to reduce risk. This paper provides a framework for optimal balance sh...

  1. TJ-II Library Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.; Milligen, B.Ph., van; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the TJ-II library and its routines. The library is written in FORTRAN 77 language and is available in the CRAY J916 and DEC Alpha 8400 computers at CIEMAT. This document also contains some examples of its use. (Author)

  2. Paiton II financing locked up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 2 x 610 MW Paiton II coal-fired independent power project in Indonesia became a reality last week with the completion of a 1.36 billion dollars commercial financing for the 1.65 billion dollar undertaking. Details of the financing are given. A table lists Indonesia`s independent power projects and their current status.

  3. When Do States Balance Power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Wivel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the logic of balancing in structural realist theory. Arguably, the durability of the unipolar moment is a challenge to the logic of balancing. The paper uses the tools of microeconomics to build a mathematical model of structural realism. The simple model reiterates...... the structural realist prediction that the weaker states should balance the unipole. Under a slight model extension, it is shown that efforts to balance in separate capabilities always tends to offset each other. Under this extension, the durability of the unipolar moment is in fact consistent...

  4. Balance of Payment Dynamic in Indonesia and the Structure of Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Telisa Falianty

    2018-01-01

    This paper will assess in aggregate and detail the trend of BOP and its component in Indonesia. Stationarity test will be employed to each component of Indonesian BOP to assess the persistency. This study will calculate the balance of payment constrained growth (BOPC) using Kalman Filter technique (state space model). The BOP, secondary income, and financial account are found to be stationer which means that the data are mean reverting. On the other hand, current account balance, trade balanc...

  5. Adapting Bioretention Construction Details to Local Practices in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tahvonen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioretention is a method of storm water management that includes several processes following the natural hydrological cycle. Bioretention, or variations of it, include rain gardens and bioswales, infiltrates, filtrates, evapotranspirates, and help to store and manage storm water run-off. A bioretention cell retains water, removes pollutants, and provides water elements for urban green areas. Although bioretention is a promising method for multifunctional storm water management, its construction details should not be copied from other climatic areas. A direct application may dismiss local conditions, materials, and construction practices. This study aimed to adapt construction details for bioretention to Finnish local practices and conditions and to formulate bioretention constructions that balance water, soil, and vegetation. First, construction details were reviewed, then local adaptations were applied, and finally, the application and two variations of growing media in two construction depths were tested in a test field in Southern Finland. Sandy growing media allowed the efficient retention of water during the first year, but failed to provide vital growth. The use of topsoil and compost in the growing media improved growth, but held high electrical conductivity after infiltration. All the experimental cells in the test field showed activity during the melting periods, both during winter and spring. If bioretention plays a multifunctional role in urban design and engineered ecology, the design parameters should not only focus on storm water quantity, but also on quality management and vegetation growth.

  6. Intimate Partnership: Foundation to the Successful Balance of Family and Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Haddock, Shelley A.; Current, Lisa R.; Ziemba, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Examines data from interviews with 47 middle-class, dual-earner couples with children, who perceive themselves as successful in balancing family and work. Details how these couples practiced marital partnership in ways that supported effective work-family balance. Data indicates that these successful couples equally share housework and emotion…

  7. Clinical professional governance for detailed clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the need for Detailed Clinical Models for contemporary Electronic Health Systems, data exchange and data reuse. It starts with an explanation of the components related to Detailed Clinical Models with a brief summary of knowledge representation, including terminologies representing clinic relevant "things" in the real world, and information models that abstract these in order to let computers process data about these things. Next, Detailed Clinical Models are defined and their purpose is described. It builds on existing developments around the world and accumulates in current work to create a technical specification at the level of the International Standards Organization. The core components of properly expressed Detailed Clinical Models are illustrated, including clinical knowledge and context, data element specification, code bindings to terminologies and meta-information about authors, versioning among others. Detailed Clinical Models to date are heavily based on user requirements and specify the conceptual and logical levels of modelling. It is not precise enough for specific implementations, which requires an additional step. However, this allows Detailed Clinical Models to serve as specifications for many different kinds of implementations. Examples of Detailed Clinical Models are presented both in text and in Unified Modelling Language. Detailed Clinical Models can be positioned in health information architectures, where they serve at the most detailed granular level. The chapter ends with examples of projects that create and deploy Detailed Clinical Models. All have in common that they can often reuse materials from earlier projects, and that strict governance of these models is essential to use them safely in health care information and communication technology. Clinical validation is one point of such governance, and model testing another. The Plan Do Check Act cycle can be applied for governance of Detailed Clinical Models

  8. TBscore II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  9. Contested Regional Orders and Institutional Balancing in the Asia Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . On the basis of institutional balancing theory, I argue that (i) China’s rise has led to a competition among different regional orders, that is, the US-led bilateralism versus ASEAN-centered and China-supported multilateralism. However, conflicts or wars are not inevitable since the contested regional orders...... can coexist in the Asia Pacific. (ii) The deepening economic interdependence has encouraged regional powers, including the United States, China and ASEAN, to rely on different institutional balancing strategies to pursue security after the Cold War....

  10. Balancing safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.; Fischer, P.U.

    2000-01-01

    The safety requirements of NPPs have always aimed at limiting societal risks. This risk approach initially resulted in deterministic design criteria and concepts. In the 1980s the paradigm 'safety at all costs' arose and often led to questionable backfitting measures. Conflicts between new requirements, classical design concepts and operational demands were often ignored. The design requirements for advanced reactors ensure enhanced protection against severe accidents. Still, it is questionable whether the 'no-damage-outside-the-fence' criteria can be achieved deterministically and at competitive costs. Market deregulation and utility privatisation call for a balance between safety and costs, without jeopardising basic safety concepts. An ideal approach must be risk-based and imply modern PSAs and new methods for cost-benefit and ALARA analyses, embed nuclear risks in a wider risk spectrum, but also make benefits transparent within the context of a broader life experience. Governments should define basic requirements, minimum standards and consistent comparison criteria, and strengthen operator responsibility. Internationally sufficient and binding safety requirements must be established and nuclear technology transfer handled in a responsible way, while existing plants, with their continuous backfitting investments, should receive particular attention. (orig.)

  11. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  12. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  13. A balanced memory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  14. The right balance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of her career as a physicist, Felicitas Pauss, currently responsible for CERN's External Relations, has often been the sole woman in an environment dominated by men. While she freely admits that being a woman physicist can have as many advantages as disadvantages, she thinks the best strategy is to maintain the right balance.   From a very early age, Felicitas Pauss always wanted to be involved in projects that interested and fascinated her. That's how she came to study physics. When she was a first-year university student in Austria in 1970, it was still fairly uncommon for women to go into physics research. "I grew up in Salzburg with a background in music. At that time, it was certainly considered more ‘normal’ for a woman to study music than to do research in physics. But already in high school I was interested in physics and technical instruments and wanted to know how things work and what they are made of”. At the beginning of her care...

  15. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  16. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T J [Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM)

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  17. Towards exoskeletons with balance capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Herman; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Vlutters, Mark; González-Vargas, José; Ibáñez, Jaime; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.; van der Kooij, Herman; Pons, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Current exoskeletons replay pre-programmed trajectories at the actuated joints. Towards the employment of exoskeletons with more flexible and adaptive behavior, we investigate human balance control during gait. We study human balance control by applying brief force pulses at the pelvis in different

  18. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsieh, C.; Parker, S.C.; van Praag, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversion encourages individuals to invest in balanced skill profiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs. By not taking this possible linkage into account, previous research has underestimated the impacts of both risk aversion and balanced skills on the

  19. Balance control in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    To avoid falls during everyday movements, we need to maintain balance, i.e., control the position of our body's center of mass relative to our base of support. The balance control system comprises sensory subsystems, their afferent nerves, an extensive brain network, and the motor system.

  20. Balancing for Unstable Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A previously obtained method of balancing for stable nonlinear systems is extended to unstable nonlinear systems. The similarity invariants obtained by the concept of LQG balancing for an unstable linear system can also be obtained by considering a past and future energy function of the system. By

  1. H∞ Balancing for Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In previously obtained balancing methods for nonlinear systems a past and a future energy function are used to bring the nonlinear system in balanced form. By considering a different pair of past and future energy functions that are related to the H∞ control problem for nonlinear systems we define

  2. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    This investigation describes the use of non-living biomass of Aspergillus caespitosus for removal of ... Pb(II) production has exceeded 3.5 million tons per year. It has been used in the ... This biomass was selected after screening a wide range of microbes. .... prolonged, which proved better biopolymer in metal uptake (Gadd ...

  3. Visual Memory : The Price of Encoding Details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Kromm, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Studies on visual long-term memory have shown that we have a tremendous capacity for remembering pictures of objects, even at a highly detailed level. What remains unclear, however, is whether encoding objects at such a detailed level comes at any cost. In the current study, we examined how the

  4. Dynamic balancing of mechanisms and synthesizing of parallel robots

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art technologies in dynamic balancing of mechanisms with minimum increase of mass and inertia. The synthesis of parallel robots based on the Decomposition and Integration concept is also covered in detail. The latest advances are described, including different balancing principles, design of reactionless mechanisms with minimum increase of mass and inertia, and synthesizing parallel robots. This is an ideal book for mechanical engineering students and researchers who are interested in the dynamic balancing of mechanisms and synthesizing of parallel robots. This book also: ·       Broadens reader understanding of the synthesis of parallel robots based on the Decomposition and Integration concept ·       Reinforces basic principles with detailed coverage of different balancing principles, including input torque balancing mechanisms ·       Reviews exhaustively the key recent research into the design of reactionless mechanisms with minimum increase of mass a...

  5. Tax balance in agribusiness as a type of special balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of continuous compounding of business processes inevitably leads to application of increasingly complex instruments for the purposes of financial reporting in agribusiness. In this system the existential place and role of individual elements that alter the existing and acquire new functions comes into question. Balancing implies a regulated and consistent system in which every change leads to the creation of new relations and changing already established relationships. In this regard, in this paper we will focus on the place and role of tax balance in the group of special balances in agribusiness, as a very significant group of accounting instruments. Displaying information for users and situations in which they are used, balances gain their place in this classification. For the purposes of applying financial instruments, referring primarily to balances in agribusiness, it is necessary to know the way of their classification according to their functions. From this aspect, tax balance in agribusiness is a specific report, both in terms of its formal and material structure, which gives it the basis to belong to ordinary as well as special types of balances in agribusiness.

  6. A question of balance: Kinetic balance for electrons and positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Kinetic balance for both electrons and positrons is achieved by applying the correct relation for positive and negative energy states separately and then using the electron and positron eigensolutions from the separate diagonalizations of the Hamiltonian as a dual basis. Highlights: ► Kinetic balance for electrons and positrons is achieved in a dual atomic basis. ► Dual atomic balance alleviates, but does not eliminate, energy prolapse. ► Positron affinities converge quicker with basis set size with dual atomic balance. - Abstract: The kinetic balance criterion used in current relativistic basis set codes is satisfied by the electron solutions of the Dirac equation, but not the positron solutions. A proposal for applying kinetic balance to both sets of solutions is presented. The method is applied along with “normal” kinetic balance to one-electron systems, to investigate its possible relation to prolapse, and to the positron affinity of F − , to investigate the kinetic energy deficiency for positron solutions. The new method reduces but does not eliminate prolapse for energy-optimized basis sets, and provides faster and smoother convergence with basis set size for the positron affinity.

  7. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Casimir

    2017-01-01

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  8. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Casimir [German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy, Transportation, Environment; Univ. of Technology, Berlin (Germany). Workgroup for Infrastructure Policy (WIP)

    2017-03-30

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  9. Work-life balance: history, costs, and budgeting for balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Siva; Stein, Sharon L

    2014-06-01

    The concept and difficulties of work-life balance are not unique to surgeons, but professional responsibilities make maintaining a work-life balance difficult. Consequences of being exclusively career focused include burn out, physical, and mental ailments. In addition, physician burn out may hinder optimal patient care and incur significant costs on health care in general. Assessing current uses of time, allocating goals catered to an individual surgeon, and continual self-assessment may help balance time, and ideally will help prevent burn out.

  10. Detailed characterization of Mirafiori lettuce virus-resistant transgenic lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Yoichi; Fujiyama, Ryoi; Noguchi, Yuji; Kubota, Masaharu; Ito, Hidekazu; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Lettuce big-vein disease is caused by Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), which is vectored by the soil-borne fungus Olpidium brassicae. A MiLV-resistant transgenic lettuce line was developed through introducing inverted repeats of the MiLV coat protein (CP) gene. Here, a detailed characterization study of this lettuce line was conducted by comparing it with the parental, non-transformed 'Kaiser' cultivar. There were no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic lettuce in terms of pollen fertility, pollen dispersal, seed production, seed dispersal, dormancy, germination, growth of seedlings under low or high temperature, chromatographic patterns of leaf extracts, or effects of lettuce on the growth of broccoli or soil microflora. A significant difference in pollen size was noted, but the difference was small. The length of the cotyledons of the transgenic lettuce was shorter than that of 'Kaiser,' but there were no differences in other morphological characteristics. Agrobacterium tumefaciens used for the production of transgenic lettuce was not detected in transgenic seeds. The transgenic T(3), T(4), and T(5) generations showed higher resistance to MiLV and big-vein symptoms expression than the resistant 'Pacific' cultivar, indicating that high resistance to lettuce big-vein disease is stably inherited. PCR analysis showed that segregation of the CP gene was nearly 3:1 in the T(1) and T(2) generations, and that the transgenic T(3) generation was homozygous for the CP gene. Segregation of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (npt II) gene was about 3:1 in the T(1) generation, but the full length npt II gene was not detected in the T(2) or T(3) generation. The segregation pattern of the CP and npt II genes in the T(1) generation showed the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio. These results suggest that the fragment including the CP gene and that including the npt II gene have been integrated into two unlinked loci, and that the T(1) plant selected in our study did

  11. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  12. Asteroids II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzel, R.P.; Gehrels, T.; Matthews, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to asteroids. A description of exploration techniques, details on their physical properties, discussions of their origin and evolution, an examination of their interrelations with meteorites and comets followed by an attempt at a big picture framework are given

  13. Modern rotor balancing - Emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Von Pragenau, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Modern balancing methods for flexible and rigid rotors are explored. Rigid rotor balancing is performed at several hundred rpm, well below the first bending mode of the shaft. High speed balancing is necessary when the nominal rotational speed is higher than the first bending mode. Both methods introduce weights which will produce rotor responses at given speeds that will be exactly out of phase with the responses of an unbalanced rotor. Modal balancing seeks to add weights which will leave other rotor modes unaffected. Also, influence coefficients can be determined by trial and error addition of weights and recording of their effects on vibration at speeds of interest. The latter method is useful for balancing rotors at other than critical speeds and for performing unified balancing beginning with the first critical speed. Finally, low-speed flexible balancing permits low-speed tests and adjustments of rotor assemblies which will not be accessible when operating in their high-speed functional configuration. The method was developed for the high pressure liquid oxygen turbopumps for the Shuttle.

  14. Work–Life Balance: History, Costs, and Budgeting for Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, Siva; Stein, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    The concept and difficulties of work–life balance are not unique to surgeons, but professional responsibilities make maintaining a work–life balance difficult. Consequences of being exclusively career focused include burn out, physical, and mental ailments. In addition, physician burn out may hinder optimal patient care and incur significant costs on health care in general. Assessing current uses of time, allocating goals catered to an individual surgeon, and continual self-assessment may hel...

  15. Mercury balance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maag, J.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the consumption of mercury, divided into use areas, was carried out. Disposal and emissions to the environment were also qualified. The assessment is mainly based on data from 1992 - 1993. The most important source of emission of mercury to air is solid waste incineration which is assessed in particular to be due to the supply of mercury in batteries (most likely mercury oxide batteries from photo equipment) and to dental fillings. The second most important source of mercury emission to air is coal-fired power plants which are estimated to account for 200-500 kg of mercury emission p.a. Other mercury emissions are mainly related to waste treatment and disposal. The consumption of mercury is generally decreasing. During the period from 1982/83 - 1992-93, the total consumption of mercury in Denmark was about halved. This development is related to the fact that consumption with regard to several important use areas (batteries, dental fillings, thermometers etc.) has been significantly reduced, while for other purposes the use of mercury has completely, or almost disappeared, i.e. (fungicides for seed, tubes etc.). (EG)

  16. Combustion of a Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning used as biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, A; Della Zassa, M; Martín-Lara, M A; Calero, M; Canu, P

    2016-05-05

    The olive tree pruning is a specific agroindustrial waste that can be successfully used as adsorbent, to remove Pb(II) from contaminated wastewater. Its final incineration has been studied in a thermobalance and in a laboratory flow reactor. The study aims at evaluating the fate of Pb during combustion, at two different scales of investigation. The flow reactor can treat samples approximately 10(2) larger than the conventional TGA. A detailed characterization of the raw and Pb(II)-loaded waste, before and after combustion is presented, including analysis of gas and solids products. The Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning has been prepared by a previous biosorption step in a lead solution, reaching a concentration of lead of 2.3 wt%. Several characterizations of the ashes and the mass balances proved that after the combustion, all the lead presents in the waste remained in ashes. Combustion in a flow reactor produced results consistent with those obtained in the thermobalance. It is thus confirmed that the combustion of Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning is a viable option to use it after the biosorption process. The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes, preventing possible environmental hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Initial experience gained with the balance-group system of the Swiss power supply legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, M.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the initial experience gained with the Swiss balance-group system. This system was introduced within the framework of Swiss power supply legislation (StromVG - Stromversorgungsgesetz). The balance-group system was considered to be an essential precondition for the implementation of an energy trading business in a liberalised power market. The associated rights and responsibilities and the economic risks involved are discussed in detail. The partners and structures involved in such a balance-group are looked at and basic models for the associated contracts are examined. The relationship between balance-groups and the national power grid Swissgrid are discussed

  18. Brazilian Energy Balance 2016 - calendar year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2015 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments and total consumption disaggregated per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining. Annex II - Self-production of Electricity - presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex III - World Energy Data - presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source

  19. Detailed Safety Review of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    To date, 18 human studies have assessed the safety of anthrax vaccination. These studies, some stretching back almost 50 years, reported adverse events after vaccination in varying degrees of detail...

  20. Cleaner combustion developing detailed chemical kinetic models

    CERN Document Server

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Simmie, John M

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the reactive chemistry of minor pollutants within extensively validated detailed mechanisms for traditional fuels, and also for innovative surrogates, describing the complex chemistry of new, environmentally important bio-fuels.

  1. Factors influencing detail detectability in radiologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The detectability of various details is estimated quantitatively from the essential technical parameters of the imaging system and additional influencing factors including viewing of the image. The analysis implies the formation of the input radiation distribution (contrast formation, influence of kVp). Noise, image contrast (gamma), modulation transfer function and contrast threshold of the observer are of different influence on details of different size. Thus further optimization of imaging systems and their adaption to specific imaging tasks are facilitated

  2. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy balances 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The energy balances of the Danish Statistical Office are the designation of the goods balances, which are tabulated for each energy article in both physical entities (quantities) and in base rates (values). The balance concept is connected to the definition supply = use, which is the basis for the construction of the system. The supply is determined as the sum of two items: import and production while the total use is the sum of 138 items: export, waste and transmission loss, stock increase, input in lack of the 130 industries, and private consumption divided into 5 consumption groups. The statistical analysis is performed yearly in both quantities and values for 35 energy articles. Values are computed for base rates, profits, taxes, VAT and market prices (buyer's price), respectively. The energy balances from 1975 to 1998 are presented for comparison. (EHS)

  4. Energy balances 1997 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The energy balances of the Danish Statistical Office are the designation of the goods balances, which are tabulated for each energy article in both physical entities (quantities) and in base rates (values). The balance concept is connected to the definition supply = use, which is the basis for the construction of the system. The supply is determined as the sum of two items: import and production while the total use is the sum of 138 items: export, waste and transmission loss, stock increase, input in lack of the 130 industries, and private consumption divided into 5 consumption groups. The statistical analysis is performed yearly in both quantities and values for 35 energy articles. Values are computed for base rates, profits, taxes, VAT and market prices (buyer's price), respectively. The energy balances from 1975 to 1998 are presented for comparison. (EHS)

  5. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chihmao; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversionencourages individuals to invest in balanced skillprofiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs.By not taking this possible linkage intoaccount, previous research has underestimated theimpacts of both risk aversion and balanced skills onthe...... likelihood individuals choose entrepreneurship.Data on Dutch university graduates provide an illustrationsupporting our contention. We raise thepossibility that even risk-averse people might besuited to entrepreneurship; and it may also help...

  6. Electric power balance sheet 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2012: strong seasonal contrast of power consumption, rise of the renewable energies contribution in meeting the electricity demand, slight decay of the nuclear and thermal power generation, decrease of the export balance and change in trades structure, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  7. Agenda 21 interim balance, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Five years after the `United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)`, an interim balance was drawn up to see what was done to meet the ambitious challenges adopted in Agenda 21 during this conference. Such a balance is presented in this report and the complementary brochure, `Developments in Sustainability 1992-1997`, reflecting societal developments and changes in environmental quality, as well as changes in responses to environmental concerns. 24 figs., 12 tabs., 68 refs.

  8. II. Radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudacek, Z.; Kolar, J.; Blazek, O.; Holy, J.; Steinhart, L.; Sehr, A.; Rocek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The basic examination methods are described, such as radiography, radioscopy, cinerentgenography, fluoroscopy, classical tomography, computerized tomography, digital subtraction angiography, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography, thermography, and contrast media examinations. Radiodiagnosis of individual body organs is described in detail and a large number of photographs are used. Diagnostic techniques and their indications are discussed and basic radiodiagnostic manifestations are shown of pathological changes. (M.D.). 26l figs

  9. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  10. TRUPACT-II Container Maintenance Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This document details the maintenance, repair, and replacement of components, as well as the documentation required and the procedures to be followed to maintain the integrity of the TRUPACT-II container in accordance with OM-134, TRUPACT-II Container Operations and Maintenance Manual; and the TRUPACT-II Container Certificate of Compliance (Number 9218). The routine shipping and receiving inspections required by the Department of Transportation (DOT), Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other regulations are not addressed in this document. This document applies to all DOE shipping and receiving sites that use the TRUPACT-II containers

  11. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees

  12. Yearly energy balance sheets 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the presented statistics is to give a total picture of the Swedish energy supply and consumption 1998-1999. Compared to the regularly published energy balance sheets based on short periodic statistics, this publication is more disaggregated in the field of final energy consumption. The data are mainly based on yearly statistics on energy consumption in different sectors. The broad statistical base has made it possible to compile data for consumer categories on a fairly detailed level. In cases where direct statistical information is lacking or is insufficient, indirect calculation methods have been used for estimations or recalculations of basic statistics. Revisions and improvements of statistical sources as well as calculation methods will be performed successively. As a consequence of this, the statistics presented here could be revised in future publications

  13. Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2012 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2009 and 2010 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e.2011). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units. More detailed data in original units are published in the 2012 edition of Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication.

  14. Safety balance: Analysis of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, M.; Giroux, C.

    1990-12-01

    Safety analysis, and particularly analysis of exploitation of NPPs is constantly affected by EDF and by the safety authorities and their methodologies. Periodic safety reports ensure that important issues are not missed on daily basis, that incidents are identified and that relevant actions are undertaken. French safety analysis method consists of three principal steps. First type of safety balance is analyzed at the normal start-up phase for each unit including the final safety report. This enables analysis of behaviour of units ten years after their licensing. Second type is periodic operational safety analysis performed during a few years. Finally, the third step consists of safety analysis of the oldest units with the aim to improve the safety standards. The three steps of safety analysis are described in this presentation in detail with the aim to present the objectives and principles. Examples of most recent exercises are included in order to illustrate the importance of such analyses

  15. Yearly energy balance sheets 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the presented statistics is to give a total picture of the Swedish energy supply and consumption 1996-1998. Compared to the regularly published energy balance sheets based on short periodic statistics, this publication is more disaggregated in the field of final energy consumption. The data are mainly based on yearly statistics on energy consumption in different sectors. The broad statistical base has made it possible to compile data for consumer categories on a fairly detailed level. In cases where direct statistical information is lacking or is insufficient, indirect calculation methods have been used for estimations or recalculations of basic statistics. Revisions and improvements of statistical sources as well as calculation methods will be performed successively. As a consequence of this, the statistics presented here could be revised in future publications

  16. Flow balancing in liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Morley, N.B.

    1995-01-01

    Non-uniform flow distribution between parallel channels is one of the most serious concerns for self-cooled liquid metal blankets with electrically insulated walls. We show that uncertainties in flow distribution can be dramatically reduced by relatively simple design modifications. Several design features which impose flow uniformity by electrically coupling parallel channels are surveyed. Basic mechanisms for ''flow balancing'' are described, and a particular self-regulating concept using discrete passive electrodes is proposed for the US ITER advanced blanket concept. Scoping calculations suggest that this simple technique can be very powerful in equalizing the flow, even with massive insulator failures in individual channels. More detailed analyses and experimental verification will be required to demonstrate this concept for ITER. (orig.)

  17. New Approach in Fibromyalgia Exercise Program: A Preliminary Study Regarding the Effectiveness of Balance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibar, Sibel; Yıldız, Hatice Ecem; Ay, Saime; Evcik, Deniz; Ergin, Emine Süreyya

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of balance exercises on the functional level and quality of life (QOL) of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and to investigate the circumstances associated with balance disorders in FMS. Randomized controlled trial. Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic. Patients (N=57) (age range, 18-65y) with FMS were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group 1 was given flexibility and balance exercises for 6 weeks, whereas group 2 received only a flexibility program as the control group. Functional balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and dynamic and static balance were evaluated by a kinesthetic ability trainer (KAT) device. Fall risk was assessed with the Hendrich II fall risk model. The Nottingham Health Profile, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to determine QOL and functional and depression levels, respectively. Assessments were performed at baseline and after the 6-week program. In group 1, statistically significant improvements were observed in all parameters (P.05). When comparing the 2 groups, there were significant differences in group 1 concerning the KAT static balance test (P=.017) and FIQ measurements (P=.005). In the correlation analysis, the BDI was correlated with the BBS (r=-.434) and Hendrich II results (r=.357), whereas body mass index (BMI) was correlated with the KAT static balance measurements (r=.433), BBS (r=-.285), and fall frequency (r=.328). A 6-week balance training program had a beneficial effect on the static balance and functional levels of patients with FMS. We also observed that depression deterioration was related to balance deficit and fall risk. Higher BMI was associated with balance deficit and fall frequency. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary Planck constant measurements via UME oscillating magnet Kibble balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, H.; Babayiğit Aşkın, N.; Korutlu, B.; Orhan, R.

    2018-06-01

    The UME Kibble balance project was initiated in the second half of 2014. During this period we have studied the theoretical aspects of Kibble balances, in which an oscillating magnet generates AC Faraday’s voltage in a stationary coil, and constructed a trial version to implement this idea. The remarkable feature of this approach is that it can establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by one single experiment in the most natural way. Weak dependences on variations of environmental and experimental conditions, small size, and other useful features offered by this novel approach reduce the complexity of the experimental set-up. This paper describes the principles of the oscillating magnet Kibble balance and gives details of the preliminary Planck constant measurements. The value of the Planck constant determined with our apparatus is \\boldsymbol{h}/{{\\boldsymbol{h}}\\boldsymbol 90}={1}{.000} {004}~ , with a relative standard uncertainty of 6 ppm.

  19. Balance assessment in the management of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    Although neuropsychological testing has proven to be a valuable tool in concussion management, it is most useful when administered as part of a comprehensive assessment battery that includes grading of symptoms and clinical balance tests. A thorough sideline and clinical examination by the certified athletic trainer and team physician is considered an important first step in the management of concussion. The evaluation should be conducted in a systematic manner, whether on the field or in the clinical setting. The evaluation should include obtaining a history for specific details about the injury (eg, mechanism, symptomatology, concussion history), followed by assessing neurocognitive function and balance, which is the focus of this article. The objective measures from balance testing can provide clinicians with an additional piece of the concussion puzzle, remove some of the guesswork in uncovering less obvious symptoms, and assist in determining readiness to return safely to participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Am/Cm Vitrification Process: Pretreatment Material Balance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents material balance calculations for the pretreatment steps required to prepare the Americium/Curium solution currently stored in Tank 17.1 in the F-Canyon for vitrification. The material balance uses the latest analysis of the tank contents to provide a best estimate calculation of the expected plant operations during the pretreatment process. The material balance calculations primarily follow the material that directly leads to melter feed. Except for vapor products of the denitration reactions and treatment of supernate from precipitation and precipitate washing, the flowsheet does not include side streams such as acid washes of the empty tanks that would go directly to waste. The calculation also neglects tank heels. This report consolidates previously reported results, corrects some errors found in the spreadsheet and provides a more detailed discussion of the calculation basis

  1. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  2. Air barrier details: How effective are they

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A project was initiated to measure the air leakage through three typical details in wood frame walls: the header joist, electric outlets, and window openings. Three construction methods were tested: the poly approach, where a sealed internal polyethylene sheet and caulking provide the air barrier; an external air barrier approach using a continuous vapor permeable membrane sandwiched between two layers of external wall sheathing; and the airtight drywall approach (ADA), where the interior gypsum board finish along with framing and gaskets are the air barrier. Twelve sample panels using each of the three details were built using each of the construction approaches. A traditional wood-frame wall construction detail, with no effort made to create a continuous air barrier, was also built and tested for comparison. The samples were put in a test chamber so that air pressures could create infiltration or exfiltration through the panel under loads similar to those due to wind action. Measurements were made at several stages during construction of each sample to see the effect of different components on the air leakage. Overall, all but the traditional samples and the ADA electrical outlet panel exceeded the current tightness standards for glass and aluminum curtain walls. All three approaches could meet the airtightness standards of the R-2000 program. The total air leakage calculated for each approach is under 20% of that in traditional construction. Of the details tested, window detailing offers the greatest potential for increasing overall airtightness compared to traditional methods. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Fatigue-Prone Details in Steel Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Heshmati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of a comprehensive investigation including more than 100 fatigue damage cases, reported for steel and composite bridges. The damage cases are categorized according to types of detail. The mechanisms behind fatigue damage in each category are identified and studied. It was found that more than 90% of all reported damage cases are of deformation-induced type and generated by some kind of unintentional or otherwise overlooked interaction between different load-carrying members or systems in the bridge. Poor detailing, with unstiffened gaps and abrupt changes in stiffness at the connections between different members were also found to contribute to fatigue cracking in many details.

  4. Contribution to a Theory of Detailed Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    It has been recognised, that literature actually do not propose a theory of detailed design. In this paper a theory contribution is proposed, linking part design to organ design and allowing a type of functional reasoning. The proposed theory satisfies our need for explaining the nature of a part...... structure, for support of synthesis of part structure, i.e. detailed design, and our need for digital modelling of part structures.The aim of this paper is to contribute to a design theory valid for detailed design. The proposal is based upon the theory's ability to explain the nature of machine parts...... and assemblies, to support the synthesis of parts and to allow the modelling, especially digital modelling of a part structure. The contribution is based upon Theory of Technical Systems, Hubka, and the Domain Theory, Andreasen. This paper is based on a paper presented at ICED 99, Mortensen, but focus...

  5. Memory for details with self-referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbun, Sarah J; Shih, Joanne Y; Gutchess, Angela H

    2011-11-01

    Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details. Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or whether they also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. Participants incidentally encoded objects by making judgements in reference to the self, a close other (one's mother), or a familiar other (Bill Clinton). Results indicate that referencing the self or a close other enhances both specific and general memory. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed verbal memory for source in a task that relied on distinguishing between different mental operations (internal sources). The results indicate that self-referencing disproportionately enhances source memory, relative to conditions referencing other people, semantic, or perceptual information. We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can also disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details.

  6. Perception of occupational balance by people with mental illness: A new methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Argentzell, Elisabeth

    2016-07-01

    Aims The aims were to (i) investigate initial construct validity of a tool for assessment of time allocation in occupational balance, and (ii) describe perceived occupational balance and its relationship with socio-demographics, well-being, and personal recovery among people with mental illness. Methods Satisfaction with Daily Occupations and Occupational Balance (SDO-OB) was administered to 226 persons. SDO-OB reflects balance in five occupational domains: work, leisure, home chores, self-care, and overall occupational balance. Indicators for assessing construct validity were: satisfaction with everyday occupations, occupational value, symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning. For the second aim, the data collection included socio-demographics, life quality, self-esteem, self-mastery, and personal recovery. Results Occupational balance ratings indicated the participants were either under-occupied or in balance. Few were over-occupied. Feeling in balance was related to greater well-being and recovery compared with being under-occupied. Risk factors for under-occupation were younger age (in relation to work), and higher education (in relation to overall balance). Conclusions Associations with the indicators suggest initial construct validity. The SDO-OB is promising for assessment of occupational balance among people with mental illness. Being under-occupied was detrimental to well-being and recovery, and this indicates the importance of offering more occupational opportunities for people with mental illness.

  7. US DOE shifts the balance of risk [decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Brief details are given of performance-based contracts awarded by the US Department of Energy to private companies for the clean-up of several major nuclear facilities. The aim is to shift the balance of risk from the government and taxpayer to the contractors. It is also cheaper to privatise waste treatment than for the government to make a large investment in the ownership and operation of its own facilities. (UK)

  8. Legged locomotion : Balance, control and tools - from equation to action

    OpenAIRE

    Ridderström, Christian

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is about control and balance stability of leggedlocomotion. It also presents a combination of tools that makesit easier to design controllers for large and complicated robotsystems. The thesis is divided into four parts. The first part studies and analyzes how walking machines arecontrolled, examining the literature of over twenty machinesbriefly, and six machines in detail. The goal is to understandhow the controllers work on a level below task and pathplanning, but above actuato...

  9. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  10. Severn Barrage project. Detailed report - V. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Prior to the present programme of work, the effects which a tidal power barrage would have on the region, during both construction and operation, had not been studied in detail. This volume of the Detailed Report therefore represents a significant extension of work into these aspects of the Severn Barrage Project. In the Regional Study, a number of benefits have been identified, some of which may represent net benefits nationally. The economic assessment of both regional and national benefits and costs is presented. The second part of this volume reports on the work done on the Legal Background for the Project. (author).

  11. Detail in architecture: Between arts & crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulencin, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students' bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its economic cost, an

  12. Low cost balancing unit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  13. Tomo II

    OpenAIRE

    Llano Zapata, José Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Vegetal, Tomo II. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Muy Señor mío, juzgo que los 20 artículos del libro que remití a Vuestra Merced le habrán hecho formar el concepto que merece la fecundidad de aquellos países en las producciones minerales. Y siendo es...

  14. Human balance, the evolution of bipedalism and dysequilibrium syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoyles, John R

    2006-01-01

    source of evidence for this conjecture is the rare autosomal recessive condition of dysequilibrium syndrome. In dysequilibrium syndrome, individuals fail to learn to walk bipedally (with this not being due to sensory, vestibular nor motor coordination defects). Dysequilibrium syndrome is associated with severe spatial deficits that I conjecture underlie its balance dysfunction. The associated brain defects and gene mutations of dysequilibrium syndrome provide new opportunities to investigate (i) the neurological processes responsible for the human specific balance faculty, and (ii) through gene dating techniques, its evolution.

  15. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.; Smietana, E.A.; Murray, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    As a part of the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Program, a new manual has been developed, entitled UCRL-CR-106554, open-quotes Structural Concepts and Details for Seismic Design.close quotes This manual describes and illustrates good practice for seismic-resistant design

  16. 16 CFR 1750.5 - Detailed requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detailed requirements. 1750.5 Section 1750.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION REFRIGERATOR SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR... directed perpendicularly to the plane of the door and applied anywhere along the latch edge of the inside...

  17. New details emerge from the Einstein files

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, D

    2002-01-01

    For many years the FBI spied on Einstein. New details of this surveilance are emerging in "The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War Against the World's Most Famous Scientist," by Fred Jerome, who sued the government with the help of the Public Citizen Litigation Group to obtain a less censored version of the file (1 page).

  18. Detailed numerical simulations of laser cooling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Kohel, J.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.

    2001-01-01

    We developed a detailed semiclassical numerical code of the forces applied on atoms in optical and magnetic fields to increase the understanding of the different roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and number of particles play in experiments with laser cooled and trapped atoms.

  19. Robot-supported assessment of balance in standing and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Camila; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Matjačić, Zlatko; Vallery, Heike; Barralon, Pierre; Maggioni, Serena; Buurke, Jaap H; Veneman, Jan F

    2017-08-14

    Clinically useful and efficient assessment of balance during standing and walking is especially challenging in patients with neurological disorders. However, rehabilitation robots could facilitate assessment procedures and improve their clinical value. We present a short overview of balance assessment in clinical practice and in posturography. Based on this overview, we evaluate the potential use of robotic tools for such assessment. The novelty and assumed main benefits of using robots for assessment are their ability to assess 'severely affected' patients by providing assistance-as-needed, as well as to provide consistent perturbations during standing and walking while measuring the patient's reactions. We provide a classification of robotic devices on three aspects relevant to their potential application for balance assessment: 1) how the device interacts with the body, 2) in what sense the device is mobile, and 3) on what surface the person stands or walks when using the device. As examples, nine types of robotic devices are described, classified and evaluated for their suitability for balance assessment. Two example cases of robotic assessments based on perturbations during walking are presented. We conclude that robotic devices are promising and can become useful and relevant tools for assessment of balance in patients with neurological disorders, both in research and in clinical use. Robotic assessment holds the promise to provide increasingly detailed assessment that allows to individually tailor rehabilitation training, which may eventually improve training effectiveness.

  20. Lithuania’s Balancing Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šlekys Deividas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since regaining independence in 1990 and creating its regular armed forces, Lithuania has had to do a balancing act. It has had to balance between different approaches of state defence, military structure, collective and national defence. Due to events in Ukraine Lithuania had to reconfigure this balance. The Russian threat forced to emphasize strategy of territorial defence, which altogether required tying up forces and enlarging its numbers by bringing back conscription, substantially increased defence budget, followed by higher tempo and scale in procurement and training. However, Lithuania has managed to maintain its activity and participation in international military operations and political initiatives. Its recent contributions have led to an assumption that its participation in various military missions in the future will not diminish, quite the opposite. Increasing the framework of cooperation in terms of defence and security initiatives will involve Lithuania more deeply and will require further contributions.

  1. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  2. BALANCER: A Computer Program for Balancing Chemical Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. David; Schwab, A. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Describes the theory and operation of a computer program which was written to balance chemical equations. Software consists of a compiled file of 46K for use under MS-DOS 2.0 or later on IBM PC or compatible computers. Additional specifications of courseware and availability information are included. (Author/RT)

  3. Nuclear blackmail and nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book raises pointed questions about nuclear saber rattling. More than a dozen cases since the bombing of Hiroshima and Magasaki in which some sort of nuclear threat was used as a sparring technique in tense confrontations are cited. Each incident is described and analyzed. Two theories offered to explain America's use of nuclear threats, the balance of interest theory and the balance of power theory, are contrasted throughout the book. This book helps to fill the gap in the understanding of nuclear weapons and their uses, while pointing out that nuclear bravado could lead to an unintended unleashing of these weapons

  4. Heider balance in human networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawroński, P.; Kułakowski, K.

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a continuous dynamics was proposed to simulate dynamics of interpersonal relations in a society represented by a fully connected graph. The final state of such a society was found to be identical with the so-called Heider balance (HB), where the society is divided into two mutually hostile groups. In the continuous model, a polarization of opinions was found in HB. Here we demonstrate that the polarization occurs also in Barabási-Albert networks, where the Heider balance is not necessarily present. In the second part of this work we demonstrate the results of our formalism, when applied to reference examples: the Southern women and the Zachary club.

  5. The social balance sheet 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. Delhez; P. Heuse

    2005-01-01

    Each year, in the 4th quarter’s Economic Review, the National Bank examines the provisional results of the social balance sheets. As all the social balance sheets are not yet available for 2004, the study is based on a limited population of enterprises, compiled according to the principle of a constant sample. This population is made up of 38,530 enterprises employing around 1,331,000 workers in 2004. The main results of the analysis, in terms of employment, working hours, labour cost and tra...

  6. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B

    2010-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach t...

  7. Sustainable Urban Regeneration Based on Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Silvester

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming economical and environmental interests on infrastructure, in relation to the sustainable urban development and regeneration from the perspective of the tripod people, technology and design is elaborated. However, this is at different scales, starting mainly from the perspective of the urban dynamics. This approach includes a renewed look at the ‘urban metabolism’ and the role of environmental technology, urban ecology and environment behavior focus. Second, the potential benefits of strategic and balanced introduction and use of decentralized devices and electric vehicles (EVs, and attached generation based on renewables are investigated in more detail in the case study of the ‘Merwe-Vierhaven’ area (MW4 in the Rotterdam city port in the Netherlands. In order to optimize the energy balance of this urban renewal area, it is found to be impossible to do this by tuning the energy consumption. It is more effective to change the energy mix and related infrastructures. However, the problem in existing urban areas is that often these areas are restricted to a few energy sources due to lack of available space for integration. Besides this, energy consumption in most cases is relatively concentrated in (existing urban areas. This limits the potential of sustainable urban regeneration based on decentralized systems, because there is no balanced choice regarding the energy mix based on renewables and system optimization. Possible solutions to obtain a balanced energy profile can come from either the choice to not provide all energy locally, or by adding different types of storage devices to the systems. The use of energy balance based on renewables as a

  8. A practical approach to flexible rotor balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.; Chohan, G.Y.; Khan, M.Z.

    2001-01-01

    There are various conventional methods for flexible rotor balancing. These :methods have been applied successfully for balancing cylindrical rotors since long. One of these mostly used is modal balancing. Besides its usefulness, difficulties are encountered when sufficient number of balancing planes are not available under certain conditions where a rotor is enclosed at its both ends by discs. In this work, a practical technique of counter balancing has been introduced. This technique has proved its importance in balancing the rotors. We would discuss efficiency of this technique over the conventional modal balancing. (author)

  9. Policy issues on the control of major accident hazards and the new Seveso II directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, S.; Wettig, J.

    1999-01-01

    No one wants a major accident to occur! This paper describes the development of EC policies to convert this simple and obvious fact into a coherent prevention strategy which can deliver a high level of protection throughout the European Community. The Seveso II Directive is described in detail, being the relevant Community Instrument which Member States must implement in their national laws. The need to achieve the correct balance between setting general goals and being over prescriptive is discussed, commensurate with the intent to be flexible but yet consistent and effective at the same time. The main changes from Seveso I are discussed, including requirements related to the operator's management systems, the competent authority's systems for inspection, and information and consultation arrangements with the public. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle's static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed three times a week for four weeks. Exercises from the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus program were applied to each group for twenty minutes along with ten minutes of warming up and wrap-up exercises. [Results] Group II showed a significant decrease of post-intervention static and dynamic balance overall in the anterior-posterior, and mediolateral directions, compared with the pre-intervention test results. In comparison of post-intervention static and dynamic balance between Group I and Group II, a significant decrease was observed overall. [Conclusion] Virtual reality programs improved the static balance and dynamic balance of subjects with functional ankle instability. Virtual reality programs can be used more safely and efficiently if they are implemented under appropriate monitoring by a physiotherapist.

  11. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project

  12. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...

  13. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  14. Detailed observations of NGC 4151 with IUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, G.E.; Boksenberg, A.; Clavel, J.

    1984-12-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the ultraviolet (lambdalambda 1150-3200 A) absorption spectrum of the NGC 4151 Seyfert nucleus. The IUE data base consisted of high dispersion (Δlambda approx. 0.2 A) spectra at 5 epochs, and 137 low dispersion (Δlambda approx. 4-8 A) spectra at 31 epochs from 1978 February to 1980 May, together with further low dispersion data in 1980-81 with NGC 4151 in a very faint quiescent state. (author)

  15. Detailed Sensory Memory, Sloppy Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sligte, Ilja G.; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R. E.; Scholte, H. Steven; Lamme, Victor A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a...

  16. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  17. Detailed design of product oriented manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sílvio Carmo; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for the detailed design and redesign of manufacturing systems within a framework of constantly fitting production system configuration to the varying production needs of products. With such an approach is achieved the design of Product Oriented Manufacturing Systems – POMS. This approach is in opposition to the fitting, before hand, of a production system to all products within a company. In this case is usual to adopt a Function Oriented Manufactur...

  18. Revisiting the Seductive Details Effect in Multimedia Learning: Context-Dependency of Seductive Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Devrim; Doolittle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of context-dependency of seductive details on recall and transfer in multimedia learning environments. Seductive details were interesting yet irrelevant sentences in the instructional text. Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to identify context-dependent and…

  19. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  20. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  1. The Mean as Balance Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    There are two primary interpretations of the mean: as a leveler of data (Uccellini 1996, pp. 113-114) and as a balance point of a data set. Typically, both interpretations of the mean are ignored in elementary school and middle school curricula. They are replaced with a rote emphasis on calculation using the standard algorithm. When students are…

  2. Flexible-Rotor Balancing Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes method for balancing high-speed rotors at relatively low speeds and discusses demonstration of method on laboratory test rig. Method ensures rotor brought up to speeds well over 20,000 r/min smoothly, without excessive vibration amplitude at critical speeds or at operating speed.

  3. Going International: The Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the balanced scorecard as a management system that provides a framework for strategic measurement which translates the vision and strategy of the organization in operational terms by four indicators: financial, process, employee and client satisfaction, and results. Also considers the importance of cultural differences in performance…

  4. Tautologies of work life balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van F.M.; Vos, J.P.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2002-01-01

    This conceptual contribution resembles the central theme of the 2002 SUSTAIN meeting and is about tautologies of Work Life Balance. It will be argued, that in Open-Systems Thinking the tautological character of work and non-work is obscured because the system and its environment are defined in an

  5. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...

  6. Dynamic balance in elite karateka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Mapelli, Andrea; Shirai, Yuri Francesca; Ciprandi, Daniela; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-12-01

    In karate, balance control represents a key performance determinant. With the hypothesis that high-level athletes display advanced balance abilities, the purpose of the current study was to quantitatively investigate the motor strategies adopted by elite and non-elite karateka to maintain balance control in competition. The execution of traditional karate techniques (kihon) in two groups of elite Masters (n = 6, 31 ± 19 years) and non-elite Practitioners (n = 4, 25 ± 9 years) was compared assessing body center of mass (CoM) kinematics and other relevant parameters like step width and angular joint behavior. In the considered kihon sequence, normalized average CoM height was 8% lower (p < 0.05), while CoM displacement in the horizontal direction was significantly higher in Masters than in Practitioners (2.5 vs. 1.9 m, p < 0.05), as well as CoM average velocity and rms acceleration (p < 0.05). Step width was higher in Masters in more than half of the sequence steps (p < 0.05). Results suggest that elite karateka showed a refined dynamic balance control, obtained through the increase of the base of support and different maneuvers of lower limbs. The proposed method could be used to objectively detect talented karateka, to measure proficiency level and to assess training effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Revenue vs. Service Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarese, John

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, students at the University of Vermont (UVM) had to carry separate ID cards, meal cards, and athletic cards. Today, the single CATcard combines all of these functions, plus library privileges, an optional declining balance program called CAT$cratch, access to computer labs, use of vending machines without quarters, and even a ride on…

  8. PANDA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Zwart, P.; Langedijk, G.J.; Mijnarends, P.E.

    1988-11-01

    A full account is given of the design, construction and operation of an experimental apparatus for the measurement of the angular correlation of positron-annihilation radiation in two dimensions (2D ACAR). The 2D ACAR technique is insensitive to the electronic mean-free-path and can be applied to pure metals as well as non-dilute alloys and compounds to obtain valuable information on the band structure and Fermi-surface geometry. The apparatus consists of two 30 x 30 cm 2 hybrid (high-density) multi-wire-chamber γ detectors at variable distances from 5 to 12 m at opposite sides of a variable temperature cryostat which contains a 6.5 T superconducting magnet. The detectors, the coded centre-of-gravity position read-out method employed, the associated electronics and computer software are described in detail. Operational characteristics and results are presented. A net detection efficiency of 6% and an angular resolution of 0.21 x 0.31 mrad 2 (0.029 x 0.042 a.u. 2 ) are reproducibly obtained. Parameters affecting the performance of the system are discussed. An improvement of the efficiency to over 10% by relatively simple measures is foreseen

  9. Unsaturated b-ketoesters and their Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMED BASHEER UMMATHUR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new series of b-ketoesters in which the keto group is attached to the olefinic linkage were synthesized by the reaction of methyl acetoacetate and aromatic aldehydes under specified conditions. The existence of these compounds predominantly in the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded enol form was well demonstrated from their IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectral data. Details on the formation of their [ML2] complexes with Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II and the nature of the bonding are discussed on the basis of analytical and spectral data.

  10. An exposure-response database for detailed toxicity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, George M.

    2008-01-01

    Risk assessment for human health effects often depends on evaluation of toxicological literature from a variety of sources. Risk assessors have limited resources for obtaining raw data, performing follow-on analyses or initiating new studies. These constraints must be balanced against a need to improve scientific credibility through improved statistical and analytical methods that optimize the use of available information. Computerized databases are used in toxicological risk assessment both for storing data and performing predictive analyses. Many systems provide primarily either bibliographic information or summary factual data from toxicological studies; few provide adequate information to allow application of dose-response models. The Exposure-Response database (ERDB) described here fills this gap by allowing entry of sufficiently detailed information on experimental design and results for each study, while limiting data entry to the most relevant. ERDB was designed to contain information from the open literature to support dose-response assessment and allow a high level of automation in performance of various types of dose-response analyses. Specifically, ERDB supports emerging analytical approaches for dose-response assessment, while accommodating the diverse nature of published literature. Exposure and response data are accessible in a relational multi-table design, with closely controlled standard fields for recording values and free-text fields to describe unique aspects of the study. Additional comparative analyses are made possible through summary tables and graphic representations of the data contained within ERDB

  11. Cd(II), Cu(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Depending on the way goethite was pretreated with oxalic acid, affinity for Cd(II) varied ...... Effects and mechanisms of oxalate on Cd(II) adsorption on goethite at different ... precipitation, surfactant mediation, hydrothermal and micro-emulsion.

  12. Macrocyclic receptor showing extremely high Sr(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Ca(II) selectivities with potential application in chelation treatment of metal intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreirós-Martínez, Raquel; Esteban-Gómez, David; Tóth, Éva; de Blas, Andrés; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa

    2011-04-18

    Herein we report a detailed investigation of the complexation properties of the macrocyclic decadentate receptor N,N'-Bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridil)methyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 (H(2)bp18c6) toward different divalent metal ions [Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Sr(II), and Ca(II)] in aqueous solution. We have found that this ligand is especially suited for the complexation of large metal ions such as Sr(II) and Pb(II), which results in very high Pb(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) selectivities (in fact, higher than those found for ligands widely used for the treatment of lead poisoning such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta)), as well as in the highest Sr(II)/Ca(II) selectivity reported so far. These results have been rationalized on the basis of the structure of the complexes. X-ray crystal diffraction, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as theoretical calculations at the density functional theory (B3LYP) level have been performed. Our results indicate that for large metal ions such as Pb(II) and Sr(II) the most stable conformation is Δ(δλδ)(δλδ), while for Ca(II) our calculations predict the Δ(λδλ)(λδλ) form being the most stable one. The selectivity that bp18c6(2-) shows for Sr(II) over Ca(II) can be attributed to a better fit between the large Sr(II) ions and the relatively large crown fragment of the ligand. The X-ray crystal structure of the Pb(II) complex shows that the Δ(δλδ)(δλδ) conformation observed in solution is also maintained in the solid state. The Pb(II) ion is endocyclically coordinated, being directly bound to the 10 donor atoms of the ligand. The bond distances to the donor atoms of the pendant arms (2.55-2.60 Å) are substantially shorter than those between the metal ion and the donor atoms of the crown moiety (2.92-3.04 Å). This is a typical situation observed for the so-called hemidirected compounds, in which the Pb(II) lone pair is stereochemically active. The X-ray structures of the Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes show that

  13. Does Nintendo Wii Balance Board improve standing balance? A randomized controlled trial in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Guzman-Muñoz, Eduardo; Soto-Poblete, Alex; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Elgueta-Cancino, Edith; Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    Evidence on the effect of systemic exercise programs to improve the standing balance with the Nintendo Wii system is very limited and its post-treatment effectiveness is unknown in cerebral palsy (CP) patients. Primary aim was to compare the effect of Nintendo Wii balance board (Wii-therapy) and standard physiotherapy (SPT), on the performance of standing balance in children and adolescents with CP. Secondary aim was to determine the post-treatment effectiveness of Wii-therapy and SPT. Two-arm, matched-pairs, parallel-groups, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Outpatient Rehabilitation Centre in the city of Talca. Patients with CP type spastic hemiplegia (SHE) and spastic diplegia (SDI), aged 7 to 14 years, and level I or II of GMFCS or GMFCS-ER. Were excluded patients with FSIQWii-therapy (SDI=7; SHE=9) or SPT intervention (SDI=7; SHE=9). In each group, patients received three sessions per week over a period of 6 weeks. Standing balance was assessed at baseline and every 2 weeks. Additionally, two follow-up assessments (4 additional weeks) were performed to determine post-treatment effectiveness. Standing balance was quantified on force platform obtaining the outcomes area of center-of-pressure (CoP) sway (CoPSway), standard deviation in the medial-lateral (SDML) and the anterior-posterior (SDAP) directions, and velocity in both directions (VML and VAP). Compared to SPT, Wii-therapy significantly reduced the CoPSway (P=0.02) and SDAP in the eyes-open condition (P=0.01). However, the effects wane after 2-4 weeks. Post-hoc analysis revealed that only SHE children benefited from Wii-therapy. Wii-therapy was better than SPT in improving standing balance in patients with CP, but improves the balance only in SHE patients. Also, Wii-therapy effectiveness waned 2-4 weeks after the end the intervention. A systematic exercise program like Wii-therapy using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board device can be considered to improves the standing balance in patients with CP

  14. Determination of the maximum MGS mounting height : phase II detailed analysis with LS-DYNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the maximum Midwest Guardrail System (MGS) mounting height was performed in two phases. : Phase I concentrated on crash testing: two full-scale crash tests were performed on the MGS with top-rail mounting heights : of 34 in. (864 mm)...

  15. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. DETAILED ABUNDANCE RATIOS AT LARGE RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Gunn, James E.; Raskutti, Sudhir [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl [Department of Astronomy, UT Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We study the radial dependence in stellar populations of 33 nearby early-type galaxies with central stellar velocity dispersions σ{sub *} ∼> 150 km s{sup –1}. We measure stellar population properties in composite spectra, and use ratios of these composites to highlight the largest spectral changes as a function of radius. Based on stellar population modeling, the typical star at 2R{sub e} is old (∼10 Gyr), relatively metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≈ –0.5), and α-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ≈ 0.3). The stars were made rapidly at z ≈ 1.5-2 in shallow potential wells. Declining radial gradients in [C/Fe], which follow [Fe/H], also arise from rapid star formation timescales due to declining carbon yields from low-metallicity massive stars. In contrast, [N/Fe] remains high at large radius. Stars at large radius have different abundance ratio patterns from stars in the center of any present-day galaxy, but are similar to average Milky Way thick disk stars. Our observations are thus consistent with a picture in which the stellar outskirts are built up through minor mergers with disky galaxies whose star formation is truncated early (z ≈ 1.5-2)

  16. Separated and Nonseparated Turbulent Flows about Axisymmetric Nozzle Afterbodies. Part II. Detailed Flow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    total pressures and the model static pressures were converted to a d-c electrical signal by one of two Scanivalve ®, Druck Model PDCR22, 0- to l0...31 3d 33 3+ 3’:, 3~ 3~ ~d ~ 4 4 b 4 h ,.,.9 50 0 , 0 0 + 0 . 0 9 9 n . 0 1 4 0.019 0 , 0 ~ 4 0 . 0 2 9 C . 0 3 ~ ~ . 0 3...1 ° 5 8 5 £ 02 0 .322 - 1 ° 2 5 b £ O~ 0,3~2 - 9 . f i ~ 3 £ t)l 0 ,36~ - 7 , b P ~ £ 01 0 . 3d ~ - 5 , ~ 3 9 £ Ol 0 , ~ 0 ~ - ~ ° 5 1

  17. Remote monitoring of fatigue-sensitive details on bridges : [part I and II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Fatigue is one of the most critical problems for steel bridges as well as for any steel structures that needs : to be considered during design and operation. The objectives of this study are to explore monitoring : technologies, and to develop effect...

  18. Detailed modeling of mountain wave PSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play a key role in polar ozone depletion. In the Arctic, PSCs can occur on the mesoscale due to orographically induced gravity waves. Here we present a detailed study of a mountain wave PSC event on 25-27 January 2000 over Scandinavia. The mountain wave PSCs were intensively observed by in-situ and remote-sensing techniques during the second phase of the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 Arctic campaign. We use these excellent data of PSC observations on 3 successive days to analyze the PSCs and to perform a detailed comparison with modeled clouds. We simulated the 3-dimensional PSC structure on all 3 days with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model and a microphysical box model (using best available nucleation rates for ice and nitric acid trihydrate particles. We show that the combined mesoscale/microphysical model is capable of reproducing the PSC measurements within the uncertainty of data interpretation with respect to spatial dimensions, temporal development and microphysical properties, without manipulating temperatures or using other tuning parameters. In contrast, microphysical modeling based upon coarser scale global NWP data, e.g. current ECMWF analysis data, cannot reproduce observations, in particular the occurrence of ice and nitric acid trihydrate clouds. Combined mesoscale/microphysical modeling may be used for detailed a posteriori PSC analysis and for future Arctic campaign flight and mission planning. The fact that remote sensing alone cannot further constrain model results due to uncertainities in the interpretation of measurements, underlines the need for synchronous in-situ PSC observations in campaigns.

  19. IPUMS: Detailed global data on population characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, T.

    2017-12-01

    Many new and exciting sources of data on human population distributions based on remote sensing, mobile technology, and other mechanisms are becoming available. These new data sources often provide fine scale spatial and/or temporal resolution. However, they typically focus on the location of population, with little or no information on population characteristics. The large and growing collection of data available through the IPUMS family of products complements datasets that provide spatial and temporal detail but little attribute detail by providing the full depth of characteristics covered by population censuses, including demographic, household structure, economic, employment, education, and housing characteristics. IPUMS International provides census microdata for 85 countries. Microdata provide the responses to every census question for each individual in a sample of households. Microdata identify the sub-national geographic unit in which a household is located, but for confidentiality reasons, identified units must include a minimum population, typically 20,000 people. Small-area aggregate data often describe much smaller geographic units, enabling study of detailed spatial patterns of population characteristics. However the structure of aggregate data tables is highly heterogeneous across countries, census years, and even topics within a given census, making these data difficult to work with in any systematic way. A recently funded project will assemble small-area aggregate population and agricultural census data published by national statistical offices. Through preliminary work collecting and cataloging over 10,000 tables, we have identified a small number of structural families that can be used to organize the many different structures. These structural families will form the basis for software tools to document and standardize the tables for ingest into a common database. Both the microdata and aggregate data are made available through IPUMS Terra

  20. Combustion of a Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning used as biosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronda, A., E-mail: alirg@ugr.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Della Zassa, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, 35131 Padova (Italy); Martín-Lara, M.A.; Calero, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Canu, P. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The fate of Pb during combustion at two scales of investigation was studied. • Results from combustion in a flow reactor and in the thermobalance were consistent. • The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes. • The Pb does not interfere in the use of OTP as fuel. • The combustion of Pb(II)-loaded OTP does not cause environmental hazards. - Abstract: The olive tree pruning is a specific agroindustrial waste that can be successfully used as adsorbent, to remove Pb(II) from contaminated wastewater. Its final incineration has been studied in a thermobalance and in a laboratory flow reactor. The study aims at evaluating the fate of Pb during combustion, at two different scales of investigation. The flow reactor can treat samples approximately 10{sup 2} larger than the conventional TGA. A detailed characterization of the raw and Pb(II)-loaded waste, before and after combustion is presented, including analysis of gas and solids products. The Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning has been prepared by a previous biosorption step in a lead solution, reaching a concentration of lead of 2.3 wt%. Several characterizations of the ashes and the mass balances proved that after the combustion, all the lead presents in the waste remained in ashes. Combustion in a flow reactor produced results consistent with those obtained in the thermobalance. It is thus confirmed that the combustion of Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning is a viable option to use it after the biosorption process. The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes, preventing possible environmental hazards.