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Sample records for desulfurization process annual

  1. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue gas desulfurization processes such as lime/limestone have beendiscussed.

  2. Coal desulfurization through reverse micelle biocatalysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Yen, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel bioprocess using micelle biocatalysis has been attempted to minimize several disadvantages of conventional microbial coal desulfurization scale-up processes. The reverse micelle biocatalysis process consists of a water-immiscible organic medium, a surfactant, an aqueous phase and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria or enzymes. This process has been successful for removing sulfur from bituminous coal (Illinois coal 5). The preliminary results showed that coal desulfurization through the use of cell-free enzyme extracts of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 was better than that of bacteria itself. The use of enzymes has shown potential for commercial coal desulfurization process as well. This same process is being applied to the thermophillic bacteria Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ATCC 33909. The implications of these experimental results are discussed, including a hypothetical mechanism using reverse micelle biocatalytical process for coal desulfurization.

  3. An advanced coal gasification desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Leppin, D. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA)); Banerjee, D.D. (Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Carterville, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in the process of developing an advanced coal gasification desulfurization process in which a calcium-based sorbent such as limestone or dolomite is injected into the fluidized-bed gasifier with coal to achieve in-bed desulfurization of coal as it is converted into clean fuel gas. The reactions involving calcium-based sorbents takes place in two steps. In the first step, the desulfurization reaction takes place between hydrogen sulfide and calcium oxide in the reducing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfide. The latter subsequently reacts with oxygen in the oxidizing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfate which can be safely disposed of along with the coal ash. This process will reduce the capital requirement for coal gasification plants and provide cost effective alternatives to scrubbers for industrial and utility use of high-sulfur coal. This paper addresses the basic research being conducted at IGT to confirm the viability of this process. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Experimental Study on Deep Desulfurizer in LF Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long; PEI Fen; CHEN Yut; LI Shi-qi

    2012-01-01

    CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO was selected as the slag system for desulfurization in LF process.The reaction between steel and slag during desulfurization has been simulated by using Factsage software to study the influence of component on the sulfur distribution ratio.In order to research the influence of CaO content,aluminum powder content and its granularity on desulfurization,laboratory experiments have been carried out in a 200 kg inductive furnace.Results showed that the optimal composition of deep desulfurizer is wCaO=64% and aluminium powder 10% with a granularity of 30 μm.Industrial trials showed that the main composition range of final slag in LF process is wCaO=53.0%-57.0%,wAl2O3=23.4%-25.1%,wSiO2=8.1%-10.0%,and wCaF2=3.2%-4.7%.The sulfur mass percent in steel is lower than 0.0008% with a desulfurization rate above 89%.According to the result of industrial production,this desulfurizer could meet the production requirement for ultra-low sulfur steel,of which sulfur mass percent is under 0.0015%

  5. Comparison of deep desulfurization methods in alumina production process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘战伟; 李旺兴; 马文会; 尹中林; 武国宝

    2015-01-01

    Several methods of deep desulfurization in alumina production process were studied, and the costs of these methods were compared. It is found that most of the S2− in sodium aluminate solution can be removed by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide in digestion process, and in this way the effect of S2− on alumina product quality is eliminated. However, the removal efficiency of2-23SOin sodium aluminate solution is very low by this method. Both S2− and2-23SO in sodium aluminate solution can be removed completely by wet oxidation method in digestion process. The cost of desulfurization by wet oxidation is lower than by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide. The results of this research reveal that wet oxidation is an economical and feasible method for the removal of sulfur in alumina production process to improve alumina quality, and provide valuable guidelines for alumina production by high-sulfur bauxite.

  6. Mass Transfer Model of Desulfurization in the Electroslag Remelting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Jiang, Zhou-Hua; Dong, Yan-Wu; Li, Yang; Gong, Wei; Liu, Fu-Bin

    2017-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of the slag on desulfurization during the electroslag remelting (ESR) process with a focus of developing a mass transfer model to understand the mechanism of desulfurization. Stainless steel 1Cr21Ni5Ti was used as the electrode and remelted with two different kinds of slags using a 50-kg ESR furnace. The contents of sulfur along the axial direction of product ingots were analyzed. It was found that the sulfur content of 350 ppm in the electrode is reduced to 71 to 95 ppm in the ingot by remelting with the slag containing 5 wt pct of CaO, and lowered more to 47 to 59 ppm with another slag having 20 wt pct CaO. On the basis of the penetration and film theories, the theoretical model developed in this work well elucidates the kinetics of desulfurization revealing the mechanism of sulfur transfer during the ESR process. The calculation results obtained from the model agree well with the experimental results. The model indicates that when sulfur content in electrode is given, there is a corresponding minimum value of sulfur content in the ingot due to the kinetics limit. This lowest sulfur content cannot be further reduced even with increasing L S (sulfur distribution coefficient between metal and slag phases) or decreasing sulfur content in the slag. Constant addition of extra amount of CaO to the molten slag with the increase of sulfur content in the slag during the remelting process can improve the macrosegregation of sulfur distributed along the axial direction of ESR ingots. Since the rate-determining steps of the sulfur mass transfer lie in the metal phase, adding calcium as deoxidizer can change mass transfer of sulfur and thus promote desulfurization further during the ESR process.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SMOVEN PROCESS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭万旺; 步学朋; 王乃计; 戢绪国; 谢可玉

    1997-01-01

    The Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry (BRICC) is developing the SMOVEN process for hot gas desulfurization. The SMOVEN process features sulfidation in an entrained bed, regeneration in a low velocity fluid bed or a moving bed with oxygen and sorbent circulation controlled by gas stream. A series of tests on the bench scale unit and the continuous process development unit were carried out. The regenerable metal oxide sorbents were adopted for the sulfurrelated components removing from coal gas at the temperature of 550~650℃. A fluidized bed gasifier of 100mm (id) generated coal gas for tests. The principle of SMOVEN process has been positively verified.

  8. Applying ACF to Desulfurization Process from Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义; 张智刚; 唐强; 曹子栋

    2004-01-01

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used.Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost.

  9. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  10. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  11. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  12. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  13. Development of Desulfurization Process Technology in Combinative Methanol Process%联醇工艺中脱硫工艺技术的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜鑫

    2012-01-01

    Author has discussed and compared the technical principle and process feature for tannin extract dcsulfurization method, ADA desulfuriza- tion process, PDS desulfurization process, Zinc oxide desulfurization process,iron-oxide desulfurization process, active carbon desulfurization process, Fe-Mo hydrogenation reformation method desulfurization process, organic sulfur hydrolysis desulfurization process, which were adopted during process of raw material gas desulfurization in combinative methanol process ; has presented that making the wet desulfurization process and dry desulfurization process was reasonably combined, and in combination with selecting idea for desulfurization process of organic sulfur hydrolysis unit; has summarized the important role in combinative methanol production process for desulfurization process of "desulfurization in 3 times and reformation in 2 times".%论述和对比了联醇工艺中原料气脱硫所采用的栲胶脱硫工艺、ADA脱硫工艺、PDS脱硫工艺、氧化锌脱硫工艺、氧化铁脱硫工艺、活性炭脱硫工艺、铁钼加氢转化法脱硫工艺、有机硫水解脱硫工艺的技术原理和工艺特点;提出了将湿法脱硫与干法脱硫工艺进行合理组合,并结合有机硫水解装置的脱硫工艺选择理念;总结了“3次脱硫2次转化”脱硫工艺在联醇生产中的重要作用。

  14. Effect of Slag Chemistry on the Desulfurization Kinetics in Secondary Refining Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Gyu; Shin, Jae Hong; Chung, Yongsug; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Desulfurization behavior was investigated based on a wide slag composition and working temperature range. Moreover, the rate-controlling step (RCS) for desulfurization with regard to the ladle-refining conditions and the transition of the RCS by changing the slag composition was systematically discussed. The desulfurization ratio reached an equilibrium value within approximately 15 minutes irrespective of the CaO/Al2O3 (=C/A = 1.3 to 1.9) and CaO/SiO2 (=C/S = 3.8 to 6.3) ratios. However, the desulfurization behavior of less basic slags (C/A = 1.1 or C/S = 1.9) exhibited a relatively sluggish [S]-decreasing rate as a function of time. The equilibrium S partition ratio increased with an increase in slag basicity (C/A and C/S ratio), not only due to an increase in sulfide capacity but also due to a decrease in oxygen activity in the molten steel. There was a good correlation between the calculated and measured S partition ratios at various slag compositions. However, the measured S partition ratio increased by adding 5 pct CaF2, followed by a constant value. Multiphase slag exhibited a relatively slow desulfurization rate compared to that of fully liquid slag, possibly due to a decrease in the effective liquid slag volume, interfacial reaction area, and a relatively slow slag initial melting rate due to a high melting point. The activation energy of the desulfurization process was estimated to be 58.7 kJ/mol, from which it was proposed that the desulfurization reaction of molten steel via CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-CaF2 ladle slag was generally controlled by the mass transfer of sulfur in the metal phase. However, there was a transitional period associated with the rate-controlling mechanism due to a change in the physicochemical properties of the slag. For slag with a viscosity greater than about 1.1 dPa·s and an equilibrium S partition ratio lower than about 400, the overall mass-transfer coefficient was affected by the slag properties. Hence, it was theoretically and

  15. Effect of Slag Chemistry on the Desulfurization Kinetics in Secondary Refining Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Gyu; Shin, Jae Hong; Chung, Yongsug; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Desulfurization behavior was investigated based on a wide slag composition and working temperature range. Moreover, the rate-controlling step (RCS) for desulfurization with regard to the ladle-refining conditions and the transition of the RCS by changing the slag composition was systematically discussed. The desulfurization ratio reached an equilibrium value within approximately 15 minutes irrespective of the CaO/Al2O3 (=C/A = 1.3 to 1.9) and CaO/SiO2 (=C/S = 3.8 to 6.3) ratios. However, the desulfurization behavior of less basic slags (C/A = 1.1 or C/S = 1.9) exhibited a relatively sluggish [S]-decreasing rate as a function of time. The equilibrium S partition ratio increased with an increase in slag basicity (C/A and C/S ratio), not only due to an increase in sulfide capacity but also due to a decrease in oxygen activity in the molten steel. There was a good correlation between the calculated and measured S partition ratios at various slag compositions. However, the measured S partition ratio increased by adding 5 pct CaF2, followed by a constant value. Multiphase slag exhibited a relatively slow desulfurization rate compared to that of fully liquid slag, possibly due to a decrease in the effective liquid slag volume, interfacial reaction area, and a relatively slow slag initial melting rate due to a high melting point. The activation energy of the desulfurization process was estimated to be 58.7 kJ/mol, from which it was proposed that the desulfurization reaction of molten steel via CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-CaF2 ladle slag was generally controlled by the mass transfer of sulfur in the metal phase. However, there was a transitional period associated with the rate-controlling mechanism due to a change in the physicochemical properties of the slag. For slag with a viscosity greater than about 1.1 dPa·s and an equilibrium S partition ratio lower than about 400, the overall mass-transfer coefficient was affected by the slag properties. Hence, it was theoretically and

  16. Feasibility of an innovative integrated process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification for high strength wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-jie; LIU Chun-shuang; REN Nan-qi; DENG Xu-liang; WAN Chun-li; YU Zhen-guo; XU Xin

    2008-01-01

    An anaerobic expanding-bed reactor was adopted to investigate the feasibility of an innovative inte-grated process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification (SDD) for high strength wastewater. In the re-actor, beterotrophic bacteria (including sulfate reducing bacterium and denitrifying bacteria) and autotrophic bacteria (including Thiobacillus denitrificans) cooperated together by incubating and enriching functional bac-teria on different carriers in the anaerobic activated sludge. Synthetic wastewater with high concentrations of sul-fate and nitrate was employed. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiency of sulfate and nitrate was above 85%, elemental sulfur was observed while nitrate was absent in effluent. The balance of sulfur, ni-trogen and electron was discussed respectively, which indicated that the integrated SDD process could be actual-ized. These results might provide a guidance to further investigate the key factors affecting the integrated SDD process and to improve the efficiency of desulfurization and denitrification in wastewater treatment.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  18. A complementary and synergistic effect of Fe-Zn binary metal oxide in the process of high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁斯灏; 吴幼青

    1996-01-01

    57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to investigate the evolution of Fe-Zn binary metal oxide sorbent in the process of high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization. The results of phase analyses show that Fe-Zn binary metal oxide sorbent is rapidly reduced in hot fuel gas and decomposed to new phases of highly dispersed microcrystalline elemental iron and zinc oxide, both of which become the active desulfurization constituents. A complementary and synergistic effect between active iron acting as a high sulfur capacity constituent and active zinc oxide acting as a deep refining desulfurization constituent exists in this type of sorbent for hot fuel gas desulfurization.

  19. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  20. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  1. Commercial Test of Multi-functional Desulfurizing Agent TS-01 for Gasoline in FCC Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Zhi; Wu Yingjian; Yu Weisheng

    2003-01-01

    Experimental use of multi-functional desulfurizing agent TS-01 for FCC gasoline in the FCC unitof SINOPEC Jiujiang Company shows that the multi-functional desulfurizing agent can effectivelyremove various kinds of sulfur in FCC gasoline and diesel fuel and fulfill passivation on heavy metals.

  2. The influence of process parameters on desulfurization of Mezino coal by HNO{sub 3}/HCl leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, H.G.; Moghaddam, A.Z.; Omidkhah, M.R. [Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    Coal desulfurization prior to usage is a preprocessing in order to achieve clean fuel and reduce environmental impacts such as acid rain. Desulfurization of Tabas Mezino coal was conducted with two consecutive steps of froth flotation at ambient temperature followed by leaching at various conditions. Reducing the ash content of Mezino coal by 35.7 wt.% and its total sulfur content by 36.9% using froth flotation process was successful. HCl and HNO{sub 3} were used, separately, to leach the floated coal, and the effectiveness of each acid on Mezino coal desulfurization was investigated. Nitric acid was found to be much more effective than HCl and the effects of reaction time, acid concentration and temperatures as well as stirring speed were studied as major parameters in the nitric leaching process. Taguchi orthogonal experiment with the above mentioned parameter elements; one at three levels was used to optimize the experiment parameters by the analysis of variances. Applying of the Taguchi technique significantly reduced the time and cost required for the experimental investigation. The findings indicated that acid concentration, with a high contribution, had the most dominant effect on desulfurization performance, followed by temperature, stirring speed and time. Accordingly, the optimum condition was obtained as, temperature: 90 C., acid concentration: 30%., and stirring rate: 1000 rpm. The total sulfur and ash removal after flotation and leaching at optimum condition reached to 75.4 and 53.2% respectively that is a remarkable result compared to the previous works. (author)

  3. Transport—Reaction Process in the Reaction of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanYan; DuuJongLee; 等

    2000-01-01

    A theoreticasl investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization.A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed,which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time.BHased on this model,the reaction rate and t6he absorbent utilization can be calculated.The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time,the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa,the optimum initial radius and absorent concentration are 210-310μm and 23% respectively.The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  4. Surface characterization of adsorbents in ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization process of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Omid; Yen, Teh Fu

    2007-09-01

    Surface properties of two different phases of alumina were studied through SEM images. Characterization of amorphous acidic alumina and crystalline boehmite by XRD explains the differences in adsorption capacities of each sample. Data from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) provide further results regarding the ordering in amorphous and crystalline samples of alumina. Quantitative measurements from SANS are used for pore size calculations. Higher disorder provides more topological traps, irregularities, and hidden grooves for higher adsorption capacity. An isotherm model was derived for adsorption of dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO) by amorphous acidic alumina to predict and calculate the adsorption of sulfur compounds. The Langmuir-Freundlich model covers a wide range of sulfur concentrations. Experiments prove that amorphous acidic alumina is the adsorbent of choice for selective adsorption in the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process to produce ultra-low-sulfur fuel (ULSF).

  5. 铝酸钡与氢氧化钡脱硫过程比较%Comparison of Barium Aluminate and Barium Hydroxide Desulfurization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张念炳; 黎志英; 丁彤

    2012-01-01

    The seed precipitation liquor was desulfurized with barium aluminate and barium hydroxide respectively. The desulfurization slag was characterized by XRD analysis, and the desulfurization process was compared. The results show that barium hydroxide exceeds barium aluminate with better desulfurization in terms of effect, speed and duration. In the desulfurization process with barium aluminate, 2BaO · Al2O3 · 5H2O is firstly produced in the reaction of barium aluminate with alkali, and then it reacts with sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate. To compare, Ba(OH)2 · 8H2O directly reacts with sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate in the desulfurization process with barium hydroxide. Both of desulfurization reaction processes can be described with "shrinking core model".%用铝酸钡和氢氧化钡对种分母液进行脱硫试验,对脱硫渣进行XRD分析,并比较脱硫过程.结果表明,氢氧化钡的脱硫效果更好,脱硫完成时间更短,速率更快;铝酸钡先与碱液反应生成2BaO·Al2O3·5H2O,再与硫碱和碳碱反应,而氢氧化钡直接与硫碱和碳碱反应,脱硫过程均可用未反应核模型描述.

  6. Three annual flue gas desulfurization gypsum applications on macronutrient and micronutrient losses in runoff from bermudagrass fertilized with poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable amounts of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are being produced as a by-product of generating electricity. As a result, beneficial reuse of this by-product is being sought to reduce landfilling and its associated cost. The use of this byproduct as a low-cost soil amendment for suppl...

  7. A NOVEL VAPOR-PHASE PROCESS FOR DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF NAPHTHA/DIESEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.S. Turk; R.P. Gupta; S.K. Gangwal

    2003-06-30

    Tier 2 regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require a substantial reduction in the sulfur content of gasoline. Similar regulations have been enacted for the sulfur level in on-road diesel and recently off-road diesel. The removal of this sulfur with existing and installed technology faces technical and economic challenges. These challenges created the opportunity for new emerging technologies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) with subcontract support from Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc., (KBR) used this opportunity to develop RTI's transport reactor naphtha desulfurization (TReND) process. Starting with a simple conceptual process design and some laboratory results that showed promise, RTI initiated an accelerated research program for sorbent development, process development, and marketing and commercialization. Sorbent development has resulted in the identification of an active and attrition resistant sorbent that has been prepared in commercial equipment in 100 lb batches. Process development has demonstrated both the sulfur removal performance and regeneration potential of this sorbent. Process development has scaled up testing from small laboratory to pilot plant transport reactor testing. Testing in the transport reactor pilot plant has demonstrated the attrition resistance, selective sulfur removal activity, and regeneration activity of this sorbent material. Marketing and commercialization activities have shown with the existing information that the process has significant capital and operating cost benefits over existing and other emerging technologies. The market assessment and analysis provided valuable feedback about the testing and performance requirements for the technical development program. This market analysis also provided a list of potential candidates for hosting a demonstration unit. Although the narrow window of opportunity generated by the new sulfur regulations and the conservative nature of the refining

  8. Kinetics of oxidation of total sulfite in the ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Y.; Zhong, Q.; Fan, X.Y.; Wang, X.R. [Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-10-15

    Using bubbling apparatus, the kinetics of oxidation of total sulfite in ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process was investigated by varying concentrations of SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, pH, temperatures and air flow. The concentration range of sulfite is 0.0044-0.026 gmol L{sup -1} and that of sulfate is 0.5-2 gmol L{sup -1}. Experiments were conducted at pH level of 4.5-6.5 and air flow ranging from 50 to 200 L h{sup -1}. In the temperature range of 303.15-333.15K, the reaction was found to be -0.5 order with respect to sulfite. The experimental findings also showed that the bisulfite could be oxidized easier than sulfite. Thus, keeping the pH level of the solution low is conducive to the oxidation of total sulfite. The apparent activation energy for the overall oxidation was calculated to be 28.0 kJ mol{sup -1}. A kinetic model has been derived according to the experimental results. The developed kinetic model, including the operating parameters SO{sub 3}2- concentration, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration, pH, temperature and air flow, can be applied to simulate the oxidation of total sulfite. This model would be useful for the design of the ammonia-based wet FGD system.

  9. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  10. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO2 sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O2 level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (~60% for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  11. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (similar to 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  12. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Braganca; J.L. Castellan [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidised bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (about 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, P.W.; Miknis, F.P.

    1997-09-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.

  14. Novel dry-desulfurization process using Ca(OH)2/fly ash sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Norihiko; Li, Yan; Nishioka, Masateru; Sadakata, Masayoshi; Qi, Haiying; Xu, Xuchang

    2004-12-15

    A dry-desulfurization process using Ca(OH)2/fly ash sorbent and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was developed. Its aim was to achieve high SO2 removal efficiency without humidification and production of CaSO4 as the main byproduct. The CaSO4 produced could be used to treat alkalized soil. An 83% SO2 removal rate was demonstrated, and a byproduct with a high CaSO4 content was produced through baghouse ash. These results indicated that this process could remove SO2 in flue gas with a high efficiency under dry conditions and simultaneously produce soil amendment. It was shown that NO and NO2 enhanced the SO2 removal rate markedly and that NO2 increased the amount of CaSO4 in the final product more than NO. These results confirmed that the significant effects of NO and NO2 on the SO2 removal rate were due to chain reactions that occurred under favorable conditions. The amount of baghouse ash produced increased as the reaction progressed, indicating that discharge of unreacted Ca(OH)2 from the reactor was suppressed. Hence, unreacted Ca(OH)2 had a long residence time in the CFB, resulting in a high SO2 removal rate. It was also found that 350 degrees C is the optimum reaction temperature for dry desulfurization in the range tested (320-380 degrees C).

  15. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzet, C.; Buonfiglio, V.; Polidoro, M.; Valenti, P. (Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Ist. di Microbiologia)

    This paper reviews the biochemical and economics aspects of coal desulfurization processes involving the use of thermophile microorganisms such as sulfolobus, currently believed to be the the only type of microorganism capable of degrading both inorganic (pyrite-containing) and organic sulfur compounds. Comments are also made on the feasibility of the development of an in-lab, microbial based method for the transformation of the lignin component, obtained in the processing, by anaerobic fermentation, of lignocellulosic biomass, into humic acid.

  16. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  17. An extremely rapid, convenient and mild coal desulfurization new process: Sodium borohydride reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhiling; Sun, Tonghua; Jia, Jinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The present work describes the desulfurization of coal using mildly reductive method. Both a Yanzhou and a Yanshan coal (referred to as YZ and YS coal, respectively), were treated in an aqueous media employing sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as reducing agent, which is a well known hydrogen storage. Reaction variables investigated include concentration of reductant, time, pH of initial media, temperature, stirring rate and particle size. The calorific values and ignition temperatures of the coal samples before and after treatment were determined. Results show that the total sulfur removal improved with the increase in the concentration of NaBH{sub 4}, shaking rate and temperature and with the decrease in the particle size. Meanwhile, decreasing the particle size from - 250 to - 109 {mu}m increased the organic sulfur removal by more than six times for either of the coal samples. Considering economic rationality and operational convenience, the desulfurization conditions determined were 1.6 mM of NaBH{sub 4} concentration, - 109 {mu}m of particle size, neutral pH of initial media, 1 min of treated time, 100 rpm of shaking rate, 30 C of temperature. This led to 23.8% and 59.0% reduction in the pyritic, 70.4% and 100% reduction in the sulfate, and 11.0% and 15.0% reduction in the organic sulfur, giving 31.3% and 40.8% reduction in the total sulfur for the YZ coal and the YS coal, respectively. Moreover, this resulted in the increase in the calorific values by 3.4-6.9% and the decrease in the ignition temperatures by 2-21 C for the coal samples. The desulfurization method described here is extremely rapid, convenient, inexpensive and mild, and therefore, has considerable technological interest. (author)

  18. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  19. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, J.K. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. (Holometrix, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  20. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  1. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  2. Effect of pH Value on the Desulfurization Process in Flue Gas Desulfurization%烟气脱硫中pH值对脱硫过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振华

    2014-01-01

    Wet Limestone - gypsum flue gas desulfurization system (FGD system) is currently dominant in the domestic coal-fired power plant FGD system. FGD is designed to chemically remove sulfur dioxide in the flue gas leaving the flue gas will be purified. pH value as a measure of gypsum slurry pH, is an important technical parameters of the desulfurization process, at the same time as an environmental indicators relate with chemical reaction. Utilization of limestone, desulfurization efficiency and quality of gypsum slurry are closely related with the control of pH value. We usually control the pH value by controlling the mixing amount of limestone (CaCO3). Increasing the pH value can increase the amount of limestone, and vice versa reduction. On operation, the stability of pH value must be maintained. Increasing the pH value will increase the alkalinity of system and desulfurization efficiency, but the utilization of limestone will be reduced, and accelerate the formation of scale, ultimately affect the quality of gypsum. Reducing the pH value will increase the acidity of the system, improve the utilization of limestone, accelerate precipitation of gypsum crystals, but it will also accelerate the corrosion of the system, make the system is unstable, and the desulfurization efficiency will be greatly reduced. Therefore, the control of slurry pH value should seek the best value to meet the requirements under the premise of the desulfurization rate and generally the pH is controlled in the best range of 5.0-5.8.%湿法石灰石-石膏烟气脱硫系统(即FGD系统)目前在国内外燃煤电站FGD系统中占绝对优势。FGD的目的是用化学方法除去烟气中的二氧化硫而使烟气得以净化。pH值作为石膏浆液酸碱度的度量,是脱硫工序中一项重要的技术参数,同时可作为一项与化学反应相关的环境指标。石灰石利用率、脱硫效率和石膏浆液品质等与pH值的控制密切相关。通常我们

  3. MTBE蒸馏脱硫工艺模拟%The simulation of MTBE desulfurization process by distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文钊; 韩志忠; 张玉东

    2011-01-01

    为使中国汽油达到欧V汽油的含硫标准,研究蒸馏脱硫工艺的可行性有实际意义.以甲基叔丁基硫醚为关键含硫组分,使用Aspen Hysys v 7.0模拟其与MTBE分离过程.按MTBE单塔蒸馏、双塔能量集成蒸馏和与分馏塔能量集成3种方案脱除硫化物,进料硫化物含量100 μg/g的条件下,塔顶MTBE含硫化合物1μg/g,3种方案吨产品蒸汽消耗分别为0.233 t、0.13t和0.08 t.MTBE中含硫化合物与MTBE容易分离,简单精馏可以实现深度脱硫.双塔能量集成方案比单塔直接分离方案节水50%,节约蒸汽45%.MTBE脱硫塔与MTBE分馏塔或催化蒸馏塔进行能量集成,不增加冷却水,蒸汽消耗每吨MTBE增加小于0.1 t.辅助塔可以使硫化物浓缩到99%(m/m),MTBE含硫化物30μg/g,可以混兑低硫产品中或循环回分离系统,MTBE几乎无损失.%To reach the Euro V fuel standard in terms of sulfur content, the study of the feasibility of desulfurization process by distillation was of practical value in China. MTBE desulfurization by distillation was simulated by Aspen Hysys v 7.0, with tert-butyl methyl sulfide as the key sulfur containing compound. Three cases were simulated with regard to one-column simple distillation, two columns at different pressure with energy integration configuration, and high pressure distillation integrating energy with MTBE separation column or with catalytic distillation column. The heating steam consumptions of the three cases were 0.233 ton, 0.131 ton and 0.08 ton for 1 ton of MTBE. Sulfide contents in MTBE could be lowered from 100 ug/g to 1 ug/g. Deep desulfurization could be achieved with simple distillation. The two-column energy integration method saved 50% water and 45% steam compared with one-column direct distillation. The amount of steam required for MTBE per ton increasing by less than 0.1 ton, the energy integration of MTBE desulfurization column with MTBE separation column or with the catalytic distillation

  4. Desulfurization at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panula-Nikkilae, E.; Kurkela, E.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Two high-temperature desulfurization methods, furnace injection and gasification-desulfurization are presented. In furnace injection, the efficiency of desulfurization is 50-60%, but this method is applied in energy production plants, where flue gas desulfurization cannot be used. Ca-based sorbents are used as desulfurization material. Factors affecting desulfurization and the effect of injection on the boiler and ash handling are discussed. In energy production based on gasification, very low sulfur emissions can be achieved by conventional low-temperature cleanup. However, high-temperature gas cleaning leads to higher efficiency and can be applied to smaller size classes. Ca-, Fe-, or Zn-based sorbents or mixed metals can be used for desulfurization. Most of the methods under development are based on the use of regenerative sorbents in a cleanup reactor located outside the gasifier. So far, only calcium compounds have been used for desulfurization inside the gasifier.

  5. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  6. Research on Method of Coke oven Gas Desulfurization Process%焦炉煤气脱硫效率分析及工艺选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛辉; 马强

    2012-01-01

    煤气中所含的硫会造成环境污染、催化剂中毒和设备腐蚀等不良影响。文章探讨了脱除焦炉煤气中硫化氢常用工艺方法的原理及利弊,总结出提高脱硫效率的方法,为选择合理、高效的脱硫工艺提供了帮助。%The sulfur contained in the gas will cause the adverse effects of environmental pollution,catalyst poisoning and equipment corrosion.The paper discussed the principle and the pros and cons of the removal of hydrogen sulfide in the coke oven gas commonly used process,summed up to improve the desulfurization efficiency for the selection of a reasonable,efficient desulfurization process has helped.

  7. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y.; Kato, K.; Kuroda, M.; Nakagawa, N. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  8. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  9. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  10. Desulfurizer desulphurization kinetics by the injection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun Han; Yanbin Hu; Wei Wu

    2008-01-01

    To obtain a better desulphurization effect in hot metal, suitable desulfurizers should be selected first according to thermodynamics. However, the effect of desulphurization is also strongly affected by kinetics. The conditions of different desulfurizers (Mg, CaC2, and lime) penetrating into hot metal, the rising up velocity in iron melt, residence time, and dissolving time are theoretically calculated and analyzed. The results are helpful to select the desulphurization process and equipment and to improve the desulphurization effect.

  11. Study on Kinetics for Desulfurization of Model Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Jianhua; Zhou Yuenan; Liu Lin; Wang Yue; Xing Jinjuan; Lü Hong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, by means of the experiments for desulfurization of model diesel through oxi-dative extraction, the changes associated with the rate of desulfurization of diesel and the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides in diesel were explored. Through studying the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides and the principle of solvent extraction, the kinetic equation of desulfurization via oxidative extraction were determined. By means of the evaluation of model parameters and curve fitting, the reaction order between organic sulfide and sulfone, the intrinsic oxidation rate constant of organic sulfide and sulfone, and the equilibrium constant between suifone in model diesel and extractive sol-vent were determined. The experimental values of the desulfurization rate and the theoretical values of the corresponding model equation had closely demonstrated that the desulfurization reaction rate had high accuracy. And the reaction kinetics could provide an important basis for diesel desulfurization process in the future.

  12. 烟气同时脱硫脱硝工艺的研究进展%Research Process in Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification of Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立坤

    2014-01-01

    煤的燃烧会释放大量的 SO2和 NOx,它们是导致酸雨和光化学烟雾等污染现象的主要污染物。燃煤电厂是我国煤消耗的主要场所,因此,控制硫、氮的排放应从燃煤电厂烟气脱硫脱硝的研究开始。对目前存在的几种烟气同时脱硫脱硝工艺进行了简要概述,主要包括等离子体法、氧化法、吸收及吸附法三类,并为脱硫脱硝工艺未来的发展提出了几点建议,以期为相关研究提供参考。%SO2 and NOx , products of the coal combustion, are the main wastes which lead to acid rain and photo-chemical smog. Coal-fired power plants are the principal places of China's coal consumption, therefore, study on desulfurization and denitrification of coal-fired power plant flue gas is the key to control sulfur and nitrogen emission. In this paper, several simultaneous denitrification and desulfurization processes of flue gas were introduced, such as plasma method, oxidation method, and adsorption method. Finally, some suggestions on the future development of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification process were put forward in order to provide reference for the related researches.

  13. 脱硫海水膜法曝气恢复试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON RECOVERY CAPABILITY OF DESULFURIZED SEAWATER BY MEMBRANE AERATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 郭春刚; 刘国昌; 张召才; 关毅鹏; 李晓明

    2013-01-01

    分别以空气和纯氧为曝气气源,采用自制聚丙烯中空纤维膜接触器为核心的曝气工艺装置,系统地考察脱硫海水初始pH、稀释体积比、曝气时间及纯氧曝气等因素对脱硫海水恢复效果的影响.结果表明,以空气为曝气气源,处理pH在2.70~5.20的脱硫海水,在曝气气水体积比为1/2~1/1、稀释体积比为3/1~5/1的工艺条件下,曝气时间为20 s,即可使脱硫海水水质指标迅速恢复,达标排放;应用纯氧曝气,相同工艺条件下,脱硫海水恢复效果优于空气曝气.研究结果初步证实了膜法曝气工艺用于处理沿海电厂海水烟气脱硫系统排放海水的可行性.%In the present study, the air and the oxygen were used as the aeration sources separately and the hydrophobic polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor was used as the core of the aeration equipment. Several important impact factors such as initial pH of desulfurized seawater, diluted ration, aeration time and oxygen aeration were investigated systematically. As the gas water ratio and the diluted ratio were kept between 1/2-1/1 and 3/l~5/l, respectively, the desulfurized seawater with pH 2.70~5.20 could be recovered rapidly at an aeration time of 20 s. The recovery of desulfurized seawater could be more efficient when the oxygen is used as the aeration source in the same processing conditions. The preliminary results showed that recovery of desulfurized seawater by membrane aeration process is feasible in coastal area.

  14. AN ADVANCED COAL DESULFURIZATION PROCESS——SELECTIVE FLOCCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡璋; 刘红缨; 吴军; 陈彩茶

    1997-01-01

    Selective flocculation is an idea separation method to separate ultrafine pyrite from coal. A number of selective flocculation separation tests under different conditions have been done and the results are very encouraging. The results also show that desulfurization and deashing can be finished simultaneously in selective flocculation process. It is an advanced coal desulfurization process.

  15. A Discussion on Advanced Wastewater Treatment Process for Sintering Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater%烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水深度处理流程探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘莉; 陈亮; 董进

    2016-01-01

    钢铁企业烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水成分复杂,废水处理典型的工艺流程废水经处理后不能完全达标外排,也不能作为烟气脱硫系统的回用水,探讨烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水深度处理流程,势在必行.%As the composition of sintering wet flue gas desulfurization wastewater in steel enterprises is complicated, the treated wastewater by typical treatment processes cannot fully meet discharge standard, nor can it be used as reuse water in the flue gas desulfuriza-tion system. The necessity of advanced treatment process for sintering flue gas desulfurization wastewater is discussed.

  16. U-GAS coal gasification process with in-situ desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium based sorbents such as limestone and dolomite have been used in conjunction with the U-GAS coal gasification process for in-situ capture of sulfur present in the coal. Under the reducing conditions of the gasifier, these sorbents react with sulfur compounds to form calcium sulfide. As a unique feature of the U-GAS process, the calcium sulfide could be further reacted with air in the ash discharge zone to form calcium sulfate, which is environmentally acceptable for disposal directly from the gasifier along with the agglomerated ash. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has conducted considerable testing in this area under different programs. The suitability of dolomite as in-situ sulfur capturing agent has been verified in U-GAS process using high-sulfur Pittsburgh coal. The gasification tests were conducted at 1850{degree}F in pressure ranges of 100 to 450 psig. The kinetics of the reaction between calcium based sorbents and hydrogen sulfide at these gasification conditions have been derived separately using a thermogravimetric technique. Effect of temperature, pressure, and particle size on the reaction rate were also included in these latter tests. Furthermore, the operating conditions and the type of sorbents suitable for achieving maximum calcium conversion to calcium sulfate during the oxidation step of the process have also been identified. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. A high capacity manganese-based sorbent for regenerative high temperature desulfurization with direct sulfur production conceptual process application to coal gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, W.J.W.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2003-12-15

    A high capacity, monolith or particle shaped, regenerable sorbent has been developed for the desulfurization of a dry type coal gas. It consists of crystalline MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a small amount of disperse MnO, and an amorphous Mn-Al-O phase. Elemental sulfur is the only observed regeneration product during regeneration with SO{sub 2}. The sorbent can be used in the temperature range between 673 and 1273 K but the optimum capacity is utilized between 1100 and 1200 K. For regeneration with SO{sub 2} the regeneration temperature should be > 873 K to avoid sulfate formation. The sulfur uptake capacity is high and amounts up to 20 wt.% S and the sorbent performance appears to be stable during at least 110 sulfiding and regeneration cycles at 1123 K. For temperatures above 1100 K thermodynamic calculations are in accordance with the observed (solid) phases after sulfiding and regeneration, indicating the predictive potential for high temperatures. The performance of the surface sites that play an important role during desulfurization can, however, not be predicted. The regenerative removal of H{sub 2}S, COS, HCl and HF can possibly take place simultaneously with the same sorbent. A new conceptual process configuration for high temperature coal gas cleaning and sorbent regeneration is proposed. Compared to other processes, less heat exchange equipment is required and no Claus unit is necessary to convert the regeneration product to sulfur.

  18. Utilization of the gypsum from a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Patel, V.; Lytle, J.M.; Chou, S.J.; Carty, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have been developing a process which converts FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer with precipitated calcium carbonate as a by-product during the conversion. Preliminary cost estimates suggest that the process is economically feasible when ammonium sulfate crystals are produced in a granular size (1.2 to 3.3 mm), instead of a powder form. However, if additional revenue from the sale of the PCC for higher-value commercial application is applicable, this could further improve the economics of the process. Ammonium sulfate is known to be an excellent source of nitrogen and sulfur in fertilizer for corn and wheat production. It was not known what impurities might co-exist in ammonium sulfate derived from scrubber gypsum. Before the product could be recommended for use on farm land, the impurities and their impact on soil productivity had to be assessed. The objectives of this phase of the study were to evaluate the chemical properties of ammonium sulfate made from the FGD-gypsum, to estimate its effects on soil productivity, and to survey the marketability of the two products. The results of this phase of the study indicated that the impurities in the ammonium sulfate produced would not impose any practical limitations on its use at application levels used by farmers. The market survey showed that the sale price of solid ammonium sulfate fertilizer increased significantly from 1974 at $110/ton to 1998 at $187/ton. Utilities currently pay $16 to $20/ton for the calcium carbonate they use in their flue gas scrubber system. The industries making animal-feed grade calcium supplement pay $30/ton to $67/m-ton for their source of calcium carbonate. Paper, paint, and plastic industries pay as much as $200 to $300/ton for their calcium carbonate filers. The increased sale price of solid ammonium sulfate fertilizer and the possible additional revenue from the sale of the PCC by-product could further improve the economics of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum.

  19. Characterization of the product of the thiosulfate process for desulfurization of flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, A.M.; Gupta, A. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and particle size analysis were used to characterize the product of the thiosulfate process. It was found to consist of a mixture of a solid solution of calcium sulfate in calcium sulfite hemihydrate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, and calcium carbonate. Reactions taking place on heating the byproduct were identified in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Pure calcium sulfite hemihydrate as well as solid solutions of CaSO[sub 4] in CaSO[sub 3] [center dot] (1/2)H[sub 2]O with different sulfate concentrations were synthesized in the laboratory. Thermal analyses of pure solid solutions proved that the higher the sulfate content, the higher is the dehydration temperature. Accordingly, taking SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  20. Microbial desulfurization of fuel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Culture conditions of desulfurization microbes were investigated with a bioreactor controlled by computer.Factors such as pH, choice of carbon source, optimal concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur sources were determined. The addition of carbon in a culture with a constant pH greatly improved the growth of Rhodococcus. Cells and cell debris from microbes rested using a sulfur- specific pathway were used to desulfurize diesel oil treated by hydrodesulfurization (acquired from the Research Institute of Fushun Petroleum with total sulfur level at 205 μg/mL).Strains 1awq, IG, X7B, ZT, ZCR, and a mixture of No. 5 and No. 6, were used in the biodesulfurization process. The reduction of total sulfur was between 10.6% and 90.3%.

  1. 旋转喷雾干燥脱硫工艺在烧结机上的应用%Application of rotating spray drying desulfurization process in the sintering machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱国

    2012-01-01

    328m2烧结机脱硫系统处理烟气量为198万m3/h,采用旋转喷雾干燥脱硫工艺进行全烟气脱硫.系统运行后SO2排放≤100mg/m3,脱硫效率≥90%,粉尘排放≤30mg/m3,完全满足国家环保要求.%The 328m2 sintering machine, flue gas handling capacity of the system is 1980000 mVh , using rotating spray drying desulfurization process for full flue gas desulfurization. After the system running fully, the SO2 emission^100mg/m , desulfurization efficiency ^90% and dust emission^30mg/ m3 , meet the environmental requirements of the nation.

  2. A novel approach to realize SANI process in freshwater sewage treatment--Use of wet flue gas desulfurization waste streams as sulfur source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Liang; Peng, Guo-Liang; Liang, Si-Yun; Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2013-10-01

    SANI (Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated) process has been approved to be a sludge-minimized sewage treatment process in warm and coastal cities with seawater supply. In order to apply this sulfur-based process in inland cold areas, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can be simplified and integrated with SANI process, to provide sulfite as electron carrier for sulfur cycle in sewage treatment. In this study, a lab-scale system of the proposed novel process was developed and run for over 200 days while temperature varied between 30 and 5 °C, fed with synthetic FGD wastewaters and sewage. The sulfite-reducing upflow anaerobic sludge bed (SrUASB) reactor, as the major bioreactor of the system, removed 86.9% of organics while the whole system removed 94% of organics even when water temperature decreased to around 10 °C. The bactericidal effect of sulfite was not observed in the SrUASB reactor, while thiosulfate was found accumulated under psychrophilic conditions. The sludge yield of the SrUASB reactor was determined to be 0.095 kg VSS/kg COD, higher than of sulfate reduction process but still much lower than of conventional activated sludge processes. The dominant microbes in the SrUASB reactor were determined as Lactococcus spp. rather than sulfate-reducing bacteria, but sulfite reduction still contributed 85.5% to the organic carbon mineralization in this reactor. Ammonia and nitrate were effectively removed in the aerobic and anoxic filters, respectively. This study confirms the proposed process was promising to achieve sludge-minimized sewage treatment integrating with flue gas desulfurization in inland and cold areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New Reductive Desulfurization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The project for the research of the pulse plasma reductive desulfurization technology undertaken by Huazhong University of Science and Technology recently passed the research achievement appraisal in Wuhan, Hubei province.

  4. The control of H2S in biogas using iron ores as in situ desulfurizers during anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiying; Jiang, Xia; Li, Xi; Jiang, Wenju

    2016-09-01

    In this study, five kinds of iron ores, limonite, hematite, manganese ore, magnetite and lava rock, were used as the in situ desulfurizers in the anaerobic digestion reactors to investigate their effects on controlling H2S in biogas. The results show that the addition of the five iron ores could significantly control the content of H2S in biogas, with the best performance for limonite. As limonite dosages increase (10-60 g/L), the contents of H2S in biogas were evidently decreased in the digesters with different initial sulfate concentrations (0-1000 mg/L). After the anaerobic digestion, the removed sulfur was mostly deposited on the surface of limonite. A possible mechanism of H2S control in biogas by limonite was proposed preliminarily, including adsorption, FeS precipitation, and Fe (III) oxidation. The results demonstrated that limonite was a promising in situ desulfurizer for controlling H2S in biogas with low cost and high efficiency.

  5. Smelting Oxidation Desulfurization of Copper Slags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; HU Jian-hang; WANG Hua

    2012-01-01

    According to the mechanism of sulfur removal easily through oxidation, the process of smelting oxidation desulfurization of copper slags is studied, which supplies a new thinking for obtaining the molten iron of lower sulfur content by smelting reduction of copper slags. Special attention is given to the effects of the holding temperature, the holding time and CaF2, CaO addition amounts on the desulfurization rate of copper slags. The results indicate that the rate of copper slags smelting oxidation desulfurization depends on the matte mass transfer rate through the slag phase. After the oxidation treatment, sulfur of copper slags can be removed as SO2 efficiently. Amount of Ca2+ of copper slags affects the desulfurization rate greatly, and the slag desulfurization rate is reduced by adding a certain amount of CaF2 and CaO. Compared with CaF2, CaO is negative to slags sulfur removal with equal Ca2+ addition. Under the air flow of 0.3 U/min, the sulfur content of copper slags can be reduced to 0. 004 67% in the condition of the holding time of 3 min and the holding temperature of 1 500 ℃. The sulfur content of molten iron is reduced to 0. 000 8 % in the smelting reduction of treated slags, and the problem of high sulfur content of molten iron obtained by smelting reduction with copper slag has been successively solved.

  6. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

    2003-01-01

    During the first quarter of the Biological Desulfurization project several activities were pursued. A project kickoff meeting was held at the Diversa facility in San Diego, CA. Activities that were in process before the meeting and begun afterwards by Diversa Corporation and Petro Star Inc. include: Technology transfer in the form of information generated by Enchira to Diversa, the purchase and installation of equipment by Diversa, development of synthetic methods and preparation of organo-sulfur substrates for use in determining enzyme activities, production of extract via Petro Star's CED process, detailed analysis of Petro Star Inc. diesel and CED extract, and several activities in molecular biology. Diversa Corporation, in the area of molecular biology, engaged in several activities in support of the task list of the contract. These included: construction of a genomic library; development and utilization of a sequence-based gene discovery effort; a parallel discovery approach based on functional expression of enzymes with the ability to oxidize organosulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization genes have already been identified and are being sequenced and subcloned for expression in heterologous biological hosts. Diversa has evaluated and adapted assays developed by Enchira used to assess the activities of DBT and DBTO{sub 2} monooxygenases. Finally, Diversa personnel have developed two novel selection/screen strategies for the improvement of biocatalyst strains by directed evolution.

  7. Desulfurization kinetics of coal combustion gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Bragança

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Desulfurization of the gases from coal combustion was studied, using limestone (marble as the sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. The kinetic parameter, k, was measured by analyzing the reduction in SO2 emissions in relation to time when a batch of limestone was introduced directly into the combustor chamber. The influence of sorbent composition and particle size was also studied. The CaO content in the limestone was more important than the MgO content. Sorbent particle size showed a strong influence on the reaction time and efficiency of desulfurization. The results of this work prove that marble type is very important in the choice of sorbent for a desulfurization process. A magnesian limestone showed a better performance than a dolomite. Therefore, the magnesian limestone is more efficient for a shorter particle residence time, which is characteristic of the bubbling fluidized bed.

  8. Desulfurization kinetics of coal combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Jablonski, A.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2003-06-01

    Desulfurization of the gases from coal combustion was studied, using limestone (marble) as the sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. The kinetic parameter, k, was measured by analyzing the reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions in relation to time when a batch of limestone was introduced directly into the combustor chamber. The influence of sorbent composition and particle size was also studied. The CaO content in the limestone was more important than the MgO content. Sorbent particle size showed a strong influence on the reaction time and efficiency of desulfurization. The results of this work prove that marble type is very important in the choice of sorbent for a desulfurization process. A magnesian limestone showed a better performance than a dolomite. Therefore, the magnesian limestone is more efficient for a shorter particle residence time, which is characteristic of the bubbling fluidized bed.

  9. [Performance of desulfurizing absorbent of roasted navajoite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Yang, Chun-ping; Gan, Hai-ming; Wu, Ting; Chen, Hai-lin; Chen, Hong; Xu, Ke-hui; Xie, Geng-xin

    2010-04-01

    An innovative flue gas desulfurization (FGD) coupling process was proposed in this study to overcome the problems in wet-type limestone/lime processes which include fouling, clogging, and difficulty of selling the by-products and the problems in traditional process for vanadium extraction from navajoite ore such as excessive consumption of sulfuric acid and emissions of pollutants. The performance of a jet bubbling reactor (JBR) at pilot-scale was evaluated using navajoite ore produced in the process of extracting vanadium pentoxide as desulfurization absorbent. Results showed that navajoite ore slurry achieved better desulfurization performance than limestone slurry. When the inlet flue gas pressure drop was 3.0 kPa, the gas flow was about 2350 m3 x h(-1) and the pH of the navajoite ore slurry was higher than 4.5, the desulfurization efficiency was stable about 90%. The SO2 removal efficiency appeared to increase along with the increasing of absorbent cycle-index. The efficiency of the second circulation was improved 3.5% compared to the first circulation. After an operating duration of 40 minutes, the leaching rate of vanadium pentoxide was about 20%, and reached 60% when the by-products were leached with 5% dilute sulfuric acid for 10 hours. The by-product from this process not only could be used to produce vanadium pentoxide which is a valuable industrial product, but also could significantly overcome the pollution problem existing in the traditional refining process of vanadium pentoxide when navajoite ore is used as the feed material. This FGD process using roasted navajoite slurry as absorbent is environmental sound and cost-effective, and shows the potential for application in the field of flue gas desulfurization as well as hydrometallurgy.

  10. Modeling and process optimization for microbial desulfurization of coal by using a two-level full factorial design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Golshani T.; Jorjani E.; Chelgani S.Chehreh; Shafaei S.Z.; Nafechi Y.Heidari

    2013-01-01

    The microbial sulfur removal was investigated on high sulfur content (1.9%) coal concentrate from Tabas coal preparation plant.A mixed culture of ferrooxidans microorganisms was isolated from the tailing dam of the plant.Full factorial method was used to design laboratory test and to evaluate the effects of pH,particle size,iron sulfate concentration,pulp density,and bioleaching time on sulfur reduction.Statistical analyses of experimental data were considered and showed increases of pH and particle size had negative effects on sulfur reduction,whereas increases of pulp density and bioleaching time raised microbial desulfurization rate.According to results of designing,and regarding statistical factors,the optimum values for maximum sulfur reduction were obtained; pH (1.5),particle size (-180μm),iron sulfate concentration (2.7 mmol/L),pulp density (10%) and bioleaching time (14d),which leaded to 51.5% reduction from the total sulfur of sample.

  11. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  12. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  13. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  14. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Collins; David Nunn

    2003-10-01

    The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate

  15. Impact property on fine particles from coal combustion in wet flue gas desulfurization process%湿法脱硫烟气中细颗粒物的变化特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜金培; 杨林军; 鲍静静

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles in flue gas before and after WFGD ( wet flue gas desulfurization) were sampled and measured by ELPI (electrical low pressure impactor). Fine particle concentrations and size distributions characteristics were obtained. And the microstructure and major element concentrations of particles were analyzed by SEM ( scanning electron microscopy) and EDS ( energy disperse spectroscopy), respectively. The results show that the removal efficiency of fine particles by WFGD is extremely low using NaOH and CaCO3 desulfurization, but particle number concentration has an obvious increase after ammonia desulfurization. Particles morphology structure and element contents have a great change after WFGD. The surfaces of fine particles from coal-fired may adsorb small particles to form roughness and aggregate structure. But it can be enwrapped by desulfurization reaction products to form a dense irregular block-like structure after CaCO3 desulfurization process. And fine particles are mostly of cube or prism crystal structure after ammonia desulfurization. The main elements of fine particles before WFGD are O, A1 and Si, however, the element content of S in particles is significantly increased after desulfurization, which increases from 1.33% to 10. 01%,19. 96% and 46. 64% after NaOH, CaCO3 and NH3 desulfurization respectively.%采用ELPI(电称低压冲击器)对WFGD(湿法烟气脱硫)前后烟气中的细颗粒进行采样分析,获得细颗粒浓度与粒径分布特性.对脱硫前后细颗粒形貌和主要元素进行SEM(扫描电镜)和EDS(能量色谱仪)分析.结果表明,NaOH和CaCO3脱硫后,WFGD系统对细颗粒脱除效率很低;氨法脱硫后WFGD出口颗粒数浓度明显增加;脱硫前后,细颗粒的形貌特征和元素组分会发生很大变化,洗涤前燃煤细颗粒表面容易吸附小颗粒而形成表面粗糙的团聚体结构;CaCO3脱硫后,细颗粒容易被脱硫反应产物连结或包裹而形成致密的不规则块状或

  16. Investigation of process variables and intensification effects of ultrasound applied in oxidative desulfurization of model diesel over MoO3/Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Azam; Omidkhah, Mohammadreza; Darian, Jafar Towfighi

    2014-03-01

    A new heterogeneous sonocatalytic system consisting of a MoO3/Al2O3 catalyst and H2O2 combined with ultrasonication was studied to improve and accelerate the oxidation of model sulfur compounds of diesel, resulting in a significant enhancement in the process efficiency. The influence of ultrasound on properties, activity and stability of the catalyst was studied in detail by means of GC-FID, PSD, SEM and BET techniques. Above 98% conversion of DBT in model diesel containing 1000 μg/g sulfur was obtained by new ultrasound-assisted desulfurization at H2O2/sulfur molar ratio of 3, temperature of 318 K and catalyst dosage of 30 g/L after 30 min reaction, contrary to the 55% conversion obtained during the silent process. This improvement was considerably affected by operation parameters and catalyst properties. The effects of main process variables were investigated using response surface methodology in silent process compared to ultrasonication. Ultrasound provided a good dispersion of catalyst and oxidant by breakage of hydrogen bonding and deagglomeration of them in the oil phase. Deposition of impurities on the catalyst surface caused a quick deactivation in silent experiments resulting only 5% of DBT oxidation after 6 cycles of silent reaction by recycled catalyst. Above 95% of DBT was oxidized after 6 ultrasound-assisted cycles showing a great improvement in stability by cleaning the surface during ultrasonication. A considerable particle size reduction was also observed after 3 h sonication that could provide more dispersion of catalyst in model fuel.

  17. A biological process for the reclamation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum using mixed sulfate-reducing bacteria with inexpensive carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E N; Little, M H; Selvaraj, P

    1997-01-01

    A combined chemical and biological process for the recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum into calcium carbonate and elemental sulfur is demonstrated. In this process, a mixed culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) utilizes inexpensive carbon sources, such as sewage digest or synthesis gas, to reduce FGD gypsum to hydrogen sulfide. The sulfide is then oxidized to elemental sulfur via reaction with ferric sulfate, and accumulating calcium ions are precipitated as calcium carbonate using carbon dioxide. Employing anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge (AD-MSS) medium as a carbon source, SRBs in serum bottles demonstrated an FGD gypsum reduction rate of 8 mg/L/h (10(9) cells)(-1). A chemostat with continuous addition of both AD-MSS media and gypsum exhibited sulfate reduction rates as high as 1.3 kg FGD gypsum/m(3)d. The increased biocatalyst density afforded by cell immobilization in a columnar reactor allowed a productivity of 152 mg SO(4) (-2)/Lh or 6.6 kg FGD gypsum/m(3)d. Both reactors demonstrated 100% conversion of sulfate, with 75-100% recovery of elemental sulfur and chemical oxygen demand utilization as high as 70%. Calcium carbonate was recovered from the reactor effluent on precipitation using carbon dioxide. It was demonstrated that SRBs may also use synthesis gas (CO, H(2), and CO(2) in the reduction of gypsum, further decreasing process costs. The formation of two marketable products-elemental sulfur and calcium carbonate-from FGD gypsum sludge, combined with the use of a low-cost carbon source and further improvements in reactor design, promises to offer an attractive alternative to the landfilling of FGD gypsum.

  18. 酒钢SPCC钢的LF精炼脱硫%Desulfurization of LF Refining Process for SPCC in JISCO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程子建; 郭靖; 程树森; 成东全

    2012-01-01

    通过热力学分析,建立了硫分配比与硫容量的关系,用热力学软件FactSage计算渣中Al2O3活度,用KTH模型计算渣的硫容量,对SPCC(一般用冷轧碳素钢薄板坯钢带)两个浇次10炉钢水在LF进站和出站时取钢、渣样以及测氧和温度,通过分析钢样和渣样成分以及生产检测数据,分析了温度、炉渣成分和钢水成分对LF精炼脱硫的影响规律.定义了硫分配比对钢液中溶解氧活度的急剧变化区(a[O]<4×10 6),在该区内硫分配比对钢液中溶解氧活度十分敏感,钢液中氧活度的增大导致硫分配比的迅速减小,温度升高,a[O]升高,不仅抵消了升温对脱硫反应轻微的促进作用,反而使硫分配比随温度升高而减小.LF精炼过程Al-O反应未达渣-钢平衡,实际[O]活度介于平衡计算值与Al2O3活度为1的计算值之间,故渣钢硫分配比也介于二者之间.精炼渣二元碱度升高则硫分配比增加,wCaO/wAl2O3在1.6~2.0时脱硫效果较好,硫分配比并不随[Al]s含量的增加而增大,所以用增加W[Al]s来脱硫效果并不明显.钢中夹杂铝(W[Al]1-W[Al]s)降低到10×10-6以下,硫分配比明显升高.%The relationship between sulfide partition ratio and sulfur capacity was established based on thermody-namic analysis, and the activity of Al2O3 in refining slag was calculated by applying thermodynamic software Fact-Sage and sulfide capacity was estimated by KTH model. Furthermore, ten steel and slag samples were taken at the start and end of ladle furnace (LF) refining for Steel Plate Cold Commercial (SPCC) in Jiuquan Iron and Steel Corporation (JISCO) , and at the same time the oxygen activity and temperature were measured using a oxygen probe. The influences of temperature and composition of refining slag and liquid steel on desulfurization at LF for SPCC were analyzed by both experimental data and thermodynamic calculated results. A rapid change region for sulfur partition ratio to dissolved

  19. System evaluation and microbial analysis of a sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process for Co-treatment of simple wet flue gas desulfurization wastes with freshwater sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Liu, Rulong; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    A sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process, namely the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process (SANI(®) process) has been recently developed for organics and nitrogen removal with 90% sludge minimization and 35% energy reduction in the biological treatment of saline sewage from seawater toilet flushing practice in Hong Kong. In this study, sulfate- and sulfite-rich wastes from simple wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) were considered as a potential low-cost sulfur source to achieve beneficial co-treatment with non-saline (freshwater) sewage in continental areas, through a Mixed Denitrification (MD)-SANI process trialed with synthetic mixture of simple WFGD wastes and freshwater sewage. The system showed 80% COD removal efficiency (specific COD removal rate of 0.26 kg COD/kg VSS/d) at an optimal pH of 7.5 and complete denitrification through MD (specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.33 kg N/kg VSS/d). Among the electron donors in MD, organics and thiosulfate could induce a much higher denitrifying activity than sulfide in terms of both NO3(-) reduction and NO2(-) reduction, suggesting a much higher nitrogen removal rate in organics-, thiosulfate- and sulfide-based MD in MD-SANI compared to sulfide alone-based autotrophic denitrification in conventional SANI(®). Diverse sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera dominated in the bacterial community of sulfate/sulfite-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) sludge without methane producing bacteria detected. Desulfomicrobium-like species possibly for sulfite reduction and Desulfobulbus-like species possibly for sulfate reduction are the two dominant groups with respective abundance of 24.03 and 14.91% in the SRB genera. Diverse denitrifying genera were identified in the bacterial community of anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) sludge and the Thauera- and Thiobacillus-like species were the major taxa. These results well explained the successful operation of the lab

  20. Preparation of microbial desulfurization catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A Rhodococcus sp. 1awq, a bacterium isolated from the soil cleaving the C-S bond of dibenzothiophene (DBT) via specific pathway, was investigated for cell growth and for its role in desulfurization. Clearly, the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, inhibited the growth of the strain, the synthesis of the desulfurization enzymes, and the activity of the enzymes. The effects of sulfate on the DBT degradation enzymes were examined in the Rhodococcus sp. 1awq growth system with DBT; the sulfate served, concurrently, as the sulfur source. The condition of the resting cells that were used in desulfurization, was also studied. The optimal concentration of the resting cells and the reaction conditions were determined. It was documented that there is no difference between desulfurization activity for resting cells cultured with sulfate as the sole sulfur source and that with the mixture of DBT and sulfate as the sulfur source.

  1. Ternary System of Fe-based Ionic Liquid, Ethanol and Water for Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解美莹; 李沛沛; 郭惠锋; 高丽霞; 余江

    2012-01-01

    Fe-based ionic liquid (Fe-IL) was synthesized by mixing FeCl3·6H2O and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Bmim]C1 in this paper. The phase diagram of a ternary Fe-IL, ethanol and water system was investigated to construct a ternary desulfurization solution for wet flue gas desulfurization. The effects of flow rate and concentration of SO2, reaction temperature, pH and Fe-IL fraction in aqueous desulfurization solution on the desulfiariza- tion efficiency were investigated. The results shows that the best composition of ternary desulfurization solution of Fe-IL, ethanol and water is 1 : 1.5 : 3 by volume ratio, and pH should be controlled at 2.0. Under such conditions, a desulfurization rate greater than 90% could be obtained. The product of sulfuric acid had inhibition effect on the wet desulfurization process. With applying this new ternary desulfurization solution, not only the catalyst Fe-IL can be recycled and reused, but also the product sulfuric acid can be separated directly from the ternary desulfurization system.

  2. Durable metal oxide-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Wangerow, J.R.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cicero, D.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

    1998-12-31

    Development of high temperature desulfurization regenerable sorbents for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process has been pursued over the last two decades, primarily using various combinations of transition metal oxides. The primary focus has been directed toward applications above 550 C, restricting the choice of metal oxides to those that possess favorable thermodynamic equilibria. These efforts led to the emergence of zinc-based sorbents, such as zinc titanate, as the leading candidates. Recent studies have indicated that desulfurization system components become prohibitively expensive with increasing operating temperature and that the overall process efficiency gains of conducting desulfurization above 550 C may not be sufficient to justify operation at such high temperatures. The optimum desulfurization temperature appears to be in the range of 350 to 550 C, where technical viability and process efficiency result in lower overall process cost. In addition, because of the more favorable thermodynamic equilibria in the lower temperature range, a large number of metal oxides can be considered for coal gas desulfurization, increasing the likelihood of developing suitable sorbents. This paper reports on the results obtained in an on-going study at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), for the development of durable mixed-metal oxide sorbents for fluidized-bed desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range of 350 to 550 C. The sorbent formulations prepared, their sulfidation performance and regenerability, and the physical and chemical properties of a select group of sorbents are presented and discussed. The results from multi-cycle evaluation tests of a few sorbents in a bench-scale high-pressure high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor are also presented.

  3. Pushing Forward Industrialization of Thermal Power Desulfuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces present state of industrialization development in flue gas desulfuration, including technological selection, state of design and contracting capability, localization of equipment, etc. in China. It points out main problems currently existed and presents proposals on promotion of desulfuration technology with selfowned intellectual property right, perfection of demonstrative projects and pushing forward localization of desulfuration equipment.

  4. Desulfurization of coal by an electrochemical-reduction flotation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; XU Wen-juan; ZHONG Shi-teng; ZONG Zhi-min

    2008-01-01

    The optimum conditions for sulfur removal from coal by electrochemical reduction flotation in an aqueous NaCI solution were determined from orthogonal experiments. The effect of electrolytic conditions on the desulfurization ratio was also studied.The electrochemical-reduction processed coal was examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis. The results show that electrochemical reduction converts hydrophobic pyrite in Nantong coal into hydrophilic FeS and S2 and leads to an increase in the concentration of hydroxyl groups and aliphatic moieties and a corresponding decrease in carboxyl and carbonyl groups, which enhances the flotation desulfurization of the coal.

  5. Copper-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    High-temperature coal gas desulfurization has been recognized as essential in the development of emerging power generation technologies such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), aiming to improve both the efficiency and environmental performance of power generation from coal. Hot gas desulfurization may be accomplished by using regenerable mixed metal oxides sorbents which can reduce the H{sub 2}S content of the coal gas to a few ppmv over many sulfidation/regeneration cycles. The focus of much of the current research on hot gas desulfurization has been on the use of zinc-based sorbents. Although these sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work, zinc-based sorbents have been shown to suffer from sulfate formation and zinc volatilization, leading to sorbent degradation over multicycle use, increasing sorbent replacement costs and the overall cost of hot gas desulfurization processes. A novel copper-chromite sorbent has been developed at IGT for hot coal gas desulfurization under the sponsorship of the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI). Results obtained so far indicate that this sorbent, in granular form (i.e., CuCr-29), has a much higher attrition resistance compared to the commercial granular zinc titanate sorbent, as well as excellent desulfurization efficiency. Furthermore, unlike most zinc titanate sorbents, the reactivity of IGT`s CuCr-29 sorbent gradually and consistently improved during the 20 cycles tested. The sorbent preparation techniques developed at IGT have been applied to produce highly reactive and attrition resistant sorbent pellets for moving-bed applications.

  6. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  7. 氨法烟气脱硫过程中气溶胶颗粒生成特性%Properties of aerosol formation during wet ammonia-based desulfurization process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣廷; 潘丹萍; 盛溢; 杨林军

    2015-01-01

    An ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) simulation was built to simulate separately the two different aerosol formation mechanisms in ammonia-based desulfurization process of the inhomogeneous reaction mechanism and the entrainment mechanism. The electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI, Dekati Ltd.) was employed for the online measurement of aerosol concentration in the outlet flue gas after the WFGD scrubber. The pollutant PM sampler was used for aerosol sampling in the flue gas. The samples gathered were then scanned and analyzed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results showed that the inhomogeneous reaction of NH3 escaped from desulfurization slurry with the moisture and SO2 in the flue gas was the dominating one of the two aerosol formation mechanisms in the ammonia-based WFGD, which produced the majority of the aerosols emitted from the scrubber. It was found that the aerosols were consisted mainly of submicron particles if counted in respect of numerical concentration and micron ones in respect of mass concentration. The amount of aerosols produced was depended mainly on the desulfurization solution pH along with the flue gas temperature at the inlet of WFGD,etc. The entrainment mechanism was of the secondary importance in the aerosol formation in the ammonia-based WFGD. The production of the aerosols was mainly related to the desulfurization solution concentration, the empty tower gas velocity, and so forth.%利用自行搭建的模拟氨法烟气脱硫实验平台,针对氨法脱硫中脱硫浆液液滴夹带蒸发和非均相反应两种气溶胶生成途径,采用电称低压冲击器(ELPI)、PM2.5/10采样器、场发射扫描电子显微镜(FESEM)等手段对两种途径下生成的气溶胶浓度、粒度分布以及形貌特征进行了测试分析,实验考察了氨法脱硫工艺参数对两种途径下生成的气溶胶特性的影响。结果表明,氨法脱硫中形成的气溶胶颗粒

  8. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the desulfurization of coal, coal liquids, and crude oil. Flotation heap leaching, oxydesulfurization, metal oxide, microwave process, and chlorination are among the pre-combustion processes discussed. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Development of high temperature coal gas desulfurization systems -- An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Lau, F.S.; Wangergow, J.R.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) processes are among the leading contenders for generation of electricity from coal in the 21st century. Coal gas desulfurization to sufficiently low levels at temperatures above 350 C is now recognized as crucial to efficient and economical utilization of coal in advanced IGCC processes. The implementation of hot coal gas desulfurization heavily relies on the development of regenerable sorbent materials that can efficiently remove H{sub 2}S (from several thousand ppmv levels down to a few ppmv) over a very large number of sulfidation/regeneration cycles. Over the last two decades, development of high temperature desulfurization sorbents has been focused on using various combinations of transition metal oxides as regenerable sorbents. The selection of suitable metal oxides is generally based on a number of requirements imposed by the IGCC process, which include favorable thermodynamic equilibria during sulfidation and regeneration, relatively high sulfidation and regeneration reactivities, good mechanical strength and structural stability, and environmental friendliness, all at a reasonably low cost. The desulfurization reactor can have a fixed-bed, a moving-bed, a transport reactor, or a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor design. Depending on process conditions and the application intended, each of these reactor configurations offers advantages, but also has limitations. The parameters guiding the choice of a reactor system include reactivity of the sorbent, crush strength and/or attrition resistance of the sorbent, absorption capacity of the sorbent, temperature distribution inside the reactors, and SO{sub 2} concentration in the regeneration product gas. This paper provides an overview of high temperature fuel gas desulfurization within the context of IGCC processes. The paper focuses on the studies related to the development of regenerable sorbents and addresses thermodynamic considerations, sulfidation kinetics

  10. Application of Thiobacillus ferroxidans to the bacterial desulfurization of coal; Application du Thiobacillus ferroxidans a la desulfuration bacterienne du charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecko, P. [Ostrava Universite Technique (Czech Republic); Sedlackova, V. [MUS Republique Tcheque (Czech Republic)

    2001-03-01

    The applicability of bacterial lixiviation of coal is tested on a sample from the Merkur basin (Northern Bohemia, Czech republic). Clean cultures of Thiobacillus ferroxidans can totally remove the pyrite sulfur after one month of treatment. With this process, the desulfurization can reach 48%. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  11. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1994-03-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate microorganisms capable of fossil fuel flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. The study used municipal sewage sludge as a carbon and energy source for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures. The individual tasks developed a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria, investigated the design parameters for a continuous process, preformed a cost analysis, and screened sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the investigation of microbial reduction of NO{sub x} to nitrogen, tasks included screening denitrifying bacteria for NO and NO{sub 2} activity, developing optimum NO-reducing cultures, and investigating design parameters for a continuous system. This final report reviews the work previous to the current project, describes project objectives and the specific work plan, and reports results from the work completed during the previous reporting periods.

  12. Biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) of petrodiesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebali, Ghasemali; Ball, Andrew S

    2008-08-01

    Oil refineries are facing many challenges, including heavier crude oils, increased fuel quality standards, and a need to reduce air pollution emissions. Global society is stepping on the road to zero-sulfur fuel, with only differences in the starting point of sulfur level and rate reduction of sulfur content between different countries. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is the most common technology used by refineries to remove sulfur from intermediate streams. However, HDS has several disadvantages, in that it is energy intensive, costly to install and to operate, and does not work well on refractory organosulfur compounds. Recent research has therefore focused on improving HDS catalysts and processes and also on the development of alternative technologies. Among the new technologies one possible approach is biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS). The advantage of BDS is that it can be operated in conditions that require less energy and hydrogen. BDS operates at ambient temperature and pressure with high selectivity, resulting in decreased energy costs, low emission, and no generation of undesirable side products. Over the last two decades several research groups have attempted to isolate bacteria capable of efficient desulfurization of oil fractions. This review examines the developments in our knowledge of the application of bacteria in BDS processes, assesses the technical viability of this technology and examines its future challenges.

  13. Dynamics of Aerosol Condensational Removal in Ammonia Desulfurization Process%氨法脱硫烟气中气溶胶凝结脱除动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜金培; 杨林军; 沈湘林

    2011-01-01

    针对氨法脱硫烟气中气溶胶的排放特性,建立氨法脱硫后细颗粒凝结长大脱除动力学模型,对细颗粒的凝结长大及脱除规律进行数值预测,并将其与实验结果进行比较。结果表明:细颗粒在过饱和蒸汽条件下迅速长大成液滴,在相同条件下,细颗粒初始数浓度越高,完成凝结长大的时间越短,液滴的最终粒径也越小;细颗粒脱除效率随停留时间增大迅速提高,在50~100ms内达到稳定,与理论计算值比,实验停留时间滞后,约在1.5s后脱除效率趋于稳定;脱硫后细颗粒凝结长大脱除效率与细颗粒物化性质有关,水洗涤时,当过饱和度高于1.4,细颗粒的脱除效率才随过饱和度的增大而迅速提高;氨法脱硫后,细颗粒可在较低的过饱和条件下凝结长大,因而脱除效率随过饱和度增大而提高。%A numerical model for the simulation of the aerosol condensational removal dynamics after ammonia desulfurization was proposed to predict the growth property of fine particles and removal efficiency. The simulation model was applicable for the aerosols discharge property of ammonia desulfurization. The results show that fine particles growth into droplets is very fast in a supersaturation vapor condition. Droplets complete growth time decrease and the final diameters of droplets are smaller at a higher initial particles number concentration. The removal efficiency of fine particles increases rapidly with the residence time, and achieves stability after 50-100 ms. Compared with the simulated values, experimental residence time appeares delate, which tend to stabilize at 1.5 s. Fine particles removal efficiency improved by condensational enlargement is dominated by the particles physicochemical characteristics after desulfurization. Removal efficiency increases with initial supersaturation degree rapidly only when the supersaturation degree higher than 1.4 with water

  14. Adsorptive desulfurization of diesel with mesoporous aluminosilicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Huang; LI Wang-Liang; LIU Qing-Fen; GUAN Li-Li; SONG Jia-Qing; XING dian-Min; LIU Hui-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous aluminosilicates (MAS) bearing microporous zeolite units and mesoporous structures were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Adsorptive desulfurization ability of model oil and hy-drotreated diesel was studied. The effects of template concentration, crystalization time and calcination time were investigated. The desulfurization ability of adsorbents was improved by transitional metal ion-exchanging. The adsorptive desulfurization of diesel was carried out on a fixed-bed system. The results show that the adsorptive capacity is MASMCM-41NaY. The improvement of desulfurization ability of MAS by Cu+ is more significant than that of Ag+.

  15. Progress of the technique of coal microwave desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuxiang Tao; Ning Xu; Maohua Xie; Longfei Tang

    2014-01-01

    With the advantages of its fast speed, effective and moderate controllable conditions, desulfurization of coal by microwave has become research focus in the field of clean coal technology. Coal is a homogeneous mixture which consists of various components with different dielectric properties, so their abilities to absorb microwaves are different, and the sulfur-containing components are better absorbers of microwave, which makes them can be selectively heated and reacted under microwave irradiation. There still remain controversies on the principle of microwave desulfurization at present, thermal effects or non-thermal effects. The point of thermal effects of microwave is mainly base on its characters of rapidly and selectly heating. While, in view of non-thermal effect, direct interactions between the microwave electromagnetic field and sulfur containing components are proposed. It is a fundamental problem to determine the dielectric properties of coal and the sulfur-containing components to reveal the interaction of microwave and sulfur-containing compounds. However, the test of dielectric property of coal is affected by many factors, which makes it difficult to measure dielectric properties accurately. In order to achieve better desulfurization effect, the researchers employ methods of adding chemical additives such as acid, alkali, oxidant, reductant, or changing the reaction atmosphere, or combining with other methods such as magnetic separation, ultrasonic and microorganism. Researchers in this field have also put forward several processes, and have obtained a number of patents. Obscurity of microwave desulfurization mechanism, uncertainties in qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulfur-containing functional groups in coal, and the lack of special microwave equipment have limited further development of microwave desulfurization technology.

  16. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Gao, Ruimin [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Zhao, Jianshe, E-mail: jszhao@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Wang, Junlong [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China)

    2015-05-15

    M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2} (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5) or the M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2} doping W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 and Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N{sub 2} adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed.

  17. Effects of Lead and Mercury on Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Activity in a Biological Process for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jinting; Jiang, Feng; Wei, Li; Chen, Guanghao; Hao, Xiaodi

    2016-07-01

    Biological sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be effective in removing toxic lead and mercury ions (Pb(II) and Hg(II)) from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater through anaerobic sulfite reduction. To confirm this hypothesis, a sulfite-reducing up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was set up to treat FGD wastewater at metal loading rates of 9.2 g/m3-d Pb(II) and 2.6 g/m3-d Hg(II) for 50 days. The reactor removed 72.5 ± 7% of sulfite and greater than 99.5% of both Hg(II) and Pb(II). Most of the removed lead and mercury were deposited in the sludge as HgS and PbS. The contribution of cell adsorption and organic binding to Pb(II) and Hg(II) removal was 20.0 ± 0.1% and 1.8 ± 1.0%, respectively. The different bioavailable concentration levels of lead and mercury resulted in different levels of lethal toxicity. Cell viability analysis revealed that Hg(II) was less toxic than Pb(II) to the sludge microorganisms. In the batch tests, increasing the Hg(II) feeding concentration increased sulfite reduction rates. In conclusion, a sulfite-reducing reactor can efficiently remove sulfite, Pb(II) and Hg(II) from FGD wastewater.

  18. Characteristics of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 and its Dsz-negative mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Etemadifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodesulfurization is used as a selective method for lowering the sulfur content of petroleum products. Materials and methods: A sulfur-oxidation bacterial strain named Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GU570564 was used in this study for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT. Results: The induced culture of strain R1 was able to produce 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2- HBP from DBT followed 4S pathway without further degrading carbon backbone. This process confirmed by gas chromatography (GC analysis. The specific activity of DBT desulfurization by R1 was 45 µM (g dry wt-1 h-1. The addition of Tween 80 as surfactant and glycerol as carbon source determines a 100% rate of DBT-desulfurization during 3 days. The heavy plasmid detected in R1 strain carries dsz genes responsible for biodesulfurization of DBT that was shown by PCR reaction. The mutant strains which had lost this plasmid also had lost desulfurization phenotype. Both mutant and wild strain were sensitive to high concentration of 2-HBP and some antibiotics. Discussion and conclusion: Strain R1 desulfurize DBT through the sulfur-specific degradation pathway or 4S pathway with the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S bonds without reducing the energy content. Addition of surfactant enhanced the desulfurization of DBT by increasing its bioavailability and also could improve the growth and desulfurization rate. The location of desulfurization genes was on a heavy plasmid in strain R1. Based on the results of this study, R. erythropolis R1 could serve as a model system for efficient biodesulfurization of petroleum oil without reducing the energy value.

  19. Mathematical Model of Hot Metal Desulfurization by Powder Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cepeda Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a numerous number of studies on mathematical model of hot metal desulfurization by deep injection of calcium carbide, the research field as a whole is not well integrated. This paper presents a model that takes into account the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport processes to predict the sulfur levels in the hot metal throughout a blow. The model could be utilized to assess the influence of the treatment temperature, rate of injection, gas flow rate, and initial concentration of sulfur on the desulfurization kinetics. In the second part of this paper an analysis of the industrial data for injection of calcium carbide using this model is described. From a mathematical model that describes the characteristics of a system, it is possible to predict the behavior of the variables involved in the process, resulting in savings of time and money. Discretization is realized through the finite difference method combined with interpolation in the border domain by Taylor series.

  20. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions

  1. A Novel Desulfurizer-Catalyst Combination for Logistic Fuel Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    dictate more efficient use of fuel resources and the synthesis of alternative fuels. In the light of eventual energy shortages, the ever-increasing... synthesis processes are based on the gasification of fossil fuels, which produce a variety of undesirable “green- house” gases. So even in the...Desulfurizers The first step was to find a suitable support material to host the sorbent. Diatomaceous earth and clinoptilolite (zeolitic clay) were

  2. The Spray Drying Desulfurization Process of Precise Control of the Spray to the Influence of Output%喷雾干燥脱硫过程中喷雾的精确控制对产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳萍; 袁亚

    2013-01-01

    为研究脱硫塔内不同喷雾的精确对脱硫效率的影响,提出了基于反馈平衡方程的喷雾干燥脱硫方程和相应的数学模型,并采用仿真软件对脱硫塔内流场进行了数值模拟计算.选用精度反馈信息来调节喷雾的精度,根据统计分析法实现脱硫塔内的喷雾精度仿真,通过建立硫吸收模型,根据脱硫效果的实时信息完成喷雾调节.结果表明,数值模拟结果与实验台测量值基本相符,精确的喷雾控制有利于物料与烟气充分混合,提高脱硫效率.%For the research of desulfurization tower in different spray accurate to desulfurizing efficiency influence,proposed based on feedback balance equation of the spray drying desulfurization equation and the corresponding mathematical model,and the simulation software for desulfurization tower internalflow field is studied with the numerical simulation method.Choose precision feedback information to control the precision of the spray,according to statistics analysis method to realize desulfurization tower in the spray accuracy simulation,through the establishment of sulfur absorption model,according to the desulfurization effect of real-time information complete spray regulation.The results show that the numerical simulation results and experiment table measured value are consistent,precise spray control to material and flue gas fully mix,improve the desulfurization efficiency.

  3. 45 CFR 270.10 - How will we annually review the award process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PERFORMANCE BONUS AWARDS § 270.10 How will we annually review the award process? (a) Annual determination... bonus awards. We will notify States and other interested parties of our decisions through annual program... on: (1) Our experience in awarding high performance bonuses in previous years; and (2)...

  4. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  5. Experimental and mechanism studies on seawater flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (Seawater FGD) process has a number of advantages, but the study on mechanism of seawater FGD is little. The effects of absorbing efficiency of SO2 by the constant component and part of trace transition elements in seawater are studied by the experiment. The results indicate that the effect factors of absorption of SO2 by seawater are alkaline, ion intensity, catalysis of Cl- and transition metal ions Fe, Mn. The degree of effect is alkaline > the catalysis of Cl-, Fe2+ and Mn > ion intensity. The mechanisms of catalysis oxidation for S(IV) by Cl, Feand Mnare discussed. According to the results, some measures can be used to improved the capability of desulfurization.

  6. Unraveling heavy oil desulfurization chemistry: targeting clean fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Tushar V; Parrott, Stephen; Johnson, Byron

    2008-03-15

    The sulfur removal chemistry of heavy oils has been unraveled by systematically investigating several heavy oils with an extremely wide range of properties. The heavy oil feed and product properties have been characterized by advanced analytical methods, and these properties have been related to the sulfur conversion data observed in pilot hydrotreating units. These studies coupled with kinetic treatment of the data have revealed that the desulfurization chemistry of heavy oils is essentially controlled by the strongly inhibiting three and larger ring aromatic hydrocarbon content and surprisingly not by the content of the "hard-to-remove" sulfur compounds. Such enhanced understanding of the heavy oil sulfur removal is expected to open new avenues for catalyst/process optimization for heavy oil desulfurization and thereby assist the efficent production of clean transporation fuels.

  7. Development of advanced sorbents for hot gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Wangerow, J.R. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cicero, D.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) processes are among the leading contenders for the production of electricity from coal. Coal gas desulfurization to sufficiently low levels at elevated temperatures (T > 350 C) is now recognized as crucial to efficient and economic coal utilization in advanced IGCC processes. The implementation of hot coal gas desulfurization relies heavily on the development of regenerable sorbent materials which can efficiently reduce H{sub 2}S from several thousand ppmv levels down to a few ppmv over many cycles of sulfidation/regeneration. Zinc-based sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are currently the leading candidate sorbents, however, they have been shown to suffer from zinc volatilization at elevated temperatures leading to sorbent deterioration, increasing sorbent replacement costs, and the overall cost of hot gas cleanup. This paper discusses the results obtained in an ongoing investigation geared towards developing advanced mixed-metal oxide sorbents for desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range of 350 to 550 C. The paper focuses on the study related to the development of durable sorbents and addresses thermodynamic considerations, sulfidation kinetics, regenerability, and long term durability of a number of novel sorbents.

  8. Desulfurization of fuels with calcium-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A.; Leppin, D.; Banerjee, D.D. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Calcium-based sorbents, such as limestone and dolomite, are viable candidates for sulphur-capturing agents in an in-situ coal gasification/desulfurization process. The effect of limestone addition on the hydrodynamics of a fluidized-bed gasifier, desulfurization of the product gas, and stabilization of the solid wastes have been studied. The hydrodynamic characteristics of coal char/limestone mixtures, such as mixing and fines retention, have been studied in a 0.2 m diameter fluidization column. Kinetic data pertaining to the reaction between calcium oxide (which is obtained by calcination of limestone and dolomite) and hydrogen sulfide have been obtained by a gravimetric technique in the temperature range of 650 to 1050{degree}C. Kinetic data relating to the reaction between calcium sulfide (which is obtained by sulfidation of calcium-based sorbents) and oxygen have been obtained in the temperature range of 800 to 1050{degree}C and in the pressure range of 2 to 3.1 MPa. The operating conditions for these reactions have been chosen to be within the application range of a commercial coal gasification process that is accompanied by in situ desulfurization. 14 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Desulfurization of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J E

    1975-04-01

    Although gasoline blending streams exhibit widely varying sulfur concentrations, significant quantities of low-sulfur motor gasoline cannot be manufactured by reallocation of existing components without substantial sacrifices in the useful properties of the remaining fuels having normal sulfur levels. To meet the anticipated demand for low-sulfur unleaded gasoline which may be required for catalyst-equipped automobiles it will be necessary to install process equipment based on known hydrotreating technology. The effects which this construction program would exert on the activities, abilities and needs of one petroleum refiner are sketched for two degrees of sulfur removal. The impacts of installing the process facilities which would be necessary are discussed in terms of time requirements, capital needs, and added energy expenditures.

  10. Study on Desulfurization Efficiency and Products of Ce-Doped Nanosized ZnO Desulfurizer at Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fen; Yan Bo; Zhang Jie; Jiang Anxi; Shao Chunhong; Kong Xiangji; Wang Xin

    2007-01-01

    Ce-doped nanosized ZnO desulfurizer was prepared by homogeneous precipitation, and its desulfurization efficiency at ambient temperature was investigated through dynamic experiments. The results showed that the desulfurization activity of nanosized Ce-ZnO had improved greatly, compared to nanosized ZnO desulfurizer. Nanosized Ce-ZnO desulfurizer was characterized by XRD, TPD-MS, XPS, and TEM. The research results indicated that doping Ce decreased the particle size of the nanosized ZnO desulfurizer and ZnS was the principal desulfurization product. There were adsorption complexes of HS and S on the surface of desulfurizer as well. Only a small amount of vapor appeared in the tail gas on the condition of meeting the precision of desulfurization.

  11. Mathematical Model of Natural Gas Desulfurization Based on Membrane Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuli; Ma Jun; Wang Ganyu; Zhou Heng

    2014-01-01

    Models of mass transfer kinetics combined with mass transfer differential equation and mass transfer resistance equation were established on the basis of double-iflm theory. Mass transfer process of H2S absorption by means of polypro-pylene hydrophobic microporous hollow ifber membrane contactor was simulated using MDEA (N-methyldiethanolamine) as the absorption liquid and corresponding experiments of natural gas desulfurization were performed. The simulation re-sults indicated that the removal rate of hydrogen sulifde showed positive dependence on the absorption liquid concentration and gas pressure. However, the desulfurization rate showed negative dependence on gas lfow. The simulated values were in good agreement with the experimental results. The in-tube concentration of hydrogen sulifde at the same point increased with increase in the gas velocity. Axial concentration of hydrogen sulifde decreased rapidly at the beginning, and the de-crease saw a slowdown during the latter half period. Hydrogen sulifde concentration dropped quickly in the radial direction, and the reduction in the radial direction was weakened with the increase of axial length due to the gradual reduction of hy-drogen sulifde concentration along the tube. The desulfurization rate under given operating conditions can be predicted by this model, and the theoretical basis for membrane module design can also be provided.

  12. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  13. Oxidative desulfurization: kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, S; Uppaluri, R; Purkait, M K

    2009-01-30

    Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the kinetic modeling of ODS using H(2)O(2) over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The kinetic modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-kinetic reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the kinetic behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel.

  14. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  15. Determination of Salt Impurities in MDEA Solution Used in Desulfurization of Highly Sulphurous Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yucheng; Zhang Bo; Chen Mingyan; Wu Danni; Zhou Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The foaming phenomenon of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solution used in desulfurization process occurs frequently in the natural-gas puriifcation plant. The foaming phenomenon has a strong impact on operation of the process unit. The salt impurities are the main reason for causing the foaming of MDEA solution, so the full analysis of salt impuri-ties is necessary. A method for comprehensive analysis of salt impurities in MDEA solution used in desulfurization process was established. Anions and non-metallic cations of MDEA solution were determined by different conditions of ion chro-matograph, respectively. Metallic cations of the solution were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer with the N2O-C2H2 lfame absorption. The analytical results of salt impurities in the desulfurization solution can provide a theoretical basis for an accurate analysis of the factors affecting the foaming of MDEA to unveil further control measures.

  16. Deep desulfurization of full range and low boiling diesel streams from Kuwait Lower Fars heavy crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, A.; Al-Hindi, A.; Stanislaus, A. [Petroleum and Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2007-09-15

    Information on feed quality and, in particular, various types of sulfur compounds present in the diesel (gas oil) fractions produced form different crudes and their HDS reactivities under different operating conditions are of a great value for the optimization and economics of the deep HDS process. This paper deals with deep desulfurization of gas oils obtained from a new heavy Kuwaiti crude, namely, Lower Fars (LF) which will be processed in the future at Kuwaiti refineries. Comparative studies were carried out to examine the extent of deep HDS, and the quality of diesel product using two gas oil feeds with different boiling ranges. The results revealed that the full range diesel feed stream produced from the LF crude was very difficult to desulfurize due to its low quality caused by high aromatics content (low feed saturation) together with the presence of high concentrations of organic nitrogen compounds and sterically hindered alkyl DBTs. The low-boiling range gas oil showed better desulfurization compared with the full range gas oil, however, deep desulfurization to 50 ppm sulfur was not achieved even at a temperature as high as 380 C for both feeds. The desulfurized diesel product from the low-boiling gas-oil feed was better in quality with respect to the S, N and PNA contents and cetane index than the full-range gas-oil feed. (author)

  17. Increasing the efficiency of ladle desulfurization of steel by using regenerated slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigeev, V.A.; Petrov, L.V.; Vdovin, K.N.; Kotii, V.N.; Deryabin, A.V.

    1988-05-01

    The volume of steel subjected to ladle desulfurization can be increased by regenerating spent synthetic slags and returning them to the production cycle. Two problems encountered in the restoration of the desulfurizing properties of the slags are the need to reduce the content of the oxides of silicon and iron and remove sulfur to the 0.03-0.06 level. Difficulties and solutions of both problems are discussed and a scheme for regeneration is proposed which uses oxidation and reduction processes and considers such parameters as ladle and furnace lining protection and metal and slag separation measures. The scheme makes the expanded efficiency of ladle desulfurization of steel with regenerated slag a realistic option and will be recommended for introduction after the individual process and design parameters have been refined.

  18. Démonstration du procédé IFP de désulfuration des fumées de centrales Demonstration of the Ifp Stack-Gas Desulfurization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busson C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les produits pétroliers et le charbon continueront à couvrir les besoins énergétiques pendant plusieurs décennies. La pollution par le SOZ, provenant de la combustion de ces combustibles fossiles, devient une préoccupation pour la population et les Pouvoirs publics. La désulfuration des fumées de combustion devrait, à plus ou moins longue échéance, se développer. L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, mettant à profit ses travaux dans le domaine de la désulfuration, a développé un procédé de traitement des fumées. L'IFP, en collaboration avec Électricité de France (EDF, a effectué en 1976 une opération de démonstration à une échelle pilote (30 MW dans la Centrale de Champagne-sur-Oise. Le procédé consiste à éliminer le S02 des fumées par lavage avec une solution ammoniacale, à produire du soufre à partir de la liqueur obtenue et à recycler l'ammoniaque dans l'étape de lavage. Après quelques modifications d'ordre technologique, l'unité de démonstration a fonctionné d'une manière continue pendant une période de trois mois, correspondant à l'objectif fixé. Les résultats obtenus permettent, actuellement, d'envisager une application de cette technique à une échelle de 250 MW. Oil and coal productswill continue to fulfill energy needs for several more decades. Pollution by SO2 coming from the combustion of such fossil fuels is becoming a preoccupation for the population and the public authorities. The desulfurization of combustion fumes should continue ta develop in the more or less long run. Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has taken advantage of its research in the fixed of desulfurization to develop a stock-gas treating process. In collaboration with Électricite de Fronce (EDF, IFP carried out a demonsiration operation in 1976 on a pilot-plant scale (30MW in a power plant at Champagne-sur-Oise. The process consists in removing S02 from stock gases by scrubbing them with an ammonia solution

  19. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality: A Natural Experiment from Power Plant Desulfurization

    OpenAIRE

    Lüchinger, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The paper estimates the effect of SO2 pollution on infant mortality in Germany, 1985-2003. To avoid simultaneity problems, I exploit the natural experiment created by the mandated desulfurization at power plants, with wind directions dividing counties into treatment and control groups. Instrumental variable estimates are larger than conventional estimates and translate into an elasticity of 0.08-0.13. The observed reduction in pollution implies an annual gain of 895-1528 infant lives. Estimat...

  20. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  1. Perioperative employee annual evaluations: a 30-second process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, John; Falcone, Deborah; Lopez, Jacy; Sharpe, Lorraine; Michna, Jody

    2012-12-01

    In response to complaints about the annual evaluation tool used at The Community Hospital in Munster, Indiana, the surgical services management team created a tool to rate the perioperative RNs on skills pertinent to the surgical services department. The hospital-wide evaluation tool uses vague criteria, which are regularly challenged by employees who disagree with their manager's evaluation. The new Surgical Services Employee Evaluation takes a manager approximately 30 seconds to complete and can be added to the generic hospital evaluation form to make the employee evaluation more accurate and meaningful. The tool evaluates three major categories: teamwork, patient care, and job preparation. Use of this additional tool has greatly reduced postevaluation employee complaints, and the tool is now being used in other departments, with slight department-specific variations. Employees now express less frustration with annual evaluations, and managers report a high degree of satisfaction with the tool because it helps them in the difficult task of employee evaluation and counseling.

  2. Adsorptive Desulfurization of JP-8 Fuel Using Ag+/Silica Based Adsorbents at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    cell-quality hydrogen is liquid phase desulfurization (figure 1). Any organic sulfur compounds in the fuel are converted into hydrogen sulfide in...the fuel processing reformer, resulting in poisoning the reformation catalysts as well as poisoning downstream operations. Therefore, it is essential...the reformation catalysts from potential poisoning (1). Figure 1. Schematic diagram of logistic fuel processing. Adsorbents with a high

  3. NATO CCMS PILOT STUDY ON CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES -(PHASE I) - 2002 ANNUAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual report summarizes the activities of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on clean products and processes for 2002, including the proceedings of the 2002 annual meeting held in Vilnius, Lithuania. The report presents a wealth of information on cleaner production activities in ove...

  4. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE I) 2000 ANNUAL REPORT, NUMBER 242

    Science.gov (United States)

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the Third Annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the area of research of clean products and processes, life cycle analysis, computer tools and pollution prevention.

  5. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  6. Session 4: The Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} a catalytic system for the obtention of ultra low sulfur diesel by oxidative desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, J.L.; Jimenez Cruz, F.; Atocha Hernandez Cortazar, F. de; Cano Dominguez, J.L.; Ramirez Verduzco, L.F.; Murrieta Guevara, F.R. [Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, D. F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    At present the production of transportation fuels free of polluting compounds is a matter of consequence worldwide. Particularly, sulfur compounds are undesirable in gasoline and diesel because they contribute to air pollution and acid rain. In this work, we present the results obtained in the development of some supported catalysts containing molybdenum and its evaluation in the desulfurization of several model sulfur systems and diesel by the oxidation-extraction process using hydrogen peroxide with the aim of produce ultra low sulfur diesel. The molybdenum catalysts were prepared by the equilibrium adsorption method. The oxidizing reagent was hydrogen peroxide (30 wt % solution in water) and the fuel was a Mexican diesel with 0.0320 wt % sulfur. The sulfur concentration in the samples was measured by a total sulfur analyzer equipped with a X-ray fluorescence detector, the accuracy is {+-} 5 %. The oxidation-extraction process of diesel was carried out in a batch reactor in presence of hydrogen peroxide, a solvent and the catalyst. The oxidation proceeds under mild conditions: temperature less than 373 K and atmospheric pressure. Oxidized sulfur compounds were separated from the diesel by extraction with the same solvent used in the oxidation process. The effect of the reaction variables, e. g.: time, temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration, solvent and its concentration, molybdenum precursor, support, the stability of the catalytic activity, structure of the model sulfur compounds, were examined. The results show that the catalyst activity depends on the isoelectric point of the support. It was observed that the oxidation was carried out with good yield only in the presence of a polar solvent. A linear dependence was found between the electric density of the sulfur atom for the organosulfur compounds and its oxidation facility with the oxidation system in matter. This is in good agreement with the work reported by Otsuki. In the oxidation of diesel, it was

  7. Highly attrition resistant sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B.; Abbasian, J.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [and others

    1998-04-01

    One of the main obstacles in the commercialization of high-temperature desulfurization systems for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation processes is the development of regenerable sulfur sorbents with suitable physical and chemical characteristics. The focus of much of the current research on sorbent development has been on the use of zinc-based sorbents. These sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work; however, they have been shown to suffer from sulfate formation and zinc volatilization, leading to sorbent degradation over multi-cycle use. Therefore, investigation of non-zinc based sorbents is a logical approach to develop an effective alternative. An effective alternative to zinc-based sorbents could be manganese-based sorbents which have recently been shown to withstand high temperature ({ge} 750{degrees}C) operation and also maintain structural and reactive integrity over many cycles. However, because of process equipment limitations and other process variables such as fuel gas alkali content, a number of investigators have recently argued that the benefit to be gained by lower temperature application may outweigh the slight loss of efficiency, resulting in lower overall cost of electricity. Desulfurization temperatures {le} 538{degrees}C have been recommended to provide the best compromise between process equipment limitations and higher temperature operation.

  8. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, December 11, 1992--March 11, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the potential of sulfate reducing bacteria to fix sulfur derived from flue gas desulfurization. The first section reviews the problem, the second section reviews progress of this study to use desulfovibrio desulfuricans for this purpose. The final section related progress during the current reporting period. This latter section describes studies to immobilize the bacteria in co-culture with floc-forming anaerobes, use of sewage sludges in the culture media, and sulfate production from sulfur dioxide.

  9. Ultra-deep Desulfurization of Diesel Highlighted as 2004 Major Advance in Green Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The sulfur levels in diesel have been increasingly restricted in the world out of environmental considerations. Environmental regulations to be applied by 2006 in Europe, the US and other countries, for instance, limit the level to less than 15 ppm. To meet these stringent conditions, novel desulfurization processes are needed to ensure sustainable and economically acceptable technology.

  10. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  11. Trends in desulfurization capabilities, processing technologies, and the availability of crude oils: U. S. refineries; Caribbean ''exporting'' refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, E. L.; Marsik, F. V.

    1977-12-01

    A review of all U.S. refineries and their downstream equipment has led to the conclusion that slightly more than 40 percent of the existing capacity can handle some sour crude of one type or another. For various reasons, this cannot be an exactly defined number, nor does it coincide with the percent of hydroprocessing equipment in relation to crude capacity. A few refineries have hydrotreating facilities and yet only have sweet crude capability. A few refiners may only have capability to handle sour crudes in the lower sulfur ranges, say 0.5 to 1.0 percent, due to emissions problems or other limitations. These are limitations which can be overcome by investments. Still others would face problems in their product output pattern due to low gravity of some sour crudes. Catalytic hydroprocessing (hydrocracking, hydrorefining, and hydrotreating) removes sulfur from refinery streams so that the total amount of sulfur in the products and residues is less than that in the crude oil feedstock. For this reason, changes in hydroprocessing capacity are used to express the changing capabilities of refiners to process sour crudes. On the other hand, thermal processes (vacuum distillation, visbreaking, and coking), segregate most of the sulfur contained in the refinery feedstocks into residual fractions, allowing the production of low sulfur containing products, but the total amount of sulfur in the products and in the residual fractions is essentially the same as that in the crude oil feedstocks. In this regard, thermal processes are limited in their ability to produce low-sulfur products.

  12. Microbial desulfurization of coal by thermophilic archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Gunnel

    1994-04-01

    The investigation was focused on the removal of pyrite as well as organic sulfur. One major objective was to identify and outline difficulties associated with microbial desulfurization of coal. The work has particularly been concentrated on the desulfurization environment of the microorganisms, the reprecipitation of dissolved sulfate as jarosite, the effect of microbial treatment on the properties of the coal and the comparison of different thermophilic archaea suggested for coal desulfurization. The investigated microorganisms were the thermophilic archaea Acidianus brierleyi, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Sulfolobus solfataricus and for comparison the mesophilic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The major part of the work has been done with Acidianus brierleyi. Compounds leached from coal may seriously affect the growth of microorganisms suggested for coal desulfurization. Degradation of pyritic sulfur with the used strains of S. solfataricus and S. acidocaldarius, was observed to be impossible. However, both the thermophilic archaeon Acidianus brierleyi and the mesophilic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, were capable of degrading pure pyrite as well as pyrite from low-sulfur coals. Up to 85% removal of pyritic sulfur was obtained for coals when staring with a pyrite sulfur content of 0.5-0.7%. From kinetic studies, it was shown that A. brierleyi and T. ferrooxidans remove sulfur from coal at roughly the same rate, at least for the coals investigated in this study. However, the rate for microbial oxidation of pure pyrite was seen to be much higher for A. brierleyi than for T. ferroxidans. 62 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  13. COS Hydrolysis Process of Desulfurization System for IGCC Power Plants%IGCC电站脱硫系统中的羰基硫水解工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞祥; 高景辉; 令彤彤; 朱声宝

    2013-01-01

    介绍某IGCC(整体煤气化联合循环)电站净化单元脱硫系统中羰基硫(COS)水解器的水解工艺.对COS水解器的启动方式和运行工况进行优化,在试验研究的基础上给出了COS水解器运行的最佳条件:床层温度180℃,空速1 451 h-1,工艺气冷却器出口原料气温度50~60℃.在此工况下运行,COS水解转化率可达92.5%.此外,分析COS水解器运行中常见问题,指出必须严格控制原料气中氧气和水蒸气的含量.%The COS hydrolysis system of gas purification in one integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant is introduced. Through the optimization of the startup modes and operating conditions of the COS hydrolysis system, the best operating condition is determined from experimental researches, i.e., 180℃of the layer temperature of the COS hydrolysis, 1451 h-1 of the space velocity, and the temperature of raw coal gas at the process gas cooler outlet between 50 and 60℃. Operated under this condition, the COS hydrolysis conversion rate can reach 92.5%. In addition, the common issues in the operation of the COS hydrolysis system are analyzed, which concludes that the oxygen and water vapor contents of the raw coal gas shall be strictly controlled.

  14. Study of fluidized-bed desulfurization with zinc ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindley, T

    1991-01-01

    Previous work established the technical feasibility of desulfurizing the hot product gases of coal gasification with fixed beds of a regenerable zinc ferrite sorbent. This process, intended for integration with coal gasifiers and gas turbines, has been tested and studied in considerable detail in a process development unit. Though possessing the advantages of high-sulfur absorption at low-sulfur breakthrough and the lack of sorbent attrition characteristic of a stationary bed, fixed beds also have inherent disadvantages: susceptibility to plugging by particles and a large diluent requirement during regeneration to control the reaction zone temperature. Therefore, METC conducted a scoping laboratory test program to determine the desulfurizing capability of fluid beds of zinc ferrite. Results from this program are presented. The results generally demonstrated that fluid beds of zinc ferrite have the potential to lower the H{sub 2}S level in hot gas from 10,000 to 10 ppmv. To achieve this at a high-sorbent sulfur loading would require two fluid-bed stages. Sorbent attrition appears to be acceptably low. Planned future activities include tests at high pressure with both simulated gas and in a gasifier sidestream.

  15. Application of Microwave Technology for Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping; Zhao Shanlin; Kong Lingzhao; Li Jiandong; Zhai Yuchun

    2004-01-01

    The microwave technology was introduced for the desulfurization of diesel fuel. The atmosphericsecond side-cut diesel fraction, which was supplied by Liaohe Petrochemical Company, was desulfurized by anoxidation process under microwave irradiation. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), can oxidize the sulfur compounds indiesel fuel selectively and convert them into sulfones. Based on the rule of dissolution by similar substances,these sulfones are removed from diesel fuel because they could be dissolved in solvent phase. So the sulfurcontent of diesel fuel is decreased. The influence of the concentration of oxidizing reagent, solvent phase to oilphase volume ratio (S/O), irradiation pressure, irradiation time, and the irradiation power have been investigated.The optimum conditions for the refining process was determined. The sulfur removal rate was 59.7% under theoptimum conditions of 8%H2O2, S/O=0.25, 0.05MPa, 6 min, and 375W, respectively. When no microwave irradia-tion was applied, the removal rate was 11.5% only.

  16. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  17. Extractive Deep Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Using Lewis-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of green solvents, known as ionic liquids (ILs, has recently been the subject of intensive research on the extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels because of the limitation of traditional hydrodesulfurization method. In present work, eleven Lewis acid ionic liquids were synthesized and employed as promising extractants for deep desulfurization of the liquid fuel containing dibenzothiophene (DBT to test the desulfurization efficiency. [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 was the most promising ionic liquid and performed the best among studied ionic liquids under the same operating conditions. It can remove dibenzothiophene from the model liquid fuel in the single-stage extraction process with the maximum desulfurization efficiency of 75.6%. It was also found that [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 may be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency of 47.3%. Huge saving on energy can be achieved if we make use of this ionic liquids behavior in process design, instead of regenerating ionic liquids after every time of extraction.

  18. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  20. Long-term Trend and Fractal of Annual Runoff Process in Mainstream of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jianhua; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong; DONG Shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the time series data from the Aral hydrological station for the period of 1958-2005, the paper re-veals the long-term trend and fractal of the annual runoff process in the mainstream of the Tarim River by using thewavelet analysis method and the fractal theory. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) From a large time scale pointof view, i.e. the time scale of 16 (24) years, the annual runoff basically shows a slightly decreasing trend as a wholefrom 1958 to 2005. If the time scale is reduced to 8 (23) or 4 (22) years, the annual runoff still displays the basic trendas the large time scale, but it has fluctuated more obviously during the period. 2) The correlation dimension for theannual runoff process is 3.4307, non-integral, which indicates that the process has both fractal and chaotic characteris-tics. The correlation dimension is above 3, which means that at least four independent variables are needed to describethe dynamics of the annual runoff process. 3) The Hurst exponent for the first period (1958-1973) is 0.5036, whichequals 0.5 approximately and indicates that the annual runoff process is in chaos. The Hurst exponents for the second(1974-1989) and third (1990-2005) periods are both greater than 0.50, which indicate that the annual runoff processshowed a long-enduring characteristic in the two periods. The Hurst exponent for the period from 1990 to 2005 indi-cates that the annual runoffwill show a slightly increasing trend in the 16 years after 2005.

  1. Food Processing and Agriculture. Wisconsin Annual Farm Labor Report, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.

    A yearly report on the migrant farm worker situation in Wisconsin evaluates the year 1968 in relation to past years and makes projections for the future. Comparisons are made of trends in year-round employment practices, seasonal food processing, the cherry industry, and the cucumber industry. The report includes a discussion on the social aspects…

  2. Study on Desulfurization of Gasoline by Electrochemical Oxidation and Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenbo; Wang Shujun; Liu Hongyan; Wang Zhenxin

    2006-01-01

    In order to further reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, a new desulfurization process was proposed by using catalytic oxidation and extraction realized in an electrochemical fluidized reactor. The fluidized layer of loaded catalyst particles consisted of lead dioxide (PbO2) supported on activated carbon particles (PbO2/C) and the electrolyte was aqueous NaOH solution. The PbO2/C particle anodes could remarkably accelerate the electrochemical reaction rate and promote the electrochemical catalysis of sulfur compounds. The sulfur compounds were at first oxidized to sulfones or sulfoxides, which were then removed after extraction. The experimental results indicated that the optimal desulfurization conditions were as follows: The cell voltage was 3.2 V, the concentration of hydroxyl ions in electrolyte was 0.12 mol/L, and the feed rate was 300 mL/min. Under these conditions the concentration of sulfur in gasoline was reduced from 310 ppm to 70 ppm. Based on these experimental results, a mechanism of indirect electrochemically catalytic oxidation was proposed.

  3. UTILITY OF ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUICAN LILIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Process knowledge of the financial situation of the economic entity presupposes the use of analysis and synthesis, as indispensable tools of investigation. Financial management of the economic entity have to belong to the basic role in strategic financial decisions that would solve the problem of effective management of the process optimal growth, balanced and proportionate entity. That is why it becomes necessary and imperative objective analysis of the implications of the current financial management in economic entities familiarize managers with the basic tools with which they operate, acquiring knowledge about planning and financial control, evaluation techniques of investment projects, about how to conduct financial and economic diagnosis and management control of the entity, the key issues in its orientation towards performance.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the experimental data of extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 have been presented. The data of FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]BF4. Further, the thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of the [BMIM]BF4 were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 73.02% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild reaction conditions. The ionic liquids could be reused four times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurizations of real fuels, multistage extraction were presented. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazoled ILs for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Wasewar, Kailas L; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z

    2016-05-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM]SCN has been presented on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel. The FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]SCN. Further, thermal, conductivity, moisture content, viscosity, and solubility analyses of [BMIM]SCN were carried out. The effects of time, temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of [BMIM]SCN on removal of dibenzothiophene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization, removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 86.5 % for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild process conditions. [BMIM]SCN could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, in the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazolium-based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  6. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  7. Ultrasonic coal-wash for de-ashing and de-sulfurization. Experimental investigation and mechanistic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambedkar, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-07-01

    This study focuses on the physical aspects of ultrasonic de-ashing and de-sulfurization, such as cavitation, streaming and their combined effects. Ambedkar Balraj proposes an ultrasound-assisted coal particle breakage mechanism and explores aqueous and solvent-based ultrasonic techniques for de-ashing and de-sulfurization. Ambedkar designs a Taguchi L-27 fractional-factorial matrix to assess the individual effects of key process variables. In this volume he also describes process optimization and scale-up strategies. The author provides a mechanism-based model for ultrasonic reagent-based coal de-sulfurization, proposes a flow diagram for ultrasonic methods of high-throughput coal-wash and discusses the benefits of ultrasonic coal-wash. Coal will continue to be a major fuel source for the foreseeable future and this study helps improve its use by minimising ash and sulfur impurities.

  8. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  9. Desulfurization of Hydrocarbon Fuels at Ambient Conditions Using Supported Silver Oxide-Titania Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    reaction pathways for hydrotreating [3]. Adsorptive desulfurizing units can provide low sulfur fuel for sulfur intolerant systems such as fuel...considered to be an alternative to process intensification of hydrotreating processes to cope with tightening sulfur regulations which calls for higher...remove the sulfur species that represent the hardest species to hydrotreat may be operated in tandem to traditional hydrotreating units. Large scale

  10. Desulfurization of gas tailings in the petroleum industry; Dessulfuracao de efluentes gasosos na industria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Edwin A.; Ribeiro, Eduardo D.L. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A review of the main gas-stream desulfurization processes, as applied to the petroleum industry, is presented during this work. Technology in actual use for decontamination of natural gas and tail gas in oil refineries, in terms of H{sub 2} S removal, is also discussed. Main processes for oxidized-sulphur gases removal in gas tailings of this industry are described. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  11. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...... operation has been carried out. Foaming caused by 0.03 g SDS/(L slurry) reduced the desulfurization degree from 84 to 74% and the solids and limestone concentrations of the slurry from 58 to 48 g/(L slurry) and from 1.4 to 1.0 g/(L slurry), respectively. These effects were attributed to the foaming...... transferring small particles to the foam layer present on top of the slurry in the holding tank. The addition of 0.03 g antifoams/(L slurry) to SDS foam eliminated the foam, but the desulfurization degree remained low. Potential mechanisms for the observed behavior are analyzed. (c) 2014 American Institute...

  12. Study on the reaction activity of CuO/y-Al2O3 for dry flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG Chao; ZHENG Ying; ZHENG Chu-guang

    2004-01-01

    The copper oxide bed regenerable adsorber process can efficiently remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) and reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas with no solid or liquid byproducts. This paper investigates the dry flue gas desulfurization activities of the CuO/γ-Al2O3 under different operation conditions finding that the dispersion degree of copper oxide can achieve a threshold value, which is 0.47mg/m2 carriers. The conclusion confirms that the sulfur capacity of desulfurizer is associated with flue gas' space velocity, reaction temperature, copper content and the structure of sorbent pellet, etc. And with the condition of the desulfurization reaction temperature 673 K, the space velocity 11 200 h-1 and the S/Cu mole ratio under 1, the sulfur removal efficiency can go upwards to 95%.

  13. Air pollution and infant mortality: a natural experiment from power plant desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechinger, Simon

    2014-09-01

    The paper estimates the effect of SO2 pollution on infant mortality in Germany, 1985-2003. To avoid endogeneity problems, I exploit the natural experiment created by the mandated desulfurization at power plants and power plants' location and prevailing wind directions, which together determine treatment intensity for counties. Estimates translate into an elasticity of 0.07-0.13 and the observed reduction in pollution implies an annual gain of 826-1460 infant lives. There is no evidence for disproportionate effects on neonatal mortality, but for an increase in the number of infants with comparatively low birth weight and length. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Desulfurization of jet fuel for fuel cell-based APU systems in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Pasel, J.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To prevent the catalysts in fuel cell systems from poisoning by sulfur containing substances the fuel to be used must be desulfurized to a maximum of 10 ppmw of sulfur. Since the conventional hydrodesulfurization process employed in the refinery industry is not suitable for mobile fuel cell applications (e.g. auxiliary power units, APUs), the present study aims at developing an alternative process and determining its technical feasibility. A large number of processes were assessed with respect to their application in fuel cell APUs. The results revealed that a two-step process combining pervaporation and adsorption is a suitable process for the on-board desulfurization of jet fuel. The investigations to evaluate this process are presented in this paper. Seven different membrane materials and ten sorbent materials were screened to choose the most suitable candidates. Further laboratory experiments were conducted to optimize the operating conditions and to collect data for a pilot plant design. Different jet fuel qualities with up to 1650 ppmw of sulfur can be desulfurized to a level of 10 ppmw. (orig.)

  15. Designing a process for simulation-based annual nurse competency assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterval, Eugene M E; Stephan, Kelly; Peczinka, Denise; Shaw, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The education council at Orlando Regional Medical Center identified a need to improve the annual nurse competency assessment. A revision process was implemented to improve the method and efficiency of assessing nurse competency. This process included evaluating population-specific competencies using simulation-based scenarios that were developed by a multidisciplinary team. The results showed high participant satisfaction scores and cost savings because of an individualized, efficient approach and bundling of resources.

  16. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  17. Magnesite base desulfurizer of metallurgical physical chemistry research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This topic put carbon thermal vacuum method in combination with magnesium based desulfurization technology with magnesite reduction of magnesium vapor directly on hot metal desulphurization. This is a new type of desulfurization technology, the retrieval related literature at home and abroad was not reported in the recent ten years, according to the relationship between heat of desulfurizer preparation MgO style content can reach 50 %.It was found that the desulfurizer sample with 50 % MgO content was in accordance with the requirements, without adding flux, but its viscosity did not meet the requirements; adding 1 % flux (CaF2, the sample viscosity was significantly reduced, and about 1 400 °C sample viscosity suitable for hot metal pretreatment desulfurization.

  18. Microstructure and Properties of Desulfurized Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures of general crumb rubber(CR), dynamic desulfurized crumb rubber(DDCR) and high speed agitation desulfurized crumb rubber(HSADCR) modified bitumens were investigated by a fluorescence microscope, and the physical properties of these three modified bitumens were studied.The results show that the dynamic desulfuration can improve the swelling capacity of crumb rubber in bitumen by destroying the sulfuratized bond of the crumb rubber,but the reunion of rubber particles during dynamic desulfuration also makes the swelling and the DDCR in bitumen difficult, so properties of the DDCR modified bitumen are not superior to the general crumb rubber modified bitumen.However,high speed agitation desulfuration can not only improve the swelling capacity of crumb rubber in bitumen,but also avoid the reunion of rubber particles,so some properties of bitumen can be improved by the modification of HSADCR.

  19. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal. Second quarterly report, October 1--December 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, J.K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine; Kitchell, J.P. [Holometrix, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of ``model`` organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  20. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  1. Experimental Study on Hot Metal Desulfurization Using Sintered Red Mud-Based Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengshan; Zhang, Yanling; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-09-01

    This research presents the results of laboratory and pilot-scale tests conducted on the use of sintered red mud (RM)-based flux in the hot metal desulfurization (HMD) process. Al2O3/Na2O in RM can decrease the melting point of lime-based slag and can work as a flux in the HMD process. Good slag fluidity was observed throughout the process, and high desulfurization rates ( 80%) with a low final S content (<0.02%) were experimentally obtained when the RM:CaO ratio was between 1.2:1 and 2.4:1. The pilot-scale test results indicated that a desulfurization rate as high as 91% and a S content <0.0099% could be acquired when RM:lime = 1:1, verifying the feasibility of using sintered RM-based flux in HMD. The data obtained provide important information for promoting the large-scale application of sintered RM in steelmaking.

  2. {sup 29}Si-NMR study of the absorbent for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Hideshi; Kanuka, Nariyasu; Kanai, Ryu-ichi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The flue gas from a coal fired boiler contains a high concentration of SO{sub 2} which should be removed before emitted from a chimney for protection of environment from pollution. A wet desulfurization system is commonly adopted for flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in the absorbent, but needs a large amount of water. As dry FDD systems, a duct injection and a slurry spraying are adopted. The efficiency, however, is not so high as compared to a wet FGD system. Recently, the SO{sub 2} absorbent which exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in a dry FGD process was prepared from a coal fly-ash, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaSO{sub 4} by hydrothermal reaction. In this project, we studied the structural changes of the absorbent during the hydrothermal reation and sulfur dioxide absorption by silicon 29-MASNMR.

  3. Low sulfur content hot reducing gas production using calcium oxide desulfurization with water recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinman, J.; Mcgreal, J.E.

    1982-03-23

    A process and apparatus are claimed for producing a low sulfur content, hot reducing gas by desulfurizing hot reducing gas. This is done in the following manner; by contacting the sulfur-bearing hot reducing gas with a bed of a particulate calcium oxide desulfurizing agent to thereby produce a product gas stream and a byproduct calcium sulfide compositions recovering sulfur from the calcium sulfide composition by contacting the calcium sulfide composition with hot liquid water at a temperature and corresponding pressure sufficient to maintain steam in the system and to thereby convert the sulfide to calcium hydroxide and hydrogen sulfide and to produce a liquid water stream containing sulfur; combining the sulfur containing water stream with a fresh water stream and recycling this water stream for contacting the calcium sulfide composition. Preferably water vapor produced in the contacting step is condensed and returned to the system in the final stage of contacting the calcium sulfide composition with hot liquid water.

  4. NIRE annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of `ecotechnology` that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts on such topics as: emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from advanced coal combustors; catalysts for diesel NO{sub x} removal; measuring dust from stationary sources; software for life cycle assessment; marine disposal of CO{sub 2}; emissions of greenhouse gases from coal mines in Japan; structural changes in coal particles during gasification; solubilization and desulfurization of high sulfur coal with trifluoromethane sulfuroic acid; and oxidation mechanisms of H{sub 2}S.

  5. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Verkade

    1998-08-31

    The nonionic superbase P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (A) efficiently desulfurizes trisulfides to disulfides and monosulfides, disulfides to monosulfides, and propylene sulfide to propene. S=P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (B) was formed as the sulfur acceptor. P(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} was a much poorer desulfurizing agent than A under the same reaction conditions. Thiocyanates and triphenylphosphine sulfide were also desulfurized with A, but N-(phenylthio)phthalimide formed [A-SP]{sup +} phthalimide in quantitative yield.

  6. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  7. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  8. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhong; Yan Cao; Wenying Li; Kechang Xie; Wei-Ping Pan

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se).The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues.It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal.A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS).It has been determined that Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 μg/L, respectively.The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples.Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is nigh in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(Ⅳ)).The toxicity of Se(Ⅳ) is the strongest of all Se species.Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  9. NID dry desulfurization system -- An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahman, S.; Bengtsson, S.

    1998-07-01

    The development of ABB's low cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been reported in various papers during 1997. The system combines low cost and simple operation with very good performance and is targeted especially for the emerging markets in Asia and East Europe. This method is capable of achieving 90+% SO{sub 2} removal, irrespective of sulphur content in the fuel. The system is further easy to retrofit at existing sites; it has a minimum space requirement. An important feature of the dry FGD technology, sometimes not highlighted enough, is the fact that particulate collection of fly ash is facilitated by the FGD system at no extra capital charge. The flue gas temperature after a DFGD system also often allows the flue gas to be passed on to an existing stack without reheat. ``NID'' is an acronym for ``Novel Integrated Desulfurization'', indicative of the innovative nature of this FGD technology enabled by the integration of several subfunctionalities into one unit. The first two commercial plants were installed by the Polish power company Elektrownia Laziska. These full scale units were commissioned during 1996. A third unit at a diesel power station in Finland is at the time of writing in the commissioning stage.

  10. Desulfurization of coal: enhanced selectivity using phase transfer catalysts. Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Due to environmental problems related to the combustion of high sulfur Illinois coal, there continues to be interest in the development in viable pre-combustion desulfurization processes. Recent studies by the authors have obtained very good sulfur removals but the reagents that are used are too expensive. Use of cheaper reagents leads to a loss of desired coal properties. This study investigated the application phase transfer catalysts to the selective oxidation of sulfur in coal using air and oxygen as oxidants. The phase transfer catalyst is expected to function as a selectivity moderator by permitting the use of milder reaction conditions that otherwise necessary. This would enhance the sulfur selectivity and help retain the heating value of the coal. The use of certain coal combustion wastes for desulfurization, and the application of cerium (IV) catalyzed air oxidation for selective sulfur oxidation are also being studied. If successful, this project could lead to the rapid development of a commercially viable desulfurization process. This would significantly improve the marketability of Illinois coal.

  11. Kinetic model of hot-metal desulfurization by deep injection of synthetic powder mixtures - Part II; Modelo cinetico da dessulfuracao do gusa na panela atraves de injecao de misturas sinteticas - parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesshadri, V. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia; Silva, C.A. da; Silva, I.A. da [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia

    1995-12-31

    The model developed in Part I of this study was used to analyze a series of industrial trials of hot metal hot desulfurization by deep injection of Ca O base synthetic mixtures, using N{sub 2} as carrier gas. The model allows the simulation of the industrial practice and, under the examined conditions it was observed that the major contribution for the process desulfurization come from the top slag. However, since the values range covered by some other parameters were not extensive enough to affect the desulfurization, further experiments are required to fully assess the the influence of these variables 28 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. 联合特钢公司烧结烟气脱硫工艺设计与应用%Design and Application of Sintering Fume Desulfurization Process of United Special Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贺建; 王莹

    2015-01-01

    天津天钢联合特钢有限公司(以下称联合特钢公司)为了减少SO2排放量,满足国家颁布的钢铁行业排放标准,将石灰-石膏湿法脱硫技术应用于2×230 m2烧结机,使烧结机头烟气SO2脱效率达95%以上,SO2平均排放浓度低于30 mg/m3,各项运行性能指标良好,实现了节能减排,满足了国家排放标准,取得了较高的经济效益。%In order to reduce SO2 emission and reach the emission standard of national steel industry, lime-gypsum wet method desulfurization technology was adopted for 2í230 m2 sintering machines at Tianjin Tiangang United Special Steel Co., Ltd. The SO2 removal rate of fume at sintering machine head arrived at over 95% and average SO2 emission condensation was lower than 30 mg/m3. With good performance indices, energy saving and emission reducing were achieved and national emission standard was met. High economic benefits were obtained.

  13. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  14. Quantification of annual wildfire risk; A spatio-temporal point process approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Policy responses for local and global firemanagement depend heavily on the proper understanding of the fire extent as well as its spatio-temporal variation across any given study area. Annual fire risk maps are important tools for such policy responses, supporting strategic decisions such as location-allocation of equipment and human resources. Here, we define risk of fire in the narrow sense as the probability of its occurrence without addressing the loss component. In this paper, we study the spatio-temporal point patterns of wildfires and model them by a log Gaussian Cox processes. Themean of predictive distribution of randomintensity function is used in the narrow sense, as the annual fire risk map for next year.

  15. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE 1) 1998 ANNUAL REPORT (EPA/600/R-98/065)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the first annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Cincinnati in March 1998. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, life cycle analysis, ecolabeling, and pollution prevention tools.

  16. Biocatalytic desulfurization of thiophenic compounds and crude oil by newly isolated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy El-Said Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms possess enormous highly specific metabolic activities, which enable them to utilize and transform nearly every known chemical class present in crude oil. In this context, one of the most studied biocatalytic processes is the biodesulfurization (BDS of thiophenic sulfur-containing compounds such as benzothiophene (BT and dibenzothiophene (DBT in crude oils and refinery streams. Three newly isolated bacterial strains, which were affiliated as Rhodococcus sp. strain SA11, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SA21, and Rhodococcus sp. strain SA31, were enriched from oil contaminated soil in the presence of DBT as the sole S source. GC-FID analysis of DBT-grown cultures showed consumption of DBT, transient formation of DBT sulfone (DBTO2 and accumulation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP. Molecular detection of the plasmid-borne dsz operon, which codes for the DBT desulfurization activity, revealed the presence of dszA, dszB, and dszC genes. These results point to the operation of the known 4S pathway in the BDS of DBT. The maximum consumption rate of DBT was 11 µmol/g Dry Cell Weight (DCW/h and the maximum formation rate of 2-HBP formation was 4 µmol/g DCW/h. Inhibition of both cell growth and DBT consumption by 2-HBP was observed for all isolates but SA11 isolate was the least affected. The isolated biocatalysts desulfurized other model DBT alkylated homologs. SA11 isolate was capable of desulfurizing BT as well. Resting cells of SA11 exhibited 10% reduction in total sulfur present in heavy crude oil and 18% reduction in total sulfur present in the hexane-soluble fraction of the heavy crude oil. The capabilities of the isolated bacteria to survive and desulfurize a wide range of S compounds present in crude oil are desirable traits for the development of a robust BDS biocatalyst to upgrade crude oils and refinery streams.

  17. The Role of Anode Manufacturing Processes in Net Carbon Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Khaji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon anodes are consumed in electrolysis cells during aluminum production. Carbon consumption in pre-bake anode cells is 400–450 kg C/t Al, considerably higher than the theoretical consumption of 334 kg C/t Al. This excess carbon consumption is partly due to the anode manufacturing processes. Net carbon consumption over the last three years at Emirates Aluminium (EMAL, also known as Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA Al Taweelah was analyzed with respect to anode manufacturing processes/parameters. The analysis indicates a relationship between net carbon consumption and many manufacturing processes, including anode desulfurization during anode baking. Anode desulfurization appears to increase the reaction surface area, thereby helping the Boudouard reaction between carbon and carbon dioxide in the electrolysis zone, as well as reducing the presence of sulfur which could inhibit this reaction. This paper presents correlations noted between anode manufacturing parameters and baked anode properties, and their impact on the net carbon consumption in electrolytic pots. Anode reactivities affect the carbon consumption in the pots during the electrolysis of alumina. Pitch content in anodes, impurities in anodes, and anode desulfurization during baking were studied to find their influence on anode reactivities. The understanding gained through this analysis helped reduce net carbon consumption by adjusting manufacturing processes. For an aluminum smelter producing one million tonnes of aluminum per year, the annual savings could be as much as US $0.45 million for every kg reduction in net carbon consumption.

  18. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  19. Ionic Liquid Catalyst Used in Deep Desulfuration of the Coking Benzene for Producing Sulfurless Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia-Ping; WANG Yan-Liang; MENG Fan-Wei; FAN Xing-Ming; QIN Song-Bo

    2008-01-01

    For the widening need of benzene used in organic synthesis, ionic liquid catalyst was prepared to study the process of deep desulfuration in the coking benzene. The result shows that the effect of de-thiophene by the ionic liquid catalyst (N-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Hmim][HSO4]) is related to its acid function value.Hammett indicator was used to determine the acid function value H0 of the ionic liquid. It can be concluded that while the acid function value is in the range from -4 to -12, the ionic liquid catalyst can make the concentration certain acid quantity and strength, the ionic liquid catalyst helps to form alkyl thiophene through Friedel-Crafts reaction, which differs from the character of benzene and it is absolutely necessary for the separation and refinement of benzene. But overabundant quantity and higher acid value of [Hmim][HSO4] are more suitable for the side copolymerization of benzene, thiophene and alkene, thereby affecting repeated use of the ionic liquid catalyst([Hmim][HSO4]). In our research, thiophene derivant produced by desulfurization in the coking benzene was used as the polymer to provide the passing channel of the charges. The ionic liquid composition in poor performance after repeated use was made to prepare conductive material (resisting to static electricity) as an "electron-receiving" and "electron-giving" doping agent. The result shows that thiophene derivant after desulfuration in the coking benzene can be used to prepare doping conductive materials.

  20. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  1. Desulfurization of Model Oil via Adsorption by Copper(II) Modified Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Dezhi; Huang, Huan; Shi, Li [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2013-03-15

    In order to further reduce the sulfur content in liquid hydrocarbon fuels, a desulfurization process by adsorption for removing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and propylmercaptan (PM) was investigated. Bentonite adsorbents modified by CuCl{sub 2} for the desulfurization of model oil was investigated. The results indicated that the modified bentonite adsorbents were effective for adsorption of DMS and PM. The bentonite adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TGA). The acidity was measured by FT-IR spectroscopy. Several factors that influence the desulfurization capability, including loading and calcination temperature, were studied. The maximum sulfur adsorption capacity was obtained at a Cu(II) loading of 15 wt %, and the optimum calcination temperature was 150 .deg. C. Spectral shifts of the v(C-S) and v(Cu-S) vibrations of the complex compound obtained by the reaction of CuCl{sub 2} and DMS were measured with the Raman spectrum. On the basis of complex adsorption reaction and hybrid orbital theory, the adsorption on modified bentonite occurred via multilayer intermolecular forces and S-M (σ) bonds.

  2. Catalytic Desulfurization of Benzothiophene Using Keggin Type Polyoxometalates as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of catalytic desulfurization of benzothiophen (BT was studied using polyoxometalates as catalyst. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40], have different heteroatom in Keggin structure and catalytic activities. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] have high crystallinity with homogeneous distribution particles. Desulfurization of BT using polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] resulted % conversion up to 99% for 3 h reaction time and at temperature 40 oC. Application of polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] for crude oil desulfurization showed % conversion of 4-88%. The main functional groups of polyoxometalates still retained after catalytic desulfurization indicated the stability of polyoxometalate compounds

  3. Highly attrition resistant sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B.; Abbasian, J.; Zarnegar, M.K.; Wangerow, J.R.; Carty, R.H.

    1998-07-01

    One of the main obstacles in the commercialization of high-temperature desulfurization systems for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation processes is the development of regenerable sulfur sorbents with suitable physical and chemical characteristics. The focus of much of the current research on sorbent development has been on the use of zinc-based sorbents. These sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work; however, they have been shown to suffer from sulfate formation and zinc volatilization, leading to sorbent degradation over multi-cycle use. Therefore, investigation of non-zinc based sorbents is a logical approach to develop an effective alternative. An effective alternative to zinc-based sorbents could be manganese-based sorbents which have recently been shown to withstand high temperature ({gt} 750 C) operation and also maintain structural and reactive integrity over many cycles. However, because of process equipment limitations and other process variables such as fuel gas alkali content, a number of investigators have recently argued that the benefit to be gained by lower temperature application may outweigh the slight loss of efficiency, resulting in lower overall cost of electricity. Desulfurization temperatures {lt} 538 C have been recommended to provide the best compromise between process equipment limitations and higher temperature operation. This paper reports on an on-going research program to develop novel, highly reactive, attrition-resistant, and regenerable manganese-based sorbents for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal-derived fuel gases at temperatures of 316 to 538 C and pressures up to 300 psig. The primary focus of this study is placed on the preparation (method and composition), characterization, and evaluation of a number of sorbent formulations to identify the most suitable manganese-based sorbent. The manganese-based sorbent formulations prepared to

  4. Fractal desulfurization kinetics of high-sulfur coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longjun; Peng Tiefeng; Zhang Dingyue; Zhang Fukai

    2012-01-01

    The pore structure characteristics of high-sulfur coal from Wansheng in Chongqing have been studied by a nitrogen adsorption method (BET).The effects of grinding and pre-treating with nitric acid on the inorganic sulfur content of coal have been investigated.Organic sulfur in coal pretreated with nitric acid was desulfurized by using propylene-glycol-KOH (PG-KOH).Fractal kinetic properties of these two desulfurization procedures were investigated by using fractal geometric theory.The results show that both the specific surface area and pore volume increased with the decrease in particle diameter.The microspore surface of coal had fractal characteristics; the fractal dimension was 2.48.The sulfur content decreased with the decrease in particle diameter by grinding.After pretreatment with nitric acid,the desulfurization ratio (DFR) of inorganic sulfur increased to over 99% and the DFR of total sulfur to over 70%.The desulfurization procedure of inorganic sulfur had fractal kinetic characteristics; its reactive fractal dimension was 2.94.The organic sulfur desulfurization procedure by PG-KOH was also tallied with fractal kinetic properties; the reactive fractal dimension was 2.57.The effect of temperature on the desulfurization ratio of organic sulfur can be described with an Arrhenius empirical equation.The rate constant,pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the reaction increased with the decrease in particle diameter.

  5. Preparing an SbSn intermetallic compound by melt-annealing and application to electric desulfurization of crude oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; YUN Zhi

    2008-01-01

    We prepared an SbSn intermetallic compound powder with a mixture of equal molar amounts of antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn) by melt-annealing and high-energy ball milling, and characterized the obtained substance with XRD (X-ray diffraction), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The prepared SbSn has a hexagonal structure with a melting point of 425 °C. The particles have a dendritic appearance in micromorphology images. More Sb atoms are enriched on the surface than Sn atoms. A desulfurization efficiency of up to 33.92% can be obtained when applying this powder as a medium in the electric desulfurization of crude oil under the following conditions: an emulsion with a volumetric ratio of water to oil at 20:80, a surfactant mass fraction in the emulsion of 0.18%, a processing time of 17 h, and a voltage of 9.68 V. SbSn could be a promising catalyst for desulfurizing crude oil. The desulfurization performance is ascribed to the electron cavities formed by current induction.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of 1-Butyl-3 Methylimidazolium Chloride as Green Material for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3 methylimidazolium chloride as green material for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z; Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Wasewar, Kailas L

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency.

  8. Experimental study on the reuse of spent rapidly hydrated sorbent for circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zheng, Kai; You, Changfu

    2011-11-01

    Rapidly hydrated sorbent, prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime, is a highly effective sorbent for moderate temperature circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) process. The residence time of fine calcium-containing particles in CFB reactors increases by adhering on the surface of larger adhesive carrier particles, which contributes to higher sorbent calcium conversion ratio. The circulation ash of CFB boilers (α-adhesive carrier particles) and the spent sorbent (β and γ-adhesive carrier particles) were used as adhesive carrier particles for producing the rapidly hydrated sorbent. Particle physical characteristic analysis, abrasion characteristics in fluidized bed and desulfurization characteristics in TGA and CFB-FGD systems were investigated for various types of rapidly hydrated sorbent (α, β, and γ-sorbent). The adhesion ability of γ-sorbent was 50.1% higher than that of α-sorbent. The abrasion ratio of β and γ-sorbent was 16.7% lower than that of α-sorbent. The desulfurization abilities of the three sorbent in TGA were almost same. The desulfurization efficiency in the CFB-FGD system was up to 95% at the bed temperature of 750 °C for the β-sorbent.

  9. Impact of impregnation pressure on desulfurization performance of Zn-based sorbents supported on semi-coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianrong Zheng; Weiren Bao; Qingmai Jin; Ruiyuan He; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure impregnation,a new preparation method for sorbents to remove H2S from hot coal gas,is introduced in this paper.Semi-coke (SC) and ZnO is selected as the support and active component of sorbent,respectively.The sorbent preparation process includes high-pressure impregnation,filtration,ovendry and calcination.The aim of this research is to primarily study the effects of the impregnation pressure on physical properties and desulfurization ability of the sorbent.The desulfurization experiment was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 500 ℃ and a simulated coal gas used in this work was composed of CO (33 vol%),H2 (39 vol%),H2S (300 ppm in volume),and N2 (balance).Experimental results show that the pore structure of the SC support can be improved effectively and ZnO active component can be uniformly dispersed on the support,with the small particle size of 10-500 nm.Sorbents prepared using high-pressure impregnation have better desulfurization capacity and their active components have higher utilization rate.P20-ZnSC sorbent,obtained by high-pressure impregnation at 20 atm,has the best desulfurization ability with a sulfur capacity of 7.54 g S/100g sorbent and a breakthrough time of 44 h.Its desulfurization precision and efficiency of removing H2S from the middle temperature gases can reach < 1 ppm and >99.7%,respectively,before sorbent breakthrough.

  10. An oxidative desulfurization method using ultrasound/Fenton's reagent for obtaining low and/or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yongchuan; Qi, Yutai [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 115001 (China); Zhao, Dezhi [Department of Petroleum Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Zhang, Huicheng [Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals of SINOPEC Corp., Fushun 113001 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The total development trend in the world is towards continuously lower of sulfur content as a quality standard of diesel fuels. Integrating of an oxidative desulfurization unit with a conventional hydrotreating unit can bring benefits to producing low and/or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels. Using the hydrotreated Middle East diesel fuel as a feedstock, four processes of the oxidative desulfurization have been studied: a hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid system and a Fenton's reagent system both without/with ultrasound. Results showed that the oxidative desulfurization reaction mechanics fitted apparent first-order kinetics. The addition of Fenton's reagent could enhance the oxidative desulfurization efficiency for diesel fuels and sono-oxidation treatment in combination with Fenton's reagent shows a good synergistic effect. Under our best operating condition for the oxidative desulfurization: temperature 313 K, ultrasonic power 200 W, ultrasonic frequency 28 kHz, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 0.05 mol/mol, pH 2.10 in aqueous phase and reaction time 15 min, the sulfur content in the diesel fuels was decreased from 568.75 {mu}g/g to 9.50 {mu}g/g. (author)

  11. Overview on Microbial Desulfurization for Pyrite Cinder%硫铁矿烧渣的微生物脱硫概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文博; 邹平; 孙珮石

    2013-01-01

    对硫酸渣微生物氧化脱硫研究进行了综述,主要包括硫酸渣的特性、脱硫工艺、脱硫微生物种类、细菌氧化机理、微生物脱硫影响因素、硫酸渣生物氧化脱硫现状和存在问题等,展望了该技术未来的研究方向及应用前景.%The research on microbial oxidation desulfurization for pyrite cinder is summarized in this paper, which mainly includes the characteristics of pyrite cinder, desulfuration process, desulfurization microbial species, bacterial oxidation mechanism, the influence factors of microbial desulfurization, the present situation and the existing problems of pyrite cinder's biological oxidation desulfurization, and so on, the future direction of the research and the application prospect are also forecasted in this paper.

  12. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P. Brown

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and –independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  13. THE APPLICATION OF REVERSE FLOCCULATION METHOD IN HIGH SULFUR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏; 张素清

    1999-01-01

    The reverse flocculation method for removing pyritic sulfur from high sulfur coals has been conceptually developed and investigated. The tentative tests on China high sulfur coals have shown that this advanced physical separation technique can be very efficient in coal desulfurization, provided the process parameters are properly optimized. Under the circumstances of acquiring high coal recovery, the total sulfur rejection with four kinds of coal samples normally falls in the range 5?% to 71% by one-step reverse flocculation, and within the range 40% to 59% by one-step normal flocculation process.

  14. Proceedings of the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program Annual Technical Exchange Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document contains summaries of technology development presented at the 1995 Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) Annual Technical Exchange Meeting. The ESP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Technology Development. The meeting is held annually to promote a free exchange of ideas among technology developers, potential users (for example, EM focus areas), and other interested parties within EM. During this meeting, developers of ESP-funded technologies describe the problems and needs addressed by their technologies; the technical approach, accomplishments, and resolution of issues; the strategy and schedule for commercialization; and evolving potential applications. Presenters are asked to address the following areas: Target waste management problem, waste stream, or data need; scientific background and technical approach; technical accomplishments and resolution of technical issues; schedule and strategy for commercializing and implementing the technology or acquiring needed data; potential alternate applications of the technology or data, including outside of DOE/EM. The meeting is not a program review of the individual tasks or subtasks; but instead focuses on the technical aspects and implementation of ESP-sponsored technology or data. The meeting is also attended by members of the ESP Technical Review Team, who have the opportunity at that time to review the ESP as a whole.

  15. Adsorptive desulfurization over hierarchical beta zeolite by alkaline treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuping Tian; Xiaojian Yang; Yanchun Shi; Cuiying Jia; Yongying Chen

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical beta zeolites with SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratios of 16 to 25 were obtained by alkaline treatment in NaOH solution.The effects of treatment temperature on crystallinity,textural properties and chemical composites were studied by XRD,N2 sorption,FT-IR and XRF techniques.The desulfurization performance of parent and alkaline-treated beta zeolites was investigated by static absorption in four model fuels,containing four sulfur compounds of different molecular sizes like thiophene (TP),3-methylthiophene (3-MT),benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT),respectively.The crystallinity was observed to be successfully maintained when the treatment temperature was below 50℃.Mesoporosity of beta zeolite was evidently developed with alkaline treatment.The formation of mesopore remarkably improved the desulfurization performance for TP,3-MT,BT and DBT,especially for DBT with larger molecular diameter.Though the addition of toluene in the model fuels resulted in a significant drop of the desulfurization performance of mesoporous beta zeolite,the introduction of cerium ions to some extent mitigated the effect of toluene,which means that both the adsorbents porous structure and the adsorption mode are responsible for the desulfurization performance.The adsorbent of cerium ion-exchanged mesoporous beta showed about 80% recovery of desulfurization after the first regeneration.

  16. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of EX-SO3 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 110 {micro}m particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-550 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  17. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  18. Desulfurization of petroleum induced by ionization radiation: benzothiophene behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luana S.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Duarte, Celina L., E-mail: lsandrade@ipen.br, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is currently the most common method used by refineries; this removes significantly sulfur compounds from petroleum fractions, however, is not highly effective for removing thiophene compounds such as benzothiophene, and generates high costs for the oil industry. Another factor, are the environmental laws, which over the years has become increasingly strict, especially regarding the sulfur content. This compound cause incalculable damage both to the industry and to the environment. Therefore new methods for petroleum desulfurization should be studied in order to minimize the impacts that these compounds cause. In the present study it was used ionizing radiation, a promising method of advanced oxidation in reducing sulfur compounds. The analysis were performed after purge and trap concentration of samples, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then benzothiophene samples with the same concentration from 27 mg.L{sup -1} to 139 mg.L{sup -1} were irradiated with different absorbed doses of radiation ranging from 1 kGy to 20 kGy in gamma irradiator Cobalt-60, Gammacell. These samples were analyzed by the same procedure used for the calibration curve, and the removals of benzothiophene after ionizing radiation treatment were calculated. It was observed that at higher doses there was a greater degradation of this compound and the formation of fragments, such as 1,2-dimethylbenzene and toluene, which may be removed by simple processes. (author)

  19. 活性焦烟气脱硫技术及其应用前景%Desulfurization Technology for Flue Gas by Active Coke and Its Application Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家铭

    2012-01-01

    Desulfurization technology for flue gas by active coke was using its inherent functions of adsorption, catalysis and filtration,it was a dry purification treatment for the sulfur contained flue gas, in same one of reactor the three functions of desulfurization, de-nitride and de-dust were finished. Author hasintroduced the basic principle,process flow,technical feature,studying and developing situation taking coal as mainraw material to produce the active coke ; has compared the desulfurization hy active coke with the other some kinds of conventional desulfurization processes. Result indicates that the desulfurization technology of flue gas by active coke has an obvious superiority in the aspects of desulfurization rate,utilization of by-product,investment of plant and operating cost etc.%活性焦烟气脱硫技术利用活性焦特有的吸附、催化和过滤功能,对含硫烟气进行干法净化处理,在同1个反应器内完成脱硫、脱硝、除尘3种功能。介绍了以煤为主要原料生产活性焦的基本原理、工艺流程、技术特点和研发概况;将活性焦脱硫工艺与其他几种常用的脱硫工艺进行了对比,结果表明,活性焦烟气脱硫技术在脱硫率、副产品利用、装置投资及运行费用等方面均具有明显优势。

  20. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology: Phase 2. Exploratory studies on the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Huang, W.; White, J. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The topical report describes the results of Phase 2 research to determine the feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Many of the contaminants present in coal emerge from the gasification process in the product gas. Much effort has gone into the development of high temperature metal oxide sorbents for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas. The oxides of zinc, iron, manganese, and others have been studied. In order for high temperature desulfurization to be economical it is necessary that the sorbents be regenerated to permit multicycle operation. Current methods of sorbent regeneration involve oxidation of the metal sulfide to reform the metal oxide and free the sulfur as SO{sub 2}. An alternate regeneration process in which the sulfur is liberated in elemental form is desired. Elemental sulfur, which is the typical feed to sulfuric acid plants, may be easily separated, stored, and transported. Although research to convert SO{sub 2} produced during sorbent regeneration to elemental sulfur is on-going, additional processing steps are required and the overall process will be more complex. Clearly, the direct production of elemental sulfur is preferred. Desulfurization utilizing a cerium oxide based sorbent is discussed.

  1. The construction of the training process highly skilled athletes in soccer and field hockey in the annual cycle of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyukevych V.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study - to justify the theoretical and methodological principles and concepts of the training process of building highly skilled athletes in soccer and field hockey in the annual cycle of training. The results . Calculate the ratio of training loads of different orientation in the annual cycle of training. Means of producing football players in the annual training cycle is as follows: non-specific (general training exercise - 45.6%, specific - 54.4% (special training exercise - 4.1% subsidiary - 22, 7%, competitive - 27.6% . Means of producing players in the annual training cycle is as follows: non-specific (general training exercise - 49.0%, specific - 51.0% (special training - 2.3% subsidiary - 26.1%, competitive exercise - 22.0% .

  2. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  3. Characteristics of fly ash from the dry flue gas desulfurization system for iron ore sintering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Guanghong; Huang, Peng; Mou, Yaqin; Zhou, Chenhui

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of fly ash from the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system are important for its reuse and are mainly depend on the desulfurization process. The physical and chemical properties of DSF ash, which refers to fly ash from the dry FGD system for the iron ore sintering process, were investigated. Its mineralogical contents were determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis, and its micro-morphology was studied by scanning electric micrograph analysis. The results show that DSF ash has a higher CaO and SO3 content, and the main sulfur form is sulfite, with only a part of it oxidized to sulfate. The major minerals present in DSF ash are hannebachite, anhydrite, calcite and portlandite; a minor constituent is calcium chloride. The particles of DSF ash are irregular, fragmentary and small, and hannebachite grows on their surfaces. Particle size is affected by the FGD process, and the ash size from the maximized emission reduction of the sintering-FGD process is lower than that from the circulating fluidized bed-FGD process. The particle size distribution of DSF ash follows the Rosin--Rammler-Bennet equation.

  4. Determination of Calcium Phase in Sinter Desulfurization Gypsum%烧结脱硫石膏的钙相分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 曾波; 涂昀; 万丽云

    2015-01-01

    建立烧结脱硫石膏的钙相分析方法。根据石灰石浆脱硫工艺的特点,利用脱硫石膏中硫酸钙和亚硫酸钙等钙相的不同特征,用EDTA容量法测定总钙,并用ICP法、红外仪器方法测得硫酸钙、亚硫酸钙、碳酸钙等的含量,再利用差减法计算氧化钙的含量。测定结果的相对标准偏差小于1.5%(n=6),硫酸钙、亚硫酸钙、碳酸钙及氧化钙的加标回收率在97%~100%之间。该方法操作简单、快速,可用于烧结脱硫工艺中烧结脱硫石膏钙相的日常检测,实现对脱硫工艺中各阶段反应产物的准确定量。%The analysis method of sintering desulfurization gypsum calcium phase was established. According to the characteristics of limestone slurry desulfurization process, by the different characteristics of calcium sulfate and calcium sulfite calcium phase desulfurization gypsum, total calcium was determined by EDTA volumetric method, and calcium sulfate, calcium sulfite, calcium carbonate were determined by ICP and infrared instrument method, and then the content of calcium oxide was caculated by differential subtraction. The method had the advantages of simple operation with short time,the relative standard deviations of determination results were less than 1.5%(n=6). The recoveries of calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate,calcium carbonate and calcium oxide were 97%–100%. The method is simple, rapid and can be used for sintering desulfurization process of sintering desulfurization gypsum calcium phase in the daily inspection, implementation of desulfurization technology in various stages of the reaction products accurate quantitative.

  5. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  6. Selected papers from the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemenman, Ilya; Faeder, James R; Hlavacek, William S; Jiang, Yi; Wall, Michael E; Zilman, Anton

    2011-10-01

    This special issue consists of 11 original papers that elaborate on work presented at the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing, which was held on the campus of St John's College in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, 11-14 August 2010. Now in its fourth year, the q-bio conference has changed considerably over time. It is now well established and a major event in systems biology. The 2010 conference saw attendees from all continents (except Antarctica!) sharing novel results and participating in lively discussions at both the oral and poster sessions. The conference was oversubscribed and grew to 27 contributed talks, 16 poster spotlights and 137 contributed posters. We deliberately decreased the number of invited speakers to 21 to leave more space for contributed presentations, and the attendee feedback confirmed that the choice was a success. Although the q-bio conference has grown and matured, it has remained true to the original goal of being an intimate and dynamic event that brings together modeling, theory and quantitative experimentation for the study of cell regulation and information processing. Funded in part by a grant from NIGMS and by DOE funds through the Los Alamos National Laboratory Directed Research and Development program, the conference has continued to exhibit youth and vigor by attracting (and partially supporting) over 100 undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral researchers. The associated q-bio summer school, which precedes the conference each year, further emphasizes the development of junior scientists and makes q-bio a singular event in its impact on the future of quantitative biology. In addition to an increased international presence, the conference has notably diversified its demographic representation within the USA, including increased participation from the southeastern corner of the country. One big change in the conference this year is our new publication partner, Physical Biology. Although we are very

  7. Solar thermal hydrogen production process. Annual technical progress report, January-December, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently under contract to DOE for technology development of the Sulfur Cycle, a hybrid thermochemical-electrochemical process for the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water. Operational studies have been conducted and have resulted in definitions of operating modes for solar/hydrogen plants and in assessments of the day/night and annual variations in performance that will influence the operating modes and the sizing of plant subsystems. Conceptual design studies have been conducted for process components that interface with the solar receiver. From related trade-off studies, a preferred configuration emerged that involves an intermediate working fluid (e.g., hot gas) between the solar receiver and the sulfuric acid decomposition reactor. The design of the reactor has been based on a shell and tube type heat exchanger configuration with catalyst placement on the shell side. A number of candidate materials for structural use in the acid decomposition reactor also have been evaluated experimentally. Screening tests and endurance tests with potential catalysts (to accelerate the rate of sulfur trioxide cracking) have been conducted with encouraging results. Approximately three dozen candidate materials for use in constructing the acid vaporizer have been tested for corrosion resistance to the expected environment. Detailed discussions of the results obtained during 1979 are presented.

  8. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  9. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12...

  10. Mechanism of flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using the highly reactive absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; SUN Xiaojun; XU Peiyao; MA Shuangchen; WANG Lidong; LIU Feng

    2005-01-01

    Fly ash, industry-grade lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive were used to prepare the "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out using the highly reactive absorbent in the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system. Removal efficiencies of 94.5% for SO2 and 64.2% for NO were obtained respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, common highly reactive absorbent, "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The white flake layers were observed in the SEM images about surfaces of the common highly reactive absorbent and "Oxygen- riched" one, and the particle surfaces of the spent absorbent were porous. The content of calcium on surface was higher than that of the average in the highly reactive absorbent. The manganese compound additive dispersed uniformly on the surfaces of the "Oxygen- riched" highly reactive absorbent. There was a sulfur peak in the energy spectra pictures of the spent absorbent. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods, and the results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the absorbent except sulfur species, and SO2 and NO were removed by chemical absorption according to the experimental results of X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis. Sulfate being the main desulfurization products, nitrite was the main denitrification ones during the process, in which NO was oxidized rapidly to NO2 and absorbed by the chemical reaction.

  11. Effect of Calcium Oxide Additive on the Performance of Iron Oxide Sorbent for High-Temperature Coal Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Fan; Kechang Xie; Ju Shangguan; Fang Shen; Chunhu Li

    2007-01-01

    The effect of calcium oxide additive in iron oxide sorbent for hot gas desulfurization was investigated by XRD and TPR techniques. XRD characterization showed that CaO was highly dispersed after the calcination of sorbents. Calcium sulfate formed in the desulfurization was decomposed and regenerated to CaO by reacting with CO before the next sulfidation process. Calcium participated in every sulfidation/regeneration cycle and contributed to the enhancement of sulfur capacity. The TPR results showed that the reduction temperature of the sorbent increased with the increase of the content of calcium. Calcium played a role of retarding reduction. Therefore, the addition of calcium oxide additive will benefit the utilization of iron oxide sorbent in strongly reducing atmospheres.

  12. Enhancement of gas desulfurization with hydrated lime at low temperature by the presence of NO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bausach, M.; Pera-Titus, M.; Fite, C.; Cunill, F.; Izquierdo, J.F.; Tejero, J.; Iborra, M. [University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-11-01

    The effect of NO{sub 2} on the desulfurization reaction of simulated flue gas by Ca(OH){sub 2} was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor at 333-353 K and at relative humidities (RHs) in the range of 30%-70%. NO{sub 2} was determined to be a promoter for SO{sub 2} uptake, because its retention can be increased up to 200%. The effect of NO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentration on the kinetics of the desulfurization reaction was surveyed and successfully simulated by means of a deactivation model implemented with an inverse shrinking-core model (DM-ISCM). Solid analyses were also performed to identify the reaction products and provide insight into the chemistry of the process.

  13. Preparation of AAO-CeO2 nanotubes and their application in electrochemical oxidation desulfurization of diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yumeng; Yi, Chenxi; Chen, Yu; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-02-01

    The coaxial arrays of AAO-CeO2 NTs have been successfully galvanostatically deposited on an anode, characterized and adopted as a catalyst for removing organic sulfurs from diesel. The influence of the main electrochemical oxidation factors on the efficiency of desulfurization have also been investigated. The results show that the fabrication process of AAO-CeO2 NTs is accompanied by the formation of a new phase, namely Al3Ce, and the main oxidation products of the diesel are soluble inorganic sulphides, especially Ce2(SO4)3. When compared with dibenzothiophene and 4, 6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, benzothiophene is much more easily removed, with a removal efficiency that reaches 87.2%. Finally, a possible electrochemical oxidation desulfurization pathway for diesel is proposed.

  14. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of liquid fuels and its industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-08-01

    Latest environmental regulations require a very deep desulfurization to meet the ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD, 15 ppm sulfur) specifications. Due to the disadvantages of hydrotreating technology on the slashing production conditions, costs and safety as well as environmental protection, the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) as an alternative technology has been developed. UAOD process selectively oxidizes sulfur in common thiophenes in diesel to sulfoxides and sulfones which can be removed via selective adsorption or extractant. SulphCo has successfully used a 5000 barrel/day mobile "Sonocracking" unit to duplicate on a commercial scale its proprietary process that applies ultrasonics at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The UAOD technology estimate capital costs less than half the cost of a new high-pressure hydrotreater. The physical and chemical mechanisms of UAOD process are illustrated, and the effective factors, such as ultrasonic frequency and power, oxidants, catalysts, phase-transfer agent, extractant and adsorbent, on reaction kinetics and product recovery are discussed in this review.

  15. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Blythe; B. Marsh; S. Miller; C. Richardson; M. Richardson

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI have co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems and to future FGD installations. Field tests have been conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit has been used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998 and at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal in the fall of 1999. Testing at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, began in June 2000 and was completed at the end of January 2001. This Topical Reports includes results from Site 3; results from Sites 1 and 2 were reported previously. At Site 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in a commercially available form as a coated honeycomb structure. Field testing has been supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 3 field effort are also included and discussed in this Topical Report.

  16. Adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation using metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-01-15

    With the increasing worldwide demand for energy, utilization of fossil fuels is increasing proportionally. Additionally, new and unconventional energy sources are also being utilized at an increasing rate day-by-day. These sources, along with some industrial processes, result in the exposal of several sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds (SCCs and NCCs, respectively) to the environment, and the exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats in the recent years. Although, several methods were established for the removal of these pollutants during the last few decades, recent advancements in adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation (ADS and ADN, respectively) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make this the most promising and remarkable method. Therefore, many research groups are currently involved with ADS and ADN with MOFs, and the results are improving gradually by modifying the MOF adsorbents according to several specific adsorption mechanisms. In this review, ADS and ADN studies are thoroughly discussed for both liquid-phase and gas-phase adsorption. The MOF modification procedures, which are important for improved adsorption, are also described. To improve the knowledge among the scientific community, it is very important to understand the detailed chemistry and mechanism involved in a chemical process, which also creates the possibility and pathway for further developments in research and applications. Therefore, the mechanisms related to the adsorption procedures are also discussed in detail. From this review, it can be expected that the scientific community will obtain an understanding of the current state of ADS and ADN, their importance, and some encouragement and insight to take the research knowledge base to a higher level.

  17. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  18. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank waste. Organic destruction technology development task annual report -- FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H. [and others

    1993-09-01

    Low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that can be used to destroy organics and ferrocyanide in Hanford tank waste at temperatures from 250 C to 400 C. With HTP, organics react with oxidants, such as nitrite and nitrate, already present in the waste. Ferrocyanides and free cyanide will hydrolyze at similar temperatures and may also react with nitrates or other oxidants in the waste. No air or oxygen or additional chemicals need to be added to the autogenous HTP system. However, enhanced kinetics may be realized by air addition, and, if desired, chemical reductants can be added to the system to facilitate complete nitrate/nitrate destruction. Tank waste can be processed in a plug-flow, tubular reactor, or a continuous-stirred tank reactor system designed to accommodate the temperature, pressure, gas generation, and heat release associated with decomposition of the reactive species. The work described in this annual report was conducted in FY 1993 for the Organic Destruction Technology Development Task of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This task is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies originally funded by TWRS to meet tank safety and waste form disposal criteria and condition the feed for further pretreatment. During FY 1993 the project completed seven experimental test plans, a 30-hr pilot-scale continuous run, over 200 hr of continuous bench-scale HTP testing, and 20 batch HTP tests; two contracts were established with commercial vendors, and a commercial laboratory reactor was procured and installed in a glovebox for HTP testing with actual Hanford tank waste.

  19. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  20. Desulfurization of model aromatic molecules by Pedomicrobium sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercole, C.; Sulpizii, M.P.; Veglio, F.; Bartolini, S.; Toro, L.; Lepidi, A. [University of L`Alquila, L`Alquila (Italy). Dept. of Basic and Applied Biology

    1997-11-01

    A bacterial strain identified as Pedomicrobium sp., was isolated on the basis of the capability to remove volatile sulfur containing fragments including H{sub 2}S from carboxythiophene and the heterocyclic sulfurated molecules: benzothiolene, thianthrene, thiophene, thiophenecarboxyaldehyde and dibenzothiophene. The strain was selected for its desulfurizing capability on synthetic media in different culture conditions and atmosphere composition. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-xiang; Wang, Xin-hua; Wang, Mao; Wang, Wan-jun

    2014-12-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity ( B) and Al2O3 content ( B = 3.5-5.0; 20wt%-25wt% Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity ( C S) of the slag were calculated. Then slag-metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution ( L S). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%-25wt% has high activity of CaO ( a CaO), with no deterioration of C S compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured L S between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt% is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  2. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-xiang Yu; Xin-hua Wang; Mao Wang; Wan-jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity (B) and Al2O3 content (B=3.5−5.0;20wt%−25wt%Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity (CS) of the slag were calculated. Then slag−metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution (LS). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO−Al2O3−SiO2−MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5−5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%−25wt%has high activity of CaO (aCaO), with no deterioration of CS compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured LS between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt%and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt%is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5−5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt%has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  3. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  5. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Linjun, Yang; Roszak, Szczepan

    2017-09-15

    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. It had been studied that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature, and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg(0) oxidation efficiency improved significantly over SCR after improving the flue gas temperature and concentration of chlorine ion in the wastewater. The Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve Hg oxidized and removed efficiency in APCDs. The function of WFGD wastewater evaporation on Hg oxidation is due to reasons: active chlorine species generated through the evaporation process and promoted the Hg oxidation. Because Hg(2+) can be easily removed in ACPDs and chlorine ion is enriched in WFGD wastewater in power plants, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  6. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  7. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.; Anderson, A.D.

    1977-12-01

    This is the first annual report issued under a project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in-situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. Briefly, the goals of the project are to: evaluate the toxicity of process water effluents on aquatic biota; recommend maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents; and assist DOE in using project data and recommendations to design control technologies and to assess environmental impacts. The project objectives for Year 1 were pursued through the following five tasks: a literature review on process water constituents; toxicity studies on the effect of process waters and six process water constituents on aquatic biota; degradation rate studies on four to six process water constituents; bioaccumulation studies on four to six process water constituents; and recommendations on maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents based on data from the project and from the literature. Progress toward completion of these goals is presented.

  8. Desulfurization of diesel by oxidation/extraction scheme. Influence of the extraction solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Verduzco, L.F.; Torres-Garcia, E.; Gomez-Quintana, R.; Gonzalez-Pena, V.; Murrieta-Guevara, F. [Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, CP 07730 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    Due to the future specifications for sulfur content in middle distillate like diesel, a lot of research work has been done to develop alternative methods for desulfurization. This work presents the results for the desulfurization of diesel by an oxidation and extraction (O/E) scheme. This process can be considered like a post-treatment to the traditional hydrodesulfurization. A diesel with 320ppmw of total sulfur was employed to evaluate the elimination of sulfur compounds. The oxidation reaction was carried out with hydrogen peroxide at 30wt.%, in a heterogeneous system with a WO{sub x}/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst at 15wt.% of W; the extraction was performed with four polar solvents. The experiments were done in a batch reactor at 333K and atmospheric pressure. As an average, the sulfur content in the diesel after treatment was 90ppmw. A speciation of the sulfur compounds before and after O/E scheme was also included. Additionally, solubility data of dibenzothiophene sulfone in the polar solvents as a function of temperature were obtained.

  9. Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Titania Nanomaterial for Desulfurization of Model Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik A. Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reported on the development of novel nanomaterials of multiwalled carbon nanotubes doped with titania (CNT/TiO2 for the adsorptive desulfurization of model fuel oils. Various analytical techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were used for the characterization of the nanomaterials. The initial results indicated the effectiveness of the prepared CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials in removing sulfur compounds from model fuel oil. The adsorption of DBT, BT, and thiophene from model fuel onto the derived sorbents was performed using batch mode system. These CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials initially afforded approximately 45% removal of DBT, 55% BT, and more than 65% thiophene compounds from model fuels. The CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials provided an excellent activity towards interaction with organosulfur compounds. More experiments are underway to optimize the parameters for the adsorptive desulfurization processes. We believe that these nanomaterials as adsorbents will find useful applications in petroleum industry because of their operational simplicity, high efficiency, and high capacity.

  10. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  11. Design of Oxidation Regenerator for Coal-bed Methane Desulfurization%煤层气脱硫氧化再生槽的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文娟

    2013-01-01

    Before the use of the coal-bed methane, H2 S content in it must be lowered down to the demand with the desulfurizing system. This paper described the oxidation regeneration method for coal-bed methane desulfurization, and expounded the principle and technological process of the presently-used PDS wet oxidation regeneration method for coal-bed methane desulfurization, discussed the influence of some factors such as the regenerating time, temperature and the alkalinity of desulfurizing solution on the oxidation regeneration method, and based on these conditions, the structure of the oxidation regenerator and the injector were designed.%煤层气在利用之前,需要通过脱硫系统将其中的H2 S脱除至要求浓度以下。介绍了煤层气脱硫氧化再生技术,阐述了目前常用的PDS法湿式脱硫氧化再生技术的原理和工艺过程;讨论了再生时间、温度、脱硫液碱度等因素对氧化再生工艺的影响,基于这些条件,对氧化再生槽的结构、喷射器进行了设计。

  12. 电厂脱硫废水曝气装置设计优化%Power Plant Desulfurization Wastewater Aeration Device Design Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守超

    2015-01-01

    介绍了电厂常见脱硫废水处理系统的工作流程和流程优化部分,总结了多个电厂脱硫废水处理系统曝气装置的设计经验,提出了脱硫废水处理系统曝气装置设计优化的关键细节。该方案已经在多个电厂投入运行,且运行稳定、效果明显,可为相关单位的火电厂脱硫废水处理系统设计提供参考。%The power plant desulfurization wastewater treatment system common workflow and process optimization section summarizes a number of power plant desulfurization wastewater treatment system design experience aerator proposed key details desulfurization wastewater treatment system aeration device design optimization. The program has invested in a number of plant operations and stable operation, the effect is obvious, can desulfurization wastewater treatment system designed for the relevant units of thermal power plants to provide a reference.

  13. Selection of adsorbents for in-situ coupling technology of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In-situ coupling of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new desulfurization technology for fossil oil. It has the merits of high-selectivity of biodesulfurization and high-rate of adsorptive desulfurization. It is carried out by assembling nano-adsorbents onto surfaces of microbial cells. In this work, In-situ coupling desulfurization technology of widely used desulfurization adsorbents of γ-Al2O3, Na-Y molecular sieves, and active carbon with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8 were studied. Results show that Na-Y molecular sieves restrain the activity of R-8 cells and active carbon cannot desorb the substrate dibenzothiophene (DBT). Thus, they are not applicable to in-situ coupling desulfurization technology. Gamma-Al2O3 can adsorb DBT from oil phase quickly, and then desorb it and transfer it to R-8 cells for biodegradation, thus increasing desulfurization rate. It is also found that nano-sized γ-Al2O3 increases desulfurization rate more than regular-sized γ-Al2O3. Therefore, nano-γ-Al2O3 is regarded as the better adsorbent for this in-situ coupling desulfurization technology.

  14. Selection of adsorbents for in-situ coupling technology of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In-situ coupling of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new desulfurization technol- ogy for fossil oil. It has the merits of high-selectivity of biodesulfurization and high-rate of adsorptive desulfurization. It is carried out by assembling nano-adsorbents onto surfaces of microbial cells. In this work, In-situ coupling desulfurization technology of widely used desulfurization adsorbents of γ-Al2O3, Na-Y molecular sieves, and active carbon with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8 were studied. Results show that Na-Y molecular sieves restrain the activity of R-8 cells and active carbon cannot desorb the sub- strate dibenzothiophene (DBT). Thus, they are not applicable to in-situ coupling desulfurization tech- nology. Gamma-Al2O3 can adsorb DBT from oil phase quickly, and then desorb it and transfer it to R-8 cells for biodegradation, thus increasing desulfurization rate. It is also found that nano-sized γ-Al2O3 increases desulfurization rate more than regular-sized γ-Al2O3. Therefore, nano- γ-Al2O3 is regarded as the better adsorbent for this in-situ coupling desulfurization technology.

  15. 90`s for the 90`s: High efficiency dry flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, T.E.; Buschmann, J.C. [ABB Environmental Systems, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendments with additional State regulation have pushed the requirements for SO{sub 2} reduction on coal fired boiler emissions to 90% and above. The development and application of spray dryer reactors in the 1990`s to meet these increasingly difficult requirements has continued. This paper describes two spray dryer absorption processes which are capable of high efficiency. A cost benefit comparison between the two is included. Specific design features at several plants are presented. Full scale application and operation of spray dryer reactors with fabric filters on coal fired boilers has demonstrated that the dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) process is a proven technology for high SO{sub 2} removal. Low capital cost coupled with high SO{sub 2} removal makes the DFGD process attractive, competitive and proven for meeting the performance requirements in the 1990`s.

  16. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop hot-gas desulfurization sorbent formulations for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum. The specific objective was to develop suitable sorbents, that would have high and stable surface area and are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. Stability of surface area during regeneration was achieved by adding stabilizers. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives that promote the light-off of the regeneration reaction at lower temperature was considered. Another objective of this study was to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 C and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

  17. Microbial desulfurization of coal by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and thermophilic archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, G.; Pott, B.-M.; Larsson, L.; Holst, O.; Karlsson, H.T. (Univ. of Lund, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II, Chemical Center)

    1994-11-01

    Several different microorganisms have been suggested for desulfurization. In the present investigation, the thermophilic archaea [ital Acidianus brierleyi] (DSM 1651), [ital Sulfolobus acidocaldarius] (DSM 639) and [ital Sulfolobus solfataricus] (DSM 1616) were compared with the mesophyilic bacterium [ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans] (DSM 583) concerning their capability of removing sulfur from coal. The desulfurization rate as well as the amount of sulfur removed by the microorganisms was studied. Two of the investigated microorganisms [ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans] and [ital Acidianus brierleyi], were capable of oxidizing pure pyrite as well as oxidizing sulfur in coal. A kinetic analysis was performed assuming first order reactions. The rate constant for oxidation of pure pyrite by [ital A. brierleyi] was observed to be higher than for [ital T. ferrooxidans]. The values of the rate constants for sulfur removal from coal were comparable for the two microorganisms, but were higher than for oxidation of pure pyrite. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Biological desulfurization of coal by mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Hsieh, M.; Francis, H.; Kermode, R.I.; Khalid, A.M.; Aleem, H.M.I. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The biological desulfurization of coals was studied with pure cultures of mesophilic ({ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans} and {ital T. thiooxidans}) or thermophilic ({ital Sulfolobus brierleyi}) bacteria and acid mine water. These microorganisms were used with coals ranging in sulfur contents from 2 to 6%. The extent of removal of sulfur, ash and iron from coal was analyzed in terms of total sulfur, pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, ash content, and liquid phase iron concentration. With {ital S. brierleyi}, CO{sub 2}-enriched air resulted in a substantial increase in initial desulfurization rate of pyrite. With acclimated {ital S. brierleyi}, 15 to 20% organic sulfur removal was observed. Low-temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy data on iron phases in biotreated coal established that superparamagnetic iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) and jarosite were reprecipitated from solution onto the coal particles. 12 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  20. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1992--December 11, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    With the continual increase in the utilization of high sulfur and high nitrogen containing fossil fuels, the release of airborne pollutants into the environment has become a critical problem. The fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 2} during combustion. Fuel nitrogen and a fraction of the nitrogen from the combustion air are converted to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub x}. For the past five years Combustion Engineering (now Asea Brown Boveri or ABB) and, since 1986, the University of Tulsa (TU) have been investigating the oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans and have developed a process, concept for the microbial removal of H{sub 2}S from a gas stream the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans co-cultures and cultures-in-series was demonstrated. These systems could not be sustained due to NO inhibition of D. desulfuricans. However, a preliminary economic analysis has shown that microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S with subsequent conversion to elemental sulfur by the Claus process is both technically and economically feasible if a less expensive carbon and/or energy source can be found. It has also been demonstrated that T. denitrificans can be grown anaerobically on NO(g) as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen. Microbial reduction of NO{sub x} is a viable process concept for the disposal of concentrated streams of NO{sub x} as may be produced by certain regenerable processes for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas.

  1. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  2. Results of testing various natural gas desulfurization adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Gordon

    2004-06-01

    This article presents the results of testing many commercially available and some experimental sulfur adsorbents. The desired result of our testing was to find an effective method to reduce the quantity of sulfur in natural gas to less than 100 ppb volume (0.1 ppm volume). An amount of 100 ppb sulfur is the maximum limit permitted for Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The tested adsorbents include some that rely only on physical adsorption such as activated carbon, some that rely on chemisorption such as heated zinc oxide, and some that may use both processes. The testing was performed on an engineering scale with beds larger than those used for typical laboratory tests. All tests were done at about 3.45 barg (50 psig). The natural gas used for testing was from the local pipeline in Pittsburgh and averaged 6 ppm volume total sulfur. The primary sulfur species were dimethyl sulfide (DMS), isopropyl mercaptan, tertiary butyl mercaptan, and tetrahydrothiophene. Some tests required several months to achieve a sulfur breakthrough of the bed. It was found that DMS always came through a desulfurizer bed first, independent of adsorption process. Since the breakthrough of DMS always exceeds the 100 ppb SOFC sulfur limit before other sulfurs were detected, an index was created to rate the adsorbents in units of ppm DMS × absorbent bed volume. This index is useful for calculating the expected adsorbent bed lifetime before sulfur breakthrough when the inlet natural gas DMS content is known. The adsorbents that are included in these reports were obtained from suppliers in the United States, the Netherlands, Japan, and England. Three activated carbons from different suppliers were found to have identical performance in removing DMS. One of these activated carbons was operated at four different space velocities and again showed the same performance. When using activated carbon as the basis of comparison for other adsorbents, three high-performance adsorbents

  3. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1994-12-31

    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  4. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%.

  5. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1994-12-31

    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  6. Microbial reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO[sub 2]/No[sub x] removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O[sub 2] in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O[sub 2] partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction. These inhibiting levels of O[sub 2] are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  7. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, June 11, 1992--September 11, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO{sub 2}/No{sub x} removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O{sub 2} in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction. These inhibiting levels of O{sub 2} are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  8. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12 MPa at the age of 28 d of curing. Stabilizer can meet the strength requirements of cement-soil mixing pile composite foundation and cement-soil mixing pile waterproof curtain.

  9. Tentative Study on a New Way of Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱杰; 杜大仲; 任南琪; 程翔; 刘春爽

    2005-01-01

    Thiobacillus denitrificans, a kind of autotrophic facultative bacteria, can oxidize sulfide into elemental sulfur or sulfate when nitrate was adopted as its electron accepter and carbon dioxide as its carbon resource under anoxic or anaerobic environment. In this way, nitrate is converted into nitrogen. In addition, Thiobacillus denitrificans can accumulate sulfur extracellularly. In this study, in a process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification, a strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans is employed as sulfur-producer in the treatment of wastewater containing sulfide and nitrate. The key factors affecting this process are investigated through batch tests. The experimental results indicate that the sulfide concentration and the ratio of sulfide to nitrate (S2-/NO3-) in the influent are the key factors, and their suitable values are suggested to be 5/3 and no more than 300mg·L-1, respectively, in order to achieve high conversion of sulfur.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DESULFURIZATION OF ZHONG LIANG SHAN HIGH SULFUR COAL BY FLOTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志伟; 黄波; 曹炅

    1994-01-01

    Emission of large amount of SO2 from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious envjsonmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of bigh sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desuifurtzation with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shah was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sultur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0. 84%, with 72.22% recovery ofcombustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurlzatlon Efficiency Index Eofor comprehensive evaluation of dcsuifurlzation process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters.

  11. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

  12. Inter-annual variability of exchange processes at the outer Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    The advection of cold water below the surface mixed layer has a significant role in shaping the properties of the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) in the Black Sea, and thus the horizontal redistribution of nutrients. The minimal temperature of the CIL in the southwest deep region of the sea in summer was shown to be lower than the winter surface temperature at the same location, indicating the horizontal advective nature of CIL formation in the area (Kolesnikov, 1953). In addition to advection in the deep area of the sea, the transport of cold waters from the northwest Black Sea shelf across the shelf break in winter was shown to contribute to the formation of the CIL (Filippov, 1968; Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However less is known of the exchanges between the CIL waters and the outer shelf areas in summer, when a surface mixed layer and the underlying seasonal thermocline are formed. Ivanov et al. (1997) suggested that the cross frontal exchange within the CIL is strongly inhibited, so that CIL waters formed in the deep sea (i.e. offshore of the Rim Current) do not replenish the CIL waters onshore of the Rim Current (also known as near-bottom shelf waters, or BSW), due to strong cross frontal gradients in potential vorticity (PV). To the contrary, Shapiro et al. (2011) analysed in-situ observations over the period of 1950-2001 and showed a high correlation between the CIL temperatures in the open sea and outer shelf. However, the statistical methods alone were not able to clearly establish the relation between the cause and the consequences. In this study we use a 3D numerical model of the Black Sea (NEMO-SHELF-BLS) to quantify the exchange of CIL waters between the open sea and the outer northwest Black Sea shelf and to assess its significance for the replenishment of BSW on the outer shelf. The model has a resolution of 1/16º latitude × 1/12º longitude and 33 levels in the vertical. In order to represent near-bottom processes better, the model uses a hybrid

  13. Process-based distributed hydrological modelling of annual floods in the Upper Zambezi using the Desert Flood Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Markus; Sven, Kralisch; Manfred, Fink; Daniel, Butchart-Kuhlmann; Anthony, Chabala; Melanie, Fleischer; Jörg, Helmschrot; Wilson, Phiri; Tina, Trautmann; Henry, Zimba; Imasiku, Nyambe

    2016-04-01

    Wetland areas are especially sensitive to changes in hydrological conditions. The catchment of the Luanginga River, a tributary of the Upper Zambezi which covers about 33000 km², shows this characteristic in an exemplary way. Ranging from the Angolan highlands to the Barotse floodplain of the Zambezi River , it is characterized by an annual flow regime and extensive wetland areas. Due to its annual flooding with peak times in April, the area features exceptionally fertile soils with high agricultural production and is further known for its rich cultural heritage, making it especially sensitive to changes of hydrological conditions . To identify possible changes related to projected climate and land management change, especially in the area of the floodplain, there is a need to apply a process-based distributed hydrological model of the annual floods . Remote sensing techniques have shown to be appropriate to identify the extend of the important flooding and were used to validate the model in space and time. The results of this research can be used as a basis with which to provide evidence-based advice and information for all decision-makers and stakeholders in the region. For this assessment , such a modelling approach is applied to adequately represent hydrological processes and to address key water resources management issues at sub-basin levels. Introducing a wetland simulation extension, the model allows to represent the annual flood regime of the system and thus to address the effect of climate change and upstream land use changes on flow regimes in the downstream watershed. In order to provide a basis for model validation and calibration, the inundated area was determined using the Desert Flood Index (DFI), which was generated from a time series of Landsat images. We will give a short introduction to the study area and related water resources management problems, present the intended model structure and show first simulations and model validation results

  14. Research on carbon loss in the process of desulfurization and denitrification using activated carbon irradiated by microwave%微波辐照活性炭脱硫脱硝过程中炭损失研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马双忱; 金鑫; 姚娟娟; 张博

    2011-01-01

    微波辐照结合活性炭的吸附和还原性能可以获得较高的脱硫脱硝效率,但该过程中活性炭会产生一定的质量损失。通过实验研究微波功率、氧含量、活性炭质量、辐照时间等因素对活性炭质量损失的影响。结果表明:微波功率升高,活性炭损耗率增加;辐照时间延长,活性炭质量损耗率增大,150 s内活性炭损耗严重;氧含量升高,活性炭损耗率升高,氧含量在2%~4%浓度范围内活性炭损失明显;活性炭质量增加,其损耗率下降,且呈线性关系。BET结果表明,微波辐照条件下活性炭比表面积略有减小,平均孔径增大。%Microwave heating technology coupling with adsorption performance and reduction capability of activated carbon can achieve high SO2 and NOx removal efficiencies,but some carbon loss may present in this process.Experimental studies of microwave power,oxygen content,activated carbon mass and irradiation time influencing on the carbon mass loss in microwave field were carried out.The rate of activated carbon loss increases along with the improvement of microwave power,and the longer the irradiation time,the higher the mass loss rate of activated carbon,the activated carbon wears down seriously in 150 seconds.The rate of activated carton loss also increases gradually with the rising of oxygen content.In the range of 2% and 4% of oxygen content,the loss rate of activated carbon is significant.The loss rate of activated carbon decreases linearly with the increasing activated carbon amount.BET results show that the specific surface area of activated carbon declines and average pore size increases under condition of microwave irradiation.

  15. Desulfurization of hot coal gas in fluidized bed with regenerable zinc titanate sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, W.; Salo, K.; Abbasian, J. (Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation processes are considered to be among the most attractive technologies for the 21st century. In such processes, solid fuels such as coal are gasified at pressure and the fuel gas is cleaned and combusted in the gas turbine. The gas cleanup is necessary not only for the protection of the gas turbine hardware, but also to comply with environmental regulations. In the so-called 'simplified' IGCC process, the fuel gas is cleaned at high temperature and pressure to improve the overall cycle efficiency. The hot gas cleanup system includes a high-temperature, high-pressure desulfurization unit and particulate removal system. The former comprises two fluidized bed reactors utilizing regenerable zinc titanate sorbents capable of removing the sulfur gases (primarily H[sub 2]S) to below 50 ppmv. The latter employs rigid ceramic filter elements operating at up to 700[degree]C and 20 bar and is capable of reducing the 'fines' concentration to an acceptable level for a gas turbine. Novel regenerable zinc titanate sorbents suitable for fluidized-bed application have been tested. The sulfur capture and attrition characteristics of these sorbents have been evaluated in extensive testing in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor operating at high pressure and temperature conditions expected in IGCC operation. Two different gas mixtures representing air-blown gasifier exit gas with and without in-situ desulfurization with Ca-based sorbents have been used. H[sub 2]S removal efficiencies of higher than 99% at acceptable levels of sorbent conversion have been achieved in all these experiments with minimal sorbent deterioration. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Ambient temperature desulfurizer of nano-ZnO modified with cerium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fen; YAN Bo; ZHANG Jie; JIANG An-xi; SHAO Chun-hong; ZHANG Yan-ping

    2008-01-01

    The compound nano-ZnO modified with Ce was prepared by homogeneous precipitation. IR, XRD and dynamic experiments show that the crystal size of nano-ZnO desulfurizer is decreased after being modified with Ce and its desulfurization activities are improved greatly. When calcined at 270 ℃, Ce distributes evenly calcining temperature is 570℃, the crystal CeO2separates out and the amorphous structure of zinc oxide disap-pears, at the same time, the crystal is perfect and its size increases, but the desulfurization activities decrease. The desulfurization product of nano-ZnO modified with Ce was analyzed with XPS. The results show that the ad-sorption compound of HS, S and ZnS exists on the surface of the desulfurizer.

  17. Ni supported on activated carbon as catalyst for flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ni supported on activated carbon are prepared by excessive impregnation and the desulfurization activity is investigated. It has been shown that the activated carbon-supported Ni is an efficient solid catalyst for flue gas desulfurization. The activated carbon treated by HNO3 exhibits high desulfurization activity, and different amounts of loaded-Ni on activated carbon significantly influence the desulfurization activity. The catalysts are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of XRD and XPS indicate that the activated carbon treated by HNO3 can increase oxygen-containing functional groups. Ni on activated carbon after calcination at 800 °C shows major Ni phase and minor NiO phase, and with increasing Ni content on activated carbon, Ni phase increases and affects the desulfurization activity of the catalyst, which proves that Ni is the main active phase.

  18. The desulfurization behavior of mineral matter in ash during coal combustion at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tian-hua; Li, Run-dong; Li, Yan-ji; Zhou, Jun-huz; Cen, Ke-fa [Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang (China)

    2007-02-15

    In allusion to the desulfurization characteristic of coal ash, the desulfurization of the ash and CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} added to Changguang coal with different proportions at high temperature was studied. Sulphoaluminate as the main desulfurization product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and SEM visualization. Experimental results indicate that higher proportion of ash added can improve the desulfurization efficiency. The sulphoaluminate content in residue increases with increasing the addition of ash. The desulfurization efficiency of the additive CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is up to 24% at 1300{sup o}C, at the same time the sulphoaluminate is detected in the residue. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Experimental approach and techniques for the evaluation of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber fluid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strock, T.W. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gohara, W.F. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fluid mechanics within wet flue desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers involve several complex two-phase gas/liquid interactions. The fluid flow directly affects scrubber pressure drop, mist eliminator water removal, and the SO{sub 2} mass transfer/chemical reaction process. Current industrial efforts to develop cost-effective high-efficiency wet FGD scrubbers are focusing, in part, on optimizing the fluid mechanics. The development of an experimental approach and test facility for understanding and optimizing wet scrubber flow characteristics is discussed in this paper. Specifically, scaling procedures for downsizing a wet scrubber for the laboratory environment with field data comparisons are summarized. Furthermore, experimental techniques for the measurement of wet scrubber flow distribution, pressure drop, spray nozzle droplet size characteristics and wet scrubber liquid-to-gas ratio are discussed. Finally, the characteristics and capabilities of a new hydraulic test facility for wet FGD scrubbers are presented. (author)

  20. Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  1. Integrated Mg/TiO{sub 2}-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yee Cia, E-mail: gabrielle.ciayin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Kait, Chong Fai, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Fatimah, Hayyiratul, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Wilfred, Cecilia, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  2. Material Properties of Marine Hydrogenous Ferromanganese Crust and Its Performance in Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Marine hydrogenous ferromanganese crust, an important metal resource in the future, has significant potential in various applications as a type of natural nano-structured material. By employing scanning electronic microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement, Xray fluorescence spectrometer and X-ray diffraction methods, the micro-structure, surface properties and chemical composition of several plate-like ferromanganese crusts sampled from the northwestern Pacific were investigated comprehensively. Although obvious differences were observed from different layers, the crust is a typical porous material with high specific surface area, unique pore structure and abundant transition elements. Furthermore, the performance of natural crust in desulfurization process was preliminarily tested in laboratory experiments. The sulfur capacities of the crust are 13.1%and 18.1% at room temperature and 350 ℃, respectively. The crust can be used not only as a metal resource, but also as an environmental material.

  3. Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

  4. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montebello, Andrea M.; Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R.; Bezerra, Tercia [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gamisans, Xavier [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resources, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Lafuente, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Baeza, Mireia [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gabriel, David, E-mail: david.gabriel@uab.cat [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S is feasible by acidic biotrickling filtration. • Robustness of the process is demonstrated in the long-term (550 d). • Biosulfur to sulfate oxidation under H{sub 2}S starvation was successfully performed. • Lower sulfate production found at acidic pH compared to that at neutral pH. • Plastic material is recommended for long-term acidic biotrickling filtration. - Abstract: Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130 s, H{sub 2}S loading rate of 52 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and pH 2.50–2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75 s and the maximum EC 100 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Stepwise increases of the inlet H{sub 2}S concentration up to 10,000 ppm{sub v} lead to a maximum EC of 220 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. The H{sub 2}S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70–80% of the total H{sub 2}S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H{sub 2}S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H{sub 2}S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred.

  5. Process development studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Semi annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1981-04-01

    Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment process. Microbiological and enzymatic studies reported are: production of cellulase enzyme from high yielding mutants, hydrolysis reactor development, xylose fermentation, and xylanese production. Fermentation and separation processes include: process development studies on vacuum fermentation and distillation, evaluation of low energy separations processes, large scale hollow fiber reactor development. (MHR)

  6. Foaming in wet flue gas desulfurization plants: Laboratory‐scale investigation of long‐term performance of antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous foaming can cause a range of operational problems in industrial processes such as wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This work investigates the performance of selected antifoaming agents (Nalco FM‐37, Foamtrol 2290, and rapeseed oil) on foams generated by egg white albumin (protein......), sodium dodecyl sulfate, and adipic acid at conditions of relevance for wet FGD plants. The addition of antifoaming agents breaks any existing foam and causes an induction period without foaming, after which the foam gradually will begin to reappear. Foaming by egg white albumin (2 g/L) at 0.014 m/s could...

  7. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1995-01-01

    Fresh isolates of bacteria presumptively identified as R. erythropolis unequivocally have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. The production of OH-BP from either DBT or DBTO{sub 2} was confirmed by difference spectroscopy, HPLC, and mass spectrometry. The temperature, pH, and means of supplying the thiophenic or sulfonic sole source of sulfur were optimized. The maximal rate of growth of the organism, its affinity for sulfone, and the extent to which substrate was converted to product were determined by using batch, fed batch, and continuous cultures. For strain N1-36, the maximum specific growth rate was 0.235 hr{sup -1} which corresponds to a minimal generation time of 2.95 hr. The K{sub s} was estimated to be 0.39 {mu}M. With 100 {mu}M DBT as the sole sulfur source, approximately 40 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth); with 100 {mu}M DBTO{sub 2} as the sole sulfur source, approximately 70 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth). The desulfurization activity is repressed by SO{sub 4}{sup =} OH-BP does not serve as a carbon source. The DbtS{sup +} phenotype of the R. erythropolis isolates is stable and discrete. The isolates selectively remove sulfur from DBT, a compound which models a refractory form of organic sulfur in compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. The desulfurization occurs with no oxidation of carbon-carbon bonds. The stability and specificity (along with genetic regulation) indicate that microbial desulfurization in a real phenomenon in which a noxious element is removed without significantly affecting the calorific value of the substrate. Additional characterization (and optimization) would provide the basis of a very important form of fossil fuel beneficiation.

  8. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    At the start of the current project, the DSRP (Direct Sulfur Recovery Process) technology was at the bench-scale development stage with a skid-mounted system ready for field testing. The process had been extended to fluidized-bed operation in the Stage 1 reactor. A preliminary economic study for a 100 MW plant in which the two-stage DSRP was compared to conventional processes indicated the economic attractiveness of the DSRP. Through bench-scale development, both fluidized-bed zinc titanate and DSRP technologies have been shown to be technically and economically attractive. The demonstrations prior to the start of this project, however, had only been conducted using simulated (rather than real) coal gas and simulated regeneration off-gas. Thus, the effect of trace contaminants in real coal gases on the sorbent and DSRP catalyst was not known. Also, the zinc titanate desulfurization unit and DSRP had not been demonstrated in an integrated manner. The overall goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and DSRP technologies by scale-up and field testing (with actual coal gas) of the zinc titanate fluidized-bed reactor system, and the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process.

  9. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  10. Amorphous silicon batch process cost analysis. Annual subcontract report, 11 March 1991--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisnant, R.A. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the development of baseline manufacturing cost data to assist PVMaT monitoring teams in assessing current and future subcontracts, which an emphasis on commercialization and production. A process for the manufacture of a single-junction, large-area, a Si module was modeled using an existing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) computer model. The model estimates a required, or breakeven, price for the module based on its production process and the financial structure of the company operating the process. Sufficient detail on cost drivers is presented so the relationship of the process features and business characteristics can be related to the estimated required price.

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of Desulfurization of Fine Coal by Electrochemical Reduction Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; ZHU Hong; ZHANG Yu

    2003-01-01

    Problems in desulfurization of coal by electrochemical reduction is analyzed and calculated. The result shows that 1) the △rGm function of the reaction of pyrite into FeS and the modifying reaction decreasing the oxygenous functions on coal surface is smaller than zero in a spontaneous reaction, and greater than zero in a nonspontaneous reaction; 2) the △rGm value can be adjusted by pH and the dosage of electrolyte to make it be greater than zero , which is favorable for the modifying reaction and useful for desulfurization of coal. The research has provided a theoretical foundation for determining reasonable technical parameters of desulfurization

  12. Research on optimal domestication of thiobacillus ferooxidans and desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, G.; Tao, X.; Zhang, X.; ??? Luo, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2006-07-15

    In order to increase the efficiency of biodesulfurization and reduce the reaction time, based on the high selectivity adsorption and oxidation characteristic of thiobacillus ferooxidans (T.f.) for pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in coal, the strain of T.f. was acclimatized by changing concentration of Fe{sup 2+}, H{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} and adding FeS{sub 2} and glucose in the 9 K medium. The optimal conditions of growth were investigated and used in the biodesulfurization experiments. The results show that the normal growth of T.f. was achieved after two turns of acclimatization. The desulfurization efficiency is the best under the conditions of 10% inoculation, 1.85 pH value and 27{sup o}C. The smaller the size of coal particle is, the effective the biodesulfurization is. The maximum sulphur removal from coal of 76.2% was obtained after reaction time of 7 days. The mechanisms of desulfurization with T.f. can be explained by the cooperation reaction of dissolved oxygen, bacteria and Fe{sup 3+}. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Preparation of activated ceria and its desulfurization performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-chun Yu; Yong Deng; Fei Wang; Yue-bin Feng; Xiu-min Chen; Bin Yang; Da-chun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Activated ceria (CeO2/γ-Al2O3) prepared by impregnation was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM), and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The desulfurization of the activated ceria was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The results showed that ceria could be highly dispersed or crystallized on the surface ofγ-alumina. The reduction temperatures of 0.1CeO2/γ-Al2O3, 0.45CeO2/γ-Al2O3, and CeO2 ranged from 250°C to 470°C, 330°C to 550°C, and 350°C to 550°C, respectively. The reduction peak tem-perature of 0.45CeO2/γ-Al2O3 was higher than that of 0.1CeO2/γ-Al2O3, which was consistent with the reduction temperature of CeO2. O2 participated in the reaction between ceria and sulfur dioxide. The desulfurization product was cerium(III) sulfate. The intensity of the hy-droxyl band decreased with the formation of sulfate species.

  14. Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report: October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, P

    2004-04-27

    The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary User Centers including: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing including (extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, high density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials data bases. A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state of the art materials characterization capabilities, high performance computing, to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized User-submitted Proposal and a User Agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provides free of charge while

  15. Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report FY 2002 (October 1, 2001-September 30, 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, P

    2004-04-27

    The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary user centers: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing (including extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, and high-density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, and bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; and (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high-performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials databases A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state-of-the-art materials characterization capabilities, and high-performance computing to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized user-submitted proposal and a user agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provided free of charge

  16. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  17. Electrochemical processes for in-situ treatment of contaminated soils. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.P.

    1998-06-01

    'This research project is to develop electrochemical processes for in-situ treatment of contaminated soils. Specifically, it is to study electrokinetic (EK) and electro-Fento (EF) processes and to integrate these processes for the treatment of soils containing mixed contaminants. The objectives are: (1) To study important parameters controlling the mobilization and the transport of selected organics and metals in soils by the electrokinetic (EK) process. Factors to be studied include field strength, pH, ionic strength, soil washing agents, types of organic and metal contaminants, and soil surface properties such as cation exchange capacity(CEC), soil organic content, soil moisture content, soil composition, and surface charge. (2) To study the important factors governing the oxidation of selected organic contaminants by the electro-Fenton (EF) process. Parameters such as pH, surface area and the configuration of working electrode, oxygen concentration, ferrous ion, and temperature that may affect the performance of the EF process will be investigated. (3) To understand the mechanism of the oxidation of selected organic contaminants by the electro-Fenton oxidation process.'

  18. Coal liquefaction process solvent characterization and evaluation: Second annual report, January 1--December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R. A.; Robbins, G. A.; Burke, F. P.

    1987-06-01

    In 1986, work under this contract concentrated on support of the liquefaction process development activities of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Test Facility at Wilsonville, AL, and at the Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., (HRI) process development unit (PDU) in Lawrenceville, NJ, on two potential process improvements for coal liquefaction, and on a stable carbon isotope method for quantifying the separate contributions of coal and petroleum to coprocessing products. The several most-significant results and conclusions obtained under this contract in 1986 are highlighted below. 32 refs., 12 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. On microbial desulfurization of Indian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saroj, K.K.; Gupta, A.; Thakur, D.N. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1996-12-31

    A process was developed to desulfurise the pyritic coal of Assam coal mines utilising a mixed flora of Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Different media were studied and the effect of addition of sodium chloride was observed. A model sulfur compound for coal - dibenzothiophene (DBT) has been subjected to sulfur removal. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius has been utilized for the removal of organic sulfur from coal. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Scaled physical model studies of the steam drive process. First annual report, September 1977-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doscher, T M

    1980-12-01

    Scaling laws of the heat transport mechanism in steam displacement processes are developed based upon an integral energy balance equation. Unlike the differential approach adopted by previous workers, the above scaling laws do not necessitate the use of any empirical correction factor as has been done in previous scaling calculations. The results provide a complete and consistent scale-down of the energy transport behavior, which is the critical mechanism for the success of a steam injection process. In the course of the study, the scaling problems associated with relative permeability and capillary pressure are also discussed. A method which has often been used in scaling nonthermal displacement processes is applied to reduce errors due to scaling in relative permeability. Both dimensional and inspectional analyses are applied to illustrate their use in steam processes. Scale-up laws appeared in the literature and those used in this study are compared and numerical examples are given.

  1. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.

    2009-11-05

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5

  2. 非加氢脱硫技术研究进展及其在原油预脱硫中的应用展望%Progress of non-hydrodesulfurization technologies of producing clean fuels and pre-desulfurization of crude oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑凯元; 曲凤娇; 陈英杰; 刘东; 李雯; 邹京伦; 侯绪连

    2013-01-01

    综述了目前轻质油品非加氢脱硫以及原油预脱硫的相关技术,关于轻质油品非加氢脱硫技术详细叙述了氧化脱硫、吸附脱硫和溶剂萃取脱硫等技术的研究进展,简要介绍了络合脱硫、膜分离脱硫等技术,阐述了各非加氢脱硫技术的特点及脱硫效果;针对原油预脱硫技术,主要介绍了物理法原油预脱硫、超声-氧化法原油预脱硫、电化学法原油预脱硫以及微生物法原油预脱硫等技术的研究进展,指出应用能耗低、操作条件温和、脱硫效果好的非加氢脱硫手段是未来的发展趋势,同时指出综合应用非加氢脱硫技术对原油进行预脱硫处理将是未来重要的研究方向。%Research progress of several non-hydrodesulfurization technologies and processes of crude oil pre-desulfurization were reviewed. For light distillates,the non-hydrodesulfurization technologies including oxidative desulfurization,adsorptive desulfurization,solvent extraction desulfurization, extraction desulfurization and membrane separation desulfurization were introduced , and the characteristics and desulfurization effects of these non-hydrodesulfurization technologies were summarized. For crude oil,the desulfurization technologies of physical method,ultrasonic-oxidation method , electrochemical method and microorganism method were introduced. The non-hydrodesulfurization technologies with low energy consumption and mild operating conditions would be the trend of deep desulfurization,and comprehensive utilization of non-hydrodesulfurization technologies for crude oil pre-desulfurization would be an important research orientation.

  3. Qualitative Information in Annual Reports & the Detection of Corporate Fraud: A Natural Language Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sunita

    2009-01-01

    High profile cases of fraudulent financial reporting such as those that occurred at Enron and WorldCom have shaken public confidence in the U.S. financial reporting process and have raised serious concerns about the roles of auditors, regulators, and analysts in financial reporting. In order to address these concerns and restore public confidence,…

  4. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S

    2008-08-12

    The Office of Environmental Management's (EM) Roadmap, U.S. Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management Engineering & Technology Roadmap (Roadmap), defines the Department's intent to reduce the technical risk and uncertainty in its cleanup programs. The unique nature of many of the remaining facilities will require a strong and responsive engineering and technology program to improve worker and public safety, and reduce costs and environmental impacts while completing the cleanup program. The technical risks and uncertainties associated with cleanup program were identified through: (1) project risk assessments, (2) programmatic external technical reviews and technology readiness assessments, and (3) direct site input. In order to address these needs, the technical risks and uncertainties were compiled and divided into the program areas of: Waste Processing, Groundwater and Soil Remediation, and Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D). Strategic initiatives were then developed within each program area to address the technical risks and uncertainties in that program area. These strategic initiatives were subsequently incorporated into the Roadmap, where they form the strategic framework of the EM Engineering & Technology Program. The EM-21 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstrations that will lead to a reduction of technical uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The current MYPP summarizes the strategic initiatives and the scope of the activities within each initiative that are proposed for the next five years (FY2008-2012) to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. As a result of the importance of reducing technical risk and uncertainty in the EM Waste

  5. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Annual technical progress report, October 1976--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L. G.; O' Fallon, N. M.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP) is reported. Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for FDP, development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. A Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility (S/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work for several mass-flow and other on-line instruments is described: acoustic flowmeter, capacitive density flowmeter, neutron activation flowmeter, gamma ray correlation flowmeter, optical flowmeter, composition analysis system, and capacitive liquid interface level meter.

  6. Studies on adsorptive desulfurization by activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakesh Kumar, D.; Srivastava, Vimal Chandra [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India)

    2012-05-15

    Sulfur removal using adsorption requires a proper process parametric study to determine its optimal performance characteristics. In this study, response surface methodology was employed for sulfur removal from model oil (dibenzothiophene; DBT dissolved in iso-octane) using commercial activated carbon (CAC) as an adsorbent. Experiments were carried out as per central composite design with four input parameters such as initial concentration (C{sub 0}: 100-900 mg/L), adsorbent dosage (m: 2-22 g/L), time of adsorption (t: 15-735 min), and temperature (T: 10-50 C). Regression analysis showed good fit of the experimental data to the second-order polynomial model with coefficient of determination R{sup 2}-value of 0.9390 and Fisher F-value of 16.5. The highest removal of sulfur by CAC was obtained with m = 20 g/L, t = 6 h, and T = 30 C. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Seventh annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the program is to identify and evaluate encapsulation materials and processes for the protection of silicon solar cells for service in a terrestrial environment. Aging and degradation studies were performed including: thermal aging, sunlamp exposures, aging in controlled environment reactors and outdoor photothermal aging devices, and metal catalyzed degradation. Other tests addressed water absorption, primers and adhesives, soiling experiments, and corrosion protection. (LEW)

  8. ELDOR investigations of radiation processes. Annual progress report, 1978-1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    Two areas of research are reported on. First, an investigation of the intramolecular and intermolecular relaxation processes in crystals as a function of radical substituent, temperature, intramolecular motion and irradiation history was carried out in order to establish the ELDOR response for each class of radicals. Secondly, these ELDOR results are used to determine the radicals formed (and thus identify the chemical reaction which occurred) when the crystalline lattice is systematically varied.

  9. ELDOR investigations of radiation processes. Annual progress report, 1981-1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose is to study how the lattice affects primary radiation and photochemical processes in irradiated organic solids. EPR spectral analysis is facilitated by combining ELDOR (electron-electron double resonance) with ENDOR and electron spin echo. Studies carried out during this period were on doped poly(p-phenylene sulfide) and poly(p-phenylene), and on the radical CF/sub 2/CONH/sub 2/. Other studies are summarized in abstracts. 105 references. (DLC)

  10. European Software Engineering Process Group Conference (2nd Annual), EUROPEAN SEPG󈨥. Delegate Material, Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-19

    ESEPGW9•q7hnW OES IN? SEI1N7 ESI n --"-- Can Results be Compared ? SPICE CM 5 O0ptimizing 3 PROCESS ESEP( ;ffA mAr Lf O*ES1 997 $EIN? Wednesday 18 June...the implementation phase Metrics: M245: Number of defects concerning program changes M246: Number of defects concerning specification M247 : Number of

  11. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  12. Annual performance appraisal: one organization's process and retrospective analysis of outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, E Lynne; Gill, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Performance assessment of personnel is an important component of an organization's quality management program, benefiting the organization, individuals and clients. Performance appraisal is the most common method. This article describes the three-part performance appraisal tool used at the authors' organization, a private inter-professional healthcare agency providing rehabilitation services to clients in the community, and presents the results of a retrospective analysis of the outcomes. Performance appraisals of 13 personnel were randomly selected, representing 39 chart audits and 25 joint client visits. The achievement of mandatory chart audit standards demonstrated 95 ± 7.2% compliance; expected standards showed 96 ± 3.3% compliance. Qualitative findings from the joint visits and interviews showed that therapists enjoyed the process and experience, valued the feedback and appreciated the support they received. Benefits and challenges of the process were identified, resulting in new initiatives being implemented. The authors confirmed that the tool achieves its intended purpose and is relevant in the home care setting.

  13. Dip coating process. Annual report No. 1, October 21, 1975--September 17, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaps, J.D.; Maciolek, R.B.; Zook, J.D.; Harrison, W.B.; Scott, M.W.; Hendrickson, G.; Wolner, H.A.; Nelson, L.D.; Schuller, T.L.; Peterson, A.A.

    1976-09-28

    The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by dip-coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon. The dip-coating methods studied were directed toward a minimum-cost process with the ultimate objective of producing solar cells with a conversion efficiency of 10 percent or greater. The technique shows excellent promise for low-cost, labor-saving, scale-up potentialities and would provide an end product of sheet silicon with a rigid and strong supportive backing. An experimental dip-coating facility was designed and constructed, and, using this facility, several substrates have been successfully dip-coated with areas as large as 25 cm/sup 2/ and thicknesses of 12 ..mu..m to 250 ..mu..m. There appears to be no serious limitation on the area of a substrate that could be coated. Of the various substrate materials dip-coated this reporting period, mullite appears, at this time, to best satisfy the requirement of this research program. An inexpensive process has been developed for producing mullite in the desired geometry, thus satisfying the cost objectives of the program.

  14. Low-temperature desulfurizing reaction with Cu-containing sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kwang Bok; Choi, Eun Mi; Song, Yi Keun; Rhee, Young Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Taejeon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    The sorbents containing Cu O as an active material were prepared and their effectiveness in desulfurization was investigated at low temperatures(350-550 degree C). M.I.5 and MnO{sub 2} were chosen as additives and SiO{sub 2} was chosen as support material. In the low temperature regeneration reaction, sulfate was formed, which could not be decomposed until regeneration temperature reached 650 degree C. Sulfidation reaction rate decreased as calcination temperature increased. Promoting effect of MoO{sub 3} was not observed throughout the sulfidation/regeneration reaction. When SiO{sub 2} content was below 25% of sorbents composition, sulfur loading of above 10% could be obtained. Mass transfer inhibition by sulfiding gas was observed for the sorbents containing no SiO{sub 2}. 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  16. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  17. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  18. 2000 Annual report NATO/CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes (Phase I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Molin, Christine; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2001-01-01

    on several pilot projects being implemented by participating nations and continuing to build a program of collaborative endeavors. This meeting featured a special topical seminar titled, Product Oriented Environmental Measures, which focused participants’ attention on advances in product design and use......The NATO/Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society third Pilot Study meeting on Clean Products and Processes was held in Copenhagen, Denmark on May 7-12, 2000. This meeting maintained the momentum generated during the of the first two years of the pilot study, focusing on progress made....... The meeting featured several guest lectures on significant developments in government programs, academic research and industrial applications. The report presents the ideas and views shared by the delegates and invited participants at the Copenhagen meeting. The full report can be viewed on the US EPA...

  19. Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.E.

    1981-10-15

    Research on this contract can be divided into two general topics: (1) D/sup -/ formation collision processes, and (2) the determination of scattering cross sections used to diagnose properties of magnetically-confined plasmas. For topic (1) during last year, we completed theoretical calculations on the differential (angular) scattering of H/sup 0/ and D/sup 0/ on Cs, and determined the mechanisms and trends in the electron detachment cross sections for collisions of H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ on He, Ne, and the alkali and heavy alkaline earth atom systems. On topic (2) a major accomplishment was the determination of the electron capture and ionization cross sections for the C/sup 5 +/, N/sup 5 +/, and O/sup 6 +/ + H systems in the energy range from 13 eV/amu to 2.1 MeV/amu.

  20. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1979-06-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. During the past year, the technical activities emphasized the reformulation of a commercial grade of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer for use as a pottant in solar cell module manufacture. After experimenting with a variety of techniques, a vacuum-bag process was developed and found to be an excellent encapsulation method. Adhesive strengths and primers for the bonding of ethylene/vinyl acetate to superstrate and substrate materials was assessed with encouraging results. The weathering effects on ten other polymers exposed to twelve months of weathering in Arizona, Florida, and under EMMAQUA were evaluated by determination of tensile strengths, elongations, optical transmission, etc. As may be expected, the best overall retention of mechanical properties is found for the fluorocarbon polymers, especially FEP. Hard coatings containing ultraviolet absorbers were investigated for the purpose of providing a soil resistant surface and additional weathering stability to the soft EVA pottant. Corrosion studies using a standard salt spray test were used to determine the degree of protection offered to a variety of metals by encapsulation in EVA pottant. A survey of scrim materials was also conducted. These open hole weaves are intended for use as spacers between the cell and substrate to provide a mechanical barrier, improve insulation resistance and prevent migration of the pigmented pottant over the cell surface. A mechanical engineering analysis of composite structural materials for use as substrates was performed. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  1. ELDOR investigations of radiation processes. Annual progress report, 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Progress reports for this period are in the following areas of study: relaxation processes; and crystal field variation. Even though it is difficult to obtain accurate relaxation times from electrospin resonance (EPR) spectra they are needed for numerous experiments. Currently one of the best ways to obtain good T/sub 1//sub e/, T/sub 2//sub e/ and T/sub n/ values is from spin echo measurements. This past year, electron spin echo (ESE) measurements were again carried out at Argonne National Labs to deduce T/sub 1//sub e/, T/sub 2//sub e/ and spin exchange rates as a function of temperatures for several model compounds. More exact and complete data due to better data handling systems were obtained from two protons undergoing hopping rotation (CH/sub 2/COO/sup -/ in zinc acetate), for two methyl groups undergoing rotational exchange ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/CCOOH in ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid) and for two fluorine nuclei undergoing librational motion. So far, the temperature dependence of the ESE derived relaxation times show excellent agreement with the temperature dependence deduced from ELDOR measurements. Experiments involving the effect of variable wavelength uv light on the stability and reactivity of radicals in irradiated crystals has resulted in the identification of one photo induced process and the free radicals involved. However, the progress has been slow due to difficulties with the construction of key components of the equipment required. The effort to understand solid-state polymerization in considerable detail was expanded to the study of free radical induced solid-state polymerization by diffusing gaseous electron acceptors such as AsF/sub 5/, SbF/sub 5/ or SO/sub 3/ into various crystals/powders. The free radicals intermediates in thermally polymerized phenylacetylene were identified in an effort to examine thermally produced free radicals.

  2. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Use of streamtube to model multiphase flow is demonstrated to be a fast and accurate approach for displacements that are dominated by reservoir heterogeneity. The streamtube technique is particularly powerful for multiphase compositional displacements because it represents the effects of phase behavior with a one-dimensional flow and represents the effects of heterogeneity through the locations of streamtubes. A new approach for fast calculations of critical tie-lines directly from criticality conditions is reported. A global triangular structure solution for four-component flow systems, whose tie-lies meet at the edge of a quaternary phase diagram or lie in planes is presented. Also demonstrated is the extension of this solution to multicomponent systems under the same assumptions. The interplay of gravity, capillary and viscous forces on final residual oil saturation is examined experimentally and theoretically. The analysis of vertical equilibrium conditions for three-phase gravity drainage shows that almost all oil can be recovered from the top part of a reservoir. The prediction of spreading and stability of thin film is performed to investigate three-phase gravity drainage mechanisms. Finally, experimental results from gravity drainage of crude oil in the presence of CO{sub 2} suggest that gravity drainage could be an efficient oil recovery process for vertically fractured reservoirs.

  3. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    A set of statistically designed experiments was used to study the effects of several important operating variables on coal liquefaction product yield structures. These studies used a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor to provide a hydrodynamically well-defined system from which kinetic data could be extracted. An analysis of the data shows that product yield structures can be adequately represented by a correlative model. It was shown that second-order effects (interaction and squared terms) are necessary to provide a good model fit of the data throughout the range studied. Three reports were issued covering the SRC-II database and yields as functions of operating variables. The results agree well with the generally-held concepts of the SRC reaction process, i.e., liquid phase hydrogenolysis of liquid coal which is time-dependent, thermally activated, catalyzed by recycle ash, and reaction rate-controlled. Four reports were issued summarizing the comprehensive SRC reactor thermal response models and reporting the results of several studies made with the models. Analytical equipment for measuring SRC off-gas composition and simulated distillation of coal liquids and appropriate procedures have been established.

  4. Burst speciation processes and genomic expansion in the neotropical annual killifish genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, G; Gutiérrez, V; Ríos, N; Turner, B; Santiñaque, F; López-Carro, B; Folle, G

    2014-02-01

    The extent to which genome sizes and other nucleotypic factors influence the phyletic diversification of lineages has long been discussed but remains largely unresolved. In the present work, we present evidence that the genomes of at least 16 species of the neotropical rivulid killifish genus Austrolebias are unusually large, with an average DNA content of about 5.95 ± 0.45 picograms per diploid cell (mean C-value of about 2.98 pg). They are thus larger than the genomes of very nearly all other diploid, i.e. non-(paleo) polyploid species of actinopterygian fishes so far reported. Austrolebias species appear to be conventional diploids in all other respects and there is no reason to believe that they arise from polyploid ancestors. The genome sizes reported for other rivulid killifishes, including a putative sister group, are considerably smaller and fall within the range typical of most other cyprinodontoid species. Therefore, it appears that the ancestor(s) of contemporary Austrolebias have undergone one or more episodes of genome expansion encompassing sudden speciation process during the Pleistocene. In addition, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a positive correlation between species richness and genome size.

  5. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (> 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation.

  6. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar-cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1982-07-01

    Potentially useful low cost encapsulation materials are evaluated. The goal of the program is to identify, evaluate, test, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long life solar cell modules. Technical investigations have concerned the development of advanced cure chemistries for lamination type pottants, the continued evaluation of soil resistant surface treatments, and the results of an accelerated aging test program for the comparison of material stabilities. Experiments are underway to assess the durability and cost effectiveness of coatings for protection of steel. Investigations are continuing with commercial maintenance coatings based on fluorocarbon and silicone-alkyd chemistries. Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of occlusive coatings for wood products such as hard-board. An experimental program continued to determine the usefulness of soil resistant coatings. Primers were evaluated for effectiveness in bonding candidate pottants to outer covers, glass and substate materials. A program of accelerated aging and life predictive strategies is being conducted and data are reported for sunlamp exposure and thermal aging. Supporting activities are also discussed briefly. (LEW)

  7. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar-cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1982-07-01

    Potentially useful low cost encapsulation materials are evaluated. The goal of the program is to identify, evaluate, test, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long life solar cell modules. Technical investigations have concerned the development of advanced cure chemistries for lamination type pottants, the continued evaluation of soil resistant surface treatments, and the results of an accelerated aging test program for the comparison of material stabilities. Experiments are underway to assess the durability and cost effectiveness of coatings for protection of steel. Investigations are continuing with commercial maintenance coatings based on fluorocarbon and silicone-alkyd chemistries. Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of occlusive coatings for wood products such as hard-board. An experimental program continued to determine the usefulness of soil resistant coatings. Primers were evaluated for effectiveness in bonding candidate pottants to outer covers, glass and substate materials. A program of accelerated aging and life predictive strategies is being conducted and data are reported for sunlamp exposure and thermal aging. Supporting activities are also discussed briefly. (LEW)

  8. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; White, R. A.

    1978-06-01

    Springborn Laboratories is engaged in a study of evaluating potentially useful encapsulating materials for the encapsulation task of the Low-Cost Solar Array project (LSA) funded by the Department of Energy. The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials (other than glass) and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life photovoltaic solar modules. The results of an investigation of solar module encapsulation systems applicable to the Low-Cost Solar Array project 1986 cost and performance goals are presented. The 1986 cost goal for a 20 year life solar cell module is $0.50 per watt or $5 per square foot (in 1975 dollars). Out of this cost goal, $0.25 per square foot is currently allocated for the encapsulation in terms of raw materials, exclusive of labor. Assuming the flat-plate collector to be the most efficient module design, six basic construction elements were identified and their specific uses in module construction defined. In order to generate a comparative analysis, a uniform costing basis was established for each element. Extensive surveys into commercially available materials were then conducted in order to identify either general classes or specific products suitable for use for each construction element. The survey results were also useful in revealing price ranges for classes of materials and estimating the cost allocation for each element within the encapsulation cost goal.

  9. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

    1980-07-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Technical activities during the past year have covered a number of topics and have emphasized the development of solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate, copolymer (EVA) as the pottant. These activities have included: (1) continued production of encapsulation grade EVA in sheet form to meet the needs of the photovoltaic industry; (2) investigations of three non-blocking techniques for EVA sheet; (3) performed an economic analysis of the high volume production of each pottant in order to estimate the large volume selling price (EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate); (4) initiated an experimental corrosion protection program to determine if metal components could be successfully protected by encapsulation; (5) began an investigation to determine the maximum temperature which can be tolerated by the candidate pottant material in the event of hot spot heating or other temperature override; (6) continuation of surveys of potentially useful outer cover materials; and (7) continued with the accelerated artificial weathering of candidate encapsulation materials. Study results are presented. (WHK)

  10. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Compositional and first-contact miscable simulations of viscous fingering and gravity segregation are compared to show that the two techniques can give very different results. Also, analyzed are two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows in which gravity segregation and viscous fingering interact. The simulations show that 2D and 3D flows can differ significantly. A comparison of analytical solutions for three-component two-phase flow with experimental results for oil/water/alcohol systems is reported. While the experiments and theory show reasonable agreement, some differences remain to be explained. The scaling behavior of the interaction of gravity segregation and capillary forces is investigated through simulations and through scaling arguments based on analysis of the differential equations. The simulations show that standard approaches do not agree well with results of low IFT displacements. The scaling analyses, however, reveal flow regimes where capillary, gravity, or viscous forces dominate the flow.

  11. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas.

  12. Synthesis of magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-OMC) adsorbent and its evaluation for fuel desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzin Nejad, N., E-mail: Farzinnejadn@ripi.ir [Petroleum Refining Technology Development Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran 14857-33111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams, E.; Amini, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent was synthesized using soft templating method to adsorb sulfur from model oil (dibenzothiophene in n-hexane). Through this research, pluronic F-127, resorcinol-formaldehyde and hydrated iron nitrate were respectively used as soft template, carbon source and iron source. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement revealed the high surface area (810 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), maxima pore size of 3.3 nm and large pore volume (1.01 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}) of the synthesized sample. The adsorbent showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 111 mg dibenzothiophene g{sup −1} of adsorbent. Sorption process was described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation and could be better fitted by the Freundlich model, showing the heterogeneous feature of the adsorption process. In addition, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent was 78.6% of the initial level, after five regeneration cycles. - Highlights: • Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil with magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent, Fe-OMC, was studied. • Maximum adsorption capacity (q{sub max}) of Fe-OMC for DBT was found to be 111.1 mg g{sup −1}. • Freundlich isotherm best represents the equilibrium adsorption data. • Rate of DBT adsorption process onto Fe-OMC is controlled by at least two steps.

  13. Automated Thermal Image Processing for Detection and Classification of Birds and Bats - FY2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Matzner, Shari; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Virden, Daniel J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Maxwell, Adam R.

    2012-09-01

    Surveying wildlife at risk from offshore wind energy development is difficult and expensive. Infrared video can be used to record birds and bats that pass through the camera view, but it is also time consuming and expensive to review video and determine what was recorded. We proposed to conduct algorithm and software development to identify and to differentiate thermally detected targets of interest that would allow automated processing of thermal image data to enumerate birds, bats, and insects. During FY2012 we developed computer code within MATLAB to identify objects recorded in video and extract attribute information that describes the objects recorded. We tested the efficiency of track identification using observer-based counts of tracks within segments of sample video. We examined object attributes, modeled the effects of random variability on attributes, and produced data smoothing techniques to limit random variation within attribute data. We also began drafting and testing methodology to identify objects recorded on video. We also recorded approximately 10 hours of infrared video of various marine birds, passerine birds, and bats near the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) at Sequim, Washington. A total of 6 hours of bird video was captured overlooking Sequim Bay over a series of weeks. An additional 2 hours of video of birds was also captured during two weeks overlooking Dungeness Bay within the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Bats and passerine birds (swallows) were also recorded at dusk on the MSL campus during nine evenings. An observer noted the identity of objects viewed through the camera concurrently with recording. These video files will provide the information necessary to produce and test software developed during FY2013. The annotation will also form the basis for creation of a method to reliably identify recorded objects.

  14. Eldor investigations of radiation processes. Annual progress report, 1976--1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1977-01-01

    It has been observed under certain conditions that an Eldor spectrometer can be used to record Endor transitions complete with narrow Endor-like linewidths over temperature ranges where Endor lines recorded by the usual methods are difficult to obtain. This has provided much needed spectral resolution for those poorly resolved ESR spectra containing forbidden ESR transitions which have so far been difficult to analyze. Sigma-radicals have been identified by ESR and crystallographic techniques in irradiated CBrF/sub 2/CONH/sub 2/ where the unpaired electron in the electron dissociative attachment process initially occupies the sigma* C-Br orbital. Bromine migration to the carbonyl carbon was not observed. Similar type sigma-radicals do not occur for either CClF/sub 2/CONH/sub 2/ or CF/sub 3/CONH/sub 2/. However, irradiated CH/sub 2/ClCONH/sub 2/ crystals give rise to a sigma-radical characterized by large proton couplings and g anisotropy in which the electron lies in a sigma orbital on oxygen, and the C-Cl bond lies in the nodal plane of the orbital containing the unpaired electron. Stereoselective reactions are found to occur in irradiated CF/sub 3/CONH/sub 2/. CF/sub 3/ is initially formed by the cation decay of only one of the rotationally disorder conformations while CF/sub 2/CONH/sub 2/ is formed by the anion decay of the alternant conformation. The inital form of CF/sub 3/ interacts with a distant fluorine and is the precursor radical to the CF/sub 3/ radical observed at temperatures above 77/sup 0/K. In CClF/sub 2/CONH/sub 2/, no selective formation from either of the two disordered conformations is observed.

  15. State-of-the-art review of materials-related problems in flue gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiya, P. S.

    1980-10-01

    This report characterizes the chemical and mechanical environments to which the structural components used in flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) are exposed. It summarizes the necessary background information pertinent to various FGD processes currently in use, with particular emphasis on lime/limestone scrubbing technology, so that the materials problems and processing variables encountered in FGD systems can be better defined and appreciated. The report also describes the materials currently used and their performance to date in existing wet scrubbers. There is little doubt that with more extensive use of coal and flue-gas scrubbers by utilities and other segments of private industry, a better understanding of the material failure mechanisms, performance limitations, and potential problem areas is required for the design of more reliable and cost-effective FGD systems. To meet the above objectives, a materials evaluation program is proposed. The important experimental variables and the number of tests required to evaluate a given material are discussed. 55 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil using untreated, acid activated and magnetite nanoparticle loaded bentonite as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research work focuses on a novel ultraclean desulfurization process of model oil by the adsorption method using untreated, acid activated and magnetite nanoparticle loaded bentonite as adsorbent. The parameters investigated are effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dibenzothiophene (DBT concentration and temperature. Experimental tests were conducted in batch process. Pseudo first and second order kinetic equations were used to examine the experimental data. It was found that pseudo second order kinetic equation described the data of the DBT adsorption onto all types of adsorbents very well. The isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model fits the data very well for the adsorption of DBT onto all three forms of adsorbents. The adsorption of DBT was also investigated at different adsorbent doses and was found that the percentage adsorption of DBT was increased with increasing the adsorbent dose, while the adsorption in mg/g was decreased with increasing the adsorbent dose. The prepared adsorbents were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD.

  17. Nitrogen soil emissions and belowground plant processes in Mediterranean annual pastures are altered by ozone exposure and N-inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, L.; Bermejo-Bermejo, V.; García-Torres, L.; Alonso, R.; de la Cruz, A.; Calvete-Sogo, H.; Vallejo, A.

    2017-09-01

    Increasing tropospheric ozone (O3) and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition alter the structure and composition of pastures. These changes could affect N and C compounds in the soil that in turn can influence soil microbial activity and processes involved in the emission of N oxides, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but these effects have been scarcely studied. Through an open top chamber (OTC) field experiment, the combined effects of both pollutants on soil gas emissions from an annual experimental Mediterranean community were assessed. Four O3 treatments and three different N input levels were considered. Fluxes of nitric (NO) and nitrous (N2O) oxide, CH4 and CO2 were analysed as well as soil mineral N and dissolved organic carbon. Belowground plant parameters like root biomass and root C and N content were also sampled. Ozone strongly increased soil N2O emissions, doubling the cumulative emission through the growing cycle in the highest O3 treatment, while N-inputs enhanced more slightly NO; CH4 and CO2 where not affected. Both N-gases had a clear seasonality, peaking at the start and at the end of the season when pasture physiological activity is minimal; thus, higher microorganism activity occurred when pasture had a low nutrient demand. The O3-induced peak of N2O under low N availability at the end of the growing season was counterbalanced by the high N inputs. These effects were related to the O3 x N significant interaction found for the root-N content in the grass and the enhanced senescence of the community. Results indicate the importance of the belowground processes, where competition between plants and microorganisms for the available soil N is a key factor, for understanding the ecosystem responses to O3 and N.

  18. Studies involving high temperature desulfurization/regeneration reactions of metal oxides for fuel cell development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalan, V.

    1983-10-01

    Research conducted at Giner, Inc. during 1981 to 1983 under the present contract has been a continuation of the investigation of a high temperature regenerable desulfurization process capable of reducing the sulfur content in coal gases from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. The overall objective has been the integration of a coal gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell, which requires that the sulfur content be below 1 ppM. Commercially available low temperature processes incur an excessive energy penalty. Results obtained with packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors have demonstrated that a CuO/ZnO mixed oxide sorbent is regenerable and capable of lowering the sulfur content (as H/sub 2/S and COS) from 200 ppM in simulated hot coal-derived gases to below 1 ppM level at 600 to 650/sup 0/C. Four potential sorbents (copper, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide and zinc oxide) were initially selected for experimental use in hot regenerable desulfurization in the temperature range 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Based on engineering considerations, such as desulfurization capacity in per weight or volume of sorbents, a coprecipitated CuO/ZnO was selected for further study. A structural reorganization mechanism, unique to mixed oxides, was identified: the creation of relatively fine crystallites of the sulfided components (Cu/sub 2/S and ZnS) to counteract the loss of surface area due to sintering during regeneration. Studies with 9 to 26% water vapor in simulated coal gases show that sulfur levels below 1 ppM can be achieved in the temperature range of 500/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The ability of CuO/ZnO to remove COS, CS/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/SH at these conditions has been demonstrated in this study. Also a previously proposed pore-plugging model was further developed with good success for data treatment of both packed bed and fluidized-bed reactors. 96 references, 42 figures, 21 tables.

  19. Roles of Electrolyte Characterization on Bauxite Electrolysis Desulfurization with Regeneration and Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuhua; Wang, Mingyong

    2017-02-01

    The recycling of NaCl used as supporting electrolyte for bauxite electrolysis was carried out in this study. The electrolyte was regenerated by adding anhydrous CaCl2 into the solution after filtration, and effects of electrolyte characterization on bauxite electrolysis were examined by observing the change in desulfurization ratio and cell voltage. The results indicated that the desulfurization ratio increased with increasing recycling times of electrolyte. In the meantime, the increase in recycling times has led to the decrease in pH value as well as the increase in Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte, which were the main reasons for the increase in the desulfurization ratio with increasing recycling of electrolyte. The pH value of electrolyte after second electrolysis was lower than 1.5, and the desulfurization ratio increased obviously due to the increase in Fe3+ concentration and suppression of jarosite formation. The increase in Ca2+ concentration did not apparently change desulfurization ratio and anode surface activity. However, with Ca2+ addition, the cathode surface was covered by CaSO4·nH2O, thus resulting in the increase of cell voltage.

  20. Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Zhao, Suwei; Chen, Changhe; Qi, Haiying

    2008-03-01

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH)2 content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH)2 particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH)2 particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH)2 particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray.

  1. Adhesive carrier particles for rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; You, Changfu; Song, Chenxing

    2010-06-15

    A rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization was prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime. The circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler and chain boiler ash, both of which have rough surfaces with large specific surface areas and specific pore volumes, can improve the adhesion, abrasion resistance, and desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbent when used as the adhesive carrier particles. The adhesion ability of sorbent made from circulation ash is 67.4% higher than that of the existing rapidly hydrated sorbent made from fly ash, the abrasion ratio is 76.2% lower, and desulfurization ability is 14.1% higher. For sorbent made from chain boiler ash, the adhesion ability is increased by 74.7%, the desulfurization ability is increased by 30.3%, and abrasion ratio is decreased by 52.4%. The abrasion ratios of the sorbent made from circulation ash having various average diameters were all about 9%, and their desulfurization abilities were similar (approximately 150 mg/g).

  2. Roles of Electrolyte Characterization on Bauxite Electrolysis Desulfurization with Regeneration and Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuhua; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-10-01

    The recycling of NaCl used as supporting electrolyte for bauxite electrolysis was carried out in this study. The electrolyte was regenerated by adding anhydrous CaCl2 into the solution after filtration, and effects of electrolyte characterization on bauxite electrolysis were examined by observing the change in desulfurization ratio and cell voltage. The results indicated that the desulfurization ratio increased with increasing recycling times of electrolyte. In the meantime, the increase in recycling times has led to the decrease in pH value as well as the increase in Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte, which were the main reasons for the increase in the desulfurization ratio with increasing recycling of electrolyte. The pH value of electrolyte after second electrolysis was lower than 1.5, and the desulfurization ratio increased obviously due to the increase in Fe3+ concentration and suppression of jarosite formation. The increase in Ca2+ concentration did not apparently change desulfurization ratio and anode surface activity. However, with Ca2+ addition, the cathode surface was covered by CaSO4·nH2O, thus resulting in the increase of cell voltage.

  3. Growth of forage legumes and grasses in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA)

    2003-07-01

    Large amounts of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are produced when SO{sub 2} emissions are trapped in the coal burning process for generation of electricity. FGDs are normally discarded instead of being reused, and reuse on soils could be important in overall management of these products. Glasshouse experiments were conducted to determine effects of various levels of three FGDs (a FGD gypsum, an oxidized FGD + Mg, and a stabilized FGD) and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4} on growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult). The FGDs enhanced growth of each plant species, with alfalfa, white clover, and tall fescue receiving greater increases than the other species, especially when grown in soil amended with FGD + Mg. FGD gypsum did not often enhance growth unless high amounts were added. FGDs containing high B and low levels of CaSO{sub 3} were detrimental to growth. Overall, FGDs improved growth responses of these forage plants grown in an infertile low pH soil.

  4. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas by Ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Han, Yinghui; Ma, Tianzhong; Guo, Tianxiang

    2011-05-01

    An innovative semidry process has been developed to simultaneously remove NO and SO₂ from flue gas. According to the conditions of the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system, ferrate(VI) absorbent was prepared and added to humidified water, and the effects of the various influencing factors, such as ferrate(VI) concentration, humidified water pH, inlet flue gas temperature, residence time, molar ratio of Ca/(S+N), and concentrations of SO₂ and NO on removal efficiencies of SO₂ and NO were studied experimentally. Removal efficiencies of 96.1% for SO₂ and 67.2% for NO were obtained, respectively, under the optimal experimental conditions, in which the concentration of ferrate(VI) was 0.03 M, the humidified water pH was 9.32, the inlet flue gas temperature was 130 °C, the residence time was 2.2 s, and the molar ratio of Ca/(S+N) was 1.2. In addition, the reaction mechanism of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using ferrate(VI) was proposed.

  5. Simulation of the operation of an industrial wet flue gas desulfurization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallinikos, L.E.; Farsari, E.I.; Spartinos, D.N.; Papayannakos, N.G.

    2010-12-15

    In this work the simulation of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) unit with spray tower of a power plant is presented, aiming at an efficient follow-up and the optimization of the FGD system operation. The dynamic model developed to simulate the performance of the system has been validated with operation data collected over a long period of time. All the partaking physical and chemical processes like the limestone dissolution, the crystallization of calcium sulfite and gypsum and the oxidation of sulfite ions have been taken into account for the development of the simulation model while the gas absorption by the liquid droplets was based on the two-film theory. The effect of the mean diameter of the slurry droplets on the performance of the system was examined, as it was used as an index factor of the normal operation of the system. The operation limits of the system were investigated on the basis of the model developed. It is concluded that the model is capable of simulating the system for significantly different SO{sub 2} loads and that the absorption rate of SO{sub 2} is strongly affected by the liquid dispersion in the tower. (author)

  6. Ionic liquids screening for desulfurization of natural gasoline by liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanova, Natalya V; Guzmán-Lucero, Diego; Flores, Eugenio A; García, Paloma; Domínguez-Aguilar, Marco A; Palomeque, Jorge; Martínez-Palou, Rafael

    2010-11-01

    Seventy five ionic liquids (ILs) were tested as a sequestering agent of sulfured compounds in natural gasoline (NG). Desulphurization of NG was performed by means of liquid-liquid extraction method at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Experimental ILs containing imidazolium, pyridinium, and ammonium cations along with organic and inorganic anions were synthesized conventionally and under microwave and sonochemical conditions. The effect of the molecular structure of ILs on the desulfurization efficiency of NG with high sulfur content was evaluated. Analysis indicated that the anion type played a more important role than the cation on the desulphurization process. ILs based on halogen-ferrates and halogen-aluminates exhibited the highest efficiency in sulfur removal, and their efficiency is further improved when there is an excess of metallic salt in a ratio of at least 1:1.3 during the synthesis of the corresponding IL. An explanation for the ability of metallic ILs to remove sulfur-containing compounds from natural gasoline based on the ratio of the ionic charge to the atomic radius is proposed. Furthermore, a method to recover and reuse water-sensitive to halogenated precursors is described.

  7. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, D.; Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-09-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E.T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}/O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This presentation gives the thermodynamic background for consideration of manganese-based sorbents as an alternative to zinc ferrite. To date the work which has been in progress for nine months is limited at this stage to thermogravimetric testing of four formulations of manganese-alumina sorbents to determine the optimum conditions of pelletization and induration to produce reactive pellets.

  8. Oxidative desulfurization of synthetic diesel using supported catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caero, Luis Cedeno; Hernandez, Emiliano [UNICAT, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pedraza, Francisco; Murrieta, Florentino [Programa de Tratamiento en Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-10-30

    In this work, an experimental study was carried out to obtain the reactivity of different organic sulfur compounds and to examine the effect of various parameters, such as temperature, solvent and the amount of oxidant reagent in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction. The oxidation was performed through a vanadium based catalyst in the presence of hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions, atmospheric pressure and temperature range of 303-343K. The sulfur compounds studied were: 2-methylthiophene (2-MT), 2,5-dimethylthiophene (2,5-DMT), benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). All of them are typical thiophenic sulfur compounds present in diesel fuels. A synthetic diesel was prepared with these compounds in hexadecane. The experimental results showed that oxidation reactivities decreased according to the following order: DBT>BT>4-MDBT>2-MT>2,5-DMT>4,6-DMDBT. A fraction of the S compounds removed from the diesel phase, was not transformed to its corresponding sulfone, under these experimental conditions. It is only removed as sulfur compound by extraction, without ODS reaction. The surplus amount of oxidant promoted the equilibrium reaction, but the thermal decomposition of oxidant and oxidation reactions produces water, which inhibits the ODS reactions. Therefore, the controlled addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} improves ODS reactivity of sulfur compounds.

  9. Optimisation of Experimental Conditions for Ex-Bed Desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Ruiz, E.; Otero, J.

    2010-12-22

    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.3 Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds Abatement of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The assignment of CIEMAT in Task 6.3 has dealt with the experimental study of ex-bed desulfurization at high temperature and high pressure. Based on a review of the state of the art, a zinc oxide sorbent was chosen as a promising candidate for bulk sulfur removal in highly reducing gases such as those from coal and waste oxygen gasification or for a polishing stage in low sulfur content gases, which is typically the case in biomass gasification gases. The work accomplished has included the study of the sulfidation and regeneration stages in order to determine successful operating conditions and the assessment of the long term performance of the sorbent over subsequent sulfidation and regeneration cycles. (Author) 36 refs.

  10. Deep desulfurization of diesel fuels by catalytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guoxian; CHEN Hui; LU Shanxiang; ZHU Zhongnan

    2007-01-01

    Reaction feed was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT),which was selected as a model organosulfur compound in diesel fuels,in n-octane.The oxidant was a 30 wt-% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide.Catalytic performance of the activated carbons with saturation adsorption of DBT was investigated in the presence of formic acid.In addition,the effects of activated carbon dosage,formic acid concentration,initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide,initial concentration of DBT and reaction temperature on the oxidation of DBT were investigated.Experimental results indicated that performic acid and the hydroxyl radicals produced are coupled to oxidize DBT with a conversion ratio of 100%.Catalytic performance of the combination of activated carbon and formic acid is higher than that ofouly formic acid.The concentration of formic acid,activated carbon dosage,initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide and reaction temperature affect the oxidative removal of DBT.The higher the initial concentration of DBT in the n-octane solution,the more difficult the deep desulfurization by oxidation is.

  11. Kinetics of coal desulfurization using cupric chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazali, S.; Muharam, C.; Sani, S.A. [Bandung Inst. of Tech. (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Coal desulfurization prior to combustion can be carried out either by physical or chemical methods. The physical methods, where the elimination of sulfur compounds is based on the difference of physical properties between pyritic sulfur and organic matrix, have progressed significantly and are currently used in commercial practice. These methods are, however, ineffective to remove organic sulfurs where S is attached chemically to carbon in the coal matrix. These compounds, presumed to be mercaptan, thyophene, organic sulfides or organic disulfide, could only be removed by chemical treatments. This paper describes the experimental study of coal beneficiation by chemical methods using cupric chloride solution. The results obtained showed that both organic and pyritic sulfurs were reduced significantly. It was also observed that cupric ions have reacted with in fraction of coal which was assumed to be some oxygenated carbon. The kinetics study has shown that the reaction rate of pyrite pseudo homogenous model and the reaction rates of organic sulfur generated coal fractions follow the power law models. (author). 5 tabs., 4 figs., 10 refs.

  12. Regenerable copper-based sorbents for high temperature flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.; Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Williams, B.E.; Khalili, N.R.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-07-01

    During conventional combustion process the sulfur in the coal is converted to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). This hazardous air pollutant combines with the moisture in the atmosphere and creates what is commonly known as acid rain. Thus the removal of this pollutant from flue gas prior to its discharge is very important. Government regulations have been introduced and have become progressively more stringent. In the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, for example, legislation was introduced requiring electric utilities to adopt available technology for removal of pollutant gases and particulates from coal combustion flue gases so that the increased use of coal is done in an environmentally acceptable manner. A number of processes have been developed for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The moving bed copper oxide process has been regarded as one of the most promising emerging technologies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal from flue gases at elevated temperatures. This process is based on the utilization of a dry, regenerable sorbent, that consists of copper oxide (CuO) supported on gamma alumina ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), in a cross flow moving-bed reactor. This study has been directed toward evaluation of the commercially available alumina-supported copper-based (ALCOA) sorbent to establish the baseline for development of new and improved sorbents for the copper oxide process. Evaluation of the baseline sorbent included determination of effective sulfur capacity and sulfur removal efficiency of the sorbent, the effects of operating parameters on the performance of the sorbent, as well as long term durability of the sorbent. Physical and chemical properties of the baseline sorbent were also determined.

  13. Application of High Shear Agitation for Desulfurization of Gasoline Using Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dishun; ZhangZhigang; Wang Jialei; Wang Na; Li Xiangyu

    2006-01-01

    The high shear agitation device was first adopted for gasoline desulfurization by ionic liquids. The effect of benzylimidazol fluoborate in desulfurization of gasoline and the influence of moisture on deuslfurization rate were investigated. The experimental results showed that the ionic liquid could effectively decrease the sulfur content of gasoline and the optimal conditions were as follows: The reaction could be carried out at room temperature, a volumetric ratio between oil and the liquid of 2∶1, a volumetric ratio between water and ionic liquid of 0.04∶1, a rotational speed of 5 krad/s, and a reaction time of 1 minute. The desulfurization rate of gasoline reached 53.6%, and the gasoline yield was up to 97.3%. The ionic liquid could be recycled for repeated use, and the use of high shear agitation for gasoline would have good prospects.

  14. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. [Pyrococcus furiosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  15. Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel with Hydrogen Peroxide Using Na2WO4 s Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xin; Long Jun; Xu Benjing; Xie Chaogang

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative desulfurization was performed on Na2WO4 catalyst in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid under mild reaction conditions (atmospheric pressure and temperature range of 293-343 K). Different organic com-pounds including benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4, 6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene (4, 6-DMDBT) were used to investigate the reactivity of this catalyst, and the effect of various parameters, such as temperature, solvents and the amount of oxidant reagent used in oxidative desulfurization reaction, was also examined. The results showed that the Na2WO4-H2O2 system was very effective for oxidative desulfurization, and the oxidation of BT, DBT and 4, 6-DMDBT was influ-enced by different parameters.

  16. PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing Selected papers from the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemenman, Ilya; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.; Jiang, Yi; Wall, Michael E.; Zilman, Anton

    2011-10-01

    Summary This special issue consists of 11 original papers that elaborate on work presented at the Fourth Annual q-bio Conference on Cellular Information Processing, which was held on the campus of St John's College in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, 11-14 August 2010. Now in its fourth year, the q-bio conference has changed considerably over time. It is now well established and a major event in systems biology. The 2010 conference saw attendees from all continents (except Antarctica!) sharing novel results and participating in lively discussions at both the oral and poster sessions. The conference was oversubscribed and grew to 27 contributed talks, 16 poster spotlights and 137 contributed posters. We deliberately decreased the number of invited speakers to 21 to leave more space for contributed presentations, and the attendee feedback confirmed that the choice was a success. Although the q-bio conference has grown and matured, it has remained true to the original goal of being an intimate and dynamic event that brings together modeling, theory and quantitative experimentation for the study of cell regulation and information processing. Funded in part by a grant from NIGMS and by DOE funds through the Los Alamos National Laboratory Directed Research and Development program, the conference has continued to exhibit youth and vigor by attracting (and partially supporting) over 100 undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral researchers. The associated q-bio summer school, which precedes the conference each year, further emphasizes the development of junior scientists and makes q-bio a singular event in its impact on the future of quantitative biology. In addition to an increased international presence, the conference has notably diversified its demographic representation within the USA, including increased participation from the southeastern corner of the country. One big change in the conference this year is our new publication partner, Physical Biology. Although we are very

  17. Technical description of parameters influencing the pH value of suspension absorbent used in flue gas desulfurization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głomba, Michał

    2010-08-01

    As a result of the large limestone deposits available in Poland, the low cost of reagent acquisition for the largescale technological use and relatively well-documented processes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies based on limestone sorbent slurry, wet scrubbing desulfurization is a method of choice in Poland for flue gas treatment in energy production facilities, including power plants and industrial systems. The efficiency of FGD using the above method depends on several technological and kinetic parameters, particularly on the pH value of the sorbent (i.e., ground limestone suspended in water). Consequently, many studies in Poland and abroad address the impact of various parameters on the pH value of the sorbent suspension, such as the average diameter of sorbent particles (related to the limestone pulverization degree), sorbent quality (in terms of pure calcium carbonate [CaCO3] content of the sorbent material), stoichiometric surfeit of CaCO3 in relation to sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbed from flue gas circulating in the absorption node, time of absorption slurry retention in the absorber tank, chlorine ion concentration in sorbent slurry, and concentration of dissolved metal salts (Na, K, Mg, Fe, Al, and others). This study discusses the results of laboratory-scale tests conducted to establish the effect of the above parameters on the pH value of limestone slurry circulating in the SO2 absorption node. On the basis of the test results, a correlation equation was postulated to help maintain the desirable pH value at the design phase of the wet FGD process. The postulated equation displays good coincidence between calculated pH values and those obtained using laboratory measurements.

  18. Research Progress in Flue Gas Desulfurization Technologies%烟气脱硫处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵鲁华; 黄冲; 潘一; 杨双春

    2013-01-01

      烟气脱硫是从废气中去除含硫物质如 SO2,SO3,H2S 的一种工艺,怎样脱除烟气中的含硫物质,减少含硫物质排放已逐步成为全球关注的热点。笔者主要介绍了国内外烟气脱硫处理技术研究现状及进展,包括醇胺类离子液体法、石灰石(石灰)/石膏法、双碱法、金属氧化物法、生物膜法、非生物膜法等,对各种方法进行了评价和比较,并对今后烟气脱硫处理技术的发展提出了建议。%The flue gas desulfurization is to remove sulfur substances from exhaust gas,such as SO2,SO3,H2S. It has gradually become the focus of global attention to remove sulfur containing materials in flue gas and reduce sulfur material discharge. In this paper,flue gas desulfurization treatment technologies at home and abroad were introduced, such as alcohol amine ion liquid method,lime method,dual alkali method,metal oxide method,biofilm process, non biofilm process,and so on. At last, above methods were compared and the future research suggestions were presented.

  19. Research on use of high calcium desulfurization ash in autoclaved brick%利用高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈滨; 刘恒波; 万军

    2012-01-01

      The paper researches on the process of high calcium desulfurization ash autoclaved brick, and puts forward the ways to use the high calcium, high sulfur and low silicon of fly ash from the circulating fluidized bed boiler.%  对高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的生产工艺进行了研究,提出了重点解决循环流化床锅炉粉煤灰的高钙、高硫、低硅难题的有效途径

  20. Application of Pt/CdS for the Photocatalytic Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization technology was designed to control emissions of SO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels. With the photocatalytic technology, we cannot only achieve the purpose of solving the problem of SO2 emissions but also realize the desire of hydrogen production from water. CdS loaded with Pt were selected as the model photocatalyst for the photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization. The factors influencing the rate of hydrogen production and ammonia sulfite solution oxidation were detected.

  1. Advanced development of fine coal desulfurization and recovery technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1976--December 31, 1976. [53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.W.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1977-02-01

    The improvement and technical development of promising methods for desulfurizing and recovering fine coal underway includes froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration, pelletization, and a chemical desulfurization process which involves leaching fine coal with a hot dilute solution of sodium carbonate containing dissolved oxygen under pressure. A preliminary assessment of the state of the art and review of the technical literature has been made. Equipment and apparatus have been assembled for small-scale laboratory experiments in froth flotation, oil agglomeration and chemical desulfurization. Preliminary froth flotation tests have been carried out on an Iowa coal to establish baseline data. Quite unexpectedly these tests indicated that aluminum nitrate may be an activator for coal because it served to increase the recovery of coal. Several potential flotation depressants for pyrite have been screened by measurement at the zeta potential and floatability of pyrite or coal in aqueous suspensions containing the potential depressants. The following reagents show some promise as pyrite depressants: ferric chloride, sodium cyanide, ammonium thiocyanate, and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Preliminary plans have been prepared for a continuous flow bench-scale system to demonstrate the process. This system will include equipment for grinding and pretreating the coal as well as equipment for demonstrating froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration and pelletization. An investigation of coal microstructure as it relates to coal beneficiation methods has also been initiated. The distribution of various forms of pyrite by size and crystal structure has been determined for two cannel samples of coal through application of scanning electron microscope techniques.

  2. 吸附法脱除柴油中噻吩类含硫化合物的研究进展%Advances on adsorptive desulfurization of diesel for thiophenic sulfur compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广建; 仙保震; 刘影; 付信涛; 张路平

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviewed the latest developments of commonly used adsorbents,mechanisms of adsorptive desulfurization and adsorption kinetics studies from diesel fuel. Molecular sieve,activated carbon and metal organic frameworks (MOFs) materials have been widely studied. Although HDS can be used to produce low-sulfur diesel that meets the sulfur regulations,this process operates at high temperature and high hydrogen pressure,high cost and low removal rate of dibenzothiophene. The adsorption desulfurization technology has become a research hotpot of diesel desulfurization because of its low cost,moderate operating conditions. easy removal of tough sulfide,and little impact on oil quality. Adsorption desulfurization consists of reactive adsorption desulfurization and non-reactive adsorption desulfurization. The key factor in the adsorption desulfurization reaction is breaking the old bond while generating the new bond. Non-reactive adsorption desulfurization applies dispersion force between the sulfur atoms and sulfur sorbent interactions,to achieve the effect of adsorption desulfurization.%综述了吸附法脱除柴油中噻吩类含硫化合物的常用吸附剂、吸附脱硫的机理及吸附脱硫过程动力学研究的最新进展。阐述了近来研究较多的吸附剂主要有分子筛、活性炭和金属有机骨架(MOFs)材料。目前传统的加氢脱硫(HDS)技术虽然可以满足当前柴油中硫含量的国家标准,但是其需要高温高压、成本高且对二苯并噻吩类硫化物脱硫率低,而吸附脱硫技术由于成本低、操作条件温和、易脱除加氢脱硫难以脱除的硫化物、对油品品质影响小等优点成为当前柴油脱硫的研究热点。吸附脱硫主要包括反应型吸附脱硫和非反应型吸附脱硫,反应吸附脱硫关键是有旧键的断裂与新键的生成,而非反应吸附脱硫则是通过分散力使硫化物上的硫原子与吸附剂之间相互作用,从而达到吸

  3. Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

    1999-07-01

    Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of

  4. The Effect of Oxygen Supply on the Dual Growth Kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under Acidic Conditions for Biogas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Kyu Namgung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%–6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration.

  5. Experimental study on SO2 recovery using a sodium-zinc sorbent based flue gas desulfurization technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhang; Tao Wang; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Xuyi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A sodium–zinc sorbent based flue gas desulfurization technology (Na–Zn-FGD) was proposed based on the experiments and analyses of the thermal decomposition characteristics of CaSO3 and ZnSO3·2.5H2O, the waste products of calcium-based semi-dry and zinc-based flue gas desulfurization (Ca–SD-FGD and Zn–SD-FGD) tech-nologies, respectively. It was found that ZnSO3·2.5H2O first lost crystal H2O at 100 °C and then decomposed into SO2 and solid ZnO at 260 °C in the air, while CaSO3 is oxidized at 450 °C before it decomposed in the air. The ex-perimental results confirm that Zn–SD-FGD technology is good for SO2 removal and recycling, but with problem in clogging and high operational cost. The proposed Na–Zn-FGD is clogging proof, and more cost-effective. In the new process, Na2CO3 is used to generate Na2SO3 for SO2 absorption, and the intermediate product NaHSO3 reacts with ZnO powders, producing ZnSO3·2.5H2O precipitate and Na2SO3 solution. The Na2SO3 solution is clogging proof, which is re-used for SO2 absorption. By thermal decomposition of ZnSO3·2.5H2O, ZnO is re-generated and SO2 with high purity is co-produced as well. The cycle consumes some amount of raw material Na2CO3 and a small amount of ZnO only. The newly proposed FGD technology could be a substitute of the traditional semi-dry FGD technologies.

  6. The effect of oxygen supply on the dual growth kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under acidic conditions for biogas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgung, Hyeong-Kyu; Song, JiHyeon

    2015-02-01

    In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO) effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%-6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration.

  7. The Effect of Oxygen Supply on the Dual Growth Kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under Acidic Conditions for Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgung, Hyeong-Kyu; Song, JiHyeon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO) effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%–6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration. PMID:25633028

  8. Bio-regeneration of π-complexation desulfurization adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Wangliang; XING; Jianmin; XIONG; Xiaochao; SHAN; Guob

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of adsorption desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new approach to produce clean fuels. Sulfur compounds are firstly adsorbed on adsorbents, and then the adsorbents are regenerated by microbial conversion. π-Complexation adsorbent, Cu(Ⅰ)-Y, was obtained by ion exchanging Y-type zeolite with Cu2+ and then by auto-reduction in helium at 450℃ for 3 h. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) was used as a model compound. The effects of cell concentration, volume of oil phase, the ratio of aqueous phase to adsorbent on DBT desorption by a bacterium were studied. The amounts of DBT desorbed and 2-HBP produced can be apparently increased with addition of n-octane. BDS activity can be improved by increasing cell concentration and the ratio of water-to-adsorbent. 89% of DBT desorbed from the adsorbents can be converted to 2-HBP within 6 h and almost 100% within 24 h, when the volume ratio of oil-to-water was 1/5 mL/mL, the cell concentration was 60 g·L-1, and the ratio of adsorbent-to-oil was 0.03 g·mL-1. The amount of 2-HBP produced was strongly dependent on the volume ratio of oil-to- water, cell concentration and amount of adsorbent. Adsorption capacity of the regenerated adsorbent is 95% that of the fresh one after being desorbed with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8, washed with n-octane, dried at 100℃ for 24 h and auto-reduced in He.

  9. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashutosh Bahuguna; Madhuri K. Lily; Ashok Munjal; Ravindra N. Singh; Koushalya Dangwal

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil.The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No.GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis.The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively.The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT.However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation.The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7.In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT.Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  10. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Lily, Madhuri K; Munjal, Ashok; Singh, Ravindra N; Dangwal, Koushalya

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil. The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively. The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT. However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation. The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7. In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT. Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  11. {sup 18}O{sub 2} label mechanism of sulfur generation and characterization in properties over mesoporous Sm-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.S., E-mail: bingsiliu@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Wan, Z.Y.; Wang, F.; Zhan, Y.P. [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Tian, M.; Cheung, A.S.C. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Formation of sulfur originated from catalytic action of samarium oxysulfide. • Mechanism of sulfur desorption was first confirmed via time of flight MS. • Utilization of mesoporous Sm-based sorbents was favorable for diffusion of H{sub 2}S. • Stability of Sm-based sorbent correlated with reasonable regeneration procedure. - Abstract: Using a sol–gel method, SmMeO{sub x}/MCM-41 or SBA-15 (Me = Fe, Co and Zn) and corresponding unsupported sorbents were prepared. The desulfurization performance of these sorbents was evaluated over a fixed-bed reactor and the effects of reaction temperature, feed and sorbent composition on desulfurization performance were studied. Samarium-based sorbents used to remove H{sub 2}S from hot coal gas were reported for the first time. The results of successive sulfidation/regeneration cycles revealed that SmFeO{sub 3}/SBA-15 sorbent was suitable for desulfurization of hot coal gas in the chemical industry. The formation of elemental sulfur during both sulfidation and regeneration processes depended strongly on the catalytic action of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 2}S species, which was confirmed for the first time via high sensitive time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) using 6%vol{sup 18}O{sub 2}/Ar regeneration gas and can reduce markedly procedural complexity. The sorbents were characterized using N{sub 2}-adsorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction of H{sub 2} (H{sub 2}-TPR), thermogravimetry (TG) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) techniques.

  12. 超声波技术在柴油氧化脱硫中的应用%Application of ultrasound technologies in diesel fuels oxidative desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先军; 王宝辉; 刘淑芝; 崔宝臣

    2011-01-01

    介绍了超声波在H2O2-无机酸、H2O2-有机酸" H2O2-固体酸、Fenton试剂氧化柴油脱硫技术中的应用,其中超声波-Fenton试剂氧化脱硫效果较好,极有可能获得更广阔的工业化前景.SulphCo已成功的应用超声波在相当低的温度和压力条件下使用一套5000桶/d的可移动的超声裂化装置对柴油进行脱硫处理,该装置造价比新的高压加氢装置低50%,在柴油精制中应用该技术总成本也非常低.同时,对柴油超声波氧化脱硫技术的应用前景进行了展望.%Several ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization(UAOD)technologies were reviewed,including H2O2- inorganic acid systems and H2O2- organic acid systems and Fenton' s reagent systems.The UAOD technologies in combination with Fenton' s reagent showed a good desulfurization effect.SulphCo has successfully used a 5000 barrel/d mobile Sonocracking unit to duplicate on a commercial scale its proprietary process that applies ultrasonics at relatively low temperatures and pressures.The UAOD technology estimate capital costs less than half the cost of a new high-pressure hydrotreater.The total costs of the Sonocracking technology in many diesel finishing applications are much cheaper.The opinions with respect to the future application trend of ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization technologies of diesel fuels are proposed.

  13. 湿法烟气脱硫系统 GGH 堵塞的原因分析及对策%Cause and Countermeasure of GGH Blockage in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊

    2016-01-01

    The easily occurred problem of blockage of GGH ( rotary gas gas for heat exchanger) in wet flue gas desulfuriza-tion ( FGD) system during operation is introduced, and the reasons are analyzed and countermeasures are put forward to ef-fectively overcome the problems of the GGH blockage.The solution has some reference to similar power plant flue gas desul-furization system process.%介绍了湿法烟气脱硫( FGD)系统GGH(回转式气-气换热器)运行中易出现的堵塞等问题,并对其产生的原因进行了分析,提出了有效防止GGH堵塞的对策,对同类型电厂烟气脱硫系统工艺有一定的借鉴作用。

  14. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  15. 1. annual workshop proceedings of integrated project fundamental processes of radionuclide migration IP Funmig; Rapport du 1. workshop annuel du projet integre fundamental processes of radionuclide migration (IP Funmig)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiller, P. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DPC), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Buckau, G.; Kienzler, B. [Institut fur Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Karlsruhe (Germany); Duro, L.; Martell, M. [Enviros (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    These are the proceedings of the 1. Annual Workshop Proceedings of the Integrated Project FUNMIG (fundamental processes of radionuclide migration). The Annual Workshop was hosted by CEA and held in Saclay, 28 November - 1 December 2005. The project started January 2005 and has a duration of four years. The project makes use of annual workshops bringing the project partners together and inviting external groups to participate and contribute. Consequently, the present proceedings will be followed by another three proceedings from the forthcoming annual workshops to be held the end of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The 2. Annual Workshop will be hosted by SKB and be held in Stockholm, 21-23 November 2006. The proceedings serve several purposes. The key purpose is to document and make available to a broad scientific community the outcome of this project. A considerable part of the project activity reporting is also done through the proceedings. For this reason the first parts of the proceedings are structured around the workshop and the project. A large part of the proceedings, however, also contain individual scientific contributions by the project partners as well as external contributors. Information about the project can be found under www.funmig.com. (authors)

  16. A Reusable Calcium-Based Sorbent for Desulfurizing Hot Coal Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, T.D.; Hasler, D.J.L.

    2002-09-19

    The overall objective of this project has been to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. The sorbent should be strong, durable, inexpensive to manufacture, and capable of being reused many times. To achieve these objectives the project has focused on the development of the very promising core-in-shell sorbent.

  17. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  18. L-proline-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingwan; Wang, Meiri; Shan, Wenjuan; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Shi, Zhouzhou; Lü, Hongying

    2017-10-05

    A series of L-proline-based DESs was prepared through an atom economic reaction between L-proline (L-Pro) and four different kinds of organic acids. The DESs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)HNMR), cyclic voltammogram (CV) and the Hammett method. The synthesized DESs were used for the oxidative desulfurization and the L-Pro/p-toluenesultonic acid (L-Pro/p-TsOH) system shows the highest catalytic activity that the removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT) reached 99% at 60°C in 2h, which may involve the dual activation of the L-Pro/p-TsOH. The acidity of four different L-proline-based DESs was measured and the results show that it could not simply conclude that the correlation between the acidity of DESs and desulfurization capability was positive or negative. The electrochemical measurements evidences and recycling experiment indicate a good stability performance of L-Pro/p-TsOH in desulfurization. This work will provide a novel and potential method for the deep oxidation desulfurization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury isotope fractionation during transfer from post-desulfurized seawater to air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuyuan; Lin, Kunning; Yuan, Dongxing; Gao, Yaqin; Sun, Lumin

    2016-12-15

    Samples of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in the post-desulfurized seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant together with samples of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over the post-desulfurized seawater surface were collected and analyzed to study the mercury isotope fractionation during transfer from post-desulfurized seawater to air. Experimental results showed that when DGM in the seawater was converted to GEM in the air, the δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values were changed, ranging from -2.98 to -0.04‰ and from -0.31 to 0.64‰, respectively. Aeration played a key role in accelerating the transformation of DGM to GEM, and resulted in light mercury isotopes being more likely to be enriched in the GEM. The ratio Δ(199)Hg/Δ(201)Hg was 1.626 in all samples, suggesting that mercury mass independent fractionation occurred owing to the nuclear volume effect during the transformation. In addition, mass independent fractionation of mercury even isotopes was found in the GEM above the post-desulfurized seawater surface in the aeration pool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Novel Biomass Supported Na2CO3 System for Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The breakthrough and stoichiometric SO2 adsorption efficiencies of a biomass supported Na2CO3 system (80 wt %Na2CO3/straw) have reached 48.9 % and 80.6 % respectively at a desulfurization temperature of 80(C.

  1. Decreasing phosphorus loss in tile-drained landscapes using flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural non-point source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P...

  2. Progress of Hydrogenation Desulfurization Technologies for Clean Diesel%清洁柴油加氢脱硫技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英; 肖立桢

    2015-01-01

    综述了国内外各大公司生产清洁柴油的加氢脱硫(HDS)催化剂及工艺技术进展,指出了我国HDS 技术的发展方向:开发高效稳定的 HDS 催化剂和对现有加氢工艺的改造升级,从载体、助剂以及活性金属组分等方面入手,进一步提高 HDS 催化剂的各种性能,开发基于 HDS 技术与其他分离技术的组合脱硫技术。%The technique progress of hydrogenation desulfurization(HDS)catalysts and processes for producing clean diesel of companies both at home and abroad were reviewed,and the development direction of HDS technologies in China were prospected.The main research direction were developing highly efficient and stable catalysts and upgrading existing hydrogenation process.The properties of HDS catalysts should further improved from carrier,additives and active metal components,etal.Desulfurization technology based on HDS technology combined with other separation technology has good prospects for development.

  3. 干法同时脱硫脱硝技术的研究进展%The Research Progress of Methods of Dry Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振峰; 张建权; 李军奇; 杨冬; 孙洪军; 郭丽英

    2009-01-01

    According to severe air pollution and NOX, SOX emission exceeding standard in thermal power plants, coal-fired boiler, automobile exhaust. The background of technology of desulfurization and denitrification was reviewed. Some technologies of dry desulfurizarion and denitrifieation and their respective principle and feature were introduced, including LILAC process, NOXSO process, active carbon method, technology of circulating fluidized-bed and plasma method. The development tendency of the technology of desulfurization and denitrification combined with the characters of technologies was also prospected.%日前大气污染日益严重,一些火电厂、燃煤锅炉及汽车尾气的NOX和SOX排放量严重超标,针对这一严峻形式,综述了干法同时脱硫脱硝技术的研究背景,介绍了包括LILAC法、NOXSO法、活性炭法、循环流化床法、等离子法等在内的几种f:式脱硫脱硝技术,并简单阐述了各自的原理和特点,最后结合其技术特点对脱硫脱硝技术的发展趋势进行展望.

  4. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  5. Pilot scale test on autoclaved brick production by semi-dry desulfurization by-products%半干法脱硫灰生产蒸压砖中试试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松涛; 陈传敏; 赵毅; 卢林; 王涛; 杨艳芬

    2011-01-01

    The semi-dry desulfurization by-products are difficult to be utilized. Pilot scale study on the production technology of autoclaved brick which was mixed with semi-dry desulfurization by-products, slag and quicklime. The results show that autoclaved brick mixed with 50% semi-dry desulfurization ash and 10% quicklime dosage can meet the mechanical properties of MU20 strength grade. The mineral, such as hydrated calcium silicate, hydrated calcium aluminate and hydration sulphoaluminate, formed in autoclaved process can strengthen the strength of autoclaved brick.%为了解决半干法脱硫灰难以利用的问题,用脱硫灰、炉渣和CaO进行了蒸压砖生产的中试试验研究.研究表明:生产强度等级为MU20的脱硫灰蒸压砖,脱硫灰的掺量可控制在50%左右,CaO的掺量控制在10%左右.蒸压过程中形成的水化硅酸钙、水化铝酸钙和水化硫铝酸钙等矿物有利于增强蒸压砖强度.

  6. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83-13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185-0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  7. Inorganic Impurity on Preparation of Calcium Carbonate and Its Active Influence Oriented from Desulfurization Gypsum%脱硫石膏中无机杂质对制备碳酸钙及其活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晨杰; 谭文轶; 闫怀晴; 郭霏霏; 徐幸福

    2012-01-01

    为了达到烟气脱硫石膏减量化处理,建立其资源化利用方法,在考虑到烟气脱硫石膏来源复杂性的基础上,分别考察了金属离子(如Mg2+,Fe3+)和非金属离子(如F-)对利用碳酸铵转化烟气脱硫石膏,制备碳酸钙粉末的影响.结果表明,F-,Mg2+,Fe3+等离子对脱硫石膏转化率有不同程度影响,但转化率均能达到70%以上,转化固体产物为较纯碳酸钙粉末.其中随着阳离子Mg2+,Fe3+含量增加,转化率下降;F-的水解作用以及络合物的生成将对转化率造成复杂影响,0.5wt%为最优的含量.转化产物经其吸收活性测试,其活度比天然石灰石略低,到达脱硫剂基本要求,但需注意杂质离子的积累效应.碳酸铵转化烟气脱硫石膏方法可制备微细碳酸钙粉末,是一种循环利用烟气脱硫石膏的有效途径.%To reduce gypsum produced from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD)process and to establish a resource approach to utilize desulfurization gypsum, the effect of metal ion such as Mg2+, Fe3+ and nonmetallic ion such as F" on productivity of calcium carbonate prepared from desulfurization gypsum was investigated, taking into consideration of complex composition of desulfurization gypsum. Results showed that the ions such as F", Mg2+, Fe3+ affect conversion of desulfurization gypsum to different extents, with conversion rate more than 70% and pure calcium carbonate as obtained solid powder. As cationic Mg2+, Fe3+ content increased, the conversion rate decreased. Both hydrolysis of F- and formation of the complicates conversion affected the conversion, with F- 0.5 wt% as the optimal content for conversion. It is verified that the solid product obtained has the potential activity to be recycled as desulfurization absorbent though impurities should be paid attentions. Conversion of desulfurization gypsum to calcium carbonate powder by ammonia carbonate is an effective method to recycle desulfurization gypsum.

  8. A retrospective study on annual evaluation of radiation processing for frozen bone allografts complying to quality system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Saravana; Mohd, Suhaili; Samsuddin, Sharifah Mazni; Min, N G Wuey; Yusof, Norimah; Mansor, Azura

    2015-12-01

    Bone allografts have been used widely to fill up essential void in orthopaedic surgeries. The benefit of using allografts to replace and reconstruct musculoskeletal injuries, fractures or disease has obtained overwhelming acceptance from orthopaedic surgeons worldwide. However, bacterial infection and disease transmission through bone allograft transplantation have always been a significant issue. Sterilization by radiation is an effective method to eliminate unwanted microorganisms thus assist in preventing life threatening allograft associated infections. Femoral heads procured from living donors and long bones (femur and tibia) procured from cadaveric donors were sterilized at 25 kGy in compliance with international standard ISO 11137. According to quality requirements, all records of bone banking were evaluated annually. This retrospective study was carried out on annual evaluation of radiation records from 1998 until 2012. The minimum doses absorbed by the bones were ranging from 25.3 to 38.2 kGy while the absorbed maximum doses were from 25.4 to 42.3 kGy. All the bones supplied by our UMMC Bone Bank were sterile at the required minimum dose of 25 kGy. Our analysis on dose variation showed that the dose uniformity ratios in 37 irradiated boxes of 31 radiation batches were in the range of 1.003-1.251, which indicated the doses were well distributed.

  9. Harvesting microalgae cultures with superabsorbent polymers: desulfurization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín del Campo, Julia S; Patiño, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    It is presented in this work a new methodology to harvest fresh water microalgae cultures by extracting the culture medium with superabsorbent polymers (SAPs). The microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grown in the Sueoka culture medium, harvested with polyacrylic SAPs and re-suspended in the culture medium tris-acetate-potassium without sulfur (TAP-S) to generate hydrogen (H2 ) under anoxic conditions. The H2 production as an alternative fuel is relevant since this gas has high-energy recovery without involving carbon. Before microalgae harvesting, a number of range diameters (1-7 mm) for SAPs spherical particles were tested, and the initial rate (V0 ) and the maximal capacity (Qmax ) were determined for the Sueoka medium absorption. The SAP particles with the diameter range 2.0-2.5 mm performed the best and these were employed for the rest of the experiments. The Sueoka medium has a high salt content and the effect of the ionic strength was also studied for different medium concentrations (0-400%). The SAPs were reused in consecutive absorption/desorption cycles, maintaining their absorption capacity. Although the Sueoka medium reduces the SAPs absorption capacity to 40% compared with deionized water, the use of SAPs was very significant for the desulfurization process of C. reihardtii. The presence of C. reinhardtii at different concentrations does not affect the absorption capacity of the Sueoka culture medium by the SAPs. In order to reduce the time of the process, an increase of the SAPs concentration was tested, being 20 g of SAP per liter of medium, a condition to harvest the microalgae culture in 4 h. There were no evident cell ruptures during the harvesting process and the cells remained alive. Finally, the harvested biomass was re-suspended in TAP-S medium and kept under anaerobic conditions and illumination to produce H2 that was monitored by a PEM fuel cell. The use of SAPs for microalgae harvesting is a feasible non-invasive procedure to obtain

  10. Post-Lamination Manufacturing Process Automation for Photovoltaic Modules; Annual Technical Progress Report: 15 June 1999--14 July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Lewis, E. R.; Hogan, S. J.

    2000-09-29

    Spire is addressing the PVMaT project goals of photovoltaic (PV) module cost reduction and improved module manufacturing process technology. New cost-effective automation processes are being developed for post-lamination PV module assembly, where post-lamination is defined as the processes after the solar cells are encapsulated. These processes apply to both crystalline and thin-film solar cell modules. Four main process areas are being addressed: (1) Module buffer storage and handling between steps; (2) Module edge trimming, edge sealing, and framing; (3) Junction-box installation; and (4) Testing for module performance, electrical isolation, and ground-path continuity.

  11. Deep Extractive Desulfurization of Gasoline with Ionic Liquids Based on Metal Halide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haojie; He Jianxun; Yang Cairong; Zhang Hang

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquid [Et3NH]Cl-FeCl3/CuCl was synthesized by mixing [Et3NH]Cl, anhydrous FeCl3 and anhydrous CuCl, and the desulfurization activity of this ionic liquid was tested. It exhibited remarkable ability in effective desulfurization of model gasoline (thiophene in n-octane) and lfuid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline, and the sulfur removal of thiophene in model oil (V(IL):V(oil)=0.08) could reach 93.9%in 50 min at 50℃. Low-sulfur (﹤10μg/g) FCC gasoline could be obtained after three extraction runs at an ionic liquid/oil volume ratio of 0.1, with the yield of FCC gasoline reaching 94.3%. The ionic liquid could be recycled 5 times with merely a slight decrease in activity.

  12. Fuel gas desulfurization at elevated temperatures with copper-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Lau, F.S. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Honea, F.I. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Zinc-based sorbents, the leading candidates for hot gas cleanup, have been shown to suffer from zinc volatilization at elevated temperatures, leading to sorbent deterioration, increasing sorbent replacement costs. Copper-based sorbents, because of the high melting point of the metal, do not suffer from this problem. However, bulk copper oxide is generally reduced to metallic copper in reducing fuel gas environments leading to thermodynamic limitations, resulting in insufficient level of desulfurization. The reduction stability and therefore the desulfurization performance of copper oxide sorbents can be significantly improved by combining copper oxide with other oxides in a supported form or as bulk mixed metal oxides. This paper addresses the results of a systematic study of several novel copper-based sorbents for hot gas cleanup application. The evaluation criteria included reduction stability, sulfidation reactivity and regenerability at elevated temperatures. The performance of the most promising sorbent in long duration cycle sulfidation-regeneration tests is also presented.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications.

  14. 磷石膏脱硫钙渣制备轻质碳酸钙%Preparation of light calcium carbonate from phosphorus gypsum desulfurization slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时婷; 王新刚; 巫建锋; 杨秀山; 杨林; 王辛龙

    2015-01-01

    To recycle desulfurization slag from phosphorous gypsum,spherical calcium carbonate was prepared from calcium-containing phosphorus gypsum desulfurization slag. The composition of raw materials were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The main substance was calcium oxide and the main impurity was silica. It also contained a small amount of iron,aluminum and magnesium. A new process leaching desulfurization slag by ammonium chloride and subsequent carbonization was firstly proposed. The affecting factors , such as amount of ammonium chloride , ratio of water and desulfurization slag(mass ratio),and temperature on the performance of leaching were investigated. The optimal conditions were: Amount of ammonium chloride 50% of the total weight of the solid, ratio of water and desulfurization slag 9∶1,temperature 40℃. Conversion of calcium was about 67.98% and removal of silica was 97.80% under the optimal conditions. The purity of the obtained calcium carbonate was 97.90%,sedimentation volume was 3.5mL/g and whiteness was 94.2, meeting the norm of first grade product in(HG/T 2226—2010). Main polymorph of calcium carbonate crystals was vaterite.%为了有效利用磷石膏脱硫钙渣资源,以磷石膏脱硫钙渣为原料合成了球形轻质碳酸钙。本文首先利用XRD 和 SEM 等测试手段分析了磷石膏脱硫钙渣的主要组成是氧化钙,主要杂质为二氧化硅以及少量铁铝镁。在此基础上首次提出了氯化铵浸取磷石膏脱硫钙渣,而后碳化合成轻质碳酸钙的新工艺。探讨了浸取过程中氯化铵的添加量,水与钙渣的液固比(质量比),温度工艺参数对钙浸取率和硅脱除率的影响,确定了较优工艺条件为:氯化铵添加量为总固体质量的50%,水与钙渣的液固比为9∶1,温度为40℃。在该工艺条件下,钙的浸取率可达67.98%,硅的脱除率可达97.80%。对上述浸取液经碳化制备出的轻质碳酸钙,其纯度为97.90%,白度为94.2

  15. Development of regenerable copper-based sorbents for hot gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Hill, A.H. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Honea, F.I. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The implementation of hot gas cleanup systems heavily depends on the development of regenerable sorbents for removal of sulfur-containing species (mainly H{sub 2}S) from the fuel gas stream at elevated temperatures (i.e., >350 C) from levels of several thousand ppm down to a few ppm, over many sulfidation/regeneration cycles. In addition, these sorbents must have high sulfur capacity, good sulfidation kinetics, good mechanical strength, and good chemical and structural stability over multicycle testing. Zinc-based sorbents, such as zinc titanates, are the leading contenders for hot gas desulfurization. However, these sorbents have been shown to suffer from zinc volatilization at elevated temperatures, resulting in sorbent deterioration and losses through attrition, loss of reactivity, leading to increasing sorbent replacement costs and overall cost of electricity. Copper-based sorbents do not suffer from volatilization problems due to the high melting point of the metal. However, bulk copper oxide is easily reduced to elemental copper in a reducing fuel gas environment, which in turn results in insufficient level of desulfurization. Fortunately, the sorbent desulfurization performance can be greatly enhanced by combining copper oxide with other oxides to minimize or prevent sorbent reduction during the sulfidation stage. This paper reports on research conducted to-date on the development of copper-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. The results of packed-bed experiments carried out for the determination of optimum operating conditions and for the evaluation of the long-term durability and regenerability of selected copper chromite sorbents are presented and discussed.

  16. Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Titania Nanomaterial for Desulfurization of Model Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik A. Saleh; Mohammad N. Siddiqui; Abdulrahman A. Al-Arfaj

    2014-01-01

    This work reported on the development of novel nanomaterials of multiwalled carbon nanotubes doped with titania (CNT/TiO2) for the adsorptive desulfurization of model fuel oils. Various analytical techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for the characterization of the nanomaterials. The initial results indicated the effectiveness of the prepared CNT/TiO2 nan...

  17. Experimental Study on Demercurization Performance of Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO, Jingjing; YANG, Linjun; YAN, Jinpei

    2009-01-01

    The demercurization performance of wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system was investigated by measuring mercury concentrations at the inlet and outlet of WFGD system with a QM201H mercury analyzer. The selected desulfurizer included NH_3·H_2O, NaOH, Na_2CO_3, Ca(OH)_2 and CaCO_3. The influences of adding oxidant and coagulant such as KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions were also studied.The results show that elemental mercury is the main component of gaseous mercury in coal-fired flue gas, and the proportion of oxidized mercury is less than 36%. Oxidized mercury could be removed by WFGD system efficiently,and the removal efficiency could amount to 81.1%-92.6%. However, the concentration of elemental mercury slightly increased at the outlet of WFGD as a result of its insolubility and re-emission. Therefore, the removal efficiency of gaseous mercury is only 13.3%-18.3%. The mercury removal efficiency of WFGD system increased with increasing the liquid-gas ratio. In addition, adding KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions could increase the mercury removal efficiency obviously. Various additives have different effects, and Na_2S is demonstrated to be the most efficient, in which a mercury removal efficiency of 67.2% can be reached.

  18. Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2009-05-15

    To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Bioprocessing of crude oils and desulfurization using electro-spray reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.; Borole, A.P.

    1998-07-01

    Biological removal of organic sulfur from petroleum feedstocks offers an attractive alternative to conventional thermochemical treatment due to the mild operating conditions afforded by the biocatalyst. Electro-spray bioreactors were investigated for use in desulfurization due to their reported operational cost savings relative to mechanically agitated reactors and their capability of forming emulsions < 5 {micro}m. Here, the rates dibenzothiophene (DBT) oxidation to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in hexadecane, by Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8 are compared in the two reactor systems. Desulfurization rates ranged from 1.0 and 5.0 mg 2-HBP/(dry g cells-h), independent of the reactor employed. The batch stirred reactor was capable of forming a very fine emulsion in the presence of the biocatalyst IGTS8, similar to that formed in the electro-spray reactors, presumably due to the fact that the biocatalyst produces its own surfactant. While electro-spray reactors did not prove to be advantageous for the IGTS8 desulfurization system, it may prove advantageous for systems which do not produce surface-active bioagents in addition to being mass transport limited.

  20. Preparation of Ag/TiO2-zeolite adsorbents, their desulfurization performance, and benzothiophene adsorption isotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hua; Yang, Gang; Song, Hua-Lin; Wang, Deng; Wang, Xue-Qin

    2017-02-01

    A series of Ag/TiO2-NaY (TY) composite adsorbents were successfully prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The effects of TiO2 and Ag contents on the structure and desulfurization performance of NaY zeolite were studied. The results show that anatase phase is the main form of TiO2 in AgTY adsorbent, and the Y-zeolite framework remained unchanged. AgTY with 6 wt % of Ag and 50 wt % of TiO2 exhibited the best desulfurization performance with the effluent volume of 63.2 mL/g at 10 mg/L sulfur breakthrough level (desulfurization rate of 95%). The benzothiophene (BT) removal performance of the various adsorbents follows the order: NaY < TiO2 < TY-50 < AgTY-50-6. The equilibrium data were modeled by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The Langmuir model can describe well the adsorption isotherms of BT over AgTY.

  1. Competitive adsorption desulfurization performance over K - Doped NiY zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haizheng; Han, Xiaona; Huang, Haokai; Wang, Yuxian; Zhao, Liang; Cao, Liyuan; Shen, Baojian; Gao, Jinsen; Xu, Chunming

    2016-12-01

    NiY and KNiY were successfully prepared by impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption (BET), scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The competitive adsorption mechanisms of adsorbents were studied by in situ FTIR to explain different desulfurization performance which was evaluated in a miniature fixed-bed flow by gasoline model compounds with 1-hexene or toluene. NiY and KNiY adsorbents showed better desulfurization performance than HY zeolite due to the high selectivity of loaded active metals. Especially, KNiY adsorbent showed its advantages in desulfurization performance with 5vol% olefins or 5vol% aromatics involvement. It could be assigned that introduced K cation enhanced dispersion and content of active Ni species on the surface which made Ni species reduce easily. On the other hand, adsorption mechanisms showed that the protonation reactions of thiophene and 1-hexene occurred on the Brönsted acid sites of NiY, which resulted in pore blockage and the coverage of adsorption active centers. By doping K cation on NiY, the amount of the Brönsted acid sites of NiY was decreased and protonation reactions were weaken. Therefore, the negative effects of Brönsted acid sites were reduced.

  2. Enhanced pervaporative desulfurization by polydimethylsiloxane membranes embedded with silver/silica core-shell microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ruijian; Zhang, Xiongfei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jingtao; Liu, Xiaofei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2011-03-15

    Pervaporative desulfurization based on membrane technology provides a promising alternative for removal of sulfur substances (as represented by thiophene) in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline. The present study focused on the performance enhancement of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane by incorporation of core-shell structured silver/silica microspheres. A silane coupling agent, N-[3-(trimethoxysily)propyl]-ethylenediamine (TSD), was used to chelate the Ag(+) via its amino groups and attach the silver seeds onto the silica surface via condensation of its methoxyl groups. The resultant microspheres were characterized by Zeta-positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (ZetaPALS), inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrophotometer (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag(+)/SiO(2)-PDMS composite membranes were prepared by blending PDMS with the as-synthesized silver/silica microspheres. PALS analysis was used to correlate the apparent fractional free volume with permeation flux. The sorption selectivity towards thiophene was enhanced after incorporation of silver/silica microspheres due to the π-complexation between the silver on the microsphere surface and the thiophene molecules. The pervaporative desulfurization performance of the composite membrane was investigated using thiophene/n-octane mixture as a model gasoline. The composite membrane exhibited an optimum desulfurization performance with a permeation flux of 7.76 kg/(m(2)h) and an enrichment factor of 4.3 at the doping content of 5%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced pervaporative desulfurization by polydimethylsiloxane membranes embedded with silver/silica core-shell microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Ruijian; Zhang Xiongfei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wu Hong, E-mail: wuhong2000@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Jingtao; Liu Xiaofei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Jiang Zhongyi [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Pervaporative desulfurization based on membrane technology provides a promising alternative for removal of sulfur substances (as represented by thiophene) in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline. The present study focused on the performance enhancement of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane by incorporation of core-shell structured silver/silica microspheres. A silane coupling agent, N-[3-(trimethoxysily)propyl]-ethylenediamine (TSD), was used to chelate the Ag{sup +} via its amino groups and attach the silver seeds onto the silica surface via condensation of its methoxyl groups. The resultant microspheres were characterized by Zeta-positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (ZetaPALS), inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrophotometer (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag{sup +}/SiO{sub 2}-PDMS composite membranes were prepared by blending PDMS with the as-synthesized silver/silica microspheres. PALS analysis was used to correlate the apparent fractional free volume with permeation flux. The sorption selectivity towards thiophene was enhanced after incorporation of silver/silica microspheres due to the {pi}-complexation between the silver on the microsphere surface and the thiophene molecules. The pervaporative desulfurization performance of the composite membrane was investigated using thiophene/n-octane mixture as a model gasoline. The composite membrane exhibited an optimum desulfurization performance with a permeation flux of 7.76 kg/(m{sup 2} h) and an enrichment factor of 4.3 at the doping content of 5%.

  4. Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene in the presence of iron chlorideionic liquid catalyst and ultrasound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Seyedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene refinery in Tehran with sulfur content of 0/293% with iron chloride - hydrogen peroxide and ultrasonic liquid catalysts in the presence of acetic acid - formic acid and an oxidizinghydrogen peroxide has been studied. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, reaction time, mole ratio of moles of sulfur oxidation (no/ ns,mole ratio of moles of acid per mol of sulfur (nacid/ ns (on the desulfurization of kerosene checked(the molar ratio of oxidant to 15-40 and 20-80 mole ratio of sulfur to sulfur acidThe results showed that the optimal conditions for the removal of sulfur from iron chloride catalyst system kerosene by 93% and sulfur content of residual 128 ppm is obtained. The effect of ultrasonic waves on system performance oxidationwas studied, the results showed that the percentage of desulfurization systems, oxidation of acetic acid- hydrogen peroxide in combination with ultrasound (96% and without ultrasound was 93%, which indicates improved performance oxidation The presence of ultrasound.

  5. Study on Reactive Adsorption Desulfurization of Model Gasoline on Ni/ZnO-HY Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Huan; Salissou M. Nour; Yi Dezhi; Meng Xuan; Shi Li

    2013-01-01

    The reactive adsorption desulfurization of model gasoline was carried out on Ni/ZnO-HY adsorbent. The Ni/ZnO-HY adsorbent was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption test (BET), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and tempera-ture-programmed reduction (TPR) analysis. The test results have demonstrated that HY-zeolite is a feasible support for Ni/ZnO components used in reactive adsorption desulfurization. The results of XRD and TPR analyses showed that most of nickel element was present as Ni2+species with only a small part existing as Ni3+species, and the Ni2+species had interac-tions with HY-zeolite. Under the conditions of this study, which speciifed a 50%ratio of HY-zeolite in the adsorbent, a Zn/Ni molar ratio of 10, and a reduction temperature of 400℃, the Ni/ZnO-HY adsorbent showed the best desulfurization per-formance. The sulfur capacity of Ni/ZnO-HY adsorbent could be recovered to 92.19%of the fresh one after being subjected to regeneration at 500℃, and could be maintained at 82.17%of the fresh one after 5 regeneration cycles.

  6. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by a newly isolated Corynebacterium sp.ZD-1 in aqueous phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Miao-dong; LI Wei; WANG Da-hui; SHI Yao

    2004-01-01

    Sulfur emission through fuel combustion is a global problem because it is a major cause of acid rain. Crud oil contains many heterocyclic organic sulfur compounds, among which dibenzothiophene(DBT) and DBTs bearing alkyl substitutions usually are representative compounds. A strain was isolated from refinery sludge and identified as Corynebacterium ZD-1. The behavior of DBT degradation by ZD-1 in aqueous phase was investigated. Corynebacterium ZD-1 could metabolize DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl(2-HBP) as the dead-end metabolite through a sulfur-specific pathway. In shake flask culture, ZD-1 had its maximal desulfurization activity in the late exponential growth phase and the specific production rate of 2-HBP was about 0.14(mmol·kg dry cell-1·min-1, mmol·KDC-1·min-1). Active resting cells for desulfurization should be prepared only in this period. 2-HBP inhibited the growth of strain ZD-1, the production of DBT degradation enzymes, and the activity of enzymes. Sulfate inhibited the production of dibenzothiophene(DBT) degradation enzymes but had no effect on the enzymes' activity. The production rates of 2-HBP at lower cell densities were higher and the maximum amount conversion of DBT to 2-HBP(0.067 mmol/L) after 8 h was gained at 9.2(g dry cell/L) rather higher cell density. The results indicated that this newly isolated strain could be a promising biocatalyst for DBT desulfurization.

  7. Development of Physics-Based Numerical Models for Uncertainty Quantification of Selective Laser Melting Processes - 2015 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Delplanque, Jean-Pierre [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-08

    The primary goal of the proposed research is to characterize the influence of process parameter variability inherent to Selective Laser Melting (SLM) on components manufactured with the SLM technique for space flight systems and their performance.

  8. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  9. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1980-01-04

    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  10. Effect of Fe2O3 Addition in MgO-CaO Refractory on Desulfurization of Liquid Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yao-wu; LI Nan; CHEN Fang-yu

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Fe2O3 addition in MgO-CaO refractory on desulfurization of liquid iron were studied by SEM, EDA and chemical analysis. Fe2O3 of 1 % and 4 % were added to MgO-CaO refractory as the lining of graphite crucible in which 150 g iron powder with sulfur of 0.15 % was charged. It is found that when the sample is heated at 1 600 ℃ for 40 min, 60 min and 90 min, the addition with Fe2O3 of 1 % improves desulfurization greatly. However, the desulfurization ratio of the refractory with Fe2O3 addition of 4 % is less than that with Fe2O3 addition of 1 %. For the soaking time of 90 min, the desulfurization ratio is less than those of 40 min and 60 min. These phenomena were explained by the contrary roles of O2- and Fe2+ formed by reaction between liquid iron and Fe2O3 on desulfurization.

  11. Thermodynamic and stochastic theory of hydrodynamic and power-producing processes. [Annual report], September 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.

    1992-09-16

    Thermodynamics of the transport processes of diffusion, thermal conduction, and viscous flow at a macroscopic level are developed for the simplest cases of one-dimensional transport in fluids for individual linear and nonlinear processes approaching a stationary non-equilibrium state. Formulation has started of thermodynamic and stochastic theory of combinations of transport processes. Global thermodynamic and stochastic theory of open chemical systems frar from equilibrium is continued with analysis of a broad class of isothermal, multicomponent reaction mechanisms with multiple steady states with assumed local equilibrium. Stationary solutions are obtained of the master equation for single and multi-intermediate autocatalytic chemical systems. A kinetic potential is identified that governs the deterministic time evolution of coupled tank reactors. A second-order response theory was developed to investigate the effects of external periodic perturbations on a chemical reaction at a stable steady state in an open reactor.

  12. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. Utilization of desulfurization gypsum to producing SO{sub 2} and CaO in multi-stage fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zhu; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hairui; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Zuyi [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    With emission control becomes more and more stringent, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) is commonly employed for desulfurization. However, the product of FGD, gypsum, causes the unexpected environmental problems. How to utilize the byproduct of FGD effectively and economically is a challenging task. This paper proposed the new technical process to produce SO{sub 2} and CaO by reducing the gypsum in multi-stage fluidized bed reactor with different atmosphere. In addition, some preliminary experiments were carried out in PTGA. The results show that CO concentration has little effect on the initial decomposing temperature, but affect the decomposing rate of phosphogypsum obviously. The decomposing product composed of CaS and CaO simultaneously. The ratio of the two products was determined by CO concentration. Lower CO content benefits to produce more CO product and more SO{sub 2}. The decomposition reaction of phosphogypsum in reducing atmosphere is parallel competition reaction. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate the effect of CaS and other byproduct efficiently by the new technology, which utilize multi-atmosphere in multistage fluidized bed reactors.

  14. A biomass-supported Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} sorbent for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, H.; Ouyang, T.; Yang, F.; Kou, Y. [Peking University, Beijing (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering

    2003-06-01

    A novel sorbent for SO{sub 2} removal has been investigated. The sorbent is obtained by conventional incipient wetness impregnation of abandoned biomaterials (straw or dried leaves) with an aqueous solution of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. A material with the composition 80 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/straw shows a desulfurization activity which is both higher and faster than that of the reference sample Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 3}O{sub 3}. The breakthrough and stoichiometric SO{sub 2} adsorption efficiencies for 80 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/straw reach 48.9% and 80.6%, respectively, at a temperature of 80{sup o}C. The adsorption efficiencies are almost constant in the temperature range 70 to 300{sup o}C. According to IR and XPS analysis the main products observed on the spent sorbent are sulfite below 150{sup o}C and sulfate at 300{sup o}C. The Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in 80 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/straw can potentially be recycled by the oxidation of the straw with concomitant reduction of the sulfite species to elemental sulfur, making the proposed process CO{sub 2} neutral. 22 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1993--January 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Yokimcus, T.A. [Institute of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The overall objective of the research presented in this report is to advance the development and acceptance of thin-film photovoltaic modules by increasing the understanding of film growth and processing and its relationship to materials properties and solar cell performance. The specific means toward meeting this larger goal include: (1) investigating scalable, cost-effective deposition processes; (2) preparing thin-film materials and device layers and completed cell structures; (3) performing detailed material and device analysis; and (4) participating in collaborative research efforts that address the needs of PV-manufacturers. These objectives are being pursued with CuInSe{sub 2}, CdTe and a-Si based solar cells.

  16. Marble waste characterization as a desulfurizing slag component for steel; Caracterizacao do residuo de marmore como componente de escorias dessulfurantes para aco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleti, J.L.; Grillo, F.F.; Tenorio, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); De Oliveira, J.R. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), ES (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The current steel market requires from steel plants better quality of its products. As a result, steel plants need to search for improvements and costs reduction in its process. Hence, the residue of marble containing significant quantities of calcium and magnesium carbonates, raw materials of steel refining slag, was characterized in order to replace the conventional lime used. Therefore, it will be possible to reduce the cost and volume of waste produced by the ornamental rock industry. The following methods were applied to test the waste potential: SEM with EDS, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence (EDX), Thermogravimetry (TG) and analysis of surface area and particle size by the BET method using dispersion leisure. The results indicated the feasibility of waste as raw material in the composition of desulfurizing slags. (author)

  17. Interaction between Ni and HZSM-5 in aromatization-enhanced reactive adsorption desulfurization catalysts for FCC gasoline upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinchong; Zhang, Lulu; She, Nannan; Liu, Yunqi; Chai, Yongming; Liu, Chenguang

    A compound catalyst (RA) consisted of Ni, ZnO and HZSM-5 with functions of reactive adsorption desulfurization (RADS) and olefin aromatization for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline upgrading was prepared. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction and low-temperature N2 adsorption were used to characterize the properties of the catalysts. Performance evaluation by FCC gasoline was carried out, and the result showed that the catalyst RA performed well in desulfurization and aromatization. For comparison, RADS catalyst (represented by DS) consisted of Ni and ZnO and aromatization catalyst (represented by Ar) consisted of HZSM-5 were prepared, respectively. They were combined in different ways to help investigating interaction between Ni and HZSM-5. Performance evaluated by FCC gasoline showed that catalyst RA performed best in desulfurization with a slight octane number loss. Interaction between Ni and HZSM-5 is a significant factor which influences the performance of the catalyst.

  18. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-12-31

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  19. Annual Research Review: An expanded account of information-processing mechanisms in risk for child and adolescent anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Waters, Allison M

    2017-04-01

    Anxiety and depression occurring during childhood and adolescence are common and costly. While early-emerging anxiety and depression can arise through a complex interplay of 'distal' factors such as genetic and environmental influences, temperamental characteristics and brain circuitry, the more proximal mechanisms that transfer risks on symptoms are poorly delineated. Information-processing biases, which differentiate youth with and without anxiety and/or depression, could act as proximal mechanisms that mediate more distal risks on symptoms. This article reviews the literature on information-processing biases, their associations with anxiety and depression symptoms in youth and with other distal risk factors, to provide direction for further research. Based on strategic searches of the literature, we consider how youth with and without anxiety and/or depression vary in how they deploy attention to social-affective stimuli, discriminate between threat and safety cues, retain memories of negative events and appraise ambiguous information. We discuss how these information-processing biases are similarly or differentially expressed on anxiety and depression and whether these biases are linked to genetic and environmental factors, temperamental characteristics and patterns of brain circuitry functioning implicated in anxiety and depression. Biases in attention and appraisal characterise both youth anxiety and depression but with some differences in how these are expressed for each symptom type. Difficulties in threat-safety cue discrimination characterise anxiety and are understudied in depression, while biases in the retrieval of negative and overgeneral memories have been observed in depression but are understudied in anxiety. Information-processing biases have been studied in relation to some distal factors but not systematically, so relationships remain inconclusive. Biases in attention, threat-safety cue discrimination, memory and appraisal may characterise

  20. Kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrates in offshore drilling, production, and processing. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates are crystalline materials formed of natural gas and water at elevated pressures and reduced temperatures. Because natural gas hydrates can plug drill strings, pipelines, and process equipment, there is much effort expended to prevent their formation. The goal of this project was to provide industry with more economical hydrate inhibitors. The specific goals for the past year were to: define a rational approach for inhibitor design, using the most probable molecular mechanism; improve the performance of inhibitors; test inhibitors on Colorado School of Mines apparatuses and the Exxon flow loop; and promote sharing field and flow loop results. This report presents the results of the progress on these four goals.

  1. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices: Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1995 -- January 15, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R W; Phillips, J E; Buchanan, W A; Eser, E; Hegedus, S S; McCandless, B E; Meyers, P V; Shafarman, W N [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The overall mission of the Institute of Energy Conversion is the development of thin film photovoltaic cells, modules, and related manufacturing technology and the education of students and professionals in photovoltaic technology. The objectives of this four-year NREL subcontract are to advance the state of the art and the acceptance of thin film PV modules in the areas of improved technology for thin film deposition, device fabrication, and material and device characterization and modeling, relating to solar cells based on CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, on a-Si and its alloys, and on CdTe. In the area of CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, EEC researchers have produced CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} films by selenization of elemental and alloyed films with H{sub 2}Se and Se vapor and by a wide variety of process variations employing co-evaporation of the elements. Careful design, execution and analysis of these experiments has led to an improved understanding of the reaction chemistry involved, including estimations of the reaction rate constants. Investigation of device fabrication has also included studies of the processing of the Mo, US and ZnO deposition parameters and their influence on device properties. An indication of the success of these procedures was the fabrication of a 15% efficiency CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} solar cell.

  2. Research on use of high calcium desulfurization ash in autoclaved brick CHEN Bin LIU Heng-bo WAN Jun%利用高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈滨; 刘恒波; 万军

    2012-01-01

      The paper researches on the process of high calcium desulfurization ash autoclaved brick, and puts forward the ways to use the high calcium, high sulfur and low silicon of fly ash from the circulating fluidized bed boiler.%  对高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的生产工艺进行了研究,提出了重点解决循环流化床锅炉粉煤灰的高钙、高硫、低硅难题的有效途径。

  3. Desulfurization activity and reusability of magnetite nanoparticle-coated Rhodococcus erythropolis FMF and R. erythropolis IGTS8 bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardania, Hassan; Raheb, Jamshid; Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Rasekh, Behnam; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2013-01-01

    The application of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles to the separation of desulfurizing bacterial cells and their influence on the desulfurization activity and reusability of the two bacterial strains Rhodococcus erythropolis FMF and R. erythropolis IGTS8 were investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized via the reverse coprecipitation method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the magnetite nanoparticles had sizes of 5.35 ± 1.13 (F1 nanoparticles) and 8.74 ± 1.18 nm (F2 nanoparticles) when glycine was added during the synthesis of nanoparticles and when it was absent from the reaction mixture, respectively. Glycine was added after the synthesis of both F1 and F2 nanoparticles to stabilize the nanoparticle dispersion. TEM images of cells treated with magnetite nanoparticles indicated that F1 nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of bacterial cells more evenly than the F2 nanoparticles. Desulfurization activities of the F1 magnetite nanoparticle-coated R. erythropolis FMF and R. erythropolis IGTS8 cells (with sulfur-removal percentage values of 70 ± 4 and 73 ± 3, respectively), as examined with the spectrophotometric Gibbs assay (based on dibenzothiophene degradation and sulfur-removal percentage), were not significantly different from those for the free bacterial cells (67 ± 3 and 69 ± 4, respectively). These results indicate that magnetite nanoparticles cannot affect the desulfurization activity of cells examined in this work. Isolation of bacterial cells from the suspension using a magnet and evaluation of desulfurization activity of separated cells showed that Fe3 O4 nanoparticles can provide a high-efficiency recovery of bacterial cells from a suspension, with the reused magnetite nanoparticle-coated bacterial cells being able to maintain their desulfurization activity efficiently. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Reduction of industrial waste by the employment of simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization method using magnesium; Maguneshiumu wo mochiita datsuryu/kokuen kyujoka doji shoriho no saiyo ni yoru sangyo haikibutsu no teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toriyama, T.; Yamamuro, S.; Yoshida, A.; Ono, S. [Kurimoto Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    The Sakai Factory of KURIMOTO LTD. employed a continuous porous plug desulfurization method in 1992. In this desulfurization method, the molten iron from a cupola is desulfurized with a desulfurizing agent in which calcium carbide and lime are mixed. This paper reports the details of the development of a simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization method using Mg, which aims at disusing the operation in a high-temperature environment and reducing the quantity of slag which is an industrial waste. The main results obtained are as follows. The quantity of desulfurized slag in a porous plug ladle could be reduced to zero. A total quantity of slag produced was reduced by about 70%, which was better than the target reduction. Owing to the employment of this simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization method using Mg, the operations of mixing the desulfurizing agent and removing desulfurized slag in a high-temperature environment were omitted. The S-value after the simultaneous desulfurization/graphite spheroidization became lower than 0.010%. It could be ascertained that the graphite spheroidization rate and mechanical properties of the product did not differ from those of the product obtained by a conventional desulfurization and fully satisfied the standard values of the product. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 8, July--September 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  6. Mechanism for the desulfurization of L-cysteine catalyzed by the nifS gene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; White, R H; Cash, V L; Dean, D R

    1994-04-19

    The nifS gene product (NIFS) is a pyridoxal phosphate binding enzyme that catalyzes the desulfurization of L-cysteine to yield L-alanine and sulfur. In Azotobacter vinelandii this activity is required for the full activation of the nitrogenase component proteins. Because the nitrogenase component proteins, Fe protein and MoFe protein, both contain metalloclusters which are required for their respective activities, it is suggested that NIFS participates in the biosynthesis of the nitrogenase metalloclusters by providing the inorganic sulfur required for Fe-S core formation [Zheng, L., White, R. H., Cash, V. L. Jack, R. F., & Dean, D. R. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 2754-2758]. In the present study the mechanism for the desulfurization of L-cysteine catalyzed by NIFS was determined in the following ways. First, the substrate analogs, L-allylglycine and vinylglycine, were shown to irreversibly inactivate NIFS by formation of a gamma-methylcystathionyl or cystathionyl residue, respectively, through nucleophilic attack by an active site cysteinyl residue on the corresponding analog-pyridoxal phosphate adduct. Second, this reactive cysteinyl residue, which is required for L-cysteine desulfurization activity, was identified as Cys325 by the specific alkylation of that residue and by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Third, the formation of an enzyme-bound cysteinyl persulfide was identified as an intermediate in the NIFS-catalyzed reaction. Fourth, evidence was obtained for an enamine intermediate in the formation of L-alanine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Influence of Fe loadings on desulfurization performance of activated carbon treated by nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia-Xiu; Shu, Song; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Yin, Hua-Qiang; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-02-01

    A series of Fe supported on activated carbon treated by nitric acid are prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with ultrasonic assistance and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has shown that Fe loadings significantly influence the desulfurization activity. Fe/NAC5 exhibits an excellent removal ability of SO2, corresponding to breakthrough sulfur capacity of 323 mg/g. With the increasing Fe loadings, the generated Fe3O4 and Fe2SiO4 increase, but Fe2(SO4)3 is observed after desulfurization. Fe/NAC1 has a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 925 m(2)/g with micropore surface area of 843 m(2)/g and total pore volume of 0.562 cm(3)/g including a micropore volume of 0.300 cm(3)/g. With the increasing Fe loadings, BET surface area and micropore volume decrease, and those of Fe/NAC10 decrease to 706 m(2)/g and 0.249 cm(3)/g. The Fe loadings influence the pore-size distribution, and SO2 adsorption mainly reacts in micropores at about 0.70 nm. C=O and C-O are observed for all samples before SO2 removal. After desulfurization, the C-O stretching is still detected, but the C=O stretching vibration of carbonyl groups disappears. The stretching of S-O or S=O in sulfate is observed at 592 cm(-1) for the used sample, proving that the existence of [Formula: see text].

  8. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  9. Thermodynamic characterization of conversion process oils as materials of continuous distribution. Annual report January-December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, S.A.; Abbasian-Amin, M.J.

    1984-03-01

    Examination of the more common description of continuous oils as made up of a set of pseudocomponents showed the potential of describing vapor-liquid equilibria of these oils in terms of a few (5 to 10) parameters, if the shape of the distribution function can somehow be inferred. A proposed description considers the continuous oil as made up of a set of fractional continuous oils. If the choice of distribution functions for those fractional oils is appropriately based on the vapor pressure-boiling point-temperature dependence, the form of the functions are maintained in equilibrium vapor-liquid transformation with explicit transformation rules for the parameters. A preliminary application of these concepts to a hypothetical oil has shown they can describe flashing operations. To determine the type of distribution function that should be used, a low-pressure batch distillation system was constructed to allow measurement of K value distributions for process oils over a range of temperatures. Initial experimental results are qualitatively consistent with the assumptions made in the proposed continuous oil description.

  10. Acid rain research program. Annual progress report, July 1976--September 1977. [Effects on plants and soil microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Francis, A.J.; Raynor, G.S.

    1977-12-01

    Experiments were carried out and chemical aspects of ambient precipitation were determined using a sequential precipitation collector for the period July 1976 through September 1977. A related report provides experimental details. In experiments with plants, experiments were aimed to document: the foliar response of six clones of hybrid poplar to simulated acid rain; effects of buffered solutions and various anions on vegetative and sexual development of gametophytes of the fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and the acid-sensitive steps of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of the garden pea (Pisum sativum). After five 6 min daily exposures to simulated rain of pH 2.7, up to 10 percent of the leaf area of some poplar clones was injured. Lesions developed mostly near stomata and vascular tissue as shown with other plant species. Acidic solutions have a marked effect on sperm motility and fertilization (sexual reproduction) of bracken fern. Since sexual reproduction of ferns is very sensitive to mildly acidic conditions under laboratory conditions, experiments are planned to view the response of sexual stages of other plant species. Nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Pisum is very sensitive to nutrient solution acidity. Specific isolates of Rhizobium bacteria are used and the medium pH can be maintained rigidly. In experiments to determine the effects of excess acidity on soil microbiological processes, the rate of denitrification may be slowed so drastically that increases of N/sub 2/O in the atmosphere may result with a subsequent reduction in soil nitrogen levels.

  11. Annual variation in carbon budget using remote-sensing data and a process model in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Takeuchi, W.; Yamagata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) is one of the most important carbon emission reduction efforts in the tropical region. Deforestation and land use changes are human activities with major impact on the regional carbon budged and the other greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) emissions. Forest carbon biomass in Southeast Asia is largest in Asia region; however, the area of primary forest had continuously decreased due to land-use conversion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate carbon budged and greenhouse gases induced by deforestation from Borneo Island. We used time-series satellite remote-sensing data to track deforestation history in Borneo Island, Southeast Asia, and estimated the resulting forest carbon budget using a process-based model (VISIT: Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases). The forest/non-forest area was mapped by applying the ALOS/PALSAR-calibrated threshold value to MODIS, SPOT-VEGETATION, and NOAA-AVHRR images. The model allowed us to estimate changes in carbon budged and greenhouse gases by human disturbances, including land-use conversion from primary forest to cropland (e.g., oil-palm plantation). The estimated carbon stocks, budged, and greenhouse gases were verified using field observation of previous studies at some point of Borneo Island. Our results suggested that the southern part of Borneo Island was a large carbon source due to deforestation, although the VISIT model need be revised to account for tropical peatland.

  12. 31P NMR study of the desulfurization of oligonucleoside phosphorothioates effected by "aged" trichloroacetic acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Ausín, Cristina; Chmielewski, Marcin K; Kauffman, Jon S; Snyder, John; Del-Grosso, Alfred; Beaucage, Serge L

    2005-04-15

    When employing phosphoramidites 1a-d in the solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleoside phosphorothioates, the thermolytic 2-[N-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)]aminoethyl thiophosphate protecting group is lost to a large extent during the course of the synthesis. The resulting phosphorothioate diesters are then substantially desulfurized upon recurring exposure to a commercial solution of deblocking reagent during chain assembly. This problem is caused by the secondary decomposition product(s) of the reagent and is alleviated by using a fresh solution of the deblocking reagent prepared from solid trichloroacetic acid.

  13. OH radicals generated by DC corona discharge for improving the pulsed discharge desulfuration efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; LI Guo-feng; WU Yan; WANG Ning-hui; HUANG Qiu-nan

    2004-01-01

    Positive DC corona discharge is formed with needle-plate electrode configuration, in which the water vapor is ejected though the needle points. The purpose is to increase the numbers of the water-based radicals, ionize the water molecule and improve the desulfuration efficiency of pulsed corona reactor. The water ions were determined by four stages molecular beam mass spectrometer and diagnose the water-based radicals by emission spectrograph. A conclusion on formation of ions and radicals with DC corona discharges can be drawn.

  14. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1994--January 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Shafarman, W.N. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

    1995-06-01

    This report describes results achieved during the second phase of a four year subcontract to develop and understand thin film solar cell technology related to a-Si and its alloys, CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, and CdTe. Accomplishments during this phase include, development of equations and reaction rates for the formation of CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} films by selenization, fabrication of a 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} cell, development of a reproducible, reliable Cu-diffused contact to CdTe, investigation of the role of CdTe-CdS interdiffusion on device operation, investigation of the substitution of HCl for CdCl{sub 2} in the post-deposition heat treatment of CdTe/CdS, demonstration of an improved reactor design for deposition of a-Si films, demonstration of improved process control in the fabrication of a ten set series of runs producing {approximately}8% efficient a-Si devices, demonstration of the utility of a simplified optical model for determining quantity and effect of current generation in each layer of a triple stacked a-Si cell, presentation of analytical and modeling procedures adapted to devices produced with each material system, presentation of baseline parameters for devices produced with each material system, and various investigations of the roles played by other layers in thin film devices including the Mo underlayer, CdS and ZnO in CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} devices, the CdS in CdTe devices, and the ZnO as window layer and as part of the back surface reflector in a-Si devices. In addition, collaborations with over ten research groups are briefly described. 73 refs., 54 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Desulfurization Behavior in Gas-Stirred Systems Based on Computation Fluid Dynamics-Simultaneous Reaction Model (CFD-SRM) Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2014-10-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-simultaneous reaction model (CFD-SRM) coupled model has been proposed to describe the desulfurization behavior in a gas-stirred ladle. For the desulfurization thermodynamics, different models were investigated to determine sulfide capacity and oxygen activity. For the desulfurization kinetic, the effect of bubbly plume flow, as well as oxygen absorption and oxidation reactions in slag eyes are considered. The thermodynamic and kinetic modification coefficients are proposed to fit the measured data, respectively. Finally, the effects of slag basicity and gas flow rate on the desulfurization efficiency are investigated. The results show that as the interfacial reactions (Al2O3)-(FeO)-(SiO2)-(MnO)-[S]-[O] simultaneous kinetic equilibrium is adopted to determine the oxygen activity, and the Young's model with the modification coefficient R th of 1.5 is adopted to determine slag sulfide capacity, the predicted sulfur distribution ratio LS agrees well with the measured data. With an increase of the gas blowing time, the predicted desulfurization rate gradually decreased, and when the modification parameter R k is 0.8, the predicted sulfur content changing with time in ladle agrees well with the measured data. If the oxygen absorption and oxidation reactions in slag eyes are not considered in this model, then the sulfur removal rate in the ladle would be overestimated, and this trend would become more obvious with an increase of the gas flow rate and decrease of the slag layer height. With the slag basicity increasing, the total desulfurization ratio increases; however, the total desulfurization ratio changes weakly as the slag basicity exceeds 7. With the increase of the gas flow rate, the desulfurization ratio first increases and then decreases. When the gas flow rate is 200 NL/min, the desulfurization ratio reaches a maximum value in an 80-ton gas-stirred ladle.

  16. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2013-01-01

    The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca(2+) for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II) and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1) and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  17. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD are a useful external source of Ca(2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, pH and electrical conductivity (EC decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  18. Desulfurization in Reducing Atomosphere and Ammonia Injection Denitrification in a Coal—Fired Fluidized Bed COmbustor with FLy—Ash Recycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhongZhaoping; ZhengHaiyun

    1997-01-01

    With the rising of IGCC and the second generation PFBC-CC,and with the development of tech-nology of staged combustion to lower emission of NOx,the desulfurization efficiency under reducing atmosphere is raised.In this paper,with the application of the fly-ash recycle and two-stage combustion technologies in a fluidized bed combustor,the desulfurization test under reducing atmosphere is described.Meanwhile,ammonia injection test was also conducted.Results show that desulfurization under reducing atmosphere has higher efficiency,and amoonia injection denitrification effect is very perfect.

  19. Development of secondary salt recovery technology from desulfurization waste water%脱硫废液中副盐回收技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建孝; 杨建杰

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a conclusion for dry desulfurization and wet desulfurization ,introduces the principle and methods of desulfurization waste water treatment such as partial conversion ,com-plete conversion , multistep crystallization and diaphragm separation , and analyzes the problems of each method .%对干法脱硫和湿法脱硫方法进行归纳总结,介绍了部分转化、全部转化、分步结晶、膜分离等方法处理脱硫废液的原理及方法,并对其存在的问题进行分析。

  20. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  1. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  2. Performance and characterization of a newly developed self-agitated anaerobic reactor with biological desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You

    2011-05-01

    The continuous operation of a newly developed methane fermentation reactor, which requires no electricity for the agitation of the fermentation liquid was investigated, and the extent of the biological desulfurization was monitored. Inside the reactor, the continual change in the liquid level and the self-agitation, occurring between 5 and 16 times every day, distributed the organic load near the inlet port of the reactor, as well as providing a nutrient supply to the hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria. At different COD(Cr) loading rates (5, 7, 10 kg m(3)d(-1)), the reactor achieved a biogas production yield of 0.72-0.82 m(3)g(-1)-TS, a COD(Cr) reduction of 79.4-85.5% and an average of 99% hydrogen sulfide removal. This investigation demonstrated that the self-agitated reactor is comparable in digestion performance to the completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) investigated in a previous study, and that the desulfurization performance was significantly enhanced compared to the CSTR.

  3. Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuna, E-mail: zhangshujuan@tust.edu.cn [College of Textile Engineering, Zhejiang Industry Polytechnic College, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Limin, E-mail: tjpu2012@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wu, Xiaoqing [Institute of Composite Materials and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composite Materials, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Fang, Sheng, E-mail: songlmnk@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P has been prepared using foam nickel as a template. • The microstructures interconnected and formed sponge-like porous networks. • Three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P shows superior hydrodesulfurization activity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional microstructured nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 2}P) was fabricated by the reaction between foam nickel (Ni) and phosphorus red. The as-prepared Ni{sub 2}P samples, as interconnected networks, maintained the original mesh structure of foamed nickel. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-synthesized Ni{sub 2}P were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, automatic mercury porosimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study showed adjacent hollow branches were mutually interconnected to form sponge-like networks. The investigation on pore structure provided detailed information for the hollow microstructures. The growth mechanism for the three-dimensionally structured Ni{sub 2}P was postulated and discussed in detail. To investigate its catalytic properties, SiO{sub 2} supported three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P was prepared successfully and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). DBT molecules were mostly hydrogenated and then desulfurized by Ni{sub 2}P/SiO{sub 2}.

  4. Photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene catalyzed by amorphous TiO{sub 2} in ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenshuai; Xu, Yehai; Li, Huaming; Dai, Bilian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Chao; Chao, Yanhong; Liu, Hui [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2014-02-15

    Three types of TiO{sub 2} were synthesized by a hydrolysis and calcination method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), Raman spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD and Raman spectra indicated that amorphous TiO{sub 2} was successfully obtained at 100 .deg. C. The results indicated that amorphous TiO{sub 2} achieved the highest efficiency of desulfurization. The photocatalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT), benzothiophene (BT), 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) and dodecanethiol (RSH) in model oil was studied at room temperature (30 .deg. C) with three catalysts. The system contained amorphous TiO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and [Bmim]BF{sub 4} ionic liquid, ultraviolet (UV), which played vitally important roles in the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization. Especially, the molar ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and sulfur (O/S) was only 2 : 1, which corresponded to the stoichiometric reaction. The sulfur removal of DBT-containing model oil with amorphous TiO{sub 2} could reach 96.6%, which was apparently superior to a system with anatase TiO{sub 2} (23.6%) or with anatase - rutile TiO{sub 2} (18.2%). The system could be recycled seven times without a signicant decrease in photocatalytic activity.

  5. Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2000-12-15

    The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

  6. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  7. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83—13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185—0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  8. Synthesis of rare earth metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) and their properties of adsorption desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘想; 王景艳; 李庆远; 蒋赛; 张天浩; 季生福

    2014-01-01

    The rare earth metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) materials, Ln(BTC)(H2O)·(DMF), were synthesized using the rare earth metal (Ln=Sm, Eu, Tb, Y) and 1,3,5-trimesic acid (BTC) as a metal ion center and ligand, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the Ln-MOFs structural features. The property of adsorption desul-furization of Ln-MOFs materials was evaluated with thiophene/n-octane as model oil. The results showed that Ln-MOFs with rare earth metals Sm, Eu, Tb and Y had perfect crystalline and good adsorption desulfurization ability. Y(BTC)(H2O)·(DMF) material had a comparatively better activity for the adsorption desulfurization with desulfurization rate up to 80.7%and the sulfur adsorption ca-pacity was found 30.7 mgS/g(Y-MOFs). The Ln-MOFs materials had excellent reusability.

  9. Photocatalytic Oxidative Desulfurization of Gasoline by TiO2 in [BMIm]Cu2CI3 Ionic Liguid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fatang; Liu Ruihong; Sun Zhimin

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of gasoline in [BMIm]Cu2C13 ionic liquid was studied.A 500-W high-pressure mercury lamp was used as the light source for irradiation,nano-TiO2 was used as the photocatalyst and air was introduced by a gas pump to supply 02 as the oxidant.Influence of the ratio of V(ionic liquid) to V(oil) and the TiO2 addition on the desulfurization rate of gasoline was investigated.An oxidative kinetics equation was founded.The results showed that the [BMIm]CuaCI3 ionic liquid was an effective extractant for the desulfurization of gasoline.The appropriate TiO2 addition was 0.05 g in 50 mL of reaction mixture.The yield of desulfurized gasoline could reach 98.2% after being subjected to reaction for 2 h under the conditions of adopting a ratio of V(ionic liquid): V(oil)=1:4,an air flow of 100 mL/min and a TiO2 addition dosage of 0.05 g.The kinetics reaction for photo-oxidation of gasoline was a first-order reaction with an apparent rate constant of 1.9664 h-1 and a half-time of 0.3525 h.

  10. Structural Elucidation of DNA-Protein Crosslinks Using Reductive Desulfurization and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramaratne, Susith; Tretyakova, Natalia Y.

    2014-01-01

    Structural characterization of DNA-protein crosslinks involving cysteine using reductive desulfurization in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is highlighted. The novel approach was used to identify hydrolytically stable DNA-protein lesions involving alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT).

  11. Desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbents with various adhesive carrier particles for a semidry CFB-FGD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Changfu; Li, Yuan

    2013-03-19

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) experiments were conducted using rapidly hydrated sorbents with four different adhesive carrier particles: circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB circulation ash), fly ash from the first electrical field of the electrostatic precipitator of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB ESP ash), fly ash from a chain boiler (chain boiler ash), and river sand smaller than 1 mm. The influences of various adhesive carrier particles and operating conditions on the desulfurization characteristics of the sorbents were investigated, including sprayed water, reaction temperature, and the ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S). The experimental results indicated that the rapidly hydrated sorbents had better desulfurization characteristics by using adhesive carrier particles which possessed better pore, adhesion, and fluidization characteristics. The desulfurization efficiency of the system increased as the reaction temperature decreased, it improved from 35% to 90% as the mass flow rate of the sprayed water increased from 0 to 10 kg/h, and it increased from 65.6% to 82.7% as Ca/S increased from 1.0 to 2.0. Based on these findings, a new semidry circulating fluidized bed (CFB)-FGD system using rapidly hydrated sorbent was developed. Using the rapidly hydrated sorbent, this system uses a cyclone separator instead of an ESP or a bag filter to recycle the sorbent particles, thereby decreasing the system flow resistance, saving investment and operating costs of the solids collection equipment.

  12. Modeling studies of biological gas desulfurization under haloalkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biogas, synthesis and natural gas streams often require treatment because of the presence of gaseous hydrogen sulphide (H2S). About 25 years ago, a biotechnological gas treatment process was developed as an alternative to the conventionally applied technologies. This proces

  13. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  14. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  15. Modeling studies of biological gas desulfurization under haloalkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biogas, synthesis and natural gas streams often require treatment because of the presence of gaseous hydrogen sulphide (H2S). About 25 years ago, a biotechnological gas treatment process was developed as an alternative to the conventionally applied technologies. This proces

  16. 我国石油产品非加氢脱硫技术研究进展%Research Progress in Non-hydrogenation Desulfurization Technology for Petroleum Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世强; 李晓鸥; 李东胜; 何新发; 吴冰阳; 姜岩

    2014-01-01

    综述了脱除石油产品中硫的重要性,主要的脱硫的手段,加氢脱硫的一些缺点和非加氢脱硫的一些优势。重点综述了石油产品的非加氢脱硫方法,包括:烷基化脱硫、生物脱硫、氧化脱硫、吸附脱硫、膜分离脱硫、萃取脱硫的原理及其这些技术在我国的最新研究状况,并对我国未来的非加氢脱硫技术进行了展望。%The importance of removing sulfur in petroleum products was summarized as well as main means of desulfurization, some shortcomings of hydrodesulfurization and some advantages of non-hydrogenation desulfurization. The non-hydrogenation desulfurization methods of petroleum products were introduced, such as alkylation desulfurization, biological desulfurization, oxidation desulfurization, adsorption desulfurization, membrane separation desulfurization, extraction desulfurization. At last, development trend of the non-hydrogenation desulfurization techniques were discussed.

  17. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. First annual report, September 1, 1990--August 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  18. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

    2000-05-01

    The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

  19. Désulfuration d'effluents gazeux de raffinerie au moyen de masses régénérables Desulfurization of Gaseous Refinery Effluents by Regenerable Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deschamps A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une nouvelle technique, en cours de développement, de désulfuration d'effluents gazeux en raffinerie. Le procédé proposé utilise une masse désulfurante régénérable à base d'oxyde de magnésium qui fixe les oxydes de soufre sous forme de sulfate de magnésium. Le solide est régénéré par réduction du sulfate au moyen d'hydrogène sulfuré. L'intégration de ce procédé avec une unité Claus permet de transformer en soufre élémentaire les oxydes de soufre récupérés, sans dépense d'énergie ni de réactifs coûteux. This article describes a new technique being developed for desulfurizing gaseous refinery effluents. The new process uses a regenerable desulfurizing mass with a magnesium oxide base, which fixes sulfur oxides in the form of magnesium sulfate. The solid is regenerated by reduction of sulfate by hydrogen sulfide. The integration of this process with a Claus unit can be used to transform the sulfur oxides recovered into elemental sulfur without using any energy or costly reagents.

  20. Routine Analysis of Zero Emissions Desulfurization Wastewater Concentration and Evaporation Technology in Coal-Fired Plant%燃煤电厂脱硫废水浓缩蒸干零排放技术路线分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣颖

    2016-01-01

    It discusses zero emissions of wastewater membrane treatment technology of the wet desulphurization in coal-fired power, in connection with evaporated and concentrated desulfurization wastewater process contained 4 units of pretreatment, concentrated reduction, crystallization, solid crystalline material disposal and equipment selected were carried out with technical and economic comparative analysis, combined with a 2 × 350 MW supercritical air-cooling unit project parameters power plant, capital cost was estimate for two typical desulfurization wastewater zero discharge system process, and analyzed their impact on the cost of electricity.%本文对燃煤电厂脱硫废水零排放处理技术进行了分析,针对脱硫废水浓缩蒸干工艺中预处理、浓缩减量、结晶、固体结晶物处置4个单元的处理工艺和选用设备分别进行了技术经济性比对分析,结合某电厂2×350 MW超临界空冷机组工程数据,对2种典型脱硫废水零排放处理工艺投资费用进行了估算,并分析了其对发电成本的影响。

  1. Continuous desulfurization and bacterial community structure of an integrated bioreactor developed to treat SO2 from a gas stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Li, Lin; Ding, Wenjie; Zhang, Jingying; Liu, Junxin

    2015-11-01

    Sulfide dioxide (SO2) is often released during the combustion processes of fossil fuels. An integrated bioreactor with two sections, namely, a suspended zone (SZ) and immobilized zone (IZ), was applied to treat SO2 for 6months. Sampling ports were set in both sections to investigate the performance and microbial characteristics of the integrated bioreactor. SO2 was effectively removed by the synergistic effect of the SZ and IZ, and more than 85% removal efficiency was achieved at steady state. The average elimination capacity of SO2 in the bioreactor was 2.80g/(m(3)·hr) for the SZ and 1.50g/(m(3)·hr) for the IZ. Most SO2 was eliminated in the SZ. The liquid level of the SZ and the water content ratio of the packing material in the IZ affected SO2 removal efficiency. The SZ served a key function not only in SO2 elimination, but also in moisture maintenance for the IZ. The desired water content in IZ could be feasibly maintained without any additional pre-humidification facilities. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA directly amplified from the DNA of each sample were constructed and sequenced to analyze the community composition and diversity in the individual zones. The desulfurization bacteria dominated both zones. Paenibacillus sp. was present in both zones, whereas Ralstonia sp. existed only in the SZ. The transfer of SO2 to the SZ involved dissolution in the nutrient solution and biodegradation by the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. This work presents a potential biological treatment method for waste gases containing hydrophilic compounds.

  2. Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Whiskers Obtained from Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum and Used for the Adsorption Removal of Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: As a recycled material, flue gas desulfurization gypsum has been used to prepare calcium sulfate hemihydrate whisker (CSHW through hydrothermal synthesis for several decades. However, the subsequent utilization of this resultant material has not yet received considerable attention. In the present research, CSHW was successfully synthesized at a certain region, and was used for the adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solutions, thereby broadening the research field for the practical application of CSHW. Its adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by various parameters, particularly, the pH level and initial lead concentration. The pH value highly affected the hydrolysis degree of lead ions and dominated the adsorption of lead. The equilibrium isotherms under two different temperatures were simulated using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models. Both Langmuir and Temkin models showed a good fit to the data. Combined with the well-fitted pseudo-second-order model, the adsorption mechanism was thought to be a chemisorption process that was enforced by the ion exchange reaction. In addition, the specific crystal structure of CSHW revealed that ion exchange reaction occurred on the (010 and (100 facets due to their preferential growth and negatively charged property. The residual solid phase after adsorption was collected and detected using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results revealed that PbSO4 was formed on the surface of CSHW. The alkaline condition introduced the tribasic lead sulfate, and thus reduced the stability of the adsorption system.

  3. 火电厂氨法烟气脱硫装置运行参数检测与控制系统设计%Operation Parameters Detection and Control System Design for Ammonia-based Flue Gas Desulfurization Process of Thermal Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐澎波; 何仁初; 赵立华

    2011-01-01

    大型氨法烟气脱硫(FGD)作为一项新的环保技术,其装置几乎涉及了所有的化工操作单元,对工艺及控制也提出了很高的要求.本文以国内首套某电厂2×300MW机组氨法烟气脱硫装置为例,设计了一套氨法烟气脱硫系统运行参数检测及控制系统,使得装置操作更加安全平稳,有效的降低了氨耗并且改善了副产品质量,在满足环保要求的同时使氨法脱硫装置能经济有效地运行.%Large scale ammonia-based FGD is a new environmental protection technology almost including all chemical engineering operation units. This type equipment is very strict on process and control system. In this paper, taking the first control project with 2×300MW units ammonia-based FGD in a domestic thermal power plant as an example, an operation parameters detection and control system is designed according to the FGD technical requirements. This control system can make the equipment run stably and reducing ammonia consumption greatly with improving by-product quality, and this ammonia-based FGD equipment can run economically and effectively base on the meeting the requirements of environmental protection.

  4. THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC PARAMETERS OF MIXTURES DESULFURIZING THE MADE WITH CaO, MgO, SiO2 AND CaF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nylo de Aguiar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the kinetics and thermodynamics of marble residue mixtures utilisation on desulfurization of pig iron. The desulfurization was carried out using lime, marble residue, fluorite and pig iron. Different mixtures of these materials were added into a bath of pig iron at 1,450°C. Metal samples were collected via vacuum samplers at times of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes, in order to check the variation of sulfur content. Based on the results of chemical analysis of the metal and the desulfurizer mixture, the sulfide capacity of mixtures, the sulfur partition coefficient and the sulfur mass transport coefficient values were calculated.The results show the technical feasibility of using marble waste as desulfurizer agent.

  5. Effectiveness Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization by Alumina Red Mud%氧化铝赤泥进行烟气脱硫有效性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾帅动; 董继业; 王博

    2013-01-01

    Based on desulfurization test platform, use Bayer-sintered joint red mud as raw material, and the mechanism and wet flue gas desulfurization desulfurization effect of red mud was analyzed, we got the idea that the flue gas desulfurization by red mud combined method was feasibility and superiority.%  在搭建的脱硫试验平台上采用拜耳-烧结联合法赤泥为原料,以电厂工业废气为脱硫对象,对赤泥进行湿法烟气脱硫的机理和脱硫的效果进行分析研究,认为使用联合法赤泥进行烟气脱硫具有可行性和优越性。

  6. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a one- or two-stage catalytic reduction process for efficiently converting to elemental sulfur up to 98 percent or more of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) contained in the regeneration offgas streams produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems. The DSRP reacts the regeneration offgas with a small slipstream of coal gas to effect the desired reduction. In this project the DSRP was demonstrated with actual coal gas (as opposed to the simulated laboratory mixtures used in previous studies) in a 75-mm, 1-L size fixed-bed reactor. Integrated with this testing, a US Department of Energy/Research Triangle Institute (DOE/RTI) patented zinc titanate-based fluidizable sorbent formulation was tested in a 75-mm (3-in.) diameter fluidized-bed reactor, and the regeneration offgas from that test was treated with the bench-unit DSRP. The testing was conducted at the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)-Morgantown in conjunction with test campaigns of the pilot-scale gasifier there. The test apparatus was housed in a mobile laboratory built in a specially equipped office trailer that facilitated moving the equipment from RTI in North Carolina to the West Virginia test site. A long duration test of the DSRP using actual coal gas and simulated regeneration offgas showed no degradation in efficiency of conversion to elemental sulfur after 160 h of catalyst exposure. An additional exposure (200 h) of that same catalyst charge at the General Electric pilot gasifier showed only a small decline in performance. That problem is believed to have been caused by tar and soot deposits on the catalyst, which were caused by the high tar content of the atypical fixed-bed gasifier gas. A six-fold larger, single-stage skid-mounted DSRP apparatus was fabricated for additional, larger-scale slipstream testing.

  7. Advanced Land use Classification Considering Intra-annual Cropping patterns and Urbanization processes as a Contribution to Improve Knowledge base for Water Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Tischbein, B.; Beg, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Land use and its spatial pattern and dynamics strongly influence water resources and water demand. Therefore, integrated water resources management coordinating water supply and demand is using modeling tools in order to assess the impact of land use changes on the water balance and to conceive infrastructural and operational measures to cope with these impacts. As a consequence, the appropriateness of water management measures depends on the reliability of the output gained by the modeling tools which in turn is highly determined by the capability of the models and the quality of model inputs. This research combines the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and an advanced procedure for spatio-temporal detection of land use dynamics and irrigation in the Upper Kharun basin in the Chhattisgarh State in India. An on-screen visual digitization technique using the Landsat satellite images and their derivatives (NDVI and tasseled cap indices) were employed for land use classification. The land use maps prepared at different time steps within a year can be combined to produce a single multi-temporal land use classification. This approach captures and integrates all the major variations within a year in a single map and hence better represents an area with multiple crop rotations and different levels of urbanization. Urbanization and intensification of irrigation by increasing use of groundwater are major land use processes at the global scale as well as in the study region. The study reveals that an increasing pumping rate of groundwater for irrigation is the main reason for decreasing the groundwater contribution to streamflow and subsequently a lowering in discharge and water yield. On the other hand, annual surface runoff is increased significantly by an expansion in built up areas over the decades in the study area. This information (i) enhances the understanding of land use changes and their relevant drivers, and (ii) facilitates the introduction of best water and

  8. Coal desulfurization by bacterial treatment and column flotation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1994-06-01

    A review of the literature showed that bacterial leaching, using the microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, was a very effective technique for removing pyrite from coal, as it could dissolve even the finest pyrite particles without the need for expensive reagents or extreme processing conditions. Unfortunately, bacterial leaching is also rather slow, and so the initial goal of this research was to decrease the leaching time as much as possible. However, this still left the bacteria needing approximately a week to remove half of the pyritic sulfur, and so a faster technique was sought. Since it had been reported in the literature that T. ferrooxidans could be used to depress the flotation of pyrite during froth flotation of coal, this was investigated further. By studying the recovery mechanisms of coal-pyrite in froth flotation, it was found that pyrite was being recovered by entrainment and by locking to coal particles, not by true flotation of hydrophobic pyrite. Therefore, no pyrite depressant could be of any significant benefit for keeping pyrite out of the coal froth product, and it was much more important to prevent entrainment from occurring. Countercurrent flotation columns were invented to essentially eliminate entrainment effects, by washing the froth and reducing mixing of the froth and tailings products. Existing flotation columns tend to be quite simple, and in order to give reasonable product quality they must be very tall (typically 30--45 feet). As a result, they have difficulty in handling the high froth volumes which occur in coal flotation, and are awkward to install in existing plants. The bulk of this project therefore concentrated on developing an improved coal flotation column, and testing it under actual plant conditions.

  9. Application of alcohol-amine method dry gas desulfurization technology in catalytic cracking unit%醇胺法干气脱硫工艺在催化裂化装置上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊

    2016-01-01

    The 1.0 Mt/a catalytic cracking unit of an oil refinery uses alcohol-amine method dry gas desulfurization technology. Test run result showed that this process is simple and stable in operation;because of the dry gas knockout drum installed in front of dry gas desulfurization tower,the problem of dry gas carrying liquid is eliminated;the problem of dry gas carrying ammonia liquid is avoided;the hydrogen sulfide content is decreased from 6 071mg/m3 to 16 mg/m3.%某炼油厂1.0 Mt/a重油催化裂化装置采用醇胺法干气脱硫工艺。标定结果表明,该工艺操作简单,运行平稳。由于干气脱硫塔前设有干气分液罐,消除了原稳定装置干气带液的问题;杜绝了干气携带胺液的问题;工艺脱硫效果显著,净化后的干气中硫化氢含量由原来的6071 mg/m3降低到16 mg/m3。

  10. Gas-liquid absorption reaction between (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 3} solution and SO{sub 2} for ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiang; Ding, Honglei; Du, Zhen; Fang, Mengxiang; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wu, Zuliang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China)

    2010-08-15

    In order to investigate the characteristics of the reaction between ammonium sulfite, the main desulfurizing solution, and the flue-gas-contained sulfur dioxide during the process of ammonia-based WFGD (wet flue gas desulfurization) in a power plant, the gas-liquid absorption reaction between sulfur dioxide and an ammonium sulfite solution was studied in a stirred tank reactor. The experimental results indicate that the absorption of sulfur dioxide is controlled by both the gas- and liquid-films when the ammonium sulfite concentration is lower than 0.05 mol/L, and mainly by the gas-film at higher concentrations. In the latter case, the reaction rates are found to be zero-order with respect to the concentration of ammonium sulfite. The absorption rates of sulfur dioxide increase as the concentration of sulfur dioxide in inlet gas and the temperature increase. The reaction rate is of 0.6th-order with respect to the concentration of sulfur dioxide. (author)

  11. MOSSBAUER ANALYSIS ON THE MICROWAVE—MAGNETIC DESULFURIZATION OF RAW COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁斯灏

    1994-01-01

    The selective dielectric heating of microwave energy to convert a portion of each pyrite particle to moderately magnetic pyrrhotite has been suggested to enhance the magnetic separation of inorganic sulfur from coal.The results for Mossbauer analyses show that the considerable amount of pyrrhotite produced during microwave irradiation,carrying with it some of non-magnetic pyrite(unconverted),ferrous sulfate,and troilite,is completely removed from coal after magnetic separation.The optimum desulfurization efficiency can be attained by appropriately controlling the irradiation time to maximize the amount of pyrrhotite formed pyrite decomposition.Excessive irradiation would be ddisadvantageous for improving magnetic separation due to the further decomposition of pyrrhotite to antiferromagnetic troilite.

  12. Finned tubes in purified gas heat exchangers of flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, J. Jr.; Meyer, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The use of helical rolled, corrosion resistant finned tubes in the purified gas heat exchangers of flue gas desulfurization plant has considerable economic advantages over conventional heat exchangers with smooth tubes. As a result of a threefold larger external surface and hence improved heat transfer properties, heat exchangers with finned tubes can be made considerably smaller. The weight and space requirements are reduced and the pressure drop also falls owing to the smaller diameter. Thus piping, pumps, and fittings can all be made smaller. Moreover, deposition on the finned tubes is considerably lower. It is found that finned tubes can be recommended in all cases where the difference in heat transfer coefficients between the inside and the outside of the tube is considerable. (orig.).

  13. Performance of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilot Plant under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Fogh, Folmer; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2011-01-01

    vol % CO2, at a holding tank pH 5.4, reduced the limestone dissolution rate significantly and thereby increased the residual, particulate limestone concentration in the gypsum slurry from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L slurry relative to a base-case (air-firing) experiment with a flue gas CO2 concentration around 7......, but an additional increase in desulfurization degree, from 94 to 97%, was obtained. Using a holding tank pH 5.0 (no adipic acid) returned both parameters to the levels observed in the base-case experiment.......Oxy-fuel firing is a promising technology that should enable the capture and storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as power plants and heavy industry. However, this new technology has a high energy demand for air separation and CO2 compression and storage...

  14. Influence of Basicity and MgO on Fluidity and Desulfurization Ability of High Aluminum Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Meng, Qing-min; Long, Hong-ming; Li, Jia-xin

    2016-08-01

    The viscosity of experimental slag, which was mixed based on the composition of a practical blast furnace slag, was measured in this paper. The influence of Al2O3 and MgO content, basicity R2 = w(CaO)/w(SiO2) on the fluidity of slag was studied. The stepwise regression analysis in SPSS was used to reveal the relationship between sulfur distribution coefficient LS and slag composition as well as furnace temperature. The results show that increasing of MgO up to 12% can decrease the slag viscosity. The w(MgO) should be controlled below 8% when there is 20% Al2O3 in the slag. Temperature of hot metal and content of CaO in slag are the two dominant factors on the desulfurization capacity of slag.

  15. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of high-temperature coal gas desulfurization sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, S.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the properties of and evaluate mixed oxides of zinc and titanium for hot fuel gas desulfurization. Uncombined ZnO was also investigated as a base case. Detailed investigation of the reduction and sulfidation reactions of Zn-Ti-O sorbents was performed. The intrinsic kinetics and the product layer diffusion rates in reduction and sulfidation were determined. Kinetic experiments with sorbents containing various Zn/Ti atomic ratios were performed. Chemical phase and structural transformations were followed by various methods. The results were compared to similar experiments performed with ZnO. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how the presence of titanium dioxide affects the reduction and sulfidation of ZnO. This information would be used to identify and select the sorbent composition that gives the best combination of low reduction rate and acceptable sulfidation performance at temperatures exceeding 600{degree}C. (VC)

  16. Pure Air`s advanced flue gas desulfurization clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station. This project received a $60 million grant from the DOE Clean Coal II program. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The facility was designed, built and is owned and operated by Pure Air of Allentown, Pennsylvania, through its project company, Pure Air on the Lake, Limited Partnership. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum.

  17. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  18. Selection of the desulfurization system of naphtha; Selecao do sistema de dessulfurizacao de nafta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa Filho, R. de Souza; Faraco, Roberto Jose [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1993-01-01

    Steam-reforming catalysts are very sensitive to certain impurities that can be present in feedstocks. Among these impurities there are sulphur compounds that cause temporary deactivation of the steam-reforming catalyst. In order to specify the reformer feed it is necessary to remove those sulphur compounds. Using naphtha as the reformer feed we can use two desulfurization systems: a CoMo reactor, a stripping column and a final CoMo/Zn O reactor; a system with CoMo and Zn O reactors. This paper presents a technical and economical evaluation comparing the two systems and tries to establish the boundaries of application of each one as a function of the naphtha flow rate and the sulphur content. (author) 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Experimental Research on Desulfurization of Fine Coal Using an Enhanced Centrifugal Gravity Separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO You-jun; LUO Zhen-fu; ZHAO Yue-min; TAO Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A desulphurization experimental study under the effects of compounding physical force fields has been described for < 0.5 mm fine particles of high sulfur coal. A statistical test using the Box-Behnken Design of experiments was conducted to evaluate the effects of individual operating variables and their interactions on desulfurization of fine coal using an enhanced centrifugal gravity separator. A model describing the relation between desulphurization efficiency of pyrite sulfur and different operating variables has been designed. The interactions between different factors on the pyrite sulfur desulphurization efficiency have been analysed. The optimal test conditions for desulfarization are extracted from the Design-Expert 6.0 software. Finally, the advantage of centrifugal gravity separation for fine coal is pointed out.

  20. The study of high-temperature stable phase sulphoaluminate for desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.; Zhou, J.; Ma, Y. (and others) [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). National Key Lab. of MOE Clean Energy and Environment Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Sulphoaluminate (3CaO{center_dot}3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) {center_dot}CaSO{sub 4} is produced when coal is calcined to about 1200{sup o}C. This article studies the forming mechanisms of high-temperature stable phase sulphoaluminate systematically. The influence laws of such factors as the combustion temperature, retention period, the mixed proportion of compound and additives to desulfurization have been obtained, and the forming mechanism was analyzed later. The result of experiment indicates that the most sulphoaluminate is produced at 1300{sup o}C when the molar ratio of the compounds calcium oxide, aluminium oxide and calcium sulfate is 3:3:1. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  1. PET-modified red mud as catalysts for oxidative desulfurization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Nayara T; Heitmann, Ana P; Mansur, Herman S; Mansur, Alexandra A; Oliveira, Luiz C A; de Castro, Cinthia S

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis of catalysts based on red mud/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) composites and their subsequent heat treatment under N2 atmosphere. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and N2 adsorption/desorption. The catalysts were evaluated in the oxidative desulfurization reaction of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in a biphasic system. The results indicated that the PET impregnation on red mud increased the affinity of the catalyst with the nonpolar phase (fuel), in which the contaminant was dissolved, allowing a higher conversion (up to 80%) and selectivity to the corresponding dibenzothiophene sulfone. The sulfone compound is more polar than DBT and diffused into the polar solvent as indicated by the data obtained via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Modification of Bitumen with Desulfurized Crumb Rubber in the Present of Reactive Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zhigang; ZHANG Yuzhen; KONG Xianming

    2005-01-01

    Bitumen was modified with desulfurized crumb rubber (DCR) in the present of reactive additives. The effect of the kinds and content of the reactive additive on properties of DCR modified bitumen (DCRMB) was investigated. The morphology of DCRMB was characterized by SEM and the changes of the chemical structure of DCRMB without and with the addition of the reactive additive were analyzed by FTIR. The experimented results show that the softening point,the elasticity recovery and the storage stability of DCRMB were improved significantly by the addition of the reactive additive. This is because that a network structure of rubber in DCRMB was formed and the chemical reaction between C=C double bonds in bitumen and DCR has happened after the reactive additive was added into DCRMB.

  3. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozewicz, W. (Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Environmental Systems Div.); Rochelle, G.T. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  4. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Rubber Co. FMC ( Soda Ash Plant ) General Motors General Motors General Motors General Motors General Motors Georgia-Pacific Paper Co. Great...use of alkali, especially caustic (NaOH), also requires increased concern with safety procedures for operating personnel. Limestone flue gas...proven technology was available at the time for SOx removal from stack gas at coal burning heating plants . This meant that coal burning units either

  5. Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Clean Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generation Station. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The project was built by a joint venture company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc., utilizing Mitsubishi`s wet limestone flue gas desulfurization technology. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced 936,000 metric tons of high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum. The AFGD system was designed, built, owned and operated by Pure Air and will continue to serve NIPSCO`s Bailly Station for at least another 15{1/2} years under an Own and Operate contract. The project enabled NIPSCO to cost effectively achieve full system wide compliance with the Phase 2 emission requirements for SO{sub 2} of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 almost eight years before the target date. The project was the recipient of the Outstanding Engineering Achievement Award from the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1993 and the 1993 Powerplant Award from Power magazine. The data presented in this paper are based on performance during the first three years of operation.

  6. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  7. A DFT study of the extractive desulfurization mechanism by [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongping; Chang, Yonghui; Zhu, Wenshuai; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Xia, Jiexiang; Yin, Sheng; Li, Huaming

    2015-05-14

    In this work, the interaction nature between [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) ionic liquid (IL) and aromatic sulfur compounds (thiophene, benzothiophene, and dibenzothiophene) has been studied by means of density functional theory (M06-2X functional) combined with an implicit solvation model. Although [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) is a metal-containing IL, its extractive desulfurization mechanism is different from other metal-containing ILs but similar to non-metal-containing ILs. Important reactions involved in extractive desulfurization (EDS) were systematically studied. Our results have demonstrated that both the cation and the anion play important roles in EDS. On the basis of the structure analysis, reduced density gradient analaysis (RDG), and energy decomposition analysis, [BMIM](+) cation affords a π-π interaction while [AlCl4](-) anion provides a hydrogen bonding interaction. Electrostatic potential analysis implies the dominant π-π interaction and hydrogen bonding interaction are driven by electrostatic interaction between IL and aromatic sulfur compounds. Interaction energy between [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) and thiophene (TH), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) follows the order TH < BT < DBT. Moreover, Al-containing IL with a high molar ratio of AlCl3 ([BMIMCl]/2[AlCl3]) has also been studied. Results show that [Al2Cl7](-) species will be formed with excess AlCl3. However, the [Al2Cl7](-)-based IL cannot improve the EDS performance. Improvement of EDS performance with a high molar ratio of AlCl3 is credited to the Lewis acidity of AlCl3. Charge analysis reveals that there is no obvious charge transfer during the reaction, which is different from Fe-containing ILs as well as solid sorbents. In addition, CH-π interaction is not important for the current system.

  8. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; XU PeiYao; SUN XiaoJun; WANG LiDong

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash, industry lime, and an oxidizing additive M. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification. Removal efficiencies of 95.5% for SO2 and 64.8% for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods. The results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was proposed according to the experimental results.

  9. 井场原油脱除 H2S 工艺技术研究%Research of crude oil desulfurization technology in well sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大秋; 敬季昀; 杨林; 王棠昱

    2014-01-01

    The existence of hydrogen sulfide in crude oil will cause the corrosion of the equip-ment ,lower oil quality and a serious threat to personal safety .Therefore ,it is important to re-move hydrogen sulfide in the process of crude oil production .To solve the problem of high-sulfur crude oil produced in A well area in the western China ,the gas stripping method and the chemical method have both been analyzed .Based on the stimulation of stripping process ,the optimized pa-rameters of gas stripping are obtained ,namely tower pressure is 0 .3 MPa ,plate number is 6 , stripping gas is 4 .7 -6 .1 m3/t ,and reboiler temperature is 152 .0 -41 .6 ℃ ,the amount of stripping gas and the reboiler temperature are adjusted according to the adequacy of gas and the energy consumption . The desulfurizer mainly composed of two isopropyl complexes has been screened out and the effect of dosage ,operating time ,water content ,temperature on the desulfu-rization have also been evaluated .%针对我国西部某油田A井区高含硫的问题,利用专业软件模拟和相关实验开展了井场原油气提脱硫技术和化学脱硫技术的研究。在模拟A井气提脱硫的基础上,得出气提法的优化参数为塔压0.3MPa,6层塔板,气提气量和塔底重沸器温度依据气提气充足与否和耗能情况进行调节,气提气量控制在4.7~6.1 m3/t,相应的塔底重沸器温度为152.0~41.6℃。对于化学脱硫,通过实验筛选出了适用于A井、主要成分为二异丙基合成物的脱硫剂,并评价了用量、作用时间、含水率、温度等因素对其脱硫效果的影响。

  10. Reform of amine solution and equipment optimization in a natural gas desulfurization system%天然气脱硫系统的胺液改造及设备优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振龙; 范峥; 李稳宏; 贾浩民; 闫昭; 雷宝刚

    2012-01-01

    In a natural gas purification plant in northern Shanxi, due to the incorporation of the new gas transmission pipelines, the concentration of acid gases (CO2, H2S) in the feed gas increased remarkably, which resulted in the low desulfurization efficiency and the serious equipment corrosion for the desulfurization system. ChemCAD 6.0.1 professional software was \\ l"fl>p Aj utilized to simulate the whole process of the desulfurization system with the single MDEA solution (50% MDEA by mass) and the formulated solution (45% MDEA+5% DEA by mass), and the purification efficiency and energy consumption of the two different solutions were compared. FRI-Try Rating 1.0.7, HTRI Xchanger Suite 4.00 and Pipe Flow Expert 2010 softwares were used to check the key equipments of the desulfurization system under above conditions. The result showed that for the formulated amine solution, the acid gas loading per mole of amine increased 80.50%, and the circulation amount of amine and the consumption of steam decreased 45.45% and 24.56%, respectively. The formulated solution was far better than the single MDEA solution, and all equipments of desulfurization system in service could meet operational requirements for the formulated amine solution.%针对陕北某天然气净化厂由于新干线的并入,使得原料气中CO2、H2S等酸性组分含量大幅上升,导致脱硫系统生产效率低下、装置腐蚀严重等迫切需要解决的问题,基于ChemCAD 6.0.1流程模拟软件对单一胺液(w(MDEA)=50%)和复配胺液(w(MDEA)=45%,w(DEA)=5%)下的脱硫系统进行全流程模拟,并对其净化效果和能量消耗进行对比研究.分别利用FRI-TryRating 1.0.7、HTRI Xchanger Suite 4.00、Pipe Flow Expert 2010等专业软件在上述条件下对脱硫系统的关键设备进行校核.研究结果表明,使用复配胺液时,单位胺液负荷可增大80.50%,循环量和蒸汽消耗较单一胺液下降45.45%和24.56%,复配胺液方案远远优于单一胺液

  11. Selective desulfurization of cysteine in the presence of Cys(Acm) in polypeptides obtained by native chemical ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentelute, Brad L; Kent, Stephen B H

    2007-02-15

    Increased versatility for the synthesis of proteins and peptides by native chemical ligation requires the ability to ligate at positions other than Cys. Here, we report that Raney nickel can be used under standard conditions for the selective desulfurization of Cys in the presence of Cys(Acm). This simple and practical tactic enables the more common Xaa-Ala junctions to be used as ligation sites for the chemical synthesis of Cys-containing peptides and proteins. [reaction: see text].

  12. A novel metabolite (1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl) production by Exophiala spinifera strain FM through dibenzothiophene desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti

    2015-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide which is released from petroleum oil combustion causes pollution over the atmosphere and the soil. Biodesulfurization can be used as a complementary method of hydrodesulfurization, the common method of petroleum desulfurization in refineries. Many studies have been carried out to develop biological desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with bacterial biocatalysts. However, fungi are capable to metabolize a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbons through cytochrome P450 and their extracellular enzymes. The aim of the present work was isolation and identification of fungi biocatalysts capable for DBT utilization as sulfur source and production of novel metabolites. DBT consumption and the related produced metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS respectively. One of the isolated fungi that could utilize DBT as sole sulfur source was identified by both traditional and molecular experiments and registered in NCBI as Exophiala spinifera FM strain (accession no. KC952672). This strain could desulfurize 99 % of DBT (0.3 mM) as sulfur source by co-metabolism reaction with other carbon sources through the same pathway as 4S and produced 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) during 7 days of incubation at 30 °C and 180 rpm shaking. However, the isolate was able to transform 2-HBP to 1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl. While biphenyl compounds are toxic to leaving cells, biotransformation of them can reduce their toxicity and the fungi will be more tolerant to the final product. These data are the first report about the desulfurization of DBT comparable to 4S-pathway and production of innovative metabolite by E. spinifera FM strain.

  13. The distribution and sea-air transfer of volatile mercury in waste post-desulfurization seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lumin; Lin, Shanshan; Feng, Lifeng; Huang, Shuyuan; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-09-01

    The waste seawater discharged in coastal areas from coal-fired power plants equipped with a seawater desulfurization system might carry pollutants such as mercury from the flue gas into the adjacent seas. However, only very limited impact studies have been carried out. Taking a typical plant in Xiamen as an example, the present study targeted the distribution and sea-air transfer flux of volatile mercury in seawater, in order to trace the fate of the discharged mercury other than into the sediments. Samples from 28 sampling sites were collected in the sea area around two discharge outlets of the plant, daily and seasonally. Total mercury, dissolved gaseous mercury and dissolved total mercury in the seawater, as well as gaseous elemental mercury above the sea surface, were investigated. Mean concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury and gaseous elemental mercury in the area were 183 and 4.48 ng m(-3) in summer and 116 and 3.92 ng m(-3) in winter, which were significantly higher than those at a reference site. Based on the flux calculation, the transfer of volatile mercury was from the sea surface into the atmosphere, and more than 4.4 kg mercury, accounting for at least 2.2 % of the total discharge amount of the coal-fired power plant in the sampling area (1 km(2)), was emitted to the air annually. This study strongly suggested that besides being deposited into the sediment and diluted with seawater, emission into the atmosphere was an important fate for the mercury from the waste seawater from coal-fired power plants.

  14. Investigation on Modification of NaY Zeolite and Its Behaviors in Selective Adsorptive Desulfurization of FCC gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Heli; Song Lijuan; Gao Xiang; Wang Hongguo; Zhang Xiaotong; Sun Zhaolin

    2009-01-01

    NaY zeolite was modified with oxalic acid, and Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite was obtained via liquid phase ion exchange between the modified NaY zeolite and cerium nitrate. The Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite was obtained via liquid phase ion exchange between NaY zeolite and cerium nitrate. The performance of two Y zeolites ICe(Ⅳ)Y(1) and Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2)] was compared through static selective adsorptive desulfurization of FCC gasoline at room tem-perature and normal pressure. The sulfur compounds and contents of the FCC gasoline were analyzed by microcoulometry and GC-SCD chromatogram. The results showed that the effect of adsorptive desulfurization of FCC gasoline achieved by Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite was better than that of Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite. The rate for adsorp-tive desulfurization of FCC gasoline by Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite and Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite was 85.0% and 62.4%, respectively. The Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite could adsorb DMTs, which could not be adsorbed by Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite. The rate of regeneration of extruded Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1)zeolite was 95.5%.

  15. 吸附脱硫工艺技术的研究进展%Research Development of Adsorption Desulfurization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦林宏; 韩维亮

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption desulfurization technique had golden prospect because of its advantages , such as mild conditions and less investment.The technology of industrialized adsorption desulfurization at home and abroad was reviewed.At last, research development of different adsorbent was introduced.The carriers of adsorbent were zeolite , activated carbon , clay and metallic oxide , respectively.Although adsorption desulfurization had promising prospect , there were several disadvantages , for example, the low sulfur content , the poor selective ability and regeneration.Thus, the future trend of research should be focused on preparation of adsorbents.%吸附脱硫的优点是反应条件温和,投资成本低,在油品脱硫中具有很大的发展潜力。综述了目前国内外已经工业化的吸附脱硫技术,并介绍了分别以分子筛、活性炭、黏土、金属氧化物为载体的吸附剂的研究进展及其优缺点。认为吸附脱硫虽具广阔前景,但仍需解决硫容量低、选择性差和再生等问题。因此未来的研究方向应集中在吸附剂的制备上。

  16. Tentative Study on a New Way of Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification%一种利用脱氮硫杆菌的同步脱硫反硝化新工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱杰; 杜大仲; 任南琪; 程翔; 刘春爽

    2005-01-01

    Thiobacillus denitrificans, a kind of autotrophic facultative bacteria, can oxidize sulfide into elemental sulfur or sulfate when nitrate was adopted as its electron accepter and carbon dioxide as its carbon resource under anoxic or anaerobic environment. In this way, nitrate is converted into nitrogen. In addition, Thiobacillus denitrificans can accumulate sulfur extracellularly. In this study, in a process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification, a strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans is employed as sulfur-producer in the treatment of wastewater containing sulfide and nitrate. The key factors affecting this process are investigated through batch tests. The experimental results indicate that the sulfide concentration and the ratio of sulfide to nitrate (S2-/NO-3) in the respectively, in order to achieve high conversion of sulfur.

  17. Désulfuration : avant, pendant ou après la combustion ? Synthèse bibliographique Desulfurization: Before, During Or After Combustion? Bibliographic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benchecroun N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les perspectives d'applications de nouvelles normes aux émissions des grandes installations de combustion, tant aux Etats-Unis qu'en Europe de l'Ouest ont suscité de nombreuses recherches. Les diverses publications qui leur sont consacrées traitent le plus souvent de la combustion de charbons et, beaucoup plus rarement, de l'adaptabilité de ces procédés à des combustibles liquides ou de techniques spécifiques. Les principaux points technico-économiques qui se dégagent sur la désulfuration des combustibles liquides sont donnés dans cet article. Enfin, au-delà des aspects techniques, on notera que la désulfuration des combustibles liquides, et plus particulièrement du fuel lourd, est liée à deux aspects plus politiques : - l'application de normes sur les émissions des installations de combustion (ou les dérogations possibles qui concernent non seulement les oxydes de soufre mais aussi les oxydes d'azote et les particules contenues dans les fumées; - l'avenir des fuels lourds tant sur le plan quantitatif (marché que qualitatif (constitution du pool fuel et spécifîcations. The prospects that new emission standards will be applied to large combustion installations, both in the United States and Western Europe, have given rise to extensive research. The different publications devoted to this research usually deal with coal combustion and more rarely with the suitability of such processes for liquid fuels or specific techniques. The leading technico-economic points involved in the desulfurization of liquid fuels are given in this article. Likewise, over and beyond the technical aspects, it can be seen that the desulfurization of liquid fuels, and more particularly of heavy fuel oil, is linked to two more politicalaspects:(a the application of standards on emissions from combustion installations (or possible derogations concerning not only sulfur oxides but also nitrogen oxides and particles contained in fumes;(b the future of

  18. 湿法烟气脱硫技术进展%Technical Progress in Flue Gas Desulphurization with Wet Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰琳; 王海芳

    2012-01-01

    The pollution of sulfur dioxide caused widespread concern in the world,through the comparative study of several major wet flue gas desulphurization(FGD) process,a wet flue gas desulfurization technology-cystine desulfurization technology was concluded from the ferrous cysteine solution of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technology.The situation of research,the reaction mechanism and the relative advantages and merits of cystine desulfurization were also described,which conformed to be a promising desulfurization method.%二氧化硫的污染情况已引起世界各国的广泛关注,通过对几种主要湿式脱硫工艺的对比研究,从半胱氨酸亚铁溶液同时脱硫脱氮工艺技术中归纳出一种湿法烟气脱硫技术———胱氨酸脱硫技术,阐述了胱氨酸脱硫技术的反应机理和国内外研究现状,并总结出此方法的优缺点,是一种很有潜力的脱硫方法。

  19. 脱硫装置蒸发器液位计改造%Conversion of Evaporator Liquid Gauge in Desulfurization Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊

    2014-01-01

    根据脱硫一、二、三效蒸发器实际工作的状态以及工艺特点,对以前一直存在的硫酸铵浆液液位测量问题进行改造,保证蒸发器中硫酸铵液位测量的准确,将原有双法兰毛细管差压式液位计进行改造,提高液位变送器的使用寿命,保证装置平稳运行。%This paper provides a solution to the existing challenge of accurately measuring the liquid level of ammonium sulfate. Based on the traditional working status and process properties of evaporator liquid gauge in desulfurization device, this conversion solution transforms the original double-flange capillary-tube differential-pressure liquid gauge into a more sustainable device that increases the life span of the level transmitter, and guarantees both the accuracy and the steadiness of the device.

  20. Novel Oxidative Desulfurization of a Model Fuel with H2O2 Catalyzed by AlPMo12O40 under Phase Transfer Catalyst-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel process was developed for oxidative desulfurization (ODS in the absence of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC using only Keggin heteropolyacids and their aluminum salts as catalysts. Reactions were performed in biphasic mixtures of isooctane/acetonitrile, with dibenzothiophene (DBT as a model sulfur compound and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. Remarkably, only the AlPMo12O40-catalyzed reactions resulted in complete oxidation of DBT into DBT sulfone, which was totally extracted by acetonitrile, reducing the sulfur content of isooctane from the 1000 ppm to  H3PMo12O40 > AlPW12O40 > H3PW12O40. The absence of a PTC, acidic organic peroxides, and the use of hydrogen peroxide, an environmentally benign oxidant, make up the positive aspects of AlPMo12O40-catalyzed ODS reactions. In these reactions, high rates of DBT removal (ca. 100% were achieved within a short time (ca. 2 hours and under mild reaction conditions.

  1. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkas, W.H.

    1967-05-01

    Work that has been carried out in several areas of High Energy Physics is described. Visual techniques are used. For the study of the three-pion decay of the K/sup +/ meson, bubble chamber and emulsion methods are used to complement each other, particularly for the tau' mode. Several separate bubble chamber experiments in ..pi../sup +/p, anti pp and K/sup -/p interactions are also described, and the large effort devoted to computer reprogramming for the data analysis indicated. Two emulsion research projects are also described which have for their purpose the study of electromagnetic processes induced by 16 BeV electrons and the study of hypernuclei by K/sup -/ mesons. For the latter work high speed computer methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of the product hypernuclei. These programs of work have not been under way long enough for the main results yet to be available, but some preliminary data have been published and several reports on data analysis and related subjects have been prepared.

  2. 1999 ANNUAL REPORT NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.

  3. Utilisation des écumes de sucrerie pour la désulfuration des fumées Using Sugar Factory Carbonatation Lime for Flue-Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolignier J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Des études ont été réalisées par l'Institut français du pétrole et Babcock Entreprise pour montrer que l'écume de sucrerie pouvait être utilisée comme agent de désulfuration dans la chaudière Aude, un nouvel équipement de combustion permettant l'emploi de combustibles à haute teneur en soufre. Les tests ont été effectués en laboratoire et sur une chaudière semi-industrielle de 10 MW. L'écume de sucrerie donne des rendements de désulfuration supérieurs à ceux obtenus avec des calcaires naturels finement broyés. De plus, l'azote contenu dans l'écume permet de réduire les émissions de NOx selon le mécanisme de la réduction sélective non catalytique. Les utilisateurs de combustibles à haute teneur en soufre, qui devront faire face à une législation de plus en plus sévère, pourraient réduire leur coût annuel d'absorbants en utilisant l'écume de sucrerie. Par ailleurs, les producteurs de sucre auraient l'opportunité de mettre en place une nouvelle filière de valorisation pour leurs écumes. La teneur en eau élevée de l'écume n'autorise pas un transport sur de longues distances et des calculs ont été effectués pour définir la distance à partir de laquelle l'écume devient moins rentable que le calcaire. Studies have been carried out by the Institut français du pétrole and Babcock Entreprise to demonstrate that sugar factory carbonatation lime can be used as a desulfurization agent in the Aude boiler, which is a new combustion apparatus designed to use high sulfur fuels. Tests have been conducted both in the laboratory and on a near-industrial-scale 10 MW boiler. Sugar factory carbonatation lime provides greater desulfurization efficiency than that obtained using finely crushed natural limestone. Furthermore, the nitrogen contained in the carbonatation lime reduces NOx, emissions through selective non-catalytic reduction. Those who use high sulfur content fuels, and who are faced with increasingly

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate whisker from flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun Liu; Qing Zhao; Yeguang Wang; Peiyang Shi; Maofa Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Plenty of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum generated from coal-fired power plants for sulfur dioxide se-questration caused many environmental issues. Preparing calcium sulfate whisker (CSW) from FGD gypsum by hydrothermal synthesis is considered to be a promising approach to solve this troublesome problem and uti-lize calcium sulfate in a high-value-added way. The effects of particle size of FGD gypsum, slurry concentration, and additives on CSW were investigated in this work. The results indicated that fine particle size of FGD gypsum and moderately high slurry concentration were beneficial for crystal nucleation and growth. Three additives of magnesium chloride, citric acid, and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) were employed in this study. It was found that mean length and aspect ratio of CSW were both decreased by the usage of magnesium chloride, while a small quantity of citric acid or SDBS could improve the CSW morphology. When multi-additives of citric acid-SDBS were employed, the mean length and aspect ratio increased more than 20%. Moreover, surface morphology of CSW went better, and the particle size and crystal shape became more uniform.

  5. Attapulgite-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhang, Zuosong; Yao, Chao; Lu, Xiaowang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Ni, Chaoying

    2016-02-01

    Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO2/MoS2 composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 to MoS2 on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO2 particles and MoS2 nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO2/MoS2 is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  6. Silica-gel Supported V Complexes:Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Oxidative Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎俊波; 刘习文; 曹灿灿; 郭嘉; 潘志权

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, a series of catalyst SGn-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] (SG=silica gel, PAMAM=poly-amidoamine, MSA=5-methyl salicylaldehyde, n=0, 1, 2, 3) was prepared and their structures were fully charac-terized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelec-tron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP) etc. XPS revealed that the metal V and SGn-PAMAM-MSA combined more closely after the formation of Schiff base derivatives. Their cata-lytic activities for oxidation of dibenzothiophene were evaluated using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant. The results showed that the catalyst SG2.0-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] presented good catalytic activity and recycling time. Mean-while, the optimal condition for the catalytic oxidation of SG2.0-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] was also investigated, which showed that when the oxidation temperature was 90 °C, time was 60 min, the O/S was 3︰1, and the mass content of catalyst was 1%, the rate of desulfurization could reach 85.2%. Moreover, the catalyst can be recycled several times without significant decline in catalytic activity.

  7. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD is CaSO(4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1 and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3 ha(-1. The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, pH and total dissolved salts (TDS in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1 and water was supplied at 1200 m(3·ha(-1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  8. Adsorptive desulfurization on a heteroatoms Y zeolite prepared by secondary synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gallium atoms have been introduced into the framework of Y zeolite by treating the zeolite with an aqueous solution of ammonium hexafluoro gallate.Desulfurization of various model fuels containing about 500 μg/g sulfur has been studied over the synthesized Y zeolite(GaAlY).The sulfur adsorption capacity is 7.0,17.4,14.5,16.9,6.9 and 5.8 mg(S)/g adsorbent for thiophene,tetrahydrothiophene(THT),4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene(4,6-DMDBT),dibenzophiophene(DBT),benzothiophene(BT) and 4-methyldibenzothiophene(4-MDBT),respectively.The charges on the S atom in thiophene,THT,4,6DMDBT,DBT,BT and 4-MDBT,calculated using the density functional theory(DFT),are-0.159,-0.298,-0.214,-0.211,-0.193 and-0.188,respectively,implying that the S-M bond between the adsorption sites and thiophene is much weaker than that between the adsorption sites and THT,4,6-DMDBT or DBT.The sulfur removal of FCC gasoline on GaAlY is 68%.

  9. Industrial-scale experiments of desulfuration of coal flue gas using a pulsed corona discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Wang, N.H.; Li, G.F.; Huang, Q.N. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Inst. of Electrostatics

    2003-06-01

    The flow rate of flue gas in the industrial experiments was 3000 Nm{sup 3}/h. The flue gas from the boiler burning coal was used. The influences of operating parameters on the efficiency of desulfurization (DeSO{sub 2}) were studied, which include the retention period of flue gas in the reactor, the initial concentration of SO{sub 2} in flue gas, a mole ratio of NH{sub 3} to SO{sub 2} in the gas, the temperature of the gas, as well as the power consumption of pulsed corona discharges. The experimental results shown that the efficiency of DeSO{sub 2} was above 80%, when the initial concentration of SO{sub 2} was 1000 -2000 ppm, the gas temperature was 60 - 75 {degree}C, the retention period was more than 5.8 s, a mole ratio of NH{sub 3} to SO{sub 2} was 2:1, the water content in flue gas was above 6%, and the consumption was 2.5-3.5 Wh/Nm{sup 3}.

  10. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S.

    2001-07-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha{sup -1}. Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  11. Preparation of manganese dioxide loaded activated carbon adsorbents and their desulfurization performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaojing; Wang, Guojian; Wang, Wenyi; Song, Hua; Wang, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Manganese dioxide loaded activated carbon adsorbents (MnO2/AC) were prepared and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, BET method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effects of preparation conditions and adsorption conditions on desulfurization performance of the adsorbents were studied in a fixed-bed adsorption apparatus. Experimental results show that the surface area and pore volume of MnO2/AC decreased compared with the unmodified activated carbon, but the adsorption capacity to H2S was improved greatly. A suitable H2S removal activity was obtained with manganese dioxide to activated carbon ratio of 1.1: 1 and the calcination temperature of 250°C. At the adsorption temperature of 40°C and gas flow rate of 20 mL/min, the H2S saturation capacity and H2S removal rate reached up to 713.25 mg/g and 89.9%, respectively.

  12. Conducting the Annual Program Review: A Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake Univ., Des Moines, IA. Midwest Regional Resource Center.

    Designed to assist local education agencies (LEAs) in conducting annual program reviews, the handbook focuses on evaluating Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for handicapped children. An annual review meeting guide discusses purposes and procedures of the review. The second section provides a background on the planning-evaluation process,…

  13. Theoretical investigation of the interaction between aromatic sulfur compounds and [BMIM](+)[FeCl4](-) ionic liquid in desulfurization: A novel charge transfer mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongping; Zhu, Wenshuai; Chang, Yonghui; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Yin, Sheng; Xia, Jiexiang; Li, Huaming

    2015-06-01

    In this work, interaction nature between a group of aromatic sulfur compounds and [BMIM](+)[FeCl4](-) have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). A coordination structure is found to be critical to the mechanism of extractive desulfurization. Interaction energy and extractive selectivity follow the order: thiophene (TH)ionic liquid, but steric hindrance effects of some alkylic derivatives (e.g. 2,7-dimethylbenzothiophene) lead to a weaker interaction with ionic liquid. The mechanism of extractive desulfurization is attributed to the charge transfer effect. During extractive desulfurization, electrons on aromatic sulfur compounds transfer into the Lewis part of ionic liquid, namely, [FeCl4](-). Furthermore, it is better to consider the Lewis acidity of Fe-containing ionic liquid by the whole unit (such as [FeCl4](-) and aromatic sulfur compounds (X)) rather than only Fe or S atom.

  14. Crude-oil vs coal-oil processing comparison study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This study evaluates three refinery schemes that have been developed for the processing of H-Coal liquids. The refinery processing employed for the naphtha and lighter components of the H-Coal liquid is essentially the same for all three schemes. It is in the processing of the H-Coal distillate product that refinery variations occur, and these differences are outlined: hydrotreating of the middle coal distillate to produce a No. 2 fuel oil equivalent product; hydrocracking of the total coal distillate to produce more gasoline and higher quality distillate fuel; and hydrotreating of the light coal distillate to a No. 2 fuel oil equivalent, and hydrogenating the heavy coal distillate to upgrade feedstock to a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. To provide a perspective of the value of coal liquid relative to petroleum, a parallel set of petroleum refinery schemes, processing a 65/35 Light/Heavy Arabian crude oil blend, was developed: reduced crude desulfurization with FCC processing of the desulfurized VGO; reduced crude desulfurization with hydrocracking of the desulfurized VGO; solvent demetallization of the vacuum pitch with desulfurization and FCC processing of VGO and demetallized oil; and solvent demetallization of the vacuum pitch with hydrocracking of the VGO and demetallized oil. Various gasoline to distillate ratios were set as parameters in developing the best possible processing schemes. Linear programming techniques were used to select the optimal schemes at various product ratios. Applying the same product prices to all cases and subtracting operating costs and the capital change, a comparative feedstock value is calculated. This method places the various refinery schemes on a common basis and gives an appraisal of the relative value of the H-Coal liquid charge stock, based on new refinery facilities.

  15. Kinetics of pozzolanic reaction for preparation of flue gas desulfurizer from fly ash and Ca(OH)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingang; HU Jinbang; WANG Daobin; DUAN Zhenya

    2007-01-01

    A kinetic model of the pozzolanic reaction for the preparation of flue gas desulfurizers from fly ash and Ca(OH)2 was deduced on the basis of solid phase reaction kinetic theory.Kinetic expressions and parameters were obtained and verified by experiment.A comparison of calculated results with experimental results showed that precision in kinetic expressions was good.The apparent reaction rate constants of the pozzolanic reaction could be raised by increasing the specific surface area of fly ash and the hydration temperature,and by using a suitable additive.

  16. Preparation of flexible zinc oxide/carbon nanofiber webs for mid-temperature desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soojung; Bajaj, Bharat [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Chang Ki; Kwon, Soon-Jin [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Han-Ik [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kwang Bok, E-mail: cosy32@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungho, E-mail: sunghol@kist.re.kr [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Material Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and zinc precursor were electrospun and heat-treated for preparing zinc oxide (ZnO) modified carbon nanofibers (CNF). • A facile synthesis of composite webs resulted in uniformly loaded ZnO on the surface of CNFs. • The composites showed significant hydrogen sulfide adsorption efficiency at 300 °C. • The flexible webs can be applied for mid-temperature desulfurization. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) derived carbon nanofiber (CNF) webs loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized using electrospinning and heat treatment at 600 °C. Uniformly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, clarified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, were observed on the surface of the nanofiber composites containing 13.6–29.5 wt% of ZnO. The further addition of ZnO up to 34.2 wt% caused agglomeration with a size of 50–80 nm. Higher ZnO contents led the concentrated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanofibers rather than uniform dispersion along the cross-section of the fiber. The flexible composite webs were crushed and tested for hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) adsorption at 300 °C. Breakthrough experiments with the ZnO/CNF composite containing 25.7 wt% of ZnO for H{sub 2}S adsorption showed three times higher ZnO utilization efficiency compared to pure ZnO nano powders, attributed to chemisorption of the larger surface area of well dispersed ZnO particles on nanofibers and physical adsorption of CNF.

  17. Copper-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization at moderate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B.; Abbasian, J.

    2000-05-01

    In a previous paper, the authors reported on the development of a regenerable copper chromite sorbent, designated as CuCr-29, that is capable of achieving less than 5 ppmv H{sub 2}S concentration in the cleaned fuel gas at about 600 C. This paper reports on recent research carried out to develop a new class of copper-based sorbents for hot fuel gas desulfurization applications in the moderate temperature range of 350--550 C that is currently of industrial interest. A reproducible sorbent preparation technique has been extended to the formulation of highly reactive and attrition-resistant sulfur sorbents based on reagent-grade oxides of copper, manganese, and alumina. The results of packed-bed experiments carried out for the evaluation of the performance of several copper-based sorbents at 350 and 450 C as well as the assessment of the long-term durability and regenerability of one selected formulation are presented and discussed. Three copper-based sorbents were shown to exhibit excellent sulfur removal efficiency and effective capacity, with one formulation (IGTSS-145) being particularly effective in the range of 450--600 C and two formulations (IGTSS-179 and IGTSS-326A) for the range of 350--450 C. The IGTSS-326A formulation maintained excellent sulfur removal efficiency (<1 ppmv H{sub 2}S in the cleaned fuel gas) as well as excellent effective sulfur capacity throughout extended durability testing. This sorbent was also shown to have significantly high attrition resistance, as determined in accordance with the ASTM D5757-95 procedure. These results strongly suggest the suitability of this formulation as a candidate sorbent for demonstration in the Sierra Pacific (Pinon Pine) Clean Coal Technology IGCC Demonstration Program.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization products as sulfur sources for alfalfa and soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.M.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (US). School of Natural Resources

    2005-02-01

    Sulfur deficiencies in soil are expected to increase due to growth of high-yielding crop varieties, use of S-free fertilizers, and removal of S from industrial emissions. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, created when coal is burned and SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gases, may serve as efficient S sources. However, there are few reports on their use for the enhancement of crop growth. Agricultural gypsum and two types of FGD products, that contain either vermiculite or perlite, were applied at 0, 16, and 67 kg S ha{sup -1} to an agricultural soil (Wooster silt loam, Typic Fragiudalf). Dry weight of a new planting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was increased up to 40% by the treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Gypsum and FGD products were also applied at 0, 8,