WorldWideScience

Sample records for design index level

  1. Design of spherical symmetric gradient index lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; González, Juan C.; Santamaría, Asunción

    2012-10-01

    Spherical symmetric refractive index distributions also known as Gradient Index lenses such as the Maxwell-Fish-Eye (MFE), the Luneburg or the Eaton lenses have always played an important role in Optics. The recent development of the technique called Transformation Optics has renewed the interest in these gradient index lenses. For instance, Perfect Imaging within the Wave Optics framework has recently been proved using the MFE distribution. We review here the design problem of these lenses, classify them in two groups (Luneburg moveable-limits and fixed-limits type), and establish a new design techniques for each type of problem.

  2. Index wiki database: design and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Krizhanovsky, A A

    2008-01-01

    With the fantastic growth of Internet usage, information search in documents of a special type called a "wiki page" that is written using a simple markup language, has become an important problem. This paper describes the software architectural model for indexing wiki texts in three languages (Russian, English, and German) and the interaction between the software components (GATE, Lemmatizer, and Synarcher). The inverted file index database was designed using visual tool DBDesigner. The rules for parsing Wikipedia texts are illustrated by examples. Two index databases of Russian Wikipedia (RW) and Simple English Wikipedia (SEW) are built and compared. The size of RW is by order of magnitude higher than SEW (number of words, lexemes), though the growth rate of number of pages in SEW was found to be 12% higher than in Russian, and the rate of acquisition of new words in SEW lexicon was 6% higher during a period of five months (from September 2007 to February 2008). The Zipf's law was tested with both Russian an...

  3. A multiple index integrating different levels of organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Rui; Hughes, Samantha; Coimbra, Ana; Monteiro, Sandra; Pereira, Vítor; Lopes, Marisa; Pereira, Sandra; Pinto, Ana; Sampaio, Ana; Santos, Cátia; Carrola, João; de Jesus, Joaquim; Varandas, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Many methods in freshwater biomonitoring tend to be restricted to a few levels of biological organization, limiting the potential spectrum of measurable of cause-effect responses to different anthropogenic impacts. We combined distinct organisational levels, covering biological biomarkers (histopathological and biochemical reactions in liver and fish gills), community based bioindicators (fish guilds, invertebrate metrics/traits and chironomid pupal exuviae) and ecosystem functional indicators (decomposition rates) to assess ecological status at designated Water Framework Directive monitoring sites, covering a gradient of human impact across several rivers in northern Portugal. We used Random Forest to rank the variables that contributed more significantly to successfully predict the different classes of ecological status and also to provide specific cut levels to discriminate each WFD class based on reference condition. A total of 59 Biological Quality Elements and functional indicators were determined using this procedure and subsequently applied to develop the integrated Multiple Ecological Level Index (MELI Index), a potentially powerful bioassessment tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Search Interface Design Using Faceted Indexing for Web Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, Francis; Intaraksa, Neelawat; Patamawongjariya, Pornprapa; Desai, Kavita

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experimental system designed to organize and provide access to Web documents using a faceted pre-coordinate indexing system based on the Deep Structure Indexing System (DSIS) derived from POPSI (Postulate based Permuted Subject Indexing) of Bhattacharyya, and the facet analysis and chain indexing system of Ranganathan. (AEF)

  5. Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane

    2010-07-23

    Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.

  6. Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane

    2010-07-23

    Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.

  7. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  8. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  9. Bulk isotropic negative-index material design for infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    Responding to the strong call for isotropic bulk negative index material we propose a Split Cube in Car-cass design. It shows negative refractive index -1.5, figure-of-merit 2 and transmittivity 30% for one layer at the telecommunication wavelength 1.6 μm. Effective parameters converge fast with ...

  10. Design of Customer Satisfaction Measurement Index System of EMS Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a customer satisfaction measurement index system of erpress mail service. It presents objectives and principles of the design based on hierarchical structures. We have devised a diagram for modeling customer satisfaction, and a detailed analysis of customer satisfaction is conducted. This paper presents our customer satisfaction model and analysis results.

  11. ON THE DESIGN OF A NEW HUMAN COMFORT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯业荣; 王安宇; 林镇国

    2004-01-01

    In designing the human comfort index (CI) used in Guangzhou, a Gaussian curve was adopted as the fundamental profile to develop a "straw hat" model of comfort index. The model projects low or high temperatures into low index values and the moderate temperatures into high index values. Air temperature was chosen as a basic factor in the model. Other factors such as humidity, sunshine and wind speed were introduced by considering them as temperature departures to an equivalent apparent temperature (EAT). Since the index is a relative index, 25(C was chosen as an ideal apparent temperature (the most comfortable state) and a maximum CI value of 100 was assigned at this temperature. While in other circumstances, the index would be lower than 100. By utilizing this model, the daily comfort index values had been calculated for Guangzhou city for 1998-1999, using mean temperature, mean humidity, mean wind speed and total hours of sunshine. Results show that the new model was reasonable and practicable. Not only could it reflect the monthly variation of human comfort in Guangzhou, but also was sensitive to short-term changes of weather conditions.

  12. Metrology and design of gradient-index optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Di

    Gradient-index (GRIN) materials provide interesting ways to direct light propagation inside a bulk medium. Their application in optical systems as compact optical elements offer many advantages such as convenient form factor, unique dispersion characteristics, aberration correction capabilities, etc. With the recent technological advances in the fabrication techniques for these materials, it is reasonable to speculate that arbitrary refract index distributions in GRIN media can be realized in the near future. The integration of GRIN components into optical systems requires accurate knowledge of their refractive index distribution. Numerical methods for recovering the refractive index of the material using boundary value measurements of position and slope for interrogating rays that transit the medium are described. For one-dimensional index profiles, we develop a bootstrap algorithm for recovering the refractive index in successive regions of the overall profile from the boundary value data. We then compare the reconstructed index profile obtained in this method with that of a different method based on ray displacement and show good agreement in computer simulation as well as in experimental measurement. In the case of two-dimensional refractive index distributions, we show that the path integrals describing beam deflection inside the material can be cast in the form of linear algebraic equations using a simplifying assumption that decouples unknown ray trajectories inside the medium from the refractive index. The resulting linear system is inverted numerically to recover the refractive index distribution, and the ray trajectories are subsequently ascertained through an iterative ray trace procedure. Using boundary values of ray position and slope generated from a numerical ray trace, we show that this method can achieve RMS index errors less than 0.5% of the refractive index range. In addition, we explore the application of GRIN components in designing optical

  13. Optimization of emergy sustainability index for biodiesel supply network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Yang, Le

    2015-01-01

    sustainable design. In the proposed model, the emergy sustainability index of the whole biodiesel supply networks in a life cycle perspective is employed as the measure of the sustainability, and multiple feedstocks, multiple transport modes, multiple regions for biodiesel production and multiple distribution...... centers can be considered. After describing the process and mathematic framework of the model, an illustrative case was studied and demonstrated that the proposed methodology is feasible for finding the most sustainable design and planning of biodiesel supply chains....

  14. Gradient Index Polymer Optics: Achromatic Singlet Lens Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    achromatic singlet lenses. The designs are based on gradient index lenses fabricated from nanolayered polymer materials. Raytraced results confirm the...fabricated from nanolayered polymer materials. Raytraced results confirm the achromatic performance of the designs. OCIS codes: (110.2760) Gradient...lenses in Zemax®. In order to model these lenses, user-defined surfaces had to be developed for the software. RL RG z y • • Δz • tc •n0 n1• Raytrace

  15. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem Dizman, E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Forest Industry Engineering Department, Faculty of Forestry, Bursa Technical University, 16200 Bursa (Turkey); Cavdar, Ayfer Donmez [Interior Architecture Department, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood.

  16. Nodal failure index approach to groundwater remediation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dowding, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations often are used to design and to optimize groundwater remediation systems. We present a new computationally efficient approach that calculates the reliability of remedial design at every location in a model domain with a single simulation. The estimated reliability and other model information are used to select a best remedial option for given site conditions, conceptual model, and available data. To evaluate design performance, we introduce the nodal failure index (NFI) to determine the number of nodal locations at which the probability of success is below the design requirement. The strength of the NFI approach is that selected areas of interest can be specified for analysis and the best remedial design determined for this target region. An example application of the NFI approach using a hypothetical model shows how the spatial distribution of reliability can be used for a decision support system in groundwater remediation design. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  17. Gradient-index ophthalmic lens design and polymer material studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David Joel

    Unifocal ophthalmic lenses are conventionally designed using homogeneous glass or plastic materials and aspheric surfaces. The desired power and aberration correction are provided by selection of surface shape and refractive index. This thesis studies the design of ophthalmic lenses utilizing gradient-index (GRIN) materials for both the optical power and aberration control. This is done using geometrical optical theory and ray-tracing simulations. Progressive addition lenses (PALS) are vision correction lenses with a continuous change in power used to treat presbyopia. The power variation is typically located in the lower half of the lens. Progressive addition lenses are currently made with aspheric surfaces to achieve the focal power transition and aberration control. These surfaces have at most, mirror symmetry about the vertical axis. The possible design of progressive addition lenses with GRIN materials has not been well studied. This thesis studies PALS and identifies how gradient-index materials can be used to provide both the power progression and aberration control. The optical theory for rotationally symmetric and asymmetric power additions is given. Analytical and numerical methods for calculating the index profile are used, and the results examined using ray-tracing simulations. The theory developed for ophthalmic lenses is applied to the design of GRIN axicon. This is the first GRIN axicon manufactured, and is fabricated using ion-exchanged GRIN glass. Experimental measurements of its performance are compared and found to match theoretical predictions. This demonstrates the generality of the theory developed: it may be applied to non-visual applications, and even to non-imaging applications. Realistic implementation of GRIN technology to ophthalmic application requires the fabrication of large scale refractive index gradients in polymer material systems. The methyl-methacrylate/styrene copolymer system is studied to develop an empirical model of its

  18. Human Development Index and Efficiency level of Social Security Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sepehrdost

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hospitals as one of the main institutions providing health care services play an important role in the health system and allocate a high percentage of health sector's budget to them. This study aimed to answer whether social security hospitals efficiency levels are the same for all provinces in Iran? And whether any relationship exists between the human development indexes (HDI of the provinces and technical efficiency levels of the hospitals?Materials & Methods: Data envelopment analysis model has been used to measure technical efficiency of 65 social security hospitals, including small hospitals (working with lower than one hundred active beds and large hospitals (working with over one hundred active beds during the years 2007 to 2009. Further, the relationship between human development index and technical efficiency of hospitals in the provinces has been analyzed.Results: Results show that the average technical efficiency of small and large hospitals working in low and medium HDI provinces (0.912 and 0.937 are more than the average technical efficiency of hospitals in higher HDI provinces (0.870 and 0.887.Conclusion: It is recommended that social security organization concentrated distribute its hospital services in provinces with lower HDI and higher density of population living under the coverage of organization’s insurance. This will eventually puts its positive effects on per capita income of people, as well as more equitable distribution of income. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:32-38

  19. Axial shape index calculation for the 3-level excore detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Gon; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Byung Sop; Lee, Sang Hee; Cho, Sung Jae [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A new method based on the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm is developed to calculate axial shape index (ASI) for the 3-level excore detector. The ACE algorithm, a type of nonparametric regression algorithms, yields an optimal relationship between a dependent variable and multiple independent variables. In this study, the simple correlation between ASI and excore detector signals is developed using the Younggwang nuclear power plant unit 3 (YGN-3) data without any preprocessing on the relationships between independent variables and dependent variable. The numerical results show that simple correlations exist between the three excore signals and ASI of the core. The accuracy of the new method is much better than those of the current CPC and COLSS algorithms. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  20. GROUND VIBRATIONS LEVEL CHARACTERIZATION THROUGH THE GEOLOGICAL STRENGTH INDEX (GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Mesec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the results of trial, construction and quarry blasting, carried out in sediment rock deposits, mainly limestone and dolomite, at diff erent locations in the Republic of Croatia. The division of the three test groups was based on the lithology changes and GSI values of the rock units at these locations. The peak particle velocity measurements with 246 recorded events, was conducted during a long period of six years. Based on the results of seismic measurements, the empirical relationships between peak particle velocity and scaled distance were established for each group. In order to establish a useful relationship between peak particle velocity and scaled distance, simple regression analysis was conducted with the Blastware software program from Instantel. The results of this study can be used to characterize ground vibration levels to the environment, through the geological strength index (GSI.

  1. An architectural approach to level design

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Explore Level Design through the Lens of Architectural and Spatial Experience TheoryWritten by a game developer and professor trained in architecture, An Architectural Approach to Level Design is one of the first books to integrate architectural and spatial design theory with the field of level design. It explores the principles of level design through the context and history of architecture, providing information useful to both academics and game development professionals.Understand Spatial Design Principles for Game Levels in 2D, 3D, and Multiplayer ApplicationsThe book presents architectura

  2. Level of evidence and citation index in current neurosurgical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothoerl, Ralf D; Klier, Joerg; Woertgen, Chris; Brawanski, A

    2003-10-01

    Systematic clinical reviews or meta-analyses offer scientifically valid sources of clinical information. They provide information in a concise form and can contribute to clinical quality management. Such studies, however, are only able to reflect the quality of the articles reviewed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the neurosurgical literature according to evidence-based medicine (EBM) standards. We reviewed all articles published in 1999 in three major neurosurgical journals. These articles were subdivided according to the level of evidence (LOE) scale (from 0 to V), article type, and citation index. Nine hundred eighty-two articles were published in these journals in 1999. Of these, 346 (35%) were clinical studies, 287 (29%) case reports, 153 (16%) experimental studies, 122 (13%) technical reports, and 74 ( 8%) other types. Subdivision according to LOE was: Ia 0.3%, Ib 2.5%, IIa 0.2%, IIb 4.3%, IIc 9.5%, IIIa 0.1%, IIIb 3.9%, IV 22.4%, and V 1.6%. Fifty-five percent of all published studies were case reports, experimental studies, technical reports, or others and thus could not be subdivided according to the EBM standards. The number of articles published with high LOE seems to be rather low in 1999. If these data reflect overall publication practice, it seems unclear whether enough articles with high LOE are published to propose scientifically sound clinical treatment suggestions according to EBM standards.

  3. Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugel, Emily J; Henderson, Sarah B; Carpiano, Richard M; Brauer, Michael

    2017-08-29

    Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e.g., parks and street trees) and bluespace (e.g., oceans and lakes). The index was developed for greater Vancouver, Canada. Greenness presence was derived from remote sensing (NDVI/EVI); forms were extracted from municipal and private databases; and accessibility was based on restrictions such as private ownership. Quality appraisals were conducted for 200 randomly sampled parks using the Public Open Space Desktop Appraisal Tool (POSDAT). Integrating these measures in GIS, exposure was assessed for 60,242 postal codes using 100- to 1,600-m buffers based on hypothesized pathways to mental health. A single index was then derived using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparing NDVI with alternate approaches for assessing natural space resulted in widely divergent results, with quintile rankings shifting for 22-88% of postal codes, depending on the measure. Overall park quality was fairly low (mean of 15 on a scale of 0-45), with no significant difference seen by neighborhood-level household income. The final PCA identified three main sets of variables, with the first two components explaining 68% of the total variance. The first component was dominated by the percentages of public and private greenspace and bluespace and public greenspace within 250m, while the second component was driven by lack of access to bluespace within 1 km. Many current approaches to modeling natural space may misclassify exposures and have limited specificity. The Natural Space Index

  4. Introducing GIS across Levels: Designing for Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Joana

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a strategy for designing introductory GIS modules at Birkbeck, University of London. Seven design aspects or elements (content, practical exercises, assessment, pace, mode, level of support, and level of difficulty) for tailoring modules at appropriate levels and for diversity are introduced and their application in Birkbeck's…

  5. The architecture and fiction in level design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2006-01-01

     The architect's professional field has expanded with the new virtual medias There is a new set of rules different from the scenography of the film and different from the architecture of amusement parks. The new rules are fiction, interaction, complexity, and artificial intelligence...... the architect and designer approach the world of level design? What tools are necessary for creating a game flow in first-person shooter's level design? Is it possible to look at experienced architecture for the origin of Level design? And is it possible to establish a number of rules for creating a good or bad...... architecture in level design? We will look at two different games FarCry and Half-Life 2.   Keywords: World design, experience architecture, level design, game flow and gameplay....

  6. SUPERSATURATED DESIGN WITH MORE THAN TWO LEVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Supersaturated designs are useful in screening experiments. This paper discusses the topic of multi-level supersaturated design. Two quantities, E(d2) and Df, are proposed to evaluate the optimality of supersaturated designs. A lower bound of E(d2) is obtained with a necessary condition for achieving it. Some E(d2)-optimal supersaturated designs of 3, 4, and 5 levels are given.

  7. Level design concept, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kremers, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Good or bad level design can make or break any game, so it is surprising how little reference material exists for level designers. Beginning level designers have a limited understanding of the tools and techniques they can use to achieve their goals, or even define them. This book is the first to use a conceptual and theoretical foundation to build such a set of practical tools and techniques. It is tied to no particular technology or genre, so it will be a useful reference for many years to come. Kremers covers many concepts universal to level design, such as interactivity, world building, im

  8. Metamorphic manipulating mechanism design for MCCB using index reduced iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Zhen; Lin, Xiaoxia

    2013-03-01

    The present research on moulded case circuit breaker(MCCB) focuses on the enhancement of current-limiting interrupting performance during short circuit, overload, under voltage and phase failure, involving electrics, magnetic, mechanics, thermal, material, friction, arc extinguishing, impact vibration, skin effect, etc. The rigid-flexible coupling of the parts and components of the metamorphic manipulating mechanism in multi-fields leads to the non-rigid, high frequency, high damping, singularity of the Euler-Lagrange equations which represents the multi-body dynamics. The small step iteration which is used for obtaining the instantaneous and short time critical interrupting performance of metamorphic mechanism appears inaccuracy. It is difficult to realize top-down design by existing CAD systems. Therefore, a metamorphic manipulating mechanism design method for MCCB using index reduced iteration(IRI) is put forward. The metamorphic manipulating mechanism of MCCB is decomposed into three mechanisms: main switch connector mechanism, electromagnet-drawbar-jump buckle mechanism, and bimetallic strip-drawbar mechanism, which is respectively described by electro-dynamic force, electromagnet force, and bimetallic strip force. The dummy part(virtual rigid) without moment of inertia and mass is employed as intermediate to join the flexible body and rigid body. The model of rigid-flexible coupling metamorphic mechanism multi-body dynamics is built. The differential algebraic equations(DAEs) of the multibody dynamics model are converted to pure ordinary differential equations(ODEs) by coordinate partition. Order reduced integration with multi-step and variable step-size is preceded based on IRI. The non-linear algebraic equations are solved in each integration step by Newton-Rapson iteration. There is no ill-condition and singularity of Jacobian matrix when step size reduces to zero. The independent prototype design system using ACIS R13, HOOPS V11.0 and Visual C++.NET 2003

  9. System level ESD co-design

    CERN Document Server

    Gossner, Harald

    2015-01-01

    An effective and cost efficient protection of electronic system against ESD stress pulses specified by IEC 61000-4-2 is paramount for any system design. This pioneering book presents the collective knowledge of system designers and system testing experts and state-of-the-art techniques for achieving efficient system-level ESD protection, with minimum impact on the system performance. All categories of system failures ranging from ‘hard’ to ‘soft’ types are considered to review simulation and tool applications that can be used. The principal focus of System Level ESD Co-Design is defining and establishing the importance of co-design efforts from both IC supplier and system builder perspectives. ESD designers often face challenges in meeting customers' system-level ESD requirements and, therefore, a clear understanding of the techniques presented here will facilitate effective simulation approaches leading to better solutions without compromising system performance. With contributions from Robert Asht...

  10. 2-Level R-tree Index Based on Spatial Grids and Hilbert R-tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jing; LIU Guangjun; DONG Xurong; GUO Lei

    2006-01-01

    Multi-level spatial index techniques are always used in large spatial databases. After a general survey of R-tree relevant techniques, this paper presents a novel 2-level index structure, which is based on the schemas of spatial grids, Hilbert R-tree and common R-tree. This structure is named H2R-tree, and it is specifically suitable for the indexing highly skewed, distributed, and large spatial database. Algorithms and a sample are given subsequently.

  11. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... however, this test confers small but definite risks for the patient. .... More obese patients could be subjected to follow‑up testing in order to ... with the various timed cortisol levels. Female .... To register for TOC alerts go to.

  12. Study on Visually Design of Indexable Insert Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ji-quan; ZHAO Shu-qiang; ZHANG Shen-hou; CHEN Xin; GUO Xian-yang

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the development efficiency of the indexable insert tip, three-dimensional parametric and visualization applications program of indexable insert tip was developed in AutoCAD VBA (Visual Basic for Applications). The software could significantly improve the modeling efficiency of indexable insert tip and the model could also be used to static analysis, dynamic analysis and thermodynamic analysis. All aspects of performance could be fully understood by the finite element analysis. The ref-erence for the blade parameters preferred is also provided.

  13. Body mass index and age at menarche in Peruvian children living at high altitude and at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Villena, A

    1996-04-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and age at menarche in girls (aged 10-19 years) living in Lima (150 m) and in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m above sea level). The purpose of the study was to determine whether the relationships between BMI and both age at menarche and chronological age differ between girls living at low and at high altitude. The ratio weight/height (the Benn index) was used in the present study as a variant of BMI because the exponent minimizes the relationship with height and maximizes the relationship with weight. From 10 to 16 years of age the Benn index of highlander girls was lower than that for girls at sea level, but at 17-19 years the differences disappeared. A later age at menarche was observed at high altitude than at sea level after controlling for socioeconomic status and for the Benn index. The value of the Benn index at the time of menarche, after controlling for chronological age in the analysis, was significantly higher at high altitude than at sea level. It was also observed that the higher the chronological age, the lower the value of the Benn index at the time of menarche. Using the median ages at menarche in Lima and in Cerro de Pasco, we found that a higher Benn index at the time of menarche is still observed at high altitude compared with girls from sea level. In Lima body weight and height were directly related to age at menarche (p Cerro de Pasco only weight was related to age at menarche (p Cerro de Pasco is an independent effect of altitude. Because the Benn index for menarche was different at sea level and at high altitude, we conclude that regression equations to predict age at menarche must include altitude as an independent variable.

  14. 3D Shape Indexing and Retrieval Using Characteristics level images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghni Lakehal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved version of the descriptor that we proposed before. The descriptor is based on a set of binary images extracted from the 3D model called level images noted LI. The set LI is often bulky, why we introduced the X-means technique to reduce its size instead of K-means used in the old version. A 2D binary image descriptor was introduced to extract the vectors descriptors of the 3D model. For a comparative study of two versions of the descriptor, we used the National Taiwan University (NTU database of 3D object.

  15. The Problems Being Faced for Establishing Index Futures Transaction and the Contract Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝民

    2003-01-01

    The article deeply and systematically probed into a series of problems being faced for establishing index futures transaction in China. Drawing on the successful experiences of other relative countries and according to Chinese real conditions, the author chooses Shanghai composite index as subject-matter, and has designed an index futures contract that accord with the situation of China.

  16. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  17. The measurement of the normal thorax using the Haller index methodology at multiple vertebral levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, James E; Gardner, Adrian; Berryman, Fiona; Pynsent, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The Haller index is a ratio of thoracic width and height, measured from an axial CT image and used to describe the internal dimensions of the thoracic cage. Although the Haller index for a normal thorax has been established (Haller et al. 1987; Daunt et al. 2004), this is only at one undefined vertebral level in the thorax. What is not clear is how the Haller index describes the thorax at every vertebral level in the absence of sternal deformity, or how this is affected by age. This paper documents the shape of the thorax using the Haller index calculated from the thoracic width and height at all vertebral levels of the thorax between 8 and 18 years of age. The Haller Index changes with vertebral level, with the largest ratio seen in the most cranial levels of the thorax. Increasing age alters the shape of the thorax, with the most cranial vertebral levels having a greater Haller index over the mid thorax, which does not change. A slight increase is seen in the more caudal vertebral levels. These data highlight that a 'one size fits all' rule for chest width and depth ratio at all ages and all thoracic levels is not appropriate. The normal range for width to height ratio should be based on a patient's age and vertebral level. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  18. Relationship between serum DHEAS and oxidative stress levels of body mass index in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Burhan; Atmaca, Murat; Aslan, Mehmet; Ucler, Rıfkı; Alay, Murat; Seven, Ismet; Demir, Halit; Ozturk, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    Menopause is a natural step in the process of aging. Postmenopausal women have decreased levels of antioxidants and increased oxidative stress, the latter of which plays an important role in atherogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of the body mass index (BMI) with serum catalase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in healthy postmenopausal women and estimate whether the MDA/DHEAS ratio is a possible marker of oxidative stress for determining cardiovascular risk in these women. We investigated serum catalase activity, MDA, and DHEAS levels, parity history, age, and BMI in 96 healthy postmenopausal women aged 50-82 years. The serum MDA levels and catalase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. The serum DHEAS levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ratio percentage of the serum DHEAS levels to serum MDA levels was designated as a biomarker for oxidative stress. The mean BMI of the patients was 31.72 ± 6.16 kg/m(2) (range = 20.5-47.94). The MDA/DHEAS ratio was significantly decreased in patients with a BMI over 30 compared to that of patients with a BMI between 25 and 30 (P = 0.025). Moreover, BMI was positively correlated with serum DHEAS levels (r = 0.285, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with the MDA/DHEAS ratio (r = -0.241, P < 0.05) in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, BMI was observed to be a potential predictor of the MDA/DHEAS ratio based on covariance analysis (P = 0.039). Our results indicate that healthy, obese, postmenopausal women have a decreased MDA/DHEAS ratio. Additionally, BMI was observed to be a potential predictor of the MDA/DHEAS ratio.

  19. The Design and Implementation of the Leaf Area Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quick and accurate acquisition of crop growth parameters on a large scale is important for agricultural management and food security. The combination of photographic and wireless sensor network (WSN techniques can be used to collect agricultural information, such as leaf area index (LAI, over long distances and in real time. Such acquisition not only provides farmers with photographs of crops and suggestions for farmland management, but also the collected quantitative parameters, such as LAI, can be used to support large scale research in ecology, hydrology, remote sensing, etc. The present research developed a Leaf Area Index Sensor (LAIS to continuously monitor the growth of crops in several sampling points, and applied 3G/WIFI communication technology to remotely collect (and remotely setup and upgrade crop photos in real-time. Then the crop photos are automatically processed and LAI is estimated based on the improved leaf area index of Lang and Xiang (LAILX algorithm in LAIS. The research also constructed a database of images and other information relating to crop management. The leaf length and width method (LAILLW can accurately measure LAI through direct field harvest. The LAIS has been tested in several exemplary applications, and validation with LAI from LAILLW. The LAI acquired by LAIS had been proved reliable.

  20. The design and implementation of the leaf area index sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhong; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Rongjin; Zhang, Haijing; Zhang, Jialin; Cai, Erli

    2015-03-13

    The quick and accurate acquisition of crop growth parameters on a large scale is important for agricultural management and food security. The combination of photographic and wireless sensor network (WSN) techniques can be used to collect agricultural information, such as leaf area index (LAI), over long distances and in real time. Such acquisition not only provides farmers with photographs of crops and suggestions for farmland management, but also the collected quantitative parameters, such as LAI, can be used to support large scale research in ecology, hydrology, remote sensing, etc. The present research developed a Leaf Area Index Sensor (LAIS) to continuously monitor the growth of crops in several sampling points, and applied 3G/WIFI communication technology to remotely collect (and remotely setup and upgrade) crop photos in real-time. Then the crop photos are automatically processed and LAI is estimated based on the improved leaf area index of Lang and Xiang (LAILX) algorithm in LAIS. The research also constructed a database of images and other information relating to crop management. The leaf length and width method (LAILLW) can accurately measure LAI through direct field harvest. The LAIS has been tested in several exemplary applications, and validation with LAI from LAILLW. The LAI acquired by LAIS had been proved reliable.

  1. Vulnerability Index to Climate Change and its Application for Community-level Risk Assessment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsamon Limsakul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the vulnerability-led approach, the Prevalent Community-level Vulnerability Index (PCVI was developed as a simple composite index used to represent community-level vulnerability to climate change in the socioeconomic and hazard contexts. The PCVI consists of three major components which are Exposure & hazard, Socioeconomic-ecological fragility and Coping capacity. All of these components are further comprised of different indicators, representing different aspects of biophysical and social vulnerability of grass-root communities. Based on the results analyzed in the provincial pilot sites, the PCVI could represent both spatial patterns and magnitudes of vulnerability of each community in consistence with the local economic-social-environmental contexts. It generally reflects the differences in the local contexts and factors that determine overall vulnerability of each community. For the ease in calculating the PCVI especially for the provincial operating staffs and general public, the PREvalent Community Climate Change Vulnerability Tool (RECCC was further developed as a user-friendly, Excel-based program. In conclusions, the outputs of this study that include the PCVI and its database as well as the RECCC program are useful not only for analyzing vulnerability and assessing risks of community to climate change, but also for supporting decision-making process in developing and implementing adaptation activities at provincial level. These outputs were also designed for further integrating as a supplementary part of Provincial�s Decision Supporting System (DSS, with the purpose of promoting the participation of local organizations and stakeholders in coping with the adverse impacts of climate change. However, additional development of ERCCC program, together with dissemination of the vulnerability framework as well as the use of ERCCC program to local organizations needs to be continued.

  2. A storm severity index based on return levels of wind speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nico; Nissen, Katrin M.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    European windstorms related to extra-tropical cyclones cause considerable damages to infrastructure during the winter season. Leckebusch et al. (2008) introduced a storm severity index (SSI) based on the exceedances of the local 98th percentile of wind speeds. The SSI is based on the assumption that (insured) damage usually occurs within the upper 2%-quantile of the local wind speed distribution (i.e. if the 98th percentile is exceeded). However, critical infrastructure, for example related to the power network or the transportation system, is usually designed to withstand wind speeds reaching the local 50-year return level, which is much higher than the 98th percentile. The aim of this work is to use the 50-year return level to develop a modified SSI, which takes into account only extreme wind speeds relevant to critical infrastructure. As a first step we use the block maxima approach to estimate the spatial distribution of return levels by fitting the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution to the wind speeds retrieved from different reanalysis products. We show that the spatial distributions of the 50-year return levels derived from different reanalyses agree well within large parts of Europe. The differences between the reanalyses are largely within the range of the uncertainty intervals of the estimated return levels. As a second step the exceedances of the 50-year return level are evaluated and compared to the exceedances of the 98th percentiles for different extreme European windstorms. The areas where the wind speeds exceed the 50-year return level in the reanalysis data do largely agree with the areas where the largest damages were reported, e.g. France in the case of "Lothar" and "Martin" and Central Europe in the case of "Kyrill". Leckebusch, G. C., Renggli, D., & Ulbrich, U. (2008). Development and application of an objective storm severity measure for the Northeast Atlantic region. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 17(5), 575-587.

  3. Constructing Index System for Evaluating Work Level in Rural Endowment Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhigang; WANG Yalin

    2008-01-01

    This paper used fuzzy math principles,analyzed different aspects of the work of the current rural endowment insurance and formed the indices to assess the work level of the rural endowment insurance. After selecting the indices of the work level seientificly, constructed the index system to evaluate the work level of the rural endowment insurance and the index system was expressed in the form of math equation.In this way,an objective standard used to evaluate the work level of rural endowment insurance was establised.

  4. Optical glass with tightest refractive index and dispersion tolerances for high-end optical designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, R.; Reichel, S.; Hartmann, P.

    2014-03-01

    In high end optical designs the quality of the optical system not only depends on the chosen optical glasses but also on the available refractive index and Abbe number tolerances. The primary optical design is based on datasheet values of the refractive index and Abbe number. In general the optical position of the delivered glass will deviate from the catalog values by given tolerances due to production tolerances. Therefore in many cases the final optical design needs to be modified based on real glass data. Tighter refractive index and Abbe number tolerances can greatly reduce this additional amount of work. The refractive index and Abbe number of an optical glass is a function of the chemical composition and the annealing process. Tight refractive index tolerances require not only a close control and high reliability of the melting and fine annealing process but also best possible material data. These data rely on high accuracy measurement and accurate control during mass production. Modern melting and annealing procedure do not only enable tight index tolerances but also a high homogeneity of the optical properties. Recently SCHOTT was able to introduce the tightest available refractive index and Abbe number tolerance available in the market: step 0.5 meaning a refractive index tolerance of +/- 0.0001 and an Abbe number tolerance of +/- 0.1%. This presentation describes how the refractive index depends on the glass composition and annealing process and describes the requirements to get to this tightest refractive index and Abbe number tolerance.

  5. Low perfusion index affects the difference in glucose level between capillary and venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurdan Acar,1 Hamit Ozcelik,1 Arif Alper Cevik,1 Engin Ozakin,1 Goknur Yorulmaz,2 Nur Kebapci,2 Ugur Bilge,3 Muzaffer Bilgin4 1Emergency Department, 2Endocrinology Department, 3Family Medicine Department, 4Biostatistics Department, Medical School, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey Aim: In emergency cases, finger stick testing is primarily used to check the blood glucose value of patients since it takes longer to obtain the venous value. In critical patients, under conditions that cause an increase in metabolic state and level of stress, there occurs considerable difference in glucose levels between capillary and venous measurements. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of capillary and venous glucose values, according to the perfusion index level obtained with the Masimo Radical-7® device, in critical patients aged 18 years and over.Method: We conducted this prospective and observational study in the emergency department of the Eskisehir Osmangazi University hospital between November 3, 2008 and February 2, 2009.Results: The blood glucose of 300 critical patients was checked by finger stick in the emergency unit. The participants with normal vital signs had perfusion index between 0 and 5; the results obtained by the two methods were more consistent for perfusion index values of 6 and over. The results were most consistent in aged participants with normal vital sign findings and low perfusion index and in young patients with high perfusion index. In the cases where at least one of the vital signs was abnormal, the glucose values obtained by the two methods were more consistent when the perfusion index was 6 or over. In this group, independently from the perfusion index value, the consistency was higher in younger patients compared with aged patients.Conclusion: In the emergency department, perfusion index value measured by Masimo Radical-7 and capillary blood glucose levels can serve in blood sugar management in

  6. Job level risk assessment using task level strain index scores: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Bloswick, Donald S; Sesek, Richard; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores 2 methods of modifying the Strain Index (SI) to assess the ergonomic risk of multi-task jobs. Twenty-eight automotive jobs (15 cases and 13 controls) were studied. The first method is based on the maximum task SI score, and the second method is modeled on the NIOSH Composite Lifting Index (CLI) algorithm, named cumulative assessment of risk to the distal upper extremity (CARD). Significant odds ratios of 11 (CI 1.7-69) and 24 (CI 2.4-240) were obtained using the modified maximum task and CARD, respectively. This indicates that modification of the SI may be useful in determining the risk of distal upper extremity injury associated with a multi-task job.

  7. Design and evaluation of sparse quantization index modulation watermarking schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Barbarien, Joeri; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2008-08-01

    In the past decade the use of digital data has increased significantly. The advantages of digital data are, amongst others, easy editing, fast, cheap and cross-platform distribution and compact storage. The most crucial disadvantages are the unauthorized copying and copyright issues, by which authors and license holders can suffer considerable financial losses. Many inexpensive methods are readily available for editing digital data and, unlike analog information, the reproduction in the digital case is simple and robust. Hence, there is great interest in developing technology that helps to protect the integrity of a digital work and the copyrights of its owners. Watermarking, which is the embedding of a signal (known as the watermark) into the original digital data, is one method that has been proposed for the protection of digital media elements such as audio, video and images. In this article, we examine watermarking schemes for still images, based on selective quantization of the coefficients of a wavelet transformed image, i.e. sparse quantization-index modulation (QIM) watermarking. Different grouping schemes for the wavelet coefficients are evaluated and experimentally verified for robustness against several attacks. Wavelet tree-based grouping schemes yield a slightly improved performance over block-based grouping schemes. Additionally, the impact of the deployment of error correction codes on the most promising configurations is examined. The utilization of BCH-codes (Bose, Ray-Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem) results in an improved robustness as long as the capacity of the error codes is not exceeded (cliff-effect).

  8. Index of Human Development: Measurement Problems at the National and World Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarychev Volodymyr I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses main modern approaches to measurement of the index of human development at the world level by the UN Development Programme and at the national level in Ukraine. It identifies main components and stages of formation of national methods of measurement of the index of regional human development and also advantages of its renovated modern variant against the background of fighting poverty, analyses key directions of human development, which reflect main possibilities in ensuring the process of life, generalises the “living standard” category definition by works of domestic and foreign scientists, analyses dynamics of indicators of the index of human development of Ukraine for the period 2007 – 2012 and explains main reasons of drop of ratings of Ukraine in the world and conducts comparative analysis of tendencies of changes of the index of human development of Ukrainian regions in recent years.

  9. Design of Controllers for Liquid Level Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Simon,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The liquid level control system is commonly used in many process control applications. The aim of the process is to keep the liquid level in the tank at the desired value. The conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller is simple, reliable and eliminates the error rate but it cannot handle complex problems. Fuzzy logic controllers are rule based systems which simulates human behavior of the process. The fuzzy controller is combined with the PID controller and then applied to the tank level control system. This paper proposes Inverse fuzzy with fuzzy logic controller for controlling liquid level system for a plant. This paper also compares the transient response as well as error indices of PID, Fuzzy logic controller, inverse fuzzy controllers. The responses of the controllers are verified through simulation. From the simulation results, it is observed that inverse fuzzy-PID controller gives the superior performance than the other controllers. The inverse fuzzy-PID controller gives better performance than the PID and fuzzy controller in terms of overshoot and settling time. Performance analysis is carried out with Liquid Flow Control System Design with Fuzzy logic controller. Results are evaluated by comparing the response time of conventional PID, fuzzy logic and Inverse fuzzy controller. Comparative analysis of the performance of different controllers is done in MATLAB and Simulink.

  10. Optimizing the level of branch concentration with marginal values of Herfindahl-Hirschman index

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sukhoteplyy

    2010-01-01

    Striving of Ukraine for the European Union assumes, among other things, the sound understanding of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) methodology in defining the level of the competition in an industry. Modeling of an industry structure using predefined values of HHI and the concept of the Index of Competitive Potential of Industry (ICPI) has shown that the traditional use of the HHI criterion with-out the explicit consideration of the number of firms in an industry can results in ambiguous...

  11. The ATLAS EventIndex: architecture, design choices, deployment and first operation experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, D.; Cárdenas Zárate, S. E.; Cranshaw, J.; Favareto, A.; Fernández Casaní, Á.; Gallas, E. J.; Glasman, C.; González de la Hoz, S.; Hřivnáč, J.; Malon, D.; Prokoshin, F.; Salt Cairols, J.; Sánchez, J.; Többicke, R.; Yuan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The EventIndex is the complete catalogue of all ATLAS events, keeping the references to all files that contain a given event in any processing stage. It replaces the TAG database, which had been in use during LHC Run 1. For each event it contains its identifiers, the trigger pattern and the GUIDs of the files containing it. Major use cases are event picking, feeding the Event Service used on some production sites, and technical checks of the completion and consistency of processing campaigns. The system design is highly modular so that its components (data collection system, storage system based on Hadoop, query web service and interfaces to other ATLAS systems) could be developed separately and in parallel during LSI. The EventIndex is in operation for the start of LHC Run 2. This paper describes the high-level system architecture, the technical design choices and the deployment process and issues. The performance of the data collection and storage systems, as well as the query services, are also reported.

  12. The ATLAS EventIndex: architecture, design choices, deployment and first operation experience

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration; Cranshaw, Jack; Favareto, Andrea; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Gallas, Elizabeth; Glasman, Claudia; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Hrivnac, Julius; Malon, David; Prokoshin, Fedor; Salt, José; Sánchez, Javier; Toebbicke, Rainer; Yuan, Ruijun

    2015-01-01

    The EventIndex is the complete catalogue of all ATLAS events, keeping the references to all files that contain a given event in any processing stage. It replaces the TAG database, which had been in use during LHC Run 1. For each event it contains its identifiers, the trigger pattern and the GUIDs of the files containing it. Major use cases are event picking, feeding the Event Service used on some production sites, and technical checks of the completion and consistency of processing campaigns. The system design is highly modular so that its components (data collection system, storage system based on Hadoop, query web service and interfaces to other ATLAS systems) could be developed separately and in parallel during LS1. The EventIndex is in operation for the start of LHC Run 2. This paper describes the high-level system architecture, the technical design choices and the deployment process and issues. The performance of the data collection and storage systems, as well as the query services, are also reported.

  13. The ATLAS EventIndex: architecture, design choices, deployment and first operation experience

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration; Cranshaw, Jack; Favareto, Andrea; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Gallas, Elizabeth; Glasman, Claudia; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Hrivnac, Julius; Malon, David; Prokoshin, Fedor; Salt, José; Sánchez, Javier; Rainer Toebbicke; Yuan, Ruijun

    2015-01-01

    The EventIndex is the complete catalogue of all ATLAS events, keeping the references to all files that contain a given event in any processing stage. It replaces the TAG database, which had been in use during LHC Run 1. For each event it contains its identifiers, the trigger pattern and the GUIDs of the files containing it. Major use cases are event picking, feeding the Event Service used on some production sites, and technical checks of the completion and consistency of processing campaigns. The system design is highly modular so that its components (data collection system, storage system based on Hadoop, query web service and interfaces to other ATLAS systems) could be developed separately and in parallel during LS1. The EventIndex is in operation for the start of LHC Run 2. This talk describes the high level system architecture, the technical design choices and the deployment process and issues. The performance of the data collection and storage systems, as well as the query services, will be reported.

  14. Measuring the Level of Complexity of Scientific Inquiries: The LCSI Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    The study developed and applied an index for measuring the level of complexity of full authentic scientific inquiry. Complexity is a fundamental attribute of real life scientific research. The level of complexity is an overall reflection of complex cognitive and metacognitive processes which are required for navigating the authentic inquiry…

  15. Design and Implementation of Automatic Indexing for Information Retrieval with Arabic Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmeidi, Ismail; Kanaan, Ghassan; Evens, Martha

    1997-01-01

    Describes automatic information retrieval system designed and built to handle Arabic data. Discusses cost-effectiveness of automatic indexing. Compares retrieval results using words as index terms versus stems and roots. Includes 19 tables; 60 queries using full words and relevance judgments are appended. (JAK)

  16. design and fabrication of a discomfort index meter for determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    hygrometer reading using a regression analysis which also showed a high correlation coefficient (r2=0.98). ... “transportation stress” experienced by poultry birds. ... vehicles and their ventilation systems and the ... displaying and logging data of the discomfort level of ... intelligent display unit (LCD HD44780) as shown in.

  17. The impact of climate change on weather index insurance design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enenkel, Markus; Braun, Melody; Ouni, Souha; Osgood, Daniel; Blakeley, Sari; Lebel, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    While the agreement on a binding policy framework is vital to limit emissions and therefore the impact of climate change on a global scale, two complementary actions are important with regard to the mitigation of climate change impacts. First, there is clear need to upscale new approaches and successful strategies. Ideally, this happens via tools that are based on participatory processes and capacity building, empowering the communities that are the most affected. Second, the development of these approaches must constantly be re-evaluated with regard to a changing climate. Weather index insurance (WII) is one of these approaches. It allows smallholder farmers to increase their yields in normal or good years by protecting them against the risk of losing their agricultural investments in drought years. In addition, WII is usually more affordable and pays out faster than conventional insurance. The parameterization of WII is often based on satellite-derived datasets, mainly rainfall and vegetation health, dating back to the early 1980s. The calibration of indices based on historical data is crucial in identifying at which threshold of the chosen variable (e. g. of rainfall) payouts start and end during the season, the overall payout frequency and the payout sum for a given year. To date, the development of WII assumes a uniform distribution of drought years since the 1980s. Recent findings, however, identified generally dryer conditions in West Africa during the 1980s compared to the 1990s and 2000s. There is a risk that these circumstances influence the calibration of indices in a way that more recent droughts result in lower payouts. As a consequence, this study analyses temporal and spatial shifts in rainfall patterns in West Africa, in particular Senegal, and their impact on the calibration of WII.

  18. STLIS: A Scalable Two-Level Index Scheme for Big Data in IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglin Leng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the Internet of Things causes the dramatic growth of data, which poses an important challenge on the storage and quick retrieval of big data. As an effective representation model, RDF receives the most attention. More and more storage and index schemes have been developed for RDF model. For the large-scale RDF data, most of them suffer from a large number of self-joins, high storage cost, and many intermediate results. In this paper, we propose a scalable two-level index scheme (STLIS for RDF data. In the first level, we devise a compressed path template tree (CPTT index based on S-tree to retrieve the candidate sets of full path. In the second level, we create a hierarchical edge index (HEI and a node-predicate (NP index to accelerate the match. Extensive experiments are executed on two representative RDF benchmarks and one real RDF dataset in IoT by comparison with three representative index schemes, that is, RDF-3X, Bitmat, and TripleBit. Results demonstrate that our proposed scheme can respond to the complex query in real time and save much storage space compared with RDF-3X and Bitmat.

  19. Propagation & Level: Factors Influencing in the ICT Composite Index at the School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroyuki; Kim, JaMee; Lee, WonGyu

    2013-01-01

    Many nations are greatly affected by their education policies, and the educational level of different schools is relevant to a nation's ICT policy. In the area of ICT, Korea has achieved quite high levels of competency. This study analyzed the level of ICT competency of 4490 elementary and 2419 middle schools in Korea within the context of the…

  20. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  1. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  2. Growth index in massai grass under different levels of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Neves Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the growth index of massai grass during two regrowth cycles in a greenhouse under five levels of nitrogen (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg N/dm³ of soil and eight growth ages (5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 26 days in a split-plot design with five replications. The following variables were evaluated: net assimilation rate, herbage growth rate, relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, leaf weight ratio and specific leaf area. The effect of nitrogen was detected on the variables net assimilation rate (regrowths 1 and 2, leaf area ratio (regrowth 1, leaf weight ratio (regrowths 1 and 2, specific leaf area (regrowths 1 and 2 and herbage growth rate (regrowths 1 and 2. The growth ages influenced the relative growth rate (regrowth 2 and the net assimilation rate (regrowth 2. The net assimilation rate presented linear effect, estimated in 0.70 and 2.86 g/m² leaf.day-1 for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively (regrowth 1. For each milligram of N/dm³ added, the leaf area ratio was reduced in 0.0000258 m² leaf/g plant (regrowth 1. The herbage growth rate was estimated in 1.38 and 37.02 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 1, and 4.37 and 32.20 g/m².day-1 (regrowth 2 for the 0 and 600 mg N/dm³ soil, respectively. The massai grass' growth is favored by nitrogen fertilization, and little do the growth ages affect the growth index of the plants.

  3. OPTIMAL DESIGNS AND CAPABILITY LIMITS OF SINGLE ROLLER-TO-CAM INDEXING MECHANISMS FOR THREE DWELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. K. S. TRIPATHI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the continuous contact single roller-to-cam indexing mechanism for optimal designs and capability limits, based on generic transmission and curvature constraint for three dwell periods. First of all, the paper determines the solutions of the problems associated with multiple dwells and then develops optimal designs for three maximum extent dwell periods with equal indexing angles with curvature and transmission constraints. Next, stipulating that the three dwell periods should be equal; iteration is done. This gives optimal designs for three equal maximized dwells with equal indexing periods with curvature and transmission constraints. Final information in the form of capability limits will be very helpful to those who search for various alternative indexing mechanisms for several applications of automatic and packaging industries.

  4. Managing the financial risk of low water levels in Great Lakes with index-based contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E.; Characklis, G. W.; Brown, C. M.; Moody, P.

    2014-12-01

    Low water levels in the Great Lakes have recently had significant financial impacts on the region's commercial shipping, responsible for transporting millions of dollars' worth of bulk goods each year. Low lake levels can significantly affect shipping firms, as cargo capacity is a function of draft, or the distance between water level and the ship's bottom. Draft increases with weight, and lower lake levels force ships to reduce cargo to prevent running aground in shallow harbors, directly impacting the finances of shipping companies. Risk transfer instruments may provide adaptable, yet unexplored, alternatives for managing these financial risks, at significantly less expense than more traditional solutions (e.g., dredging). Index-based financial instruments can be particularly attractive as contract payouts are directly linked to well-defined transparent metrics (e.g., lake levels), eliminating the need for subjective adjustors, as well as concerns over moral hazard. In developing such instruments, a major challenge is identifying an index that is well correlated with financial losses, and thus a contract that reliably pays out when losses are experienced (low basis risk). In this work, a relationship between lake levels and shipping revenues is developed, and actuarial analyses of the frequency and magnitude of revenue losses is completed using this relationship and synthetic water level data. This analysis is used to develop several types of index-based contracts. A standardized suite of binary contracts is developed, with each indexed to lake levels and priced according to predefined thresholds. These are combined to form portfolios with different objectives (e.g. options, collars), with optimal portfolio structure and length of coverage determined by limiting basis risk and contract cost, using simulations over the historic dataset. Results suggest that portfolios of these binary contracts can substantially reduce the risk of financial losses during periods of

  5. The relationship between the level of lesion and progression in Reimer's index of spina bifida patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Huseyin; Sozbilen, Murat Celal; Altınisik, Mahmut; Kacmaz, Ismail Eralp; Kaya Bicer, Elcil

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the influence of the lesion level and acetabular displasia on the progression of hip dislocation in patients with spina bifida. Two hundred twelve hips of 106 cases with spina bifida were evaluated both clinically and radiologically. Their vertebral level of lesions, clinical examinations, radiological migration index, and acetabulum terms were noted and were evaluated in terms of their relations with the level of lesion-migration and dysplasia. Data analysis method was evaluated using SPSS 22.0 program. Deficiency of acetabulum was present in 33 % of the cases with spina bifida. Dysplastic floor was found to be as equally important as the level of lesion in the progression of hip dislocation (p = 0.002). Progression and dislocation incidences were observed to be higher in the thoracic level (p = 0.008). Reimer's progression index was seen to be a reliable way of assesment. The development of hip dislocation and progression are not solely connected with muscle imbalance. Encountered more frequently in these cases, acetabular dysplasia is a factor that is as important as the level of lesion in the formation of hip dislocation and progression. Hip dislocation is associated with more progression in the higher level lesions. Reimer's index is a reliable assessment criteria.

  6. Modulation of genetic associations with serum urate levels by body-mass-index in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); E. Albrecht (Eva); A. Teumer (Alexander); M. Mangino (Massimo); K. Kapur (Karen); T. Johnson (Toby); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); N. Pirastu (Nicola); G. Pistis (Giorgio); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); T. Haller (Toomas); P. Salo (Perttu); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Li (Man); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Dehghan (Abbas); D. Ruggiero; G. Malerba (Giovanni); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); Nolte, I.M. (Ilja M.); L. Portas (Laura); Phipps-Green, A. (Amanda); Boteva, L. (Lora); P. Navarro (Pau); A. Johansson (Åsa); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); O. Polasek (Ozren); T. Esko (Tõnu); J. Peden (John); S.E. Harris (Sarah); D. Murgia (Daniela); Wild, S.H. (Sarah H.); A. Tenesa (Albert); A. Tin (Adrienne); E. Mihailov (Evelin); A. Grotevendt (Anne); G.K. Gislason; J. Coresh (Josef); P. d' Adamo (Pio); S. Ulivi (Shelia); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); Campbell, S. (Susan); I. Kolcic (Ivana); Fisher, K. (Krista); M. Viigimaa (Margus); Metter, J.E. (Jeffrey E.); C. Masciullo (Corrado); Trabetti, E. (Elisabetta); Bombieri, C. (Cristina); R. Sorice; A. Döring (Angela); G. Reischl (Gunilla); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G. Davies (Gail); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); Dalbeth, N. (Nicola); Stamp, L. (Lisa); Smit, J.H. (Johannes H.); M. Kirin (Mirna); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M. Nauck (Matthias); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Budde (Klemens); S.M. Farrington (Susan); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); A. Jula (Antti); V. Salomaa (Veikko); C. Sala (Cinzia); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); M. Burnier (Michel); Mägi, R. (Reedik); N. Klopp (Norman); S. Kloiber (Stefan); S. Schipf (Sabine); S. Ripatti (Samuli); Cabras, S. (Stefano); N. Soranzo (Nicole); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Nutile; P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Hastie (Nick); H. Campbell (H.); I. Rudan (Igor); Cabrera, C. (Claudia); Haley, C. (Chris); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Merriman, T.R. (Tony R.); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); M. Pirastu (Mario); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); H. Snieder (Harold); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Ciullo; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); Deary, I.J. (Ian J.); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); J.F. Wilson (James F); P. Gasparini (Paolo); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.F. Wright (Alan); C. Hayward (Caroline); H. Watkins (Hugh); M. Perola (Markus); M. Bochud (Murielle); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M. Caulfield (Mark); D. Toniolo (Daniela); H. Völzke (Henry); C. Gieger (Christian); A. Köttgen (Anna); V. Vitart (Veronique)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in

  7. Modulation of Genetic Associations with Serum Urate Levels by Body-Mass-Index in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, Jennifer E.; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Mangino, Massimo; Kapur, Karen; Johnson, Toby; Kutalik, Zoltn; Pirastu, Nicola; Pistis, Giorgio; Lopez, Lorna M.; Haller, Toomas; Salo, Perttu; Goel, Anuj; Li, Man; Tanaka, Toshiko; Dehghan, Abbas; Ruggiero, Daniela; Malerba, Giovanni; Smith, Albert V.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Portas, Laura; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Boteva, Lora; Navarro, Pau; Johansson, Asa; Hicks, Andrew A.; Polasek, Ozren; Esko, Tonu; Peden, John F.; Harris, Sarah E.; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H.; Tenesa, Albert; Tin, Adrienne; Mihailov, Evelin; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti K.; Coresh, Josef; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Kolcic, Ivana; Fisher, Krista; Viigimaa, Margus; Metter, Jeffrey E.; Masciullo, Corrado; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Bombieri, Cristina; Sorice, Rossella; Doering, Angela; Reischl, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa; Smit, Johannes H.; Kirin, Mirna; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Farrington, Susan M.; Theodoratou, Evropi; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Sala, Cinzia; Hengstenberg, Christian; Burnier, Michel; Maegi, Reedik; Klopp, Norman; Kloiber, Stefan; Schipf, Sabine; Ripatti, Samuli; Cabras, Stefano; Soranzo, Nicole; Homuth, Georg; Nutile, Teresa; Munroe, Patricia B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Cabrera, Claudia; Haley, Chris; Franco, Oscar H.; Merriman, Tony R.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Pirastu, Mario; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Metspalu, Andres; Ciullo, Marina; Pramstaller, Peter P.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Wilson, James F.; Gasparini, Paolo; Gyllensten, Ulf; Spector, Tim D.; Wright, Alan F.; Hayward, Caroline; Watkins, Hugh; Perola, Markus; Bochud, Murielle; Kao, W. H. Linda; Caulfield, Mark; Toniolo, Daniela; Voelzke, Henry; Gieger, Christian; Koettgen, Anna; Vitart, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non BMI-s

  8. A novel approach to design microwave medium of negative refractive index and simulation verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO YunJian; WEN GuangJun; WU KaiMin; XU XinHe

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is presented to synthesize microwave medium of negative refractive index by incorporating metallic wire array with negative effective permittivity into the host media such as ferrimagnet-YIG (yttrium iron garnet) applied by external magnetic field whose permeability is negative. We have designed the composite medium having negative refractive index in C/X band frequencies, analyzed and simulated its electromagnetic (EM) properties by use of EM EDA package based on time-domain finite integration method. The simulation results show that: ① the effective permittivity of the designed metallic wire array is negative in the frequency range from 7.02 GHz to 9.80 GHz; ② the permeability of YIG substrate immersed into an external magnetic field is negative in the frequency range from 5.22 GHz to 8.14 GHz; ③ EM wave can pass through the composite medium synthesized by the above designed metallic wire array and YIG substrate, and ④ the negative refraction behavior occurs on the interface between the composite medium and the normal material with positive refractive index in 7.51-8.13 GHz frequency range, in which the effective permittivity of the metallic wire array and the permeability of YIG substrate are negative simultaneously. The full wave simulation has demonstrated that the effective refractive index of the designed composite medium is indeed negative and ascertained that the proposed approach to design microwave medium with negative refractive index is viable.

  9. Proposed design for high precision refractive index sensor using integrated planar lightwave circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Koichi; Fujii, Yusaku; Zhang, Shulian; Hou, Wenmei

    2009-07-01

    A high precision and compact refractive index sensor is proposed. The combination of coarse measurement utilizing the change of the angle of refraction and fine measurement utilizing the phase change is newly proposed to measure absolute refractive index precisely. The proposed method does not need expensive optical measurement equipment such as an optical spectrum analyzer. The integrated planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology enables us to obtain a compact sensor that is preferable for the practical use. The principle, design, and some configurations for precise refractive index measurement are described.

  10. Reducing Production Basis Risk through Rainfall Intensity Frequency (RIF) Indexes: Global Sensitivity Analysis' Implication on Policy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus; Huffaker, Ray; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions with swift compensation at affordable premium thanks to its minimal adverse selection and moral hazard. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing causes the presence of "production basis risk" that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. To reduce basis risk without additional data collection cost, we propose the use of rain intensity and frequency as indexes as it could offer better protection at the lower premium by avoiding basis risk-strike trade-off inherent in the total rainfall index. We present empirical evidences and modeling results that even under the similar cumulative rainfall and temperature environment, yield can significantly differ especially for drought sensitive crops. We further show that deriving the trigger level and payoff function from regression between historical yield and total rainfall data may pose significant basis risk owing to their non-unique relationship in the insured range of rainfall. Lastly, we discuss the design of index insurance in terms of contract specifications based on the results from global sensitivity analysis.

  11. Multi-scale dynamical analysis (MSDA) of sea level records versus PDO, AMO, and NAO indexes

    CERN Document Server

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Herein I propose a multi-scale dynamical analysis to facilitate the physical interpretation of tide gauge records. The technique uses graphical diagrams. It is applied to six secular-long tide gauge records representative of the world oceans: Sydney, Pacific coast of Australia; Fremantle, Indian Ocean coast of Australia; New York City, Atlantic coast of USA; Honolulu, U.S. state of Hawaii; San Diego, U.S. state of California; and Venice, Mediterranean Sea, Italy. For comparison, an equivalent analysis is applied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index and to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index. Finally, a global reconstruction of sea level and a reconstruction of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index are analyzed and compared: both sequences cover about three centuries from 1700 to 2000. The proposed methodology quickly highlights oscillations and teleconnections among the records at the decadal and multidecadal scales. At the secular time scales tide gauge records present relatively...

  12. Advanced gradient-index lens design tools to maximize system performance and reduce SWaP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sawyer D.; Nagar, Jogender; Brocker, Donovan E.; Easum, John A.; Turpin, Jeremiah P.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2016-05-01

    GRadient-INdex (GRIN) lenses have long been of interest due to their potential for providing levels of performance unachievable with traditional homogeneous lenses. While historically limited by a lack of suitable materials, rapid advancements in manufacturing techniques, including 3D printing, have recently kindled a renewed interest in GRIN optics. Further increasing the desire for GRIN devices has been the advent of Transformation Optics (TO), which provides the mathematical framework for representing the behavior of electromagnetic radiation in a given geometry by "transforming" it to an alternative, usually more desirable, geometry through an appropriate mapping of the constituent material parameters. Using TO, aspherical lenses can be transformed to simpler spherical and flat geometries or even rotationally-asymmetric shapes which result in true 3D GRIN profiles. Meanwhile, there is a critical lack of suitable design tools which can effectively evaluate the optical wave propagation through 3D GRIN profiles produced by TO. Current modeling software packages for optical lens systems also lack advanced multi-objective global optimization capability which allows the user to explicitly view the trade-offs between all design objectives such as focus quality, FOV, ▵nand focal drift due to chromatic aberrations. When coupled with advanced design methodologies such as TO, wavefront matching (WFM), and analytical achromatic GRIN theory, these tools provide a powerful framework for maximizing SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) reduction in GRIN-enabled optical systems. We provide an overview of our advanced GRIN design tools and examples which minimize the presence of mono- and polychromatic aberrations in the context of reducing SWaP.

  13. Blood pressure levels and body mass index in Brazilian adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pucci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increased life expectancy among people with Down syndrome (DS has introduced new environmental factors that may affect blood pressure (BP and/or lead to obesity in this population. The aim here was to investigate BP levels and body mass index (BMI in adults with DS, correlating these data with the patients' sex and age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional observational study conducted in special schools in Curitiba (PR, Brazil. METHODS: 97 adult patients were included. BP was measured in accordance with the established guidelines. BMI was calculated by dividing the weight by the height squared (kg/m2. RESULTS: Sex had no influence on BMI; nor did systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP. The age range was from 18 to 56 years. No correlation was observed between increasing age and greater BMI or BP. Eighty-six individuals (88.7% presented normal BP, eleven (11.3% prehypertension and none hypertension. Twenty patients (20.4% presented BP lower than 90 × 60 mmHg. BMI ranged from 18 to 48 kg/m2 (mean of 28.8 ± 3.92 kg/m2: 21.9% had normal weight; 40.7% were overweight; and 25.3% had obesity class I, 9.9% class II and 2.2% class III. Higher BMI was associated with significantly greater SBP and DBP (P = 0.0175 and P = 0.0015. CONCLUSION: Sex and age did not influence SBP, DBP or BMI in Brazilian adults with DS. Higher BMI was associated with greater BP (both systolic and diastolic.

  14. Software Architecture Design for Spatially-Indexed Media in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHIPOR, O.-A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce in this work a new software architecture design, based on well-established web communication protocols and scripting languages, for implementing spatially-indexed media in smart environments. We based our approach on specific design guidelines. Our concept of spatially-indexed media enables users to readily instantiate mappings between digital content and specific regions of the physical space. We present an implementation of the architecture using a motion capture system, a large visualization display, and several smart devices. We also present an experimental evaluation of our new software architecture by reporting response times function of changes in the complexity of physical-digital environment.

  15. The relationships between WAIS-IV factor index scores and educational level: A bifactor model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Francisco J; Sorrel, Miguel A; Román, Francisco J; Colom, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    IQ summary scores may not involve equivalent psychological meaning for different educational levels. Ultimately, this relates to the distinction between constructs and measurements. Here, we explore this issue studying the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) for Spain. A representative sample of 743 individuals (374 females and 369 males) who completed the 15 subtests comprising this intelligence battery was considered. We analyzed (a) the best latent factor structure for modeling WAIS-IV subtest performance, (b) measurement invariance across educational levels, and (c) the relationships of educational level/attainment with latent factors, Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), and index factor scores. These were the main findings: (a) the bifactor model provides the best fit; (b) there is partial invariance, and therefore it is concluded that the battery is a proper measure of the constructs of interest for the educational levels analyzed (nevertheless, the relevance of g decreases at high educational levels); (c) at the latent level, g and, to a lesser extent, Verbal Comprehension and Processing Speed, are positively related to educational level/attainment; (d) despite the previous finding, we find that Verbal Comprehension and Processing Speed factor index scores have reduced incremental validity beyond FSIQ; and (e) FSIQ is a slightly biased measure of g. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Seed quality, chlorophyll content index and leaf nitrogen levels in maize inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Matos Pereira; Elise de Matos Pereira; Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti; Sonia Marli Zingaretti; Gustavo Vitti Môro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between maize genotypes in relation to the germination response of the seeds and the growth of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, as well as the effect of inoculation on nitrogen levels and the chlorophyll content index of the leaves. The physiological seeds quality from the single-cross hybrids AG7098 and 2B707, and from the experimental synthetic varieties V2 and V4, inoculated with A. brasilense, was tested for germination, ...

  17. Integrative-index method of assessment of the countries’ financial globalization level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relevant problems of the complex evaluation of the countries’ financial globalization level. There were investigated methodological principles and assessment tools of both the economic globalization in general and its financial component. It offers an integrative index of the countries’ financial globalization based on which calculations we analyzed characteristic features and dynamism of the globalization processes development in the sphere of finance of some countries.

  18. System-level design methodologies for telecommunication

    CERN Document Server

    Sklavos, Nicolas; Goehringer, Diana; Kitsos, Paris

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern networks design, from specifications and modeling to implementations and test procedures, including the design and implementation of modern networks on chip, in both wireless and mobile applications.  Topical coverage includes algorithms and methodologies, telecommunications, hardware (including networks on chip), security and privacy, wireless and mobile networks and a variety of modern applications, such as VoLTE and the internet of things.

  19. Power Analysis in Two-Level Unbalanced Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on statistical power has discussed mainly single-level designs or 2-level balanced designs with random effects. Although balanced experiments are common, in practice balance cannot always be achieved. Work on class size is one example of unbalanced designs. This study provides methods for power analysis in 2-level unbalanced designs…

  20. Index-profile design for low-loss crossed multimode waveguide for optical printed circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigure, Takaaki; Shitanda, Keishiro; Oizmi, Yutaro

    2015-08-24

    We present an index profile design for remarkably low loss multimode optical crossed waveguide. In this paper, we theoretically calculate the light propagation loss in crossed waveguides with step-index (SI) and graded-index (GI) square cores utilizing a ray tracing simulation. In this simulation, we focus on the index exponent values for the GI profile, which allows low crossing loss even if the number of crossing is as large as 50 or even if the crossing angle is as low as 20°. It is revealed that an index exponent of 2.0 for the GI core strongly contributes to exhibit 35 times lower loss (0.072 dB after 50-perpendicular crosses) compared to the loss of the SI-core counterpart (2.58 dB after the same crossings). The GI cores with a smaller index exponent exhibit better loss in crossed waveguides with a wide range of crossing angles from 30° to 90°. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of the refractive index profile at the intersection on the optical loss of crossed waveguides.

  1. Seed quality, chlorophyll content index and leaf nitrogen levels in maize inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Matos Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate differences between maize genotypes in relation to the germination response of the seeds and the growth of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, as well as the effect of inoculation on nitrogen levels and the chlorophyll content index of the leaves. The physiological seeds quality from the single-cross hybrids AG7098 and 2B707, and from the experimental synthetic varieties V2 and V4, inoculated with A. brasilense, was tested for germination, percentage and rate of emergence, and dry matter weight of the shoots and roots. Nitrogen levels and chlorophyll content index were evaluated in leaves of the same four genotypes grown in a greenhouse under different nitrogen supply systems and methods of inoculation with A. brasilense. The genotypes differ with regard to inoculation with A. brasilense. The hybrids were responsive to inoculation with A. brasilense for root dry matter weight. The V2 variety had a lower performance as regards root dry matter weight, with the opposite being seen for the dry matter weight of the shoots. V4 displayed no significant differences when inoculated. The results of the chlorophyll content index were not significant. Each genotype under evaluation displayed a different response for leaf nitrogen levels. It is possible to infer that the hybrids responded better to inoculation with the bacteria, with the greater root development leading to a better utilisation of water and nutrients.

  2. Provincial human development index, a guide for efficiency level analysis: the case of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabermahani, Asma; Barouni, Mohsen; Seyedin, Hesam; Aryankhesal, Aidin

    2013-01-01

    Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite indicator that can show the impact of economic strategies on human life standards. The index is calculated by three main factors of income, education and health. This research studies the status of HDI across the Iranian provinces, its changes over time and the efficiency of provinces in using resources. The data for 2001 and 2009 was obtained from the Iranian Center of Statistics. Data envelopment analysis technique was used to analyze the data. To calculate the efficiency, Banker, Charnes and Cooper's model was used. The national mean for the HDI in 2001 was 0.717 while it grew to 0.747 in 2009. Except for one province, all others had an improved human development index. Low ranked provinces such as Sistan & Baluchistan and Kurdistan stayed at the bottom in 2009 as well. Some provinces such as Bushehr with developing oil industries, or those purposively benefited from national oil income showed good growth. In some provinces, such as Hormozgan, out-migration of manpower to its neighboring province, Bushehr, was associated with decrease of the provincial income level. The number of efficient provinces increased from 5 to 13 in 2009. Iran falls among countries with high human development index based on the 2009 data. However, the distribution of HDI status across provinces was highly varied and the difference between high- and low-developed provinces increased in 2009. The government needs to revise policies concerning distribution of resources among the provinces.

  3. Design of wideband graded-index antireflection coatings at oblique light incidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun-Chao; Fang Ming; Jin Yun-Xia; He Hong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We suggest a design method of graded-refractive-index (GRIN) antireflection (AR) coating for s-polarized or ppolarized light at off-normal incidence.The spectrum characteristic of the designed antireflection coating with a quintic effective refractive-index profile for a given state of polarization has been discussed.In addition,the genetic algorithm was used to optimize the refractive index profile of the GRIN antireflection for reducing the mean reflectance of s- and p-polarizations.The average reflectance loss was reduced to only 0.04% by applying optimized GRIN AR coatings onto BK7 glass over the wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm at the incident angle of θ0 =70°.

  4. Design of a Michelson Interferometer for Quantitative Refraction Index Profile Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, J.L.M.

    1998-01-01

    This book describes the theoretical design of a three camera Michelson interferometer set-up for quantitative refractive index measuerments. Although a two camera system is easier to align and less expensive, a three camera interferometer is preferred because the expected measuring accuracy is much

  5. Zootechnical and economic performance indexes of milk production systems with different technological levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Andrade Ferrazza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate reference zootechnical and economic performance indexes, examine the influence of different technological levels on technical and economic results on dairy farms and identify the components that had higher representativeness on total and effective operational cost. Thirty-eight size, zootechnical and economic indicators of 61 milk production systems, grouped according to three technological levels, were analyzed. The data were collected during January 2002 to December 2011 period. It was adopted the structure of the operating cost and the total cost as methodology for calculating the costs. The results were compared by ANOVA test (normal distribution, complemented by LSD test, and Kruskal-Wallis test (non-normal distribution, also complemented by LSD test. The stratification of milk production systems according to technological level does not seem to be a good criterion to be used when it wants to make comparisons between different groups of producers, evidenced by the lack of statistical significance (P>0.05 in comparing of size and zootechnical indexes between low and medium technological level groups. Producers of high technological level made investments without proper analysis of return on investment and risk. The items of total and effective operational cost that had higher representativeness were, in descending order, feeding and labor.

  6. Design of Controllers for Liquid Level Control

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin Simon,; Elizabeth Varghese

    2015-01-01

    The liquid level control system is commonly used in many process control applications. The aim of the process is to keep the liquid level in the tank at the desired value. The conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is simple, reliable and eliminates the error rate but it cannot handle complex problems. Fuzzy logic controllers are rule based systems which simulates human behavior of the process. The fuzzy controller is combined with the PID controller and th...

  7. Plasma vanillylmandelic acid level as an index of psychological stress response in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M; Hata, A; Niwa, S; Hiramatsu, K; Honda, H; Nakagome, K; Iwanami, A

    1996-06-26

    The relationships between psychological stress responses and plasma levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were investigated in normal volunteers. Two questionnaires were used to measure stress: the Psychological Stress Response Scale (PSRS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Plasma levels of VMA--but not MHPG, HVA, and 5-HIAA--showed significant positive correlations with PSRS emotional and cognitive-behavioral stress and STAI state anxiety. Significant positive correlations were also found between plasma levels of VMA and MHPG and psychological stress responses measured repeatedly in a longitudinal study of an Olympic swimmer. Plasma VMA measurements, which reflect the level of activity of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, may provide a useful biochemical index of psychological stress responses in normal subjects.

  8. Level Shifter Design for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With scaling of Vt sub-threshold leakage power is increasing and expected to become significant part oftotal power consumption.In present work three new configurations of level shifters for low powerapplication in 0.35μm technology have been presented. The proposed circuits utilize the merits ofstacking technique with smaller leakage current and reduction in leakage power. Conventional levelshifter has been improved by addition of three NMOS transistors, which shows total power consumptionof 402.2264pW as compared to 0.49833nW with existing circuit. Single supply level shifter has beenmodified with addition of two NMOS transistors that gives total power consumption of 108.641pW ascompared to 31.06nW. Another circuit, contention mitigated level shifter (CMLS with three additionaltransistors shows total power consumption of 396.75pW as compared to 0.4937354nW. Three proposedcircuit’s shows better performance in terms of power consumption with a little conciliation in delay.Output level of 3.3V has been obtained with input pulse of 1.6V for all proposed circuits.

  9. Numerical methods for the design of gradient-index optical coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzengruber, Stephan W; Klann, Esther; Ramlau, Ronny; Tonova, Diana

    2012-12-01

    We formulate the problem of designing gradient-index optical coatings as the task of solving a system of operator equations. We use iterative numerical procedures known from the theory of inverse problems to solve it with respect to the coating refractive index profile and thickness. The mathematical derivations necessary for the application of the procedures are presented, and different numerical methods (Landweber, Newton, and Gauss-Newton methods, Tikhonov minimization with surrogate functionals) are implemented. Procedures for the transformation of the gradient coating designs into quasi-gradient ones (i.e., multilayer stacks of homogeneous layers with different refractive indices) are also developed. The design algorithms work with physically available coating materials that could be produced with the modern coating technologies.

  10. Design of fiber metamaterials with negative refractive index in the infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Scott; Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Qing

    2015-07-13

    Metamaterials possess intricate, sub-wavelength microstructures, making scalability a salient concern in regard to their practicality. Fiber-drawing offers a route to producing large quantities of material at relatively low cost, though to our knowledge, a fiber-based design capable of negative refractive index behaviour has not yet been proposed. We submit that the electric and magnetic dipole resonance modes of the fiber can be enhanced by including in the fiber aligned metallic inclusions. Addition of a solid metallic core can effect a synchronisation of these modes, allowing a collection of the fibers to possess negative refractive index.

  11. Design of fishnet metamaterials with broadband negative refractive index in the visible spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Townsend, Scott; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Shen, Jianhu; Li, Qing

    2014-04-15

    We propose a technique capable of designing fishnet metamaterials that have a negative refractive index (NRI) over a broad range in the visible and infrared. The technique relies on optimizing the shape and scale of the fishnet apertures as well as the depth of different layers of the composite. A metamaterial is obtained that exhibits an unbroken 552 nm bandwidth of NRI, covering the entire red and infrared regions. Moreover, two fishnet structures perforated with star-like holes are found to render refractive index negative in the yellow and green spectra.

  12. Design theory of digital circuits at switch level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴训威; F.Prosser

    1996-01-01

    By analysing problems in the traditional design theory of digital circuits it is proposed that both switching variable and signal variable should be adopted for describing the switching state of internal elements and signal in digital circuits respectively.Based on the above viewpoint the switch-signal theory is established.According to the working principle in CMOS circuits,the related design technique at switch level is developed.By using the practical design examples it is shown that the circuits designed at switch level have simpler structures than their counterparts designed at the traditional gate level since the switch transistors are used as construction units in designs.

  13. Relations between the Basel Index and the Level of Indebtedness of Brazilian Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Espinele da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Basel Accord imposes a regulatory minimum capital requirement for banks to maintain their liquidity and are less susceptible to shocks from the interconnection of the financial system. Banks need to manage the dynamics of funding and applications in order to avoid excess or shortage of monetary resources, they are exposed to risks such as credit risk and liquidity risk. Credit risk is the risk that the counterparty in the transaction does not honor its obligation. Liquidity risk is the risk of the financial institution become unable to honor its obligations. The debt ratio of Brazilian families grew during the period analyzed, and a high level of debt increases the chances of default and expose financial institutions to credit risk and liquidity risk. The objective of this article is to analyze the relationship between the Basel index released by the banks and the high level of household debt in Brazil. The study used data available at the time series management system (SMS of the Central Bank of Brazil, which cover the period from January 2005 to December 2013, the following variables: Basel index, debt, inflation IPCA, Selic rate , Delinquency in SPC through an ARCH model (Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity. The results demonstrate that the Basel index, and the household debt levels have negative correlation, which makes the two vary in opposite directions. We can compare the model results for the Brazilian financial system with what was observed in the US market, as, for example, the perspective of authors who point to the beginning of the financial crisis of 2008, as a result of high indebtedness of American families in the business of mortgages.

  14. A global view on cancer incidence and national levels of the human development index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Bray, Freddie

    2016-12-01

    Socioeconomic factors are associated with cancer incidence through complex and variable pathways. We assessed cancer incidence for all cancers combined and 27 major types according to national human development levels. Using GLOBOCAN data for 184 countries, age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were assessed by four levels (low, medium, high, very high) of the Human Development Index (HDI), a composite index of life expectancy, education, and gross national income. A strong positive relationship between overall cancer incidence and HDI level was observed. When comparing the ASR in very high HDI regions with that in low HDI regions, we observed a positive association ranging from 2 to 14 and 2 to 11 times higher in males and females, respectively, depending on the cancer type. Positive dose-response relationships between the ASR and HDI level were observed in both sexes for the following cancer types: lung, pancreas, leukemia, gallbladder, colorectum, brain/nervous system, kidney, multiple myeloma, and thyroid. Positive associations were also observed for testicular, bladder, lip/oral cavity, and other pharyngeal cancers, Hodgkin lymphoma, and melanoma of the skin in males, and corpus uteri, breast, and ovarian cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in females. A negative dose-response relationship was observed for cervical and other pharyngeal cancers and Kaposi sarcoma in females. Although the relationship between incidence and the HDI remained when assessed at the country-specific level, variations in risk within HDI levels were also observed. We highlight positive and negative associations between incidence and human development for most cancers, which will aid the planning of cancer control priorities among countries undergoing human development transitions. © 2016 UICC.

  15. Transmutation of singularities and zeros in graded index optical instruments: a methodology for designing practical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, I R; Philbin, T G

    2013-12-30

    We describe a design methodology for modifying the refractive index profile of graded-index optical instruments that incorporate singularities or zeros in their refractive index. The process maintains the device performance whilst resulting in graded profiles that are all-dielectric, do not require materials with unrealistic values, and that are impedance matched to the bounding medium. This is achieved by transmuting the singularities (or zeros) using the formalism of transformation optics, but with an additional boundary condition requiring the gradient of the co-ordinate transformation be continuous. This additional boundary condition ensures that the device is impedance matched to the bounding medium when the spatially varying permittivity and permeability profiles are scaled to realizable values. We demonstrate the method in some detail for an Eaton lens, before describing the profiles for an "invisible disc" and "multipole" lenses.

  16. Transmutation of singularities and zeros in graded index optical instruments: a methodology for designing practical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hooper, I R

    2014-01-01

    We describe a design methodology for modifying the refractive index profile of graded-index optical instruments that incorporate singularities or zeros in their refractive index. The process maintains the device performance whilst resulting in graded profiles that are all-dielectric, do not require materials with unrealistic values, and that are impedance matched to the bounding medium. This is achieved by transmuting the singularities (or zeros) using the formalism of transformation optics, but with an additional boundary condition requiring the gradient of the co- ordinate transformation be continuous. This additional boundary condition ensures that the device is impedance matched to the bounding medium when the spatially varying permittivity and permeability profiles are scaled to realizable values. We demonstrate the method in some detail for an Eaton lens, before describing the profiles for an "invisible disc" and "multipole" lenses.

  17. Provincial Human Development Index, a Guide for Efficiency Level Analysis: The Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Sabermahani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Development Index (HDI is a composite indicator that can show the impact of economic strategies on human life standards. The index is calculated by three main factors of income, education and health. This research studies the status of HDI across the Iranian provinces, its changes over time and the efficiency of provinces in using resources.Methods: The data for 2001 and 2009 was obtained from the Iranian Center of Statistics. Data envelopment analysis technique was used to analyze the data. To calculate the efficiency, Banker, Charnes and Cooper's model was used.Results: The national mean for the HDI in 2001 was 0.717 while it grew to 0.747 in 2009. Except for one province, all others had an improved human development index. Low ranked provinces such as Sistan & Baluchistan and Kurdistan stayed at the bottom in 2009 as well. Some provinces such as Bushehr with developing oil industries, or those purposively benefited from national oil income showed good growth. In some provinces, such as Hormozgan, out-migration of manpower to its neighboring province, Bushehr, was associated with decrease of the provincial income level. The number of efficient provinces increased from 5 to 13 in 2009.Conclusion: Iran falls among countries with high human development index based on the 2009 data. However, the distribution of HDI status across provinces was highly varied and the difference between high- and low-developed provinces increased in 2009. The government needs to revise policies concerning distribution of resources among the provinces.

  18. Resistin levels are related to fat mass, but not to body mass index in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lorena; Riestra, Pía; Navarro, Pilar; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Soriano-Guillén, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The relationship of resistin levels with obesity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents and evaluate their association with anthropometric parameters and body composition. The study population included 420 randomly selected 6-8-year-old children and 712 children aged 12-16 years. Anthropometric data were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios were calculated. Body composition was assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. Serum resistin levels were determined using a multiplexed bead immunoassay. Resistin levels were not significantly different between sexes. No significant differences in serum resistin concentrations were found between obese, overweight, and normal weight children at any age, and no significant correlations were observed between resistin concentrations and weight or BMI. However, resistin levels showed a significant positive correlation with fat mass in 12-16-year-old children, particularly in girls. In addition to describing serum resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents, our study suggests that resistin is related to body fat rather than to BMI in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of polarization-insensitive superconducting single photon detectors with high-index dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, Luca; Monroy, E; Gérard, J M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the design of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors which are insensitive to the polarization of the incident light is investigated. By using high-refractive-index dielectrics, the index mismatch between the nanowire and the surrounding media is reduced. This enhances the absorption of light with electric field vector perpendicular to the nanowire segments, which is generally hindered in this kind of detectors. Building on this principle and focusing on NbTiN nanowire devices, we present several easy-to-realize cavity architectures which allow high absorption efficiency (in excess of 90%) and polarization insensitivity simultaneously. Designs based on ultranarrow nanowires, for which the polarization sensitivity is much more marked, are also presented. Finally, we briefly discuss the specific advantages of this approach in the case of WSi or MoSi nanowires.

  20. Design of polarization-insensitive superconducting single photon detectors with high-index dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, L.; Zwiller, V.; Monroy, E.; Gérard, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the design of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors which are insensitive to the polarization of the incident light is investigated. By using high-refractive-index dielectrics, the index mismatch between the nanowire and the surrounding media is reduced. This enhances the absorption of light with electric field vector perpendicular to the nanowire segments, which is generally hindered in these kind of detectors. Building on this principle and focusing on NbTiN nanowire devices, we present several easy-to-realize cavity architectures which allow high absorption efficiency (in excess of 90%) and polarization insensitivity simultaneously. Designs based on ultranarrow nanowires, for which the polarization sensitivity is much more marked, are also presented. Finally, we briefly discuss the specific advantages of this approach in the case of WSi or MoSi nanowires.

  1. Growth Hormone, Insulin Resistance Index, Lipid Profile, and Cardiorespiratory Function in Obese and Lean Inactive Young Men: Correlations with Plasma Acylated Ghrelin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Matinhomaee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plasma ghrelin is influenced by nutritional status and is thought to play a role in acute and chronic regulating of food intake and body weight. The purpose of this study was to compare GH, insulin resistance index, lipid profile, and cardiorespiratory function in obese and lean inactive young men and determine their relationships with plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Methods: Study design of this research was causal-comparative. Obese (n=19, BMI: 31.0 kg/m2 and lean (n=19, BMI: 18.5 kg/m2 young men, without experience of regular physical activity during the previous six months, were selected. After 12 h fasting (at 8 a.m., blood samples were collected to determine blood parameter levels. Also, maximal oxygen uptake (as indicator of cardiorespiratory function of subjects was assessed. Results: Insulin levels and HOMA-IR (insulin resistance index were higher, and GH, acylated ghrelin and maximal oxygen uptake levels were lower in obese men compared to lean men (P0.01. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated to body mass, body fat percent, body mass index, insulin and HOMA-IR, and positively correlated to GH levels and maximal oxygen uptake (P0.01.Conclusion: Obese and lean inactive young men had different levels of acylated ghrelin, GH, insulin, insulin resistance index, cardiorespiratory function and body fat percent. Body fat percent, insulin, and GH levels appear to be the strongest determinant factors of acylated ghrelin levels.

  2. Tertiary Level Students and the Mental Health Index (MHI-5 in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Dunne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An examination of student mental health was conducted using the five item Mental Health Index (MHI, a subscale of the widely used SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey. Results support the use of the MHI, which was found to be to be a valid and reliable measure of mental health in Irish third-level students. As anticipated, females reported significantly higher levels of symptoms than males on the MHI. It was also noted that final year students report significantly worse mental health than other students. Comparison with a general population mean for a corresponding age group indicate significantly lower mental health status being recorded by the students in this study. Suggestions for further research are made.

  3. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  4. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  5. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  6. Serum Creatinine Level: A Supplemental Index to Distinguish Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy from Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To improve assessment of dystrophinopathy, the aim of this study was to identify whether serum creatinine (Crn level reflects disease severity. Methods. Biochemical, Vignos score, and genetic data were collected on 212 boys with dystrophinopathy. Results. Serum Crn level had a strong inverse correlation with Vignos score by simple correlation (r=-0.793 and partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age, height, and weight (r=-0.791; both P<0.01. Serum Crn level was significantly higher in patients with in-frame than out-of-frame mutations (Z=-4.716, P<0.01 and in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD patients than Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients at ages 4, 5, 7, and 9 yr (all P<0.0125. After adjusting for age, height, and weight, BMD patients still had a significantly higher serum Crn level than DMD patients (β=7.140, t=6.277, P<0.01. Conclusions. Serum Crn level reflected disease severity and may serve as a supplemental index to distinguish DMD from BMD in clinical practice.

  7. A County-level Crop Specific Drought Severity-Coverage Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelaruban, N.; Akyuz, A.; Padmanabhan, G.; Shaik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding drought severity, frequency, duration and spatial extent is critical in drought mitigation, planning and decision making. A county-level approach to addressing drought is ideal since most agricultural management is best administered at county level in the USA. This study sought to apply spatiotemporal drought characteristics at reduced areal extents, namely, at county level for an entire state (North Dakota, USA) using a derived weekly non-dimensional index, Drought Severity and Coverage Index (Isc) based on a stepwise approach. Isc was calculated from weekly percentages of areal coverage values of drought intensity values published by the "U.S. Drought Monitor", DM. DM is published weekly as a joint project by the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration (NOAA). In order to facilitate application at the county level, the variation of the drought based on Isc was mapped in county level for state of North Dakota, and drought events were categorized into classes based on weekly Isc to analyze drought frequency. The number of occurrences of drought events were then determined for each county and climate division based on derived classes. The drought frequency analyses showed clear demarcation of counties in an observable dichotomy. Impact of drought on crop yield was also analyzed using USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) county level yield, developed Isc values, drought intensity categories of areal coverage values for selected crops such as barley, corn, durum wheat, hay-alfalfa, hay, oats, and spring wheat. This research uses alternative panel statistical procedures instead of the usual time series analysis procedures to account for temporal and spatial variations to accurately model the relationship between exogenous and endogenous drought variables. In alternative panel procedures, two-way random effects model was used which accounts for

  8. Correlation between atherogenic index of plasma level and metabolism components in adult growth hormone deficiency patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-jia XIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP levels with anthropometrics, glycolipid metabolism markers and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6 in adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD patients. Methods Retrospective analysis were carried out in 40 AGHD patients (AGHD group, admitted to First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University and 40 healthy adults from physical examination centre (control group during June 2009 to September 2012. The general anthropometries and blood biochemical indexes were collected and compared between two groups. AIP, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment β-cell function (HOMA-β, LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and TG/LDL-C were calculated and compared between two groups. The correlation between AIP and these indexes was analyzed using Pearson correlation. Results Compared with control group, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, fasting insulin (FINS, HOMA-β, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, hs-CPR, IL-6, AIP were significant higher, but HDL-C levels were lower in AGHD group (P0.05. There was a positive association between AIP and all the WC, WHR, FINS, HOMA-β, HOMA-IR, TC, LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, TG/LDL-C, hs-CRP and IL-6 (r=0.349, 0.314, 0.347, 0.335, 0.297, 0.256, 0.576, 0.749, 0.702, 0.477, 0.226, respectively, P<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that hs-CRP and IL-6 were independent risk factors of AIP. Conclusion AIP is significantly higher in AGHD patients than healthy people, and it shows a strong correlation with many risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.12.10

  9. Bispectral Index in ICU: correlation with Ramsay Score on assessment of sedation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Epifanio; Siliotti, Rossella; Noto, Giusi; Cuzzocrea, Elisabetta; Scollo, Giuseppe; Trimarchi, Giuseppe; Venuti, Francesco Saverio

    2002-07-01

    The assessment of sedation level in critically ill patient remains a challenge for the intensivists in order to avoid over- or under-sedation phenomena. Scoring systems commonly used still show some limitation; the introduction of Bispectral Index (an EEG parameter) could bring potential advantages in monitoring sedation. According to the reports, Bispectral Index correlates with levels of sedation on the Ramsay Scale. We report our personal experience in this topic. Twenty patients, diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), were involved in the study. For an optimal adaptation to respiratory prothesis, they were sedated (with Propofol by continuous infusion at an initial dose of 2 mg/kg/h, which could be modulated with steps of 0.5 mg/kg/h), in order to maintain a Ramsay score of 4-5. BIS value was continuously recorded, and manually calculated on a mean average of a minute during the measuring of Ramsay score (T0) and every 30' for 24 hours on par with Ramsay score. EEG, SpO2, non invasive arterial pressure, ventilatory module, ETCO2, FIO2 were also recorded. For the statistic analysis, Friedman test and Spearman coefficient were utilized. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. 980 observations were carried out. The variation range of Ramsay Score was between 2 and 6. BIS range varied from 34 to 98. Statistic analysis of the data obtained pointed out some significative correlations, particularly between Ramsay Score and BIS (p < 0.01), and between BIS and dosage of Propofol (p < 0.01). The results of the study are consistent with those found in the literature on this topic of study. In fact, this study demonstrates the utility of BIS to track levels of consciousness in ICU patients while still maintaining the use of the score systems to care for ICU patients.

  10. [Determination of the management level for a body mass index using multivariate analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, N; Yoshida, K; Matsuda, H; Izuno, T; Umetada, Y

    1991-02-01

    It is evident that obesity has adverse effects on health and longevity. The body mass index (BMI) is a simple measurement highly correlated with other estimates of fatness and is useful in determining the extent of obesity, but the management level of the BMI for Japanese remains to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to determine the management level of the BMI for Japanese adjusted for individual life style factors such as smoking and drinking. Among 1,854 male workers in a financial company, those who had periodical health examinations, 1,445 workers (aged 40-58) were chosen. Excluded were those who were below 150 cm or above 180 cm in height or those who had stopped smoking or drinking. Stepwise logistic regression of the findings of 10 medical test items was performed, using age, the BMI, smoking habits, and drinking habits as independent variables. The following conclusions were obtained. 1. The BMI was chosen as independent variable in all medical test items except glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. In contrast, age and drinking habits were chosen in 6 medical test items, and smoking habits were chosen in 3 medical test items. 2. When the BMI exceeded 24 (kg/m2), significantly higher odds ratios were observed in the following medical test items: total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose and uric acid. Thus, this level of the BMI should be used as the management level in the Japanese male. Taking life styles into consideration, the management level of the BMI seemed to be slightly lower than the ordinary level used in Japan. In order to conduct effective health counseling, this level should be used in health care.

  11. Association of Body Mass Index with Chromosome Damage Levels and Lung Cancer Risk among Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoliang; Bai, Yansen; Wang, Suhan; Nyamathira, Samuel Mwangi; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wangzhen; Wang, Tian; Deng, Qifei; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an etiological link between body mass index (BMI) and cancer risk, but evidence supporting these observations is limited. This study aimed to investigate potential associations of BMI with chromosome damage levels and lung cancer risk. First, we recruited 1333 male workers from a coke-oven plant to examine their chromosome damage levels; and then, a cohort study of 12 052 males was used to investigate the association of BMI with lung cancer incidence. We further carried out a meta-analysis for BMI and male lung cancer risk based on cohort studies. We found that men workers with excess body weight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) had lower levels of MN frequencies than men with normal-weight (BMI: 18.5–24.9). Our cohort study indicated that, the relative risk (RR) for men with BMI ≥ 25 to develop lung cancer was 35% lower than RR for normal-weight men. Further meta-analysis showed that, compared to normal-weight men, men with BMI ≥ 25 had decreased risk of lung cancer among both the East-Asians and others populations. These results indicate that men with excess body weight had significant decreased chromosome damage levels and lower risk of lung cancer than those with normal-weight. However, further biological researches were needed to validate these associations. PMID:25820198

  12. An overview of very high level software design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  13. Designing an Index to Reveal the Potential of Multipurpose Landscapes in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Torquebiau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipurpose mosaic (“ecoagriculture” landscapes can serve the purpose of land sharing to combine objectives of agricultural production and biodiversity conservation. Rewarding the people who shape and maintain those landscapes could act as a mechanism to generate added-value representing an indirect payment for ecosystem services. We investigated the feasibility of such an approach in two areas in Southern Africa differing in spatial configurations, history and socio-economic context. We designed and tested a composite index describing the state of each landscape in terms of ecoagriculture criteria (conservation, production, institutions and livelihood and ecosystem services (provisioning, regulating and cultural services. The resulting index is made up of different sets of data each comprising 40 scores, obtained from stakeholders’ participatory interviews. Ecosystem services are in general assigned more importance than ecoagriculture criteria. In both cases, cultural services receive the highest scores, whereas the lowest ones are attributed to the livelihood and institutions in the Zimbabwean and South African sites, respectively. Index values reveal that the South African site, where there is more integration between land-use units, does better in terms of a landscape performing multiple functions. Provided relevant stakeholders are involved and a certification mechanism is developed, the landscape labelling index can be used to recognize and reward the value of outstanding rural landscapes.

  14. [Use of an index of social welfare for health planning at a municipal level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Díaz López, H; Sánchez-Pérez, H J; Martínez-Guzmán, L A

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between a living standards index for small areas based on census data and information on morbidity and health care utilization. The information was gathered through a health interview survey of a random sample of 1 238 households from rural areas of Tlaxcala, Mexico. The population from localities with lower living standards showed significantly higher prevalences of morbidity and worse self-reported health status measures, as compared to localities with higher living standards. On the contrary, higher living standards were related with a greater utilization of health services. The approach proved to be useful in discriminating localities and areas of high and low prevalence of morbidity and utilization of health care services, which in turn could be used to identify those areas where needs are greatest. The implications of the results for health planning and resource allocation (based on population health needs and underlying social conditions) at the local level are discussed.

  15. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  16. BI-LEVEL CLASSIFICATION OF COLOR INDEXED IMAGE HISTOGRAMS FOR CONTENT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpagam Vilvanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation proposes content based image classification and retrieval with Classification and Regression Tree (CART. A simple CBIR system (WH is designed and proved to be efficient even in the presence of distorted and noisy images. WH exhibits good performance in terms of precision, without using any intensive image processing feature extraction techniques. Unique indexed color histogram and wavelet decomposition based horizontal, vertical and diagonal image attributes have been chosen as the primary attributes in the design of the retrieval system. The output feature vectors of the WH method serve as input to the proposed decision tree based image classification and retrieval system. The performance of the proposed content based image classification and retrieval system is evaluated with the standard SIMPLIcity dataset which has been used in several previous works. The performance of the system is measured with precision as the metric. Holdout validation and k-fold cross validation are used to validate the results. The proposed system performs obviously better than SIMPLIcity and all the other compared methods.

  17. Designing Alternative Transport Methods for the Distributed Data Collection of ATLAS EventIndex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the key and challenging tasks of the ATLAS EventIndex project is to index and catalog all the produced events not only at CERN but also at hundreds of worldwide grid sites, and convey the data in real time to a central Hadoop instance at CERN. While this distributed data collection is currently operating correctly in production, there are some issues that might impose performance bottlenecks in the future, with an expected rise in the event production and reprocessing rates. In this work, we first describe the current approach based on a messaging system, which conveys the data from the sources to the central catalog, and we identify some weaknesses of this system. Then, we study a promising alternative transport method based on an object store, presenting a performance comparison with the current approach, and the architectural design changes needed to adapt the system to the next run of the ATLAS experiment at CERN.

  18. Design and use of guided mode resonance filters for refractive index sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    This Ph.D. thesis is concerned with the design and use of guided mode resonance filters (GMRF) for applications in refractive index sensing. GMRFs are optical nanostructures capable of efficiently and resonantly reflecting a narrow wavelength interval of incident broad band light. They combine...... a diffractive element with a waveguiding element, and it is the coupling between diffracted light and quasi guided modes that gives rise to the resonant response. The linewidth of the resonance can be tuned by the material and geometrical configuration of the device. The resonance wavelength is highly sensitive...... to changes in refractive index that occur within the region overlapped by the quasi guided mode, and GMRFs are thus well suited for optical sensing and tunable filter applications. They produce a polarization dependent response and can be optically characterized in both reflection and transmission...

  19. Design of acoustic beam aperture modifier using gradient-index phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Tittmann, Bernhard R; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-06-15

    This article reports the design concept of a novel acoustic beam aperture modifier using butt-jointed gradient-index phononic crystals (GRIN PCs) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in a homogeneous epoxy background. By gradually tuning the period of a GRIN PC, the propagating direction of acoustic waves can be continuously bent to follow a sinusoidal trajectory in the structure. The aperture of an acoustic beam can therefore be shrunk or expanded through change of the gradient refractive index profiles of the butt-jointed GRIN PCs. Our computational results elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed acoustic beam aperture modifier. Such an acoustic device can be fabricated through a simple process and will be valuable in applications, such as biomedical imaging and surgery, nondestructive evaluation, communication, and acoustic absorbers.

  20. COMPARISION OF BODY MASS INDEX (BMI WITH HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL LEVELS IN OBESE PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized nations. Serum lipid concentrations are related to cardiovascular disease risk and one notable association is a statistically significant inverse correlation between HDL-cholesterol concentrations and the probability of developing coronary artery disease. A major related cardiovascular disease risk factor is obesity. Excess body weight is closely linked to low serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The general assumption now is that excessive body weight is associated with enlarged adipose tissue deposits, visceral adipose tissue in particular, which in turn are accompanied by elevated serum triacylglycerol concentrations. A well-studied inverse association exists between serum triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and this may explain the observed low serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations in obesity. This study is done to confirm the above fact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects for the study were 100 males in the age group of 21 to 40 years. The subjects taken as obese were 50 and those taken as controls were 50. Obesity was taken into account according to the Body Mass Index. RESULTS: Paired T test is done. Results show that 34/50 subjects with BMI 40mg/dl. 40/50 obese patients with BMI >25kg/m2 show HDL levels of <40mg/dl. Significant P value is seen. The study shows that BMI is inversely related to HDL cholesterol levels. DISCUSSION: High HDL cholesterol, above 60 mg/dl is associated with low risk of coronary heart disease. HDL cholesterol below 40 mg/dL is considered too low and appears to be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Low HDL cholesterol is one of the most common phenotypes seen in persons with premature heart disease. Obesity is associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels. A negative correlation exists between HDL cholesterol and body-mass index (BMI, meaning that HDL

  1. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  2. Word-Level Equivalence Checking in Bit-Level Accuracy by Synthesizing Designs onto Identical Datapath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Tasuku; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Fujita, Masahiro

    Equivalence checking is one of the most important issues in VLSI design to guarantee that bugs do not enter designs during optimization steps or synthesis steps. In this paper, we propose a new word-level equivalence checking method between two models before and after high-level synthesis or behavioral optimization. Our method converts two given designs into RTL models which have same datapaths so that behaviors by identical control signals become the same in the two designs. Also, functional units become common to the two designs. Then word-level equivalence checking techniques can be applied in bit-level accuracy. In addition, we propose a rule-based equivalence checking method which can verify designs which have complicated control structures faster than existing symbolic simulation based methods. Experimental results with realistic examples show that our method can verify such designs in practical periods.

  3. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  4. A new index for precise design and advanced operation of mass transfer in slug flow

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Nobuaki; Tanigawa, Shin; Mae, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Slug flow, one of the ordered multi-phase flow patterns in a small channel, has the advantage of the enhancement of mixing in each phase and mass transfer between two phases due to the internal circulation flow. To form stable slug flow, the throughput of order of μL min−1 has been employed. To use slug flow in industrial scale, however, controlled and high throughput mass transfer and an index for design of a channel with slug flow are required. To address this requirement, we examined the i...

  5. Research on Energy Efficiency Design Index for Sea-going LNG Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lin; Yanyun Yu; Guan Guan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers’ reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  6. Body Mass Index Predicts 24-Hour Urinary Aldosterone Levels in Patients With Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Ghazi, Lama; Liu, Mingchun; Li, Peng; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A

    2016-10-01

    Prospective studies indicate that hyperaldosteronism is found in 20% of patients with resistant hypertension. A small number of observational studies in normotensive and hypertensive patients suggest a correlation between aldosterone levels and obesity while others could not confirm these findings. The correlation between aldosterone levels and body mass index (BMI) in patients with resistant hypertension has not been previously investigated. Our objective was to determine whether BMI is positively correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone:renin ratio, and 24-hour urinary aldosterone in black and white patients. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a large diverse cohort (n=2170) with resistant hypertension. The relationship between plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone:renin ratio, 24-hour urinary aldosterone, and BMI was investigated for the entire cohort, by sex and race (65.3% white, 40.3% men). We demonstrate that plasma aldosterone concentration and aldosterone:renin ratio were significantly correlated to BMI (Phypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Daily index of air pollution level; Indice giornaliero della qualita` dell`aria IGQA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albergamo, C.; Cagnetti, P.; Mammarella, M. C.; Tondo, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-05-01

    A daily evaluation of pollution level in urban area is the starting point to carry out any proper analysis of pollution data. In this paper an algorithm is stated in order to provide both a method to evaluate pollution level and a direct interpretation of resulting values according to the present law. Hour data, which is taken from surveying points, is previously transformed to daily data and then normalised to standard values. Afterwards, one value per pollutant is obtained as an index of the daily situation for the whole area. The operational choices in the algorithm are made with respect to the present law. The algorithm has been carried out by SAS language as a part of the project called A.T.M.O.S.F.E.R.A. (a decision-support-system developed by ENEA) to give a useful and intuitive instrument to spot critical situations for air pollution. The last part of the paper is an application to Rome data, from January 1992 to December 1996.

  8. Metabolic Effect Level Index Links Multivariate Metabolic Fingerprints to Ecotoxicological Effect Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Janet; Schreiber, René; Otto, Matthias; Heilmeier, Hermann; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2015-07-07

    A major goal of ecotoxicology is the prediction of adverse outcomes for populations from sensitive and early physiological responses. A snapshot of the physiological state of an organism can be provided by metabolic fingerprints. However, to inform chemical risk assessment, multivariate metabolic fingerprints need to be converted to readable end points suitable for effect estimation and comparison. The concentration- and time-dependent responsiveness of metabolic fingerprints to the PS-II inhibitor isoproturon was investigated by use of a Myriophyllum spicatum bioassay. Hydrophilic and lipophilic leaf extracts were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and preprocessed with XCMS. Metabolic changes were aggregated in the quantitative metabolic effect level index (MELI), allowing effect estimation from Hill-based concentration-response models. Hereby, the most sensitive response on the concentration scale was revealed by the hydrophilic MELI, followed by photosynthetic efficiency and, 1 order of magnitude higher, by the lipophilic MELI and shoot length change. In the hydrophilic MELI, 50% change compares to 30% inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency and 10% inhibition of dry weight change, indicating effect development on different response levels. In conclusion, aggregated metabolic fingerprints provide quantitative estimates and span a broad response spectrum, potentially valuable for establishing adverse outcome pathways of chemicals in environmental risk assessment.

  9. Design space pruning through hybrid analysis in system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system archi- tectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size

  10. Adolescents’ Level of Perceived Stress and its Relationship with Body Mass Index in a Bangladeshi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Shamima Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several behavioral factors, specially stress, eating behavior, and physical activity have been linked with adolescent obesity. In our country, mental health of adolescents is often neglected. So, we designed this study to describe the current perception of stress in Bangladeshi adolescent students. Objective: Aim of this study was to assess association between stress and body mass index of adolescents while controlling for physical activity and examining stress associated eating behavior. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 278 adolescent students during the period from January to December 2013. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire which included physical activity questions, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ, Adolescent stress questionnaire (ASQ and standard anthropometric measurements and were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 21.0. Results: In this study majority of the respondents were males. Among the female respondents, about 12.23% were overweight and obese compared to their male peers (4.1%. The normal and high BMI adolescents in the study showed significantly different proportions regarding gender (p<0.001, father’s education (p=0.036 and smoking status (p=0.22. Findings in this study reveals negative correlation between physical activity score and body mass index (ρ=−0.15, p<0.05. Body mass index was found significantly correlated with all three DEBQ eating subscales the restraint score, emotional eating score (ρ=0.58 p<0.001, and external eating score (ρ=0.55, p<0.001. Based on sample data, the mean stress scores were due to home life (3.40±0.54, school performance (3.31±0.63, school attendance (2.42±0.87, romantic relationship (3.02±0.92, peer pressure (2.85±0.72, due to teacher interaction (2.89±0.56, future uncertainty (3.83±0.90, school/leisure conflict (3.55±0.68, financial pressure (2.99±0.79 and emerging adult responsibility (3

  11. Characterizing speed-independence of high-level designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishinevsky, Michael; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    types, and internal as well as external non-determinism. This makes it possible to verify the speed-independence of a design without providing an explicit realization of the environment. The verification can be done mechanically. A number of experimental designs have been verified including a speed......This paper characterizes the speed-independence of high-level designs. The characterization is a condition on the design description ensuring that the behavior of the design is independent of the speeds of its components. The behavior of a circuit is modeled as a transition system, that allows data...

  12. Design and fabrication of low loss and low index optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Princess MyCia

    The study of optics has changed over the past 3000 years. We have developed beyond the early lens technologies of quartz and other types of glass materials and new materials are being engineered to enhance the properties of naturally occurring materials through metamaterials. Scattering and propagation of light through subwavelength scale structures can alter the bulk electromagnetic permittivity and permeability of the constituent materials incorporating these nanostructures. Such metamaterials can be modeled and designed to create desired electromagnetic responses such as having a refractive index less than unity. This is the focus of this research using nanoscale low-loss metallic and semiconductor materials. We investigate a new rigorous scattering model for sub-wavelength sized particles that provides a guide that allows bulk materials with reduced refractive index to be made. We show numerical and experimental results supporting this goal. Using nanoscale low loss semiconductor materials we investigate this scattering model for sub-wavelength sized particles. This approach could lead us to the "Holy Grail" in optical science which is a negative or near zero index material that operates at visible wavelengths.

  13. Omega-3 index levels and associated factors in a middle-aged French population: the MONA LISA-NUT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A; Simon, C; Morio, B; Dallongeville, J; Ruidavets, J B; Haas, B; Laillet, B; Cottel, D; Ferrières, J; Arveiler, D

    2015-04-01

    The omega-3 index (the summed percentage content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in red blood cells) is associated with a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death. We aimed to determine which socio-demographic, behavioural or clinical factors are independently associated with the omega-3 index and the extent to which seafood consumption mediates the index's association with socio-economic status (SES). As part of the cross-sectional MONA LISA-NUT survey (2005-2007), gas chromatography was used to analyse the red blood cell fatty acid composition in 503 French subjects aged 35-64 years. Dietary data were collected by trained dieticians via a validated food frequency questionnaire and a prospective 3-day food record. Risk factors were estimated with standardised measurements and questionnaires. SES was assessed through the self-reported educational and income tax levels. The mean ± s.d. omega-3 index was 6.02 ± 1.75%. In the best parsimonious predictive model (which explained 32% of the variability in the omega-3 index), age, educational level and seafood servings were significantly and positively associated with the index. In contrast, waist circumference and smoking were inversely associated with the index. In a mediation analysis that took account of all these factors, seafood servings explained about 40% of the association between educational level and the omega-3 index. Similar results were obtained for the income tax level. The inverse association between SES and omega-3 index is largely explained (40%) by an insufficient seafood intake. It remains to be seen which other factors mediate this association.

  14. Effectiveness of Five-Level Emergency Severity Index Triage System Compared With Three-Level Spot Check: An Iranian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Triage for patients’ prioritization in the emergency department is a suitable solution to decrease overcrowding. Different methods are used for prioritization that needs effectiveness evaluation. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the emergency severity index (ESI 5-level triage system in contrast with spot check triage. Patients and Methods Data for this quasi-experimental study were extracted using a form to review 770 records of patients referred to emergency department of Imam Khomeini hospital (in Sari, north of Iran during two separated periods each for four months; the first from 20th March to 19th July 2010 and the other from 21 March to 20 July 2011. The method used in the first time was spot check triage and the second one ESI triage. Data were processed with descriptive statistics and analyzed using independent samples t-test (CI = 95%. Results Increase from 6.46 to 8.92 minutes in the average time from patient arrival to being visited by a physician (P < 0.001 and increase in average time from physician visit to receive the first nursing care from 7.68 to 15.89 minutes were significant (P < 0.001. The average waiting time for laboratory services was significantly decreased from 112.3 to 84.1 (P = 0.033. Increase in the average waiting time for radiology, decrease in average waiting time for sonography, average length of stay in the emergency department, and number of patients per emergency bed were not significant. Conclusions Between the two systems of triage, ESI was more effective than the spot check and in the spatial and temporal domain of research, was a successful method in improving some indicators of emergency and improving the performance indices. Hospital managers by implementation of ESI system can take a step toward new health policies and improve the processes as key tools of continuous quality improvement system.

  15. Effect of aflatoxin on malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and stress index in Toxoplasma gondii infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. M. Al-Taee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for the determination of the combined effect of aflatoxin and Toxoplasma gondii on malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and stress index in sixty young inbred Swiss female albino mice BALB/C, which were randomly divided into six equal groups; Group 1(untreated control animals were maintained without any treatment; group 2 were injected intraperitonealy with T. gondii tissue cysts; groups 3 and 4 were fed diets contaminated with 0.5 and 1 ppm aflatoxin respectively; group 5 and 6 were fed 0.5 and 1 ppm aflatoxin and injected with T. gondii tissue cysts. All animals were maintained for 40 days. One ml, containing 100 Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts was obtained from brain tissue of naturally infected local breed rabbit was injected intraperitonealy. Aflatoxins (AFs were prepared through inoculation of rice with Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 and were incorporated into the diet to provide the described level of 0.5 and 1 ppm. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken to determine Heterophils/lymphopcytes ratio (H/L, while brain was taken to determine glutathione and malondialdehyde concentration. Results showed that mice injected with T. gondii tissue cysts alone and those groups fed aflatoxin at both rates of 0.5 and 1 ppm were exhibited a significant (P<0.05 increase in H/L ratio, and malondialdehyde, while there is a significant (P<0.05 reduction on the level of glutathione. The results revealed that aflatoxin could exacerbate T. gondii infection and induce stress through suppression of glutathione and elevation of malondialdehyde concentration and H/L ratio.

  16. Indexing cortical entrainment to natural speech at the phonemic level: Methodological considerations for applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, Giovanni M; Lalor, Edmund C

    2017-02-27

    Speech is central to human life. As such, any delay or impairment in receptive speech processing can have a profoundly negative impact on the social and professional life of a person. Thus, being able to assess the integrity of speech processing in different populations is an important goal. Current standardized assessment is mostly based on psychometric measures that do not capture the full extent of a person's speech processing abilities and that are difficult to administer in some subjects groups. A potential alternative to these tests would be to derive "direct", objective measures of speech processing from cortical activity. One such approach was recently introduced and showed that it is possible to use electroencephalography (EEG) to index cortical processing at the level of phonemes from responses to continuous natural speech. However, a large amount of data was required for such analyses. This limits the usefulness of this approach for assessing speech processing in particular cohorts for whom data collection is difficult. Here, we used EEG data from 10 subjects to assess whether measures reflecting phoneme-level processing could be reliably obtained using only 10 min of recording time from each subject. This was done successfully using a generic modeling approach wherein the data from a training group composed of 9 subjects were combined to derive robust predictions of the EEG signal for new subjects. This allowed the derivation of indices of cortical activity at the level of phonemes and the disambiguation of responses to specific phonetic features (e.g., stop, plosive, and nasal consonants) with limited data. This objective approach has the potential to complement psychometric measures of speech processing in a wide variety of subjects.

  17. Design of a wavelength-tunable optical tweezer using a graded-index multimode optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Mobini, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable Optical Fiber Tweezer (OFT) based on a Graded Index Multimode Fiber (GIMF) with a flat endface is proposed. It is shown that the design can support a trapping position which is far from the tip of the GIMF compared with other common optical tweezing methods, hence reducing the possibility of a contact between the trapped particle and the fiber tip. Moreover, because of the wavelength dependence of the GIMF design parameters such the Numerical Aperture (NA), the trapping position can become wavelength-dependent. Therefore, the trapping position can be tuned over a long range using a common wave-length tunable laser. The proposed OFT differs from previous fiber-based demonstrations by using a flat-endface fiber making the fabrication and experiment quite easier than previously proposed tapered-endface OFTs.

  18. Reverse relationship between blood boron level and body mass index in humans: does it matter for obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Cipe, Gokhan; Kadioglu, Huseyin; Aysan, Erhan; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2013-06-01

    The exact role of boron in humans is not known although its supplementation causes several important metabolic and inflammatory changes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an association between blood boron level and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects. A total number of 80 subjects, categorized into four groups based on their body mass index as normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese, were enrolled in this study. Age, sex, body mass index, and blood boron levels were recorded for each subject. Although the distribution of female and male subjects and blood boron levels were similar between groups, the mean age of normal subjects was significantly lower than the others (p = 0.002). There was a significant relationship between age and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject (β = 0.24; p = 0.003). In addition, between blood boron levels and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, a significant reverse relationship was detected (β = -0.16; p = 0.043). Although age seemed to be an important variable for blood boron level and body mass index, blood boron levels were shown to be lower in obese subjects in comparison to non-obese subjects.

  19. Level up! the guide to great video game design

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Want to design your own video games? Let expert Scott Rogers show you how! If you want to design and build cutting-edge video games but aren't sure where to start, then the SECOND EDITION of the acclaimed Level Up! is for you! Written by leading video game expert Scott Rogers, who has designed the hits Pac Man World, Maximo and SpongeBob Squarepants, this updated edition provides clear and well-thought out examples that forgo theoretical gobbledygook with charmingly illustrated concepts and solutions based on years of professional experience. Level Up! 2nd Edition has been NEWLY EXPANDED to

  20. [Biological age as an index of human health level, aging and ecological well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krut'ko, V N; Dontsov, V I; Zakhar'iashcheva, O V; Kuznetsov, I A; Mamikonova, O A; Pyrvu, V V; Smirnova, T M; Sokolova, L A

    2014-01-01

    Methodology of estimating the integral health and aging level is based on the system index of biological age (BA). The paper introduces the reader to the BA principles and structure, search for meaningful aging biomarkers, useful tests, and applications in present-day biomedicine. The concept of BA is directly linked with the theory of organism vitality. BA biomarkers must provide a detailed picture of the process of aging. Number of biomarkers cannot be large, while their changes with aging must be uniform in every population member and fairly distinct though with moderate interindividual variations. Prognosis of the vital trajectory requires estimation of risk factors, i.e. hereditary and acquired factors that affect lifespan, and also longevity factors, i.e. genetic and environmental factors crucial for clinical medicine and gerontological prophylaxis properly. At present, BA gains wide recognition in clinical and preventive medicine, physiology and biology as a method to evaluate the general state of health, ecological well-being, adaptation to extreme factors, as well as the rate and degree of organism aging.

  1. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, l-minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  2. The comparison of free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    M. Metin Yıldırımkaya; H. Tuğrul Çelik; Şeyda Özdemir; Sevilay Sezer; Nihal Uğuz; Ceylan Bal; Oya Güngör; Gönül Erden

    2011-01-01

    In many laboratories free testosterone can not be measured, so that free androgen index is suggested instead. The aim of this study was to compare free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels measured by radioimmunoassay in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome.Materials and methods: Totally 94 women referred to the polyclinics of Ankara Numune Hospital were retrospectively included. Three patient groups were composed; 55 of hirsutism, 20 of polycystic ovary syndrome and...

  3. Modulation of genetic associations with serum urate levels by body-mass-index in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jennifer E; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Mangino, Massimo; Kapur, Karen; Johnson, Toby; Kutalik, Zoltán; Pirastu, Nicola; Pistis, Giorgio; Lopez, Lorna M; Haller, Toomas; Salo, Perttu; Goel, Anuj; Li, Man; Tanaka, Toshiko; Dehghan, Abbas; Ruggiero, Daniela; Malerba, Giovanni; Smith, Albert V; Nolte, Ilja M; Portas, Laura; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Boteva, Lora; Navarro, Pau; Johansson, Asa; Hicks, Andrew A; Polasek, Ozren; Esko, Tõnu; Peden, John F; Harris, Sarah E; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Tenesa, Albert; Tin, Adrienne; Mihailov, Evelin; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti K; Coresh, Josef; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Kolcic, Ivana; Fisher, Krista; Viigimaa, Margus; Metter, Jeffrey E; Masciullo, Corrado; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Bombieri, Cristina; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Reischl, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa; Smit, Johannes H; Kirin, Mirna; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Sala, Cinzia; Hengstenberg, Christian; Burnier, Michel; Mägi, Reedik; Klopp, Norman; Kloiber, Stefan; Schipf, Sabine; Ripatti, Samuli; Cabras, Stefano; Soranzo, Nicole; Homuth, Georg; Nutile, Teresa; Munroe, Patricia B; Hastie, Nicholas; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Cabrera, Claudia; Haley, Chris; Franco, Oscar H; Merriman, Tony R; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Pirastu, Mario; Penninx, Brenda W; Snieder, Harold; Metspalu, Andres; Ciullo, Marina; Pramstaller, Peter P; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Wilson, James F; Gasparini, Paolo; Gyllensten, Ulf; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Alan F; Hayward, Caroline; Watkins, Hugh; Perola, Markus; Bochud, Murielle; Kao, W H Linda; Caulfield, Mark; Toniolo, Daniela; Völzke, Henry; Gieger, Christian; Köttgen, Anna; Vitart, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non BMI-stratified overall sample were performed. The former did not uncover any novel locus with a major main effect, but supported modulation of effects for some known and potentially new urate loci. The latter highlighted a SNP at RBFOX3 reaching genome-wide significant level (effect size 0.014, 95% CI 0.008-0.02, Pinter= 2.6 x 10-8). Two top loci in interaction term analyses, RBFOX3 and ERO1LB-EDARADD, also displayed suggestive differences in main effect size between the lean and obese strata. All top ranking loci for urate effect differences between BMI categories were novel and most had small magnitude but opposite direction effects between strata. They include the locus RBMS1-TANK (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 4.7 x 10-8), a region that has been associated with several obesity related traits, and TSPYL5 (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 9.1 x 10-8), regulating adipocytes-produced estradiol. The top-ranking known urate loci was ABCG2, the strongest known gout risk locus, with an effect halved in obese compared to lean men (Pdifflean-obese= 2 x 10-4). Finally, pathway analysis suggested a role for N-glycan biosynthesis as a prominent urate-associated pathway in the lean stratum. These results illustrate a potentially powerful way to monitor changes occurring in obesogenic environment.

  4. Modulation of genetic associations with serum urate levels by body-mass-index in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Huffman

    Full Text Available We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non BMI-stratified overall sample were performed. The former did not uncover any novel locus with a major main effect, but supported modulation of effects for some known and potentially new urate loci. The latter highlighted a SNP at RBFOX3 reaching genome-wide significant level (effect size 0.014, 95% CI 0.008-0.02, Pinter= 2.6 x 10-8. Two top loci in interaction term analyses, RBFOX3 and ERO1LB-EDARADD, also displayed suggestive differences in main effect size between the lean and obese strata. All top ranking loci for urate effect differences between BMI categories were novel and most had small magnitude but opposite direction effects between strata. They include the locus RBMS1-TANK (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 4.7 x 10-8, a region that has been associated with several obesity related traits, and TSPYL5 (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 9.1 x 10-8, regulating adipocytes-produced estradiol. The top-ranking known urate loci was ABCG2, the strongest known gout risk locus, with an effect halved in obese compared to lean men (Pdifflean-obese= 2 x 10-4. Finally, pathway analysis suggested a role for N-glycan biosynthesis as a prominent urate-associated pathway in the lean stratum. These results illustrate a potentially powerful way to monitor changes occurring in obesogenic environment.

  5. Evaluation of prolactin levels in patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris and its correlation with pemphigus disease area index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Lajevardi, MD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: In our study, 22% of patients had hyperprolactinemia, which was greater among females. The highest PRL level was detected in mucocutaneous group. Although serum PRL levels were higher in patients with a greater Pemphigus Disease Area Index, it did not reach statistical significance.

  6. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified…

  7. Thread-Level Parallel Indexing of Update Intensive Moving-Object Workloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidlauskas, Darius; Ross, Kenneth A.; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    as well as contain queries. The non-trivial challenge addressed is that of avoiding contention between long-running queries and frequent updates. Specifically, the paper proposes a grid-based indexing technique. A static grid indexes a near up-to-date snapshot of the data to support queries, while a live...

  8. Designing Cognitive Intervention to Improve the Awareness Index of the Residents in the Landslide Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, N.; Putranto, T. T.; Ulfa, E. A.

    2017-02-01

    Considering Semarang as a city with a high potential of landslides occurrences in its almost area, human as the part of the system should be played as a centre of the disaster management system to reduce the natural disaster risk. The study area is located in Manyaran district (the west of Semarang) which is categorised as a vulnerable of landslide area. This study aims at establishing a cognitive intervention based on a cause analysis (Fault Tree Analysis/FTA) to find the cause of low value and improve the awareness index of residents as the implementation of human-based disaster management model. The FTA result was then combined with the demographical data to generate the design of the cognitive intervention. The FTA result conducted that the preparedness of emergency planning had the lowest value (18.2%) which was caused by the lack individual preparation including lack of residents knowledge, and the absence of observation facilities as well as the lack of evacuation planning. Analysis of demographical data resulted in a situation of lack socialisation and knowledge of the residents regarding the landslide occurrence. The model of cognitive intervention then utilised some tools such as video, module and discussion to improve the awareness index.

  9. System Level Uncertainty Assessment for Collaborative RLV Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, A. C.; Bradford, John E.; Olds, John R.; Graham, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    A collaborative design process utilizing Probabilistic Data Assessment (PDA) is showcased. Given the limitation of financial resources by both the government and industry, strategic decision makers need more than just traditional point designs, they need to be aware of the likelihood of these future designs to meet their objectives. This uncertainty, an ever-present character in the design process, can be embraced through a probabilistic design environment. A conceptual design process is presented that encapsulates the major engineering disciplines for a Third Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Toolsets consist of aerospace industry standard tools in disciplines such as trajectory, propulsion, mass properties, cost, operations, safety, and economics. Variations of the design process are presented that use different fidelities of tools. The disciplinary engineering models are used in a collaborative engineering framework utilizing Phoenix Integration's ModelCenter and AnalysisServer environment. These tools allow the designer to join disparate models and simulations together in a unified environment wherein each discipline can interact with any other discipline. The design process also uses probabilistic methods to generate the system level output metrics of interest for a RLV conceptual design. The specific system being examined is the Advanced Concept Rocket Engine 92 (ACRE-92) RLV. Previous experience and knowledge (in terms of input uncertainty distributions from experts and modeling and simulation codes) can be coupled with Monte Carlo processes to best predict the chances of program success.

  10. Automated gray level index measurements reveal only minor cytoarchitectonic changes of Brodmann area 9 in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepest, Ralf; Vogeley, Kai; Viebahn, Bettina; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Honer, William G; Falkai, Peter

    2008-07-15

    Using an automatized gray level index (GLI) method, we recently found cytoarchitectonic abnormalities in schizophrenia in Brodmann area 10 (BA10) [Vogeley, K., Tepest, R., Schneider-Axmann, T., Hutte, H., Zilles, K., Honer, W.G., Falkai, P., 2003. Automated image analysis of disturbed cytoarchitecture in Brodmann area 10 in schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research 62, 133-140]. As another potential key region involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we have now investigated BA9 in the same sample consisting of 20 schizophrenic cases and 20 controls. The GLI value represents the area-percentage covered by perikarya in measuring fields of microscopic images. BA9 was analyzed with respect to the factors diagnosis and gender for six different compartments approximately corresponding to the neocortical layers. The main result in BA9 was a significant interaction of diagnosis and gender for GLI in layers IV and V on the left side. Subsequent analyses separately performed concerning gender revealed a significant GLI increase in layer V on the left side in male patients compared with controls. However, after an adjustment of error probabilities for multiple testing, differences did not reach significance. No GLI difference was observed in the sample between diagnostic groups for females and between the diagnostic groups in general. Comparisons with our BA10 results suggest that cytoarchitectural changes relevant to schizophrenia appear different in various Brodmann areas. Since increases in GLI were found only in selected layers (V and VI) of BA9, these findings do not support a generalized neuropil reduction across all cortical layers.

  11. Design of satisfaction output feedback controls for stochastic nonlinear systems under quadratic tracking risk-sensitive index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘允刚; 张纪峰; 潘子刚

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the design problem of satisfaction output feedback controls for stochastic nonlinear systems in strict feedback form under long-term tracking risk-sensitive index is investigated.The index function adopted here is of quadratic form usually encountered in practice, rather than of quartic one used to beg the essential difficulty on controller design and performance analysis of the closed-loop systems. For any given risk-sensitive parameter and desired index value, by using the integrator backstepping method, an output feedback control is constructively designed so that the closed-loop system is bounded in probability and the risk-sensitive index is upper bounded by the desired value.

  12. Advancements in transformation optics-enabled gradient-index lens design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sawyer D.; Brocker, Donovan E.; Nagar, Jogender; Easum, John A.; Werner, Douglas H.; Werner, Pingjuan L.

    2015-09-01

    Transformation Optics (TO) provides the mathematical framework for representing the behavior of electromagnetic radiation in a given geometry by "transforming" it to an alternative, usually more desirable, geometry through an appropriate mapping of the constituent material parameters. Using a quasi-conformal mapping, the restrictions on the required material parameters can be relaxed allowing isotropic inhomogeneous all-dielectric materials to be employed. This approach has led to the development of a new and powerful design tool for gradient-index (GRIN) optical systems. Using TO, aspherical lenses can be transformed to simpler spherical and flat geometries or even rotationally-asymmetric shapes which result in true 3D GRIN profiles. TO can also potentially be extended to collapse an entire lens system into a representative GRIN profile thus reducing its physical dimensions while retaining the optical performance of the original system. However, dispersion effects of the constituent materials often limit the bandwidth of metamaterial and TO structures thus restricting their potential applicability. Nonetheless, with the proper pairing of GRIN profile and lens geometry to a given material system, chromatic aberrations can be minimized. To aid in the GRIN construction, we employ advanced multi-objective optimization algorithms which allow the designer to explicitly view the trade-offs between all design objectives such as RMS spot size, field-of-view (FOV), lens thickness, 𝛥𝑛, and focal drift due to chromatic aberrations. We present an overview of our TO-enabled GRIN lens design process and analysis techniques while demonstrating designs which minimize the presence of mono- and poly-chromatic aberrations and discuss their requisite material systems.

  13. A numerical index for evaluating phytoplankton response to changes in nutrient levels in deep mediterranean reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola SECHI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new ecological index based on phytoplankton (MedPTI as suggested by the European Directive 2000/60/CE, Water Framework Directive (WFD. The index is a useful tool to verify the impacts of eutrophication in Mediterranean reservoirs belonging to different categories of the WFD. Multiple data sets were employed to develop the MedPTI index. The calibration data set included data collected from 30 Sardinian reservoirs in 1994. A list of 44 selected taxa was obtained and used for index calculation. A second dataset including 48 averaged annual values from 10 reservoirs was used. Results showed good correlation between MedPTI and concentration of total phosphorus, which was the limiting nutrient in these reservoirs. The trophic classifications determined using the index agreed with the results from the OECD probabilistic model on the same series of data. Finally, the index was included in an international exercise to compare the definition of reference conditions and quality class boundaries against indices used in other Mediterranean countries.

  14. Frailty Levels in Residential Aged Care Facilities Measured Using the Frailty Index and FRAIL-NH Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theou, Olga; Tan, Edwin C K; Bell, J Simon; Emery, Tina; Robson, Leonie; Morley, John E; Rockwood, Kenneth; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2016-11-01

    To compare the FRAIL-NH scale with the Frailty Index in assessing frailty in residential aged care facilities. Cross-sectional. Six Australian residential aged care facilities. Individuals aged 65 and older (N = 383, mean aged 87.5 ± 6.2, 77.5% female). Frailty was assessed using the 66-item Frailty Index and the FRAIL-NH scale. Other measures examined were dementia diagnosis, level of care, resident satisfaction with care, nurse-reported resident quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and professional caregiver burden. The FRAIL-NH scale was significantly associated with the Frailty Index (correlation coefficient = 0.81, P care needs, with the Frailty Index having stronger associations with all of these measures. The FRAIL-NH scale is a simple and practical method to screen for frailty in residential aged care facilities. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Chip-Level Design for Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Tsung Yu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD chips have become the most popular actuator for droplet-based digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs due to its high throughput, automatic control, and low cost. As the complexity of biochemical assays increases, powerful computer-aided-design (CAD tools are needed. This paper provides an overview of DMFBs and describes some important issues and problems in the chip-level design of DMFBs.

  16. High-Level Information Fusion Management and Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Blasch, Erik; Lambert, Dale

    2012-01-01

    High-level information fusion is the ability of a fusion system to capture awareness and complex relations, reason over past and future events, utilize direct sensing exploitations and tacit reports, and discern the usefulness and intention of results to meet system-level goals. This authoritative book serves a practical reference for developers, designers, and users of data fusion services that must relate the most recent theory to real-world applications. This unique volume provides alternative methods to represent and model various situations and describes design component implementations o

  17. CONSTRUCTING UNIFORM DESIGNS WITH TWO- OR THREE-LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    When the number of runs is large, to search for uniform designs in the sense of low-discrepancy is an NP hard problem. The number of runs of most of the available uniform designs is small (≤ 50). In this article, the authors employ a kind of the so-called Hamming distance method to construct uniform designs with two- or three-level such that some resulting uniform designs have a large number of runs. Several infinite classes for the existence of uniform designs with the same Hamming distances between any distinct rows are also obtained simultaneously. Two measures of uniformity, the centered L2-discrepancy (CD, for short) and wrap-around L2-discrepancy (WD, for short), are employed.

  18. Design of automatic leveling and centering system of theodolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-tong; He, Zhen-Xin; Huang, Xian-xiang; Zhan, Ying

    2012-09-01

    To realize the theodolite automation and improve the azimuth Angle measurement instrument, the theodolite automatic leveling and centering system with the function of leveling error compensation is designed, which includes the system solution, key components selection, the mechanical structure of leveling and centering, and system software solution. The redesigned leveling feet are driven by the DC servo motor; and the electronic control center device is installed. Using high precision of tilt sensors as horizontal skew detection sensors ensures the effectiveness of the leveling error compensation. Aiming round mark center is located using digital image processing through surface array CCD; and leveling measurement precision can reach the pixel level, which makes the theodolite accurate centering possible. Finally, experiments are conducted using the automatic leveling and centering system of the theodolite. The results show the leveling and centering system can realize automatic operation with high centering accuracy of 0.04mm.The measurement precision of the orientation angle after leveling error compensation is improved, compared with that of in the traditional method. Automatic leveling and centering system of theodolite can satisfy the requirements of the measuring precision and its automation.

  19. Physical Explanation on Designing Three Axes as Different Resolution Indexes from GRACE Satellite-Borne Accelerometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wei; XU Hou-Ze; ZHONG Min; YUN Mei-Juan

    2008-01-01

    @@ The GRACE Earth's gravitational field complete up to degree and order 120 is recovered based on the same and different three-axis resolution indexes from satellite-borne accelerometer using the improved energy conservation principle. The results show that designing XA1(2) as low-sensitivity axis (3 × 10-9 m/s2) of accelerometer and designing YA1(2) and ZA1(2) as high-sensitivity axes (3 × 10-10m/s2) are reasonable. The physical reason why the resolution of XA1(2) is one order of magnitude lower than YA1(2) and ZA1(2) is that non-conservative forces acting on GRACE satellites axe mainly decomposed into YA1(2) and ZA1(2) in the orbital plane.Since X A1(2) is not orthogonal accurately to orbital plane during the development of accelerometer, the measurement of X A1(2) can not be thrown off entirely, but be reduced properly.

  20. Estimating Slope and Level Change in N = 1 Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanas, Antonio; Manolov, Rumen; Onghena, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The current study proposes a new procedure for separately estimating slope change and level change between two adjacent phases in single-case designs. The procedure eliminates baseline trend from the whole data series before assessing treatment effectiveness. The steps necessary to obtain the estimates are presented in detail, explained, and…

  1. design and implementation of a water level controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... ... E.C. Anoliefod,a a. National Ctr. For Energy Research and Development, Univ. of Nigeria Nsukka ... Experimental performance results indicated that the device is quite suitable for .... the water level indicator. In the design ...

  2. Conceptual design of compliant mechanisms using level set method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-kui CHEN; Michael Yu WANG

    2006-01-01

    We propose a level set method-based framework for the conceptual design of compliant mechanisms.In this method,the compliant mechanism design problem is recast as an infinite dimensional optimization problem,where the design variable is the geometric shape of the compliant mechanism and the goal is to find a suitable shape in the admissible design space so that the objective functional can reach a minimum.The geometric shape of the compliant mechanism is represented as the zero level set of a one-higher dimensional level set function,and the dynamic variations of the shape are governed by the Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation.The application of level set methods endows the optimization process with the particular quality that topological changes of the boundary,such as merging or splitting,can be handled in a natural fashion.By making a connection between the velocity field in the Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation with the shape gradient of the objective functional,we go further to transform the optimization problem into that of finding a steady-state solution of the partial differential equation.Besides the above-mentioned methodological issues,some numerical examples together with prototypes are presented to validate the performance of the method.

  3. Modulation Methods for Three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter Achieving Stress Redistribution under Moderate Modulation Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This letter investigates the loss and thermal behaviors of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) inverter undergoing moderate modulation index, which is typically presented during minor voltage sags of the power grid or speed changes of the electric machines. A series of new space vector m...

  4. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  5. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  6. Rational design of on-chip refractive index sensors based on lattice plasmon resonances (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-08-01

    Lattice plasmon resonances (LPRs), which originate from the plasmonic-photonic coupling in gold or silver nanoparticle arrays, possess ultra-narrow linewidth by suppressing the radiative damping and provide the possibility to develop the plasmonic sensors with high figure of merit (FOM). However, the plasmonic-photonic coupling is greatly suppressed when the nanoparticles are immobilized on substrates because the diffraction orders are cut off at the nanoparticle-substrate interfaces. Here, we develop the rational design of LPR structures for the high-performance, on-chip plasmonic sensors based on both orthogonal and parallel coupling. Our finite-difference time-domain simulations in the core/shell SiO2/Au nanocylinder arrays (NCAs) reveal that new modes of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) show up when the aspect ratio of the NCAs is increased. The height-induced LSPRs couple with the superstrate diffraction orders to generate the robust LPRs in asymmetric environment. The high wavelength sensitivity and narrow linewidth in these LPRs lead to the plasmonic sensors with high FOM and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Wide working wavelengths from visible to near-infrared are also achieved by tuning the parameters of the NCAs. Moreover, the wide detection range of refractive index is obtained in the parallel LPR structure. The electromagnetic field distributions in the NCAs demonstrate the height-enabled tunability of the plasmonic "hot spots" at the sub-nanoparticles resolution and the coupling between these "hot spots" with the superstrate diffraction waves, which are responsible for the high performance LPRs-based on-chip refractive index sensors.

  7. A LEVEL SET METHOD FOR MICROSTRUCTURE DESIGN OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MeiYnlin; WangXiaoming

    2004-01-01

    Based on a level set model and the homogenization theory, an optimization algorithm for finding the optimal configuration of the microstructure with specified properties is proposed, which extends current research on the level set method for structure topology optimization. The method proposed employs a level set model to implicitly describe the material interfaces of the microstructure and a Hamilton-Jacobi equation to continuously evolve the material interfaces until an optimal design is achieved. Meanwhile, the moving velocities of level set are obtained by conducting sensitivity analysis and gradient projection. Besides, how to handle the violated constraints is also discussed in the level set method for topological optimization, and a return-mapping algorithm is constructed. Numerical examples show that the method exhibits outstanding flexibility of handling topological changes and fidelity of material interface representation as compared with other conventional methods in literatures.

  8. Design and methods of the GLYNDIET study: assessing the role of glycemic index on weight loss and metabolic risk markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Juanola-Falgarona

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glycemic index and/or glycemic load have been explored as an alternative for the prevention and/or management of obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Objective: The purpose of the manuscript is to describe the design and methods used in the GLYNDIET Project, a study designed to simultaneously address the questions related to the exactly role of low glycaemic index carbohydrates has on weight loss. Methods: This study was designed as a 6-months randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial aiming to evaluate the effect of the dietary glycemic index on weight-loss, satiety, glucose and insulin metabolism, lipid profile, inflammation and other emergent metabolic risk markers. Eligible subjects were community-dwelling men and women aged between 30 and 60 years, with a body mass index between 27 and 35 kg/m². Subjects were randomly assigned to three different dietary intervention groups (low glycemic index diet, high glycemic index diet or low-fat diet, that were isocaloric, and did not differ in the amount of dietary fibre. Monthly, study subjects were scheduled for control visits where anthropometry, blood pressure, dietary habits, satiety and physical activity were assessed. Blood, urine and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the study to further molecular and biochemical measurements. Discussion: The GLYNDIET study was designed to determine if there is a greater effectiveness of a carbohydrate restricted diet with low glycemic index compared to an isocaloric diet with carbohydrates of high glycemic index or low-fat diet on weight loss in middle long-term.

  9. Blood lead levels and cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) as predictors of late neurodevelopment in lead poisoned children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Linda H.; Wright, Robert O.; Bellinger, David C.; Hussain, Javed; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Chettle, David R.; Pejović-Milić, Ana; woolf, Alan; Shannon, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find the best lead exposure assessment marker for children. Methods We recruited 11 children, calculated a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) for the children, measured their concurrent BLL, assessed their development, and measured their bone lead level. Results Nine of 11 children had clinically significant neurodevelopment problems. CBLI and current blood lead level, but not the peak lead level, were significantly or marginally negatively associated with the full-scale IQ score. Conclusion Lead exposure at younger age significantly impacts a child’s later neurodevelopment. CBLI may be a better predictor of neurodevelopment than are current or peak blood lead levels. PMID:21827276

  10. The comparison of free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Metin Yıldırımkaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In many laboratories free testosterone can not be measured, so that free androgen index is suggested instead. The aim of this study was to compare free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels measured by radioimmunoassay in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome.Materials and methods: Totally 94 women referred to the polyclinics of Ankara Numune Hospital were retrospectively included. Three patient groups were composed; 55 of hirsutism, 20 of polycystic ovary syndrome and 19 of both hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome. Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline levels were measured by chemiluminescence method and free testosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Free androgen index was calculated from total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline.Results: There was a significant positive correlation between free testosterone and free androgen index in patients with hirsutism, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, in patients with hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome, and in total patient group [r(hirsutism=0,597, r(PCOS=0,617, r(hirsutism and PCOS=0,779, r(total patient group=0,649, P<0,01].Receiver operating characteristics curves were drawn to assess the diagnostic power of parameters for all patient groups [For hirsutism (n=55 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,485] [For PCOS (n=20 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,359] [For hirsutism and PCOS (n=19 auROC (FT=0,676 auROC (FAI=0,669]. In our study, free testosterone and free androgen index were found useful to diagnose ‘hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome’ but not others.Conclusion: Free androgen index can be used instead of free testosterone in hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome for diagnosis. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:152-6

  11. Design of secure operating systems with high security levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING SiHan; SHEN ChangXiang

    2007-01-01

    Numerous Internet security incidents have shown that support from secure operating systems is paramount to fighting threats posed by modern computing environments. Based on the requirements of the relevant national and international standards and criteria, in combination with our experience in the design and development of the ANSHENG v4.0 secure operating system with high security level (hereafter simply referred to as ANSHENG OS), this paper addresses the following key issues in the design of secure operating systems with high security levels: security architecture, security policy models, and covert channel analysis. The design principles of security architecture and three basic security models: confidentiality,integrity, and privilege control models are discussed, respectively. Three novel security models and new security architecture are proposed. The prominent features of these proposals, as well as their applications to the ANSHENG OS, are elaborated.Cover channel analysis (CCA) is a well-known hard problem in the design of secure operating systems with high security levels since to date it lacks a sound theoretical basis and systematic analysis approach. In order to resolve the fundamental difficulties of CCA, we have set up a sound theoretical basis for completeness of covert channel identification and have proposed a unified framework for covert channel identification and an efficient backward tracking search method. The successful application of our new proposals to the ANSHENG OS has shown that it can help ease and speedup the entire CCA process.

  12. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Shishebor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of Iranian food program and blood lipids. Materials & Methods: The subjects were 95 women working in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in the range of 20 to 55 years old. Glycemic index and Glycemic load of the food program was analyzed with 24-hour food recall questionnaires (4-6 recall. For calculating GI and GL, Iranian food GI tables, and also, international GI and GL table were used. The levels of blood lipids including HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides of the blood were measured and the level of LDL Cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. Also, Anthropometric measurements were done using standard methods. Resulst: The mean age of subjects in this study was 36 years. GI mean was 72.1 and GL mean was 153.2. In this study, there was no significant relation between HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and Blood TG with Glycemic index and Glycemic load of food program. Conclusion: Unlike findings of west and Asian countries, both dietary GI and GL were not correlated with metabolic factors including blood lipid levels in this study , underreporting of individuals may influence the results of the study.

  13. Activity of 30 different cheeses on cholesterol plasma levels and Oxidative Balance Risk Index (OBRI) in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelli, Umberto; Bondiolotti, Gianpietro; Battelli, Giovanna; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Finco, Annarosa; Recchia, Martino

    2015-01-01

    Cheese is considered to increase the total cholesterol levels (CH) due to the high-saturated fat content. New models are needed to measure the relationship between cholesterol and cheese. Thirty different cheeses produced in Val Brembana, Italy ("furmai da mut", "caprino" and "stracchino"), were added to the diet of 30 groups of 4 rats. Cheeses were analyzed to differentiate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the cholesterol content (Ch(f)). The body weight, CH, urine volume and oxidative balance were measured. Three new indexes in relation to CH were calculated: OI (oxidative index), PI (protective index) and OBRI (oxidative balance risk index). None of the cheeses increased CH. Some of the "furmai de mut" were significantly decreasing CH and improved the oxidative balance. Ch(f) was not affecting the CH levels in plasma. In terms of VOCs, the acetic acid content was correlated (p < 0.05) with the CH reduction and PI improvement. OBRI was reduced mainly in the "stracchino group". The model shows that some cheese can reduce significantly CH levels and improve the antioxidant capacity.

  14. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  15. Design of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Byung Doo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Young Myong

    2001-05-01

    We are developing Safeguards Information Treatment System at the facility level(SITS) to manage synthetically safeguards information and to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, we described the contents of the detailed design of SITS such as database, I/O layout and program. In the present, we are implementing the SITS based on the contents of the design of SITS, and then we plan to provide the system for the facilities after we finish implementing and testing the system.

  16. Design of a Multi-Level/Analog Ferroelectric Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the memory density and utilizing the dove1 characteristics of ferroelectric devices is important in making ferroelectric memory devices more desirable to the consumer. This paper describes a design that allows multiple levels to be stored in a ferroelectric based memory cell. It can be used to store multiple bits or analog values in a high speed nonvolatile memory. The design utilizes the hysteresis characteristic of ferroelectric transistors to store an analog value in the memory cell. The design also compensates for the decay of the polarization of the ferroelectric material over time. This is done by utilizing a pair of ferroelectric transistors to store the data. One transistor is used as a reference to determine the amount of decay that has occurred since the pair was programmed. The second transistor stores the analog value as a polarization value between zero and saturated. The design allows digital data to be stored as multiple bits in each memory cell. The number of bits per cell that can be stored will vary with the decay rate of the ferroelectric transistors and the repeatability of polarization between transistors. It is predicted that each memory cell may be able to store 8 bits or more. The design is based on data taken from actual ferroelectric transistors. Although the circuit has not been fabricated, a prototype circuit is now under construction. The design of this circuit is different than multi-level FLASH or silicon transistor circuits. The differences between these types of circuits are described in this paper. This memory design will be useful because it allows higher memory density, compensates for the environmental and ferroelectric aging processes, allows analog values to be directly stored in memory, compensates for the thermal and radiation environments associated with space operations, and relies only on existing technologies.

  17. Design of a Multi-Level/Analog Ferroelectric Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the memory density and utilizing the dove1 characteristics of ferroelectric devices is important in making ferroelectric memory devices more desirable to the consumer. This paper describes a design that allows multiple levels to be stored in a ferroelectric based memory cell. It can be used to store multiple bits or analog values in a high speed nonvolatile memory. The design utilizes the hysteresis characteristic of ferroelectric transistors to store an analog value in the memory cell. The design also compensates for the decay of the polarization of the ferroelectric material over time. This is done by utilizing a pair of ferroelectric transistors to store the data. One transistor is used as a reference to determine the amount of decay that has occurred since the pair was programmed. The second transistor stores the analog value as a polarization value between zero and saturated. The design allows digital data to be stored as multiple bits in each memory cell. The number of bits per cell that can be stored will vary with the decay rate of the ferroelectric transistors and the repeatability of polarization between transistors. It is predicted that each memory cell may be able to store 8 bits or more. The design is based on data taken from actual ferroelectric transistors. Although the circuit has not been fabricated, a prototype circuit is now under construction. The design of this circuit is different than multi-level FLASH or silicon transistor circuits. The differences between these types of circuits are described in this paper. This memory design will be useful because it allows higher memory density, compensates for the environmental and ferroelectric aging processes, allows analog values to be directly stored in memory, compensates for the thermal and radiation environments associated with space operations, and relies only on existing technologies.

  18. SU-E-T-316: The Design of a Risk Index Method for 3D Patient Specific QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W; Wu, H [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Suh, T [Catholic UniversityMedical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To suggest a new guidance for the evaluation of 3D patient specific QA, a structure-specific risk-index (RI) method was designed and implemented. Methods: A new algorithm was designed to assign the score of Pass, Fail or Pass with Risk to all 3D voxels in each structure by improving a conventional Gamma Index (GI) algorithm, which implied the degree of the risk of under-dose to the treatment target or over-dose to the organ at risks (OAR). Structure-specific distance to agreement (DTOA), dose difference and minimum checkable dose were applied to the GI algorithm, and additional parameters such as dose gradient factor and dose limit of structures were used to the RI method. Maximum passing rate (PR) and minimum PR were designed and calculated for each structure with the RI method. 3D doses were acquired from a spine SBRT plan by simulating the shift of beam iso-center, and tested to show the feasibility of the suggested method. Results: When the iso-center was shifted by 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm, the PR of conventional GI method between shifted and non-shifted 3D doses were 99.9%, 97.4%, and 89.7% for PTV, 99.8%, 84.8%, and 63.2% for spinal cord, and 100%, 99.5%, 91.7% for right lung. The minimum PRs from the RI method were 98.9%, 96.9%, and 89.5% for PTV, and 96.1%, 79.3%, 57.5% for spinal cord, and 92.5%, 92.0%, 84.4% for right lung, respectively. The maximum PRs from the RI method were equal or less than the PRs from the conventional GI evaluation. Conclusion: Designed 3D RI method showed more strict acceptance level than the conventional GI method, especially for OARs. The RI method is expected to give the degrees of risks in the delivered doses, as well as the degrees of agreements between calculated 3D doses and measured (or simulated) 3D doses.

  19. Essential knowledge for transistor-level LSI circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Nakura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of the miscellaneous knowledge essential for transistor-level LSI circuit design, summarized as the issues that need to be considered in each design step. To design an LSI that actually functions and to be able to properly measure it, an extremely large amount of diverse, detailed knowledge is necessary. Even though one may read a textbook about an op-amp, for example, the op-amp circuit design may not actually be possible to complete in one’s CAD tools. The first half of this text explains important design issues such as the operating principles of CAD tools, including schematic entry, SPICE simulation, layout and verification, and RC extraction. Then, mistake-prone topics for many circuit design beginners, resulting from their lack of consideration of these subjects, are explained including IO buffers, noise, and problems due to the progress of miniaturization. Following these topics, basic but very specialized issues for LSI circuit measurement are explained including measuremen...

  20. FUZZY OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF MAINTENANCE DESIGN FOR PRODUCT LEVEL REUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhen; Xu Guohua

    2004-01-01

    Most used products must be maintained before they are reused.The modeling method for maintenance design of product level reuse based on quality function deployment is presented.A fuzzy linear optimization model is developed under financial uncertainty.Objective of the model is to maximize improvement rate of customer satisfaction level.Maintenance cost constrain is fuzzy.The algorithm for solution to the model is given.Its optimized results not only give attention to satisfaction degree of cost constraint,but also maximize objective value.An illustrative example involved water bump reuse is studied and the results show that the proposed model can effectively help maintenance planner determine the better design scheme.

  1. Electrical characterization of different DEPFET designs on die level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergbauer, B.; Aschauer, S.; Bähr, A.; Hermenau, K.; Horstmann, J.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Majewski, P.; Meidinger, N.; Reiffers, J.; Richter, R.; Sandow, C.; Schaller, G.; Schopper, F.; Stefanescu, A.; Strüder, L.; Treis, J.

    2014-01-01

    For the future X-ray astronomy project Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics plus (ATHENA+) wafer-scale DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detectors are proposed as Focal Plane Array (FPA) for the Wide Field Imager (WFI). Prototype structures with different pixel layouts, each consisting of 64 x 64 pixels, were fabricated to study four different DEPFET designs. We report on the results of the electrical characterization of the different DEPFET designs. The transistor properties of the DEPFET structures are investigated in order to determine whether the design intentions are reflected in the transistor characteristics. In addition yield and homogeneity of the prototypes can be studied on die, wafer and batch level for further improvement of the production technology with regard to wafer-scale devices. These electrical characterization measurements prove to be a reliable tool to pre-select the best detector dies for further integration into full detector systems.

  2. Designing multiple-choice test items at higher cognitive levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Whei Ming; Osisek, Paul J; Montgomery, Cynthia; Pellar, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    In the midst of a nursing faculty shortage, many academic institutions hire clinicians who are not formally prepared for an academic role. These novice faculty face an immediate need to develop teaching skills. One area in particular is test construction. To address this need, the authors describe how faculty from one course designed multiple-choice test items at higher cognitive levels and simultaneously achieved congruence with critical-thinking learning objectives defined by the course.

  3. Higher triglyceride serum level increases atherosclerotic index in subjects 50-70 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-04-01

    Higher triglyceride levels increase AI in subjects 50-70 years of age. Subjects with high serum triglyceride level but without symptoms of cardiovascular disease should be examined for the development of coronary artery blockage.

  4. On a "Level-Sensitive" Headcount Ratio: Revisiting Shorrocks' Poverty Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sreenivasan

    2008-01-01

    It is often argued that indicators of achievement or deprivation should be measured such that they display a property of "level-sensitivity", whereby a given change in the indicator acquires a greater significance the higher (lower) the level of achievement (deprivation) at which the change occurs. In this note, it is shown that a level-sensitive…

  5. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health.

  6. Psychometric properties of brief indexes designed to measure social-cognitive predictors of smoking initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Envold; Siersma, Volkert; Ross, Lone

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constructing indexes which measure factors that may predict smoking initiation is essential for planning prevention programs. Our aim was to examine the criterion-related construct validity of brief psychological indexes of attitude, social influence and self-efficacy to be used in fu...

  7. A Rapid Auto-Indexing Technology for Designing Readable E-Learning Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pao-Ta; Liao, Yuan-Hsun; Su, Ming-Hsiang; Cheng, Po-Jen; Pai, Chun-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    A rapid scene indexing method is proposed to improve retrieval performance for students accessing instructional videos. This indexing method is applied to anchor suitable indices to the instructional video so that students can obtain several small lesson units to gain learning mastery. The method also regulates online course progress. These…

  8. Design and fabrication activity towards 3D negative refraction index materials in the IR region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a new 3D isotropic structure that allows obtaining negative refraction index in the telecom wavelength as well as first fabrication efforts towards obtaining such structures.......In this paper we present a new 3D isotropic structure that allows obtaining negative refraction index in the telecom wavelength as well as first fabrication efforts towards obtaining such structures....

  9. Monitoring leaf area index at watershed level through NDVI from Landsat-7/ETM+ data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alexandre Cândido

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important parameter of the vegetation canopy, and is used, for instance, to estimate evapotranspiration, an important component of the hydrological cycle. This work analyzed the relationship between LAI, measured in field, and NDVI from four dates (derived from Landsat-7/ETM+ data, and with such vegetation index, to generate and analyze LAI maps of the study area for the diverse dates. LAI data were collected monthly in the field with LAI-2000 equipment in stands of sugar cane, pasture, corn, eucalypt, and riparian forest. The relationships between LAI and NDVI were adjusted by a potential model; 57% to 72% of the NDVI variance were explained by the LAI. LAI maps generated by empirical relationships between LAI and NDVI showed reasonable precision (standard error of LAI estimate ranged from 0.42 to 0.87 m² m-2. The mean LAI value of each monthly LAI map was shown to be related to the total precipitation in the three previous months.

  10. Correlation between the Gait Deviation Index and gross motor function (GMFCS level) in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Malt, Merete A.; Aarli, Ånen; Bogen, Bård; Fevang, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Aim The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) is a score derived from three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). The GDI provides a numerical value that expresses overall gait pathology (ranging from 0 to 100, where 100 indicates the absence of gait pathology). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the GDI and different levels of gross motor function [defined as the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)] and to explore if age, height, weight, gender and cerebral pals...

  11. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  12. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  13. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in fibromyalgia patients are independent of body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Iris

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by chronic, widespread muscular pain and tenderness and is generally associated with other somatic and psychological symptoms. Further, circulatory levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 may be altered in FM patients, possibly in association with their symptoms. Recently, rises in BMI have been suggested to contribute to increased circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines in FM patients. Our aim was to measure the circulatory levels of proinflammatory cytokines to determine the influence of BMI on these levels in FM patients and healthy volunteers (HVs. In Spanish FM patients (n = 64 and HVs (n = 25, we measured BMI and serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines by capture ELISA. Findings There were significant differences in BMI levels between FM patients (26.40 ± 4.46 and HVs (23.64 ± 3.45 and significant increase in IL-6 in FM patients (16.28 ± 8.13 vs 0.92 ± 0.32 pg/ml (P Conclusions Our analysis in FM patients of BMI as a covariate of proinflammatory cytokines levels showed that serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels are independent of BMI. Further studies are necessary to dissect these findings and their implication in future therapeutic approaches for FM patients.

  14. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  15. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  16. Design of 6 switched 3-level inverter with RL load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saygın

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an alternative topology to multilevel inverter topologies is given. 6 IGBT seminconductor switches are used in this topology and coupled inductors are used in the output stage of the inverter. Using coupled inductors voltages, the 6 switched 3-level inverter has been obtained. In the simulation study, Proportional Integral (PI controller has been used. By using the data taken from controller, the required switching signals have been produced for a 6 switched 3-level inverter. These signals have been taken by using space vector pulse width modulation technique. Using Computer Aided Design (CAD analysis a RL load that have 10 Ω and 0.2 H values is simulated and inverter performance has been investigated.

  17. Body mass index and associated physical activity levels in 7 - 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining levels of physical activity coupled with the rising incidence of childhood obesity in ... children are to accumulate 60 min of moderate physical activity per day. ... Age- and gender-specific prevalence rates of overweight, obesity and ...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEGREE OF INTOXICATION AND THE FORECAST LEVEL OF THE INTEGRAL INDEX OF INTOXICATION UNDER CERTAIN INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Marzhokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of this research was to study indicators syndrome of endogenous intoxication in patients with erysipelas and herpes infection that can be used to predict relapse in these diseases.Based on the goal were examined in 54 patients with primary, erythematous form of erysipelas of different localization and 42 patients with the localized form of herpes infection in the dynamics of these diseases.Determined the level of substances of low and medium molecular weight (HV and SMM, and oligopeptides, as well as the Integral index of intoxication by the method of M. I. Malakhov (1994 and Lowry (1991. To assess the value of the Integral index of intoxication in the prediction of relapses were calculated odds ratio.Revealed the dependence of studied parameters of disease and completeness of recovery.Level measurement HV and SMM and oligopeptides allows us to calculate the Integral index of intoxication, which can be used as a prognostic criterion of recurrence as erysipelas, and herpes infection.

  19. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  20. Multi-level Expression Design Language: Requirement level (MEDL-R) system evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the Multi-Level Expression Design Language Requirements Level (MEDL-R) system was conducted to determine whether it would be of use in the Goddard Space Flight Center Code 580 software development environment. The evaluation is based upon a study of the MEDL-R concept of requirement languages, the functions performed by MEDL-R, and the MEDL-R language syntax. Recommendations are made for changes to MEDL-R that would make it useful in the Code 580 environment.

  1. Risk Level Assessment in Construction Projects Using the Schedule Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barbosa dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are risky in both physical implementation and management. The characteristics of the risk reinforce the necessity of efficient management to increase the chances of success without commitment to its goals. This study explores the correlation of delay and the schedule performance index (SPI to evaluate the risk of a construction project completed with time overruns. The hypothesis that the SPI of projects with a delay is distinct from those projects without a delay is assumed. A database with 19 elements was used to test this hypothesis and to calculate limit values to the SPI. Therefore, the risk of delay will be small when the observed SPI is greater than the superior limit and large when the SPI is below the inferior limit. The simplicity involved in the calculation of these values showed an advantage in comparison with other methods of risk evaluation. Another strong point observed is that any company can determine the value of risk by considering its own history and support decisions like doing corrective actions.

  2. High index of refraction via quantum interference in a three- level system of Er3+-doped yttrium aluminium garnet crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qiong-Yi; Wang Tie-Jun; Gao Jin-Yue

    2006-01-01

    A simple three-level system is proposed to produce high index of refraction with zero absorption in an Er3+-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) crystal, which is achieved for a probe field between the excited state 4Ⅰ13/2 and ground state 4Ⅰ15/2 by adjusting a strong coherent driving field between the upper excited state 4Ⅰ11/2 and 4Ⅰ15/2· It is found that the changes of the frequency of the coherent driving field and the concentration of Er3+ ions in the YAG crystal can maximize the index of refraction accompanied by vanishing absorption. This result could be useful for the dispersion compensation in fibre communication, laser particle acceleration, high precision magnetometry and so on.

  3. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    An important niche for nuclear energy is the need for power at remote locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. Nuclear energy has potential applications at strategic defense locations, theaters of battle, remote communities, and emergency locations. With proper safeguards, a 1 to 10-MWe (megawatt electric) mobile reactor system could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term power in any environment. Heat pipe-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactors have been identified as a candidate for these applications. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than “traditional” reactors. The goal of this project was to develop a scalable conceptual design for a compact reactor and to identify scaling issues for compact heat pipe cooled reactors in general. Toward this goal two detailed concepts were developed, the first concept with more conventional materials and a power of about 2 MWe and a the second concept with less conventional materials and a power level of about 5 MWe. A series of more qualitative advanced designs were developed (with less detail) that show power levels can be pushed to approximately 30 MWe.

  4. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, D. L.; Wilson, J. G.; Harris, C. R.; Jeffrey, D. W.

    1980-03-01

    Most estuaries receive a high heavy-metal input from industries. This is reflected in the relatively high levels found in numerous estuarine organisms and in sediments. Many indicators have been suggested for facilitating the detection of heavy-metal pollution, but the problems in using these indicators to evaluate the metal loading of estuaries are considerable. Variations in species composition, and conditions at different sites, differences in season of sampling, and age of organism, as well as different metal levels in different parts of the organism, make the interpretation of results difficult. The levels reported here, similar to those in other unpolluted estuaries, have been used to suggest a baseline concentration for heavy metals in estuaries. The concept of a baseline is fundamental to the formation of a “Biological Quality Index” and “Pollution Load Index,” and a formula for such an index is suggested and tested at a preliminary level against published data for an English and a European estuary.

  5. Comparative analysis of indexes of physical preparedness of footballers of professional commands of different level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalenko V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with results of the research of physical preparedness of professional teams of footballers of different level. The pedagogical testing program of the physical skills level includes control exercised recommended by the scientific-methodical committee of Ukrainian Federation of Football. The article presents indices of physical preparedness of footballers of different playing roles of the top league teams of Ukrainian championship and first league of Ukrainian team championship. Differences of physical preparedness structure of goalkeepers, defenders, halfbacks and forwards are revealed.

  6. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ) as an index of monsoon activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N V Sam; K P R Vittal Murty

    2002-12-01

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  7. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor...... of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty....

  8. Relationship between glutathione and malonaldehyde levels in erythrocytes and the deformation index of erythrocyte in patients at various periods following acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongjun Zhang; Guangrun Xu; Zhaofu Chi; Bingxia Shi

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glutathione, as an in vivo free radical scavenger, plays an important role in the anti-oxidation defense mechanism in patients with acute cerebral infarction.OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship between the levels of glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA), the metabolite of lipid peroxidation, in erythrocyte and deformation index of erythrocyte in patients at various periods following acute cerebral infarction.DESIGN : Controlled observation.SETTING: Qilu Hospital of Shandong University and Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease of Qingdao Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: We chose 98 inpatients with acute cerebral infarction from Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from January to December 2000 , serving as cerebral infarction group, including 50 male and 48 female , with mean age of (62±7)years. There were 23 cases found on the 1st day after onset; 25 cases on the 3rd day after onset; 25 cases on the 7th day after onset; 25 cases on the 14th days after onset, and they were all confirmed by craniocerebral CT or MRI. Another 30 homeochronous inpatients with neurosis, cervical syndrome, lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and motor neuron disease were chosen as control group, including 20 male and 10 female, with mean age of (52±8)years . There was no significant difference in age and gender distribution between two groups (P > 0.05). Patients in the two groups were informed of detected index.METHODS: ①Ulnar venous blood was chosen from the patients who were fasted on the 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th days after onset. Deformation index of erythrocyte was measured with BL88-CKX laser diffraction erythrocyte deformeter and photographing was performed. GSH level in erythrocyte was measured with DTNB assay introduced by Beu-tler. MDA level in erythrocyte was measured with modified thiobarbituric acid colorimetric method. ②At each sample collecting , according to the criteria accepted by the Fourth National Conference of

  9. Critical Design Decisions of The Planck LFI Level 1 Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.

    2010-12-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has been launched on May 14th with Ariane 5. The ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics in Versoix, Switzerland has developed and maintains the Planck LFI Level 1 software for the Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument, the Sorption Cooler and the 4k Cooler data from Mission Operation Centre (MOC) in Darmstadt; to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI), which will then be used to produce maps of the sky in different spectral bands. The output of the Level 1 software are the TOI files in FITS format, later ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) database. This software has been used during different phases of the LFI instrument development. We started to reuse some ISDC components for the LFI Qualification Model (QM) and we completely rework the software for the Flight Model (FM). This was motivated by critical design decisions taken jointly with the DPC. The main questions were: a) the choice of the data format: FITS or DMC? b) the design of the pipelines: use of the Planck Process Coordinator (ProC) or a simple Perl script? c) do we adapt the existing QM software or do we restart from scratch? The timeline and available manpower are also important issues to be taken into account. We present here the orientation of our choices and discuss their pertinence based on the experience of the final pre-launch tests and the start of real Planck LFI operations.

  10. Evaluating relationship in cytokines level, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Body Mass Index in women with Fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizal, Fatima; Das, Siddharth Kumar; Verma, Narsingh; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) levels are reported to be perturbed in Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients. Moreover, Body Mass Index (BMI) may also be related to disturbed cytokines level. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the levels of cytokines and to correlate them with BMI and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQR) in female FMS patients (n= 60) and control group (n= 60). 4 ml of blood samples were taken from both the group of patients and controls to measure the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α . Symptoms of FMS were assessed by FIQR. BMI was calculated by a standard formula of weight in kilograms divided by height in meter square. There were significant differences in BMI levels in FMS patients than in control group. However, no significant association was found between BMI and TNF-α levels, and BMI and IL-6 levels in patient and control groups. However, a significant association was found between FIQR and BMI in patients group. On the basis of the results we conclude that the levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha are not associated with BMI in FMS patients. Furthermore, patients with higher BMI may fall at the risk of FMS. Therefore, weight management may be an important aspect for treatment of FMS patients.

  11. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  12. The level of teamwork as an index of quality in ICU performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kydona, Ch K; Malamis, G; Giasnetsova, T; Tsiora, V; Gritsi-Gerogianni, N

    2010-01-01

    Background: The benefits of improved interdisciplinary collaboration in the health care section are well documented in the literature, including fewer errors and shorter delays and thus enhanced effectiveness and maximised patient safety. Given that the first step in improving teamwork involves uncovering individual team member's attitudes, this study was planned to investigate the level of collaboration, as part of organizational culture in the environment of ICU in Hippokratio Hospital.

  13. The level of teamwork as an index of quality in ICU performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kydona, Ch K; Malamis, G; Giasnetsova, T; Tsiora, V; Gritsi-Gerogianni, N

    2010-01-01

    Background: The benefits of improved interdisciplinary collaboration in the health care section are well documented in the literature, including fewer errors and shorter delays and thus enhanced effectiveness and maximised patient safety. Given that the first step in improving teamwork involves uncovering individual team member's attitudes, this study was planned to investigate the level of collaboration, as part of organizational culture in the environment of ICU in Hippokratio Hospital.

  14. Serum fibrinogen levels could be an index of successful use of balloon tamponade in postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Ayaka; Ogita, Kazuhide; Chita, Masaya; Yokoi, Takeshi

    2017-02-28

    The object of our study was to determine whether serum fibrinogen levels could be used to predict the success rates of balloon tamponade and decrease the use of invasive methods. This retrospective study, conducted at Rinku General Medical Center, was aimed to identify factors associated with high success rates in balloon tamponade. Forty-six patients with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), non-responsive to uterotonics and treated with balloon tamponade between April 2008 and March 2015, were included. Forty-six women were included, of which 34 underwent vaginal delivery and 12 underwent cesarean delivery. There were no complications from balloon tamponade and its success rate was 73.3%. Seven women required additional procedures: One used gauze packing, three used uterine artery embolization, and five underwent peripartum hysterectomy. The cut-off line of serum fibrinogen level was 172.5 mg/dL (P=0.002) with its 77.4% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity. We recommend measuring serum fibrinogen level for predicting whether the balloon tamponade can be used successfully or not.

  15. Combination of Low Body Mass Index and Low Serum Albumin Level Leads to Poor Functional Recovery in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yosuke; Yamada, Minoru; Kakehi, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Atsunori; Tanaka, Naoki; Muroh, Yasushi

    2017-02-01

    Nutritional status is associated with the functional recovery of stroke patients. This study aimed to examine the influence of the combination of body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin level on functional recovery in subacute stroke patients. This retrospective cohort study included 259 subacute stroke patients (mean age 68.9 ± 12.3 years). Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to their BMI and serum albumin level: group 1, low BMI (stroke patients than either factor alone. The combination of BMI and serum albumin level should be taken into account when predicting functional recovery in subacute stroke patients. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Jensen, Peter Steen; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2016-04-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well as BPAQ physical aggression (P = 0.025). No main effect of global 5-HT4R on trait aggression or impulsivity was found in the mixed gender sample, but there was evidence for sex interaction effects in the relationship between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ physical aggression. In conclusion we found that low cerebral 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4R binding were associated with high trait aggression in males, but not in females.

  17. Physiological Cost Index and Comfort Walking Speed in Two Level Lower Limb Amputees Having No Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vllasolli, Teuta Osmani; Orovcanec, Nikola; Zafirova, Beti; Krasniqi, Blerim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Krasniqi, Valbona; Rama, Bukurije

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Physiological Cost Index (PCI) was introduced by MacGregor to estimate the energy cost in walking of healthy people, also it has been reported for persons with lower limb amputation, walking with prosthesis. Objective: To assess energy cost and walking speed in two level lower limb amputation: transfemoral and transtibial amputation and to determine if the age and prosthetic walking supported with walking aids have impact on energy cost and walking speed. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was performed in two level lower limb amputees with no vascular disease who were rehabilitated at the Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. The Physiological Cost Index (PCI) was assessed by five minutes of continuous indoor walking at Comfort Walking Speed (CWS). Results: Eighty three lower limb amputees were recruited. It is shown relevant impact of level of amputation in PCI (t=6.8, pamputation. Conclusions: Walking with transfemoral prosthesis or using walking aids during prosthetic ambulation is matched with higher cost of energy and slower walking speed. Advanced age was shown with high impact on PCI and CWS in both groups of amputees. PMID:25870485

  18. Design and implementation of an open source indexing solution for a large set of radiological reports and images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voet, T; Devolder, P; Pynoo, B; Vercruysse, J; Duyck, P

    2007-11-01

    This paper hopes to share the insights we experienced during designing, building, and running an indexing solution for a large set of radiological reports and images in a production environment for more than 3 years. Several technical challenges were encountered and solved in the course of this project. One hundred four million words in 1.8 million radiological reports from 1989 to the present were indexed and became instantaneously searchable in a user-friendly fashion; the median query duration is only 31 ms. Currently, our highly tuned index holds 332,088 unique words in four languages. The indexing system is feature-rich and language-independent and allows for making complex queries. For research and training purposes it certainly is a valuable and convenient addition to our radiology informatics toolbox. Extended use of open-source technology dramatically reduced both implementation time and cost. All software we developed related to the indexing project has been made available to the open-source community covered by an unrestricted Berkeley Software Distribution-style license.

  19. Exploring EKC, trends of growth patterns and air pollutants concentration level in Malaysia: A Nemerow Index Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; >Tahira Yasmin,

    2013-06-01

    The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by analyzing annual data of air pollutants concentartion and per capita GDP as economic indicator over the (1996-2010) period in Malaysia. Nemerow Index Approach (I) used to generate a measures of air pollution. The results show that ambient air quality indicators supports the EKC hypothesis which stated that pollution levels increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning poin. Also, the I result is justifying that most pollutants are showing value less than 1.

  20. Influence of circadian disruption on neurotransmitter levels, physiological indexes, and behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takeru; Nakagawa, Hikaru; Suzuki, Kota; Ninomiya, Chisa; Ishiwata, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Brain monoamines - such as noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) - regulate several important physiological functions, including the circadian rhythm. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in NA, DA and 5-HT levels in various brain regions and their effect on core body temperature (Tc), heart rate (HR) and locomotor activity (Act) in rats following exposure to an artificial light/dark (LD) cycle. For this, male Wistar rats were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 23 °C and 50% relative humidity with free access to food and water. Rats were exposed to either natural (12 h:12 h) or artificial (6 h:6 h) LD cycles for 1 month, after which each brain region was immediately extracted and homogenized to quantify the amounts of NA, DA and 5-HT by high-performance liquid chromatography. Behavioural changes were also monitored by the ambulatory activity test (AAT). Notably, we found that artificial LD cycles disrupted the physiological circadian rhythms of Tc, HR and Act. Although the 5-HT levels of rats with a disrupted circadian rhythm decreased in cell bodies (dorsal and median raphe nuclei) and projection areas (frontal cortex, caudate putamen, preoptic area and suprachiasmatic nucleus) relative to the control group, NA levels increased both in the cell body (locus coeruleus) and projection area (paraventricular hypothalamus). No significant changes were found with respect to DA. Moreover, circadian rhythm-disrupted rats also showed anxious behaviours in AAT. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, but not the dopaminergic system, are affected by artificial LD cycles in brain regions that control several neural and physiological functions, including the regulation of physiological circadian rhythms, stress responses and behaviour.

  1. Design of Matched Zero-Index Metamaterials Using Non-Magnetic Inclusions in Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Media

    OpenAIRE

    Silveirinha, Mario; Engheta, Nader

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we study the electrodynamics of metamaterials that consist of resonant non-magnetic inclusions embedded in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) host medium. It is shown that the inclusions can be designed in such a way that both the effective permittivity and permeability of the composite structure are simultaneously zero. Two different metamaterial configurations are studied and analyzed in detail. For a particular class of problems, it is analytically proven that such matched zero-index...

  2. Association of Alanine Aminotransferase Levels (ALT with the Hepatic Insulin Resistance Index (HIRI: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Sámano Miguel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and hepatic insulin resistance (IR has been evaluated with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. However, there is no information about the association of ALT with the Hepatic Insulin Resistance Index (HIRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum ALT levels and HIRI in subjects with differing degrees of impaired glucose metabolism. Methods This cross-sectional study included subjects that had an indication for testing for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Clinical and biochemical evaluations were carried out including serum ALT level quantification. HIRI was calculated for each participant. Correlation analyses and lineal regression models were used to evaluate the association between ALT levels and HIRI. Results A total of 324 subjects (37.6% male were included. The mean age was 40.4 ± 14.3 years and the mean body mass index (BMI was 32.0 ± 7.3 kg/m2. Individuals were divided into 1 of 5 groups: without metabolic abnormalities (n = 113, 34.8%; with the metabolic syndrome (MetS, n = 179, 55.2%, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, n = 85, 26.2%; impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 91, 28.0%, and T2DM (n = 23, 7.0%. The ALT (p  Conclusions ALT levels are independently associated with HIRI in subjects with the MetS, IFG, IGT, and T2DM. The ALT value in these subjects may be an indirect parameter to evaluate hepatic IR.

  3. Translational Study on the Relationships Between Body Mass Index, Levels of Serum Inlfammatory Factors and Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Ding-zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), levels of serum inlfammatory factors and bronchial asthma in children. Methods:According to BMI, the enrolled 128 children with asthma in acute-outbreak period were assigned into obese group (n=29), skinny group (n=34) and control group (n=65). The children in three groups were all given routine treatment, including steroid aerosol, bronchodilators, lfuid infusion and correction of acidosis, and returned visit after 4 weeks. The asthma control condition, levels of serum inlfammatory factors, BMI and childhood asthma control test (C-ACT) scores were compared among three groups, and the relationships between C-ACT scores, BMI and levels of serum inlfammatory factors were analyzed. Results: Both completely and partially controlled rates were obviously lower in obese group and skinny group than in control group (P0.05). The levels of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were all higher in obese group than in skinny group and control group, and these indicators above in skinny group were higher than those in control group. The differences were statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion: Both obesity and emaciation can lead to increased levels of serum inflammatory factors in children with asthma, which is adverse to asthma control. Maintenance of normal body weight can effectively decrease the levels of serum inflammatory factors and improve asthma control rate.

  4. Estimation of the refractive index structure parameter from single-level daytime routine weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Boer, A; Moene, A F; Graf, A; Simmer, C; Holtslag, A A M

    2014-09-10

    Atmospheric scintillations cause difficulties for applications where an undistorted propagation of electromagnetic radiation is essential. These scintillations are related to turbulent fluctuations of temperature and humidity that are in turn related to surface heat fluxes. We developed an approach that quantifies these scintillations by estimating C(n(2)) from surface fluxes that are derived from single-level routine weather data. In contrast to previous methods that are biased to dry and warm air, our method is directly applicable to several land surface types, environmental conditions, wavelengths, and measurement heights (lookup tables for a limited number of site-specific parameters are provided). The approach allows for an efficient evaluation of the performance of, e.g., infrared imaging systems, laser geodetic systems, and ground-to-satellite optical communication systems. We tested our approach for two grass fields in central and southern Europe, and for a wheat field in central Europe. Although there are uncertainties in the flux estimates, the impact on C(n(2)) is shown to be rather small. The C(n(2)) daytime estimates agree well with values determined from eddy covariance measurements for the application to the three fields. However, some adjustments were needed for the approach for the grass in southern Europe because of non-negligible boundary-layer processes that occur in addition to surface-layer processes.

  5. Effect on serum sex hormone levels, immune index of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid on acne vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Jie Sun; The authorsi-heng Yu; Yun-hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect on serum sex hormone levels, immune index of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid on acne vulgaris.Methods: 185 patients with acne vulgaris included in the study the authorsre divided into the observation group (85 cases) and the control group (80 cases), the observation group was given the treatment of benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid, and the control group was treated with benzoyl peroxide. To observe the change of hormones (T, FSH, LH, E2) and immune indexes (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C4, IL-2, sIL-2R) after 1 month of treatment.Results: After treatment, IgG, C3, C4, IL-2 of the observation group the authorsre significantly different than those before trteatment(P0.05); After treatment, IgG, C3, C4, IL-2 level of two groups the authorsre statistically significant (P<0.05).Where the authorsre no significant difference on sex hormones betthe authorsen the two groups before and after treatment.Conclusion:Benzoyl peroxide combining with Hirudoid has certain effects on immune function for the patients with acne vulgaris, and may be related to therapeutic effect, but no obvious effect on sex hormone.

  6. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald;

    2016-01-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels...... of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145...... for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well...

  7. Design of Image Cryptosystem by Simultaneous VQ-Compression and Shuffling of Codebook and Index Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Arup Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, S

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of Internet usage although increases exponentially, it is incapable of providing the security for exchange of confidential data between the users. As a result, several cryptosystems for encryption of data and images have been developed for secured transmission over Internet. In this work, a scheme for Image encryption/decryption based on Vector Quantization (VQ) has been proposed that concurrently encodes the images for compression and shuffles the codebook and the index matrix using pseudorandom sequences for encryption. The processing time of the proposed scheme is much less than the other cryptosystems, because it does not use any traditional cryptographic operations, and instead it performs swapping between the contents of the codebook with respect to a random sequence, which resulted an indirect shuffling of the contents of the index matrix. It may be noted that the security of the proposed cryptosystem depends on the generation and the exchange of the random sequences used. Since the gene...

  8. Towards system level runtime design space exploration of reconfigurable architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigdel, K.; Thompson, M.; Pimentel, A.D.; Bertels, K.

    2008-01-01

    The ever increasing intricacy of the systems and the increasing use of reconfigurble heterogeneous devices significantly enlarges the design complexity of the modern embedded systems. As a result, to create a good design, it is essential to perform Design Space Exploration( DSE) at various design

  9. CONFOUNDING STRUCTURE OF TWO-LEVEL NONREGULAR FACTORIAL DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Junbai

    2012-01-01

    In design theory,the alias structure of regular fractional factorial designs is elegantly described with group theory.However,this approach cannot be applied to nonregular designs directly. For an arbitrary nonregular design,a natural question is how to describe the confounding relations between its effects,is there any inner structure similar to regular designs? The aim of this article is to answer this basic question.Using coefficients of indicator function,confounding structure of nonregular fractional factorial designs is obtained as linear constrains on the values of effects.A method to estimate the sparse significant effects in an arbitrary nonregular design is given through an example.

  10. Canopy-Level Photochemical Reflectance Index from Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Leaf-Level Non-Photochemical Quenching as Early Indicators of Water Stress in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuren Chou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of photochemical reflectance index (PRI and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ for assessing water stress in maize for the purpose of developing remote sensing techniques for monitoring water deficits in crops. Leaf-level chlorophyll fluorescence and canopy-level PRI were measured concurrently over a maize field with five different irrigation treatments, ranging from 20% to 90% of the field capacity (FC. Significant correlations were found between leaf-level NPQ (NPQleaf and the ratio of chlorophyll to carotenoid content (Chl/Car (R2 = 0.71, p < 0.01 and between NPQleaf and the actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΔF/Fm′ (R2 = 0.81, p < 0.005. At the early growing stage, both canopy-level PRI and NPQleaf are good indicators of water stress (R2 = 0.65 and p < 0.05; R2 = 0.63 and p < 0.05, respectively. For assessment of extreme water stress on plant growth, a relationship is also established between the quantum yield of photochemistry in PSII (ΦP and the quantum yield of fluorescence (ΦF as determined from photochemical quenching (PQ and non-photochemical quenching (NPQleaf of excitation energy at different water stress levels. These results would be helpful in monitoring soil water stress on crops at large scales using remote sensing techniques.

  11. The Potential Biochemical Diagnosis Criteria and Therapeutic Effect Indexes: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels and Free Androgen Index in Blood of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-02

    The Investigators Collected 534 PCOS Patients as the Case Group,and 580 Infertile Women With Normal Ovulatory Cycle of the Control Group;; At the Same Time, the Investigators Continuedly Collect Cases to October 2012, and Totally Collected 579 Patients With PCOS Altogether;; 534 Patients in the Cases Group and 580 Women in the Control Group Received no Measures, While 579 Patients Received Drugs;; The Investigators Monitored Basic Indexes in Blood of All the Subjects in This Suvey,and Also Monitored Indexes of 579 Patients After Treatment.

  12. Role of the duodenum in regulation of plasma ghrelin levels and body mass index after subtotal gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Wang; Qi-Cheng Lu; Qing Wang; Rong-Chao Wang; Yun Zhang; Hai-Long Chen; Hong Zhao; Hai-Xin Qian

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of the duodenum in the regulation of plasma ghrelin levels and body mass index (BMI), and the correlation between them after subtotal gastrectomy.METHODS: Forty-two patients with To-1No-1M0 gastric cancer were divided into two groups after gastrectomy according to digestive reconstruction pattern,Billroth I group (n = 23) and Billroth Ⅱ group (n = 19).Ghrelin levels were determined with radioimmunoassay (RIA) before and on d 1, 7, 30 and 360 after gastrectomy,and BMI was also measured.RESULTS: The two groups had identical postoperative trends in ghrelin alterations during the early stage, both decreasing sharply to a nadir on d 1 (36.7% vs 35.7%),then markedly increasing on d 7 (51.0% vs 51.1%). On d 30, ghrelin levels in the Billroth I group were slightly higher than those in the Billroth Ⅱ group. However,those of the Billroth I group recovered to 93.6% on d 360, which approached, although lower than, the preoperative levels, and no statistically significant difference was observed. Those of the Billroth Ⅱ group recovered to only 81.6% and manifested significant discrepancy with preoperative levels (P = 0.033).Compared with preoperative levels, ghrelin levels of the two groups decreased by 6.9% and 18.4% and BMI fell by 3.3% and 6.4%, respectively. The linear regression correlations were revealed in both groups between decrease of ghrelin level and BMI (R12 = 0.297, P = 0.007;R22 = 0.559, P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Anatomically and physiologically, the duodenum compensatively promotes ghrelin recovery and accordingly enhances BMI after gastrectomy.Regarding patients with insufficient ghrelin secretion,ghrelin is positively associated with BMI.

  13. An Optimization Index to Identify the optimal Design Solution of Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Structural optimization has become an important tool for structural designers, since it allows a better exploitation of material, thus decreasing structure self-weight and saving material costs. Moreover, it helps the designer to find innovative design solutions and structural forms that not only better exploit material but also give the structure higher aesthetic value from an architectural point of view. When applied to real scale structures like bridges, this approach leads to the definiti...

  14. Design and Fabrication of Large Diameter Gradient-Index Lenses for Dual-Band Visible to Short-Wave Infrared Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Anthony Joseph

    The fabrication of gradient-index (GRIN) optical elements is quite challenging, which has traditionally restricted their use in many imaging systems; consequently, commercial-level GRIN components usually exist in one particular market or niche application space. One such fabrication technique, ion exchange, is a well-known process used in the chemical strengthening of glass, the fabrication of waveguide devices, and the production of small diameter GRIN optical relay systems. However, the manufacturing of large diameter ion-exchanged GRIN elements has historically been limited by long diffusion times. For example, the diffusion time for a 20 mm diameter radial GRIN lens in commercially available ion exchange glass for small diameter relays, is on the order of a year. The diffusion time can be dramatically reduced by addressing three key ion exchange process parameters; the composition of the glass, the diffusion temperature, and the composition of the salt bath. Experimental work throughout this thesis aims to (1) scale up the ion exchange diffusion process to 20 mm diameters for a fast-diffusing titania silicate glass family in both (2) sodium ion for lithium ion (Na+ for Li+) and lithium ion for sodium ion (Li+ for Na+) exchange directions, while (3) utilizing manufacturing friendly salt bath compositions. In addition, optical design studies have demonstrated that an important benefit of gradient-index elements in imaging systems is the added degree of freedom introduced with a gradient's optical power. However, these studies have not investigated the potential usefulness of GRIN materials in dual-band visible to short-wave infrared (vis-SWIR) imaging systems. The unique chromatic properties of the titania silicate ion exchange glass become a significant degree of freedom in the design process for these color-limited, broadband imaging applications. A single GRIN element can replace a cemented doublet or even a cemented triplet, without loss in overall system

  15. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance index, leptin and thyroid hormone levels in the general population of Merida (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Valery, Lenin; Uzcátegui, Lilia; Gómez Pérez, Roald; Marquina, David; Baptista, Trino

    2015-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events, but scarce information exists about its frequency in Venezuela. In this cross-sectional study, we quantified the prevalence of the MetSyn in a probabilistic, stratified sample of 274 subjects aged > or =18 years from the Libertador district in Merida, Venezuela. Secondary outcomes were the measurement of thyroid hormones (free T4 and TSH), leptin levels, and insulin resistance index (HOMA2-IR). The frequency of MetSyn (percentage +/- 95% confidence interval) according to several diagnostic criteria was as follows: National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP, original): 27.4% (22.1-32.7); modified NCEP: 31.8% (26.3-37.3); International Diabetes Federation: 40.9% (35.1-46.7); Latin American Diabetes Association: 27% (21.7-32.3), and Venezuelan criteria: 31.8% (26.3-37.3). The MetSyn was more frequent in males than in females with most diagnostic criteria. The estimated prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 2.9% either according to the patients' self reports or to fasting glucose level found to be above 126 mg/dL. Abnormal HOMA2-IR index, free T4 and TSH (above the 95th percentile) were detected in 4.5%, 4.4% and 5.1% of the sample, respectively. Free T4 and TSH levels below the 5th percentile were detected in 4.4% and 4.7% of subjects respectively. These values are presented for comparisons with forthcoming studies in specific clinical populations. While studies are being conducted about the different definitions of the MetSyn in Venezuela, we recommend analyzing and publishing local research data with all the available criteria so as to allow comparisons with the results already reported in the literature.

  16. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  17. Optimum design of phase opposition disposition pulse width modulation logic circuit for switching seven level cascaded half bridge inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nentawe Y. Goshwe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Theevolution of multilevel inverters (MLIs has made it possible to extract power from direct current (DC sources to alternating current (AC power. This paper presents the design of a novel phase opposition disposition pulse width modulation scheme (PODPWM logic circuit for a conventional single phase seven level cascaded H-Bridge (CHB inverter using Matlab/Simulink. The minimum switching logic circuit for the single phase seven level CHB inverter was obtained by modeling the logic equations that could be used with any number of levels depending on the number of modulating and carrier signals involved. The reduction in total harmonic distortion (THD of the output voltage for the MLI using low switching frequency at different modulation indixes is also investigated. The logic equations have made it easier to design a PODPWM circuit for any CHB inverter and the logic gates designed gave an optimum THD value of 16.73 % at modulation index of 0.20.

  18. Linking steroid hormone levels to sexual maturity index and energy reserves in Nereis diversicolor from clean and polluted estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations.

  19. Teaching Games Level Design Using the StarCraft II Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    Level design is often characterised as "where the rubber hits the road" in game development. It is a core area of games design, alongside design of game rules and narrative. However, there is a lack of literature dedicated to documenting teaching games design, let alone the more specialised topic of level design. Furthermore, there…

  20. The Contradiction Index (CI): A New Metric Combining System Complexity and Robustness for Early Design Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Howard, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    For complex and integrated products, companies experience difficulties in achieving a satisfactory and consistent functional performance. When a design has “contradicting” parameter/property requirements it often requires fine tuning with numerous design iterations and complex optimizations to find...... of the different parts are with respect to the different functions. This article provides a step-by-step guide for how to estimate the CI for a design. The method is applied to a case study - the FlexTouch®, a Novo Nordisk insulin injection device. When analyzing the CI for each part, against the number of part...... design iterations, a positive correlation was found. Furthermore, when correlating the CI against the number of challenging tolerances statistical significance was found (p=0.01). It is envisaged that the CI will be a powerful approach to estimate and compare development difficulty and to guide...

  1. Molecular-level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellman, Andrew John [Carnegie Mellon University; Sholl, David S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tysoe, Wilfred T. [University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee; Zaera, Francisco [University of California at Riverside

    2013-04-28

    Understanding and controlling selectivity is one of the key challenges in heterogeneous catalysis. Among problems in catalytic selectivity enantioselectivity is perhaps the most the most challenging. The primary goal of the project on “Molecular-level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysts” is to understand the origins of enantioselectivity on chiral heterogeneous surfaces and catalysts. The efforts of the project team include preparation of chiral surfaces, characterization of chiral surfaces, experimental detection of enantioselectivity on such surfaces and computational modeling of the interactions of chiral probe molecules with chiral surfaces. Over the course of the project period the team of PI’s has made some of the most detailed and insightful studies of enantioselective chemistry on chiral surfaces. This includes the measurement of fundamental interactions and reaction mechanisms of chiral molecules on chiral surfaces and leads all the way to rationale design and synthesis of chiral surfaces and materials for enantioselective surface chemistry. The PI’s have designed and prepared new materials for enantioselective adsorption and catalysis. Naturally Chiral Surfaces • Completion of a systematic study of the enantiospecific desorption kinetics of R-3-methylcyclohexanone (R-3-MCHO) on 9 achiral and 7 enantiomeric pairs of chiral Cu surfaces with orientations that span the stereographic triangle. • Discovery of super-enantioselective tartaric acid (TA) and aspartic acid (Asp) decomposition as a result of a surface explosion mechanism on Cu(643)R&S. Systematic study of super-enantiospecific TA and Asp decomposition on five enantiomeric pairs of chiral Cu surfaces. • Initial observation of the enantiospecific desorption of R- and S-propylene oxide (PO) from Cu(100) imprinted with {3,1,17} facets by L-lysine adsorption. Templated Chiral Surfaces • Initial observation of the enantiospecific desorption of R- and S-PO from Pt(111) and Pd(111

  2. Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Gauvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD has been linked to "neighbourhood" socioeconomic status (nSES, often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. Methods: 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR. Results: After confounder adjustments, the mean 4th minus 1st quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99, while the prevalence ratio for the 4th relative to 1st quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17. Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85 BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90, contrasted at mean ALU. Conclusions: Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women.

  3. Levels and correlates of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office jobs in Riyadh city

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for over...

  4. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  5. Temporal variations in lake levels since 30,000 Yr BP—An index of the global hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Harrison, Sandra P.

    Fluctuations in the extent of closed lakes provide a detailed record of global and regional variations in the balance between precipitation and evaporation. The temporal sequence of hydrological fluctuations during the last 30,000 14C yr BP was reconstructed using published data from 198 lake basins between 41°S and 51°N. These data were coded at 1000-yr intervals in terms of lake status (an index of relative depth) and lake-level trend. The broad pattern of glacial/interglacial variations was established by aggregating the status/trend information from particular regions. There is an important contrast in lake behaviour north and south of the Tropic of Cancer. On the poleward side, phases of high lake levels were a very prominent feature of the last 30,000 yr compared with the intertropical belt and the Southern Hemisphere. Longitudinal asymmetry was also most pronounced in northern extratropical latitudes. During the last 13,000 yr, fluctuations on a shorter time scale (102-103 yr) are exhihited by individual lake-level curves from intertropical Africa, where they account for a significant proportion of the climatic variance.

  6. Circulating levels of irisin in patients with anorexia nervosa and different stages of obesity--correlation with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Hofmann, Tobias; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Elbelt, Ulf; Kobelt, Peter; Klapp, Burghard F

    2013-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as cleavage product of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and shown to increase energy expenditure in mice and humans and therefore was discussed as potential treatment option in obesity. However, the regulation of irisin under conditions of severely altered body weight such as anorexia nervosa and obesity remains to be investigated. We analyzed circulating irisin levels over a broad spectrum of body weight in 40 patients with anorexia nervosa (mean body mass index, BMI 12.6±0.7 kg/m(2)), normal weight controls (22.6±0.9 kg/m(2)) and obese patients with BMI of 30-40 (36.9±1.2 kg/m(2)), 40-50 (44.9±1.1 kg/m(2)) and >50 (70.1±2.7 kg/m(2), n=8/group). Correlation analyses were performed between irisin and different body indices, parameters of body composition and hormones involved in various homeostatic processes. Obese patients showed higher circulating irisin levels compared to normal weight and anorexic patients (p0.05). These data indicate that circulating irisin is affected under conditions of altered BMI with highest levels in severely obese patients. The increase of irisin under conditions of obesity may indicate a physiological function to improve glucose tolerance which is often impaired in obese subjects.

  7. The body mass index (BMI) is significantly correlated with levels of cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Lind, Anne-Li; Gordh, Torsten; Bodolea, Constantin; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Thulin, Måns

    2015-12-01

    Cytokines and chemokines regulate many functions in the body including the brain. The interactions between adipose tissue and the central nervous system (CNS) are important for the regulation of energy balance. CNS function is also influenced by age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of body mass index (BMI) and age on cytokine and chemokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid samples (n=89) were collected from patients undergoing routine surgical procedures. The samples were analyzed using the multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) in which 92 different cytokines are measured simultaneously using minute sample volume. We found no significant correlations between age and cytokine levels for any of the studied markers. In contrast, at a false discovery rate of 10%, 19 markers were significantly associated with BMI (in decreasing significance: FGF-5, ADA, Beta-NGF, CD40, IL-10RB, CCL19, TGF-alpha, SIRT2, TWEAK, SCF, CSF-1, 4E-BP1, DNER, LIF-R, STAMPB, CXCL10, CXCL6, VEGF-A and CX3CL1). This study reveals a clear effect of BMI on cytokine and chemokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Policy evaluation using multi-level panel designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    The research investigates the problem of designing policies to combat emerging employment differences across Poland’s regions during transition to a market economic system. Poland has relied on alleviating problems of lacking local ‘captains of regional development’ by a design of zones administr......The research investigates the problem of designing policies to combat emerging employment differences across Poland’s regions during transition to a market economic system. Poland has relied on alleviating problems of lacking local ‘captains of regional development’ by a design of zones...

  9. Development of an ultra high performance liquid chromatography method for determining triamcinolone acetonide in hydrogels using the design of experiments/design space strategy in combination with process capability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alexis; Monzón, Cecilia; Santoveña, Ana; Fariña, José B; Llabrés, Matías

    2016-07-01

    An ultra high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantitation of triamcinolone acetonide in an injectable ophthalmic hydrogel to determine the contribution of analytical method error in the content uniformity measurement. During the development phase, the design of experiments/design space strategy was used. For this, the free R-program was used as a commercial software alternative, a fast efficient tool for data analysis. The process capability index was used to find the permitted level of variation for each factor and to define the design space. All these aspects were analyzed and discussed under different experimental conditions by the Monte Carlo simulation method. Second, a pre-study validation procedure was performed in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The validated method was applied for the determination of uniformity of dosage units and the reasons for variability (inhomogeneity and the analytical method error) were analyzed based on the overall uncertainty.

  10. Meta-levels in design research: Resolving some confusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, P.J.; Sleeswijk Visser, F.

    2014-01-01

    Doing design and doing research are related activities. When doing design in a (PhD) research project, a number of confusions pop up. These confusions stem from the fact that most of the basic terms, such as ‘designer’, ‘research’, and ‘product’, have many connotations but not a shared definition. B

  11. Translational Study on the Relationships Between Body Mass Index, Levels of Serum Inflammatory Factors and Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-zhu FANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI, levels of serum inflammatory factors and bronchial asthma in children.Methods: According to BMI, the enrolled 128 children with asthma in acute-outbreak period were assigned into obese group (n=29, skinny group (n=34 and control group (n=65. The children in three groups were all given routine treatment, including steroid aerosol, bronchodilators, fluid infusion and correction of acidosis, and returned visit after 4 weeks. The asthma control condition, levels of serum inflammatory factors, BMI and childhood asthma control test (C-ACT scores were compared among three groups, and the relationships between C-ACT scores, BMI and levels of serum inflammatory factors were analyzed.Results: Both completely and partially controlled rates were obviously lower in obese group and skinny group than in control group (P<0.05, but there was no statistical significance between obese group and skinny group (P>0.05. The levels of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were all higher in obese group than in skinny group and control group, and these indicators above in skinny group were higher than those in control group. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01. C-ACT scores increased in sequence among obese group, skinny group and control group, and the differences were statistically significant between two any groups (P<0.01. Correlation analysis revealed that C-ACT scores had a significantly negative correlation with levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (r=-0.856, P=0.000; r=-0.616, P=0.000; r=-0.296, P=0.001. BMI was not correlated with C-ACT scores and levels of hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (P>0.05.Conclusion: Both obesity and emaciation can lead to increased levels of serum inflammatory factors in children with asthma, which is adverse to asthma control. Maintenance of normal body weight can effectively

  12. A refractive index sensor design based on grating-assisted coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Kee, Jack Sheng; Park, Mi Kyoung

    2013-03-11

    In this paper, we present a design of a refractive index sensor based on grating-assisted light coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide. The slot waveguide serves as the sensing waveguide while the strip waveguide is used for light launching and detection. The wavelength at which the light is coupled from the strip waveguide to the slot waveguide serves as a measure of the refractive index of the external medium. The sensitivity of the sensor is ~1.46 × 10(3) nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and can be almost doubled by isolating the strip waveguide from the external medium. The effects of the slot-waveguide parameters on the sensitivity have also been investigated. In particular, it is found that the sensor can achieve extraordinarily high sensitivity (on the order of 10(5) nm/RIU) when the group indices of two waveguides are close. The temperature dependence of the sensor is also investigated and a sensor with very low temperature dependence can be achieved with a polymer isolation layer.

  13. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Yalcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs. Methods: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n = 15 and overweight group (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, n = 15. Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results: Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low (P < 0.05. The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people.

  14. Evaluation and Comparison of Body Mass Index and Albumin Level in Patients with Active Tuberculosis and Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Heidarnezhad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited data are available on the relationship between nutritional status and tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the body mass index (BMI and serum albumin level in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB and latent tuberculosis (LTB. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 17 patients newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB  who were referred in Iran, during September 2011 to March 2012 and 17 latent tuberculosis infection individuals. Standard method was performed to collect an early morning fasting blood sample for albumin (by the bromocresolgreen method. Also (BMI was calculated as body weight divided by height squared (kg/m2. Results: One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check normal distribution data The mean ± Standard deviation(SD for albumin in the patients and controls were 3.62±0/56 and 4.68±0.25, respectively. BMI in the patients and controls were 19.46±2.79 and  25.4±3.46, respectively. The serum albumin level was significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group (P

  15. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULISTIJORINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

  16. Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Troia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 μm. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved.

  17. Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Benedetto; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Reynolds, Scott A.; Hu, Youfang; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 μm. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved. PMID:26067193

  18. Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Benedetto; Khokhar, Ali Z; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Reynolds, Scott A; Hu, Youfang; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 μm. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved.

  19. Roadmap for Integrating Sustainable Design into Site-Level Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Keith L.; Dorsey, Judy A.

    2000-04-19

    Sustainable Design recognizes that products and processes are interdependent with the environmental, economic, and social systems surrounding them and implements measures to prevent an unsustainable compromise to these systems.

  20. INSTITUTIONALIZING SAFEGUARDS-BY-DESIGN: HIGH-LEVEL FRAMEWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard PhD; Joseph Alexander; Robert Bean; Brian Castle; Scott DeMuth, Ph.D.; Phillip Durst; Michael Ehinger; Prof. Michael Golay, Ph.D.; Kevin Hase, Ph.D.; David J. Hebditch, DPhil; John Hockert, Ph.D.; Bruce Meppen; James Morgan; Jerry Phillips, Ph.D., PE

    2009-02-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities can reduce proliferation risks. A multi-laboratory team was sponsored in Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 to define a SBD process and determine how it could be incorporated into existing facility design and construction processes. The possibility to significantly influence major design features, such as process selection and plant layout, largely ends with the conceptual design step. Therefore SBD’s principal focus must be on the early inclusion of safeguards requirements and the early identification of beneficial design features. The result could help form the basis for a new international norm for integrating safeguards into facility design. This is an interim report describing progress and project status as of the end of FY08. In this effort, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient, and cost-effective integration of international and national safeguards, physical security, and other nonproliferation objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility. A key objective is to ensure that security and nonproliferation issues are considered when weighing facility design alternatives. Central to the work completed in FY08 was a study in which a SBD process was developed in the context of the current DOE facility acquisition process. The DOE study enabled the development of a “SBD design loop” that is suitable for use in any facility design process. It is a graded, iterative process that incorporates safeguards concerns throughout the conceptual, preliminary and final design processes. Additionally, a set of proposed design principles for SBD was developed. A “Generic SBD Process” was then developed. Key features of the process include the initiation of safeguards design activities in the pre-conceptual planning phase, early incorporation of safeguards requirements into the project requirements, early appointment of an SBD team, and

  1. In hemodialysis, adiponectin, and pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels may be subjected to variations in body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarchi, Hernan; Muryan, Alexis; Dicugno, Mariana; Forrester, Mariano; Lombi, Fernando; Young, Pablo; Pomeranz, Vanesa; Iriarte, Romina; Barucca, Nanci; Campolo-Girard, Vicente; Alonso, Mirta; Lindholm, Bengt

    2011-10-01

    Adiponectin exerts cardiovascular protective actions, although some studies have shown the opposite. In hemodialysis, obese subjects display lower mortality rates despite hypoadiponectinemia, while higher adiponectin concentrations correlate with an elevated cardiovascular risk in nonobese subjects. The aim of the study is to suggest that adiponectin level variations are associated with differences in the body mass index (BMI). The interplay between adiponectin and pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Pro-BNP) levels may vary according to body fat mass. Fifty-two chronic hemodialysis patients were divided into three groups. Group A, BMI30 (n=11). Diabetics: Group A 10%; Group B 6 29%; Group C 55%, P=0.027. Determinations: Adiponectin, Pro-BNP, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), troponin T, nutritional status, ultrafiltration rates, C-reactive protein (CRP), vascular accesses, and echocardiography. Group A: adiponectinemia positively and significantly correlated with Pro-BNP, CRP, and troponin T. As BMI increased, adiponectin, Pro-BNP, and malnutrition significantly decreased, while insulin, HOMA, and ultrafiltration rates significantly increased. Cardiac restriction was significantly higher in obese patients. In all groups, Pro-BNP and troponin T displayed a strong positive correlation. In low-BMI subjects, high Pro-BNP and adiponectin, low myocardial restriction, and worse nutritional status were prevalent. In obesity, hypoadiponectinemia stimulates cardiac remodeling, cardiac hypertrophy, and decreased stretching, rendering Pro-BNP levels low despite high ultrafiltration rates. Thus, adiponectin correlates inversely with BMI, probably playing different cardiovascular roles as BMI changes. © 2011 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2011 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  2. Monitoring of plethysmography variability index and total hemoglobin levels during cesarean sections with antepartum hemorrhage for early detection of bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsakka

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Plethysmography variability index and non invasive hemoglobin monitoring as well can be used for optimization of intravascular volume status during cesarean sections in parturients with antepartum hemorrhage.

  3. Electronic system level design an open-source approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rigo, Sandro; Santos, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This book devises ESL design from the pragmatic perspective of a SystemC-based representation by showing how to build and how to use ESL languages, models and tools. It includes TLM 2.0 and step-by-step examples; it also addresses power modeling.

  4. KPG Index versus OPG Measurements: A Comparison between 3D and 2D Methods in Predicting Treatment Duration and Difficulty Level for Patients with Impacted Maxillary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Dalessandri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between orthopantomography (OPG based 2D measurements and the KPG index, a new index based on 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT images, in predicting orthodontic treatment duration and difficulty level of impacted maxillary canines. Materials and Methods. OPG and CBCT images of 105 impacted canines were independently scored by three orthodontists at t0 and after 1 month (t1, using the KPG index and the following 2D methods: distance from cusp tip and occlusal plane, cusp tip position in relation to the lateral incisor, and canine inclination. Pearson’s coefficients were used to evaluate the degree of agreement and the χ2 with Yates correction test was used to assess the independence between them. Results. Inter- and intrarater reliability were higher with KPG compared to 2D methods. Pearson’s coefficients showed a statistically significant association between all the indexes, while the χ2 with Yates correction test resulted in a statistically significant rejection of independency only for one 2D index. Conclusions. 2D indexes for predicting impacted maxillary canines treatment duration and difficulty sometimes are discordant; a 3D index like the KPG index could be useful in solving these conflicts.

  5. Relationship between dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and antioxidants level in plasma of Kraków inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Zając, Joanna; Morawiecka-Baranek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Some literature data indicate that antioxidant-rich food may significantly increase antioxidants in serum and decrease the oxidative stress but results are ambiguous. The aim of this study was to estimate the total antioxidant capacity of food intake among the inhabitants of Kraków, Poland on the basis of dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and evaluation the relation between DAI and the level of antioxidants in plasma. Examination included 70 (37 women and 33 men) non-smoking inhabitants of Krakow aged 46.4 ± 13.7 years. DAI was investigated on the basis of Food Frequency Questionnaire including 145 food items. DAI was measured using the method by Benzi and expressed as FRAP (mMol/L). In plasma samples total antioxidant status (TAS) expressed as FRAP and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as a marker of lipids peroxidation were measured. The mean value of DAI of all examined persons was 46.74 ± 25.5 mMol/L (in female group: 54.13 ± 27.7 mMol/L; in male group: 37.83 ± 19.5 mMol/L; p antioxidants in daily diet (measured as DAI) might increase antioxidants defense (measured by TAC as FRAP) and decrease oxidative stress (measured by MDA concentration in plasma). The dietary modification towards higher consumption of antioxidants (especially in men) should be highlighted in prevention of diseases in which oxidative stress play considerable role.

  6. Body Mass Index, Blood Lipid and Apolipoprotein levels and Coronary Heart Disease among middle aged Punjabi Khatris of Northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripta*

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have suggested that an elevated plasma concentration of apolipoprotein (apo B coupled with obesity may be considered as an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD than the traditional lipid factors. Coronary artery disease (CAD is a multifactorial disease resulting from interaction among various hereditary, cultural and environment factors. Population specific studies are rare. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI, blood lipids and apolipoproteins with the CAD among the Khatri caste, which is an indigenous population of Northwest India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 150 CAD patients and 150 normal controls belonging to the Punjabi Khatri caste ranging in age from 35-45 years. Height and body weight was measured using standard techniques. Blood was drawn from each subject to analyze serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. Results: The study demonstrated that CAD patients had elevated BMI in both males and females than normal controls. Apo B levels were an important predictor of CAD. ApoA/ApoB ratio among CAD patients was 0.74 compared with 1.53 in normal subjects; controls had 105.79% higher ApoA/ApoB ratio than CAD subjects. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio of the two groups also showed significant differences. Prevalence of obesity in CAD patients was 70.7% compared with 10% in normal controls. Conclusions: Apo B levels were found to the best predictor of CAD, even though significant differences were also found between CAD and normal subjects for other lipoprotein traits. Obesity was high CAD patients than normal controls.

  7. A Model to Predict the Severity of Acute Pancreatitis Based on Serum Level of Amylase and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravel, Arthi; Stevens, Tyler; Papachristou, Georgios I; Muddana, Venkata; Bhatt, Amit; Lee, Peter Junwoo; Holmes, Jordan; Lopez, Rocio; Whitcomb, David C; Parsi, Mansour A

    2015-08-01

    Most patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) develop mild disease, but up to 20% develop severe disease. Many clinicians monitor serum levels of amylase and lipase in an attempt to predict the disease course, but this strategy has not been recommended by practice guidelines. We performed a retrospective analysis to determine whether the percentage changes in amylase and lipase were associated with the severity of disease that developed in patients with AP. We analyzed data collected from 182 consecutive patients with AP (21 with severe AP) admitted to the Cleveland Clinic from January 2008 through May 2010 (discover cohort). The association between 11 different factors and the severity of AP were assessed by univariable analysis; multivariable models were explored through stepwise selection regression. The percentage change in the serum level of amylase was calculated as follows: ([amylase day 1 - amylase day 2]/amylase day 1) × 100. The percentage change in amylase and body mass index (BMI) were combined to generate a z-score (z = -5.9 + [0.14 × BMI] + [0.01 × percentage change in amylase]), which was converted into a probability distribution called the change in amylase and BMI (CAB) score. The CAB score was validated using the AP database at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (140 patients, 35 with severe AP); we calculated p-scores for each patient and estimated the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve values. Univariable analysis identified the percentage change in the serum level of amylase and other factors to be associated significantly with the severity of AP (P = .017). The CAB score was best at identifying patients who developed severe AP, with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve value of 0.79 in the discovery cohort (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.87) and 0.731 in the validation cohort (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.84). We developed a model to identify patients most likely to develop severe AP

  8. Reliability of single sample experimental designs: comfortable effort level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W S; Morris, R J; DeGroot, T; Murry, T

    1998-12-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the intrasubject variability across multiple recording sessions-most often disregarded in reporting group mean data or unavailable because of single sample experimental designs. Intrasubject variability was assessed within and across several experimental sessions from measures of speaking fundamental frequency, vocal intensity, and reading rate. Three age groups of men and women--young, middle-aged, and elderly--repeated the vowel /a/, read a standard passage, and spoke extemporaneously during each experimental session. Statistical analyses were performed to assess each speaker's variability from his or her own mean, and that which consistently varied for any one speaking sample type, both within or across days. Results indicated that intrasubject variability was minimal, with approximately 4% of the data exhibiting significant variation across experimental sessions.

  9. Software Package Completed for Alloy Design at the Atomic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Abel, Phillip B.; Good, Brian S.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of a multidisciplinary effort involving solid-state physics, quantum mechanics, and materials and surface science, the first version of a software package dedicated to the atomistic analysis of multicomponent systems was recently completed. Based on the BFS (Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith) method for the calculation of alloy and surface energetics, this package includes modules devoted to the analysis of many essential features that characterize any given alloy or surface system, including (1) surface structure analysis, (2) surface segregation, (3) surface alloying, (4) bulk crystalline material properties and atomic defect structures, and (5) thermal processes that allow us to perform phase diagram calculations. All the modules of this Alloy Design Workbench 1.0 (ADW 1.0) are designed to run in PC and workstation environments, and their operation and performance are substantially linked to the needs of the user and the specific application.

  10. Methods For an Acceptable Traffic Noise Level Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Sviben

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Road noise disturbance on rough roads by means of loudnesssensor caused by wideband signal components with a significantimpact of tonal effects on smooth roads and in specificactions in driving lead to the annoyance of drivers. A systemicapproach has been applied for the sound quality estimation ofphysical properties of various noise sources and structuralvibroacoustic car properties and its components as an integratedparameter in car design for the purpose of the developmentand vehicle noise reduction. Simulation of the most importantcharacteristics of listening impressions was performedby modem systems of signal analysis together with the presentationof loudness, sharpness, and roughness as essential quantities.Optimization of the noise control measuring regarding vehiclesound was obtained by means of a simulation system withthe capability of the real time original sound filtering. Structuralanalysis was performed as an acoustic modal analysis on therear part and the car interior with the quantitative analysis ofsport and luxury car sounds. The possibility of active noise controlwas studied and examples are given for an application ofpsychoacoustic tools for car sound quality design. Sound qualitywas obtained by an observation of certain aspects, which areempirically or theoretically connected with the design. An experimentalsound synthesis with psychometrical measuring wasapplied. The sound quality of car interior is presented takinginto consideration the criteria of objectivity, reliability and validity.

  11. 多层次居民消费价格指数构建及实证研究%Empirical Study and Construction of multi level CPI index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀海

    2014-01-01

    Multi level CPI index is the basic problem in China urgently. Base sample data,using cluster analysis,explore residents consumption "natural" structure,measure respectively weight,set multi-level CPI index for the first time. Compared with official CPI index,the results show that Multi-level CPI index by clustering stratification is generally higher than the official CPI index. The gap of the CPI index compiled by annual per capita disposable income and employment status is least contrast to people really feeling CPI.%多层次CPI指数是我国亟需研究的基础问题。本文根据抽样调查数据,运用聚类分析,探索了居民消费的“自然”结构,测度了各阶层居民消费的权重,首次提出并构建了与居民消费结构相适应的多层次CPI指数体系。与政府发布的CPI指标对比,汇编的CPI指标普遍高于官方发布的CPI指标;与居民实际感受的CPI指标对比,按年人均可支配收入与就业状况分类汇编的CPI指标差距最小。

  12. Design and Prototyping of the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A.C.Bogaerts

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines the desgn and prototyping of the ATLAS High Level Trigger(HLT)wihch is a combined effort of the Data Collection HLT and PESA(Physics and Event Selection Architecture)subgroups within the ATLAS TDAQ collaboration.Two important issues,alresdy outlined in the ATLAS HLT,DAQ and DCS Technical Proposal [1] will be highlighted:the treatment of the LVL2 Trigger and Event Filter as aspects of a general HLT with a view to easier migration of algorthms between the two levels;unification of the selective data collection for LVL2 and Event Building.

  13. DESIGN OF GROUNDWATER LEVEL MONITORING NETWORK WITH ORDINARY KRIGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng-guang; CAO Shu-you; LIU Xing-nian; YANG Ke-jun

    2008-01-01

    The primary network of groundwater level observation wells aims at realizing a regional groundwater management policy. It may give a regional picture of groundwater level with emphasis on the natural situation. Observation data from the primary network can be used to estimate the actual state of groundwater system. Since the cost of the installation and maintenance of a groundwater monitoring network is extremely high, the assessment of effectiveness of the network becomes very necessary. Groundwater level monitoring networks are the examples of discontinuous sampling on variables presenting spatial continuity and highly skewed frequency distributions. Anywhere in the aquifer, ordinary kriging provides estimates of the variable sampled and a standard error of the estimate. In this article, the average Kriging standard deviation was used as a criterion for the determination of network density,and the GIS-based approach was analysized. A case study of groundwater level network simulation in the Chaiwopu Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, was presented. In the case study, the initial phreatic water observation wells were 18, a comparison of the three variogram parameters of the three defferent variogram models shows that the Gaussian model is the best. Finally, a network with 55 wells was constructed.

  14. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    freedom. We argue that high levels of trust and trustworthiness are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for societies to develop successful universal welfare states that would otherwise be highly vulnerable to free riding and fraudulent behavior. Our results do not exclude positive feedback from...

  15. Towards refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings at level of tens of µm per refractive index unit: fiber cladding etching and nano-coating deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Koba, Marcin; Mikulic, Predrag; Bock, Wojtek J

    2016-05-30

    In this work we report experimental results on optimizing the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of long-period gratings (LPGs) by fiber cladding etching and thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) overlay deposition. The presented LPG takes advantage of work in the dispersion turning point (DTP) regime as well as the mode transition (MT) effect for higher-order cladding modes (LP09 and LP010). The MT was obtained by depositing Al2O3 overlays with single-nanometer precision using the Atomic Layer Deposition method (ALD). Etching of both the overlay and the fiber cladding was performed using hydrofluoric acid (HF). For shallow etching of the cladding, i.e., DTP observed at next = 1.429 and 1.439 RIU for an LPG with no overlay, followed by deposition of an overlay of up to 167 nm in thickness, HF etching allowed for post-deposition fine-tuning of the overlay thickness resulting in a significant increase in RI sensitivity mainly at the DTP of the LP09 cladding mode. However, at an external RI (next) above 1.39 RIU, the DTP of LP010 was noticed, and its RI sensitivity exceeded 9,000 nm/RIU. Deeper etching of the cladding, i.e., DTP observed for next above 1.45 RIU, followed by the deposition of thicker overlays (up to 201 nm in thickness) allowed the sensitivity to reach values of over 40,000 nm/RIU in a narrow RI range. Sensitivity exceeding 20,000 nm/RIU was obtained in an RI range suitable for label-free biosensing applications.

  16. Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sumit; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Low-power ASIC/FPGA based designs are important due to the need for extended battery life, reduced form factor, and lower packaging and cooling costs for electronic devices. These products require fast turnaround time because of the increasing demand for handheld electronic devices such as cell-phones, PDAs and high performance machines for data centers. To achieve short time to market, design flows must facilitate a much shortened time-to-product requirement. High-level modeling, architectural exploration and direct synthesis of design from high level description enable this design process. This book presents novel research techniques, algorithms,methodologies and experimental results for high level power estimation and power aware high-level synthesis. Readers will learn to apply such techniques to enable design flows resulting in shorter time to market and successful low power ASIC/FPGA design. Integrates power estimation and reduction for high level synthesis, with low-power, high-level design; Shows spec...

  17. Development of a human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH) pharma-similarity index approach with scaffold-hopping strategy for the design of novel potential inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kuei-Chung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Lin, Yu-Shan; Tang, Chuan-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH) is a class-2 dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Because it is extensively used by proliferating cells, its inhibition in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, cancers, and multiple sclerosis is of substantial clinical importance. In this study, we had two aims. The first was to develop an hDHODH pharma-similarity index approach (PhSIA) using integrated molecular dynamics calculations, pharmacophore hypothesis, and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) contour information techniques. The approach, for the discovery and design of novel inhibitors, was based on 25 diverse known hDHODH inhibitors. Three statistical methods were used to verify the performance of hDHODH PhSIA. Fischer's cross-validation test provided a 98% confidence level and the goodness of hit (GH) test score was 0.61. The q(2), r(2), and predictive r(2) values were 0.55, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively, for a partial least squares validation method. In our approach, each diverse inhibitor structure could easily be aligned with contour information, and common substructures were unnecessary. For our second aim, we used the proposed approach to design 13 novel hDHODH inhibitors using a scaffold-hopping strategy. Chemical features of the approach were divided into two groups, and the Vitas-M Laboratory fragment was used to create de novo inhibitors. This approach provides a useful tool for the discovery and design of potential inhibitors of hDHODH, and does not require docking analysis; thus, our method can assist medicinal chemists in their efforts to identify novel inhibitors.

  18. Pruning techniques for multi-objective system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.

    2014-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  19. Interleaving methods for hybrid system-level MPSoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.; McAllister, J.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2012-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  20. Exploiting Domain Knowledge in System-level MPSoC Design Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, M.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded multimedia systems. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, and the mapping of

  1. Interleaving methods for hybrid system-level MPSoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.; McAllister, J.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2012-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  2. Some Ontological Principles for Designing Upper Level Lexical Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Guarino, N

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some semantic problems related to the use of linguistic ontologies in information systems, and to suggest some organizing principles aimed to solve such problems. The taxonomic structure of current ontologies is unfortunately quite complicated and hard to understand, especially for what concerns the upper levels. I will focus here on the problem of ISA overloading, which I believe is the main responsible of these difficulties. To this purpose, I will carefully analyze the ontological nature of the categories used in current upper-level structures, considering the necessity of splitting them according to more subtle distinctions or the opportunity of excluding them because of their limited organizational role.

  3. System-Level Design Considerations for Carbon Nanotube Electromechanical Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kauth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite an evermore complete plethora of complex domain-specific semiempirical models, no succinct recipe for large-scale carbon nanotube electromechanical systems design has been formulated. To combine the benefits of these highly sensitive miniaturized mechanical sensors with the vast functionalities available in electronics, we identify a reduced key parameter set of carbon nanotube properties, nanoelectromechanical system design, and operation that steers the sensor’s performance towards system applications, based on open- and closed-loop topologies. Suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes are reviewed in terms of their electromechanical properties with the objective of evaluating orders of magnitude of the electrical actuation and detection mechanisms. Open-loop time-averaging and 1ω or 2ω mixing methods are completed by a new 4ω actuation and detection technique. A discussion on their extension to closed-loop topologies and system applications concludes the analysis, covering signal-to-noise ratio, and the capability to spectrally isolate the motional information from parasitical feedthrough by contemporary electronic read-out techniques.

  4. High-level assessment of LANL ABC Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-15

    An annual weapon`s grade Pu disposition goal should be stated and related to the amount of Pu that needs to be disposed of. It needs to be determined to what extent it is possible to destroy Pu without building up any new Pu, i.e., how realistic this goal is. The strong positive Doppler coefficient for a Pu core might require the addition of some fertile material to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient. This in turn will affect the net Pu disposition rate. If a fertile material is required throughout the life of the ABC to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient, the difference between the molten salt ABC and other reactors in regard to Pu disposition is not a principled difference anymore but one of degree. A rationale has then to be developed that explains why {open_quotes}x{close_quotes} kg production of fissile material are acceptable but {open_quotes}y{close_quotes} kg are not. It is important to determine how a requirement for electricity production will impact on the ABC design choices. It is conceivable that DOE will not insist on electricity generation. In this case advantage has to be taken in terms of design simplifications and relaxed operating conditions.

  5. Physiological Cost Index and Comfort Walking Speed in Two Level Lower Limb Amputees Having No Vascular Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teuta Osmani Vllasolli; Nikola Orovcanec; Beti Zafirova; Blerim Krasniqi; Ardiana Murtezani; Bukurije Rama

    2015-01-01

      Background: The Physiological Cost Index (PCI) was introduced by MacGregor to estimate the energy cost in walking of healthy people, also it has been reported for persons with lower limb amputation, walking with prosthesis. Objective...

  6. Evaluation of low-cost consumer-level mobile phone technology for measuring international roughness index (IRI) values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Trevor; Cameron, Coady; Hildebrand, Eric

    2014-01-01

    International roughness index (IRI) values were calculated from multi-step processing of accelerometer data collected using three smartphone devices in three consumer vehicles under 11 test scenarios on a 1000 m stretch of secondary...

  7. Brand value by design: the use of three levels of recognition in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; Eggink, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The design of a product acts as a carrier of various symbolic meanings. These meanings are a result of experiencing all the specific design characteristics together in the complete product. The separate design characteristics will build up to a total image, which will evoke certain associations. Som

  8. Brand value by design: the use of three levels of recognition in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; Eggink, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The design of a product acts as a carrier of various symbolic meanings. These meanings are a result of experiencing all the specific design characteristics together in the complete product. The separate design characteristics will build up to a total image, which will evoke certain associations. Som

  9. Brand value by design: the use of three levels of recognition in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; Eggink, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The design of a product acts as a carrier of various symbolic meanings. These meanings are a result of experiencing all the specific design characteristics together in the complete product. The separate design characteristics will build up to a total image, which will evoke certain associations.

  10. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  11. Assortive mating for personaltiy traits, educational level, religious affiliation, height, weight, adn body mass index in parents of Korean twin sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2003-12-01

    The degree of assortative mating for psychological and physical traits in Asian societies in relatively unknown. The present study examined assortative mating for educational level, personality traits, religious affiliation, height, weight, and body mass index in a korean sample. Age-adjusted spouse correlations were high for educational level (r = .63) and religious affiliation (r = .67), modest for most personality traits (rs = -.01 to .26), and trivial for height (r = .04), weight (r = .05)m and body mass index (r = .11). These results were remarkably similar to those found from the western samples. Implications of the present findings in behavior genetic studies and human mating patterns were briefly discussed.

  12. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance. OBJECTIVE: To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured. RESULTS: Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%. CONCLUSIONS: A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  13. Assessing Level of Ubiquitous Computing Services for Ubiquitous Business Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KWON Ohbyung

    2004-01-01

    We are entering into a new era of enterprise computing that is characterized by an emphasis on broadband convergence, knowledge sharing, and calm services. Some people refer to this as the "ubiquitous network" business model because its focus is on a high degree of connectivity between a company and its customers, suppliers, and channel partners. Moreover, immediate access to ideas, goods,and services will be of greater value than the traditional model of permanent and ponderous possession.This paper illustrates how ubiquitous computing technology can be combined with legacy computer-based information systems, along with thoughts on relevant issues of ubiquitous commerce. We also propose a model for how to assess levels of ubiquitous computing services.

  14. The Design and Implementation of Spatial Database′s Index Management System%空间数据库索引管理系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪林林; 马锐

    2003-01-01

    By the special character and wide application of spatial data,it is needed to design a kind of spatial database system management system(SDBMS),index management is a core part of SDBMS,the performance of a database is decided by the management function of index largely ,this paper defines from the structure of the minimum data item to index tree,index page's storage structure and memory management,designs and implements ultimately a spatial database index management system.

  15. Bayesian approach to estimate AUC, partition coefficient and drug targeting index for studies with serial sacrifice design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianli; Baron, Kyle; Zhong, Wei; Brundage, Richard; Elmquist, William

    2014-03-01

    The current study presents a Bayesian approach to non-compartmental analysis (NCA), which provides the accurate and precise estimate of AUC 0 (∞) and any AUC 0 (∞) -based NCA parameter or derivation. In order to assess the performance of the proposed method, 1,000 simulated datasets were generated in different scenarios. A Bayesian method was used to estimate the tissue and plasma AUC 0 (∞) s and the tissue-to-plasma AUC 0 (∞) ratio. The posterior medians and the coverage of 95% credible intervals for the true parameter values were examined. The method was applied to laboratory data from a mice brain distribution study with serial sacrifice design for illustration. Bayesian NCA approach is accurate and precise in point estimation of the AUC 0 (∞) and the partition coefficient under a serial sacrifice design. It also provides a consistently good variance estimate, even considering the variability of the data and the physiological structure of the pharmacokinetic model. The application in the case study obtained a physiologically reasonable posterior distribution of AUC, with a posterior median close to the value estimated by classic Bailer-type methods. This Bayesian NCA approach for sparse data analysis provides statistical inference on the variability of AUC 0 (∞) -based parameters such as partition coefficient and drug targeting index, so that the comparison of these parameters following destructive sampling becomes statistically feasible.

  16. Measurement of CO2-laser-irradiation-induced refractive index modulation in single-mode fiber toward long-period fiber grating design and fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Wei, Tao; Montoya, John A; Saini, Sandeep V; Lan, Xinwei; Tang, Xiling; Dong, Junhang; Xiao, Hai

    2008-10-10

    We report a new method to measure the CO(2)-laser-irradiation-induced refractive index modulation in the core of a single-mode optical fiber for the purpose of design and fabrication of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) without applying tension. Using an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer, the laser-induced axial refractive index perturbation was measured. We found that the CO(2)-laser-irradiation-induced refractive index change in the fiber core had a negative value and that the magnitude was a sensitive function of the laser exposure time following almost a linear relation. Under the assumption of a Gaussian-shaped refractive index modulation profile and based on the first two terms of Fourier series approximation, the measured refractive index perturbations were used to simulate the LPFG transmission spectra. LPFGs with the same laser exposure parameters were fabricated without applying tension, and their spectra were compared with those obtained by simulations.

  17. Molecular-Level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Zaera

    2012-03-21

    The following is a proposal to continue our multi-institutional research on heterogeneous chiral catalysis. Our team combines the use of surface-sensitive analytical techniques for the characterization of model systems with quantum and statistical mechanical calculations to interpret experimental data and guide the design of future research. Our investigation focuses on the interrelation among the three main mechanisms by which enantioselectivity can be bestowed to heterogeneous catalysts, namely: (1) by templating chirality via the adsorption of chiral supramolecular assemblies, (2) by using chiral modifiers capable of forming chiral complexes with the reactant and force enantioselective surface reactions, and (3) by forming naturally chiral surfaces using imprinting chiral agents. Individually, the members of our team are leaders in these various aspects of chiral catalysis, but the present program provides the vehicle to generate and exploit the synergies necessary to address the problem in a comprehensive manner. Our initial work has advanced the methodology needed for these studies, including an enantioselective titration procedure to identify surface chiral sites, infrared spectroscopy in situ at the interface between gases or liquids and solids to mimic realistic catalytic conditions, and DFT and Monte Carlo algorithms to simulate and understand chirality on surfaces. The next step, to be funded by the monies requested in this proposal, is to apply those methods to specific problems in chiral catalysis, including the identification of the requirements for the formation of supramolecular surface structures with enantioselective behavior, the search for better molecules to probe the chiral nature of the modified surfaces, the exploration of the transition from supramolecular to one-to-one chiral modification, the correlation of the adsorption characteristics of one-to-one chiral modifiers with their physical properties, in particular with their configuration

  18. High-Level Models for Transformation-Oriented Design of Hardware and Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMASEVICIUS, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of design methodologies follows a common trail: technology scaling leads to growing design complexity and rising abstraction level in the domain. Introduction of new (higher abstraction levels emphasizes the importance of reuse and transformations. The design process can be seen as a sequence of high-level transformations from the higher-level specification to the lower-level one. We analyze high-level modeling and metaprogramming techniques for supporting transformations based on domain variability models. Next, we present a reuse evolution model for domain component design at a higher abstraction level to support the transformation-oriented approaches. Finally, high-level modeling techniques (UML-domain language metamodels for domain code generation, parameterized UML classes for template metaprogramming, feature models for explicit representation of variability for specification of transformations and metaprograms are analyzed.

  19. Design of the Mexico City UV monitoring network: UV-B measurements at ground level in the urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, L. R.; Evans, W. F. J.

    2000-02-01

    Although there is concern for future stratospheric ozone depletion, several large urban populations are already being exposed to very high UV levels due to geographical factors. In Mexico City, ultraviolet radiation (UV) plays an important role in the generation of high levels of tropospheric ozone and other photochemical pollutants. The measurement of ultraviolet-B radiation in Mexico began in the spring 1993, as a pilot project for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) monitoring and as support for the first Hispanic public information program on the UV index through the Televisa (Mexican television network, which covers the Spanish speaking world). In 1996, based on our preliminary measurements, the Mexico City government commissioned the authors to design the Valley of Mexico UV-monitoring Network. The design of the network is presented. The preliminary measurements show that biologically active (UV-B) solar radiation can reach levels above 5 minimum erythemal dose (MED/hour) or 12 UV index units during spring and summer months. Annual UV measurements have shown seasonal variations of 40% between winter and summer months. Strong attenuation of UV-B radiation at ground level in the urban troposphere has been detected under polluted conditions. Measurements of the morphology of UV-B radiation have been taken at downtown and suburban monitoring stations, over diurnal, monthly and yearly periods. The network measurements show that the downtown UV-B levels are 20% lower than suburban levels on a seasonal basis, but differences can be greater than 40% on polluted days. The relationship between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone column and tropospheric ozone concentrations in Mexico City is also discussed.

  20. How to realize a negative refractive index material at the atomic level in an optical frequency range?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-qi; Ruan, Zhi-chao; He, Sai-ling

    2004-11-01

    The theoretical mechanism for realizing a negative refractive index material in an optical frequency range with an atomic gas system of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. It is shown that under certain conditions such a dense gas can exhibit simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability, and negligibly small loss.

  1. Science Letters: How to realize a negative refractive index material at the atomic level in an optical frequency range?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建其; 阮智超; 何赛灵

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical mechanism for realizing a negative refractive index material in an optical frequency range with an atomic gas system of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. It is shown that under certain conditions such a dense gas can exhibit simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability, and negligibly small loss.

  2. Designs for the combination of group- and individual-level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneuse, Sebastien; Bartell, Scott

    2011-05-01

    Studies of ecologic or aggregate data suffer from a broad range of biases when scientific interest lies with individual-level associations. To overcome these biases, epidemiologists can choose from a range of designs that combine these group-level data with individual-level data. The individual-level data provide information to identify, evaluate, and control bias, whereas the group-level data are often readily accessible and provide gains in efficiency and power. Within this context, the literature on developing models, particularly multilevel models, is well-established, but little work has been published to help researchers choose among competing designs and plan additional data collection. We review recently proposed "combined" group- and individual-level designs and methods that collect and analyze data at 2 levels of aggregation. These include aggregate data designs, hierarchical related regression, two-phase designs, and hybrid designs for ecologic inference. The various methods differ in (i) the data elements available at the group and individual levels and (ii) the statistical techniques used to combine the 2 data sources. Implementing these techniques requires care, and it may often be simpler to ignore the group-level data once the individual-level data are collected. A simulation study, based on birth-weight data from North Carolina, is used to illustrate the benefit of incorporating group-level information. Our focus is on settings where there are individual-level data to supplement readily accessible group-level data. In this context, no single design is ideal. Choosing which design to adopt depends primarily on the model of interest and the nature of the available group-level data.

  3. Topological Design and Modulation Strategy for Buck-Boost Three-Level Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Gao, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2007-01-01

    To date, designed topologies for dc-ac inversion with both voltage-buck and boost capabilities are mainly focused on two-level circuitries with extensions to three-level possibilities left nearly unexplored. Contributing to this area of research, this paper presents the design of a number of viable...

  4. A Multi-Step and Multi-Level Approach for Computer Aided Molecular Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, Peter Mathias; Gani, Rafiqul

    2001-01-01

    . The problem formulation step incorporates a knowledge base for the identification and setup of the design criteria. Candidate compounds are identified using a multi-level generate and test CAMD solution algorithm capable of designing molecules having a high level of molecular detail. A post solution step...

  5. NASA: A generic infrastructure for system-level MP-SoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Z.J.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.; Bautista, T.; Núñez, A.

    2010-01-01

    System-level simulation and design space exploration (DSE) are key ingredients for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded systems. The efforts in this area, however, typically use ad-hoc software infrastructures to facilitate and support the system-level DSE experiments.

  6. NASA: A generic infrastructure for system-level MP-SoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Z.J.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.; Bautista, T.; Núñez, A.

    2010-01-01

    System-level simulation and design space exploration (DSE) are key ingredients for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded systems. The efforts in this area, however, typically use ad-hoc software infrastructures to facilitate and support the system-level DSE experiments.

  7. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9-15: the Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro Lilian A.; Novaes Jefferson S.; Santos Mara L.; Fernandes Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.8...

  8. Design for safety: theoretical framework of the safety aspect of BIM system to determine the safety index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Lin Evelyn Teo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the safety improvement drive that has been implemented in the construction industry in Singapore for many years, the industry continues to report the highest number of workplace fatalities, compared to other industries. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theoretical framework of the safety aspect of a proposed BIM System to determine a Safety Index. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the current workplace safety and health situation in the construction industry and explore how BIM can be used to improve safety performance in the industry. A safety hazard library was developed based on the main contributors to fatal accidents in the construction industry, determined from the formal records and existing literature, and a series of discussions with representatives from the Workplace Safety and Health Institute (WSH Institute in Singapore. The results from the survey suggested that the majority of the firms have implemented the necessary policies, programmes and procedures on Workplace Safety and Health (WSH practices. However, BIM is still not widely applied or explored beyond the mandatory requirement that building plans should be submitted to the authorities for approval in BIM format. This paper presents a discussion of the safety aspect of the Intelligent Productivity and Safety System (IPASS developed in the study. IPASS is an intelligent system incorporating the buildable design concept, theory on the detection, prevention and control of hazards, and the Construction Safety Audit Scoring System (ConSASS. The system is based on the premise that safety should be considered at the design stage, and BIM can be an effective tool to facilitate the efforts to enhance safety performance. IPASS allows users to analyse and monitor key aspects of the safety performance of the project before the project starts and as the project progresses.

  9. Tracking of serum lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index from childhood to adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhola, Jonna; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jula, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Åkerblom, Hans K; Pietikäinen, Matti; Laitinen, Tomi; Jokinen, Eero; Taittonen, Leena; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2011-10-01

    To examine tracking and predictiveness of childhood lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index for risk profile in adulthood and the best age to measure the childhood risk factor levels. Study subjects were participants of the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, started in 1980 (age 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years). A total of 2204 subjects participated to the 27-year follow-up in 2007 (age, 30 to 45 years). In both sex groups and in all age groups, childhood risk factors were significantly correlated with levels in adulthood. The correlation coefficients for cholesterol levels and body mass index were 0.43 to 0.56 (P affect associations. The best sensitivity and specificity rates were observed in 12- to 18-year-old subjects. Childhood blood pressure, serum lipid levels, and body mass index correlate strongly with values measured in middle age. These associations seemed to be stronger with increased age at measurements. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, a high-protein and low-glycaemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. The objective of the present study was to identify (1) blood profiles associated with continued weight loss and weight regain (2) bl...... differences between continued weight losers and weight regainers. Increases in leptin (LEP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly associated with weight regain (P ...

  11. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9-15: the Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Lilian A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32. The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively. The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104 and self-esteem (p=0.09 were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01 and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016 and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01 only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02, but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02. It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the nonpractitioners group.

  12. Relative reliability of the auditory evoked potential and Bispectral Index for monitoring sedation level in surgical intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C-H; Ou-Yang, H-Y; Man, K-M; Hsiao, P-C; Ho, S-T; Wong, C-S; Liaw, W-J

    2008-07-01

    Sedation is an important adjunct therapy for patients in the intensive care unit. The objective of the present study was to observe correlation between an established subjective measure, the Ramsay Sedation Scale, and two objective tools for monitoring critically ill patients: the Bispectral Index (BIS) and auditory evoked potential. Ninety patients undergoing major surgery scheduled for postoperative mechanical ventilation and continuous sedation with propofol and fentanyl were selected. Electrodes for determining BIS and auditory evoked potential were placed on the foreheads of all patients according to manufacturer's specifications at least six hours after patients' arrival at the intensive care unit. Ramsay Sedation Scale, BIS, signal quality index, composite A-line autoregressive index (AAI) and electromyographic activities were recorded every five minutes for 30 minutes. BIS and AAI showed good correlation amongst readings (r(s)=0.697, P Ramsay Sedation Scale (BIS, tau=-0.689; AAI, tau=-0.621; P Ramsay Sedation Scale. However, the BIS and auditory evoked potential monitors do not perform adequately as a substitute in the assessment of sedated intensive care unit patients. These monitors could be used as part of an integrated approach for the evaluation of those patients especially when the subjective scales do not work well in the setting of neuromuscular blockade or may not be sufficiently sensitive to evaluate very deep sedation.

  13. The developmental levels in achieving Magnet® designation, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail; Finlayson, Susan; Hayden, Margaret; Hoolahan, Susan; Mazzoccoli, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Magnet® designation has been shown to be a cost-effective strategy resulting in improved patient, staff, and organizational outcomes. Achieving this designation requires an organization to successfully progress through developmental levels on their journey to excellence. Part 1 of this article describes a 4-level developmental model that is applied to each of the Magnet components. Part 2 will discuss a 5-step developmental process and leadership strategies for developing a unit or department through the various levels.

  14. The developmental levels in achieving Magnet® designation, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail; Finlayson, Susan; Hayden, Margaret; Hoolahan, Susan; Mazzoccoli, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Magnet® designation has been shown to be a cost-effective strategy resulting in improved patient, staff, and organizational outcomes. Achieving this designation requires an organization to successfully progress through developmental levels on their journey. Part 1 of this article described a 4-level developmental model applied to each of the Magnet components. In part 2, we will discuss a 5-step process and leadership strategies for developing units or departments through the various levels.

  15. Designing an early selection morphological linear traits index for dressage in the Pura Raza Español horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guerrero, M J; Cervantes, I; Molina, A; Gutiérrez, J P; Valera, M

    2017-06-01

    Making a morphological pre-selection of Pura Raza Español horses (PRE) for dressage is a challenging task within its current breeding program. The aim of our research was to design an early genetic selection morphological linear traits index to improve dressage performance, using 26 morphological linear traits and six dressage traits (walk, trot, canter, submission, general impression - partial scores - and total score) as selection criteria. The data set included morphological linear traits of 10 127 PRE (4159 males and 5968 females) collected between 2008 and 2013 (one record per horse) and 19 095 dressage traits of 1545 PRE (1476 males and 69 females; 12.4 records of average) collected between 2004 and 2014. A univariate animal model was applied to predict the breeding values (PBV). A partial least squares regression analysis was used to select the most predictive morphological linear traits PBV on the dressage traits PBV. According to the Wold Criterion, the 13 morphological linear traits (width of head, head-neck junction, upper neck line, neck-body junction, width of chest, angle of shoulder, lateral angle of knee, frontal angle of knee, cannon bone perimeter, length of croup, angle of croup, ischium-stifle distance and lateral hock angle) most closely related to total score PBV, partial scores PBV and gait scores PBV (walk, trot and canter) were selected. A multivariate genetic analysis was performed among the 13 morphological linear traits selected and the six dressage traits to estimate the genetic parameters. After it, the selection index theory was used to compute the expected genetic response using different strategies. The expected genetic response of total score PBV (0.76), partial scores PBV (0.04) and gait scores PBV (0.03) as selection objectives using morphological linear traits PBV as criteria selection were positive, but lower than that obtained using dressage traits PBV (1.80, 0.16 and 0.14 for total score PBV, partial scores PBV and gait

  16. Fashion Design: Designing a Learner-Active, Multi-Level High School Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…

  17. Fashion Design: Designing a Learner-Active, Multi-Level High School Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…

  18. Two-level Tiled Quad-tree Index for Real-time Terrain Rendering%实时地形绘制的两级瓦片四叉树索引

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆筱霞; 李思昆

    2012-01-01

    To satisfy the massive data management and real-time requirement in terrain scene rendering, a two-level Tiled Quad-Tree index was proposed. Firstly, terrain data were subdivided as many primary square grid, and then Tiled Quad-Trees were built on each primary patches. Index was made on these divided blocks. Based on the index, a bottom-up viewpoint diffused algorithm for rendering data retrieval was designed. Experiments and analysis show that the index can decrease storage of auxiliary information, and the retrieval efficiency for rendering is improved.%针对地形场景绘制的海量数据管理和实时性要求,提出一种两级瓦片四又树索引方法:首先将地形数据在水平面上进行初级方格副分,然后在每介初级方格面片上构建瓦片四叉树,分块数据被两级索引唯一标识。以此为基础,设计了自底向上的视点扩散绘制数据检索算法。实验结果表明,该索引能够大幅度减少辅助信息存储,并提高绘制检索的速度。

  19. Effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on thymus, spleen and cardiac indexes, caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein and mRNA expression levels in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Sun, Yong Le; Wang, Ai Hong; Xu, Chong En; Zhang, Meng Yuan

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on heart function in aged rats. Polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae was administered to aged rats. Results showed that thymus, spleen and cardiac indexs were significantly increased, whereas caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein expression, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi mRNA expression levels were markedly reduced. It can be concluded that polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae may enhance immunity and improve heart function in aged rats.

  20. Design of microarray probes for virus identification and detection of emerging viruses at the genus level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Mei-Shang

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most virus detection methods are geared towards the detection of specific single viruses or just a few known targets, and lack the capability to uncover the novel viruses that cause emerging viral infections. To address this issue, we developed a computational method that identifies the conserved viral sequences at the genus level for all viral genomes available in GenBank, and established a virus probe library. The virus probes are used not only to identify known viruses but also for discerning the genera of emerging or uncharacterized ones. Results Using the microarray approach, the identity of the virus in a test sample is determined by the signals of both genus and species-specific probes. The genera of emerging and uncharacterized viruses are determined based on hybridization of the viral sequences to the conserved probes for the existing viral genera. A detection and classification procedure to determine the identity of a virus directly from detection signals results in the rapid identification of the virus. Conclusion We have demonstrated the validity and feasibility of the above strategy with a small number of viral samples. The probe design algorithm can be applied to any publicly available viral sequence database. The strategy of using separate genus and species probe sets enables the use of a straightforward virus identity calculation directly based on the hybridization signals. Our virus identification strategy has great potential in the diagnosis of viral infections. The virus genus and specific probe database and the associated summary tables are available at http://genestamp.sinica.edu.tw/virus/index.htm.

  1. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  2. Customer Satisfaction Index Model on Three Level Of Socioeconomic Status In Bogor Case Study: Customer Satisfaction on Branded Cooking Oil Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction index models have been developed in many countries, including Indonesia. Those models were commonly not focused on the socioeconomic status (SES of the customer, sothis condition could be a research gap. The aims of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction index model of branded cooking oil product in Bogor, Indonesia based on SES established from the household monthly routine consumption. Questionnaires were used as primary data collection instrument in this study, while data analysis was carried out with variance based structural equation modeling (SEM which is also known as Partial Least Square (PLS model, and Kruskall Wallis nonparametric test. Perceived quality, perceived value and customer expectation as were significantly influencing the customer satisfaction construct in the structural model. This study also concluded that there is different level of overall customer satisfaction on the three levels of customer’s SES

  3. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; padolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  4. Effect of Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA Supplementation on DHA Levels and Omega-3 Index in Red Blood Cell Membranes of Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in cell membrane may influence breast cancer (BC patients' prognosis, affecting tumor cells sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapy and likely modulating inflammation. The possibility of identifying BC patients presenting with low DHA levels and/or low ability of DHA incorporation into cell membrane might help to treat this condition.Methods: We enrolled BC patients and healthy controls, recording their seafood dietary intake. DHA in form of algal oil was administered for 10 consecutive days (2 g/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 10 days of supplementation (T1 to assess DHA, omega-3 index, as the sum of DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, in red blood cells (RBC membranes and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels. Pre- and post-treatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas-chromatography. Parametric and non-parametric tests were performed, as appropriate, and P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Forty-three women were studied, divided into 4 groups: 11 patients with BRCA1/2 gene mutation (M group, 12 patients with familiar positive history for BC (F group, 10 patients with sporadic BC (S group, and 10 healthy controls (C group. DHA and omega-3 index increased from T0 to T1 in the 3 groups of BC patients and in controls (P < 0.001. No difference was found in DHA incorporation between each group of BC patients and between patients and controls, except for M group, which incorporated higher DHA levels with respect to controls (β = 0.42; P = 0.03. No association was documented between cytokines levels and DHA and omega-3 index at baseline and after DHA supplementation. Independent of the presence of BC, women considered as “good seafood consumers” showed at baseline DHA and omega-3 index higher with respect to “low seafood consumers” (P = 0.04; P = 0.007, respectively. After supplementation, the increase in DHA levels was

  5. Developing advanced units of learning using IMS Learning Design level B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Please cite the original publication: Koper, R., Burgos, D. (2005). Developing advanced units of learning using IMS Learning Design level B. International Journal on Advanced Technology for Learning, 2 (4), 252-259.

  6. Optimal Design for Two-Level Random Assignment and Regression Discontinuity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Christopher H.; Dye, Charles

    2016-01-01

    An important concern when planning research studies is to obtain maximum precision of an estimate of a treatment effect given a budget constraint. When research designs have a "multilevel" or "hierarchical" structure changes in sample size at different levels of the design will impact precision differently. Furthermore, there…

  7. One Approach to Senior Level Design in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering. Report 09-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Kurt J.

    The United States Coast Guard Academy has integrated a successful senior-level ship design course sequence into an undergraduate engineering curriculum in order to achieve specifically desired academic and professional outcomes. The Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering (NAME) curriculum discussed is designed to allow for efficient use of…

  8. Reliability-Based Load and Resistance Factors Design for Offshore Jacket Platforms in the Bohai Bay:Calibration on Target Reliability Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Wei-liang; HU Qi-zhong; SHEN Zhao-wei; SHI Zhong-min

    2009-01-01

    The target reliability index has been effectively used as the best solution to deal with the relationship between the structural safety and the optimal economy in any structural design.However,the target reliability index for offshore jacket platforms based on different sea areas in China has never been calibrated.This paper presents an approach for its calibration,and suggests many kinds of associated load cases.The uncertainties of loads and structural resistance are mainly investigated.The target reliability index for structural components,tubular joints and piles of offshore jacket platforms are discussed respectively in detail.Finally,through the calibrated results from the offshore jacket platforms of QK18-1,JZ20-2,SZ36-1 and BZ28-1 in the Bohai Bay,it is proposed to adopt 2.8 as the target reliability index of offshore jacket platforms in the Bohai Bay for a 25-year design period.The results provide significant reference for the design of offshore jacket platforms.

  9. System-Level Design Methodologies for Networked Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir

    2008-01-01

    of wireless integrated sensor networks which are an emerging class of networked embedded computer systems. The work described here demonstrates how to model multiprocessor systems-on-chip at the system level by abstracting away most of the lower-level details albeit retaining the parameters most relevant......The first part of the thesis presents an overview of the existing theories and practices of modeling and simulation of multiprocessor systems-on-chip. The systematic categorization of the plethora of existing programming models at various levels of abstraction is the main contribution here which...... is the first such attempt in the published literature. The second part of the thesis deals with the issues related to the development of system-level design methodologies for networked multiprocessor systems-on-chip at various levels of design abstraction with special focus on the modeling and design...

  10. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  11. Plasma nitrite levels, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, and oxidative stress index in patients with tension-type headache and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyal, Munife; Yimenicioglu, Fatih; Aydeniz, Ali; Taskin, Abdullah; Saglam, Sadullah; Cekmen, Mustafa; Neyal, Abdurrahman; Gursoy, Savas; Erel, Ozcan; Balat, Ayse

    2013-06-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) are worldwide seen chronic pain syndromes of unknown etiology. Despite the growing body of data on pathophysiology and generation mechanisms of pain; our knowledge on pain mechanisms in both FM and TTH is yet to be limited. We investigated the plasma nitrite levels, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in 35 TTH, 33 FM patients and 31 healthy controls. The mean plasma nitrite levels and TAS levels were significantly low and OSI was found to be significantly high in TTH and FM groups compared to the control group (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). The mean serum TOS levels were also significantly higher in FM group according to the control group (p=0.034), but there was not a significant difference between TTH and control groups (p=0.066). These results indicated that; FM and TTH patients revealed higher oxidative stress index and lower total nitrite levels than healthy controls. We conclude that oxidative stress may have a role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of TTH and FM, although, whether it is the cause or the consequence, is not clear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The increasing impact of a higher body mass index on the decrease in plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Arase

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: BMI is a significant factor that reduces the plasma BNP level. This impact is significantly increased in patients with a high BMI, even among those with a worsening severity of heart failure.

  13. Structural Topology Design of Container Ship Based on Knowledge-Based Engineering and Level Set Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔进举; 王德禹; 史琪琪

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge-Based Engineering (KBE) is introduced into the ship structural design in this paper. From the implementation of KBE, the design solutions for both Rules Design Method (RDM) and Interpolation Design Method (IDM) are generated. The corresponding Finite Element (FE) models are generated. Topological design of the longitudinal structures is studied where the Gaussian Process (GP) is employed to build the surrogate model for FE analysis. Multi-objective optimization methods inspired by Pareto Front are used to reduce the design tank weight and outer surface area simultaneously. Additionally, an enhanced Level Set Method (LSM) which employs implicit algorithm is applied to the topological design of typical bracket plate which is used extensively in ship structures. Two different sets of boundary conditions are considered. The proposed methods show satisfactory efficiency and accuracy.

  14. A Probabilistic Approach for the System-Level Design of Multi-ASIP Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura

    C with a relatively short time-to-market. While there are several commercial tools for the design of a single ASIP, there is still a lack of automation in the design of multi-ASIP platforms. In this thesis we consider multi-ASIP platforms for real-time applications. Each ASIP is designed to run a specific group...... introduce a system-level Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the very early phases of the design that automatizes part of the multi-ASIP design flow. Our DSE is responsible for assigning the tasks to the different ASIPs exploring different platform alternatives. We perform a schedulability analysis for each...... solution to determine which one has the highest chances of meeting the deadlines of the applications and that should be considered in the next stages of the multi-ASIP design flow....

  15. Design and Implementation of Two-Level Metadata Server in Small-Scale Cluster File System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuling; YU Hongfen; SONG Weiwei

    2006-01-01

    The reliability and high performance of metadata service is crucial to the store architecture. A novel design of a two-level metadata server file system (TTMFS) is presented, which behaves high reliability and performance. The merits both centralized management and distributed management are considered simultaneously in our design. In this file system, the advanced-metadata server is responsible for manage directory metadata and the whole namespace. The double-metadata server is responsible for maintaining file metadata. And this paper uses the Markov return model to analyze the reliability of the two-level metadata server. The experiment data indicates that the design can provide high throughput.

  16. Topological Design and Modulation Strategy for Buck-Boost Three-Level Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Teodorescu, Remus

    2009-01-01

    can perform distinct five-level line voltage and three-level phase voltage switching by simply controlling the active switches located in the designed voltage boost section of the circuits. As a cost saving option, one active switch can further be removed from the voltage boost section of the circuits...

  17. 茶叶霜冻气象指数保险设计%Design of Weather Index Insurance Contact for Tea Frost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄伟平; 吉宗伟; 邱新法; 吴利红; 何孝笑

    2011-01-01

    minimum temperature in a period before productive life or after productive life,different minimum temperature is in accordance with tea's economic loss rate.Support Vector Machine(SVM) is used to extend mesoscale automatic weather station's minimum temperature data to 30 years in specific to non-linear relation existing among meteorological data of mesoscale automatic weather station in villages,towns and county;minimum temperature corresponds to tea's economic loss rate,therefore it's possible to calculate different levels of frost risk based on minimum temperature data and confirm tea's economic loss risk,and to solve problems such as tea's short planting period,short accumulation period for mesoscale automatic weather stations and unable to meet risk analysis requirement.There're certain differences between risk results calculated on different risk analysis models.The article applies probability density function fitting distributions such as Beta,Exponential,Gumbel,Gamma,Generalized Extreme Value,Inverse Gaussian,Logistic,Log-Logistic,Lognormal,Lognormal2,Normal,Pareto,Pareto2,Pearson Type V,Pearson Type VI,Student,Weibull to minimum temperature data sequence in every township and street in the study area.Parameter estimation in distribution model applies maximum likelihood method,both of Anderson-Darling and Kolmogorov-Smirnov examination selected from different production periods in different townships and villages passed significance level of 0.05.Almost coincidence distribution of P-P drawing's tailer and diagonal line confirms that Generalized Extreme Value distribution's risk probability estimation as the best theoretical probability distribution function,thus being relatively stable with realistic risk evaluation result.On the basis of quantitative risk analysis and considering actual needs of policy-based agricultural insurance operation,combined with advantages of regional output insurance and weather index,the paper designs tea's frost weather

  18. System Level Design of Reconfigurable Server Farms Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangook Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As today’s hardware architecture becomes more and more complicated, it is getting harder to modify or improve the microarchitecture of a design in register transfer level (RTL. Consequently, traditional methods we have used to develop a design are not capable of coping with complex designs. In this paper, we suggest a way of designing complex digital logic circuits with a soft and advanced type of SystemVerilog at an electronic system level. We apply the concept of design-and-reuse with a high level of abstraction to implement elliptic curve crypto-processor server farms. With the concept of the superior level of abstraction to the RTL used with the traditional HDL design, we successfully achieved the soft implementation of the crypto-processor server farms as well as robust test bench code with trivial effort in the same simulation environment. Otherwise, it could have required error-prone Verilog simulations for the hardware IPs and other time-consuming jobs such as C/SystemC verification for the software, sacrificing more time and effort. In the design of the elliptic curve cryptography processor engine, we propose a 3X faster GF(2m serial multiplication architecture.

  19. Atmospheric stability index using radio occultation refractivity profiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Jagadheesha; B Manikiam; Neerja Sharma; P K Pal

    2011-04-01

    A new stability index based on atmospheric refractivity at ∼500 hPa level and surface measurements of temperature, pressure and humidity is formulated. The new index named here as refractivity based lifted index (RLI) is designed to give similar results as traditionally used lifted index derived from radiosonde profiles of temperature, pressure and humidity. The formulation of the stability index and its comparison with the traditional temperature profile based lifted index (LI) is discussed. The index is tested on COSMIC radio occultation derived refractivity profiles over Indian region. The forecast potential of the new index for rainfall on 2° × 2° latitude–longitude spatial scale with lead time of 3–24 hours indicate that the refractivity based lifted index works better than the traditional temperature based lifted index for the Indian monsoon region. Decreasing values of RLI tend to give increasing rainfall probabilities.

  20. Nano-scale CMOS analog circuits models and CAD techniques for high-level design

    CERN Document Server

    Pandit, Soumya; Patra, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Reliability concerns and the limitations of process technology can sometimes restrict the innovation process involved in designing nano-scale analog circuits. The success of nano-scale analog circuit design requires repeat experimentation, correct analysis of the device physics, process technology, and adequate use of the knowledge database.Starting with the basics, Nano-Scale CMOS Analog Circuits: Models and CAD Techniques for High-Level Design introduces the essential fundamental concepts for designing analog circuits with optimal performances. This book explains the links between the physic

  1. Design and operation of 140 GHz gyrotron oscillators for power levels up to 1 MW CW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jory, H.; Bier, R.; Craig, L.J.; Felch, K.; Ives, L.; Lopez, N.; Spang, S.

    1986-12-01

    Varian has designed and tested 140 GHz gyrotron oscillators that have generated output powers of 100 kW CW and 200 kW for 1 ms pulses. Upcoming tubes will be designed to operate at power levels of 200 kW CW and ultimately up to 1 MW CW. The important design considerations which are addressed in the higher power tubes include the design of the electron gun, interaction circuit, and output window. These issues will be discussed and the results of the earlier 140 GHz gyrotron work at Varian will be summarized.

  2. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; pself-esteem (r=-0.17, pdance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  3. Validation of the SYNTAX revascularization index to quantify reasonable level of incomplete revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Généreux, Philippe; Campos, Carlos M; Farooq, Vasim; Bourantas, Christos V; Mohr, Friedrich W; Colombo, Antonio; Morel, Marie-Angèle; Feldman, Ted E; Holmes, David R; Mack, Michael J; Morice, Marie-Claude; Kappetein, A Pieter; Palmerini, Tullio; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W

    2015-07-15

    Incomplete revascularization is common after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether a "reasonable" degree of incomplete revascularization is associated with a similar favorable long-term prognosis compared with complete revascularization remains unknown. We sought to quantify the proportion of coronary artery disease burden treated by PCI and evaluate its impact on outcomes using a new prognostic instrument-the Synergy Between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) Revascularization Index (SRI). The baseline SYNTAX score (bSS), the residual SYNTAX score, and the delta SYNTAX score (ΔSS) were determined from 888 angiograms of patients enrolled in the prospective SYNTAX trial. The SRI was then calculated for each patient using the following formula: SRI = (ΔSS/bSS]) × 100. Outcomes were examined according to the proportion of revascularized myocardium (SRI = 100% [complete revascularization], 50% to SYNTAX score was 4.5 ± 6.9. The mean SRI was 85.3 ± 21.2% and was 100% in 385 patients (43.5%), <100% to 50% in 454 patients (51.1%), and <50% in 48 patients (5.4%). Five-year adverse outcomes, including death, were inversely proportional to the SRI. An SRI cutoff of <70% (present in 142 patients [16.0%] after PCI) had the best prognostic accuracy for prediction of death and, by multivariable analysis, was an independent predictor of 5-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 4.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.79 to 6.11, p <0.0001). In conclusion, the SRI is a newly described method for quantifying the proportion of coronary artery disease burden treated by PCI. The SRI is a useful tool in assessing the degree of revascularization after PCI, with SRI ≥70% representing a "reasonable" goal for patients with complex coronary artery disease.

  4. A Platform-Based Methodology for System-Level Mixed-Signal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of today's embedded electronic systems as well as their demanding performance and reliability requirements are such that their design can no longer be tackled with ad hoc techniques while still meeting tight time to-market constraints. In this paper, we present a system level design approach for electronic circuits, utilizing the platform-based design (PBD paradigm as the natural framework for mixed-domain design formalization. In PBD, a meet-in-the-middle approach allows systematic exploration of the design space through a series of top-down mapping of system constraints onto component feasibility models in a platform library, which is based on bottom-up characterizations. In this framework, new designs can be assembled from the precharacterized library components, giving the highest priority to design reuse, correct assembly, and efficient design flow from specifications to implementation. We apply concepts from design centering to enforce robustness to modeling errors as well as process, voltage, and temperature variations, which are currently plaguing embedded system design in deep-submicron technologies. The effectiveness of our methodology is finally shown on the design of a pipeline A/D converter and two receiver front-ends for UMTS and UWB communications.

  5. Architecture-level performance/power tradeoff in network processor design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-song; JI Zhen-zhou; HU Ming-zeng

    2007-01-01

    Network processors are used in the core node of network to flexibly process packet streams. With the increase of performance, the power of network processor increases fast, and power and cooling become a bottleneck. Architecture-level power conscious design must go beyond low-level circuit design. Architectural power and performance tradeoff should be considered at the same time. Simulation is an efficient method to design modern network processor before making chip. In order to achieve the tradeoff between performance and power,the processor simulator is used to design the architecture of network processor. Using Netbench, Commubench benchmark and processor simulator-SimpleScalar, the performance and power of network processor are quantitatively evaluated. New performance tradeoff evaluation metric is proposed to analyze the architecture of network processor. Based on the high performance Intel IXP 2800 Network processor configuration, optimized instruction fetch width and speed 、instruction issue width, instruction window size are analyzed and selected. Simulation results show that the tradeoff design method makes the usage of network processor more effectively. The optimal key parameters of network processor are important in architecture-level design. It is meaningful for the next generation network processor design.

  6. Alternating phase-shifted mask for logic gate levels, design, and mask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Graur, Ioana C.; Leipold, William C.; Oberschmidt, James M.; O'Grady, David S.; Regaill, Denis

    1999-07-01

    While the benefits of alternating phase shifted masks in improving lithographic process windows at increased resolution are well known throughout the lithography community, broad implementation of this potentially powerful technique has been slow due to the inherent complexity of the layout design and mask manufacturing process. This paper will review a project undertaken at IBM's Semiconductor Research and Development Center and Mask Manufacturing and Development facility to understand the technical and logistical issues associated with the application of alternating phase shifted mask technology to the gate level of a full microprocessor chip. The work presented here depicts an important milestone toward integration of alternating phase shifted masks into the manufacturing process by demonstrating an automated design solution and yielding a functional alternating phase shifted mask. The design conversion of the microprocessor gate level to a conjugate twin shifter alternating phase shift layout was accomplished with IBM's internal design system that automatically scaled the design, added required phase regions, and resolved phase conflicts. The subsequent fabrication of a nearly defect free phase shifted mask, as verified by SEM based die to die inspection, highlights the maturity of the alternating phase shifted mask manufacturing process in IBM's internal mask facility. Well defined and recognized challenges in mask inspection and repair remain and the layout of alternating phase shifted masks present a design and data preparation overhead, but the data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of designing and building manufacturing quality alternating phase shifted masks for the gate level of a microprocessor.

  7. Oxidative stress level and anthropogenic load index as prognostic criteria of disease outcome in patients with oropharyngeal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stcherbatyuk Т.G.; Davydenko D.V.; Novikova V.А.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the role of ecological problems and oxidative homeostasis parameters in life expectancy prognosis of oncology patients in the territories with different anthropogenic load level. Materials and Methods. A group of oncology patients included 80 males with oropharyngeal tumors (III–IV stage tumors of oral and oropharyngeal cavity), mean age being 58.63±0.68. According to clinical and morphological characteristics of the disease, and social and adapt...

  8. Simplified spacecraft vulnerability assessments at component level in early design phase at the European Space Agency's Concurrent Design Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Scott; Schäfer, Frank K.; Cardone, Tiziana; Ferreira, Ivo; Gerené, Sam; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith

    2016-12-01

    During recent years, the state-of-the-art risk assessment of the threat posed to spacecraft by micrometeoroids and space debris has been expanded to the analysis of failure modes of internal spacecraft components. This method can now be used to perform risk analyses for satellites to assess various failure levels - from failure of specific sub-systems to catastrophic break-up. This new assessment methodology is based on triple-wall ballistic limit equations (BLEs), specifically the Schäfer-Ryan-Lambert (SRL) BLE, which is applicable for describing failure threshold levels for satellite components following a hypervelocity impact. The methodology is implemented in the form of the software tool Particle Impact Risk and vulnerability Analysis Tool (PIRAT). During a recent European Space Agency (ESA) funded study, the PIRAT functionality was expanded in order to provide an interface to ESA's Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). The additions include a geometry importer and an OCDT (Open Concurrent Design Tool) interface. The new interface provides both the expanded geometrical flexibility, which is provided by external computer aided design (CAD) modelling, and an ease of import of existing data without the need for extensive preparation of the model. The reduced effort required to perform vulnerability analyses makes it feasible for application during early design phase, at which point modifications to satellite design can be undertaken with relatively little extra effort. The integration of PIRAT in the CDF represents the first time that vulnerability analyses can be performed in-session in ESA's CDF and the first time that comprehensive vulnerability studies can be applied cost-effectively in early design phase in general.

  9. Presenting a Multi-level Superstructure Optimization Approach for Mechatronic System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Bech, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control) and descr......Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control......) and describe the interface between the technologies, whereas the lack of well-established, systematic engineering methods to form the basic set-off in analysis and design of complete mechatronic systems has been obvious. The focus of the current paper is therefore to present an integrated design approach...... for mechatronic system design, utilizing a multi-level superstructure optimization based approach. Finally two design examples are presented and the possibilities and limitations of the approach are outlined....

  10. Presenting a Multi-level Superstructure Optimization Approach for Mechatronic System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Bech, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control) and descr......Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control......) and describe the interface between the technologies, whereas the lack of well-established, systematic engineering methods to form the basic set-off in analysis and design of complete mechatronic systems has been obvious. The focus of the current paper is therefore to present an integrated design approach...... for mechatronic system design, utilizing a multi-level superstructure optimization based approach. Finally two design examples are presented and the possibilities and limitations of the approach are outlined....

  11. Evaluation of the Significance of Vital Signs in the Up-Triage of Patients Visiting Emergency Department from Emergency Severity Index Level 3 to 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Nejad, Hooman; Banaie, Mohsen; Seyedhosseini Davarani, Seyed Hossein; Khazaeipour, Zahra

    2016-06-01

    The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is a five-level triage system that has shown promising reliability and validity. According to ESI algorithm, in the presence of danger zone respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) or Oxygen (O2) saturation, patients should be up-triaged from ESI level 3 to 2 Hence, the current study aimed to investigate the value of the measurement of vital signs in predicting the up-triage of patients from ESI level 3 to 2. Patients who visited the emergency department at Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran, and were categorized into ESI level 3 were investigated. RR, HR, and O2 saturation were recorded by the triage nurse, and the rates of abnormalities in these three variables were evaluated. Out of 551 cases who were up-triaged from ESI level 3 to 2,489 (88.7%) had an increased RR, and 539 (97.8%) had an increased RR or HR. Only 12 cases (2.2%) had normal RR and HR, who were up-triaged only due to abnormal O2 saturation. Out of these 12 cases, 10 had O2 saturations triaged into ESI level 2 in the first place and 1 could not be located for further investigations. In conclusion, compared to O2 saturation, the abnormal findings during the assessment of RR and HR seem to much more commonly result in the up-triage of patients from ESI level 3 to 2.

  12. Construction of Tightened-Normal- Tightened Schemes of Type TNT-(n1, n2; c Indexed through Nano Quality Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. RADHAKRISHNAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Motorola (1980 introduced the concept of six sigma as a quality philosophy and a management strategy, which when adopted in a system of organization will reduce wastages and increase the profit to themanagement results in enhancing the satisfaction of the customer. If this concept of Six Sigma is adopted in an organization it can results in 3.4 or lower number of defects per million opportunities in the long run. In recent days many companies in developed and developing countries started working beyond Six Sigma level andthereby the performance level increases with number of defectives reduced to near zero level. In those situations a more stringent quality level than six sigma quality level is regarded to construct the sampling plan. In this paper a procedure for the construction of Tightened-Normal-Tightened Schemes of Type TNT-(n1, n2; c indexed through producer’s Nano quality level (PNQL and consumer’s Nano quality level (CNQL is presented and suitable tables are also provided for the easy selection of the plans.

  13. A methodology to determine the level of automation to improve the production process and reduce the ergonomics index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Amaya, Alejandro; Anaya-Pérez, María Elena; Benítez-Baltazar, Víctor Hugo

    2017-08-01

    Companies are constantly looking for improvements in productivity to increase their competitiveness. The use of automation technologies is a tool that have been proven to be effective to achieve this. There are companies that are not familiar with the process to acquire automation technologies, therefore, they abstain from investments and thereby miss the opportunity to take advantage of it. The present document proposes a methodology to determine the level of automation appropriate for the production process and thus minimize automation and improve production taking in consideration the ergonomics factor.

  14. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  15. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2011-03-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  16. Conceptual Design Report for Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  17. A Multi-step and Multi-level approach for Computer Aided Molecular Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A general multi-step approach for setting up, solving and solution analysis of computer aided molecular design (CAMD) problems is presented. The approach differs from previous work within the field of CAMD since it also addresses the need for a computer aided problem formulation and result analysis....... The problem formulation step incorporates a knowledge base for the identification and setup of the design criteria. Candidate compounds are identified using a multi-level generate and test CAMD solution algorithm capable of designing molecules having a high level of molecular detail. A post solution step...... using an Integrated Computer Aided System (ICAS) for result analysis and verification is included in the methodology. Keywords: CAMD, separation processes, knowledge base, molecular design, solvent selection, substitution, group contribution, property prediction, ICAS Introduction The use of Computer...

  18. A Guide to Visual Multi-Level Interface Design From Synthesis of Empirical Study Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Displaying multiple levels of data visually has been proposed to address the challenge of limited screen space. Although many previous empirical studies have addressed different aspects of this question, the information visualization research community does not currently have a clearly articulated consensus on how, when, or even if displaying data at multiple levels is effective. To shed more light on this complex topic, we conducted a systematic review of 22 existing multi-level interface studies to extract high-level design guidelines. To facilitate discussion, we cast our analysis findings

  19. Assessment of the Fire Risk Levels in an Office Building and a Nightclub with Prescriptive Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, D.; Steffensen, F.B.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    was far from meeting the requirements. Another suggested tolerable level herein was derived from the UK specifications by the Health and Safety Executive, which distinguish between tolerable safety level for members of the public and for workplaces. This comparison made it even more difficult......A comparison of the risk level of an office building and a nightclub with code compliant prescriptive designs was conducted in order to evaluate whether an uniform safety level of the two occupancy types can be established. A risk assessment method using Monte Carlo simulations and 1- and 2-zone...... difference in risk levels, with that of the nightclub being substantially higher. The higher risk level in the nightclub is caused by a relatively fast mean value of the fire growth rate and the high number of occupants. Hence, the requirements in the prescriptive code do not ensure a similar safety level...

  20. Conceptual Level Design of Semi-structured Database System: Graph-semantic Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Sarkar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed a Graph – semantic based conceptual model for semi-structured database system, called GOOSSDM, to conceptualize the different facets of such system in object oriented paradigm. The model defines a set of graph based formal constructs, variety of relationship types with participation constraints and rich set of graphical notations to specify the conceptual level design of semi-structured database system. The proposed design approach facilitates modeling of irregular, heterogeneous, hierarchical and non-hierarchical semi-structured data at the conceptual level. Moreover, the proposed GOOSSDM is capable to model XML document at conceptual level with the facility of document-centric design, ordering and disjunction characteristic. A rule based transformation mechanism of GOOSSDM schema into the equivalent XML Schema Definition (XSD also has been proposed in this paper. The concepts of the proposed conceptual model have been implemented using Generic Modeling Environment (GME.

  1. Multi-load Optimal Design of Burner-inner-liner Under Performance Index Constraint by Second-Order Polynomial Taylor Series Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Gaoqiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using maximum expansion pressure of n-decane, the aeroengine burner-inner-liner combustion pressure load is computed. Aerodynamic loads are obtained from internal gas pressure load and gas momentum. Multi-load second-order Taylor series equations are established using multi-variant polynomials and their sensitivities. Optimal designs are carried out using various performance index constraints. When 0.25 to 0.8 rectifications of different design variants are implemented, they converge under 5×10‒4 d-norm difference ratio.

  2. Teaching Skills in Undergraduate Level Teachers: Design and Validation of an Evaluation Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Escobar, Itala Marina; Universidad Católica de Colombia; Pardo Adames, Carlos; Universidad Católica de Colombia

    2009-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and validation processes of a instrument aimed to the evaluation of teaching skills of the Catholic University of Colombia’s undergraduate level teachers. The instrument evaluates seven skills that are basic to the exercise of teaching: curriculum planning, appropriate usage of methodological designs and organization of teaching activities, scientific technological competence, appropriate interaction with students, evaluative competence, tutorial skills...

  3. 就业景气指数设计研究%Design Research of Employment Prosperity Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊梁; 陆静丹; 张雅文

    2013-01-01

    就业景气程度是衡量地区经济和社会发展的先导性指标,对指导和制定就业经济决策具有重要意义。通过对就业存量变化情况(流入量、流出量、总量)、人力资源市场供求变化情况(市场需求量、供给量、成交量、求人倍率)、非就业存量变化情况(长期失业率、登记失业率)的连续监控及指数化处理,构造出一组从不同侧面反映就业市场活跃程度的分量指数,在此基础上,用AHP和DELPHI方法提炼出一个能够反映监控区域就业市场兴衰变化过程的指数---就业景气指数(EPI)。%Prosperity of employment is the pilot indicator that measures the regional economic and social develop -ment, which is significant in economic decision -making.Through investigating and indexation the total variance o-ver enterprise employment ( including inflow , outflow and total amount ) , the alteration of human resource market ( consisting of market demand , supply , volume , and recruitment magnification ) ,and the unemployment registration of statistics department ( including long-run unemployment and registered unemployment ) , we construct a series of component indexes.Furthermore , applying Analytic Hierarchy Process , we finally estimate an index , Enterprise Prosperity Index ,that can generally reflect the variance of employment prosperity in certain observed area.

  4. System-Level Design of an Integrated Receiver Front End for a Wireless Ultrasound Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Llimos Muntal, Pere;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a system-level design is presented for an integrated receive circuit for a wireless ultrasound probe, which includes analog front ends and beamformation modules. This paper focuses on the investigation of the effects of architectural design choices on the image quality. The point......). The designs that minimally satisfy the specifications are based on an 8-b 30-MSPS Nyquist converter and a single-bit third-order 240-MSPS modulator, with an SNR for the LNA in both cases equal to 64 dB. The mean lateral FWHM and CR are 2.4% and 7.1% lower for the architecture compared with the Nyquistrate one...

  5. Ropossum: An Authoring Tool for Designing, Optimizing and Solving Cut the Rope Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Mohammad; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian

    2013-01-01

    We present a demonstration of Ropossum, an authoring tool for the generation and testing of levels of the physics-based game, Cut the Rope. Ropossum integrates many features: (1) automatic design of complete solvable content, (2) incorporation of designer’s input through the creation of complete...... or partial designs, (3) automatic check for playability and (4) optimization of a given design based on playability. The system includes a physics engine to simulate the game and an evolutionary framework to evolve content as well as an AI reasoning agent to check for playability. The system is optimised...

  6. Aboveground roofed design for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.A. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The conceptual designs proposed in this report resulted from a study for the Maine Low-level Radioactive Waste Authority to develop conceptual designs for a safe and reliable disposal facility for Maine`s low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Freezing temperatures, heavy rainfall, high groundwater tables, and very complex and shallow glaciated soils found in Maine place severe constraints on the design. The fundamental idea behind the study was to consider Maine`s climatic and geological conditions at the beginning of conceptual design rather than starting with a design for another location and adapting it for Maine`s conditions. The conceptual designs recommended are entirely above ground and consist of an inner vault designed to provide shielding and protection against inadvertent intrusion and an outer building to protect the inner vault from water. The air dry conditions within the outer building should lead to almost indefinite service life for the concrete inner vault and the waste containers. This concept differs sharply from the usual aboveground vault in its reliance on at least two independent, but more or less conventional, roofing systems for primary and secondary protection against leakage of radioisotopes from the facility. Features include disposal of waste in air dry environment, waste loading and visual inspection by remote-controlled overhead cranes, and reliance on engineered soils for tertiary protection against release of radioactive materials.

  7. NASA System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools Research on NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.

  8. THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION ON THE NON-AEROBIC POWER, THE FATIGUE INDEX AND THE BLOOD LACTATE LEVELS IN THE MALE ATHLETE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar Rouhola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the effect of caffeine consumption on the non-aerobic power, the fatigue index and the blood lactate levels in the male athlete students. Therefore, 16 individuals with the average weight (68/1 +_ 9/1kg, height (1/73+_7cm, and age (24+_2 years were selected based on the simple-randomized method from among volunteer participants, and they were divided as match pairs, based on pre-examined fatigue index, into the two groups of caffeine (n=8 and placebo (n=8. Subjects were asked to refrain from having any intensive physical activity 24 hours before the test starts and avoid eating or drinking any caffeine foods or drinks 48 hours before the test. The primary RAST test (pre-test was performed at least 4 hours after having a meal, and then the individuals blood lactate levels was measured after 6 minutes of the test. The secondary RAST test was done after a week exactly like the first session. The subjects continued caffeine consumption as usual and interrupt it 48 hours prior to the next test. In post-test, the subjects took 6mg caffeine or placebo in the form of gelatin capsules per one kilogram of their weight one hour prior to the test. The analysis of the result, with applying the statistical t-test method (p≤0.05 to the dependent and independent groups, showed that consumption of caffeine has a significant positive effect on average power; minimum power and fatigue index, while it does not have any significant effect on maximum power and the amount of blood lactate. It seems that caffeine consumption is effective in the recovery of fast short-term shuttle activities.

  9. [Mechanism of the preventing of endotracheal intubation response with esmolol-the relationship between the plasma catecholamine level and bispectral index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yun yu; Yang, Lan; Zhu, Sai nan; Pan, Zhen Yu; Bai, Yu; Fan, Zhi yi

    2008-04-01

    To observe the relationship between the level of catecholamine in plasma with bispectral index during endotracheal intubation with propofol anesthesia in order to investigate the mechanism of the preventing of endotracheal intubation response with esmolol. Thirty patients were randomly allocated into two groups: control group (n=15) and esmolol group (n=15). The patients received esmolol 1amg/kg followed by 250 microg/(kgdmin) in esmolol group and saline in control group. Two minutes later, the patients received propofol 2amg/kg for induction. Bispectral index (BIS), systolic pressure (SP), diostolic pressure (DP), and heart rate (HR) were measured before endotracheal intubation and 3amin after intubation, at the same time 8a mL arteral blood was taken for the measurement of the concentrations of norephinephrine(NE) and ephinephrine(E) in plasma. The level of BIS(63.53+/-3.11), NE(2.016+/-0.681)and E(0.578+/-0.072)in control group 3 min after endotracheal intubation were increased significantly than those before intubation (Pendotracheal intubation . There were significant differences in the concentrations of NE(2.016+/-0.681)and E(0.578+/-0.072) in plasma 3 min after intubation between the two groups (Pintubation between the two groups(Pintubation than those before intubation (Pintubation than those before intubation. Esmolol can reduce the plasma concentrations of NE and E through preventing periopheal sympathetic nerve response to intubation and can reduce BIS arousal reactions after endotracheal intubation.

  10. Effect of sex-hormone levels, sex, body mass index and other host factors on human craniofacial bone regeneration with bioactive tricalcium phosphate grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Christine; Mele, Aynur; Kann, Peter Herbert; Peleska, Barbara; Adel-Khattab, Doaa; Renz, Harald; Reuss, Alexander; Bohner, Marc; Stiller, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Little is known regarding the associations between sex-hormone levels, sex, body mass index (BMI), age, other host factors and biomaterial stimulated bone regeneration in the human craniofacial skeleton. The aim of this study was to elucidate the associations between these factors and bone formation after sinus floor augmentation procedures (SFA) utilizing a bioactive tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bone grafting material. We conducted a prospective study in a human population in which 60 male and 60 female participants underwent SFA and dental implant placement using a staged approach. BMI as well as levels of serum estradiol (E2), total testosterone (TT), and the free androgen index (FAI) were measured by radioimmunoassay and electrochemoluminescent-immunoassay. At implant placement, 6 months after SFA, bone biopsy specimens were harvested for hard tissue histology, the amount of bone formation was evaluated by histomorphometry and immunohistochemical analysis of osteogenic marker expression. The Wilcoxon rank-sum U test, Spearman correlations and linear regression analysis were used to explore the association between bone formation and BMI, hormonal and other host factors. BMI and log E2 were significantly positively associated with bone formation in male individuals (p BMI enhanced TCP stimulated craniofacial i.e. intramembranous bone repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of a Multi-layer Lane-Level Map for Vehicle Route Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chaoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of intelligent transportation system, there occurs further demand for high precision localization and route planning, and simultaneously the traditional road-level map fails to meet with this requirement, by which this paper is motivated. In this paper, t he three-layer lane-level map architecture for vehicle path guidance is established, and the mathematical models of road-level layer, intermediate layer and lane-level layer are designed considering efficiency and precision. The geometric model of the lane-level layer of the map is characterized by Cubic Hermite Spline for continuity. A method of generating the lane geometry with fixed and variable control points is proposed, which can effectively ensure the accuracy with limited num ber of control points. In experimental part, a multi-layer map of an intersection is built to validate the map model, and an example of a local map was generated with the lane-level geometry.

  12. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  13. 舰船设计方案技术风险评估指标体系研究%Research on index system for evaluating technical risk in warship design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟小军; 刘刚; 狄鹏

    2012-01-01

    It is important to evaluate and manage technology risk in developing weapon equipment. In order to evaluate the technical risk of warship design in reason, warship equipment design project and its characteristic were analyzed, on this basis, technology readiness assessment method was applied for setting up index system of evaluating technical risk for warship design. The index system, borrows the ideology of technology readiness level (TRL) , congregates the characteristic of warship equipment design, can make measuring technical risk to be practical and flexible. So the problem on how to measuring technical risk of project is solved. This index system has some reference for evaluating other equipment's technical risk.%对于新研装备,技术风险的度量和管理十分重要.为了合理度量舰船装备研制中所隐藏的技术风险,分析了舰船装备设计方案及其特点,在此基础上,运用技术成熟度评价方法,构建了舰船研制方案技术风险评估的指标体系.该指标体系借鉴技术成熟度评价的思想,结合舰船武器装备设计方案的特点,使设计方案技术风险评估具有实用性和可操作性,有效地解决了设计方案所隐含的技术风险量化问题.该指标体系对其它装备的技术风险评估也具有一定的借鉴作用.

  14. Indexing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  15. Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy on pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, and SF-MPQ indexes of women with myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Laís Valencise; Carvalho, Vinícius Almeida; Rodrigues, Flávia Cássia Cabral; Bataglion, César; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2017-02-01

    Women with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) frequently report pain areas in body regions. This process is associated with central sensitization phenomena, present in chronic pain. The low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported as a therapeutic option for the painful TMD treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of LLLT on pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS), pain sensitivity in orofacial and corporal points (pressure pain threshold, PPT), and on Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) indexes of women with myofascial pain (subtype of muscle TMD). Ninety-one women (18-60 years) were included in the study, among which 61 were diagnosed with myofascial pain (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder-Ia and Ib) and were divided into laser (n = 31) and placebo group (n = 30), and 30 were controls. The LLLT was applied at pre-established points, twice a week, eight sessions (780 nm; masseter and anterior temporal = 5 J/cm(2), 20 mW, 10 s; TMJ area = 7.5 J/cm(2), 30 mW, 10 s). Pain intensity, pain sensitivity, and the SF-MPQ indexes were measured at the baseline, during laser sessions, and 30 days after treatment. For intra-group comparisons, the Friedman test was performed, and for inter-group, the Mann-Whitney test. Increased pain sensitivity was found in women with myofascial pain when compared to controls (p intensity for both groups after LLLT. The LLLT did not change the PPT for any group (p > 0.05). Active laser and placebo reduced the indexes of sensory, total pain, and VAS, maintaining the results after 30 days; there was a reduction in the affective pain rating index for both groups, with no maintenance after 30 days for placebo, and the present pain intensity decreased in the laser group and did not change in the placebo after LLLT. In conclusion, the LLLT active or placebo are effective in reducing the overall subjective perception of myofascial pain (VAS and SF

  16. Maternal glucose level and body mass index measured at gestational diabetes mellitus screening and the risk of macrosomia: results from a perinatal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Leng, Junhong; Tang, Chen; Liu, Gongshu; Hay, John; Wang, Jing; Wen, Shiwu; Li, Zhenling; She, Ye

    2014-05-20

    To examine the impact of maternal blood glucose (BG) level and body mass index (BMI) measured at gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening on the risk of macrosomia. A perinatal cohort of women were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. 1951 women aged 19-42 years with valid values of BMI and BG level at GDM screening (24-28 weeks gestation), singleton birth and birth weight (BW)>2500 g. Primary outcome was macrosomia (BW>4000 g). BG level and BMI were measured at GDM screening. 191 (9.7%) newborns were macrosomia. The ORs (95% CIs) of macrosomia from multiple logistic regression were 1.14 (1.10 to 1.19, pmacrosomia were not statistically different for mothers in Q1 or Q2 of BMI regardless of the BG levels; the ORs for ≥Q3 of BMI were elevated significantly with the highest OR observed in Q5 of BMI and BG levels ≥7.8 (6.93 (2.61 to 18.43), pmacrosomia. These findings suggest that GDM screening may be a critical gestational time point to initiate maternal weight control oriented intervention strategy to lower the risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Musculoskeletal stress marker (MSM) differences in the modern American upper limb and pectoral girdle in relation to activity level and body mass index (BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godde, K; Taylor, Rebecca Wilson

    2011-07-15

    Obesity is a widespread condition affecting modern Americans. The prevalence of obesity has led to questions of how it can affect the skeleton, and if so can it be identified in unknown skeletal material. This study attempts to decipher the effects of activity level and body mass in modern Americans by employing musculoskeletal stress markers (MSM) to estimate osseous responses to workload and body weight. A total sample of 108 skeletons of known activity level and body mass index (BMI) was observed for MSM in the upper extremity (excluding hands). The entheses selected included arm muscles used during the sit-to-stand transition, which is common in most persons, regardless of activity level and BMI. Using the three categories: normal, active, and obese, logistic regression was calculated on MSM to ascertain which markers were the best indicators of these three categories. Numerous muscles of the upper limb were significant predictors of activity level and body mass, although they did not perform much better than chance. MSM may be used as predictors of activity level and/or BMI in forensic contexts; however, they should be used in conjunction with other indications of workload and/or BMI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Designed Geometry Teaching Lesson to the Candidate Teachers' Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gül Kaleli; Koparan, Timur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out how designed Geometry Teaching Lesson affects candidate teachers' Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Levels. For that purpose, 14 weeks long study was performed with 44 candidate teachers who were university students in Turkey. Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Test was applied to candidate teachers before and after…

  19. Design and comparison of three-level three-phase T-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shults, T.; Husev, Oleksandr; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents guidelines for component design of recently proposed topologies of the three-level three-phase T-source inverters. Two different topologies are considered: T-source inverters with discontinuous input current and T-source inverters with continuous input current. Steady state...

  20. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  1. Sea-level rise induced amplification of coastal protection design heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, Arne; Dangendorf, Sönke; Jensen, Jürgen; Bender, Jens; Talke, Stefan; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2017-04-01

    Coastal protection design heights typically consider the superimposed effects of tides, surges, waves, and relative sea-level rise (SLR), neglecting non-linear feedbacks between these forcing factors. Here, we use hydrodynamic modelling and multivariate statistics to show that shallow coastal areas are extremely sensitive to changing non-linear interactions between individual components caused by SLR. As sea-level increases, the depth-limitation of waves relaxes, resulting in waves with larger periods, greater amplitudes, and higher run-up; moreover, depth and frictional changes affect tide, surge, and wave characteristics, altering the relative importance of other risk factors. Consequently, sea-level driven changes in wave characteristics, and to a lesser extent, tides, amplify the resulting design heights by an average of 48-56%, relative to design changes caused by SLR alone. Since many of the world's most vulnerable coastlines are impacted by depth-limited waves, our results suggest that the overall influence of SLR may be greatly underestimated in many regions. Reference: Arns, A.; Dangendorf, S., Jensen, J., Talke, S., Bender, J., Pattiaratchi, C.: Sea-level rise induced amplification of coastal protection design heights. Sci. Rep. 6, 40171; doi: 10.1038/srep40171 (2016).

  2. A Conceptual Framework for Educational Design at Modular Level to Promote Transfer of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botma, Yvonne; Van Rensburg, G. H.; Coetzee, I. M.; Heyns, T.

    2015-01-01

    Students bridge the theory-practice gap when they apply in practice what they have learned in class. A conceptual framework was developed that can serve as foundation to design for learning transfer at modular level. The framework is based on an adopted and adapted systemic model of transfer of learning, existing learning theories, constructive…

  3. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  4. Engagement Levels in a Graphic Design Clicker Class: Students' Perceptions around Attention, Participation and Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachago, Daniela; Morris, Amanda; Simon, Edwine

    2011-01-01

    Research into the uses of personal response systems or "clickers" shows that their use increases students' engagement levels in the classroom. In South Africa, clicker usage is still in its infancy, with little research published in the field. This study reports on 37 Graphic Design students' perceptions of the use of clickers and their…

  5. Engagement Levels in a Graphic Design Clicker Class: Students' Perceptions around Attention, Participation and Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachago, Daniela; Morris, Amanda; Simon, Edwine

    2011-01-01

    Research into the uses of personal response systems or "clickers" shows that their use increases students' engagement levels in the classroom. In South Africa, clicker usage is still in its infancy, with little research published in the field. This study reports on 37 Graphic Design students' perceptions of the use of clickers and their…

  6. Rereading of the Design of New College English at Culture Level and Culture Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛维莉

    2012-01-01

    In order to know the whole procedures of a thesis and improve my own ability of writing a thesis, the thesis of The Design of New College English at Culture Level and Culture Studies which is a graduation thesis of master degree will be reread.

  7. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.;

    2007-01-01

    Guidance on selection of breakwater types and related design safety levels for breakwaters are almost non-existent, which is the reason that PIANC has initiated working group 47 on this subject. This paper presents ongoing work particulary on the Icelandic type berm breakwater within the PIANC wo...

  8. An Optimal Sampling Design for Observing and Validating Long-Term Leaf Area Index with Temporal Variations in Spatial Heterogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelu Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A sampling strategy to define elementary sampling units (ESUs for an entire site at the kilometer scale is an important step in the validation process for moderate-resolution leaf area index (LAI products. Current LAI-sampling strategies are unable to consider the vegetation seasonal changes and are better suited for single-day LAI product validation, whereas the increasingly used wireless sensor network for LAI measurement (LAINet requires an optimal sampling strategy across both spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we developed an efficient and robust LAI Sampling strategy based on Multi-temporal Prior knowledge (SMP for long-term, fixed-position LAI observations. The SMP approach employed multi-temporal vegetation index (VI maps and the vegetation classification map as a priori knowledge. The SMP approach minimized the multi-temporal bias of the VI frequency histogram between the ESUs and the entire site and maximized the nearest-neighbor index to ensure that ESUs were dispersed in the geographical space. The SMP approach was compared with four sampling strategies including random sampling, systematic sampling, sampling based on the land-cover map and a sampling strategy based on vegetation index prior knowledge using the PROSAIL model-based simulation analysis in the Heihe River basin. The results indicate that the ESUs selected using the SMP method spread more evenly in both the multi-temporal feature space and geographical space over the vegetation cycle. By considering the temporal changes in heterogeneity, the average root-mean-square error (RMSE of the LAI reference maps can be reduced from 0.12 to 0.05, and the relative error can be reduced from 6.1% to 2.2%. The SMP technique was applied to assign the LAINet ESU locations at the Huailai Remote Sensing Experimental Station in Beijing, China, from 4 July to 28 August 2013, to validate three MODIS C5 LAI products. The results suggest that the average R2, RMSE, bias and relative

  9. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  10. Does Social Capital Explain Community-Level Differences in Organ Donor Designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Wang, Rui; Fleishman, Aaron; Boger, Matthew; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-09-01

    The growing shortage of life-saving organs has reached unprecedented levels, with more than 120,000 Americans waiting for them. Despite national attempts to increase organ donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, geographic disparities remain. A better understanding of the contextual determinants of organ donor designation, including social capital, may enhance efforts to increase organ donation by raising the probability of collective action and fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. Because community-level factors, including social capital, predict more than half the variation in donor designation, future interventions should tailor strategies to specific communities as the unit of intervention. The growing shortage of organs has reached unprecedented levels. Despite national attempts to increase donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, their availability and waiting times vary significantly nationwide. Organ donor designation is a collective action problem in public health, in which the regional organ supply and average waiting times are determined by the willingness of individuals to be listed as organ donors. Social capital increases the probability of collective action by fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. We examine whether social capital and other community-level factors explain geographic variation in organ donor designation rates in Massachusetts. We obtained a sample of 3,281,532 registered drivers in 2010 from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation Registry of Motor Vehicles (MassDOT RMV). We then geocoded the registry data, matched them to 4,466 census blocks, and linked them to the 2010 US Census, the American Community Survey (ACS), and other sources to obtain community-level sociodemographic, social capital (residential segregation, voter registration and participation, residential

  11. Is it a bag or a bottle; the appreciation of different levels of translation in student's design work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, M.; Eggink, W.; Buck, L.; Frateur, G.; Ion, B.; McMahon, C.; Baelus, C.; Grande, de G.; Vervulgen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Within the design course Methods of Form, situated in the first year of the Bachelor Industrial Design Engineering, we developed a design tool to help students to design more meaningful products. The core element of this tool is a set of translation levels, which helps designers with the translation

  12. Is it a bag or a bottle; the appreciation of different levels of translation in student's design work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; Eggink, Wouter; Buck, L.; . Frateur, G.; Ion, B.; McMahon, C.; Baelus, C.; de Grande, G.; Vervulgen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Within the design course Methods of Form, situated in the first year of the Bachelor Industrial Design Engineering, we developed a design tool to help students to design more meaningful products. The core element of this tool is a set of translation levels, which helps designers with the translation

  13. LEVEL SET METHOD FOR TOPOLOGICAL OPTIMIZATION APPLYING TO STRUCTURE,MECHANISM AND MATERIAL DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Yulin; Wang Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    Based on a level set model,a topology optimization method has been suggested recently.It uses a level set to express the moving structural boundary,which can flexibly handle complex topological changes.By combining vector level set models with gradient projection technology,the level set method for topological optimization is extended to a topological optimization problem with multi-constraints,multi-materials and multi-load cases.Meanwhile,an appropriate nonlinear speed mapping is established in the tangential space of the active constraints for a fast convergence.Then the method is applied to structure designs,mechanism and material designs by a number of benchmark examples.Finally,in order to further improve computational efficiency and overcome the difficulty that the level set method cannot generate new material interfaces during the optimization process,the topological derivative analysis is incorporated into the level set method for topological optimization,and a topological derivative and level set algorithm for topological optimization is proposed.

  14. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  15. Novel design of a refractive index sensor based on a dual-core micro-structured optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Tsigaridas, G; Persephonis, P

    2014-01-01

    In the present work a new model of a refractive index (RI) sensor is exhibited. This is based on a dual core micro-structured optical fiber (MOF), where two holes are introduced at the core centers. In this way, the model enhances the interaction of the fiber modes propagated in the core region, providing the possibility of increasing the dimensions of the fiber sensor. Thus, the filling of the fiber holes with the fluid under study is facilitated, and generally the practical use of the system as a refractive index sensor is simplified. The influence of the core separation and the diameter of the central holes on the sensitivity of the sensor have been studied by a numerical simulation. The results are in agreement with the expected behavior as it is determined by the physics of the problem. Based on the same operating principle, it is verified that a dual-core conventional optical fiber with micro-fluidic channels at the center of the cores, can also operates as an RI sensor.

  16. Control System Design of a DSP-based Real-time Leveling Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jin Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since platform working in the sea is badly influenced by the wave, leveling control system is researched to control the leveling platform, so as to prevent the device which is fixed on the platform from being affected. TMS320F2812 chip is set as the control core, and serial communication module, gyroscope etc. are adopted to design real-time leveling control system. Gyroscopes are used to measure the angular speed of the carrier and the angle of the platform, filtering processing is done to the data collected by the gyroscopes and PID algorithm is adopted to calculate the real-time speed of motor ,in order to control the leveling platform. Tests are conducted to prove that the system can well control the leveling platform, in which the shake range of the platform is (-12°, +12°, while the shake range of carrier is only about (-0.5° +0.5 °.

  17. Design of omnidirectional and multiple channeled filters using one-dimensional photonic crystals containing a defect layer with a negative refractive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun-Yuan; Zheng, Xiguang; Li, Cai-Lian; She, Wei-Long

    2005-06-01

    The band structures of one-dimensional photonic crystals containing a defect layer with a negative refractive index are studied, showing that the defect modes possess three types of dispersion: positive, zero, and negative types. Based on these three types of dispersion, practical designs for large incident angle filters without polarization effect and for narrow frequency and sharp angular filters are suggested. Moreover, the splitting of one degenerate defect mode into multiple defect modes is observed in the band gap when the parameters of the defect layer vary. This mode splitting phenomenon can be used to design multiple channeled filters or filters with a rectangular profile. The dispersion multiplicity of the defect modes can be understood by an approximate formula, and the critical condition for the defect mode splitting is also analyzed. Based on these analyses, practical optimization design of omnidirectional filter is also suggested.

  18. Comparison of the Effect of Energy Drinks with a Simple Carbohydrate Solution on Anaerobic Power, Fatigue Index and Blood Lactate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Forozesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, the consumption of energy drinks has been increased among athletes due to the extensive advertisings of manufacturers about their effects on athletes' performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Redbull energy drink with simple carbohydrate solution on anaerobic power, fatigue index and blood lactate levels in the male students of physical education. Methods: Ten male students were randomly selected from 20 volunteer students. Their mean age, height and weight was 21.1±1.8 years, 170.7±7.2 cm and 63.3±5 kg, respectively. All 10 subjects were tested at three stages, first step after the consumption of Redbull energy drink(6 ml/kg body weight, the second step after drinking a carbohydrate solution(6 ml/kg body weight that was iso-caloric with Redbull, and third step, after drinking placebo. Anaerobic test, including Wingate 30 second test was performed at all three stages(in the same way 40 minutes after drinks. We used Kolmogorov Smirnov test to evaluate the normality of distribution and dependent t-test to compare the results of the three stages. Results: The results showed that anaerobic power after Redbull consumption was lower than carbohydrate solution or placebo consumption(p=0.005 and p=0.002, respectively. Fatigue index and lactate level after 2 and 6 minutes was not significantly different among three groups(P>0.05. Conclusion: The overall results showed that consumption of Redbull energy drinks not only doesn’t have a positive effect on improvement of anaerobic power and lactate level comparing carbohydrate solution, but also is harmful in these cases.

  19. Optimal design of a new spatial 3-DOF parallel robot with respect to a frame-free index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Optimal design is one of the most important issues in robots. Since the very beginning, the concepts of the Jacobian matrix, manipulability and condition number, which are used successfully in the field of serial robots, have been applied to parallel robots. Unlike serial robots, parallel robots are good for motion/force transmission. Their performance evaluation and design should be correspondingly dif- ferent. This paper is an attempt to optimally design a novel spatial three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) parallel robot by using the concept of motion/force transmission. Accordingly, three indices are defined. The suggested indices are independent of any coordinate frame and could be applied to the analysis and design of a parallel robot whose singularities can be identified wholly by using the relative angle between the output and adjacent links, and by using the relative angle between the input and adjacent links.

  20. Optimal design of a new spatial 3-DOF parallel robot with respect to a frame-free index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JinSong; LIU XinJun; WU Chao

    2009-01-01

    Optimal design is one of the most important issues in robots. Since the very beginning, the concepts of the Jacobian matrix, manipulability and condition number, which are used successfully in the field of serial robots, have been applied to parallel robots. Unlike serial robots, parallel robots are good for motion/force transmission. Their performance evaluation and design should be correspondingly different. This paper is an attempt to optimally design a novel spatial three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF)parallel robot by using the concept of motion/force transmission. Accordingly, three indices are defined.The suggested indices are independent of any coordinate frame and could be applied to the analysis and design of a parallel robot whose singularities can be identified wholly by using the relative angle between the output and adjacent links, and by using the relative angle between the input and adjacent links.

  1. Daily physical activity, fasting glucose, uric acid, and body mass index are independent factors associated with serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Meza-Arana, Clara Elena; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Navarrete-López, Mariana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels have been linked with beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in animals. It is elevated in humans with the metabolic syndrome. This study investigates independent factors associated with serum FGF21 levels. Cross-sectional study done in healthy blue-collar workers. A medical history was taken, and FGF21 (measured using an ELISA commercial kit), glucose, uric acid, plasma lipids, total/high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and retinal-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured in 210 individuals with (n=81) and without (n=129) metabolic syndrome. The median of serum FGF21 levels were higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome (339.5 vs 276.4 ng/l, P=0.01). Serum FGF21 levels correlated positively with body mass index (BMI; r=0.23, P=0.001) and age (r=0.17, P=0.01). After adjusting for age and BMI, a significant positive correlation persisted for fasting glucose, uric acid, and physical activity in both males (r=0.21, r=0.11, and r=0.19, all Pphysical activity (SB=0.223; P=0.004) are independent factors influencing serum FGF21 levels (F=10.05, r(2)=0.19, Pfasting hyperglycemia > or =100 mg/dl, excess body weight with BMI > or =25 kg/m(2), and uric acid > or =5.5 mg/dl predicted higher serum FGF21 levels. Serum FGF21 levels are influenced by BMI, fasting glycemia, uric acid, and physical activity.

  2. Evaluation of the Significance of Vital Signs in the Up-Triage of Patients Visiting Emergency Department from Emergency Severity Index Level 3 to 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Hossein Nejad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Emergency Severity Index (ESI is a five-level triage system that has shown promising reliability and validity. According to ESI algorithm, in the presence of danger zone respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR or Oxygen (O2 saturation, patients should be up-triaged from ESI level 3 to 2 Hence, the current study aimed to investigate the value of the measurement of vital signs in predicting the up-triage of patients from ESI level 3 to 2. Patients who visited the emergency department at Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran, and were categorized into ESI level 3 were investigated. RR, HR, and O2 saturation were recorded by the triage nurse, and the rates of abnormalities in these three variables were evaluated. Out of 551 cases who were up-triaged from ESI level 3 to 2,489 (88.7% had an increased RR, and 539 (97.8% had an increased RR or HR. Only 12 cases (2.2% had normal RR and HR, who were up-triaged only due to abnormal O2 saturation. Out of these 12 cases, 10 had O2 saturations <92% at common health status, 1 had acutely altered mental status and should have been triaged into ESI level 2 in the first place and 1 could not be located for further investigations. In conclusion, compared to O2 saturation, the abnormal findings during the assessment of RR and HR seem to much more commonly result in the up-triage of patients from ESI level 3 to 2.

  3. A Flexible System Level Design Methodology Targeting Run-Time Reconfigurable FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzet Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reconfigurable computing is certainly one of the most important emerging research topics on digital processing architectures over the last few years. The introduction of run-time reconfiguration (RTR on FPGAs requires appropriate design flows and methodologies to fully exploit this new functionality. For that purpose, we present an automatic design generation methodology for heterogeneous architectures based on DSPs and FPGAs that ease and speed RTR implementation. We focus on how to take into account specificities of partially reconfigurable components from a high-level specification during the design generation steps. This method automatically generates designs for both fixed and partially reconfigurable parts of an FPGA with automatic management of the reconfiguration process. Furthermore, this automatic design generation enables a reconfiguration prefetching technique to minimize reconfiguration latency and buffer-merging techniques to minimize memory requirements of the generated design. This concept has been applied to different wireless access schemes, based on a combination of OFDM and CDMA techniques. This implementation example illustrates the benefits of the proposed design methodology.

  4. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  5. The exceptional influence of storm ‘Xaver’ on design water levels in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Ludwig, Patrick; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Design water levels for coastal structures are usually estimated based on extreme value statistics. Since their robustness depends heavily on the sample size of observations, regular statistical updates are needed, especially after extreme events. Here, we demonstrate the exceptional influence of such an event based on storm ‘Xaver’, which caused record breaking water levels for large parts of the southwestern German North Sea coastline on 6 December 2013. We show that the water level estimates for a 1 in 200 years event increased by up to 40 cm due to the update after ‘Xaver’, a value twice as large as the estimated regional sea level rise for the entire 20th century. However, a thorough analysis of different independent meteorological (winds and pressure) and oceanographic components (tides, surges, mean sea level (MSL) anomalies) driving the event reveals that their observed combination does not yet represent the physically possible worst case scenario. Neither tides, nor surges nor MSL anomalies were at their observational maximum, suggesting that there is a realistic risk of a storm like ‘Xaver’ to cause even higher extreme water levels by a few decimetres under current climate conditions. Our results question purely statistical design approaches of coastal structures, which neglect the physical boundary conditions of individual extreme events.

  6. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable

  7. Adaptive fuzzy control design for the molten steel level in a strip casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the adaptive fuzzy control problem of the molten steel level for a class of twin roll strip casting systems. Based on fuzzy logic systems (FLSs and the mean value theorem, a novel adaptive tracking controller with parameter updated laws is effectively designed. It is proved that all the closed-loop signals are uniformly bounded and the system tracking errors can asymptotically converge to zero by using the Lyapunov stability analysis. Simulation results of semi-experimental system dynamic model and parameters are provided to demonstrate the validity of the proposed adaptive fuzzy design approach.

  8. Design and Simulation of a Shunt Active Filter in Application for Control of Harmonic Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Adrian, Gligor

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the active filters represent a viable alternative for controlling harmonic levels in industrial consumers electrical installations. It must be noted the availability of many different types of filter configurations that can be used but there is no standard method for rating the active filters. This paper focuses on describing the shunt active filter structure and design. The theoretical concepts underlying the design of shunt active filters are presented. To validate and highlight the performance of shunt active filters a Matlab-Simulink model was developed. Simulation results are also presented.

  9. 风电利用水平评价关键指标研究%Research on Key Indexes Comparison of Wind Power Utilization Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白建华; 张钦; 辛颂旭; 谢国辉

    2012-01-01

    为合理评价风电发展状况,以及对风电利用水平进行全面的比较,构建了多元化的风电利用水平指标比较体系.在简要介绍我国风电发展现状的基础上,对国内外风电发展基础条件及风电利用水平进行比较与分析.利用电力系统整体优化规划模型,对未来风电利用水平进行了展望与分析.研究结果表明,科学衡量风电发展水平需从多个方面综合衡量,应重点考虑风电与电力系统协调发展水平;提高电力系统整体规划和运行水平,是最终实现风电科学、高效发展的关键.%In order to reasonably evaluate wind power development status and perform comprehensive comparison of wind power utilization level, the comparison system with various indexes are constructed. Firstly, an overview of the status quo development of wind power in China is briefly introduced, and the basic conditions and utilization level of the development of wind power at home and abroad are clarified. Moreover, with system integrated optimization model, future wind power utilization level comparison is considered. The analytic results show that: wind power utilization level need to be scientifically measured from multiple aspects and the coordination development level between wind power and power system is the key factor. Increasing power system planning and operation level is the key to finally realize wind power scientific and effective development.

  10. Serum phosphorus levels and the spectrum of ankle-brachial index in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jerry; Wassel, Christina L; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Collins, Tracie C; Criqui, Michael H; Lewis, Cora E; Cummings, Steve R; Ix, Joachim H

    2010-04-15

    A higher serum phosphorus level is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among community-living populations. Mechanisms are unknown. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) provides information on both atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. In this cross-sectional study (2000-2002), the authors evaluated the association of serum phosphorus levels with low ( or =1.40 or incompressible) ABI as compared with intermediate ABI in 5,330 older US men, among whom the mean serum phosphorus level was 3.2 mg/dL (standard deviation, 0.4), 6% had a low ABI, and 5% had a high ABI. Each 1-mg/dL increase in serum phosphorus level was associated with a 1.6-fold greater prevalence of low ABI (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2, 2.1; P < 0.001) and a 1.4-fold greater prevalence of high ABI (95% CI: 1.0, 1.9; P = 0.03) in models adjusted for demographic factors, traditional CVD risk factors, and kidney function. However, the association of phosphorus with high ABI differed by chronic kidney disease (CKD) status (in persons with CKD, prevalence ratio = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.61, 5.45; in persons without CKD, prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.61; interaction P = 0.04). In conclusion, among community-living older men, higher phosphorus levels are associated with low ABI and are also associated with high ABI in persons with CKD. These associations may explain the link between serum phosphorus levels and CVD events.

  11. Relationship of thyroid ultrasound elasticity contrast index with serum autoantibody and Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo Sheng; Bin Wang; Kun-Kun Cao; Sai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship of thyroid ultrasound elasticity contrast index (ECI) with serum autoantibody and Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Methods:A total of 68 patients diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in our hospitalas were selected as HT group, 60 healthy volunteers were selected as control group, ultrasound examination was performed to determine ECL, serum was collected to determine TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 levels, and peripheral blood was collected to determine the positive expression rate of CD30 and CD195.Results:ECI of HT group was significantly higher than that of control group and the ECI of patients with small nodule type HT was significantly lower than that of patients with grid type HT; TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 levels in serum and positive expression rate of CD195 in peripheral blood of HT group were significantly higher than those of control group while IL-4 and IL-10 levels and positive expression rate of CD30 in peripheral blood were significantly lower than those of control group; TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 levels in serum and positive expression rate of CD195 in peripheral blood of patients with small nodule type HT were significantly lower than those of patients with grid type HT while IL-4 and IL-10 levels and positive expression rate of CD30 in peripheral blood were significantly higher than those of patients with grid type HT; ECI was positively correlated with TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2b and CD195, and negatively correlated with IL-4, IL-10 and CD30.Conclusions:ECL significantly increases in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and it can be used to evaluate the degree of immune dysfunction.

  12. Latent Semantic Indexing Based on Level Search Scheme%基于层次搜索的潜在语义索引方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华云; 金玉坚

    2006-01-01

    针对潜在语义索引(Latent Semantic Indexing,LSI)计算成本很大,不利于扩展信息检索领域的特点,提出引进图论中的层次搜索方法(Level Search Scheme,LS),设计出一种针对多主题数据集、融合信息检索和信息过滤的新型算法.该方法能够在信息过滤阶段保持高的查全率,在信息检索阶段保证高的查准率,从而最后达到很好的检索效果.

  13. Serum leptin levels in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Anil, M; Blum, W F;

    1998-01-01

    . It is unclear at present whether this insulin action is a direct or an indirect effect. To investigate whether leptin concentrations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (IDDM) were related to metabolic status, body weight, body mass index and insulin treatment, we have measured leptin...... compared with normative data that were derived from a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents. Serum from children with newly diagnosed diabetes had significantly lower levels of leptin (mean 1.28+/-1.60 ng/ml, range 0.14-6.13 ng/ml) compared with healthy children (n=710) (mean 2.2 ng/ml, range 0.......26-14.4ng/ml) and compared with insulin-treated children and adolescents (mean 5.18+/-5.48 ng/ml, range 0.26-29.77 ng/ml) (P...

  14. Serum leptin levels in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Anil, M; Blum, W F

    1998-01-01

    The ob protein, termed leptin, is produced by adipocytes and is thought to act as an afferent satiety signal regulating weight through suppressing appetite and stimulating energy expenditure in humans and/or rodents. Insulin has been found to be a potent stimulator of leptin expression in rodents....... It is unclear at present whether this insulin action is a direct or an indirect effect. To investigate whether leptin concentrations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (IDDM) were related to metabolic status, body weight, body mass index and insulin treatment, we have measured leptin...... compared with normative data that were derived from a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents. Serum from children with newly diagnosed diabetes had significantly lower levels of leptin (mean 1.28+/-1.60 ng/ml, range 0.14-6.13 ng/ml) compared with healthy children (n=710) (mean 2.2 ng/ml, range 0...

  15. Design, Development and Testing of a Semi Cylindrical Capacitive Sensor for Liquid Level Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagarika PAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a low cost noncontact semi cylindrical capacitive type liquid level sensor has been designed, developed and tested. The semi cylindrical capacitive sensor consisting of two thin semi cylindrical metal plates separated by a gap distance and mounted around a non conducting storage tank, has been used to measure the liquid level in the tank. The measured capacitance variation with variation of liquid level is linear and obtained in the nano farad range which again has been converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Since the sensor is noncontact type it can be used for both conducting and non conducting type of liquid contained within a non conducting tank. For converting the capacitance variation in to voltage variation a series R-L-C resonating circuit has been used instead of conventional bridge circuit. Experimental results confirm the satisfactory performance of the sensor for liquid level measurement.

  16. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Kennedy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%, in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, Body Mass Index percentile range: 5.16-99.56. Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ. After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r -0.404, medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339, anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312, bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r= -0.316, and uncus (partial r = -0.475 as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386, extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384. PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329. These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  17. Association of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels with indexes of general and abdominal obesity in Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Jari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the association of serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OHD levels with measures of general and abdominal obesity in Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted among 1090 students, aged 10-18 years, living in 27 provinces in Iran. Serum concentration of 25(OHD was analyzed quantitatively by direct competitive immunoassay chemiluminescence method. Body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were considered as measures of generalized and abdominal obesity, respectively. Results: Study participants consisted of 1090 adolescents (51.9% boy and 67.1% urban residents with mean age, BMI, and waist circumference of 14.7 (2.6 years, 19.3 (4.2 kg/m 2 , and 67.82 (12.23 cm, respectively. The median serum 25(OHD was 13.0 ng/mL (interquartile range: 20.6. Overall, 40% of participants were Vitamin D deficient, and 39% were Vitamin D insufficient. Serum 25(OHD level was not associated with BMI and WHtR. Conclusion: We did not document any significant association between serum 25(OHD level and anthropometric measures in adolescents. This finding may be because of considerably high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the study population.

  18. Association of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels with indexes of general and abdominal obesity in Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-III study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jari, Mohsen; Qorbani, Mostafa; Moafi, Mohammad; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Keikha, Mojtaba; Ardalan, Gelayol; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the association of serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels with measures of general and abdominal obesity in Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted among 1090 students, aged 10-18 years, living in 27 provinces in Iran. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was analyzed quantitatively by direct competitive immunoassay chemiluminescence method. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were considered as measures of generalized and abdominal obesity, respectively. Results: Study participants consisted of 1090 adolescents (51.9% boy and 67.1% urban residents) with mean age, BMI, and waist circumference of 14.7 (2.6) years, 19.3 (4.2) kg/m2, and 67.82 (12.23) cm, respectively. The median serum 25(OH)D was 13.0 ng/mL (interquartile range: 20.6). Overall, 40% of participants were Vitamin D deficient, and 39% were Vitamin D insufficient. Serum 25(OH)D level was not associated with BMI and WHtR. Conclusion: We did not document any significant association between serum 25(OH)D level and anthropometric measures in adolescents. This finding may be because of considerably high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the study population. PMID:25983762

  19. The relationship of serum and salivary cortisol levels to male sexual dysfunction as measured by the International Index of Erectile Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Y; Koh, E; Sugimoto, K; Izumi, K; Narimoto, K; Maeda, Y; Konaka, H; Mizokami, A; Matsushita, T; Iwamoto, T; Namiki, M

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the biomarkers of sexual function, we investigated the relationship between questionnaire responses and biological hormones such as testosterone (T) and cortisol (F) in serum and saliva. The study population included 105 men aged 30–72 years (mean: 49±4.5, median: 49). Levels of all serum hormones (Total-T, Free-T, Bioavailable-T, Total-F and Bioavailable-F) and salivary hormones (Saliva-T and Saliva-F) were measured directly by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was used as a questionnaire to evaluate sexual dysfunction. Free-T and Bioavailable-T showed significant inverse correlations with age (P<0.01). In the group not taking antidepressants, the levels of Bioavailable-F and Saliva-F showed significant inverse correlations with a portion of the IIEF score (P<0.05). However, reductions in Bioavailable-T and Saliva-T showed no association with the IIEF score. In the group taking antidepressants, these hormone levels showed no correlation with IIEF. PMID:19421198

  20. Plasma Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A₂ Levels Correlated with the Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index in Long-Term Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-27

    The circulating levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ (Lp-PLA₂) can be a simple, but practical and useful marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As limited studies are available in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), further studies are needed to establish the clinical application of Lp-PLA₂ in DM practice. The present study investigated the correlation between Lp-PLA₂ and the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), a recent marker of arterial stiffness, in DM patients according to their diabetes duration. Clinical data, including the plasma Lp-PLA₂ mass and CAVI values, were collected from CVD-free type 2 DM female patients (n = 65, mean age 62 years, mean hemoglobin A1c 7.0%). The Lp-PLA₂ level of patients with a diabetes duration of diabetes duration of ≥10 years (n = 25:20.5 IU/mL), while the CAVI level was significantly higher in patients with ≥10 years (9.0) than in those with diabetes duration of ≥10 years. This correlation between Lp-PLA₂ and CVAI suggests the possible use of Lp-PLA₂ in DM patients with long-term disease. Further studies on Lp-PLA₂ are warranted in DM practice in relation to the disease duration.

  1. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals ( P Cortisol and THI were significantly lower ( P cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  2. Design of all-optical multi-level regenerators based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangjian; Wu, Baojian; Zhou, Xingyu; Wan, Qingyao; Jiang, Shanglong; Wen, Feng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-12-01

    We propose a design method for all-optical multi-level regenerators by mimicking the normalized power transfer function (PTF) in the first-order approximation to the ideal step-like PTF, in which a key step is to appropriately select the amplitude and phase conditions of Mach-Zehnder-interferometer (MZI)-based regenerators. As an example, we describe the design process of the self-phase-modulation (SPM)-based MZI regenerator constructed by a section of nonlinear fiber and an optical phase shifter (OPS). It is shown that the parameter of reference power level (RPL) can be regarded as the upper limit of input power, which is useful for the measure of the multi-level regeneration performance. The number of regenerative power levels increases with the RPL parameter. For 4-level pulse amplitude modulated (4PAM) optical signals degraded by the Gaussian noises with the standard deviation of 0.02, the SPM-based MZI regenerator has an average noise reduction ratio (NRR) of 6.5 dB, better than that of 1st-order regenerator by about 5 dB.

  3. System Level Design of a Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator for Portable Ultrasound Scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Færch, Kjartan; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the system level design of a continuous-time ∆Σ modulator for portable ultrasound scanners is presented. The overall required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived to be 42 dB and the sampling frequency used is 320 MHz for an oversampling ratio of 16. In order to match these requir......, based on high-level VerilogA simulations, the performance of the ∆Σ modulator versus various block performance parameters is presented as trade-off curves. Based on these results, the block specifications are derived....

  4. Investigating the health implications of social policy initiatives at the local level: study design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Gemma E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present the research design and methods of a study that seeks to capture local level responses to an Australian national social policy initiative, aimed at reducing inequalities in the social determinants of health. Methods/Design The study takes a policy-to-practice approach and combines policy and stakeholder interviewing with a comparative case study analysis of two not-for-profit organisations involved in the delivery of federal government policy. Discussion Before the health impacts of broad-scale policies, such as the one described in this study, can be assessed at the population level, we need to understand the implementation process. This is consistent with current thinking in political science and social policy, which has emphasised the importance of investigating how, and if, policies are translated into operational realities.

  5. Reliability level III method in design of square pillar resting on weak floor stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, W.M. (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    1990-06-01

    Current methods of design of pillars resting on weak floor strata involve only a deterministic, conventional safety factor calculation, based on material parameters treated as the mean values taken from observations. In a case where high parameters variability occurs, these methods may lead to fatal design errors resulting in excessive settlement and roof falls. Therefore, to include the influence of parameters quality, the new approach based on reliability level III method was developed. Consideration was given to the identification of the system parameters importance, and to density function for the safety factor treated as a random variable. Design procedure involving floor probability of failure was illustrated by numerical examples. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. High Level Analysis, Design and Validation of Distributed Mobile Systems with CoreASM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahbod, R.; Glässer, U.; Jackson, P. J.; Vajihollahi, M.

    System design is a creative activity calling for abstract models that facilitate reasoning about the key system attributes (desired requirements and resulting properties) so as to ensure these attributes are properly established prior to actually building a system. We explore here the practical side of using the abstract state machine (ASM) formalism in combination with the CoreASM open source tool environment for high-level design and experimental validation of complex distributed systems. Emphasizing the early phases of the design process, a guiding principle is to support freedom of experimentation by minimizing the need for encoding. CoreASM has been developed and tested building on a broad scope of applications, spanning computational criminology, maritime surveillance and situation analysis. We critically reexamine here the CoreASM project in light of three different application scenarios.

  7. Growth Index: A Powerful Tool for School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Perry; Thomas, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a formula called Growth Index (GI), which is designed to measure student growth within all proficiency levels year after year, and track classroom or schoolwide growth. This growth should be considered as one of several dimensions that constitute principal and teacher effectiveness. Unlike Academic Performance Index (API) and…

  8. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (pwaist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  9. The effect of a dietary carbohydrase enzyme system on blood glucose levels when combined with foods of varying glycemic index in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that physical performance and recovery can be improved by maintaining or enhancing glucose availability. Carbogen(®) (Triarco Industries, Wayne, NJ, USA), a patented dietary fungal carbohydrase enzyme system, converts complex carbohydrates and fiber into simpler carbohydrates when ingested. Supplementing the enzymatic digestion of complex carbohydrates and fiber that may be digested very slowly or not at all in vivo may increase the availability of glucose. This may be reflected by increased absorption rates and higher measurable levels of whole blood glucose (WBG) that may be bioavailable for extended energy production. These preliminary investigations evaluate the ability of Carbogen to produce a rapid and more sustained increase in WBG levels when combined with a variety of food substrates commonly used by athletes and non-athletes to increase levels of physical activity. To investigate this, food substrates having a low, moderate, or high glycemic index (GI) with various amounts of total carbohydrates and dietary fiber were used. The individually tested substrates include soy nuts, cooked pasta, meal replacement bars, a nutrition shake, and a carbohydrate sports supplement. The investigations presented here consist of seven separate preclinical rat feasibility studies conducted over a period of approximately 12 months. The collective results presented here identify specific attributes of a category of food substrates common to sports nutrition enthusiasts that may significantly increase WBG levels over an extended time when dosed with Carbogen. Specifically, using Carbogen with a food substrate having a low or moderate GI and containing dietary fiber may increase the rate of glucose absorption and maintain significant increases in WBG levels.

  10. Information storage at the molecular level - The design of a molecular shift register memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose Nelson; Hopfield, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The control of electron transfer rates is discussed and a molecular shift register memory at the molecular level is described. The memory elements are made up of molecules which can exist in either an oxidized or reduced state and the bits can be shifted between the cells with photoinduced electron transfer reactions. The device integrates designed molecules onto a VLSI substrate. A control structure to modify the flow of information along a shift register is indicated schematically.

  11. Designing information visualizations for elite soccer children's different levels of comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herdal, Thor; Pedersen, Jeppe Gerner; Knudsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    We describe a study that sought to understand elite soccer children's use of visualizations to learn about, and improve their own sports performance. We specifically investigate how visualizations support the players' data comprehension. In this process, we design and evaluate visualizations base...... on real data. Finally, we discuss how the players' level of comprehension might depend on factors such as their general literacy and visualization literacy, and the role of visualization in coaching children....

  12. B4G local area: high level requirements and system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben; Pajukoski, Kari; Raaf, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    A next generation Beyond 4G (B4G) radio access technology is expected to become available around 2020 in order to cope with the exponential increase of mobile data traffic. In this paper, research motivations and high level requirements for a B4G local area concept are discussed. Our suggestions...... on the design of the B4G system as well as on the choice of its key technology components are also presented....

  13. Design and Implementation of an Intrinsically Safe Liquid-Level Sensor Using Coaxial Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoquan Jin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Real-time detection of liquid level in complex environments has always been a knotty issue. In this paper, an intrinsically safe liquid-level sensor system for flammable and explosive environments is designed and implemented. The poly vinyl chloride (PVC coaxial cable is chosen as the sensing element and the measuring mechanism is analyzed. Then, the capacitance-to-voltage conversion circuit is designed and the expected output signal is achieved by adopting parameter optimization. Furthermore, the experimental platform of the liquid-level sensor system is constructed, which involves the entire process of measuring, converting, filtering, processing, visualizing and communicating. Additionally, the system is designed with characteristics of intrinsic safety by limiting the energy of the circuit to avoid or restrain the thermal effects and sparks. Finally, the approach of the piecewise linearization is adopted in order to improve the measuring accuracy by matching the appropriate calibration points. The test results demonstrate that over the measurement range of 1.0 m, the maximum nonlinearity error is 0.8% full-scale span (FSS, the maximum repeatability error is 0.5% FSS, and the maximum hysteresis error is reduced from 0.7% FSS to 0.5% FSS by applying software compensation algorithms.

  14. Sea-level rise induced amplification of coastal protection design heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, Arne; Dangendorf, Sönke; Jensen, Jürgen; Talke, Stefan; Bender, Jens; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2017-01-01

    Coastal protection design heights typically consider the superimposed effects of tides, surges, waves, and relative sea-level rise (SLR), neglecting non-linear feedbacks between these forcing factors. Here, we use hydrodynamic modelling and multivariate statistics to show that shallow coastal areas are extremely sensitive to changing non-linear interactions between individual components caused by SLR. As sea-level increases, the depth-limitation of waves relaxes, resulting in waves with larger periods, greater amplitudes, and higher run-up; moreover, depth and frictional changes affect tide, surge, and wave characteristics, altering the relative importance of other risk factors. Consequently, sea-level driven changes in wave characteristics, and to a lesser extent, tides, amplify the resulting design heights by an average of 48–56%, relative to design changes caused by SLR alone. Since many of the world’s most vulnerable coastlines are impacted by depth-limited waves, our results suggest that the overall influence of SLR may be greatly underestimated in many regions.

  15. Design and manufacture of system for 66 measurement lumbar lordosis and evaluation that efficiency with Delmax index

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing the angle of curvature of the spine in the lumbar region is precursor from many musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, the measurement of easy, fast and accurate angle of lumbar lordosis will an important role in the prevention of these discomforts. The purposes of this study are clinical examination, clinical examination, and Facilitate measurement of lumbar lordosis curvature and prevent unnecessary radiation exposure to individual body and design and manufacture of ...

  16. Design of Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps Project in Developed Country%发达国家环境敏感指数图项目的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈清; 张晔霞; 俞美香

    2014-01-01

    The environmental sensitivity index map is an important tool for environmental resource management and emergency response of accident. The NOAA established the standard of this project with other federal agency, and it has been successfully used in the study throughout the world. Currently, there is no similar design standard in China. Data statistics, design of GIS and the quality assurance related to the environmental sensitivity index map in environmental sensitivity index project of developed country were discussed, and the starting point of basic technology for the establishment of the standard in China were provided.%环境敏感指数图是一种为环境资源管理与事故应急响应服务的重要工具。美国国家海洋和大气局与其他联邦机构合作制定了该项目的标准规范,并成功应用于世界各地相关研究。目前中国尚无类似设计标准,针对此,按环境保护的工作需求,分析了发达国家在该项目领域的数据统计、地理信息系统设计、质量保证工作,为中国相关标准规范的建立,提供基础技术路线切入点。

  17. Dimensionless Analysis for Designing Domestic Rainwater Harvesting Systems at the Regional Level in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsien Liaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A regional-level and dimensionless analysis for designing a domestic rainwater harvesting system (DRWHS was developed. To consider various combinations of water demand, storage capacity, effective roof area, and rainfall in DRWHS design, two dimensionless ratios were used, namely, demand fraction and storage fraction, along with a relationship between the two ratios. Firstly, Northern Taiwan was divided into four sub-regions through cluster analysis based on the average annual 10-day rainfall distribution at rainfall stations and administrative districts. Easy-to-use dimensionless curves between demand fraction and storage fraction were obtained for five rainwater supply reliabilities of the DRWHS for the four sub-regions. Based on the dimensionless curves, a nomogram was constructed for designing DRWHSs at a rainwater supply reliability of 95% in the sub-region I. Storage capacities determined from the dimensionless curves showed a close fit with those determined from simulated values, but were larger than the values estimated from the method presented in the Green Building Evaluation Manual in most situations. The methodology developed herein can be used effectively for the preliminary design of a DRWHS and for overcoming the difficulties faced in designing a DRWHS without rainfall data and with incomplete rainfall data.

  18. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  19. Design of a high-level waste repository system for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, J.L.; Boerigter, S.T.; Broadbent, G.E.; Cabello, E.D.; Duran, V.B.; Hollaway, W.R.; Karlberg, R.P.; Siegel, M.J.; Simonson, S.A.

    1988-05-12

    This report presents a conceptual design for a High Level Waste disposal system for fuel discharged by US commercial power reactors, using the Yucca Mountain repository site recently designated by federal legislation. Principal features of the resulting conceptual design include use of unit trains for periodic removal of old spent fuel from at-reactor storage facilities, buffer storage at the repository site using dual purpose transportation/storage casks, repackaging of the spent fuel from the dual purpose transportation/storage casks directly into special-alloy disposal canisters as intact fuel assemblies, without rod consolidation, emplacement into a repository of modular design, use of excavation techniques that minimize disturbance, both mechanical and chemical, to the geologic environment, a unit rail mounted vehicle for both the transportation and emplacement of the canister from the surface facilities to the underground repository, and a cost-effectiveness computer model of Yucca Mountain and an independent cost evaluation by members of the design team. 31 refs., 58 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. The use of a curtain design to increase the performance level of a Savonius wind rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Burcin Deda; Atilgan, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Kinikli 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    In this study, a curtain design has been arranged so as to improve the low performance levels of the Savonius wind rotors. Designed to prevent the negative torque on the convex blade of the rotor, this curtain has been placed in front of the rotor, and performance experiments have been carried out when the rotor is with and without curtain. It has been determined from here that a significant increase can be achieved in the rotor performance by means of the curtain design. Experiments of the curtain design have been conducted in three different dimensions when the Savonius wind rotor is static, and the highest values have been obtained with the curtain 1. Therefore, the curtain designs and curtain angles in which the highest values obtained have been analyzed numerically with Fluent 6.0 program and the results obtained experimentally have been supported with numerical analysis. Moreover, performance experiments have been made for the curtain 1 with which the best performance values have been obtained when the rotor is in its dynamic position, and the results obtained have been given in figures. (author)

  1. The exceptional influence of storm Xaver on design water levels in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, S.

    2015-12-01

    Design water levels for coastal structures are usually estimated on the basis of extreme value statistics. Since their robustness heavily depends on the sample size of heuristic observations there is an urgent need of regular statistical updates especially after the occurrence of record high extreme events. Here we demonstrate the exceptional influence of such an event based on storm Xaver which brought record high extremes for large parts of the southwestern German North Sea coastline on December 6th 2013. We show that the estimates of an event occurring once in 200 years increased by roughly 30 cm due to the update after Xaver, a value 1.5 times larger than the entire 20th century sea level rise in the region. However, a thorough analysis of different independent meteorological (winds and pressure) and oceanographic components (tides, surges, mean sea level anomalies) driving the event also indicates that their observed combination still does not represent the physically possible worst case scenario. Neither tides nor surges and mean sea level anomalies were at their observational maximum, suggesting that there is a realistic risk of storms bringing even up to a few decimeter higher extremes just under present day conditions without any influence of future global warming. The results question purely statistical design approaches neglecting the physical boundary conditions of individual extreme events.

  2. A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Fernando Camacho-Vallejo

    Full Text Available Local access networks (LAN are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower's problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach.

  3. Epidemiological dementia index: a screening instrument for Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia suitable for use in populations with low education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, K N; Tsolaki, M; Mohs, R C; Kazis, A

    1998-01-01

    MMSE and CAMCOG are neuropsychological scales developed for use in everyday clinical practice and epidemiological surveys. These two instruments were used as part of the assessment during an epidemiological survey in the municipality of Pylaia, Greece. The project was based on the World Health Organization Program for Research on Aging and Age-Associated Dementias (1992). It had two phases. During phase I, nursing students collected demographic data, risk factors, personal and family history data and they applied MMSE, CAMCOG and scales of everyday life functioning. During phase II, 4 physicians examined all subjects that manifested possible cognitive deterioration (MMSEeducation or less accounted for 92.42% of the total study sample. Twelve of them (5.33%) suffered from Alzheimer's disease, 7 from vascular dementia (2.52%) and 1 suffered from secondary dementia (0.36%). MMSE exceeded 90% sensitivity at the level 22/23 and specificity at 14/15. The levels for CAMCOG were 56/57 and 43/44, respectively. This low performance of both tests is to a large extent due to the functional illiteracy of elderly individuals in Greece, to possible coexistence of mood disorders or simply to lack of cooperation. The analysis of data led to the development of an Epidemiological Dementia Index (EDI), with a scale ranging from 0 to 7. Nondemented subjects had a mean EDI of 5.12 (SD = 1.67) and demented patients had a mean EDI of 1.6 (SD = 1. 92). At the level 4/5 sensitivity was 93.33. Specificity was 93.56 at the level 2/3.

  4. Battery engineering problems in designing an electrical load leveling plant for lithium/iron-sulfide cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zivi, S. M.; Pollack, I.; Kacinskas, H.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Barney, D. L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, I.; Grieve, W.

    1979-01-01

    The design of a lithium/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is strongly dependent on the energy capacity selected for the cells. Battery hardware costs are minimized by the selection of large cells, with 30-kWh cells being the largest that would be consistent with system constraints in a 100-MWh load leveling plant. However, it is anticipated that such large cells may be precluded by system reliability and maintainability considerations, and cell capacities on the order of 1 kWh may be needed to satisfy those requirements. Large cells can be protected against overcharge by electronically controlled charge equalization systems that have been developed for experimental eV batteries. The economics of electronically controlled equalization becomes unfavorable for small load-leveling cells; and if small cells are selected, it will be necessary to develop inherent protective means within each cell, with respect to overcharge.

  5. Simulation and controller design for an agricultural sprayer boom leveling system

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2011-01-01

    According to the agricultural precision requirements, the distance from sprayer nozzles to the corps should be kept between 50 cm to 70 cm. The sprayer boom also needs to be kept parallel to the field during the operation process. Thus we can guarantee the quality of the chemical droplets distribution on the crops. In this paper we introduced a sprayer boom leveling system for agricultural sprayer vehicles with electro-hydraulic auto-leveling system. The suitable hydraulic actuating cylinder and valve were selected according to the specific systemic specifications. Furthermore, a compensation controller for the electro-hydraulic system was designed based on the mathematical model. With simulations we can optimize the performance of this controller to make sure a fast leveling response to the inclined sprayer boom. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. The design of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Allbrooke, Benedict; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design of a fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS High Luminosity Upgrade The ATLAS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC will face a five-fold increase in the number of interactions per collision relative to the ongoing Run 2. This will require a proportional improvement in rejection power at the earliest levels of the detector trigger system, while preserving good signal efficiency. One critical aspect of this improvement will be the implementation of precise track reconstruction, through which sharper turn-on curves, b-tagging and tau-tagging techniques can in principle be implemented. The challenge of such a project comes in the development of a fast, precise custom electronic device integrated in the hardware-based first trigger level of the experiment, with repercussions propagating as far as the detector read-out philosophy. This talk will discuss the projected performance of the system in terms of tracking, timing and physics.

  7. Control and design of full-bridge three-level converter for renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Zhilei; Xu, Jing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Output voltage of renewable energy sources, such as fuel cell and PV cell, is often low and varies widely with load and environmental conditions. Therefore, the high step-up DC-DC converter is needed between renewable energy sources and the grid-connected inverter. However, voltage stress...... of rectifier diodes is high and filter is large in traditional voltage-source converters in a wide input-voltage range. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, a full-bridge (FB) three-level (TL) converter is proposed. It can operate at both two-level and three-level modes, so it is suitable for wide...... input-voltage range application. Compared with FB converter, voltage stress of rectifier diodes and the filter can be reduced. Operating principle and control strategy of the proposed converter are illustrated. Design guidelines and example are given. Simulation results of a 1-kW FB TL converter verify...

  8. JC virus antibody index in natalizumab-treated patients: correlations with John Cunningham virus DNA and C-reactive protein level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanzillo R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Lanzillo,1 Raffaele Liuzzi,2 Luca Vallefuoco,3 Marcello Moccia,1 Luca Amato,1 Giovanni Vacca,1 Veria Vacchiano,1 Giuseppe Portella,3 Vincenzo Brescia Morra1 1Neurological Sciences Department, Federico II University, 2Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, 3Clinical Pathology Department, Federico II University, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Natalizumab-treated patients have a higher risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Exposure to John Cunningham virus (JCV is a prerequisite for PML (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. To assess JCV exposure in multiple sclerosis patients, we performed a serological examination, obtained the antibody index, performed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect JCV DNA in plasma and urine, and investigated the role of ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP as a possible biological marker of JCV reactivation. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients who underwent a JCV antibody test through a two-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (STRATIFY test to the measure of serum usCRP levels, and to perform blood and urine JCV PCR. The studied cohort included 97 relapsing–remitting patients (60 women. Fifty-two patients (53.6% tested positive for anti-JCV antibodies. PCR showed JCV DNA in the urine of 30 out of 83 (36.1% patients and 28 out of 44 seropositive patients (63.6%, with a 6.7% false-negative rate for the STRATIFY test. Normalized optical density values were higher in urinary JCV DNA-positive patients (P<0.0001. Interestingly, the level of usCRP was higher in urinary JCV DNA-positive patients and correlated to the number of DNA copies in urine (P=0.028. As expected, patients' age correlated with JCV seropositivity and with JC viruria (P=0.02 and P=0.001, respectively. JC viruria was significantly correlated with a high JCV antibody index and high serum usCRP levels. We suggest that PCR and

  9. The Glycemic Index

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Pauline

    2004-01-01

    The glycemic index is a ranking of carbohydrate containing foods. Foods are ranked according to their immediate effect on blood sugar levels. The higher a f ood raises blood sugar, the higher its glycemic index. Scientists published the first index in 1981 when they were researching diet therapy for diabetes. This first list contained 51 foods, and the list has continued to expand, with the most recent official list containing 750 foods. Fruits, grains, dairy products, some vegetables, pastas...

  10. Design and Analysis of Multi Level D-STATCOM to Improve the Power Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh. Badavath,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the electrical power quality issue has been the main concern of the power companies. Power quality is defined as the index which both the delivery and consumption of electric power affect on the performance of electrical apparatus. From a customer point of view, a power quality problem can be defined as any problem is manifested on voltage, current, or frequency deviation that results in power failure. The power electronics progressive, especially in flexible alternating-current transmission system (FACTS and custom power devices, affects power quality improvement. This paper presents an investigation of seven-Level Cascaded H - bridge (CHB Inverter as Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM in Power System (PS for compensation of reactive power and harmonics. The advantages of CHB inverter are low harmonic distortion, reduced number of switches and suppression of switching losses. The DSTATCOM helps to improve the power factor and eliminate the Total Harmonics Distortion (THD drawn from a Non-Liner Diode Rectifier Load (NLDRL. The D-Q reference frame theory is used to generate the reference compensating currents for DSTATCOM while Proportional and Integral (PI control is used for capacitor dc voltage regulation. A CHB Inverter is considered for shunt compensation of a 11 Kv distribution system. Finally a level shifted PWM (LSPWM and phase shifted PWM (PSPWM techniques are adopted to investigate the performance of CHB Inverter. The results are obtained through Matlab/Simulink software package.

  11. Influence of the interaction between the adiponectin G276T polymorphism and body mass index on lipid levels in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, Pía; García-Anguita, Alicia; Lasunción, Miguel A; Mangas, Alipio; de Oya, Manuel; Garcés, Carmen

    2012-04-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-specific hormone which is inversely associated with metabolic alterations related to atherosclerosis. Polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene (AdipoQ) have been related to low adiponectin levels as well as several cardiovascular risk factors, but this association remains controversial. In our study we investigated the relationship between the AdipoQ T45G (rs: 2241766) and G276T (rs: 1501299) polymorphisms and adiponectin concentrations, blood pressure, and lipid and insulin levels, in a population-based sample of 12- to 16-year-old children. The study included 815 healthy Spanish children (388 boys and 427 girls). Plasma glucose and lipid levels were determined by standard methods. Insulin concentrations were measured by RIA, and serum adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA. The AdipoQ T45G and AdipoQ G276T polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan(®) allelic discrimination assays. ANOVA or t test allowed for comparison of the studied parameters across genotypes or genotype groups, respectively. A linear regression analysis was performed to examine the independent relationships of the lipid variables with BMI (body mass index), AdipoQ G276T polymorphism and the interaction between the two. When independently comparing the effect of these polymorphisms in normal-weight and overweight children, we observed that overweight boys carriers of the minor allele T had significantly lower TC, LDL-C and apo A-I levels than non-carriers, but these differences were not apparent in normal-weight boys. Furthermore, linear regression analysis demonstrated that interaction between the BMI and the AdipoQ G276T polymorphism is a significant factor explaining the variations of TC and LDL-C levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between the AdipoQ G276T polymorphism and lipid levels in overweight boys alone, thereby suggesting that the influence of the AdipoQ polymorphisms on cardiovascular risk factors may be

  12. The Control Level of Bronchial Asthma in Dependence of Genotype by BCL1 Polymorphism of Glucocorticoids Receptor Gene and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslava V. Kmyta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of allelic genotypes by BclI polymorphism glucocorticoids receptor gene (GR had been studied in dependence of the control level of bronchial asthma (BA and body mass index (BMI, and also- connection between those indicators. 188 patient with BA and 95 almost healthy humans were investigated. Determination of single nucleotide BclI polymorphism GR gene performed by the method of polymerase chain reaction with following analyze of the length of restriction fragments. Our studies demonstrated connection between BA control, BclI polymorphism GR gene and BMI. Proved, that distribution C/C, C/G and G/G genotypes by BclI polymorphism in patients with BA showed reliable difference between patients with different BMI and connection G/G genotype with obesity. The reliable difference in distributing of genotype in dependence of BA control level has been proved: with controlled BA reliably often met C/C genotype, without control – G/G genotype. Therefore, proved, that frequency G/G genotype by BclI polymorphism GR gene in patients with BA with obesity and absence of control for the flowing of disease is reliably higher, that confirmed the role of this genotype, likewise, in obesity occurrence, so in absence of the control of disease.

  13. Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-04-29

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  14. [Effects of acupuncture combined with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise on body weight, body mass index and serum leptin level in simple obesity patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-jun; Xing, Hai-jiao; Wang, Shao-jin; Xiao, Hong-ling; Li, Mei; Li, Qing

    2010-12-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture combined with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise on the body weight, body mass index (BMI) and serum leptin content of patients with simple obesity, so as to evaluate the efficacy of the present therapy in the treatment of simple obesity. A total of 61 cases of out-patients were randomly divided into control (n=30) and treatment (n=31) groups. Patients in the control group were treated with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise everyday (30 min/d), continuously for 51 days, and those of the treatment group were treated with acupuncture [Zhong-wan (CV 12), Tianshu (ST 25), Guanyuan (CV 4), etc.] plus dietary adjustment and aerobic exercise everyday, with 15 days being a course of treatment, 3 days' interval between every two courses, and 3 courses altogether. Serum leptin content was detected by using radioimmunoassay. Compared with pre-treatment, the body weight and BMI and serum leptin levels in the control and treatment groups were all decreased significantly (P exercise in the treatment of simple obesity. Acupuncture combined with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise can reduce the body weight, BMI and serum leptin level, which is better than dietary adjustments plus aerobic exercise.

  15. Association between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index and the Level of Personality Organization interview assessment in depressive and anxiety disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Harri; Lindfors, Olavi; Knekt, Paul

    2012-12-30

    The level of personality functioning, relevant for treatment planning, can be evaluated by the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Ego Impairment Index-2 (EII-2) and by interview assessment of the severity of personality pathology. However, few studies on the association between these assessment methods have been reported. This study examines the strength of association between the EII-2 and its subcomponents with the interview-based Level of Personality Organization (LPO) assessment scale, and investigates their mutual associations with psychiatric symptoms, diagnoses, and history. Altogether, 315 mood or anxiety disorder outpatients without severe personality pathology were assessed with the LPO and tested with the CS, on which the EII-2 and its subcomponents (FQ-, WSum6, Critical contents, M-, PHR, GHR, and R) were calculated. Significant, but weak association between the EII-2 and the LPO was found. The WSum6, a measure of thought disorder, was the only EII-2 subcomponent significantly associated with the LPO. Both measures were consistently associated with psychiatric symptoms, diagnoses and history. The findings partially support the EII-2 and the LPO as consistently associated, relatively independent measures of the severity of personality pathology. More research on the incremental benefits of the measures is needed in clinical populations, covering non-severe and complex psychopathology.

  16. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD when body mass index (BMI is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  17. Software-based high-level synthesis design of FPGA beamformers for synthetic aperture imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Joao; Yiu, Billy Y S; Falcao, Gabriel; Gomes, Marco A C; Yu, Alfred C H

    2015-05-01

    Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) can potentially be configured as beamforming platforms for ultrasound imaging, but a long design time and skilled expertise in hardware programming are typically required. In this article, we present a novel approach to the efficient design of FPGA beamformers for synthetic aperture (SA) imaging via the use of software-based high-level synthesis techniques. Software kernels (coded in OpenCL) were first developed to stage-wise handle SA beamforming operations, and their corresponding FPGA logic circuitry was emulated through a high-level synthesis framework. After design space analysis, the fine-tuned OpenCL kernels were compiled into register transfer level descriptions to configure an FPGA as a beamformer module. The processing performance of this beamformer was assessed through a series of offline emulation experiments that sought to derive beamformed images from SA channel-domain raw data (40-MHz sampling rate, 12 bit resolution). With 128 channels, our FPGA-based SA beamformer can achieve 41 frames per second (fps) processing throughput (3.44 × 10(8) pixels per second for frame size of 256 × 256 pixels) at 31.5 W power consumption (1.30 fps/W power efficiency). It utilized 86.9% of the FPGA fabric and operated at a 196.5 MHz clock frequency (after optimization). Based on these findings, we anticipate that FPGA and high-level synthesis can together foster rapid prototyping of real-time ultrasound processor modules at low power consumption budgets.

  18. The design of Helmholtz resonator based acoustic lenses by using the symmetric Multi-Level Wave Based Method and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atak, Onur; Huybrechs, Daan; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim

    2014-07-01

    Sonic crystals can be used as acoustic lenses in certain frequencies and the design of such systems by creating vacancies and using genetic algorithms has been proven to be an effective method. So far, rigid cylinders have been used to create such acoustic lens designs. On the other hand, it has been proven that Helmholtz resonators can be used to construct acoustic lenses with higher refraction index as compared to rigid cylinders, especially in low frequencies by utilizing their local resonances. In this paper, these two concepts are combined to design acoustic lenses that are based on Helmholtz resonators. The Multi-Level Wave Based Method is used as the prediction method. The benefits of the method in the context of design procedure are demonstrated. In addition, symmetric boundary conditions are derived for more efficient calculations. The acoustic lens designs that use Helmholtz resonators are compared with the acoustic lens designs that use rigid cylinders. It is shown that using Helmholtz resonator based sonic crystals leads to better acoustic lens designs, especially at the low frequencies where the local resonances are pronounced.

  19. Labeled experimental choice design for estimating attribute and availability cross effects with N attributes and specific brand attribute levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2011-01-01

    , orthogonal design is not available for every situation. Instead, efficient design based on computerized design algorithm is always available. This paper presents the method of efficient design for estimating brand models having attribute and availability cross effects. The paper gives a framework...... for implementing designs that is efficient enough to estimate model with N brands, each brand have K attributes, and brand attribute has specific levels. The paper also illustrates an example in food consumption study....

  20. Combination therapy efficacy of catgut embedding acupuncture and diet intervention on interleukin-6 levels and body mass index in obese patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjan, P. M.; Srilestari, A.; Abdurrohim, K.; Kresnawan, T.

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, affecting more than 500 million adults with an additional 1.5 billion adults classified as overweight. Acupuncture has been recognized as an adjunctive therapy for obesity, and recent evidence suggests its potential to reduce the inflammatory response in adipose tissue, a condition believed to be responsible for obesity-related health problems. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been proposed as an important mediator of the inflammatory response in adipose tissue, but the number of studies addressing the issue is still limited. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with36 obese patients currently receiving dietary intervention. The patients were randomly allocated into the catgut embedding acupuncture group with diet intervention or the sham (placebo) embedding acupuncture group with diet intervention. Catgut embedding therapy was given twice at CV12 Zhongwan, ST25 Tianshu, CV6 Qihai, and SP6 Sanyinjiao acupoints with two week intervals between procedures. The study endpoints were the IL-6 levels in the blood plasma and body mass index (BMI), measured before and after the intervention. We observed a reduction in the IL-6 levels (mean reduction 0.13 pg/mL, 95% CI: 0.03-0.23) and BMI (mean reduction 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-0.88) in the accupuncture group. The average difference in mean reduction of BMI between the accupuncture and sham groups was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.17-0.52). No difference was found in mean IL-6 reduction between the two groups (95% CI: -0.17 to 0.06). The results suggest that acupoint catgut embedding therapy may help reduce IL-6 levels and BMI in obese patients receiving dietary intervention.

  1. Prediction of exact delivery time in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes at admission by amniotic fluid interleukin-8 level and preterm labor index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Satoshi; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Yoneda, Noriko; Shima, Tomoko; Ito, Mika; Yamanaka, Mikiko; Hidaka, Takao; Sumi, Shigeki; Saito, Shigeru

    2011-07-01

    To examine whether delivery time for preterm labor can be predicted by clinical and biochemical markers at admission. It has previously been reported that interleukin (IL)-8 and glucose in the amniotic fluid, fetal fibronectin (fFN) in vaginal secretions and the preterm labor index (PLI) are independent risk factors for delivery before 34 weeks' gestation. Using these four markers, we developed an equation model to predict the remaining gestation period after amniocentesis by step-wise multiple regression analysis in 126 preterm delivery cases (retrospective section of the study). We also evaluated whether this equation model could predict delivery time in 65 new preterm labor patients (prospective section of the study). Finally, we investigated the risk factors for delivery within three days after amniocentesis. The period from amniocentesis until delivery was calculated using the following equation by step-wise multiple regression analysis: predicted period until delivery (days) = 77.1 - 15.8 × log (amniotic IL-8 level [ng/mL]) - 9.2 × PLI (points). The calculated period until delivery correlated significantly with the actual period until delivery in the prospective study. When a high score of PLI (≥5 points) and a high level of vaginal fFN (≥90 ng/mL) or a high level of amniotic IL-8 (≥25.5 ng/mL) were present, the positive predictive values were 88.2% and 80.9% in predicting delivery within three days, respectively. Using markers reflecting inflammation in the uterus (amniotic IL-8 or vaginal fFN) and clinical symptoms (PLI), we may be able to predict the exact delivery time in preterm labor patients with intact membranes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Role of educational level in the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI and health-related quality of life (HRQL among rural Spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guallar-Castillón Pilar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQL has been little explored in rural areas. The goal of this study is to ascertain the association between obesity and HRQL among Spanish women living in a rural area, and the influence of their educational level. Methods Cross-sectional study with personal interview of 1298 women (aged 18 to 60 randomly selected from the electoral rolls of 14 towns in Galicia, a region in the north-west of Spain. HRQL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. The association between body mass index (BMI and suboptimal scores in the different HRQL dimensions was summarised using odds ratios (ORs, obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Separate analyses were conducted for women who had finished their education younger than 16 years old and women with secondary education to assess differences in the relationship between BMI and HRQL according to educational level. Results Among women with primary or lower education, obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of suboptimal values in the following dimensions: Physical functioning (OR: 1.97; 95%CI: 1.22–3.18; Role-physical (OR: 1.81; 95%CI: 1.04–3.14; General health (OR: 1.76; 95%CI: 1.10–2.81; and Role-emotional (OR: 2.52; 95%CI: 1.27–5.03. In women with higher education, physical functioning was the only dimension associated with obesity (OR: 2.02: 95%CI 0.83–4.97. Conclusion The impact of obesity on women's HRQL is greater among those with a lower educational level. This group registered higher prevalence of obesity and poorer self-perceived health.

  3. System Level Design of a Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator for Portable Ultrasound Scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Færch, Kjartan; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the system level design of a continuous-time ∆Σ modulator for portable ultrasound scanners is presented. The overall required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived to be 42 dB and the sampling frequency used is 320 MHz for an oversampling ratio of 16. In order to match these requir......In this paper the system level design of a continuous-time ∆Σ modulator for portable ultrasound scanners is presented. The overall required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived to be 42 dB and the sampling frequency used is 320 MHz for an oversampling ratio of 16. In order to match...... these requirements, a fourth order, 1-bit modulator with optimal zero placing is used. An analysis shows that the thermal noise from the resistors and operational transconductance amplifier is not a limiting factor due to the low required SNR, leading to an inherently very low-power implementation. Furthermore......, based on high-level VerilogA simulations, the performance of the ∆Σ modulator versus various block performance parameters is presented as trade-off curves. Based on these results, the block specifications are derived....

  4. Evaluation of architectures for an ASP MPEG-4 decoder using a system-level design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luz; Reyes, Victor; Barreto, Dacil; Marrero, Gustavo; Bautista, Tomas; Nunez, Antonio

    2005-06-01

    Trends in multimedia consumer electronics, digital video and audio, aim to reach users through low-cost mobile devices connected to data broadcasting networks with limited bandwidth. An emergent broadcasting network is the digital audio broadcasting network (DAB) which provides CD quality audio transmission together with robustness and efficiency techniques to allow good quality reception in motion conditions. This paper focuses on the system-level evaluation of different architectural options to allow low bandwidth digital video reception over DAB, based on video compression techniques. Profiling and design space exploration techniques are applied over the ASP MPEG-4 decoder in order to find out the best HW/SW partition given the application and platform constraints. An innovative SystemC-based system-level design tool, called CASSE, is being used for modelling, exploration and evaluation of different ASP MPEG-4 decoder HW/SW partitions. System-level trade offs and quantitative data derived from this analysis are also presented in this work.

  5. System-Level Design of an Integrated Receiver Front End for a Wireless Ultrasound Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Llimos Muntal, Pere

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a system-level design is presented for an integrated receive circuit for a wireless ultrasound probe, which includes analog front ends and beamformation modules. This paper focuses on the investigation of the effects of architectural design choices on the image quality. The point...... spread function is simulated in Field II from 10 to 160 mm using a convex array transducer. A noise analysis is performed, and the minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirements are derived for the low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) and A/D converters (ADCs) to fulfill the design specifications of a dynamic......). The designs that minimally satisfy the specifications are based on an 8-b 30-MSPS Nyquist converter and a single-bit third-order 240-MSPS modulator, with an SNR for the LNA in both cases equal to 64 dB. The mean lateral FWHM and CR are 2.4% and 7.1% lower for the architecture compared with the Nyquistrate one...

  6. Design and implementation of a DSP with multi-level low power strategies for cochlear implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Songping; Zhang Chun; Chao Jun; Wang Zhihua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power digital signal processor (THUCIDSP-1) targeting at application for cochlear implants. Multi-level low power strategies including algorithm optimization, operand isolation, clock gating and memory partitioning are adopted in the processor design to reduce the power consumption. Experimental results show that the complexity of the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS) algorithm is reduced by more than 80% and the power dissipation of the hardware alone is reduced by about 25% with the low power methods. The THUCIDSP-1 prototype, fabricated in 0.18-μm standard CMOS process, consumes only 1.91 mW when executing the CIS algorithm at 3 MHz.

  7. From business continuity to design of critical infrastructures: ensuring the proper resilience level to datacentres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giacchero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since a few years, companies that runs business critical applications are increasing their focus on their support infrastructures. Indeed, it is clearly useless to pursue higher systems reliability, when the infrastructure is vulnerable. Aim of this paper is to explore the value of business continuity within the scope of the design of resilient system. The publication of the fifth revision of ANSI/TIA/EIA 942 standard provides operation managers and risk managers with a framework to plan and design resilient infrastructures. It will be shown how to use the aforementioned standard to analyse the gap between the current and the desired resilience level of a system, and suggest the proper steps to reach it, accordingly to the business continuity requirements. This approach was adopted on the case of the power system infrastructure of a primary Italian Application Service Provider, granting 24/7 mission critical services to its customers.

  8. A retarding potential analyzer design for keV-level ion thruster beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Tang, Haibin; Zhang, Zun; Wang, Joseph; Cao, Shuai

    2016-12-01

    We present a new Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) design that is capable of measuring keV-level energy, high-density plasma beams. This instrument overcomes the limitations of existing RPAs and can operate in plasmas with densities in excess of 1 × 1015 m-3 and ion energies up to 1200 eV. The RPA design parameters were determined by analyzing the electron density and temperature, the sheath thickness, and the ion density in the beam based on the Faraday probe and Langmuir probe measurements. A previously unobserved grid spacing arcing phenomenon was observed in experiments. This arcing phenomenon was also investigated and a grid spacing criterion was proposed to eliminate the arcing. We present measurement results on the plasma beam emitted from the 20 cm Xenon ion thruster used on the Chinese SJ-9A satellite.

  9. An examination of the sensitivity of numerically simulated wildfires to low-level atmospheric stability and moisture, and the consequences for the Haines Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Ann Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    The Haines Index, an operational fire-weather index introduced in 1988 and based on the observed stability and moisture content of the near-surface atmosphere, has been a useful indicator of the potential for high-risk fires in low wind conditions and flat terrain. The Haines Index is of limited use, however, as a predictor of actual fire behavior. To develop a fire-...

  10. Relationships between Serum Luteinizing Hormone Level, Endometrial Thickness and Body Mass Index in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients with and without Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Ramezanali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The endometrial hyperplasia measured by ultrasound in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS women is strongly related to pathologic endometrial thickness, but there is no consensus on the relation between serum luteinizing hormone (LH and either of these factors: pathologic endometrial hyperplasia and body mass index (BMI. Materials and Methods: In this observational cross-sectional study, three hundred fifty infertile PCOS women were involved in this research. An endometrial biopsy was taken by using a pipelle instrument, regardless of menstrual cycle’s day and all samples were reported by the same pathologist. Basal serum LH level was compared between two subgroups (hyperplasia and non-hyperplasia. The intended population was divided into three groups according to BMI and basal serum LH, later on the comparison was made in three groups. Chi-square test was applied to compare nominal variables between groups. Mann-Whitney U, and one way ANOVA tests were used to compare means on the basis of the result of normality test. Results: The frequency of endometrial hyperplasia was 2.6%. Endometrial thickness in the patients with endometrial hyperplasia was significantly higher than that of a normal endometrium (10.78 ± 3.70 vs. 7.90 ± 2.86 respectively, P=0.020. There was no relation between endometrial hyperplasia and serum LH (P=0.600. The ANOVA test showed serum LH levels were not the same among three BMI groups (P=0.007. Post hoc test was also performed. It showed that the LH level in normal BMI group was significantly higher than those of other groups (P=0.005 and P=0.004, but there was no statistical difference between overweight and obese groups (P=0.8. We found no relationship between BMI and endometrial thickness in PCOS patients (P=0.6. Conclusion: Sonographic endometrial stripe thickness is predictive for endometrial hyperplasia in PCOS women. We could not find out any relationship between serum LH level and BMI with endometrial

  11. Out-of-order parallel discrete event simulation for electronic system-level design

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    This book offers readers a set of new approaches and tools a set of tools and techniques for facing challenges in parallelization with design of embedded systems.? It provides an advanced parallel simulation infrastructure for efficient and effective system-level model validation and development so as to build better products in less time.? Since parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) has the potential to exploit the underlying parallel computational capability in today's multi-core simulation hosts, the author begins by reviewing the parallelization of discrete event simulation, identifyin

  12. New approach in design of efficient low level RF circuit for 10 MeV cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Sharifi Asadi Malafeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The electric field in cavity accelerates charged particles and magnetic field of magnets changes the direction of these particles in cyclotrons. In order to establish the electric field inside the cavity, a noiseless radio frequency (RF signal should be generated, amplified and sent to cavity. The resonant frequency of the cavity could be changed by temperature variation. Variation of resonant frequency will cause reflected power from the cavity. in this work the low level RF circuits with task of signal generation, phase and frequency Adjustment, cavity resonant frequency Adjustment, protection of the RF set from the reflected power and stability of RF system was designed

  13. Design and Implementation of a Two Level Scheduler for HADOOP Data Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr G. Sudha sadhasivam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hadoop is a large scale distributed processing infrastructure designed to handle data intensive applications. In a commercial large scale cluster framework, a scheduler distributes user jobs evenly among the cluster resources. The proposed work enhances Hadoop’s fair scheduler that queues the jobs for execution in a fine grained manner using task scheduling. In contrast, the proposed approach allows backfilling ofjobs submitted to the scheduler. Thus job level and task level scheduling is enabled by this approach. The jobs are fairly scheduled with fairness among users, pools and priority. The outcome of the proposed work is that short narrow jobs will be executed in the slot if sufficient resource is not available for larger jobs. Thus shorter jobs get executed faster by the scheduler when compared to the existing fair scheduling policy that schedules tasks based on their fairness of remaining execution time. This approach prevents the starvation of smaller jobs if sufficient resources are available.

  14. Design and Implementation of the New D0 Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolins, M.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Anderson, J.; Bagby, L.; Ban, J.; Barberis, E.; Beale, S.; Benitez, J.; Biehl, J.; /Columbia U. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Delhi U. /Fermilab /Florida State U. /Indiana U. /Michigan State U. /Northeastern U. /Rice U. /Southern Methodist U. /University Coll., Dublin

    2007-09-01

    Increasing luminosity at the Fermilab Tevatron collider has led the D0 collaboration to make improvements to its detector beyond those already in place for Run IIa, which began in March 2001. One of the cornerstones of this Run IIb upgrade is a completely redesigned level-1 calorimeter trigger system. The new system employs novel architecture and algorithms to retain high efficiency for interesting events while substantially increasing rejection of background. We describe the design and implementation of the new level-1 calorimeter trigger hardware and discuss its performance during Run IIb data taking. In addition to strengthening the physics capabilities of D0, this trigger system will provide valuable insight into the operation of analogous devices to be used at LHC experiments.

  15. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5-10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  16. A system-level bandwidth design method for wormhole network-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Yubai; Liao, Changjun

    2016-11-01

    To improve the Network-on-Chip (NoC) performance, we propose a system-level bandwidth design method customising the bandwidths of the NoC links. In details, we first built a mathematical model to catch the relationship between the NoC commutation latency and the NoC link bandwidth, and then develop a bandwidth allocation algorithm to automatically optimise the bandwidth for each NoC link. The experimental results show that our bandwidth-customising method improves the NoC performance compared to the traditional uniform bandwidth allocation method. Besides, it can also make our NoC to achieve the same communication performance level as the uniform bandwidth NoC but using fewer bandwidth resources, which is beneficial to save the NoC area and power.

  17. High-level production of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant JH1 using statistical experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kang, Seong-Woo; Kim, Seung-Wook; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2005-09-01

    Medium composition was optimized for high-level production of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant JH1 using statistical experimental designs. Glucose and yeast extract were the most important factors affecting astaxanthin production. Glucose 3.89%, yeast extract 0.29%, KH2PO4 0.25%, MgSO4 0.05%, MnSO4 0.02%, and CaCl2 0.01% were optimum for high-level production of astaxanthin. Under optimized conditions, the maximum concentration of astaxanthin obtained after 7 d of cultivation was 36.06 mg/l. The concentration of astaxanthin predicted by a polynomial model was 36.16 mg/l.

  18. Performance Measurement of a Multi-Level/Analog Ferroelectric Memory Device Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the memory density and utilizing the unique characteristics of ferroelectric devices is important in making ferroelectric memory devices more desirable to the consumer. This paper describes the characterization of a design that allows multiple levels to be stored in a ferroelectric based memory cell. It can be used to store multiple bits or analog values in a high speed nonvolatile memory. The design utilizes the hysteresis characteristic of ferroelectric transistors to store an analog value in the memory cell. The design also compensates for the decay of the polarization of the ferroelectric material over time. This is done by utilizing a pair of ferroelectric transistors to store the data. One transistor is used a reference to determinethe amount of decay that has occurred since the pair was programmed. The second transistor stores the analog value as a polarization value between zero and saturated. The design allows digital data to be stored as multiple bits in each memory cell. The number of bits per cell that can be stored will vary with the decay rate of the ferroelectric transistors and the repeatability of polarization between transistors. This paper presents measurements of an actual prototype memory cell. This prototype is not a complete implementation of a device, but instead, a prototype of the storage and retrieval portion of an actual device. The performance of this prototype is presented with the projected performance of the overall device. This memory design will be useful because it allows higher memory density, compensates for the environmental and ferroelectric aging processes, allows analog values to be directly stored in memory, compensates for the thermal and radiation environments associated with space operations, and relies only on existing technologies.

  19. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Impaired Semen Characteristics and Reduced Levels of Anti-Mullerian Hormone across a Wide Weight Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn M Andersen

    Full Text Available There is still controversy as to how body mass index (BMI affects male reproduction. We investigated how BMI is associated with semen quality and reproductive hormones in 166 men, including 38 severely obese men. Standard semen analysis and sperm DNA integrity analysis were performed, and blood samples were analysed for reproductive hormones. Adjusted for age and time of abstinence, BMI was negatively associated with sperm concentration (B = -0.088, P = 0.009, total sperm count (B = -0.223, P = 0.001, progressive sperm motility (B = -0.675, P = 0.007, normal sperm morphology (B = -0.078, P = 0.001, and percentage of vital spermatozoa (B = -0.006, P = 0.027. A negative relationship was observed between BMI and total testosterone (B = -0.378, P < 0.001, sex hormone binding globulin (B = -0.572, P < 0.001, inhibin B (B = -3.120, P < 0.001 and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH (B = -0.009, P < 0.001. Our findings suggest that high BMI is negatively associated with semen characteristics and serum levels of AMH.

  20. 阅读能力表现:要素、水平与指标%Reading Ability Performance: Element, Level and Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚林群

    2012-01-01

    Reading ability is the features of psychology and behaviors which are demonstrated by reader during the reading. The cultivation of reading ability is of great significance not only to the individual development but also to the progress of the country. As a kind of comprehensive capability, reading ability is composed of the relevant elements, and has different levels of requirements. The evaluation index of reading ability should be the obvious and observable learning performance,which is also specific, clear and operational.%阅读能力是阅读者进行读物阅读时表现出来的心理特征和行为特征。阅读能力的培养,不仅对个体发展而且对国家进步都具有重要意义。作为一种综合运用的能力,阅读能力由相关要素组成,体现出一定的水平层次的要求。阅读能力的评价指标应是学生表现出来的外显的、可观察的学习表现,是具体、明确、可操作的。

  1. Demonstration on the indexes design of gravity satellite orbit parameters in the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaogang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the exigent demand of the development of satellite gravimetry system in China, aiming at the determination of technical indexes of gravity satellite orbit parameters, on the basis of the numerical experiments and results analysis, the design indexes of gravity satellite orbit height, inter-satellite range and the orbit inclination are analyzed and calculated, and the issues towards twin gravity satellites such as coherence requirement of the orbit semi-major axes, control requirement of the pitch angle and time interval requirement to keep twin satellites formation in mobility are discussed. Results show that the satellite orbit height is 400 km to 500 km, the inter-satellite range is about 220 km, the satellite orbit inclination is between polar orbit and sun-synchronous orbit, the semi-major axes difference of twin satellites orbit is within ±70. 146 m, the pitch angle of twin satellites is about 0.9 degree, and the time interval to keep twin satellites formation in mobility is 7 days to 15 days.

  2. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  3. Speech Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, R.J.F.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Leeuwen, van D.A.; Blanken, H.M.; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the automatic extraction of information from the speech in multimedia documents. This approach is often referred to as speech indexing and it can be regarded as a subfield of audio indexing that also incorporates for example the analysis of music and sounds. If the objecti

  4. Design of tri-level excitation signals for broadband bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Wang, Lianhuan; Wang, Peipei; Yang, Xiufang; Zhang, Fu; Wen, He; Teng, Zhaosheng

    2015-09-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement methods have been evolving from the traditional frequency-sweep approach to the multi-frequency simultaneous measurement technique which can drastically reduce measuring time and will be increasingly attractive for time-varying biological applications. Multi-frequency mixed (MFM) signals with sparsely distributed spectra are desirable for broadband BIS measurement. This paper proposes a synthesis method to design a series of tri-level MFM signals which contain only three values (+1, 0, -1), and has majority energy distributed on its (2(n))th primary harmonics. Tri-level MFM signals have both high energy efficiency and a low crest factor. An impedance measurement experiment excited by an 8th-order tri-level MFM signal on a RC three-element equivalent model has been performed, and the results on 8 primary harmonic frequencies ranging from 8 to 1024 kHz show a high accuracy with the mean amplitude relative error of 0.41% and mean phase absolute error of 0.18°, which has validated the feasibility of the tri-level MFM signals for broadband BIS measurement.

  5. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p < 0.05), calcium (p < 0.05), and vitamin C (p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased (p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin (p < 0.05) and hematocrit (p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group (p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group (p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  6. G-231A and G+70C polymorphisms of endothelin receptor type-A gene could affect the psoriasis area and severity index score and endothelin 1 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Okan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiopathogenesis of psoriasis has not been clearly elucidated although the role of chronic inflammation, imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and many immunological events have been established. Endothelin 1 (EDN1 and endothelin receptor type-A (EDNRA are implicated in the inflammatory process. The relationships between EDN1 and EDNRA polymorphisms with several diseases have been found. Aims and Objectives: This study examined the possible association of EDN1 (G5665T and T-1370G and EDNRA (G-231A and G + 70C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with the occurence of psoriasis, and evaluated the relationship between genotypes and clinical/laboratory manifestation of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed genotype and allele distributions of the above-mentioned polymorphisms in 151 patients with psoriasis and 152 healthy controls by real-time PCR combined with melting curve analysis. Results: We did not find significant differences in the genotype and allele distributions of EDN1 T-1370G, EDNRA G-231A, and EDNRA G+70C polymorphisms between patients with psoriasis and healthy controls. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI score of EDNRA -231 polymorphic A allele carrying subjects (AA and AA + AG was higher than that of wild homozygotes (P = 0.044 and P = 0.027, respectively. In addition, EDN1 levels in EDNRA+70 polymorphic C allele carriers (CC + CG were elevated when compared with GG genotype; however, the difference was at borderline significance (P = 0.05. Conclusion: Although there were no associations between studied polymorphisms and psoriasis susceptibility, the PASI score and EDN1 levels seem to be affected by EDNRA G-231A and G + 70C polymorphisms.

  7. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James T; Collins, Paul F; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5.16-99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r = -0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r = -0.316), and uncus (partial r = -0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  8. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R;

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  9. Retrieval of effective leaf area index (LAIe) and leaf area density (LAD) profile at individual tree level using high density multi-return airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; West, Geoff

    2016-08-01

    As an important canopy structure indicator, leaf area index (LAI) proved to be of considerable implications for forest ecosystem and ecological studies, and efficient techniques for accurate LAI acquisitions have long been highlighted. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), often termed as airborne laser scanning (ALS), once was extensively investigated for this task but showed limited performance due to its low sampling density. Now, ALS systems exhibit more competing capacities such as high density and multi-return sampling, and hence, people began to ask the questions like-"can ALS now work better on the task of LAI prediction?" As a re-examination, this study investigated the feasibility of LAI retrievals at the individual tree level based on high density and multi-return ALS, by directly considering the vertical distributions of laser points lying within each tree crown instead of by proposing feature variables such as quantiles involving laser point distribution modes at the plot level. The examination was operated in the case of four tree species (i.e. Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula and Quercus robur) in a mixed forest, with their LAI-related reference data collected by using static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). In light of the differences between ALS- and TLS-based LAI characterizations, the methods of voxelization of 3D scattered laser points, effective LAI (LAIe) that does not distinguish branches from canopies and unified cumulative LAI (ucLAI) that is often used to characterize the vertical profiles of crown leaf area densities (LADs) was used; then, the relationships between the ALS- and TLS-derived LAIes were determined, and so did ucLAIs. Tests indicated that the tree-level LAIes for the four tree species can be estimated based on the used airborne LiDAR (R2 = 0.07, 0.26, 0.43 and 0.21, respectively) and their ucLAIs can also be derived. Overall, this study has validated the usage of the contemporary high density multi

  10. The design of a fast Level-1 track trigger for the high luminosity upgrade of ATLAS.

    CERN Document Server

    Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high/luminosity upgrade of the LHC will increase the rate of the proton-proton collisions by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the initial LHC-design. The ATLAS experiment will upgrade consequently, increasing its robustness and selectivity in the expected high radiation environment. In particular, the earliest, hardware based, ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will require higher rejection power, still maintaining efficient selection on many various physics signatures. The key ingredient is the possibility of extracting tracking information from the brand new full-silicon detector and use it for the process. While fascinating, this solution poses a big challenge in the choice of the architecture, due to the reduced latency available at this trigger level (few tens of micro-seconds) and the high expected working rates (order of MHz). In this paper, we review the design possibilities of such a system in a potential new trigger and readout architecture, and present the performance resulting from a d...

  11. SCREENING OF MEDIUM COMPOUNDS USING A TWO-LEVEL FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUOWEI SHU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Even if the probiotic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii is has been reported, this yeast is rarely used in medium composition. Based on single factor experiment, two-level factorial design was employed to evaluate the effect of carbon sources (sucrose, glucose, nitrogen sources (soy peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, calf serum, malt extract and salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, MgSO4, Na2HPO4, NaH2PO4, CaCl2, sodium citrate, sodium glutamate on the growth of S. boulardii. At the same time, the optical density (OD in the medium was measured at 560 nm after 36 h of incubation. The result of two-level factorial design experiment showed that calf serum (p = 0.0214 and sodium citrate (p = 0.0045 are the significant growth factors of S. boulardii, sucrose (p = 0.0861 and malt extract (p = 0.0763 are important factors. In addition, sucrose and sodium citrate showed positive effect on the growth of S. boulardii. However, calf serum and malt extract showed negative effect on the growth. And we determined that the optimum medium composition for S. boulardii was as follow: 37.5 g·L-1 sucrose, 6 g·L-1 calf serum, 6 g·L-1 malt extract, 5 g·L-1 sodium citrate.

  12. Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation: Incentivizing Flexibility in System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, Erik; Milligan, Michael; Bloom, Aaron; Botterud, Audun; Townsend, Aaron; Levin, Todd; Frew, Bethany A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the importance and challenges of incentivizing flexibility during short-term operations of the bulk power system due to the increasing variability and uncertainty from growing penetrations of variable generation (VG). Operational flexibility can refer to many aspects of a resource's capability to support the power system, such as the speed, range, and duration of power output, as well as the ability to autonomously respond to frequency or voltage changes. Inefficient utilization of existing flexibility, or unwillingness of resources to provide flexibility, can compromise system reliability by not meeting the changing net load, and it can also lead to higher costs when an inefficient use of flexibility resources occurs. There are many existing characteristics of market design that incentivize flexibility in some manner. How they incentivize the provision of flexibility as well as the level of flexibility is still debated. We explore some of these existing market designs, as well as new market mechanisms, such as pay-for-performance regulating reserve and flexible ramping products, that aim to explicitly incentivize the provision of more flexibility to the system, particularly as a result of increasing VG penetration levels.

  13. Relationships of loudness, level, and time structure in pipe organ registrations and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Wade

    2004-05-01

    Time-dependent loudnesses and sound pressure levels were measured binaurally from a variety of individual stops and multi-stop registrations of several classical and theater pipe organs covering a wide range of sizes, tonal designs, pipe scalings, wind pressures, and spatial relationships. Studies were also made of modulation in individual low-frequency notes, and in notes and chords affected by the presence or absence of tremulants. Timbres of certain solo stops were assessed in terms of the relationship of specific loudness and sound pressure spectra to their importance in creating subjective timbre. In addition to loudness and sound pressure measurement, advanced analysis by a hearing model (Sottek) and a temporal/tonal pattern-measurement algorithm (``relative approach'') were employed. Significant differences in the relationship of loudness and level were found depending principally on tonal design, pipe scaling and wind pressures on one hand, and octave-related tonal centers and timbral characteristics of individual stops on the other hand. Consideration was also given to the subjective spatial soundscape resulting from different pipe organ physical layouts and from simultaneous registrations between or among physically-separated speaking divisions.

  14. System-level design trade-offs for truly wearable wireless medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangwei; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Power and current management in emerging wearable medical devices, intended to continuously monitor physiological signals, are crucial design issues. The overall size of the electronic part of these systems is generally going to be dominated by the size of the batteries. Unfortunately, the options of smaller batteries do not only come at the expense of a lower capacity and hence shorter operation time. It also significantly constrains the amount of available current that can be used by different electronic blocks, as well as their operating power supply voltage. This paper discusses all the typical power and current management system level issues in the design of a typical miniature wearable wireless medical device. The discussion is illustrated with experimental results obtained with two devices built using two of the currently most popular low power commercial transceivers in the market, the Texas Instruments (TI) CC2500 and the Nordic Semiconductor nRF24L01+. The numbers presented can be used as a more realistic guidance of the energy per bit required in a real system implementation, as opposed to the ideal figures normally quoted by the manufacturers. Furthermore the analysis in this paper can also be extrapolated to the design of future wireless monitoring wearable devices with further optimized radio transceivers.

  15. An Energy-Efficient Instruction Scheduler Design with Two-Level Shelving and Adaptive Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Lai Zhao; Xian-Feng Li; Dong Tong; Xu Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Mainstream processors implement the instruction scheduler using a monolithic CAM-based issue queue (IQ),which consumes increasingly high energy as its size scales.In particular, its instruction wakeup logic accounts for a major portion of the consumed energy.Our study shows that instructions with 2 non-ready operands (called 2OP instructions) are in small percentage, but tend to spend long latencies in the IQ.They can be effectively shelved in a small RAM-based waiting instruction buffer (WIB) and steered into the IQ at appropriate time.With this two-level shelving ability, half of the CAM tag comparators are eliminated in the IQ, which significantly reduces the energy of wakeup operation.In addition,we propose an adaptive banking scheme to downsize the IQ and reduce the bit-width of tag comparators.Experiments indicate that for an 8-wide issue superscalar or SMT processor, the energy consumption of the instruction scheduler can be reduced by 67%.Furthermore, the new design has potentially faster scheduler clock speed while maintaining close IPC to the monolithic scheduler design.Compared with the previous work on eliminating tags through prediction, our design is superior in terms of both energy reduction and SMT support.

  16. Detailed Modeling, Design, and Evaluation of a Scalable Multi-level Checkpointing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, A T; Bronevetsky, G; Mohror, K M; de Supinski, B R

    2010-04-09

    High-performance computing (HPC) systems are growing more powerful by utilizing more hardware components. As the system mean-time-before-failure correspondingly drops, applications must checkpoint more frequently to make progress. However, as the system memory sizes grow faster than the bandwidth to the parallel file system, the cost of checkpointing begins to dominate application run times. A potential solution to this problem is to use multi-level checkpointing, which employs multiple types of checkpoints with different costs and different levels of resiliency in a single run. The goal is to design light-weight checkpoints to handle the most common failure modes and rely on more expensive checkpoints for less common, but more severe failures. While this approach is theoretically promising, it has not been fully evaluated in a large-scale, production system context. To this end we have designed a system, called the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, that writes checkpoints to storage on the compute nodes utilizing RAM, Flash, or disk, in addition to the parallel file system. We present the performance and reliability properties of SCR as well as a probabilistic Markov model that predicts its performance on current and future systems. We show that multi-level checkpointing improves efficiency on existing large-scale systems and that this benefit increases as the system size grows. In particular, we developed low-cost checkpoint schemes that are 100x-1000x faster than the parallel file system and effective against 85% of our system failures. This leads to a gain in machine efficiency of up to 35%, and it reduces the the load on the parallel file system by a factor of two on current and future systems.

  17. System-Level Design of an Integrated Receiver Front End for a Wireless Ultrasound Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Tommaso; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Llimos Muntal, Pere; Jorgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system-level design is presented for an integrated receive circuit for a wireless ultrasound probe, which includes analog front ends and beamformation modules. This paper focuses on the investigation of the effects of architectural design choices on the image quality. The point spread function is simulated in Field II from 10 to 160 mm using a convex array transducer. A noise analysis is performed, and the minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirements are derived for the low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) and A/D converters (ADCs) to fulfill the design specifications of a dynamic range of 60 dB and a penetration depth of 160 mm in the B-mode image. Six front-end implementations are compared using Nyquist-rate and Σ∆ modulator ADCs. The image quality is evaluated as a function of the depth in terms of lateral full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and -12-dB cystic resolution (CR). The designs that minimally satisfy the specifications are based on an 8-b 30-MSPS Nyquist converter and a single-bit third-order 240-MSPS Σ∆ modulator, with an SNR for the LNA in both cases equal to 64 dB. The mean lateral FWHM and CR are 2.4% and 7.1% lower for the Σ∆ architecture compared with the Nyquist-rate one. However, the results generally show minimal differences between equivalent architectures. Advantages and drawbacks are finally discussed for the two families of converters.

  18. Designing automation for complex work environments under different levels of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen; Nickel, Peter; Wastell, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of different forms of static and adaptable automation under low- and high-stress conditions. Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, comparing three levels of static automation (low, medium and high) and one level of adaptable automation, with the environmental stressor (noise) being varied as a within-subjects variable. Participants were trained for 4 h on a simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS, followed by a 2.5-h testing session. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that operators preferred higher levels of automation under noise than under quiet conditions. A number of parameters indicated negative effects of noise exposure, such as performance impairments, physiological stress reactions and higher mental workload. It also emerged that adaptable automation provided advantages over low and intermediate static automation, with regard to mental workload, effort expenditure and diagnostic performance. The article concludes that for the design of automation a wider range of operational scenarios reflecting adverse as well as ideal working conditions needs to be considered.

  19. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger: from design to commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is located at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It is designed to measure decay properties of highly energetic particles produced in the protons collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC has a beam collision frequency of 40 MHz, and thus requires a trigger system to efficiently select events, thereby reducing the storage rate to a manageable level of about 400 Hz. Event triggering is therefore one of the extraordinary challenges faced by the ATLAS detector. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 75kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5 s. It is primarily composed of the Calorimeter Trigger, Muon Trigger, the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). Due to the increase in the LHC instantaneous luminosity up 3 x 10^34/cm2 s from 2015 onwards, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo receives data in a specialized format from the ...

  20. Eccentric connectivity index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilić, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    The eccentric connectivity index $\\xi^c$ is a novel distance--based molecular structure descriptor that was recently used for mathematical modeling of biological activities of diverse nature. It is defined as $\\xi^c (G) = \\sum_{v \\in V (G)} deg (v) \\cdot \\epsilon (v)$\\,, where $deg (v)$ and $\\epsilon (v)$ denote the vertex degree and eccentricity of $v$\\,, respectively. We survey some mathematical properties of this index and furthermore support the use of eccentric connectivity index as topological structure descriptor. We present the extremal trees and unicyclic graphs with maximum and minimum eccentric connectivity index subject to the certain graph constraints. Sharp lower and asymptotic upper bound for all graphs are given and various connections with other important graph invariants are established. In addition, we present explicit formulae for the values of eccentric connectivity index for several families of composite graphs and designed a linear algorithm for calculating the eccentric connectivity in...