WorldWideScience

Sample records for design eye point

  1. Three-dimensional system integration for HUD placement on a new tactical airlift platform: design eye point vs. HUD eye box with accommodation and perceptual implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Steven D.; Hudson, Jeffery A.; Zehner, Gregory F.

    2012-06-01

    The retrofitting of a cockpit with a Head-Up-Display (HUD) raises potential accommodation and perceptual issues for pilots that must be addressed. For maximum optical efficiency, the goal is to be able to place every pilot's eye into the HUD Eye Motion Box (EMB) given a seat adjustment range. Initially, the Eye Reference Point (ERP) of the EMB should theoretically be located on the aircraft's original cockpit Design Eye Point (DEP), but human postures vary, and HUD systems may not be optimally placed. In reality, there is a distribution of pilot eyes around the DEP (which is dominant eye dependent); therefore, this must be accounted for in order to obtain appropriate visibility of all of the symbology based on photonic characteristics of the HUD. Pilot size and postural variation need to be taken into consideration when positioning the HUD system to ensure proper vision of all HUD symbology in addition to meeting the basic physical accommodation requirements of the cockpit. The innovative process and data collection methods for maximizing accommodation and pilot perception on a new "tactical airlift" platform are discussed as well as the related neurocognitive factors and the effects of information display design on cognitive phenomena.

  2. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  3. Head and eye movement as pointing modalities for eyewear computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbeigi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    While the new generation of eyewear computers have increased expectations of a wearable computer, providing input to these devices is still challenging. Hand-held devices, voice commands, and hand gestures have already been explored to provide input to the wearable devices. In this paper, we...... examined using head and eye movements to point on a graphical user interface of a wearable computer. The performance of users in head and eye pointing has been compared with mouse pointing as a baseline method. The result of our experiment showed that the eye pointing is significantly faster than head...

  4. Eye tracking in user experience design

    CERN Document Server

    Romano Bergstorm, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology. Ten leading experts in eye tracking discuss how they have taken advantage of this new technology to understand, design, and evaluate user experience. Real-world stories are included from these experts who have used eye tracking during the design and development of products ranging from information websites to immersive games. They also explore recent advances in the technology which tracks how users interact with mobile devices, large-screen displays and video game consoles. Methods for combining eye tracking with other research techniques for a more holistic understanding of the user experience are discussed. This is an invaluable resource to those who want to learn how eye tracking can be used to better understand and design for their users. * Includes highly relevant examples and information for those who perform user research and design interactive experi...

  5. Design of a computer game using an eye-tracking device for eye's activity rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Huan, Chia-Chin; Chan, Chao-Ning; Yeh, Mau-Shiun; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2004-07-01

    An eye mouse interface that can be used to operate a computer using the movement of the eyes is described. We developed this eye-tracking system for eye motion disability rehabilitation. When the user watches the screen of a computer, a charge-coupled device will catch images of the user's eye and transmit it to the computer. A program, based on a new cross-line tracking and stabilizing algorithm, will locate the center point of the pupil in the images. The calibration factors and energy factors are designed for coordinate mapping and blink functions. After the system transfers the coordinates of pupil center in the images to the display coordinate, it will determine the point at which the user gazed on the display, then transfer that location to the game subroutine program. We used this eye-tracking system as a joystick to play a game with an application program in a multimedia environment. The experimental results verify the feasibility and validity of this eye-game system and the rehabilitation effects for the user's visual movement.

  6. The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi Akbar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs.

  7. Characterizing the point spread function of retinal OCT devices with a model eye-based phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anant; Connors, Megan; Beylin, Alexander; Liang, Chia-Pin; Barton, David; Chen, Yu; Drezek, Rebekah A; Pfefer, T Joshua

    2012-05-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a nanoparticle-embedded phantom (NEP) incorporated into a model eye in order to characterize the point spread function (PSF) of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices in three dimensions under realistic imaging conditions. The NEP comprises a sparse distribution of highly backscattering silica-gold nanoshells embedded in a transparent UV-curing epoxy. The commercially-available model eye replicates the key optical structures and focusing power of the human eye. We imaged the model eye-NEP combination with a research-grade spectral domain OCT system designed for in vivo retinal imaging and quantified the lateral and axial PSF dimensions across the field of view in the OCT images. We also imaged the model eye-NEP in a clinical OCT system. Subtle features in the PSF and its dimensions were consistent with independent measurements of lateral and axial resolution. This model eye-based phantom can provide retinal OCT device developers and users a means to rapidly, objectively, and consistently assess the PSF, a fundamental imaging performance metric.

  8. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  9. Characterisation of Feature Points in Eye Fundus Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D.; Ortega, M.; Penedo, M. G.; Rouco, J.

    The retinal vessel tree adds decisive knowledge in the diagnosis of numerous opthalmologic pathologies such as hypertension or diabetes. One of the problems in the analysis of the retinal vessel tree is the lack of information in terms of vessels depth as the image acquisition usually leads to a 2D image. This situation provokes a scenario where two different vessels coinciding in a point could be interpreted as a vessel forking into a bifurcation. That is why, for traking and labelling the retinal vascular tree, bifurcations and crossovers of vessels are considered feature points. In this work a novel method for these retinal vessel tree feature points detection and classification is introduced. The method applies image techniques such as filters or thinning to obtain the adequate structure to detect the points and sets a classification of these points studying its environment. The methodology is tested using a standard database and the results show high classification capabilities.

  10. Surgeon-performed point-of-care ultrasound in severe eye trauma: Report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Balac, Korana; Bhatia, Chetana Anand

    2016-01-01

    The indications of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in the management of multiple trauma patients have been expanding. Although computed tomography (CT) scan of the orbit remains the gold standard for imaging orbital trauma, ultrasound is a quick, safe, and portable tool that can be performed bedside. Here we report two patients who had severe eye injuries with major visual impairment where surgeon-performed POCUS was very useful. One had a foreign body injury while the other had blunt trauma. POCUS was done using a linear probe under sterile conditions with minimum pressure on the eyes. Ultrasound showed a foreign body at the back of the left eye globe touching the eye globe in the first patient, and was normal in the second patient. Workup using CT scan, fundsocopy, optical coherence tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits confirmed these findings. The first patient had vitreous and sub retinal haemorrhage and a full thickness macular hole of the left eye, while the second had traumatic optic neuropathy. POCUS gave accurate information concerning severe eye injuries. Trauma surgeons and emergency physicians should be trained in performing ocular ultrasound for eye injuries.

  11. Pursuit eye-movements in curve driving differentiate between future path and tangent point models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Lappi

    Full Text Available For nearly 20 years, looking at the tangent point on the road edge has been prominent in models of visual orientation in curve driving. It is the most common interpretation of the commonly observed pattern of car drivers looking through a bend, or at the apex of the curve. Indeed, in the visual science literature, visual orientation towards the inside of a bend has become known as "tangent point orientation". Yet, it remains to be empirically established whether it is the tangent point the drivers are looking at, or whether some other reference point on the road surface, or several reference points, are being targeted in addition to, or instead of, the tangent point. Recently discovered optokinetic pursuit eye-movements during curve driving can provide complementary evidence over and above traditional gaze-position measures. This paper presents the first detailed quantitative analysis of pursuit eye movements elicited by curvilinear optic flow in real driving. The data implicates the far zone beyond the tangent point as an important gaze target area during steady-state cornering. This is in line with the future path steering models, but difficult to reconcile with any pure tangent point steering model. We conclude that the tangent point steering models do not provide a general explanation of eye movement and steering during a curve driving sequence and cannot be considered uncritically as the default interpretation when the gaze position distribution is observed to be situated in the region of the curve apex.

  12. Parametric Architectural Design with Point-clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the efforts and benefits of the implementation of point clouds into architectural design processes and tools. Based on a study on the principal work processes of designers with point clouds the prototypical plugin/library - Volvox - was developed for the parametric modelli...

  13. Design and manufacturing of complex optics: the dragonfly eye optic.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Sweatt, William C.; Hodges, V. Carter; Adams, David Price; Gill, David Dennis; Vasile, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The ''Design and Manufacturing of Complex Optics'' LDRD sought to develop new advanced methods for the design and manufacturing of very complex optical systems. The project team developed methods for including manufacturability into optical designs and also researched extensions of manufacturing techniques to meet the challenging needs of aspherical, 3D, multi-level lenslet arrays on non-planar surfaces. In order to confirm the applicability of the developed techniques, the team chose the Dragonfly Eye optic as a testbed. This optic has arrays of aspherical micro-lenslets on both the exterior and the interior of a 4mm diameter hemispherical shell. Manufacturing of the dragonfly eye required new methods of plunge milling aspherical optics and the development of a method to create the milling tools using focused ion beam milling. The team showed the ability to create aspherical concave milling tools which will have great significance to the optical industry. A prototype dragonfly eye exterior was created during the research, and the methods of including manufacturability in the optical design process were shown to be successful as well.

  14. Point prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome in patients scheduled for cataract surgery in eye camps in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shaer Mutahar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the point prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS among Yemeni patients in different governorates with age-related cataract scheduled for surgery. Settings: Eye camps organized by the Nibras Health Society to perform cataract surgeries during the years 2002-2006. All patients aged 40 years and above were included in the study. Materials and Methods: A total of 2535 eyes of 2535 patients from 13 governorates, scheduled for cataract surgery in eye camps, were included. All eyes underwent complete eye examination before the surgery and were evaluated for the signs of pseudoexfoliation material in the pupil, iris and lens capsule on dilated slit lamp examination. Results: The study found 495 of the 2535 eyes (19.53% with PXS with males more commonly affected than females (55.2 and 44.8%, respectively. The mean age of patients with PXS was 66.2 years while it was 64.6 years in non-PXS patients. The prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome increased with age (10.1% in the age group of 41-50 years that increased to 28.8% in the age group of more than 81 years old. The rate of PXS detection in camps in 13 governorates ranged from 13.33 to 24.22% with an overall rate of 19.53%. The lowest rate was noticed in Sana′a and the highest in Al-Dhale governorate. Conclusion: This pilot study confirms that PXS was common in patients undergoing cataract surgery in Yemen with an increased detection rate with age. This study also highlights the prevalence of an ocular disease that is associated with systemic and ocular complications; however, further studies based on population studies are needed.

  15. Pointing with a One-Eyed Cursor for Supervised Training in Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Martin; Kraus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pointing in the endoscopic view of a surgical robot is a natural and effcient way for instructors to communicate with trainees in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. However, pointing in a stereo-endoscopic view can be limited by problems such as video delay, double vision, arm fatigue......, and reachability of the pointer controls. We address these problems by hardware-based overlaying the stereo-endoscopic view with a one-eyed cursor, which can be comfortably controlled by a wireless, gyroscopic air mouse. The proposed system was positively evaluated by five experienced instructors in four full......-day training units in robot- assisted minimally invasive surgery on anaesthetised pigs....

  16. Overcoming Obstacles to Collecting Narrative Data from Eye Care Professionals at the Point-of-Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Garry M.; Lobach, David F.; Macri, Jennifer M.; Hunt, Megan; Kacmaz, Roje O.; Lee, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    Capturing the nuances of clinical observations in an electronic format has been a major challenge in implementing electronic health records. In a formative evaluation study using three different methodologies, we identified that the greatest obstacle to point-of-care data entry for eye care was supporting free text annotation of clinical observations. To overcome this obstacle, we developed an approach that captures an image of a free text entry and associates this image with related data elements in an encounter note. Through simulated patient studies, we observed that this approach successfully supported complex documentation at the point of care by clinicians. PMID:16779403

  17. Design and development of miniature parallel robot for eye surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tomoya; Harada, Kanako; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ueta, Takashi; Noda, Yasuo; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    A five degree-of-freedom (DOF) miniature parallel robot has been developed to precisely and safely remove the thin internal limiting membrane in the eye ground during vitreoretinal surgery. A simulator has been developed to determine the design parameters of this robot. The developed robot's size is 85 mm × 100 mm × 240 mm, and its weight is 770 g. This robot incorporates an emergency instrument retraction function to quickly remove the instrument from the eye in case of sudden intraoperative complications such as bleeding. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the robot's performance in the master-slave configuration, and the results demonstrated that it had a tracing accuracy of 40.0 μm.

  18. Noncontact binocular eye-gaze tracking for point-of-gaze estimation in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Craig; Lawrence, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Binocular eye-gaze tracking can be used to estimate the point-of-gaze (POG) of a subject in real-world 3-D space using the vergence of the eyes. In this paper, a novel noncontact model-based technique for 3-D POG estimation is presented. The noncontact system allows people to select real-world objects in 3-D physical space using their eyes, without the need for head-mounted equipment. Remote 3-D POG estimation may be especially useful for persons with quadriplegia or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. It would also enable a user to select 3-D points in space generated by 3-D volumetric displays, with potential applications to medical imaging and telesurgery. Using a model-based POG estimation algorithm allows for free head motion and a single stage of calibration. It is shown that an average accuracy of 3.93 cm was achieved over a workspace volume of 30 x 23 x 25 cm (W x H x D) with a maximum latency of 1.5 s due to the digital filtering employed. The users were free to naturally move and reorient their heads while operating the system, within an allowable headspace of 3 cm x 9 cm x 14 cm.

  19. Dynamics and mission design near libration points

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, G; Simo, C; Masdemont, J

    2001-01-01

    This book studies several problems related to the analysis of planned or possible spacecraft missions. It is divided into four chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the computation of quasiperiodic solutions for the motion of a spacecraft near the equilateral points of the Earth-Moon system. The second chapter gives a complete description of the orbits near the collinear point, L 1 , between the Earth and the Sun in the restricted three-body problem (RTBP) model. In the third chapter, methods are developed to compute the nominal orbit and to design and test the control strategy for the qua

  20. Design guidelines for wearable pointing devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne E. Zucco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents design guidelines and recommendations for developing cursor manipulation interaction devices to be employed in a wearable context. The work presented in this paper is the culmination three usability studies designed to understand commercially available pointing (cursor manipulation devices suitable for use in a wearable context. The set of guidelines and recommendations presented are grounded on experimental and qualitative evidence derived from three usability studies and are intended to be used in order to inform the design of future wearable input devices. In addition to guiding the design process, the guidelines and recommendations may also be used to inform users of wearable computing devices by guiding towards the selection of a suitable wearable input device. The synthesis of results derived from a series of usability studies provide insights pertaining to the choice and usability of the devices in a wearable context. That is, the guidelines form a checklist that may be utilized as a point of comparison when choosing between the different input devices available for wearable interaction.

  1. Integrating Service Design and Eye Tracking Insight for Designing Smart TV User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ming Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a process that integrate service design method and eye tracking insight for designing a Smart TV user interface. The Service Design method, which is utilized for leading the combination of the quality function deployment (QFD and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, is used to analyze the features of three Smart TV user interface design mockups. Scientific evidences, which include the effectiveness and efficiency testing data obtained from eye tracking experiments with six participants, are provided the information for analysing the affordance of these design mockups. The results of this research demonstrate a comprehensive methodology that can be used iteratively for redesigning, redefining and evaluating of Smart TV user interfaces. It can also help to make the design of Smart TV user interfaces relate to users' behaviors and needs. So that to improve the affordance of design. Future studies may analyse the data that are derived from eye tracking experiments to improve our understanding of the spatial relationship between designed elements in a Smart TV user interface.

  2. Design of Customizable Automated Low Cost Eye Testing System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In many underdeveloped and third world countries, eye care is often neglected due to illiteracy. Particularly people in rural areas suffer with eye problems due to mal nutrition. The government is spending lot of money and efforts in screening the people at periodic intervals. One of the challenges faced by the doctors is screening the school children.

  3. Design Point for a Spheromak Compression Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; O'Bryan, John; Stuber, James; Darpa Spheromak Team

    2015-11-01

    Two principal issues for the spheromak concept remain to be addressed experimentally: formation efficiency and confinement scaling. We are therefore developing a design point for a spheromak experiment that will be heated by adiabatic compression, utilizing the CORSICA and NIMROD codes as well as analytic modeling with target parameters R_initial =0.3m, R_final =0.1m, T_initial =0.2keV, T_final =1.8keV, n_initial =1019m-3 and n_final = 1021m-3, with radial convergence of C =3. This low convergence differentiates the concept from MTF with C =10 or more, since the plasma will be held in equilibrium throughout compression. We present results from CORSICA showing the placement of coils and passive structure to ensure stability during compression, and design of the capacitor bank needed to both form the target plasma and compress it. We specify target parameters for the compression in terms of plasma beta, formation efficiency and energy confinement. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.

  4. Identifying and Overcoming Obstacles to Point-of-Care Data Collection for Eye Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, David F.; Silvey, Garry M.; Macri, Jennifer M.; Hunt, Megan; Kacmaz, Roje O.; Lee, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    Supporting data entry by clinicians is considered one of the greatest challenges in implementing electronic health records. In this paper we describe a formative evaluation study using three different methodologies through which we identified obstacles to point-of-care data entry for eye care and then used the formative process to develop and test solutions to overcome these obstacles. The greatest obstacles were supporting free text annotation of clinical observations and accommodating the creation of detailed diagrams in multiple colors. To support free text entry, we arrived at an approach that captures an image of a free text note and associates this image with related data elements in an encounter note. The detailed diagrams included a color pallet that allowed changing pen color with a single stroke and also captured the diagrams as an image associated with related data elements. During observed sessions with simulated patients, these approaches satisfied the clinicians’ documentation needs by capturing the full range of clinical complexity that arises in practice. PMID:16779083

  5. Eye models for the prediction of contrast vision in patients with new intraocular lens designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piers, Patricia A.; Sverker Norrby, N. E.; Mester, Ulrich

    2004-04-01

    Theoretical calculations of the polychromatic modulation transfer function (MTF) and wave-front aberration were performed with physiological eye models. These eye models have an amount of spherical aberration that is representative of a normal population of pseudophakic eyes implanted with two different types of intraocular lens (IOL) made from high-refractive-index silicone. These theoretical calculations were compared with the measured contrast sensitivity function (CSF) under mesopic lighting conditions and with wave-front aberration (obtained with a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor) collected from 37 patients bilaterally implanted with the same types of lens. The relationships between the ocular wave-front aberration and the MTF predicted by the eye models and the CSF and the ocular wave-front aberration measured in eyes implanted with IOLs were investigated. The predicted improvements in MTF and wave-front aberration correlated well with the improvements measured in practice. Physiological eye models are therefore useful tools for IOL design.

  6. Design and Kinematic Analysis of a Novel Humanoid Robot Eye Using Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan-yin Wang; Yang Zhang; Xiao-jie Fu; Gui-shan Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel humanoid robot eye, which is driven by six Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs) and rotates with 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF). The design of the mechanism and motion type of the robot eye are inspired by that of human eyes. The model of humanoid robot eye is established as a parallel mechanism, and the inverse-kinematic problem of this flexible tendons driving parallel system is solved by the analytical geometry method. As an extension, the simulation result for saccadic movement is presented under three conditions. The design and kinematic analysis of the prototype could be a sig nificant step towards the goal of building an autonomous humanoid robot eye with the movement and especially the visual functions similar to that of human.

  7. Helmet Mounted Eye Tracking for Virtual Panoramic Display Systems. Volume 2: Eye Tracker Specification and Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    tracking will be used for eye controlled switch selection, cueing, eye-slaved aiming, and pilot state monitoring. Current eye tracking technology is...panoramic display (VPD). Eye tracker measurements will be used with prototype systems to assist in candidate display evaluation. Operationally, eye

  8. Designing a Secure Point-of-Sale System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin; Pedersen, Allan; Hedegaard, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described.......This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described....

  9. Study on chromatic aberration in a population of Chinese myopic eyes by means of optical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanqing; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Fang, Chao; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; Zheng, Shaolin; Wang, Lu; Chang, Shengjiang

    2013-05-01

    Two kinds of individual eye models, involving and without involving the angle between visual axis and optical axis, are established by means of optical design. We use them to study the properties of the transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) and longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) over the visible spectrum. Then the effects of the LCA and TCA on the visual quality of human eyes are evaluated. The statistical averages of TCA and LCA over the visible spectrum for Chinese myopic eyes are obtained. Results show that both TCA and LCA restrict the visual performance, and LCA is more detrimental than TCA.

  10. Direct Comparison of a Tablet Computer and a Personal Digital Assistant for Point-of-Care Documentation in Eye Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Garry M.; Macri, Jennifer M.; Lee, Paul P.; Lobach, David F.

    2005-01-01

    New mobile computing devices including personal digital assistants (PDAs) and tablet computers have emerged to facilitate data collection at the point of care. Unfortunately, little research has been reported regarding which device is optimal for a given care setting. In this study we created and compared functionally identical applications on a Palm operating system-based PDA and a Windows-based tablet computer for point-of-care documentation of clinical observations by eye care professionals when caring for patients with diabetes. Eye-care professionals compared the devices through focus group sessions and through validated usability surveys. We found that the application on the tablet computer was preferred over the PDA for documenting the complex data related to eye care. Our findings suggest that the selection of a mobile computing platform depends on the amount and complexity of the data to be entered; the tablet computer functions better for high volume, complex data entry, and the PDA, for low volume, simple data entry. PMID:16779128

  11. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Laboratory; Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Laboratory; Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Laboratory; Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Laboratory; Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Laboratory; Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Laboratory; Kumar, Akansha [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-04-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200 MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched UCO fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technological readiness level, licensing approach and costs.

  12. Using saddle points for challenging optical design tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livshits, I.; Hou, Z.; Grol, P. van; Shao, Y.; Turnhout, M. van; Urbach, H.P.; Bociort, F.

    2014-01-01

    The present research is part of an effort to develop tools that make the lens design process more systematic. In typical optical design tasks, the presence of many local minima in the optical merit function landscape makes design non-trivial. With the method of Saddle Point Construction (SPC) which

  13. VLSI design techniques for floating-point computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B. K.

    1988-01-01

    The thesis presents design techniques for floating-point computation in VLSI. A basis for area-time design decisions for arithmetic and memory operations is formulated from a study of computationally intensive programs. Tradeoffs in the design and implementation of an efficient coprocessor interface are studied, together with the implications of hardware support for the IEEE Floating-Point Standard. Algorithm area-time tradeoffs for basic arithmetic functions are analyzed in light of changing technology. Details of a single-chip floating-point unit designed in two-micron CMOS for SPUR are described, including special design considerations for very wide data paths. The pervasive effects of scaling technology on different levels of design are explored, from devices and circuits, through logic and micro-architecture, to algorithms and systems.

  14. Designs and Algorithms to Map Eye Tracking Data with Dynamic Multielement Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziho Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1 participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2 visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1 developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2 introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3 finding a near optimal AGT value. The approach was tested in the context of air traffic control (ATC operations where air traffic controller specialists (ATCSs interrogated multiple moving aircraft on a radar display to detect and control the aircraft for the purpose of maintaining safe and expeditious air transportation. In addition, we show how eye tracking analysis results can differ based on how we define dynamic AOIs to determine eye fixations on moving objects. The results serve as a framework to more accurately analyze eye tracking data and to better support the analysis of human performance.

  15. Designs and Algorithms to Map Eye Tracking Data with Dynamic Multielement Moving Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1) participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2) visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1) developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs) in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2) introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT) that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3) finding a near optimal AGT value. The approach was tested in the context of air traffic control (ATC) operations where air traffic controller specialists (ATCSs) interrogated multiple moving aircraft on a radar display to detect and control the aircraft for the purpose of maintaining safe and expeditious air transportation. In addition, we show how eye tracking analysis results can differ based on how we define dynamic AOIs to determine eye fixations on moving objects. The results serve as a framework to more accurately analyze eye tracking data and to better support the analysis of human performance. PMID:27725830

  16. Design and Implementation of Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramanathan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at Implementation of Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit. The real number is represented in Qn.m format where n is the number of bits to the left of the binary point and m is the number of bits to the right of the binary point. The Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit was designed using Verilog HDL. The Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit incorporates adder, multiplier and subtractor. We carried out the simulations in ModelSim and Cadence IUS, used Cadence RTL Compiler for synthesis and used Cadence SoC Encounter for physical design and targeted 180 nm Technology for ASIC implementation. From the synthesis result it is found that our design consumes 1.524 mW of power and requires area 20823.26 μm2 .

  17. Pointing with a One-Eyed Cursor for Supervised Training in Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Martin; Kraus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pointing in the endoscopic view of a surgical robot is a natural and effcient way for instructors to communicate with trainees in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. However, pointing in a stereo-endoscopic view can be limited by problems such as video delay, double vision, arm fatigue......-day training units in robot- assisted minimally invasive surgery on anaesthetised pigs....

  18. Design of a reversible single precision floating point subtractor

    OpenAIRE

    Anantha Lakshmi, AV; Sudha, GF

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Reversible logic has emerged as a major area of research due to its ability to reduce the power dissipation which is the main requirement in the low power digital circuit design. It has wide applications like low power CMOS design, Nano-technology, Digital signal processing, Communication, DNA computing and Optical computing. Floating-point operations are needed very frequently in nearly all computing disciplines, and studies have shown floating-point addition/subtraction to ...

  19. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  20. Design and DSP Implementation of Fixed-Point Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Coors

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an introduction to the FRIDGE design environment which supports the design and DSP implementation of fixed-point digital signal processing systems. We present the tool-supported transformation of signal processing algorithms coded in floating-point ANSI C to a fixed-point representation in SystemC. We introduce the novel approach to control and data flow analysis, which is necessary for the transformation. The design environment enables fast bit-true simulation by mapping the fixed-point algorithm to integral data types of the host machine. A speedup by a factor of 20 to 400 can be achieved compared to C++-library-based bit-true simulation. FRIDGE also provides a direct link to DSP implementation by processor specific C code generation and advanced code optimization.

  1. Progress and prospects for an IFE relevant FI point design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, M.; Amendt, P.; Bellei, C.; Clark, D.; Cohen, B.; Divol, L.; Ho, D.; Kemp, A.; Larson, D.; Marinak, M.; Patel, P.; Shay, H.; Strozzi, D.; Tabak, M.

    2013-11-01

    The physics issues involved in scaling from sub-ignition to high gain fast ignition are discussed. Successful point designs must collimate the electrons and minimise the standoff distance to avoid multi-megajoule ignition energies. Collimating B field configurations are identified and some initial designs are explored.

  2. Practical guide to saddle-point construction in lens design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bociort, F.; Van Turnhout, M.; Marinescu, O.

    2007-01-01

    Saddle-point construction (SPC) is a new method to insert lenses into an existing design. With SPC, by inserting and extracting lenses new system shapes can be obtained very rapidly, and we believe that, if added to the optical designer’s arsenal, this new tool can significantly increase design prod

  3. Progress and prospects for an FI relevant point design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M; Amendt, P; Bellei, C; Clark, D; Cohen, B; Divol, L; Ho, D; Kemp, A; Larson, D; Marinak, M; Patel, P; Shay, H; Strozzi, D; Tabak, M

    2011-11-02

    The physics issues involved in scaling from sub ignition to high gain fast ignition are discussed. Successful point designs must collimate the electrons and minimize the stand off distance to avoid multi mega-joule ignition energies. Collimating B field configurations are identified and some initial designs are explored.

  4. Oil-points - Designers means to evaluate sustainability of concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker

    1998-01-01

    Designers have an essential influence on product design and are therefore one target group for environmental evaluation methods. This implies, that such evaluation methods have to meet designers requirements. Evaluation of sustainability of products is often done using formal Life Cycle Assessment....... This is investigated by means of three case studies where environmental impact is estimated using the EDIP method, the Eco-indicator 95 method, and the Oil Point method proposed by the authors. It is found that the results obtained using Oil Points are in acceptable conformity with the results obtained with more...

  5. Attention and Recall of Point-of-sale Tobacco Marketing: A Mobile Eye-Tracking Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maansi Bansal-Travers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: As tobacco advertising restrictions have increased, the retail ‘power wall’ behind the counter is increasingly invaluable for marketing tobacco products. Objective: The primary objectives of this pilot study were 3-fold: (1 evaluate the attention paid/fixations on the area behind the cash register where tobacco advertising is concentrated and tobacco products are displayed in a real-world setting, (2 evaluate the duration (dwell-time of these fixations, and (3 evaluate the recall of advertising displayed on the tobacco power wall. Methods: Data from 13 Smokers (S and 12 Susceptible or non-daily Smokers (SS aged 180–30 from a mobile eye-tracking study. Mobile-eye tracking technology records the orientation (fixation and duration (dwell-time of visual attention. Participants were randomized to one of three purchase tasks at a convenience store: Candy bar Only (CO; N = 10, Candy bar + Specified cigarette Brand (CSB; N = 6, and Candy bar + cigarette Brand of their Choice (CBC; N = 9. A post-session survey evaluated recall of tobacco marketing. Key outcomes were fixations and dwell-time on the cigarette displays at the point-of-sale. Results: Participants spent a median time of 44 seconds during the standardized time evaluated and nearly three-quarters (72% fixated on the power wall during their purchase, regardless of smoking status (S: 77%, SS: 67% or purchase task (CO: 44%, CSB: 71%, CBC: 100%. In the post session survey, nearly all participants (96% indicated they noticed a cigarette brand and 64% were able to describe a specific part of the tobacco wall or recall a promotional offer. Conclusions: Consumers are exposed to point-of-sale tobacco marketing, regardless of smoking status. FDA should consider regulations that limit exposure to point-of-sale tobacco marketing among consumers.

  6. Remote control of mobile robots through human eye gaze: the design and evaluation of an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hemin Omer; Sherkat, Nasser; Lotfi, Ahmad

    2008-10-01

    Controlling mobile robots remotely requires the operator to monitor the status of the robot through some sort of feedback. Assuming a vision based feedback system is used the operator is required to closely monitor the images while navigating the robot in real time. This will engage the eyes and the hands of the operator. Since the eyes are engaged in the monitoring task anyway, their gaze can be used to navigate the robot in order to free the hands of the operator. However, the challenge here lies in developing an interaction interface that enables an intuitive distinction to be made between monitoring and commanding. This paper presents a novel means of constructing a user interface to meet this challenge. A range of solutions are constructed by augmenting the visual feedback with command regions to investigate the extent to which a user can intuitively control the robot. An experimental platform comprising a mobile robot together with cameras and eye-gaze system is constructed. The design of the system allows control of the robot, control of onboard cameras and control of the interface through eye-gaze. A number of tasks are designed to evaluate the proposed solutions. This paper presents the design considerations and the results of the evaluation. Overall it is found that the proposed solutions provide effective means of successfully navigating the robot for a range of tasks.

  7. Pinch Point Calculations and Its Implications on Robust Distillation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel A. Beneke; Seon B. Kim; Andreas A. Linninger

    2011-01-01

    Rising energy costs and growing environmental awareness motivate a critical revision of the design of distillation units. Systematic design techniques, such as the rectification body, column profile map, and temperature collocation methods, require exact knowledge of all pinch points in a particular system, because these stationary points delineate the possible composition trajectories realizable in separation columns. This paper demonstrates novel methods for rigorously determining all pinch points for the constant relative volatility, ideal and non-ideal systems. Constant relative volatility and ideal solution systems are transformed into one-dimensional polynomial and nonlinear functions, regardless of the number of the components. A deflation method is proposed to locate all zeros in ideal and non-ideal zeotropic problems. For more challenging non-ideal problems, a novel hybrid sequential niche algorithm is used to solve hard azeotropic problems successfully. Finally, the design implications of these pinch point locations are investigated to show how new separation configurations can be devised. Methodically the paper points out the use of rigorous pinch point computations in conjunction with continuous composition profiles for robust distillation design.

  8. Design of a reversible single precision floating point subtractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha Lakshmi, Av; Sudha, Gf

    2014-01-04

    In recent years, Reversible logic has emerged as a major area of research due to its ability to reduce the power dissipation which is the main requirement in the low power digital circuit design. It has wide applications like low power CMOS design, Nano-technology, Digital signal processing, Communication, DNA computing and Optical computing. Floating-point operations are needed very frequently in nearly all computing disciplines, and studies have shown floating-point addition/subtraction to be the most used floating-point operation. However, few designs exist on efficient reversible BCD subtractors but no work on reversible floating point subtractor. In this paper, it is proposed to present an efficient reversible single precision floating-point subtractor. The proposed design requires reversible designs of an 8-bit and a 24-bit comparator unit, an 8-bit and a 24-bit subtractor, and a normalization unit. For normalization, a 24-bit Reversible Leading Zero Detector and a 24-bit reversible shift register is implemented to shift the mantissas. To realize a reversible 1-bit comparator, in this paper, two new 3x3 reversible gates are proposed The proposed reversible 1-bit comparator is better and optimized in terms of the number of reversible gates used, the number of transistor count and the number of garbage outputs. The proposed work is analysed in terms of number of reversible gates, garbage outputs, constant inputs and quantum costs. Using these modules, an efficient design of a reversible single precision floating point subtractor is proposed. Proposed circuits have been simulated using Modelsim and synthesized using Xilinx Virtex5vlx30tff665-3. The total on-chip power consumed by the proposed 32-bit reversible floating point subtractor is 0.410 W.

  9. ASIC Design of Floating-Point FFT Processor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈禾; 赵忠武

    2004-01-01

    An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design of a 1024 points floating-point fast Fourier transform(FFT) processor is presented. It can satisfy the requirement of high accuracy FFT result in related fields. Several novel design techniques for floating-point adder and multiplier are introduced in detail to enhance the speed of the system. At the same time, the power consumption is decreased. The hardware area is effectively reduced as an improved butterfly processor is developed. There is a substantial increase in the performance of the design since a pipelined architecture is adopted, and very large scale integrated (VLSI) is easy to realize due to the regularity. A result of validation using field programmable gate array (FPGA) is shown at the end. When the system clock is set to 50 MHz, 204.8 μs is needed to complete the operation of FFT computation.

  10. Generalizations of fuzzy linguistic control points in geometric design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallehuddin, M. H.; Wahab, A. F.; Gobithaasan, R. U.

    2014-07-01

    Control points are geometric primitives that play an important role in designing the geometry curve and surface. When these control points are blended with some basis functions, there are several geometric models such as Bezier, B-spline and NURBS(Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) will be produced. If the control points are defined by the theory of fuzzy sets, then fuzzy geometric models are produced. But the fuzzy geometric models can only solve the problem of uncertainty complex. This paper proposes a new definition of fuzzy control points with linguistic terms. When the fuzzy control points with linguistic terms are blended with basis functions, then a fuzzy linguistic geometric model is produced. This paper ends with some numerical examples illustrating linguistic control attributes of fuzzy geometric models.

  11. Professional SharePoint 2010 Branding and User Interface Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drisgill, Randy; Sanford, Jacob J; Stubbs, Paul; Riemann, Larry

    2010-01-01

    A must have guide for creating engaging and usable SharePoint 2010 brandingWith SharePoint 2010, Microsoft has provided a more robust environment for creating collaboration and content management sites that rival any of the popular websites on the internet. Creating a branded SharePoint site involves understanding both traditional web design techniques as well as topics that are typically reserved for developers. This book bridges that gap by not only providing expert guidance for creating beautiful public facing and internal intranet sites but it also addresses the needs of those readers that

  12. The Fly's Eye Camera System -- an instrument design for large \\'etendue time-domain survey

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András; Csépány, Gergely; Jaskó, Attila; Schlaffer, Ferenc; Vida, Krisztián; Mező, György; Döbrentei, László; Farkas, Ernő; Kiss, Csaba; Oláh, Katalin; Regály, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high \\'etendue. Fundings have already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also discusses the possibilities and yields of a network operation involving ~10 sites distributed geographically in a nearly homogeneous manner. Currently, we expect to finalize the mount assembly -- that performs the sidereal tracking during the exposures -- until the end of 2012 and to have a working prototype with a reduced number of individual cameras sometimes in the spring or summer of 2013.

  13. The Fly's Eye Camera System -- an instrument design for large \\'etendue time-domain survey

    CERN Document Server

    Csépány, Gergely; Vida, Krisztián; Regály, Zsolt; Mészáros, László; Oláh, Katalin; Kiss, Csaba; Döbrentei, László; Jaskó, Attila; Mező, György; Farkas, Ernő

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high \\'etendue. Fundings have already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also discusses the possibilities and yields of a network operation involving $\\sim10$ sites distributed geographically in a nearly homogeneous manner. Currently, we expect to finalize the mount assembly -- that performs the sidereal tracking during the exposures -- until the end of 2012 and to have a working prototype with a reduced number of individual cameras sometimes in the spring or summer of 2013.

  14. Design of an ultra-thin near-eye display with geometrical waveguide and freeform optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Xu, Chen; Song, Weitao; Jin, Guofan

    2014-08-25

    Small thickness and light weight are two important requirements for a see-through near-eye display which are achieved in this paper by using two advanced technologies: geometrical waveguide and freeform optics. A major problem associated with the geometrical waveguide is the stray light which can severely degrade the display quality. The causes and solutions to this problem are thoroughly studied. A mathematical model of the waveguide is established and a non-sequential ray tracing algorithm is developed, which enable us to carefully examine the stray light of the planar waveguide and explore a global searching method to find an optimum design with the least amount of stray light. A projection optics using freeform surfaces on a wedge shaped prism is also designed. The near-eye display integrating the projection optics and the waveguide has a field of view of 28°, an exit pupil diameter of 9.6mm and an exit pupil distance of 20mm. In our final design, the proportion of the stray light energy over the image output energy of the waveguide is reduced to 2%, the modulation transfer function values across the entire field of the eyepiece are above 0.5 at 30 line pairs/mm (lps/mm). A proof-of-concept prototype of the proposed geometrical waveguide near-eye display is developed and demonstrated.

  15. Customized schematic eye model for refraction correction design based on ocular wavefront and corneal topography measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatu, Eugene O.; Pettit, George H.; Campin, John A.

    2002-06-01

    The subject of this paper relates to the ocular optical design and vision analysis of refractive correction of the eye. After the purpose statement and the assumption list, the concept of the schematic eye matching a particular (measured) wavefront is introduced. This concept is based on the fact that the ocular wavefront, together with the corneal topography, can be seen as the mathematical global representation of the eye working in monochromatic light and having a foveal vision. The discussed design technique, including an iterative optimization method, could be applied in any ocular correction that utilizes cornea topography and/or ocular wavefront, e.g. contact lens or intra-corneal implant. However, the application this paper refers to is the ocular refractive correction by a procedure using the LADARVISION. It consists of surgical removal and subsequent replacement of a corneal flap on a stromal surface whose shape has been changed by laser ablation of the tissue. Subsequent sections of this paper are dedicated to establishing the limits of possible refractive correction, the influences of the flap and corneal topography into the refractive correction calculation. Finally a realistic evaluation of the results and a list of possible developments of this new optical design method are discussed.

  16. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of “C programming language” are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate.

  17. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijian; Han, Dongmei; Dai, Yonghui; Zhao, Lina

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP) algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM) is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of "C programming language" are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate.

  18. A superlinear interior points algorithm for engineering design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, J.; Asquier, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present a quasi-Newton interior points algorithm for nonlinear constrained optimization. It is based on a general approach consisting of the iterative solution in the primal and dual spaces of the equalities in Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. This is done in such a way to have primal and dual feasibility at each iteration, which ensures satisfaction of those optimality conditions at the limit points. This approach is very strong and efficient, since at each iteration it only requires the solution of two linear systems with the same matrix, instead of quadratic programming subproblems. It is also particularly appropriate for engineering design optimization inasmuch at each iteration a feasible design is obtained. The present algorithm uses a quasi-Newton approximation of the second derivative of the Lagrangian function in order to have superlinear asymptotic convergence. We discuss theoretical aspects of the algorithm and its computer implementation.

  19. Comparing the effect of acupressure points shenmen (HE7 with a third eye on anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arami S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Coronary angiography is one of the most common diagnostic procedures in cardiac patients that can increase the level of anxiety. Anxiety also is a risk factor for cardiac disease. The present study aimed to determine the effect of acupressure at the hearts shenmen (HE-7 and the third eye (Yintang on anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Materials and Method: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on patients undergoing coronary angiography in one of the hospitals in Rafsanjan in 2015. 135 patients were randomly divided into three groups of 45 people. Two intervention groups received acupressure 30 minutes before angiography for 5 minutes in point's yintang and hearts shenmen and control group received acupressure on false points near the thenar muscles. Anxiety of patients was measured one hour before and 10 minutes after the intervention. Data collection tools were including demographic form and Spielberger's questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS 18 and paired t-tests, independent T-test, and ANOVA. Results: After intervention the mean score of anxiety in the yintang group was decreased from 70.53±16.3 to 62.06±13.4 and in hearts shenmen group from 67.80±14.9 to 60.46±15.2 (p<0/001. This difference between intervention and control groups was significant (p=0.04. Conclusion: Acupressure is effective in reducing anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography, thus it is recommended as a method for reducing the anxiety before angiography.

  20. Design and verifications of an eye model fitted with contact lenses for wavefront measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Jia-Hong; Chang, Rong-Jie; Wang, Chung-Yen; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Wang, Pei-Jen

    2015-09-01

    Contact lenses are typically measured by the wet-box method because of the high optical power resulting from the anterior central curvature of cornea, even though the back vertex power of the lenses are small. In this study, an optical measurement system based on the Shack-Hartmann wavefront principle was established to investigate the aberrations of soft contact lenses. Fitting conditions were micmicked to study the optical design of an eye model with various topographical shapes in the anterior cornea. Initially, the contact lenses were measured by the wet-box method, and then by fitting the various topographical shapes of cornea to the eye model. In addition, an optics simulation program was employed to determine the sources of errors and assess the accuracy of the system. Finally, samples of soft contact lenses with various Diopters were measured; and, both simulations and experimental results were compared for resolving the controversies of fitting contact lenses to an eye model for optical measurements. More importantly, the results show that the proposed system can be employed for study of primary aberrations in contact lenses.

  1. Designing a high accuracy 3D auto stereoscopic eye tracking display, using a common LCD monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Reza; Kia, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the design and building of a low cost and practical stereoscopic display that does not need to wear special glasses, and uses eye tracking to give a large degree of freedom to viewer (or viewer's) movement while displaying the minimum amount of information. The parallax barrier technique is employed to turn a LCD into an auto-stereoscopic display. The stereo image pair is screened on the usual liquid crystal display simultaneously but in different columns of pixels. Controlling of the display in red-green-blue sub pixels increases the accuracy of light projecting direction to less than 2 degrees without losing too much LCD's resolution and an eye-tracking system determines the correct angle to project the images along the viewer's eye pupils and an image processing system puts the 3D images data in correct R-G-B sub pixels. 1.6 degree of light direction controlling achieved in practice. The 3D monitor is just made by applying some simple optical materials on a usual LCD display with normal resolution. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. The effect of human image in B2C website design: an eye-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Yang, Yi; Wang, Qi; Ma, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    On B2C shopping websites, effective visual designs can bring about consumers' positive emotional experience. From this perspective, this article developed a research model to explore the impact of human image as a visual element on consumers' online shopping emotions and subsequent attitudes towards websites. This study conducted an eye-tracking experiment to collect both eye movement data and questionnaire data to test the research model. Questionnaire data analysis showed that product pictures combined with human image induced positive emotions among participants, thus promoting their attitudes towards online shopping websites. Specifically, product pictures with human image first produced higher levels of image appeal and perceived social presence, thus stimulating higher levels of enjoyment and subsequent positive attitudes towards the websites. Moreover, a moderating effect of product type was demonstrated on the relationship between the presence of human image and the level of image appeal. Specifically, human image significantly increased the level of image appeal when integrated in entertainment product pictures while this relationship was not significant in terms of utilitarian products. Eye-tracking data analysis further supported these results and provided plausible explanations. The presence of human image significantly increased the pupil size of participants regardless of product types. For entertainment products, participants paid more attention to product pictures integrated with human image whereas for utilitarian products more attention was paid to functional information of products than to product pictures no matter whether or not integrated with human image.

  3. 鱼眼相机等效焦距三点标定法%A three-point calibration method for fish-eye camera equivalent focal length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏青; 谭树人; 娄静涛; 张茂军

    2013-01-01

    为简化鱼眼相机等效焦距的标定,提出一种“三点标定法”.基于鱼眼相机的等距投影模型、余弦定理和空间模型,导出了只含有等效焦距一个未知量的方程.在实际标定过程中,首先在地面上随机选取3个不重合的点,并测量出它们之间的距离;然后利用鱼眼相机采集到含有这3个点的图像,计算出等效焦距.实验结果表明,本文方法简化了相关相机标定的过程和实验复杂度;相比于传统的方法,本文方法得出的结果更接近于鱼眼镜头的真实参数.%To calibrate the equivalent focal length of a fish-eye camera is a complicated problem.This paper puts forward a three-point calibration method to solve the challenging situation.Based on the equidistant projection model and the spatial model of a fish-eye camera,considering the cosine theorem,this paper derives a theoretic equation,only containing one unknown quantity of equivalent focal length,which lays a solid foundation for measuring the equivalent focal length of a fish-eye camera by the three-point method.To verify the three-point calibration method experimentally,this paper conducts a simulation test in practice.Randomly select three coinciding points on the ground,measure the distance among them and then calculate the equivalent focal length by the fish-eye camera image which contains the three points.The three-point calibration method simplifies the procedure and reduces the complexity of measuring a fish-eye camera equivalent focal length.The results of the simulation show the accuracy and the feasibility of the three-point method.The equivalent focal length calibrated by using the three-point method is more close to the factory parameter of fish-eye lens than other traditional methods and tool

  4. Reverse design of a bull's eye structure based on the plasmonic far-field pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akira; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2013-09-09

    We present a novel concept on designing a bull's eye structure for a single-wavelength optical source. The plasmonic far-field around a subwavelength aperture on a thin gold film is calculated by finite-difference time-domain method. Based on the annular field intensity distribution on the film surface, we present a method for determining a fairly optimal first groove radius and a periodicity of the grooves that show enhanced transmission. By additionally fine-tuning groove width and groove depth, we have achieved a transmission factor of 9.74. Our novel method has high potential in applications such as silicon infrared sensors.

  5. The anti-fatigue driving system design based on the eye blink detect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuyu; Song, Xin; Zhang, Li; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accident is one of the severe social problems in the world, but the appraisal and prevention of the fatigue driving is still a difficult problem that can not be solved. This paper is to study the results of fatigue driving and the existing antifatigue driving products, collecting brain wave with the TGAM (ThinkGear AM) Brain Wave Sensor Chip. We analyze the collected waveform based on eye blink detect algorithm to work out current situation of the driver. According to the analysis results, Sound Module and controllable speed car will make a series of feedback. Finally, an effective Anti- Fatigue Driving System is designed based on all above.

  6. Design of a population-based study of visual impairment in India : The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The design of this study is described in this paper. Various options for the sample size, study areas, sampling procedure, and recruitment of subjects were considered. A sample size of 10,000 people, 5,000 each in the < or = 30 and > 30 years age groups, was determined to obtain reasonable confidence in estimating the prevalence of diseases and odds ratios for risk factors of interest. A multistage sampling strategy was chosen for the study which was assumed to give a design effect of 1.5 for the estimates. One urban area, Hyderabad, and three rural areas, West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts, were selected in Andhra Pradesh. Interview instruments were developed to obtain detailed information about demographic data, diet, ocular and systemic history, risk factors for eye diseases, visual function, quality of life, barriers to eye care, and knowledge about eye diseases. A detailed examination procedure was devised to obtain a broad range of normative and abnormal data related to eyes and vision. A protocol was developed for doing automated visual fields, slitlamp and fundus photography. Computer databases were made in FoxPro for data entry and subsequent analysis with SPSS. Pilot studies were done to test the instruments, procedures, and logistics of the study in urban and rural areas. Information from the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study is expected to help in planning and implementation of effective long-term preventive, curative, and

  7. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  8. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  9. The design process seen through the eyes of a type designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    To understand how the design process works, the paper takes the outset in the work of one of the first innovating type designers: the English printer and typefounder John Baskerville (1706-1775). By comparing his way of working with a model for a contemporary design process, the paper reflects up...

  10. Dynamic changes in corneal topography and its influence on the point-spread function of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Damian; Kasprzak, Henryk; Pierscionek, Barbara K.

    2007-03-01

    The dynamic changes of the anterior surface of the eye are investigated. A Twyman-Green interferometer is used to record topographic images at 40 ms intervals. A method of analysis of the dynamic changes in topography by use of Zernike polynomials enables a general distinction to be made between dynamic alterations in the shape of the cornea itself and the changes in the layer of the tears. The influence of deviations in the shape of the anterior surface of the eye on the retinal image is estimated.

  11. Tear Production Rate in a Mouse Model of Dry Eye According to the Phenol Red Thread and Endodontic Absorbent Paper Point Tear Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Servet; Kulualp, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the endodontic absorbent paper point test (EAPTT) and the phenol red thread test (PRTT) for the assessment of tear production rate in a mouse model of dry eye. Fourteen BALB/c breed female mice were allocated into experimental and control groups of equal number. For 6 wk, the experimental group was kept in dry-eye cabinets, whereas the control group was kept in normal cages under ambient conditions. In both groups, the tear production rate was measured by using EAPTT and PRTT before the study, at study baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Tear production at weeks 2, 4, and 6 differed significantly between groups and tests. Evaluating the groups independently in terms of the test technique revealed significant differences in tear production rate between the 2 groups at the same measurement times. Due to their persistent exposure to evaporative stress factors, the tear production rate of the mice in the dry-eye cabinet was consistently lower than that of controls. Unlike PRTT, EAPTT can be readily applied to the small globes of laboratory animals without the need for forceps, thus saving time and effort. In addition, EAPTT was practical and imposed no undue stress on the mice, due to the test material's firmer structure. Therefore, compared with PRTT, EAPTT is safer and more reliable for the diagnosis of dry-eye syndrome in mice.

  12. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  13. Pointing control system design and performance evaluation of TPF coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Chia; Blaurock, Carl; Mosier, Gary E.

    2004-09-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project aims to detect and characterize extra-solar Earth-like planets. The coronagraph telescope is one of the two mission concepts being studied. To reject the star flux and detect the planet flux in the visible light range, the coronagraph telescope must achieve a rejection ratio on the order of a billion to one. Dynamic jitter, introduced by environmental and on-board mechanical disturbances, degrades the optical performance, as characterized primarily by contrast ratio. The feasibility of using passive vibration isolation combined with active attitude and line-of-sight (LOS) control systems to stabilize the spacecraft and the optical components to the requisite level is being studied. The telescope is also required to slew between targets or rotate around the LOS. The slew mode control law must be designed to balance the need for efficient large-angle maneuvers while simultaneously avoiding the excitation of flexible modes in order to minimize settling time. This paper provides an overview of the current control design concept and sensor/actuator topology for TPF Coronagraph and illustrates the fine pointing performance of the telescope. This performance is primarily a function of the rejection of high-frequency dynamic disturbances, in this case due to reaction wheel disturbance forces/torques transmitted through the passive isolation stage. Trade studies between isolator force rejection and disturbance level reduction via wheel redesign are also presented to illustrate the requirements imposed on current technologies. Finally, the paper summarizes preliminary results on the slew/settle performance of the telescope.

  14. Fast ignition integrated experiments and high-gain point design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraga, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Nagatomo, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Theobald, W. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Solodov, A. A. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Tabak, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-17

    Here, integrated fast ignition experiments were performed at ILE, Osaka, and LLE, Rochester, in which a nanosecond driver laser implodes a deuterated plastic shell in front of the tip of a hollow metal cone and an intense ultrashort-pulse laser is injected through the cone to heat the compressed plasma. Based on the initial successful results of fast electron heating of cone-in-shell targets, large-energy short-pulse laser beam lines were constructed and became operational: OMEGA-EP at Rochester and LFEX at Osaka. Neutron enhancement due to heating with a ~kJ short-pulse laser has been demonstrated in the integrated experiments at Osaka and Rochester. The neutron yields are being analyzed by comparing the experimental results with simulations. Details of the fast electron beam transport and the electron energy deposition in the imploded fuel plasma are complicated and further studies are imperative. The hydrodynamics of the implosion was studied including the interaction of the imploded core plasma with the cone tip. Theory and simulation studies are presented on the hydrodynamics of a high-gain target for a fast ignition point design.

  15. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, Graham E.;

    2012-01-01

    and realization of a microstructured polymer optical fiber made of PMMA for direct writing of FBGs. The fiber was designed specifically to avoid obstruction of the writing beam by air-holes. The realized fiber has been used to point-by-point write a 5 mm long fourth order FBG with a Bragg wavelength of 1518 nm...

  16. High Coverage Point to Point Transit (HCPPT): A New Design Concept and Simulation-Evaluation of Operational Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation research proposes the development and evaluation of a new concept for high coverage point-to-point transit systems (HCPPT). Overall, three major contributions can be identified as the core of this research: the proposed scheme design, the development of sophisticated routing rules that can be updated in real-time to implement and optimize the operation of such a design, and the implementation of a multi-purpose simulation platform in order to simulate and evaluate such a des...

  17. The Evonik-Mainz-Eye-Care-Study (EMECS: design and execution of the screening investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Barleon

    Full Text Available To determine if screening for major ophthalmological diseases is feasible within the frame of routine occupational medicine examinations in a large working population.13037 employees of Evonik Industries aged 40 to 65 years were invited to be screened for major ophthalmological diseases (glaucoma, age related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy between June 2007 and March 2008 within an extended setting of occupational medicine. Ophthalmological examinations consisted of visual acuity, objective refraction, pachymetry, tonometry, perimetry (frequency doubling technology, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and digital fundus photography. Participants responded to a questionnaire addressing history of ocular and general diseases and social history.4183 participants (961 female and 3222 male were examined at 13 different sites. Response rates for eligible persons at those sites ranged from 17.9 to 60.5% but were in part limited by availability of examination slots. Average age of participants was 48.4 ± 5.4 years (mean ± SD. 4147 out of 4183 subjects (99.1% had a visual acuity ≥ 0.5 in the better eye and 3665 out of 4183 (87.6% subjects had a visual acuity ≥ 0.8 in the better eye. 1629 participants (38.9% had previously not been seen by an ophthalmologist at all or not within the last three years.This article describes the study design and basic characteristics of study participants within a large occupational medicine based screening study for ophthalmological diseases. Response rates exceeded expectations and were limiting examination capacity. Meaningful data could be obtained for almost all participants. We reached participants who previously had not received ophthalmic care. Thus, ophthalmological screening appears to be feasible within the frame of routine occupational medicine examinations.

  18. Design of an eye-in-hand sensing and servo control framework for harvesting robotics in dense vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, Ruud; Hemming, Jochen; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    A modular software framework design that allows flexible implementation of eye-in-hand sensing and motion control for agricultural robotics in dense vegetation is reported. Harvesting robots in cultivars with dense vegetation require multiple viewpoints and on-line trajectory adjustments in order

  19. The environmental design of residential care facilities: A sense of home through the eyes of nursing home residents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck-Heinen, C.J.M.L.; Wouters, E.J.M.; Janssen, B.M.; van Hoof, J.

    2014-01-01

    C.J.M.L. van Dijck-Heinen, E.J.M. Wouters, B.M. Janssen, J. van Hoof (2014) The environmental design of residential care facilities: A sense of home through the eyes of nursing home residents. International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology 1(4): 57-69

  20. Self-designed conical point contact plate and clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To design a new kind of conical point contact plate (CPCP) in treatment of diaphyseal fracture to avoid further dam age to the blood supply of the cortex.   Methods: There were 4 pairs of conicles with a diameter of 1. 5-4 mm beneath the plate symmetrically. The nibs of the conicles were embedd ed about 1-1.5 mm in the cortex by the axial force of screws. The conicle provided a gap about 2 mm between the plate and the bone so as not to compress the periosteum and cortex. And the periostem didnt need to be stripped off dur ing operation and there was no need of postoperative external fixation.   Results: Forty-two cases with diaphyseal fracture were stabili zed by using CPCP. The patients could do joint exercise without loading after operation. Partial weight bearing could be performed in 4-6 weeks postoperati vely. There was no obvious external callus in these cases. The average time of b one healing was 3 months in the tibia and forearm fracture and 4 months in the f emur. Complications such as infection, non-union or malunion etc. were not foun d. The implant was removed 6-10 months after operation.   Conclusions:  CPCP has the advantages of drastic reduction of the implant-to-bone interface virtually, elimination of the impairment of the periosteal blood supply, increase of the rate of healing and good stability whi ch meets the need of early functional exercise.

  1. Teach Graphic Design Basics with PowerPoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Spotts, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    While PowerPoint is generally regarded as simply software for creating slide presentations, it includes often overlooked--but powerful--drawing tools. Because it is part of the Microsoft Office package, PowerPoint comes preloaded on many computers and thus is already available in many classrooms. Since most computers are not preloaded with good…

  2. 智能护眼台灯设计%A design of eye protection table lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田军委; 肖清林; 张波; 马林; 肖晨光

    2015-01-01

    According to the data show that the incidence of current our country myopia rate ranked second in the world, most of them are young people. At present, some lamps only on the market to achieve single lighting function, position detection of related products single function can not be achieved automatic multiple function integration. For this, the project is to design a smart eye protection lamp, the intelligent eye protection desk lamp with learning attitude detection and correction to remind function, function of learning time detection to remind function, light regulation function.This paper takes C8051F340 as the main control chip, in photosensitive diode module by the brightness of A/D conversion to the measured value of the environment, adjust the brightness of LED by way of PWM, to measure the distance by ultrasonic ranging module is designed with a brightness automatic adjustment, timing alarm by buzzer, posture correction function and in one of the only LED lamp.%据资料显示当前我国近视眼的发病率居世界第二,其中绝大多数是青少年。目前市场上的一些台灯只能实现单一的照明功能,姿势检测的相关产品功能也单一无法实现多个功能的集成化和自动化。基于此问题,本课题设计一款智能护眼灯,所涉及的智能护眼台灯具备学习姿态检测和校正提醒功能、学习时间检测提醒功能和光亮调节功能等。本文以C8051F340单片机作为主控制芯片,以光敏二极管模块经A/D 转换后以测得环境的亮度值,通过PWM的方式调节LED的亮度,以超声测距模块来进行距离的测量,设计出一款具有自动调节光亮,坐姿矫正等功能于一体的智能化LED台灯。

  3. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  4. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the GIFTS Instrument Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomkowski, Paul P.

    2003-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Instrument is the next generation spectrometer for remote sensing weather satellites. The GIFTS instrument will be used to perform scans of the Earth s atmosphere by assembling a series of field-of- views (FOV) into a larger pattern. Realization of this process is achieved by step scanning the instrument FOV in a contiguous fashion across any desired portion of the visible Earth. A 2.3 arc second pointing stability, with respect to the scanning instrument, must be maintained for the duration of the FOV scan. A star tracker producing attitude data at 100 Hz rate will be used by the autonomous pointing algorithm to precisely track target FOV s on the surface of the Earth. The main objective is to validate the pointing algorithm in the presence of spacecraft disturbances and determine acceptable disturbance limits from expected noise sources. Proof of concept validation of the pointing system algorithm is carried out with a full system simulation developed using Matlab Simulink. Models for the following components function within the full system simulation: inertial reference unit (IRU), attitude control system (ACS), reaction wheels, star tracker, and mirror controller. With the spacecraft orbital position and attitude maintained to within specified limits the pointing algorithm receives quaternion, ephemeris, and initialization data that are used to construct the required mirror pointing commands at a 100 Hz rate. This comprehensive simulation will also aid in obtaining a thorough understanding of spacecraft disturbances and other sources of pointing system errors. Parameter sensitivity studies and disturbance analysis will be used to obtain limits of operability for the GIFTS instrument. The culmination of this simulation development and analysis will be used to validate the specified performance requirements outlined for this instrument.

  5. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  6. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  7. Design for vunerable community: the oppressed point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Judice, Andrea; Judice, Marcelo; Koskinen, Ilpo

    2016-01-01

    This paper described the path of Vila Rosario project that had its roots in empathic design, but finally built on Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed. The study was conducted in 2005-2008 in Vila Rosario about 20 km north of downtown Rio de Janeiro. It focused on the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. The paper describes our design approach, process, drivers, many design outcomes, and our tests. It ends with a discussion of the implications of our approach to design.

  8. Material for Point Design (final summary of DIME material)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-25

    These slides summarize the motivation of the Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) project, the “point design” of the Polar Direct Drive (PDD) version of the NIF separated reactant capsule, the experimental requirements, technical achievements, and some useful backup material. These slides are intended to provide much basic material in one convenient location and will hopefully be of some use for subsequent experimental projects.

  9. A Design Outline for Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faizal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the most important development stages of floating point absorber wave energy converters is presented. At a given location, the wave energy resource has to be first assessed for varying seasons. The mechanisms used to convert wave energy to usable energy vary for different wave energy conversion systems. The power output of the generator will have variations due to varying incident waves. The wave structure-interaction leads to modifications in the incident waves; thus, the power output is also affected. The device has to be stable enough to prevent itself from capsizing. The point absorber will give optimum performance when the incident wave frequencies correspond to the natural frequency of the device. The methods for calculating natural frequencies for pitching and heaving systems are presented. Mooring systems maintain the point absorber at the desired location. Various mooring configurations as well as the most commonly used materials for mooring lines are discussed. An overview of scaled modelling is also presented.

  10. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, Graham E.; Bang, Ole

    2012-04-01

    An increasing interest in making sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written in polymer optical fibers (POFs) has been seen recently. Mostly microstructured POFs (mPOFs) have been chosen for this purpose because they are easier to fabricate compared, for example, to step index fibers and because they allow to tune the guiding parameters by modifying the microstructure. Now a days the only technique used to write gratings in such fibers is the phase mask technique with UV light illumination. Despite the good results that have been obtained, a limited flexibility on the grating design and the very long times required for the writing of FBGs raise some questions about the possibility of exporting POF FBGs and the sensors based on them from the laboratory bench to the mass production market. The possibility of arbitrary design of fiber Bragg gratings and the very short time required to write the gratings make the point-by-point grating writing technique very interesting and would appear to be able to fill this technological gap. On the other end this technique is hardly applicable for microstructured fibers because of the writing beam being scattered by the air-holes. We report on the design and realization of a microstructured polymer optical fiber made of PMMA for direct writing of FBGs. The fiber was designed specifically to avoid obstruction of the writing beam by air-holes. The realized fiber has been used to point-by-point write a 5 mm long fourth order FBG with a Bragg wavelength of 1518 nm. The grating was inspected under Differential Interferometric Contrast microscope and the reflection spectrum was measured. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first FBGs written into a mPOF with the point-by-point technique and also the fastest ever written into a polymer optical fiber, with less than 2.5 seconds needed.

  11. Design of object surveillance system based on enhanced fish-eye lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui Wu; Kuntao Yang; Qiaolian Xiang; Nanyang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the object surveillance system based on the enhanced fish-eye lens and the high speed digital signal processor (DSP). The improved fish-eye lens images an ellipse picture on the charge-coupled device (CCD) surface, which increases both the utilization rate of the 4:3 rectangular CCD and the imaging resolution, and remains the view angle of 183°. The algorithm of auto-adapted renewal background subtraction (ARBS) is also explored to extract the object from the monitoring image. The experimental result shows that the ARBS algorithm has high anti-jamming ability and high resolution, leading to excellent object detecting ability from the enhanced elliptical fish-eye image under varies en-vironments. This system has potential applications in different security monitoring fields due to its wide monitoring space, simple structure, working stability, and reliability.

  12. NorthPoint Courtesy Services Development and Design Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cox

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As we address the topic of games on games, we turned our focus towards first-person shooters (FPS, one of the most popular genres of computer game at the moment. Contemporary FPS games populate the genre continuum from realistic (Rainbow Six Siege, ARMA, Insurgency to fantastic (Halo, Bioshock, Destiny. However, no matter the setting or context, a constant of the FPS genre is the horde of nameless non-player characters (NPCs that make up the waves of grunts and cannon fodder for the player character to enact their will against through the affordances provided by the designers. This melding of player will and designer limitations, in the vast majority of instances, results in NPCs being shot and killed with some form of weaponry, thus allowing the player to progress through the game.

  13. Healthy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is one ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  14. Mobile point-of-care monitors and diagnostic device design

    CERN Document Server

    Karlen, Walter

    2014-01-01

    PrefaceEditorsContributorsSensors and SystemsInterfacing Diagnostics with Consumer ElectronicsPakorn Preechaburana, Anke Suska, and Daniel FilippiniLab on a CellphoneAhmet F. Coskun, Hongying Zhu, Onur Mudanyali, and Aydogan OzcanThe Phone OximeterChristian Leth PetersenCurrent Technology and Advances in Transepidermal Water Loss SensorsPietro Salvo, Bernardo Melai, Nicola Calisi, and Fabio Di FrancescoPortable High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging System Design and Hardware Considerations

  15. Design of an Eye Limiting Resolution Visual System Using Commercial-Off-the-Shelf Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Barbara T.; Giovannetti, Dean P.

    2008-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine if a flight simulator with an eye-limiting resolution out-the-window (OTW) visual system could be built using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology and used to evaluate the visual performance of Air Force pilots in an operations context. Results of this study demonstrate that an eye limiting OTW visual system can be built using COTS technology. Further, a series of operationally-based tasks linked to clinical vision tests can be used within the synthetic environment to demonstrate a correlation and quantify the level of correlation between vision and operational aviation performance.

  16. Concepts of Interface Usability and the Enhancement of Design through Eye Tracking and Psychophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    interface evaluation using eye movements: methods and constructs. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics , 24, 631-645. Goldberg, J., Kotval...combined measure based on physiological indices during a dual task of tracking and mental arithmetic. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics , 35

  17. Pointing Control System Design and Performance Evaluation for TPF Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Chia; Blaurock, Carl; Mosier, Gary

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) program aims to detect and characterize extra-solar Earth-like planets. The coronagraph telescope is one of the four mission concepts being studied. In order to reject the star flux and detect the planet flux in the visible light range, the coronagraph telescope must achieve a rejection ratio on the order of a billion to one. Dynamic jitter, introduced by environmental and on-board mechanical disturbances, degrades the optical performance, as characterized primarily by contrast ratio. The feasibility of using passive vibration isolation combined with active attitude and line-of- sight control systems to stabilize the spacecraft and the optical components to the requisite level is being studied. The telescope is also required to slew between targets. The slew mode control law must be designed to balance the need for efficient large-angle maneuvers while simultaneously avoiding the excitation of flexible modes in order to minimize settling time.

  18. Optimal Point Spread Function Design for 3D Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Yoav; Sahl, Steffen J.; Backer, Adam S.; Moerner, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    To extract from an image of a single nanoscale object maximum physical information about its position, we propose and demonstrate a framework for pupil-plane modulation for 3D imaging applications requiring precise localization, including single-particle tracking and super-resolution microscopy. The method is based on maximizing the information content of the system, by formulating and solving the appropriate optimization problem – finding the pupil-plane phase pattern that would yield a PSF with optimal Fisher information properties. We use our method to generate and experimentally demonstrate two example PSFs: one optimized for 3D localization precision over a 3 μm depth of field, and another with an unprecedented 5 μm depth of field, both designed to perform under physically common conditions of high background signals. PMID:25302889

  19. The design of looming draft for multi-eye heddle weaving%多眼综丝织造的上机图设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳宝琴; 李毓陵; 陈旭炜; 杜卫平

    2015-01-01

    Based on the design of looming draft for ordinary single-eye heddle weaving , the design of looming draft with the application of multi-eye heddle weaving technology for complex multilayer fabric was investigated . The looming drafts for heddle weaving with different number of eyes were also compared .%在传统单眼综丝织造上机设计的基础上,阐述多眼综丝织造复杂多层织物组织的上机图设计方法,并对比分析不同综眼数综丝织造的上机图。

  20. Supersonic Aerodynamic Design Improvements of an Arrow-Wing HSCT Configuration Using Nonlinear Point Design Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Eric R.; Hager, James O.; Agrawal, Shreekant

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the supersonic nonlinear point design optimization efforts at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace under the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. The baseline for these optimization efforts has been the M2.4-7A configuration which represents an arrow-wing technology for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Optimization work on this configuration began in early 1994 and continued into 1996. Initial work focused on optimization of the wing camber and twist on a wing/body configuration and reductions of 3.5 drag counts (Euler) were realized. The next phase of the optimization effort included fuselage camber along with the wing and a drag reduction of 5.0 counts was achieved. Including the effects of the nacelles and diverters into the optimization problem became the next focus where a reduction of 6.6 counts (Euler W/B/N/D) was eventually realized. The final two phases of the effort included a large set of constraints designed to make the final optimized configuration more realistic and they were successful albeit with a loss of performance.

  1. Motherese by eye and ear: infants perceive visual prosody in point-line displays of talking heads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kitamura

    Full Text Available Infant-directed (ID speech provides exaggerated auditory and visual prosodic cues. Here we investigated if infants were sensitive to the match between the auditory and visual correlates of ID speech prosody. We presented 8-month-old infants with two silent line-joined point-light displays of faces speaking different ID sentences, and a single vocal-only sentence matched to one of the displays. Infants looked longer to the matched than mismatched visual signal when full-spectrum speech was presented; and when the vocal signals contained speech low-pass filtered at 400 Hz. When the visual display was separated into rigid (head only and non-rigid (face only motion, the infants looked longer to the visual match in the rigid condition; and to the visual mismatch in the non-rigid condition. Overall, the results suggest 8-month-olds can extract information about the prosodic structure of speech from voice and head kinematics, and are sensitive to their match; and that they are less sensitive to the match between lip and voice information in connected speech.

  2. Design and analysis of an adaptive lens that mimics the performance of the crystalline lens in the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Iturbide-Jiménez, F.; Martínez-López, M.; Ramírez-Como, M.; Armengol-Cruz, V.; Vásquez-Báez, I.

    2014-09-01

    Tunable lenses are optical systems that have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in such areas like ophthalmology, machine vision, microscopy and laser processing. In recent years we have been working in the analysis and performance of a liquid-filled variable focal length lens, this is a lens that can modify its focal length by changing the amount of water within it. Nowadays we extend our study to a particular adaptive lens known as solid elastic lens (SEL) that it is formed by an elastic main body made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sylgard 184). In this work, we present the design, simulation and analysis of an adaptive solid elastic lens that in principle imitates the accommodation process of the crystalline lens in the human eye. For this work, we have adopted the parameters of the schematic eye model developed in 1985 by Navarro et al.; this model represents the anatomy of the eye as close as possible to reality by predicting an acceptable and accurate quantity of spherical and chromatic aberrations without any shape fitting. An opto-mechanical analysis of the accommodation process of the adaptive lens is presented, by simulating a certain amount of radial force applied onto the SEL using the finite element method with the commercial software SolidWorks®. We also present ray-trace diagrams of the simulated compression process of the adaptive lens using the commercial software OSLO®.

  3. 眼睛运动模型的设计%Design of eye movement model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞森

    2012-01-01

    At present, the implementation scheme of biological pattern recognition system can be classified into two categories which are related to eye movements. In this paper, based on the cellular neural networks (CNN). the center of gravity (COG) search algorithm based on Euclidean distance as well as the random selection with distance weighting (RSDW) model, a model of eye movements is proposed. The feature of the eye movement trajectory map of this model has a good consistency with the feature obtained from eye tracking experiment. Also this model can be used as an important part of the information acquisition module of biological pattern recognition system.%现阶段,生物模式识别系统主要有两种实现方案,且这些方案的实现都与眼睛的运动有关,因此这里利用细胞神经网络(CNN),基于欧氏距离的质心(COG)搜索算法以及距离权重选择模型(RSDW)的思想建立了一个眼睛运动模型.该模型输出的眼睛运动轨迹图特性与实际仪器测试的眼睛运动轨迹图特性具有较好的一致性,同时该模型能直接作为生物模式识别系统中信息获取模块的重要组成部分.

  4. Designation and Control of Landing Points for Competitive Robotic Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitive robotic table tennis involves many topics such as smart ball returning strategy, precise motion control, etc. It remains a quite challenging task due to the unpredictable, uncooperative incoming ball and the requirement of a smart strategy to defeat the opponent. Designation and control of landing points is one basic aspect of ball returning strategies in competitive robotic table tennis because different landing points require the opponent to make different efforts to return the ball. In this paper, we present a method to designate desired landing points based on competitiveness level. We also propose a learning based landing point control approach to minimize the error of the actual landing points with respect to the designated landing points. The proposed methods have been verified through experiments on a humanoid table tennis robot.

  5. 智能护眼台灯电路的设计%Design of intelligent eye protection desk lamp circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁计锋; 刘瑞妮; 尤国强

    2015-01-01

    The current on-sale desk lamps adjust their brightness manually, not automatically.;which is not only troublesome, but also easy to cause unnecessary waste of resources and has a bad effect on the eyes. The design situates on eyes and spine problems caused by bad habits of ignoring light intensity in the use of desk lamps. In the purpose of eye protection and sitting posture correction, the designed lamps adjust the brightness and alarm automatically mainly through photoelectric sensor detection to ambient light and bent-over position. The circuit has the advantages of reasonable design, simple structure, low cost and other advantages in order to make up for the deficiency of existing desk lamps in the aspect of intelligent dimming and alarm.%现在市场上销售的台灯大都是通过手动调节灯光亮度,不能灵活的自动调节光亮,不但麻烦,而且易造成不必要的浪费和对眼睛有不良的影响.本设计针对于很多人在使用台灯过程中的不良习惯及忽视光线强度而造成的各种眼睛和脊柱问题,主要通过光电传感器对环境光线及俯身位置的检测,自动调节台灯亮度和报警,以达到保护眼睛及纠正坐姿的目的.该电路具有设计合理,结构简单,高效节能,成本低廉等优点,弥补了现有台灯不能真正做到智能调光与报警的不足.

  6. 教学设计锚点的内涵及生成%On the Instructional Design Anchor Points Study: The Growth Point of Teaching Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金建生

    2011-01-01

    Instructional design anchor points are using educational tools or approaches that can be studied to generate design guideline principles. The significance to study it relies on its capacity of producing new principles on instructional design and useful for the combination of instructional theories and practice. It is also the new growth points on instructional theory study. The effective research on instructional design anchor points needs us to describe the anchor points clearly, build clear concept framework, make complicated thought and have the practical attitude to reform and apply.%教学设计锚点是指在教学实际中使用,能够创生设计指导原则的各种教学工具和方法,作为一种新的设计原则,其对实现教学理论和教学实践的结合是有益的,也能成为教学设计研究的理论创生点。有效的教学设计锚点研究需要我们进行错点的描述、概念框架的构建和复杂性思考,还需要有改进和应用这一设计原则的现实态度。

  7. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  8. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  9. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  10. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  11. Stauts of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Hohlraum Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, P; Dunne, M; Ho, D; Lasinski, B; Meeker, D; Ross, J S

    2012-04-10

    Progress on the hohlraum point design for the LIFE engine is described. New features in the original design [Amendt et al., Fus. Sci. Technol. 60, 49 (2011)] are incorporated that address the imperatives of low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, efficient and prompt material recycling, an ability for near-term testing of key target design uncertainties on the National Ignition Facility, and robustness to target chamber environment and injection insults. To this end, the novel use of Pb hohlraums and aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel loading within a high-density-carbon (HDC) ablator is implemented in the hohlraum point design.

  12. Quantifying patterns of dynamics in eye movement to measure goodness in organization of design elements in interior architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkia, Hasti; Sangari, Arash; Nelson, Mark; Assadi, Amir H.

    2013-03-01

    Architecture brings together diverse elements to enhance the observer's measure of esthetics and the convenience of functionality. Architects often conceptualize synthesis of design elements to invoke the observer's sense of harmony and positive affect. How does an observer's brain respond to harmony of design in interior spaces? One implicit consideration by architects is the role of guided visual attention by observers while navigating indoors. Prior visual experience of natural scenes provides the perceptual basis for Gestalt of design elements. In contrast, Gestalt of organization in design varies according to the architect's decision. We outline a quantitative theory to measure the success in utilizing the observer's psychological factors to achieve the desired positive affect. We outline a unified framework for perception of geometry and motion in interior spaces, which integrates affective and cognitive aspects of human vision in the context of anthropocentric interior design. The affective criteria are derived from contemporary theories of interior design. Our contribution is to demonstrate that the neural computations in an observer's eye movement could be used to elucidate harmony in perception of form, space and motion, thus a measure of goodness of interior design. Through mathematical modeling, we argue the plausibility of the relevant hypotheses.

  13. Accommodation in human eye models: a comparison between the optical designs of Navarro, Arizona and Liou-Brennan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulinakis, Georgios; Esteve-Taboada, Jose Juan; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Madrid-Costa, David; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-01-01

    AIM To simulate and compare accommodation in accommodative and non-accommodative human eye models. METHODS Ray tracing and optical design program was used. Three eye models were designed and studied: the Navarro, the Arizona and the Liou-Brennan. In order to make the Navarro and Liou-Brennan models to accommodate, specific geometric parameters of the models were altered with values that were chosen from the literature. For the Arizona model, its' mathematical functions for accommodation were used for the same accommodative demands. The simulation included four distances of accommodation for each model: at infinity, 3, 1 and 0.5 m.The results were diffraction images of a “letter F” for graphical comparison, spot diagrams on the retinal field and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) graphs. RESULTS Zernike coefficients for the aberrations, Airy disk diameter, root mean square (RMS) error diameter and total axial length of the model were provided from the program. These were compared between them in all distances. The Navarro model had the smallest axial length change as a simple model. The Arizona did not change its axial length because it is designed to be accommodative. The Liou-Brennan model had different results concerning the aberrations because of the decentration of the pupil. The MTF graphs showed small differences between the models because of the differences in their designs. CONCLUSION All the three models are able to simulate accommodation with the expected results. There is no model that can be assumed as the best choice. Accommodation can be simulated in non-accommodativemodels and in customized ones. PMID:28149775

  14. Design and development of a ferroelectric micro photo detector for the bionic eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang

    Driven by no effective therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age Related Macular Degeneration, artificial vision through the development of an artificial retina that can be implanted into the human eye, is being addressed by the Bionic Eye. This dissertation focuses on the study of a photoferroelectric micro photo detector as an implantable retinal prosthesis for vision restoration in patients with above disorders. This implant uses an electrical signal to trigger the appropriate ocular cells of the vision system without resorting to wiring or electrode implantation. The research work includes fabrication of photoferroelectric thin film micro detectors, characterization of these photoferroelectric micro devices as photovoltaic cells, and Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling of the photoferroelectrics and their device-neuron interface. A ferroelectric micro detector exhibiting the photovoltaic effect (PVE) directly adds electrical potential to the neuron membrane outer wall at the focal adhesion regions. The electrical potential then generates a retinal cell membrane potential deflection through a newly developed Direct-Electric-Field-Coupling (DEFC) model. This model is quite different from the traditional electric current model because instead of current directly working on the cell membrane, the PVE current is used to generate a localized high electric potential in the focal adhesion region by working together with the anisotropic high internal impedance of ferroelectric thin films. General electrodes and silicon photodetectors do not have such anisotropy and high impedance, and thus they cannot generate DEFC. This mechanism investigation is very valuable, because it clearly shows that our artificial retina works in a way that is totally different from the traditional current stimulation methods.

  15. Design and fabrication of a multi-focusing artificial compound eyes with negative meniscus substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiasai; Guo, Yongcai; Wang, Xin; Fan, Fenglian

    2017-04-01

    Miniaturized artificial compound eyes with a large field of view (FOV) have potential application in the area of micro-optical-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS). A new non-uniform microlens array (MLA) on a negative meniscus substrate, fabricated by the melting photoresist method, was proposed in this paper. The multi-focusing MLA reduced the defocus effectively, which was caused by the uniform array on a spherical substrate. Moreover, like most ommatidia in compound eyes, each microlens of the multi-focusing MLA was arranged in one of the eleven concentric circles. In order to match with the multi-focusing MLA and avoid the total reflection, the negative meniscus substrate was fabricated by a homebuilt mold with a micro-hole array and polydimethylsiloxane coelomic compartment attached. The coelomic compartment is capable of offering an excellent injection environment without bubbles and impurities. Due to the direct 3D implementation of the MLA, rich available materials can be used by this method without substrate reshaping. As the molding material, the ultraviolet curing adhesive NOA81 can be cured within ten few seconds under ultraviolet which relieve intensive labor and protect the stereolithography apparatus effectively. The experimental results show that this new MLA has a better imaging performance, higher light usage efficiency and larger FOV because of the negative meniscus and multi-focusing MLA. Moreover, due to the homebuilt mold, more accurate geometrical parameters and shorter processing cycle were realized. Accordingly, together with an appropriate hardware, this MLA has diverse potential applications in medical imaging, military and machine vision.

  16. Design of a miniature electrolyte conductivity probe using ISFETs in a four point configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volanschi, A.; Olthuis, W.; Bergveld, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this work the design, fabrication and testing of a four point electrode configuration based on ISFETs for the measurement of electrolytic conductivity are presented. The final design uses a distance between the ISFET gates of only 100 ¿m allowing a chip area in contact with the electrolyte of 2.2

  17. Comparison of the ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation between medically controlled and operated eyes with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Engelbrecht

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the fluctuation of the OPP between eyes treated with glaucoma medication and eyes with a functioning filtering bleb. Design: cross-sectional controlled paired-eye design. Methods: Fourteen patients with POAG with one eye operated on (trabeculectomy and the fellow eye treated with medication enrolled the study. Blood pressure and intraocular pressure were measured at 7 a.m., 1 p.m., and 7 p.m. Systolic, diastolic and mean OPP were calculated for the three time points and the fluctuation (range between the highest and the lowest values compared between the eyes. Results: Mean values of the mean OPP fluctuation were 7.2 ± 3.9 mmHg and 8.5 ± 4.0 mmHg, for operated eyes and medically treated eyes, respectively (P = 0.149; mean systolic OPP fluctuation was 20.7 ± 11.2 mmHg for operated eyes and 21.2 ± 11.7 mmHg for medically treated eyes (P = 0.478; the mean diastolic OPP fluctuation was 8.4 ± 4.4 mmHg for operated eyes and 10.5 ± 5.4 mmHg for medically treated eyes (P= 0.085. Conclusion: In this small cohort of patients with POAG the mean, systolic and diastolic OPP fluctuation did not differ between the operated eyes and medically treated ones. Financial disclosure: none.

  18. Next-generation concurrent engineering: developing models to complement point designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Elizabeth; Leavens, Tracy; Cohanim, Babak; Harmon, Corey; Mahr, Eric; Lewis, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering Design (CED) teams have made routine the rapid development of point designs for space missions. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X is now evolving into a 'next-generation CED; in addition to a point design, the Team develops a model of the local trade space. The process is a balance between the power of a model developing tools and the creativity of humal experts, enabling the development of a variety of trade models for any space mission. This paper reviews the modeling method and its practical implementation in the ED environment. Example results illustrate the benefit of this approach.

  19. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  20. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PANORAMIC MAPS DESIGN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY BASED ON MOBILE EYE-TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets. In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical information in ski resorts.

  1. NEW APPROACH FOR RELIABILITY-BASED DESIGN OPTIMIZATION: MINIMUM ERROR POINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Deshun; YUE Wenhui; ZHU Pingyu; DU Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Conventional reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) requires to use the most probable point (MPP) method for a probabilistic analysis of the reliability constraints. A new approach is presented, called as the minimum error point (MEP) method or the MEP based method,for reliability-based design optimization, whose idea is to minimize the error produced by approximating performance functions. The MEP based method uses the first order Taylor's expansion at MEP instead of MPP. Examples demonstrate that the MEP based design optimization can ensure product reliability at the required level, which is very imperative for many important engineering systems. The MEP based reliability design optimization method is feasible and is considered as an alternative for solving reliability design optimization problems. The MEP based method is more robust than the commonly used MPP based method for some irregular performance functions.

  2. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas G, D., E-mail: dcardena@cenam.mx [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76246 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylinder-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0.9992±0.0004 in the 8 μm to 14 μm wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have and expanded uncertainty of 54 m K, with a coverage factor k = 2. (Author)

  3. Eigensensitivity in integrated design. [of earth-pointing satellite's control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Hou, Gene J.; Belvin, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    An application of eigensensitivity analysis to the control-structure integrated design process is presented with an emphasis placed on computational efficiency improvement of the overall design optimization process. The computational efficiency of eigenvalue/vector sensitivity analysis is demonstrated using the Earth Pointing Satellite in the context of a control-structure integrated design program. Results for a 2 percent design variable perturbation with and without the effects of the actuator mass show a 42 and 52 percent reduction in CPU time, respectively.

  4. Design of a gold nanoprobe for rapid and portable mercury detection with the naked eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shijiang; Li, Di; Zhu, Changfeng; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lihua; Long, Yitao; Fan, Chunhai

    2008-10-28

    A gold nanoprobe that can respond colorimetrically to Hg(2+) is designed and coupled with a power-free PDMS device; the system can be used for rapid and visual detection of low micromolar Hg(2+) in real environmental samples.

  5. Unbalanced and Minimal Point Equivalent Estimation Second-Order Split-Plot Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Peter A.; Kowalski, Scott M.; Vining, G. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Restricting the randomization of hard-to-change factors in industrial experiments is often performed by employing a split-plot design structure. From an economic perspective, these designs minimize the experimental cost by reducing the number of resets of the hard-to- change factors. In this paper, unbalanced designs are considered for cases where the subplots are relatively expensive and the experimental apparatus accommodates an unequal number of runs per whole-plot. We provide construction methods for unbalanced second-order split- plot designs that possess the equivalence estimation optimality property, providing best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters; independent of the variance components. Unbalanced versions of the central composite and Box-Behnken designs are developed. For cases where the subplot cost approaches the whole-plot cost, minimal point designs are proposed and illustrated with a split-plot Notz design.

  6. Design of Eye-Controlled Mouse Based on Eye Tracking Technology%基于视线追踪的眼控鼠标设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱麒文; 闫隆鑫; 张若兰; 张帅; 杨兰兰

    2016-01-01

    以Visual Studio为平台,OpenCV计算机视觉库为基础,辅助以单片机、传感器、无线传输模块等自主研发了一套头戴式视线追踪系统,完成瞳孔提取、视线追踪定位、眨眼检测等功能,实现眼球替代鼠标完成对电脑的指令。创新性地提出了椭圆拟合与积分投影去噪法等方法,以消除头部微小移动对定位带来的影响,使系统具有高的精确度和良好的实用价值。%With the platform of Visual Studio,the basis of OpenCV computer vision library and the assistance of a MCU,sensors and wireless transmission modules,a head-mounted eye tracking system is built. The system accom⁃plished pupil extraction,eye tracking positioning,blinking detection and other functions which enabled eyes instead of mouse to complete computer instructions. Innovative methods have been presented:integral projection denoising, capturing the pupil center through ellipse fitting algorithm,etc. This series of methods eliminates the influence of slight movement of the head on positioning accuracy,endowing the system with high accuracy and practicality.

  7. High Performance Hardware Design Of IEEE Floating Point Adder In FPGA With VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a floating-point adder that is compliant with the current draft revision of this standard. We provide synthesis results indicating the estimated area and delay for our design when it is pipelined to various depths.Our work is an important design resource for development of floating-point adder hardware on FPGAs. All sub components within the floating-point adder and known algorithms are researched and implemented to provide versatility and flexibility to designers as an alternative to intellectual property where they have no control over the design. The VHDL code is open source and can be used by designers with proper reference. Each of the sub-operation is researched for different implementations and then synthesized onto a Spartan FPGA device to be chosen for best performance. Our implementation of the standard algorithm occupied 370 slices and had an overall delay of 31 ns. The standard algorithm was pipelined into five stages to run at 100 MHz which took an area of 324 slices and power is 30mw.

  8. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  9. Design and Synthesis of Single Precision Floating Point Division based on Newton-Raphson Algorithm on FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Naginder; Sasamal Trailokya Nath

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a single precision floating point division based on Newton-Raphson computational division algorithm. The Newton-Raphson computational algorithm is implemented using 32-bit floating point multi-plier and subtractor. The salient feature of this proposed design is that the module for computing mantissa in 32-floating point multiplier is designed using a 24-bit Vedic multiplication (Urdhva-triyakbhyam-sutra) technique. 32-bit floating point multiplier, designed using Vedic mu...

  10. Design and Implementation of an IoT Access Point for Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yung Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Network communication and micro-electro-mechanical embedded technologies have attracted much attention in recent years. Through these technologies, the capabilities of sensing, identification, and communication can be embedded in various smart devices. These smart devices can automatically connect to the Internet and form an intelligent network called Internet of Things (IoT. However, these devices are embedded with different wireless communication interfaces such as Wi-Fi and ZigBee. This paper presents the design and implementation of an IoT access point that supports functionalities of coordination of various wireless transmission protocols. Based on the existing Wi-Fi access point, we have embedded a ZigBee module and implemented ZigBee and UPnP protocols into the designed IoT access point, which supports ZigBee communication capabilities over the Internet.

  11. Design Considerations for Miniaturized Control Moment Gyroscopes for Rapid Retargeting and Precision Pointing of Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design as well as characterization of a practical control moment gyroscope (CMG) based attitude control system (ACS) for small satellites in the 15-20 kilogram mass range performing rapid retargeting and precision pointing maneuvers. The paper focuses on the approach taken in the design of miniaturized CMGs while considering the constraints imposed by the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as well as the size of the satellite. It is shown that a hybrid mode is more suitable for COTS based moment exchange actuators; a mode that uses the torque amplification of CMGs for rapid retargeting and direct torque capabilities of the flywheel motors for precision pointing. A simulation is provided to demonstrate on-orbit slew and pointing performance.

  12. The mind’s eye on personal identity profiles: Design and development of a personal identity profile to inform initial trustworthiness assessments in virtual project teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2010, 15 June). The mind’s eye on personal identity profiles: Design and development of a personal identity profile to inform initial trustworthiness assessments in virtual project teams. Presentation of PhD research at LN PhD session. Overview

  13. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) informing the design of LED-based illumination to enhance indoor reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Volk, N.; Diehl, J.J.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Belušič, G.

    2016-01-01

    Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revea

  14. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  15. Design considerations and performance characteristics of high concentration point-focussing photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.A.; Broadbent, S.

    1984-05-01

    Through the auspices of the Department of Energy, the Fresnel lens point-focussing photovoltaic module has evolved into a commercially available, high efficiency low cost option for converting solar energy into electricity. The 15.4% efficient baseline module is undergoing several design improvements to achieve higher efficiencies at high concentrations and lower cost. A 16.5% module will be available in 1984 and 18% Gallium Arsenide modules in 1985. This paper describes the design details and performance characteristics of the baseline module and the design improvements.

  16. On Isotropic Sets of Points in the Plane. Application to the Design of Robot Archirectures

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Various performance indices are used for the design of serial manipulators. One method of optimization relies on the condition number of the Jacobian matrix. The minimization of the condition number leads, under certain conditions, to isotropic configurations, for which the roundoff-error amplification is lowest. In this paper, the isotropy conditions, introduced elsewhere, are the motivation behind the introduction of isotropic sets of points. By connecting together these points, we define families of isotropic manipulators. This paper is devoted to planar manipulators, the concepts being currently extended to their spatial counterparts. Furthermore, only manipulators with revolute joints are considered here.

  17. Design Space Approach for Preservative System Optimization of an Anti-Aging Eye Fluid Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Felipe Rebello; Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Ferreira, Márcia Regina Spuri; Andreoli, Terezinha De Jesus; Löbenberg, Raimar; Bou-Chacra, Nádia

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives must be optimized in order to ensure the efficacy of an antimicrobial system as well as the product safety. Despite the wide variety of preservatives, the synergistic or antagonistic effects of their combinations are not well established and it is still an issue in the development of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The purpose of this paper was to establish a space design using a simplex-centroid approach to achieve the lowest effective concentration of 3 preservatives (methylparaben, propylparaben, and imidazolidinyl urea) and EDTA for an emulsion cosmetic product. Twenty-two formulae of emulsion differing only by imidazolidinyl urea (A: 0.00 to 0.30% w/w), methylparaben (B: 0.00 to 0.20% w/w), propylparaben (C: 0.00 to 0.10% w/w) and EDTA (D: 0.00 to 0.10% w/w) concentrations were prepared. They were tested alone and in binary, ternary and quaternary combinations. Aliquots of these formulae were inoculated with several microorganisms. An electrochemical method was used to determine microbial burden immediately after inoculation and after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 168 h. An optimization strategy was used to obtain the concentrations of preservatives and EDTA resulting in a most effective preservative system of all microorganisms simultaneously. The use of preservatives and EDTA in combination has the advantage of exhibiting a potential synergistic effect against a wider spectrum of microorganisms. Based on graphic and optimization strategies, we proposed a new formula containing a quaternary combination (A: 55%; B: 30%; C: 5% and D: 10% w/w), which complies with the specification of a conventional challenge test. A design space approach was successfully employed in the optimization of concentrations of preservatives and EDTA in an emulsion cosmetic product.

  18. Inverse design of third-order Dirac exceptional points in photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zin; Lončar, Marko; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel inverse-design method that enables brute-force discovery of photonic crystal (PhC) structures with complex spectral degeneracies. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate PhCs exhibiting third-order Dirac points formed by the \\emph{accidental} degeneracy of modes of monopolar, dipolar, and quadrupolar nature. We show that under suitable conditions, these modes can coalesce and form a third-order exceptional point (EP3), leading to diverging Petermann factors. We show that the spontaneous emission (SE) rate of emitters at such EP3s, related to the local density of states, can be enhanced by a factor of 8 in purely lossy (passive) structures, with larger enhancements $\\sim \\sqrt{n^3}$ possible at exceptional points of higher order $n$ or in materials with gain.

  19. At-sea test system point design for a one-third scale cold water pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, W.H. (ed.)

    1979-12-01

    One step in the development of the technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing of a fiberglass reinforced plastic nominal 10-foot diameter pipe. A design procedure and criteria for developing test hardware by scaling down a 30-foot diameter OTEC 10/40 MW Pilot Plant CWP design are presented. An example point design for the pipe, instrumentation to be used during the at-sea tests, and methods for selecting the support platform and mooring are described. The design considered starts with a scale model of a larger prototype, and then is modified to address the problems of fabrication and of survivability and handling during the 1/3rd scale model tests.

  20. How do design features influence consumer attention when looking for nutritional information on food labels? Results from an eye-tracking study on pan bread labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Lucía; Vidal, Leticia; Sapolinski, Alejandra; Giménez, Ana; Maiche, Alejandro; Ares, Gastón

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate consumer visual processing of food labels when evaluating the salt content of pan bread labels and to study the influence of label design and nutritional labelling format on consumer attention. A total of 16 pan bread labels, designed according to a full factorial design, were presented to 52 participants, who were asked to decide whether the sodium content of each label was medium or low, while their eye movements were recorded using an eye tracker. Results showed that most participants looked at nutrition labels and the traffic light system to conclude on the salt content of the labels. However, the average percentage of participants who looked at the actual sodium content was much lower. Nutrition information format affected participants' processing of nutrition information. Among other effects, the inclusion of the traffic light system increased participants' attention towards some kind of nutrition information and facilitated its processing, but not its understanding.

  1. Design Considerations for Miniaturized Control Moment Gyroscopes for Rapid Retargeting and Precision Pointing of Small Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Roithmayr, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design as well as characterization of a practical control moment gyroscope (CMG) based attitude control system (ACS) for small satellites in the 15-20 kg mass range performing rapid retargeting and precision pointing maneuvers. The paper focuses on the approach taken in the design of miniaturized CMGs while considering the constraints imposed by the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as well as the size of the satellite. It is shown that a hybrid mode is...

  2. Digital controller design: Analysis of the annular suspension pointing system. [analog controllers with feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    The analog controllers of the annular suspension pointing system are designed for control of the chi, phi sub 1, and phi sub 2 bandwidth dynamics through decoupling and pole placement. Since it is virtually impossible to find an equivalent bandwidth of the overall system and establish a general eigenvalue requirement for the system, the subsystem dynamics are decoupled through state feedback and the poles are placed simultaneously to realize the desired bandwidths for the three system components. Decoupling and pole placement are also used to design the closed-loop digital system through approximation.

  3. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: SPS point design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The satellite power systems point design concept is described. The concept definition includes satellite, ground and space systems, and their relationships. Emphasis is placed on the definition of the GaAlAs photovoltaic satellite system. The major subsystems of the satellite system including power conversion, power distribution and control, microwave, attitude control and stationkeeping, thermal control, structures, and information management and control are discussed.

  4. Aerodynamic and Performance Behavior of a Three-Stage High Efficiency Turbine at Design and Off-Design Operating Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Schobeiri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the aerodynamic and performance behavior of a three-stage high pressure research turbine with 3-D curved blades at its design and off-design operating points. The research turbine configuration incorporates six rows beginning with a stator row. Interstage aerodynamic measurements were performed at three stations, namely downstream of the first rotor row, the second stator row, and the second rotor row. Interstage radial and circumferential traversing presented a detailed flow picture of the middle stage. Performance measurements were carried out within a rotational speed range of 75% to 116% of the design speed. The experimental investigations have been carried out on the recently established multi-stage turbine research facility at the Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory, TPFL, of Texas A&M University.

  5. Design, Construction and Test of a Three-point Hitch Dynamometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Askari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For measuring the draft forces exerted by implements into tractor, we use the dynamometers that are divided into pull type or three-point hitch type. For measuring the forces between the tractor and the mounted implements, three-point hitch dynamometers are used. In this research, an adjustable three-point hitch dynamometer with a draft capacity of 25 kN was designed and built which is made up from two frames that one of them placed inside the other. The force sensing elements were comprised of a loadcell that was installed between the frames. All mounted tillage implements were able to be tested by this measuring device excluding mounted implements which are powered by PTO and by using this dynamometer, the variations of implements draft force in the different tillage conditions consist of the various work depths and different forward speeds would be studied. After design and construction steps, dynamometer was calibrated, tested and evaluated. Field tests were done by using of four mounted tillage implements and obtained data were compared by obtained data from ASAE D497.5 standard formula. So with these data, the design of tines, their stems, equipment frames and the selection of the optimal size of the tillage equipments in regard of the soil type of the region and the power of the available tractors will be more scientific and reasonable.

  6. Uncertainty Analysis of non-point source pollution control facilities design techniques in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Okjeong, L.; Gyeong, C. B.; Park, M. W.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The design of non-point sources control facilities in Korea is divided largely by the stormwater capture ratio, the stormwater load capture ratio, and the pollutant reduction efficiency of the facility. The stormwater capture ratio is given by a design formula as a function of the water quality treatment capacity, the greater the capacity, the more the amount of stormwater intercepted by the facility. The stormwater load capture ratio is defined as the ratio of the load entering the facility of the total pollutant load generated in the target catchment, and is given as a design formula represented by a function of the stormwater capture ratio. In order to estimate the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio, a lot of quantitative analysis of hydrologic processes acted in pollutant emission is required, but these formulas have been applied without any verification. Since systematic monitoring programs were insufficient, verification of these formulas was fundamentally impossible. However, recently the Korean ministry of Environment has conducted an long-term systematic monitoring project, and thus the verification of the formulas became possible. In this presentation, the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio are re-estimated using actual TP data obtained from long-term monitoring program at Noksan industrial complex located in Busan, Korea. Through the re-estimated process, the uncertainty included in the design process that has been applied until now will be shown in a quantitative extent. In addition, each uncertainty included in the stormwater capture ratio estimation and in the stormwater load capture ratio estimation will be expressed to quantify the relative impact on the overall non-point pollutant control facilities design process. Finally, the SWMM-Matlab interlocking module for model parameters estimation will be introduced. Acknowledgement This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non-point

  7. Characterization and Design of Digital Pointing Subsystem for Optical Communication Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racho, C.; Portillo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) is a laboratory-based lasercom demonstration terminal designed to validate several key technologies, including beacon acquisition, high bandwidth tracking, precision bearn pointing, and point-ahead compensation functions. It has been under active development over the past few years. The instrument uses a CCD array detector for both spatial acquisition and high-bandwidth tracking, and a fiber coupled laser transmitter. The array detector tracking concept provides wide field-of-view acquisition and permits effective platform jitter compensation and point-ahead control using only one steering mirror. This paper describes the detailed design and characterization of the digital control loop system which includes the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM), the CCD image tracker, and the associated electronics. The objective is to improve the overall system performance using laboratory measured data. The. design of the digital control loop is based on a linear time invariant open loop model. The closed loop performance is predicted using the theoretical model. With the digital filter programmed into the OCD control software, data is collected to verify the predictions. This paper presents the results of the, system modeling and performance analysis. It has been shown that measurement data closely matches theoretical predictions. An important part of the laser communication experiment is the ability of FSM to track the laser beacon within the. required tolerances. The pointing must be maintained to an accuracy that is much smaller than the transmit signal beamwidth. For an earth orbit distance, the system must be able to track the receiving station to within a few microradians. The failure. to do so will result in a severely degraded system performance.

  8. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  9. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye (Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of the most ... treatment depends on the underlying cause. What is pink eye? Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, involves ...

  10. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ...

  11. Design of Neutral-Point Voltage Controller of a Three-level NPC Inverter with Small DC-Link Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, S.

    2013-01-01

    A Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) three-level inverter with small dc-link capacitors is presented in this paper. The inverter requires zero average neutral-point current for stable neutral-point voltage. The small dc-link capacitors may not maintain capacitor voltage balance, even with zero neutral-point...... current. This may happen due to nonlinearities present in the circuit. This requires a fast control of the neutral-point voltage. A simple carrier based modulation strategy which allows modeling of the neutral-point voltage dynamics as a continuous function of power drawn from the inverter is proposed....... This continuous model shows that the neutral-point current is proportional to the power drawn from the inverter, and it enables the use of well established classical control theory for the neutral-point voltage controller design. A simple PI (proportional integral) controller is designed for the neutral-point...

  12. Design Parameters Analysis of Point Absorber WEC via an evolutionary-algorithm-based Dimensioning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Blanco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy conversion has an essential difference from other renewable energies since the dependence between the devices design and the energy resource is stronger. Dimensioning is therefore considered a key stage when a design project of Wave Energy Converters (WEC is undertaken. Location, WEC concept, Power Take-Off (PTO type, control strategy and hydrodynamic resonance considerations are some of the critical aspects to take into account to achieve a good performance. The paper proposes an automatic dimensioning methodology to be accomplished at the initial design project stages and the following elements are described to carry out the study: an optimization design algorithm, its objective functions and restrictions, a PTO model, as well as a procedure to evaluate the WEC energy production. After that, a parametric analysis is included considering different combinations of the key parameters previously introduced. A variety of study cases are analysed from the point of view of energy production for different design-parameters and all of them are compared with a reference case. Finally, a discussion is presented based on the results obtained, and some recommendations to face the WEC design stage are given.

  13. Clinical efficacy of eye point massage in Chinese drug iontherapy for children amblyopia%眼部穴位按摩在中药离子导入治疗儿童弱视中的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦丽娇; 何碧华; 谢祥勇

    2013-01-01

    目的观察按摩眼部穴位在中药离子导入治疗儿童弱视中的作用及疗效。方法对纳入标准的弱视儿童120例(224眼),按就诊日期单双号分为对照组60例(110眼),观察组60例(114眼)。两组均用1%阿托品滴眼后验光配镜,并采用遮盖方法及精细作业治疗作为基础治疗。对照组采用补肝益肾、养血明目中药方眼部离子导入,每次导入15 min。观察组在中药眼部离子导入同时,予以眼部穴位按摩,10 min/次。两组均以3个月为1个疗程,治疗期间监测两组视力、起效时间及疗程长短。结果观察组总有效率为95.6%,对照组总有效率为91.8%,两者比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但观察组起效时间快,疗程短于对照组。结论眼部穴位按摩配合基础治疗加中药眼部离子导入疗法,具有促进弱视眼视功能恢复的作用。%Objective To observe the efficacy of eye point massage in Chinese drug iontherapy for children amblyopia.Methods One hundred and twenty amblyopia patients (224 eyes) were randomly divided into control group with 60 patients(110 eyes) and observation group with 60 patients(114 eyes).Both of two groups were got their eyeglasses by mydriatic refractometry after 1% atropine, and treated with occlusion and penalization .At the same time,control group were iontophoresed Chinese drugs each time 15 min, observation group were massaged the eye point each massage time 10 min after iontophoresing Chinese drugs , observing for 2 courses and 3 months made up of a course.The eyesight, onset time and duration were compared between the two groups .Results The effective rate for observation group was 95.6%,the control group 91.8%,showing that was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the two groups.But the onset time and duration of observation group were better than that of control group . Conclusion Eye point massage has similar action with Chinese drug

  14. Design and construction of a point-contact spectroscopy rig with lateral scanning capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortello, M; Park, W K; Ascencio, C O; Saraf, P; Greene, L H

    2016-06-01

    The design and realization of a cryogenic rig for point-contact spectroscopy measurements in the needle-anvil configuration is presented. Thanks to the use of two piezoelectric nano-positioners, the tip can move along the vertical (z) and horizontal (x) direction and thus the rig is suitable to probe different regions of a sample in situ. Moreover, it can also form double point-contacts on different facets of a single crystal for achieving, e.g., an interferometer configuration for phase-sensitive measurements. For the later purpose, the sample holder can also host a Helmholtz coil for applying a small transverse magnetic field to the junction. A semi-rigid coaxial cable can be easily added for studying the behavior of Josephson junctions under microwave irradiation. The rig can be detached from the probe and thus used with different cryostats. The performance of this new probe has been tested in a Quantum Design PPMS system by conducting point-contact Andreev reflection measurements on Nb thin films over large areas as a function of temperature and magnetic field.

  15. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  16. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones process the light to give you the total picture. You're ... get cloudy, causing a cataract . A cataract prevents light from reaching the retina and makes it difficult to see. The eyes you have will be yours forever — ...

  17. Positions of Guide Eyes in Circular Warp Knitting Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen

    2002-01-01

    The special lapping requirements were pointed out and the safe range to fix the guide eyes on the circular guide unit was determined by means of Locus Formulas of Warp sections in lapping movement, which were carried out on installing prototype machine. Based on the calculations of the force components acting on lapping points, the positions of the guide eyes in chain overlapping could be used to determine the safe range that could meet the requirements for tricot overlapping.The safe range can ensure the successful lapping and the multi-guide unit designing in circular warp-knitting machines.

  18. Principles for the design and calibration of radiation protection dosemeters for operational and protection quantities for eye lens dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, J M; Gualdrini, G; Daures, J; Mariotti, F

    2011-03-01

    The work package two of the ORAMED project--Collaborative Project (2008-2011) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme--is devoted to the study of the eye lens dosimetry. A first approach is to implement the use of H(p)(3) by providing new sets of conversion coefficients and well suited calibration and type test procedures. This approach is presented in other papers in the proceedings of this conference. Taking into account that the eye lens is an organ close to the surface of the body, another approach would be to directly estimate the absorbed dose to the eye lens, D(lens,est) through a special calibration procedure although this quantity is not directly measurable. This paper is a methodological paper that tries to identify the critical aspects of a dosimetry in terms of D(lens).

  19. A design point correlation for losses due to part-span dampers on transonic rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    The design-point losses caused by part-span dampers were correlated for 21 transonic axial-flow fan rotors that had tip speeds varying from 350 to 488 meters per second and design pressure ratios of 1.5 to 2.0. The additional loss attributable to the damper and the total region along the blade height influenced were correlated with selected aerodynamic and geometric parameters. The maximum damper loss correlated well with the mean inlet Mach number at the damper location, the geometric parameters of leading- and trailing-edge damper radius normalized by mean passage height and damper aerodynamic chord, respectively, and the aerodynamic loading parameter of the blade camber divided by the solidity at the damper location. The region of damper influence extended over a mean passage height of the order of 10 to 15 times the maximum damper thickness.

  20. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  1. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Mars Transit Habitat Refinement Point of Departure Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew; Latorella, Kara; Martin, John; Cerro, Jeff; Lepsch, Roger; Jefferies, Sharon; Goodliff, Kandyce; McCleskey, Carey; Smitherman, David; Stromgren, Chel

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the recently developed point of departure design for a long duration, reusable Mars Transit Habitat, which was established during a 2016 NASA habitat design refinement activity supporting the definition of NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign. As part of its development of sustainable human Mars mission concepts achievable in the 2030s, the Evolvable Mars Campaign has identified desired durations and mass/dimensional limits for long duration Mars habitat designs to enable the currently assumed solar electric and chemical transportation architectures. The Advanced Exploration Systems Mars Transit Habitat Refinement Activity brought together habitat subsystem design expertise from across NASA to develop an increased fidelity, consensus design for a transit habitat within these constraints. The resulting design and data (including a mass equipment list) contained in this paper are intended to help teams across the agency and potential commercial, academic, or international partners understand: 1) the current architecture/habitat guidelines and assumptions, 2) performance targets of such a habitat (particularly in mass, volume, and power), 3) the driving technology/capability developments and architectural solutions which are necessary for achieving these targets, and 4) mass reduction opportunities and research/design needs to inform the development of future research and proposals. Data presented includes: an overview of the habitat refinement activity including motivation and process when informative; full documentation of the baseline design guidelines and assumptions; detailed mass and volume breakdowns; a moderately detailed concept of operations; a preliminary interior layout design with rationale; a list of the required capabilities necessary to enable the desired mass; and identification of any worthwhile trades/analyses which could inform future habitat design efforts. As a whole, the data in the paper show that a transit habitat meeting the 43

  2. A water quality monitoring network design methodology for the selection of critical sampling points: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, R O; Robillard, P D; Day, R L; Shannon, R D; McDonnell, A J

    2006-11-01

    In order to resolve the spatial component of the design of a water quality monitoring network, a methodology has been developed to identify the critical sampling locations within a watershed. This methodology, called Critical Sampling Points (CSP), focuses on the contaminant total phosphorus (TP), and is applicable to small, predominantly agricultural-forested watersheds. The CSP methodology was translated into a model, called Water Quality Monitoring Station Analysis (WQMSA). It incorporates a geographic information system (GIS) for spatial analysis and data manipulation purposes, a hydrologic/water quality simulation model for estimating TP loads, and an artificial intelligence technology for improved input data representation. The model input data include a number of hydrologic, topographic, soils, vegetative, and land use factors. The model also includes an economic and logistics component. The validity of the CSP methodology was tested on a small experimental Pennsylvanian watershed, for which TP data from a number of single storm events were available for various sampling points within the watershed. A comparison of the ratios of observed to predicted TP loads between sampling points revealed that the model's results were promising.

  3. The Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey: Design and X-ray Point Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Guarcello, Mario G; Aldcroft, Tom L; Kashyap, Vinay L; Damiani, Francesco; DePasquale, Joe; Fruscione, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The Cygnus OB2 association is the largest concentration of young and massive stars within 2 kpc of the Sun, including an estimated 65 O-type stars and hundreds of OB stars. The Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey is a large imaging program undertaken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The survey has imaged the central 0.5 deg^2 of the Cyg OB2 association with an effective exposure of 120ks and an outer 0.35 deg^2 area with an exposure of 60ks. Here we describe the survey design and observations, the data reduction and source detection, and present a catalog of 8,000 X-ray point sources. The survey design employs a grid of 36 heavily (~50%) overlapping pointings, a method that overcomes Chandra's low off-axis sensitivity and produces a highly uniform exposure over the inner 0.5 deg^2. The full X-ray catalog is described here and is made available online.

  4. Double peacock eye optical element for extended focal depth imaging with ophthalmic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lenny A; Millán, María S; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2012-04-01

    The aged human eye is commonly affected by presbyopia, and therefore, it gradually loses its capability to form images of objects placed at different distances. Extended depth of focus (EDOF) imaging elements can overcome this inability, despite the introduction of a certain amount of aberration. This paper evaluates the EDOF imaging performance of the so-called peacock eye phase diffractive element, which focuses an incident plane wave into a segment of the optical axis and explores the element's potential use for ophthalmic presbyopia compensation optics. Two designs of the element are analyzed: the single peacock eye, which produces one focal segment along the axis, and the double peacock eye, which is a spatially multiplexed element that produces two focal segments with partial overlapping along the axis. The performances of the peacock eye elements are compared with those of multifocal lenses through numerical simulations as well as optical experiments in the image space. The results demonstrate that the peacock eye elements form sharper images along the focal segment than the multifocal lenses and, therefore, are more suitable for presbyopia compensation. The extreme points of the depth of field in the object space, which represent the remote and the near object points, have been experimentally obtained for both the single and the double peacock eye optical elements. The double peacock eye element has better imaging quality for relatively short and intermediate distances than the single peacock eye, whereas the latter seems better for far distance vision.

  5. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-02-13

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus Hp(3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  6. DESIGNING A G CODE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE FOR THE REFERENCE POINT SEVEN-SPEED SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALERIA VICTORIA IOVANOV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A CNC machine makes use of mathematics and various coordinate systems to understand and process the information it receives to determine what to move where and how fast . The most important function of any CNC machine is precise and rigorous control of the motion. All CNC equipment have two or more directions of motion, called axes. CNC machines are driven by computer controlled servo motors and generally guided by a stored program, the type of motion (fast , linear, circular , the moving axes, the distances of motion and the speed of motion ( processing being programmable for most CNC machines .This paper proposes the design and implementation of a G code programming language for the reference point „Seven-speed shaft”, used in all fields, in the motion transmission systems.

  7. Design of a multi-point microwave interferometer using the electro-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Paul E.; Cooper, Marcia A.; Jilek, Brook A.

    2017-01-01

    A multi-point microwave interferometer (MPMI) concept is presented for non-invasively monitoring the internal transit of a shock, detonation, or reaction front in energetic media. The concept utilizes an electro-optic (EO) crystal to impart a time-varying phase lag onto a laser with a microwave signal. Polarization optics convert this phase lag into an amplitude modulation. A heterodyne interferometer compares the modulated laser beam to a constant reference. This enables the detection of changes in the modulating microwave frequency generated by the motion of the measurement surface. The design is scalable and makes use of the established construction and analysis methods employed in photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV). The technical challenges associated with the concept are the frequency stability of the lasers, the amount of light return after EO modulation, and the frequency uncertainty of fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods.

  8. Global Machine Design and Double X-point Equilibrium Configurations for Ignitor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, A.; Parodi, B.; Coppi, B.

    2008-11-01

    The detailed design of the Ignitor machine has been carried out by considering extended limiter plasma configurations that are up-down symmetric and whose outer magnetic surfaces follow closely the cavity of the toroidal magnet over most of the vertical cross section. This provision minimizes the out-of- plane forces produced by the plasma current and acting on the toroidal magnet. When, instead, the adopted plasma equilibrium configuration is of the double X-point type the out-of-plane forces increase, and a complete structural analysis to take this increase into account becomes appropriate. The reference maximum plasma current Ip, in order to maintain an acceptable magnetic safety factor, is reduced from 11 MA in the extended limiter to 9 MA in the double X-point configuration while the magnetic field on axis (R01.32 m) is maintained at BT13 T. The reduced scenario involving Ip6 MA and BT9 T does not present a problem. Both 3D and 2D drawings of each individual machine component are produced using the Dassault Systems CATIA-V software. After their integration into a single 3D CATIA model of the Core (Load Assembly), the electro-fluidic and fluidic lines which supply electrical currents and helium cooling gas to the coils are included and mechanically connected to the main machine components.^*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. D.O.E.

  9. A New Font, Specifically Designed for Peripheral Vision, Improves Peripheral Letter and Word Recognition, but Not Eye-Mediated Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Aguilar, Carlos; Castet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading speed is dramatically reduced when readers cannot use their central vision. This is because low visual acuity and crowding negatively impact letter recognition in the periphery. In this study, we designed a new font (referred to as the Eido font) in order to reduce inter-letter similarity and consequently to increase peripheral letter recognition performance. We tested this font by running five experiments that compared the Eido font with the standard Courier font. Letter spacing and x-height were identical for the two monospaced fonts. Six normally-sighted subjects used exclusively their peripheral vision to run two aloud reading tasks (with eye movements), a letter recognition task (without eye movements), a word recognition task (without eye movements) and a lexical decision task. Results show that reading speed was not significantly different between the Eido and the Courier font when subjects had to read single sentences with a round simulated gaze-contingent central scotoma (10° diameter). In contrast, Eido significantly decreased perceptual errors in peripheral crowded letter recognition (-30% errors on average for letters briefly presented at 6° eccentricity) and in peripheral word recognition (-32% errors on average for words briefly presented at 6° eccentricity). PMID:27074013

  10. A New Font, Specifically Designed for Peripheral Vision, Improves Peripheral Letter and Word Recognition, but Not Eye-Mediated Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Aguilar, Carlos; Castet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading speed is dramatically reduced when readers cannot use their central vision. This is because low visual acuity and crowding negatively impact letter recognition in the periphery. In this study, we designed a new font (referred to as the Eido font) in order to reduce inter-letter similarity and consequently to increase peripheral letter recognition performance. We tested this font by running five experiments that compared the Eido font with the standard Courier font. Letter spacing and x-height were identical for the two monospaced fonts. Six normally-sighted subjects used exclusively their peripheral vision to run two aloud reading tasks (with eye movements), a letter recognition task (without eye movements), a word recognition task (without eye movements) and a lexical decision task. Results show that reading speed was not significantly different between the Eido and the Courier font when subjects had to read single sentences with a round simulated gaze-contingent central scotoma (10° diameter). In contrast, Eido significantly decreased perceptual errors in peripheral crowded letter recognition (-30% errors on average for letters briefly presented at 6° eccentricity) and in peripheral word recognition (-32% errors on average for words briefly presented at 6° eccentricity).

  11. Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design A. Andrews, T. Ryerson, J. Peischl, D. Parrish, M. Trainer, P. Tans An extensive dataset of CO2 concentrations including enhancements in point and area source plumes is available from in situ measurements collected using the NOAA P-3 and NCAR Electra research aircraft during seven major field projects from 1999 through 2010. Research flights sampled emission plumes from coal-, oil-, and natural gas-fired electric utility power plants, industrial facilities, and urban areas. Plume sampling often included horizontal transects at several altitudes and multiple distances downwind. CO2 data from crosswind transects upwind and downwind, coupled with ancillary measurements of co-emitted nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, along with plume location, and wind speed and direction permit unambiguous attribution and quantification of atmospheric plumes from individual sources. Certain point sources were revisited on multiple flights over the course of 1-2 month long field projects and on successive field projects spanning several years. Sampling occurred primarily in the summertime, daytime continental boundary layer, with some plume studies performed after dark and in the spring, fall, and winter seasons. The data provide rigorously calibrated, measurement-based constraints on the expected range of atmospheric CO2 plume enhancements that can be used to assess satellite sensor concepts. Crosswind near-field (~5 km) transects in the summer daytime mixed-layer downwind of the strongest point sources were characterized by peak plume CO2 mixing ratio enhancements >100 ppm above background for the 100-m spatial averages reported from the moving aircraft. On many flights, the aircraft tracked such emissions plumes beyond 150 km downwind, or up to 10 hours of transport time, until plume enhancements were indistinguishable from background variability in CO2

  12. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)377840; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia Maria; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 period (LS1), that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) Project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 virtual machines (VMs) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 22000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 Project; operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities. The design aspects a...

  13. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS simulation in Point1 project.

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    During the LHC long shutdown period (LS1), that started in 2013, the simulation in Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage in an opportunistic way of the trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) farm of the ATLAS experiment. The farm provides more than 1500 computer nodes, and they are particularly suitable for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2500 virtual machines (VM) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 20000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a thorough review of the design, the results and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project operating a large scale Openstack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive GRID sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities within the ATLAS collaboration. The particular design ...

  14. Optical design of fish-eye lens used for monitoring system%用于监控系统的鱼眼镜头光学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁久伟; 罗春华; 杨铭

    2011-01-01

    The bionics principle is used based on the principle of fish-eye lens and monitor control system requirements. A fish-eye lens that FOV is 180° and relative aperture is 1/1. 6 is designed with the optical system design software ZEMAX to meet the requirement of the monitor control system on panoramic monitor. The designed system consists nine lenses. The total length is 68. 5mm, image receiver is 1/3 inch CCD, the MTF value is more than 0. 3 within 0. 7 FOV at 80lp/mm, the MTF value of FOV are more than 0. 5 within 0 FOV at 120lp/mm. The lens has high distortion because of this lens is a fish-eye lens. Its barrel distortion approximates to 100% within 1. 0 FOV.%为了满足监控系统中单镜头可实现全景监控的需求,运用仿生学原理,在原有鱼眼镜头的基础上结合监控系统的需求,运用ZEMAX软件设计了一款视场为180°,相对孔径为1/1.6的鱼眼镜头.该镜头由9片透镜组成,总长度为68.5mm,采用1/3英寸CCD作为图像接收器件.在120lp/mm时,其MTF曲线在轴上大于0.4,在80lp/mm时,在0.7带上大于0.3.由于是超广角镜头,此镜头畸变很大,在边缘视场具有接近100%的桶形畸变.

  15. LOGICAL STARTING POINT OF PRODUCT DESIGN%产品设计的逻辑起点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2016-01-01

    设计行为的特征首先是基于一个无限的直觉性想象空间中,借助各种知识系统的交流与互动,将可以描述且定位出一个有着庞大潜力的可能性空间,设计活动正是在其间酝酿及发生,与其他知识系统中复杂的研究活动相互碰撞,以尝试着在各个不同知识系统的差异中寻求统一。由此,经验与知识的结合可以建构出想象的基础,物品系统发展的历程相互交织而成为架构,则是形成了产品设计的角色定位,产品设计概念发生的契机酝酿着产品的可能性,各种条件的限制便是决定产品可行性强或弱的主要因素,因而这个辩证的过程便产生了产品设计的逻辑起点。%The characteristic of design action is based on a infinite intuition of imagine space, with the help of many knowledge system in exchange and interaction, which can be described and fixed position a more potential possibility space, that design action just brew and happen in it, with other knowledge system in the complicated research field running into mutual, in order to look for unify in many knowledge system in difference. Thus the combining of experience and knowledge can construct the base of imagine, and the course of goods system develop interflow that become the framework, so that take shape about the role location of product design, and the concept of product design happen moment that brew the possibility of this product, that impose restrictions on al kinds of condition are bases at decide product feasibility in strong or weak, thus this process in demonstration have been produce the logical starting point of product design.

  16. Design and Synthesis of Single Precision Floating Point Division based on Newton-Raphson Algorithm on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Naginder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a single precision floating point division based on Newton-Raphson computational division algorithm. The Newton-Raphson computational algorithm is implemented using 32-bit floating point multi-plier and subtractor. The salient feature of this proposed design is that the module for computing mantissa in 32-floating point multiplier is designed using a 24-bit Vedic multiplication (Urdhva-triyakbhyam-sutra technique. 32-bit floating point multiplier, designed using Vedic multiplication technique, yields a higher computational speed, hence, is efficiently used in floating point divider. Another important feature is the efficient use of device utilization parame-ters and reduced power consumption. An advantage of the Newton-Raphson algorithm is the higher versatility and precision. For representing 32-bit floating point numbers, IEEE 754 standard format is used. ISim simulator is used for simulation. The proposed floating point divider is designed using Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL and is verified on Xilinx Spartan 6 SP605 Evaluation Platform FPGA.

  17. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-04

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  18. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people you know — like your grandparents — probably wear glasses. To the Brain! Think of the optic nerve as the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  19. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrero, S.; Batraneanu, S. M.; Brasolin, F.; Contescu, C.; Fazio, D.; Di Girolamo, A.; Lee, C. J.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Sedov, A.; Twomey, M. S.; Wang, F.; Zaytsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LSI) period, that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High-Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 Virtual Machines (VMs) each with 8 CPU cores, for a total of up to 22000 parallel jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project, operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 33 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.1 billion Monte Carlo events. The design aspects are presented: the virtualization platform exploited by Sim@P1 avoids interferences with TDAQ operations and it guarantees the security and the usability of the ATLAS private network. The cloud mechanism allows the separation of the needed support on both infrastructural (hardware, virtualization layer) and logical (Grid site support) levels. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of such a large system during the upcoming LHC Run 2 period: simple, reliable, and efficient tools are needed to quickly switch from Sim@P1 to TDAQ mode and back, to exploit the resources when they are not used for the data acquisition, even for short periods. The evolution of the central OpenStack infrastructure is described, as it was upgraded from Folsom to the Icehouse release, including the scalability issues addressed.

  20. Multi-point design optimization of hydrofoil for marine current turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗兴锜; 朱国俊; 冯建军

    2014-01-01

    The comprehensive performance of the marine current turbine is an important issue in the ocean energy development. Its key is the performance of the hydrofoil, which is used to form the turbine blade. A multi-point optimization method of the hydrofoil is proposed in this paper. In this method, the Bezier curve is used to parameterize the hydrofoil. The geometrical parameters are used as variables while the lift-drag ratio and the cavitation performance of the hydrofoil are used as the objective functions. The NSGA-II algorithm is chosen as the optimization algorithm. In order to resolve the difficulty of this high-dimensional multi-objective optimi- zation problem, the conception of the distance metric in the metric space is introduced to unify the lift-drag ratio and the cavitation performance under different working conditions. And then, the above optimization method is applied in the NACA63-815 hydro- foil’s optimal design under three typical conditions. Finally, the results from the performance comparison of the original and optimi- zed hydrofoils obtained by using the CFD simulation are analyzed in detail. It is indicated that the optimized hydrofoils enjoy a better hydrodynamic performance than the original ones under the three conditions. The feasibility and the theoretical validity of this optimization method are confirmed by the results.

  1. Comparison of the most common HRV computation algorithms from the systems designer point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manis, G

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the most commonly used algorithms for the computation of heart rate variability as well as some other interesting approaches. The aim of the paper is to study the problem from a different point of view, that of the systems designer. The selected algorithms are compared to each other through experimental analysis and theoretical study. The comparison criteria are efficiency, complexity, size of the object code, memory requirements, power consumption, parallel complexity and speedup achieved, ability to response in real time, simplicity of the interface and implementation in hardware. The motivation is strong since heart rate variability is an interesting problem which finds application not only in conventional computing systems, but also in small, even wearable devices implemented using embedded systems technology or directly in hardware. The computation of heart rate variability for a set of signal recordings and the classification achieved for these signals with each examined method are also presented. Signals have been recorded from young and elderly subjects and the examined methods are used to classify them into these two distinct groups.

  2. 头戴式视线跟踪系统的一点标定方法%ONE-POINT CALIBRATION METHOD FOR HEAD-MOUNTED EYE TRACKING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯树卫; 李斌; 夏小宝

    2014-01-01

    标定方法是视线跟踪技术中的关键环节,直接影响跟踪精度和用户体验。目前头戴式跟踪系统所使用标定方法,需要多个标定点进行标定。为更快、更方便地进行标定,提出一种方法,只需一个标定点,便可提取足够的标定信息完成标定过程。该方法可适用于目前的多种映射方法,如DLT方法、多项式方法、神经网络方法等,标定时间仅需10 s,精度可达1°,与多点标定相比,效率显著提高,而精度无明显差异。此外,使用一种新的神经网络模型:ELM(极端学习机)实现了神经网络标定方法,ELM的快速学习性能,显著缩短了神经网络训练时间。%The calibration method affects the tracking accuracy and user experience directly,so it is a key link in gaze tracking technolo-gy.Current calibration method used by the head-mounted tracking system requires multiple calibration points to accomplish this process.Inorder to calibrate faster and more convenient,we present a method which only requires one calibration point for extracting sufficient calibrationinformation to complete the calibration process.This method can be applied to a variety of mapping methods used at present,such as the DLTmethod,the polynomial method,and the neural network method,etc.The calibration time takes only 10 s,and the precision reaches 1°.Compared with multi-point calibration,it significantly improves the efficiency with no noticeable difference in precision.In addition,we usea new neural network model,the ELM (extreme learning machine),to realise the neural network calibration.ELM’s fast learningperformance remarkably shortens the training time of the neural network.

  3. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach...

  4. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  5. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  6. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  7. Eye Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  8. Eye Safety at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  9. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  10. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  12. Design and Implementation of Numerical Linear Algebra Algorithms on Fixed Point DSPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zoran; Nguyen, Ha Thai; Frantz, Gene

    2007-12-01

    Numerical linear algebra algorithms use the inherent elegance of matrix formulations and are usually implemented using C/C++ floating point representation. The system implementation is faced with practical constraints because these algorithms usually need to run in real time on fixed point digital signal processors (DSPs) to reduce total hardware costs. Converting the simulation model to fixed point arithmetic and then porting it to a target DSP device is a difficult and time-consuming process. In this paper, we analyze the conversion process. We transformed selected linear algebra algorithms from floating point to fixed point arithmetic, and compared real-time requirements and performance between the fixed point DSP and floating point DSP algorithm implementations. We also introduce an advanced code optimization and an implementation by DSP-specific, fixed point C code generation. By using the techniques described in the paper, speed can be increased by a factor of up to 10 compared to floating point emulation on fixed point hardware.

  13. Design and Implementation of Numerical Linear Algebra Algorithms on Fixed Point DSPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Frantz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical linear algebra algorithms use the inherent elegance of matrix formulations and are usually implemented using C/C++ floating point representation. The system implementation is faced with practical constraints because these algorithms usually need to run in real time on fixed point digital signal processors (DSPs to reduce total hardware costs. Converting the simulation model to fixed point arithmetic and then porting it to a target DSP device is a difficult and time-consuming process. In this paper, we analyze the conversion process. We transformed selected linear algebra algorithms from floating point to fixed point arithmetic, and compared real-time requirements and performance between the fixed point DSP and floating point DSP algorithm implementations. We also introduce an advanced code optimization and an implementation by DSP-specific, fixed point C code generation. By using the techniques described in the paper, speed can be increased by a factor of up to 10 compared to floating point emulation on fixed point hardware.

  14. A Note on Eye Movement

    CERN Document Server

    Bolina, O; Bolina, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    In a simplified fashion, the motion of the eyeball in its orbit consists of rotations around a fixed point. Therefore, this motion can be described in terms of the Euler's angles of rigid body dynamics. However, there is a physiological constraint in the motion of the eye which reduces to two its degrees of freedom. This paper reviews the basic features of the kinematics of the eye and the laws governing its motion.

  15. Design of a Floating-Point Fused Add-Subtract Unit Using Verilog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Sharma,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A floating-point (FP fused add-subtract unit is presented that performs simultaneous floating-point operation of add-subtract on a common pair of single-precision data at the same time that it takes to perform in a single addition with a conventional floating-point adder. The system was placed and routed in 45nm process so that there will be less consumption of memory as well as power.

  16. Technology Development and Circuit Design for a Parallel Laser Programmable Floating Point Application Specific Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    The laser programmable floating point application specific processor (LPASP) is a new approach at rapid development of custom VLSI chips. The LPASP...double precision floating point adder and the laser programmable read-only memory (LPROM) that are macrocells within the LPASP. In addition, the...thesis analyzes the applicability of an LPASP parallel processing system. The double precision floating point adder is an adder/subtractor macrocell

  17. Design of FPGA based 32-bit Floating Point Arithmetic Unit and verification of its VHDL code using MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Grover

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the algorithms implemented in FPGAs used to be fixed-point. Floating-point operations are useful for computations involving large dynamic range, but they require significantly more resources than integer operations. With the current trends in system requirements and available FPGAs, floating-point implementations are becoming more common and designers are increasingly taking advantage of FPGAs as a platform for floating-point implementations. The rapid advance in Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA technology makes such devices increasingly attractive for implementing floating-point arithmetic. Compared to Application Specific Integrated Circuits, FPGAs offer reduced development time and costs. Moreover, their flexibility enables field upgrade and adaptation of hardware to run-time conditions. A 32 bit floating point arithmetic unit with IEEE 754 Standard has been designed using VHDL code and all operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are tested on Xilinx. Thereafter, Simulink model in MAT lab has been created for verification of VHDL code of that Floating Point Arithmetic Unit in Modelsim.

  18. Self-Designed Points: Turning Responsibility for Learning over to Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    In her recent "Teaching English in the Two-Year College" ("TETYC") article, Denise Marchionda argues for a grading system in her first-year writing course that turns over responsibility to students for earning grades. The approach, which she calls "the point-by-point grading system," is a variation on a contract grading approach in which each…

  19. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Point Cloud Codec for Tele-Immersive Video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekuria, R.N.; Blom, C.L.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    we present a generic and real-time time-varying point cloud codec for 3D immersive video. This codec is suitable for mixed reality applications where 3D point clouds are acquired at a fast rate. In this codec, intra frames are coded progressively in an octree subdivision. To further exploit inter-f

  20. 非球面复眼设计及其制备工艺研究%Design and preparation of aspherical compound eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝永平; 李伦; 于军波

    2016-01-01

    提出了一种制备非球面仿生复眼的方法。昆虫的复眼是由一个个尺寸微小的独立小眼沿曲面小眼阵列的方式分布在头部的两侧,以实现大视角探测。设计曲面基底上阵列非均匀微透镜结构,沿径向排列的各级微透镜的焦距及尺寸均不相同。根据几何光学成像原理,计算各级微透镜的尺寸参数,对构建的模型进行光线追迹,优化各级微透镜的尺寸参数。分析不同制备技术特点,研究材料性能及不同材料间的关系,提出了可简单、快速的制备非球面仿生复眼的方法。该方法中,利用精密五轴数控机床加工非球面复眼模具,然后通过压力灌注方法将非球面复眼结构转移出来,获得所需的非球面仿生复眼。通过仿真及实验结果表明,整个曲面仿生复眼边缘成像质量明显提高,各子眼通道均能够采集清晰亮斑。%A preparation method for aspherical bionic compound eye is proposed.The compound eyes of insects are composed of many tiny independent ommatidia,and these ommatidia along the surface of the array distribute on both sides of the head to achieve large angle viewing.The array of non-uniform substrate surface is designed for micro-lens structure,and the focal lengths and sizes of radial arrayed micro-lenses are all different.According to geometrical op-tics imaging principle,size parameters of all level micro-lenses are computed,and the constructed model is carried out by ray-tracing and the size parameters of all level micro-lenses are optimized.The technical characteristics of different preparation methods are analyzed,and material properties and the relationship between different materials are studied, so a simple and fast preparation method for aspherical bionic compound eye is proposed.In this method,the mold of aspherical compound eyes is manufactured by precise five-axis CNC machine and then the aspheric compound eye structure is transferred

  1. Direct design of freeform surfaces and freeform imaging systems with a point-by-point three-dimensional construction-iteration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tong; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Jin, Guofan

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, we proposed a general direct design method for three-dimensional freeform surfaces and freeform imaging systems based on a construction-iteration process. In the preliminary surfaces-construction process, the coordinates as well as the surface normals of the data points on the multiple freeform surfaces can be calculated directly considering the rays of multiple fields and different pupil coordinates. Then, an iterative process is employed to significantly improve the image quality or achieve a better mapping relationship of the light rays. Three iteration types which are normal iteration, negative feedback and successive approximation are given. The proposed construction-iteration method is applied in the design of an easy aligned, low F-number off-axis three-mirror system. The primary and tertiary mirrors can be fabricated on a single substrate and form a single element in the final system. The secondary mirror is simply a plane mirror. With this configuration, the alignment difficulty of a freeform system can be greatly reduced. After the preliminary surfaces-construction stage, the freeform surfaces in the optical system can be generated directly from an initial planar system. Then, with the iterative process, the average RMS spot diameter decreased by 75.4% compared with the system before iterations, and the maximum absolute distortion decreased by 94.2%. After further optimization with optical design software, good image quality which is closed to diffraction-limited is achieved.

  2. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  3. The Educational effects of on-site learning for Regional Space Design : From the point of view of Engineering Design

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Engineering design is defined as “a design is to devise a good constitution for a target,” in the department of civil engineering and urban design. It is essential to have the planning ability for students working in the field of civil engineering after graduation. In addition, there is a need for educating engineer as design education in creative imagination. “Urban Information and Design” in 2011 was carried out to educate students on the information obtained from the urban space its...

  4. Design and Implementation of a Digital Controller for a Vibration Isolation and Vernier Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Daniel J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the recommissioning of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS), originally developed in the mid 1970's for pointing and vibration isolation of space experiments. The hardware was developed for NASA Langley Research Center by Sperry Flight Systems (now Honeywell Satellite Systems), was delivered to NASA in 1983. Recently, the hardware was loaned to Old Dominion University (ODU). The ASPS includes coarse gimbal assemblies and a Vernier Pointing Assembly (VPA) that utilize magnetic suspension to provide noncontacting vibration isolation and vernier pointing of the payload. The VPA is the main focus of this research. At ODU, the system has been modified such that it can now be operated in a l-g environment without a gravity offload. Suspension of the annular iron rotor in five degrees-of-freedom has been achieved with the use of modern switching power amplifiers and a digital controller implemented on a 486-class PC.

  5. Design of area and power efficient Radix-4 DIT FFT butterfly unit using floating point fused arithmetic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhu E; Mangalam H; Karthick S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, power efficient butterfly unit based FFT architecture is presented. The butterfly unit is designed using floating-point fused arithmetic units. The fused arithmetic units include two-term dot product unit and add-subtract unit. In these arithmetic units, operations are performed over complex data values. A modified fused floating-point two-term dot product and an enhanced model for the Radix-4 FFT butterfly unit are proposed. The modified fused two-term dot product is designed using Radix-16 booth multiplier. Radix-16 booth multiplier will reduce the switching activities compared to Radix-8 booth multiplier in existing system and also will reduce the area required. The proposed architecture is implemented efficiently for Radix-4 decimation in time (DIT) FFT butterfly with the two floating-point fused arithmetic units. The proposed enhanced architecture is synthesized, implemented, placed and routed on a FPGA device using Xilinx ISE tool. It is observed that the Radix-4 DIT fused floating-point FFT butterfly requires 50.17% less space and 12.16% reduced power compared to the existing methods and the proposed enhanced model requires 49.82% less space on the FPGA device compared to the proposed design. Also, reduced power consumption is addressed by utilizing the reusability technique, which results in 11.42% of power reduction of the enhanced model compared to the proposed design.

  6. Study and Design on Freeform Surface Compound Eye with Large Field of View%大视场自由曲面复眼设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范阳; 张红霞; 宋乐; 贾大功

    2014-01-01

    The ommatidia arranged at the edge have great off-axis aberrations in artificial compound eye structure with wide Field of View (FOV) and small volume. A new compound eye structure is presented, where the ommatidia are designed as freeform prisms. With the light passing through the freeform surface and folding in the ommatidium, the off-axis aberrations are well corrected. Therefore, the image quality of the ommatidia arranged at the edge is improved, and the FOV of the structure is enlarged. To image 180° FOV, this structure contains 5 groups of ommatidia with a particular FOV correspondingly. The model of each group is designed and the ray trace is completed based on the optical simulation software codeV. The results demonstrate that the compound eyes structure has high image quality for the entire 180° FOV. On the one hand, the modulation transformation function MTF is greater than 0.2 at the frequency of 100lp/mm, and on the other hand, the distortion is less than 30%.%在大视场小体积的人造复眼结构中,倾斜的边缘子眼成像时存在较大的轴外像差。提出一种复眼结构,利用光线在子眼中的折转与自由曲面矫正像差,提高了边缘子眼的成像质量,进而增大了复眼结构的视场角。设计出5组子眼对180°视场成像,每组对应特定的视场范围。利用光学仿真软件CodeV对5组子眼分别做了光学仿真,得到了各组子眼的像差曲线,光学传递函数 MTF 曲线。结果表明,在整个180°视场范围内,频率为100 lp/mm时,MTF值均大于0.2,畸变在30%以内,复眼具有良好的成像质量。

  7. 仿生复眼接收系统设计与实验%Design and experiment of artificial compound eye receiving system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭雪春; 武志超; 梁柱

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of biological visual systems and object recognition technologies, several key technologies of artificial compound eyes, including its structure, splicing, fiber coupling and optical signal receiving technique were studied and a bionic compound eye receiving system was designed for staring laser radars. By imitating the structures and shapes of compound eyes of insects, the system consists of 16 lens arrays,and its whole field angle is 2 °. The optical system was designed by the Zemax software and optical signals were received by fiber coupling technology. The detection results were studied experimentally,and it shows that this receiving system can well reflect the contour of a detecting target,and the detection range is more than 200 m. On the experimental setup,a range image with 20 frames is obtained, and the pixel space is 1.72 m × 1.72 m. Obtained results verify the feasibility of proposed system and indicate that the system can be used in the missile end-guiding and the topographic matching of aerocrafts in low altitudes.%以生物视觉成像和目标识别为研究背景,深入研究了光学复眼的结构与拼接以及基于光纤耦合的光信号接收成像技术,并设计了一种可应用于凝视激光雷达的新型光学复眼接收系统.通过模仿昆虫复眼结构形式,该系统由16个透镜阵列构成,全视场角为2°.利用Zemax软件完成了光学系统设计,结合光纤耦合技术接收光信号,对复眼探测结果进行了实验研究和分析.结果表明,该接收系统能够准确地反映探测目标轮廓,探测距离可达200 m以上,在实验室获得了20 frame/s的距离图像,像点点阵间距为1.72 m×1.72 m.实验结果验证了该接收系统的合理性,表明该系统可以满足导弹末制导使用或是低空飞行器下视地形匹配.

  8. Design and Development of Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator-based Eye Safe Laser Operating at 20 Hz without Forced Air Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Bhardwaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the design and development of an electro-optically Q-switched diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with intracavity optical parametric oscillator, generating ~ 5 ns laser pulses of ~8 mJ energy at eye safe wavelength of 1534 nm. A Z-shaped laser resonator has been designed with porro prism end reflector in Q-switch arm containing RTP Q-Switch and a suitably oriented waveplate. The gain arm consists of a Ø3 x 72 mm Nd: YAG laser rod, pumped from one side by 3 x 5 bar laser diode array stack emitting total optical peak power of 740 W at 804 nm at 38 °C. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs have been employed to maintain the optimum temperature of laser diode arrays and the combined heat load from the pump chamber and TECs is distributed over the system base plate with embedded heat pipes. Such cooling mechanism has eliminated the requirement of fins and fans in the laser system. Eye safe radiation is out-coupled through intra cavity KTA OPO (5 x 5 x 20 mm3 placed in the gain arm. Laser was operated at 20 Hz for several duty cycles of 10 min on and 10 min off and output energy remained stable within ±0.5 mJ without any forced air/liquid cooling.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.599-605, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5759

  9. Acupuncture for dry eye: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ae-Ran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic disorders, safer and more effective methods for its treatment are necessary, especially for vulnerable patients. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with dry eye. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for this condition. Methods/Design A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham (non-acupuncture point, shallow acupuncture controlled study was established. Participants allocated to verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups will be treated three times weekly for three weeks for a total of nine sessions per participant. Seventeen points (GV23; bilateral BL2, GB4, TE23, Ex1 (Taiyang, ST1 and GB20; and left SP3, LU9, LU10 and HT8 for men, right for women have been selected for the verum acupuncture; for the sham acupuncture, points have been selected that do not coincide with a classical acupuncture point and that are located close to the verum points, except in the case of the rim of the eye. Ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup time, the Schirmer I test, medication quantification scale and general assessment of improvement will be used as outcome variables for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture. Safety will also be assessed at every visit. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed four weeks after screening. All statistical analyses will be performed using analysis of covariance. Discussion The results of this trial will be used as a basis for clarifying the efficacy of acupuncture for dry eye. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00969280.

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Enclosed Structure on Type Design with Fixation Dispersion: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Min-Yuan; Chuang, Hsien-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Type design is the process of re-organizing visual elements and their corresponding meanings into a new organic entity, particularly for the highly logographic Chinese characters whose intrinsic features are retained even after re-organization. Due to this advantage, designers believe that such a re-organization process will not affect Chinese…

  11. Design of the IBM RISC System/6000 floating-point execution unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoye, R.K.; Hokenek, E. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Runyon, S.L. (IBM Advanced Workstations Div., Austin, TX (US))

    1990-01-01

    The IBM RISC System/6000 (RS/6000) floating-point unit (FPU) exemplifies a second-generation RISC CPU architecture and an implementation which greatly increases floating-point performance and accuracy. The key feature of the FPU is a unified floating-point multiply-add-fused unit (MAF) which performs the accumulate operation ({ital A} {times} {ital B}) + {ital C} as an indivisible operation. This single functional unit reduces the latency for chained floating-point operations, as well as rounding errors and chip busing. It also reduces the number of adders/normalizers by combining the addition required for fast multiplication with accumulation. The MAF unit is made practical by a unique fast-shifter, which eases the overlap of multiplication and addition, and a leading-zero/one anticipator, which eases overlap of normalization and addition. The accumulate instruction required by this architecture reduces the instruction path length by combining two instructions into one. Additionally, the RS/6000 FPU is tightly coupled to the rest of the CPU, unlike typical floating-point coprocessor chips.

  12. Representations of sensory experiences in the early phases of architectural design: there is more than meets the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Elsen, Catherine; Heylighen, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In response to questions about designers’ visual way of knowing and working, this article explores how sensory experience is conveyed during the early phases of architectural design. By processing 985 graphic components issued from a three-month ethnographic observation inside an architecture firm, and proposing an original methodology for their analysis, we identify and analyse graphic expressions of sensory-related design intentions. Multi-sensory dimensions of experiencing an architectural...

  13. Space tug point design study. Volume 3: Design definition. Part 1: Propulsion and mechanical, avionics, thermal control and electrical power subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration and performance of a space tug. Details of the space tug systems are presented to include: (1) propulsion systems, (2) avionics, (3) thermal control, and (4) electric power subsystems. The data generated include engineering drawings, schematics, subsystem operation, and component description. Various options investigated and the rational for the point design selection are analyzed.

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  15. Design and implementation of floating-point adders%FPU加法器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田祎; 颜军

    2012-01-01

    Floating point adders is the core component of FPU, It's the foundation of floating-point operation instruction, To improve the design optimization is very important of floating-point calculation speed and precision. This article from the floating-point adder algorithm and circuit implementation give design method, Through the VHDL language in Quartusii in design and validation ,The adder through the FSM control operations, Effective to reduce the power consumption, Improve the speed and function.%浮点运算器的核心运算部件是浮点加法器,它是实现浮点指令各种运算的基础,其设计优化对于提高浮点运算的速度和精度相当关键。文章从浮点加法器算法和电路实现的角度给出设计方法,通过VHDL语言在QuartusⅡ中进行设计和验证,此加法器通过状态机控制运算,有效地降低了功耗,提高了速度,改善了性能。

  16. Numerical investigation of the cavitational behaviour into a storage pump at off design operating points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuparu, A; Susan-Resiga, R; Anton, L E [Department of Hydraulic Machinery, Politehnica University of Timisoara, Bd. Mihai Viteazu 1, Timisoara, 300222 (Romania); Muntean, S, E-mail: astuparu@mh.mec.upt.r [Centre of Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy-Timisoara Branch, Bd. Mihai Viteazu 24, Timisoara, 300223 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    The paper presents a new method for the analysis of the cavitational behaviour of hydraulic turbomachines. This new method allows determining the coefficient of the cavitation inception and the cavitation sensitivity of the turbomachines. We apply this method to study the cavitational behaviour of a large storage pump. By plotting in semi-logarithmic coordinates the vapour volume versus the cavitation coefficient, we show that all numerical data collapse in an exponential manner. This storage pump is located in a power plant and operating without the presence of the developed cavitation is vital. We investigate the behaviour of the pump from the cavitational point of view while the pump is operating for variable discharge. A distribution of the vapour volume upon the blade of the impeller is presented for all the four operating points. It can be seen how the volume of vapour evolves from one operating point to another. In order to study the influence of the cavitation phenomena upon the pump, the evolution of the pumping head against the cavitation coefficient is presented. That will show how the pumping head drops while the cavitation coefficient decreases. From analysing the data obtained from the numerical simulation it results that the cavitation phenomena is present for all the investigated operating points. By analysis of the slope of the curve describing the evolution of the vapour volume against the cavitation coefficient we determine the cavitation sensitivity of the pump for each operating point. It is showed that the cavitation sensitivity of the investigated storage pump increases while the flow rate decreases.

  17. Application of Graphics Opening the Eyes Method in Advertising Design%图形开眼法在广告设计中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国喜

    2012-01-01

    以文学中的画龙点睛之笔为启示,分析了图形开眼方法及图形开眼原则,论述了在广告设计中如何从图形的影像、图形的叠加关系、图形的放置方式、图形的切割变化、图形的逻辑关系等方面进行变化,使图形成为整个广告设计的画龙点睛之笔。在此基础上,提出了应根据广告主题灵活运用图形开眼法来增加广告的趣味性与联想空间,为广告设计的图形处理方法提供参考和借鉴。%Taking finishing touch in the literature as enlightenment,it analyzed opening the eyes method of graphical and principles of graphics,discussed how to change from images of graphics,overlay relationship of graphics,placement of graphics,cutting changes of graphics,the logic relation of the graphics in advertising.Graphics become finishing touch of the entire advertising.On this basis,it proposed advertising theme should be based on flexible use of graphical opening the eyes method to Increase the interest and imagination of advertising,it provided reference and learn for graphics design of advertising.

  18. Design of Real-time Eyes Detection System Based on FPGA%基于FPGA平台的实时人眼检测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀圣; 郭伟峻

    2012-01-01

    The near-infrated source and image difference methods were used to design the eyes detection system based on FP- GA. Through the image difference processing, a difference image with bright pupils which takes the face as the main body can he obtained. Then, through gray stretching, image segmentation and intergal projection on difference image, the location of the face can be obtained, and then the eyes detection can be implemented through improved complexity algorithm in the de- tected face region. After experience, the processing speed of the system can achieve 30 frames persecond, which meets the requirement of real-time performance. Meanwhile, the method of near-infrared source can eliminate the effection from other sources, so the system's robustness can be graranteed.%采用近红外光源与图像差分相结合的方法在现场可编程逻辑阵列(FPGA)平台上实现了人眼检测系统。利用图像差分可以获得具有亮瞳孔效应、以人脸为主体的目标图像,通过对其进行灰度拉伸、分割、积分投影可以得到人脸位置,在检测到的人脸区域利用改进的复杂度算法实现了人眼检测。经测试,系统的处理速度可达30帧/秒,满足实时性检测的要求。基于近红外光源的方法消除了外界光源的干扰,从而保证了系统的鲁棒性。

  19. Design of sampling locations for river water quality monitoring considering seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekar, Vikas; Karmakar, Subhankar; Jha, Ramakar; Ghosh, N C

    2015-06-01

    The design of a water quality monitoring network (WQMN) is a complicated decision-making process because each sampling involves high installation, operational, and maintenance costs. Therefore, data with the highest information content should be collected. The effect of seasonal variation in point and diffuse pollution loadings on river water quality may have a significant impact on the optimal selection of sampling locations, but this possible effect has never been addressed in the evaluation and design of monitoring networks. The present study proposes a systematic approach for siting an optimal number and location of river water quality sampling stations based on seasonal or monsoonal variations in both point and diffuse pollution loadings. The proposed approach conceptualizes water quality monitoring as a two-stage process; the first stage of which is to consider all potential water quality sampling sites, selected based on the existing guidelines or frameworks, and the locations of both point and diffuse pollution sources. The monitoring at all sampling sites thus identified should be continued for an adequate period of time to account for the effect of the monsoon season. In the second stage, the monitoring network is then designed separately for monsoon and non-monsoon periods by optimizing the number and locations of sampling sites, using a modified Sanders approach. The impacts of human interventions on the design of the sampling net are quantified geospatially by estimating diffuse pollution loads and verified with land use map. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the Kali River basin in the western Uttar Pradesh state of India was selected as a study area. The final design suggests consequential pre- and post-monsoonal changes in the location and priority of water quality monitoring stations based on the seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loadings.

  20. On design points for green buildings in architectural design%建筑设计中绿色建筑设计要点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭红

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes the connotation of the design ideas for the green buildings,indicates the importance of the green buildings,illus-trates the contents for the green building design from the resource-saving,functions of green buildings,and optimal environment,and points out the design points for the green buildings,so as to provide the livable environment for residents.%分析了绿色建筑设计理念的内涵,论述了绿色建筑设计的重要性,从节约资源、绿色建筑功能、优化环境等方面,阐述了绿色建筑设计的内容,并提出了绿色建筑的设计要点,旨在为人们提供更加优质的居住环境。

  1. Space Mission Design in the Vicinity of Small Bodies and Libration Points Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for applying advanced dynamical theories to space mission design and analysis, especially in the context of unstable orbital trajectories in...

  2. Design of a Wireless EEG System for Point-of-Care Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wenyan; Bai, Yicheng; Sun, Mingui; Sclabassi, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to develop a wireless EEG system to provide critical point-of-care information about brain electrical activity. A novel dry electrode, which can be installed rapidly, is used to acquire EEG from the scalp. A wireless data link between the electrode and a data port (i.e., a smartphone) is established based on the Bluetooth technology. A prototype of this system has been implemented and its performance in acquiring EEG has been evaluated.

  3. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  4. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread ... can return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  6. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  7. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant - Insights Gained from the INEEL Point Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry

    2004-08-01

    This paper provides the results of an assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebble-bed fuel helium gas reactor. Insights gained regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the two designs are also discussed. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two major modifications of the current Gas Turbine- Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) design were needed to obtain a prismatic block design with a 1000 C outlet temperature: reducing the bypass flow and better controlling the inlet coolant flow distribution to the core. The total power that could be obtained for different core heights without exceeding a peak transient fuel temperature of 1600 °C during a high or low-pressure conduction cooldown event was calculated. With a coolant inlet temperature of 490 °C and 10% nominal core bypass flow, it is estimated that the peak power for a 10-block high core is 686 MWt, for a 12-block high core is 786 MWt, and for a 14-block core is about 889 MWt. The core neutronics calculations showed that the NGNP will exhibit strongly negative Doppler and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity over the burnup cycle. In the event of rapid loss of the helium gas, there is negligible core reactivity change. However, water or steam ingress into the core coolant channels can produce a relatively large reactivity effect. Two versions of an annular pebble-bed NGNP have also been developed, a 300 and a 600 MWt module. From this work we learned how to design passively safe pebble bed reactors that produce more than 600 MWt. We also found a way to improve both the fuel utilization and safety by modifying the pebble design (by adjusting the fuel zone radius in the pebble to optimize the fuel

  8. More than meets the eye: Using cognitive work analysis to identify design requirements for future rail level crossing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Mulvihill, Christine M; Cornelissen, Miranda; Walker, Guy H; Young, Kristie L; Stevens, Nicholas; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    An increasing intensity of operations means that the longstanding safety issue of rail level crossings is likely to become worse in the transport systems of the future. It has been suggested that the failure to prevent collisions may be, in part, due to a lack of systems thinking during design, crash analysis, and countermeasure development. This paper presents a systems analysis of current active rail level crossing systems in Victoria, Australia that was undertaken to identify design requirements to improve safety in future rail level crossing environments. Cognitive work analysis was used to analyse rail level crossing systems using data derived from a range of activities. Overall the analysis identified a range of instances where modification or redesign in line with systems thinking could potentially improve behaviour and safety. A notable finding is that there are opportunities for redesign outside of the physical rail level crossing infrastructure, including improved data systems, in-vehicle warnings and modifications to design processes, standards and guidelines. The implications for future rail level crossing systems are discussed.

  9. Creation of the Driver Fixed Heel Point (FHP) CAD Accommodation Model for Military Ground Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    interior surfaces and direct field of view have been added per MIL-STD- 1472G. This CAD model can be applied early in the vehicle design process to ensure...interior surfaces and direct field of view have been added per MIL-STD-1472G. This CAD model can be applied early in the vehicle design process to ensure...further and allows for control of a model from outside the model tree, using relations and rules. End users of the FHP accommodation model will

  10. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR

  11. Design of hyper-field zoom bionic eye optical system%超大视场变焦仿生眼光学系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程洪涛; 吴勇翀; 吕杰; 张培茗; 郭世俊; 李恒宇

    2016-01-01

    提出了一种新的基于仿生鱼眼镜头模型的超大视场变焦仿生眼光学系统。该仿生眼应用可调光焦度器件能使光学系统更紧凑和不需要移动。鉴于鱼眼系统可以简化成反远物镜的原理,利用矩阵理论和变焦准则,研究了基于可调光焦度器件鱼眼镜头设计的一阶几何光学理论,得到了鱼眼系统前组和后组的光焦度控制方程;进一步讨论了其光焦度的边界方程;最后提供的仿生变焦鱼眼的视场角最大为164°,焦距从5~15 mm变化,成像质量达到系统要求。设计实例为其在智能监控、航天军工、机器人系统等领域的应用提供了有益的探索。%A new hyper-field zoom bionic eye optical system based on the model of bionic fisheye was presented. The variable focal power lens was employed to design the bionic eye with zoom system more compact and no move lens. The fisheye lens is a kind of retro-focus lens system. Fisheye zoom first-order geometric optics theory based on matrix theory and zoom principle were established. The former group and the latter group focusing optical power equation were deduced. Furthermore, the boundary equation of optical power in the zoom system was discussed. Finally, the bionic fisheye field can be acquire to 164o. The focal lengths was from 5 mm to 15 mm. The design example can be applied in intelligent control, aerospace industry, robotics systems which provide a useful exploration.

  12. Towards a systematic design of isotropic bulk magnetic metamaterials using the cubic point groups of symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Baena, J D; Marques, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a systematic approach to the design of bulk isotropic magnetic metamaterials is presented. The role of the symmetries of both the constitutive element and the lattice are analyzed. For this purpose it is assumed that the metamaterial is composed by cubic SRR resonators, arranged in a cubic lattice. The minimum symmetries needed to ensure an isotropic behavior are analyzed, and some particular configurations are proposed. Besides, an equivalent circuit model is proposed for the considered cubic SRR resonators. Experiments are carried out in order to validate the proposed theory. We hope that this analysis will pave the way to the design of bulk metamaterials with strong isotropic magnetic response, including negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials.

  13. Design of a Maximum Power Point Tracker with Simulation, Analysis, and Comparison of Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    was discussed as well as designed around a single diode model. By modeling the solar array based on measured parameters, the output current and voltage ...Switched Capacitor Buck-Boost Converter for PV Application 11 2.7 A Novel MPPT Charge Regulator for a Photovoltaic Stand-alone Telecommu- nication...Simulink, which includes the solar array, buck converter, and resistive load. . . . . 16 Figure 3.2 The Current versus Voltage and Power versus Voltage

  14. [L-THIA-based management design for controlling urban non-point source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing-Hai; Yang, Liu; Ke-Ming, Ma

    2007-11-01

    L-THIA Model was used to simulate the amounts of NPS pollutants in 2 catchments of Sanjiao watershed (Sj1, Sj2) in Hanyang district, and the total simulated amount of NPS loads in Sj1 and Sj2 were 1.82 x 10(4) kg, 1.38 x 10(5) kg, respectively. Based on the theory of resource-sink" and interaction of pattern with process, a series of BMPs, including green roof, grassland, porous pavement, infiltration trench, vegetative filter strip and wet pond, were optimized, and effects of BMPs were simulated along the surface runoff pathway. The results show that total pollutants outputs entering Sj1 and Sj2 account for 14.65% and 6.57%, respectively. Combining L-THIA model and BMPs in series is a proper measure for non-point source pollution control and urban development planning at watershed or region scale.

  15. 城市规划设计要点解析%Analysis on Key Points of Urban Planning and Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振锋

    2015-01-01

    在城市发展和建设过程中,需要做好城市规划设计工作,这样才能保证城市的快速发展和良好面貌.首先分析了规划设计工作中需要处理的几种关系,然后重点阐述了规划设计的要点.%In the process of urban development and construction, we need to do a good job of urban planning and design work, so as to ensure the rapid development of the city and a good look. In this paper, the relationship between the planning and design work is analyzed, and the main points of the design are elaborated.

  16. Recent Advances in Optimal Design of Structures from a Reliability Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Structural optimisation and structural reliability theory are considered. Both of these areas have developed during the last two decades from being of purely theoretical interest to areas useful in practical design. The main elements of structural reliability theory are described in the second......-Christensen and Baker[4] and Madsen et al.[5]. Next a heuristic method, the so-called ß-unzipping method[6] is mentioned. This method can be used to estimate the reliability of a structural system if some modelling assumptions are fulfilled. In the third section some elements of structural optimisation theory...

  17. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  18. Eating for Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  19. Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2013-01-01

    fun for families in the library? • How can play help to promote interaction and communication? The students worked with the space in Dokk1 as the “third place”, which is identified by Oldenburg (1999) as “great good places”, being public places on neutral ground where people can gather and interact...... of space and design. The workshop also showed that the “third place” is achieved today in existing places around the city, such as in shops and banks. Therefore, several of the solutions showed that there is need to create a residence that can accommodate the versatility and give space for user...... the children’s aspiration to create small and private spaces, as the shelves can be moved and thus act as space makers. The storage of the books provides a platform where new activities can take place. Tumble took offset from the pupils’ request towards being able to perform multiple activities in DOKK1...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.133 - Eye and face protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protection when there is a hazard from flying objects. Detachable side protectors (e.g. clip-on or slide-on... eye hazards wears eye protection that incorporates the prescription in its design, or wears...

  1. FDTD Acceleration for Cylindrical Resonator Design Based on the Hybrid of Single and Double Precision Floating-Point Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasitha Muthumala Waidyasooriya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceleration of FDTD (finite-difference time-domain is very important for the fields such as computational electromagnetic simulation. We consider the FDTD simulation model of cylindrical resonator design that requires double precision floating-point and cannot be done using single precision. Conventional FDTD acceleration methods have a common problem of memory-bandwidth limitation due to the large amount of parallel data access. To overcome this problem, we propose a hybrid of single and double precision floating-point computation method that reduces the data-transfer amount. We analyze the characteristics of the FDTD simulation to find out when we can use single precision instead of double precision. According to the experimental results, we achieved over 15 times of speed-up compared to the CPU single-core implementation and over 1.52 times of speed-up compared to the conventional GPU-based implementation.

  2. Controller Design and Analysis of Spacecraft Automatic Levelling and Equalizing Hoist Device based on Hanging Point Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Laiying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spacecraft Automatic Levelling and Equalizing Hoist Device (SALEHD is a kind of hoisting device developed for eccentric spacecraft level-adjusting, based on hanging point adjustment by utilizing XY-workbench. To make the device automatically adjust the spacecraft to be levelling, the controller for SALEHD was designed in this paper. Through geometry and mechanics analysis for SALEHD and the spacecraft, the mathematical model of the controller is established. And then, the link of adaptive control and the link of variable structure control were added into the controller to adapt the unknown parameter and eliminate the interference of support vehicle. The stability of the controller was analysed, through constructing Lyapunov energy function. It was proved that the controller system is asymptotically stable, and converged to origin that is equilibrium point. So the controller can be applied in SALEHD availably and safely.

  3. 眼睛理疗仪智能控制器设计%Design of intelligent controller for eye physiotherapy instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明

    2016-01-01

    眼睛理疗仪智能控制器主要由主控制中心、人机交互系统(包括形状触摸控制、触屏控制、语音控制)、电机驱动模块、红外理疗模块、电磁理疗模块、音乐模块组成。主控中心通过压力传感器、温度传感器、加速度传感器实时监测各项参数。理疗仪具有多种理疗方式:振动按摩、穴位定点按摩、硅胶体滑动按摩、红外理疗、电磁理疗,以及上述方式的任意组合。通过合理的软件算法,实现控制方式的智能化、人性化,实现理疗效果的最佳化。%System composition of intelligent controller of eye physiotherapy instrument is main controller center, human-computer interaction system,which includes shape touch control,touch screen control,speech control, motor driver module,infrared physiotherapy module,electromagnetic physiotherapy module and music player module. Main control center realtime monitor each parameter through pressure,temperature,acceleration sensors,it has variety of physical therapy mode,such as,Vibration massage,acupoint fixed point massage,sliding massage by silicone gel,infrared therapy,electromagnetic therapy,and any combination of above modes. Through reasonable software algorithm,realize intelligentize,humanization of control mode,and realize optimization of physical therapy effect.

  4. Initial Scaling Studies and Conceptual Thermal Fluids Experiments for the Prismatic NGNP Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial high temperature gas reactor scaling studies and conceptual experiment design for gas flow and heat transfer. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/ATHENA/RELAP5-3D calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses are being applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant forced convection with slight transverse property variation. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple buoyant jets into a confined density-stratified crossflow -- with obstructions. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second experiment will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets

  5. Electrical and Thermal View Points for Designing Conduction-Cooled Specimen Holder for Short Sample Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, J.; Stenvall, A.; Mikkonen, R.

    Theelectrical and stabilitypropertiesof superconductivestrandsareoftencharacterizedby short sample testing.These tests are often done in a measurement system where the sample is cooled by liquid cryogen or cold gas flow. In both approaches, the sample temperature during a measurement is stabilized by the abundance of available cooling power. This also helps to protect the sample during a thermal runaway i.e. quench. However, in some characterizations, e.g. minimum quench energy testing, the cooling conditions can have a significant effect on the results. Therefore a more adiabatic solution is prefer able as iten able seasier comparison of the results from different measurement stations. One solution to achieving the desired adiabacy is to use conduction-cooling and vacuum insulation. As there is no cooling fluidtorelyon, as cheme for sample protection has to be implemented. Inaconduction-cooled setup, one way to protect the sampleis to use an active protection system in conjunction with aproperly designed sample holder. In this publication, we present an electrical and thermal analysis of a conduction-cooled sample holder suitable for both critical current and minimum quench energy measurements. A coupled electro-thermal finite element method model was constructed to study the sample holder performance during measurement. For our application, the performance is defined by the ohmic losses in the holder component sand by the recovery time from as amplequench.

  6. Novel four-point-probe design and nanorobotic dual endeffector strategy for electrical characterization of as-grown SWCNT bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, V; Fatikow, S; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel nanorobotic strategy for non-destructive and direct electrical characterization of as-grown bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is presented. For this purpose, test patterns of SWCNT bundles having different diameters are grown on a silicon substrate...... by chemical vapor deposition. A new design of microstructured four-point-probes is proposed and fabricated allowing for direct contacting of vertically aligned bundles of SWCNTs. A nanorobotic setup is upgraded into a dual endeffector system to achieve good electrical contact between four...

  7. 基于SharePoint Server的OA系统设计%Design on OA System Based on SharePoint Server

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段洪秀; 燕剑

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft SharePoint Server是微软新一代的企业业务协作平台.通过SharePoint Server,企业可以加强信息的整合,从而有效降低IT成本和提高运营效率.简要介绍了SharePoint应用于OA系统的可行性,说明了Share-Point Server的工作原理及各个组成部分的功能,并结合OA系统的特点,描述了某公司OA的设计及实施方案.

  8. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, TOdd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Wiley, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms that make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses four stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  9. Eye tracking in Library and Information Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon

    2016-01-01

    . Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated. Design/methodology/approach The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two......, the number of test persons and reports on the eye-tracking measures. Furthermore, this study will report which other methods were applied in combination with eye tracking. Findings The number of published research utilizing eye-tracking technologies within library and information science (LIS) is still......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible...

  10. Analysis of the Key Point and Principle of Green Building Design%试析绿色建筑设计的要点及原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坚

    2014-01-01

    本文结合绿色建筑的理念,指出了绿色建筑物的设计要点,同时还提出了绿色建筑物概念设计的原则和相关策略。%Combining with the green building design philo-sophy, this article points out the green building design points, and also puts forward the principles and related strategies of green building design.

  11. Design and implementation of intelligent bionic eye video monitoring system%智能仿生眼视频监控系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东国; 冷斌; 贺庆; 官冠; 王文韬; 丁磊; 胡欢

    2015-01-01

    To solve the existing video surveillance system ’s shortcomings of limited coverage ,polysemy of monocular camera po‐sitioning and poor performance of real‐time identification tracking ,a wide‐area perimeter video monitoring system was proposed which fully drew lessons from the nature and used multiple sets of bionic eye for collaborative monitoring .The mechanical struc‐ture and circuit control system were self‐developed ,and the 3D structural relations between monitoring system and boundary were set up by adopting the methods of binocular active vision and boundary setting .Several systems were designed and tested . The results show the system is characterized by wide coverage ,high intelligence and good stability .%为克服现有视频监控系统覆盖面积有限、单目摄像头定位多义性以及实时识别跟踪性能差的缺点,提出一种充分借鉴生物眼自然特性、多组仿生眼系统协同监控的广域周界视频监控系统。通过自主研制系统机械构造、电路控制系统,采用双目主动视觉定位、边界设定等方法,建立整个监控系统和边界的三维结构关系。搭建多组仿生眼系统并进行户外测试实验,实验结果表明,该设计拥有监控覆盖面积广、智能化高、稳定性好的特性。

  12. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  13. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I.; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L.

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  14. General Didactics and Instructional Design: eyes like twins A transatlantic dialogue about similarities and differences, about the past and the future of two sciences of learning and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Klaus; Seel, Norbert M

    2012-01-01

    Although General Didactics (GD) and Instructional Design (ID) have not shown many points of contact in the past, there are some obvious parellels from the perspective of their historical development. This will be examined in detail in this article. More specifically, we speak about model building, which has characterized General Didactics and Instructional Design for some decades. However, the models of General Didactics and Instructional Design are not problem-free with regard to the continuity and advancement of both disciplines. First, we will describe the historical roots of both disciplines and examine which elements of theory are of central importance. Second, we will try to answer the question of which kind of model building could be considered as predominant and what problems result from this predominance. In order to do this, we will describe empirical studies on the use of instructional models and discuss these studies from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Third, we will draw inferences for future processes of model building in order to prevent the same problems that happened in the past from happening again. Finally, we will discuss the issue of what General Didactics can learn from Instructional Design and vice versa.

  15. Design and Development of a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT charge controller for Photo-Voltaic (PV power generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riazul Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how to implement MPPT using the most popular switching power supply topology. There are many published works on this topic, but only a tiny portion of them show how to actually implement the algorithms in hardware, as well as state common problems and pitfalls. In our work to keep the design simple we have used Arduino Nano. It has features like: LCD display, Led Indication and it is equipped with various protections to protect the circuitry from abnormal condition. This design is suitable for a 50W solar panel to charge a commonly used 12V lead acid battery. As the maximum power point (MPP of photovoltaic (PV power generation systems changes with changing atmospheric conditions (e.g. solar radiation and temperature, an important consideration in the design of efficient PV systems is to track the MPP correctly. We have implemented the most common MPPT algorithm named Perturb and Observe (PO to control the output of a synchronous buck-converter

  16. Eye Drop Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears. How do tears work? ... you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  18. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  19. 童装设计要点分析%Analysis of Design Points on Children's Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秀红

    2012-01-01

    Based on market analysis and brand case studies, it dissected the design points of children's clothing. The results showed that a good grasp of the brand concept of positioning, integrating the development trend, color characteristics and regional en- vironment with children's clothing products could meet the needs of the children's wear market.%通过市场分析和品牌案例研究,对童装设计要点进行剖析,得出:把握好品牌定位,发展潮流,色彩及区域环境相融合的童装产品才能满足童装市场新的需求。

  20. Hardware description ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP as designed in a remotely controlled digital CW Doppler radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R.E.; Robinson, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployed, and remotely controlled. The heart of this system is a DSP/control board using Analog Devices ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor. Two 18-bit audio A/D converters provide digital input to the DSP/controller board for near real time target detection. Program memory for the DSP is dual ported with an Intel 87C51 microcontroller allowing DSP code to be up-loaded or down-loaded from a central controlling computer. The 87C51 provides overall system control for the remote radar and includes a time-of-day/day-of-year real time clock, system identification (ID) switches, and input/output (I/O) expansion by an Intel 82C55 I/O expander. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Design and validation of a method to determine the position of the fovea by using the nerve-head to fovea distance of the fellow eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijs A J van de Put

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To measure the nerve-head to fovea distance (NFD on fundus photographs in fellow eyes, and to compare the NFD between fellow eyes. METHODS: Diabetic patients without retinopathy, (n = 183 who were screened by fundus photography at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands from January 1(st 2005 until January 1(st 2006 were included. The NFD was measured in left and right eyes both from the center and from the rim of the nerve-head. To determine inter- and intra-observer agreement, repeated measurements by one observer (n = 3 were performed on all photographs and by two observers on 60 photographs (30 paired eyes. The effect of age, gender, and refractive error on NFD was analysed. RESULTS: The correlation of NFDs between the left and the right eye was 0.958 when measured from the center of the nerve head (mean difference 0.0078 mm. ±SD 0.079 (95% limits of agreement -0.147-0.163 and 0.963 when measured from the rim (mean difference 0.0056±SD 0.073 (95% limits of agreement -0.137-0.149. Using the NFD between fellow eyes interchangeably, resulted in a standard error of 0.153 mm. Intra- and inter-observer variability was small. We found a significant effect of age (center of the nerve-head (P = 0.006 and rim of the nerve head (P = 0.003 and refractive error (center of nerve-head (P<0.001 and rim of nerve head (P<0.001 on NFD. CONCLUSIONS: The NFD in one eye provides a confident, reproducible, and valid method to address the position of the fovea in the fellow eye. We recommend using the NFD measured from the center of the nerve-head since the standard error by this method was smallest. Age and refractive error have an effect on NFD.

  2. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists re

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  4. Prevent Eye Injuries from Fireworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  5. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe to eNews Close Donate Medicare Benefits & Your Eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk ... that you need. Ask about eye exams! Routine Eye Exams Medicare does not generally cover the costs ...

  6. Metal food packaging design based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP system in canned food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design metal food packaging with hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP. First, theory of HACCP was introduced in detail. Taking empty cans provided by Wuxi Huapeng Food Packaging Company as an example, we studied migration of bisphenol compounds in coating of food can to food stimulant. Moreover, packaging design of luncheon meat can was taken as an example to confirm whether HACCP system could effectively control migration of phenolic substance. Results demonstrated that, coating of such empty were more likely to contain multiple bisphenol compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE was considered as the leading bisphenol pollutant; food stimulant of different types, storage temperature and time could all impact migration of bisphenol compounds. HACCP system was proved to be effective in controlling hazards of phenolic substance in luncheon meat can and could reduce various phenolic substance indexes to an acceptable range. Therefore, HACCP can control migration of phenolic substance and recontamination of food and thus ensure food safety.

  7. Shielding design of an underground experimental area at point 5 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Mario J; Stevenson, Graham R

    2005-01-01

    Increasing projected values of the circulating beam intensity in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and decreasing limits to radiation exposure, taken with the increasing non-acceptance of unjustified and unoptimised radiation exposures, have led to the need to re-assess the shielding between the ECX and ECA5 underground experimental areas of the SPS. Twenty years ago, these experimental areas at SPS-Point 5 housed the UA1 experiment, where Carlo Rubbia and his team verified the existence of W and Z bosons. The study reported here describes such a re-assessment based on simulations using the multi-purpose FLUKA radiation transport code. This study concludes that while the main shield which is made of concrete blocks and is 4.8 m thick satisfactorily meets the current design limits even at the highest intensities presently planned for the SPS, dose rates calculated for liaison areas on both sides of the main shield significantly exceed the design limits. Possible ways of improving the shielding situation are discussed.

  8. Talking about the design of head-mounted eye tracker%浅谈头戴式眼动仪的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦伟强

    2012-01-01

      This paper briefly describes the integrated head-mounted eye tracker for head-mounted display to guide the infrared light-emitting lighting, Bluetooth communication technology. And the positioning algorithm pupil and head-mounted eye control device to operate the watchful eye of the user through the eye of the establishment of a virtual interface, helping paraplegic, muscle atrophy, stroke and other persons with disabilities have great significance.%  本文简单的介绍集成了头戴式显示引导,红外发光照明,蓝牙通讯等技术的头戴式眼动仪。并利用瞳孔定位算法和头戴式眼睛操控装置,用户能通过眼球的注视对建立的虚拟界面进行操作,对于帮助高位截瘫、肌肉萎缩、中风等残疾人有重大意义。

  9. Does Web Design Matter? Examining Older Adults’ Attention to Cognitive and Affective Illustrations on Cancer-Related Websites through Eye Tracking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, N; Bergstrom, J.C.R.; Smets, E.M.A.; Loos, Eugène; Strohl, J.; van Weert, J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how adults pay attention to cognitive and affective illustrations on a cancer-related webpage and explores age-related differences in the attention to these cognitive and affective webpages. Results of an eye-tracking experiment (n = 20) showed that adults spent more time attendi

  10. Does web design matter? Examining older adults’ attention to cognitive and affective illustrations on cancer-related websites through eye tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, N.; Romano Bergstrom, J.C.; Smets, E.M.A.; Loos, E.F.; Strohl, J.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Stephanidis, C.; Antona, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how adults pay attention to cognitive and affective illustrations on a cancer-related webpage and explores age-related differences in the attention to these cognitive and affective webpages. Results of an eye-tracking experiment (n = 20) showed that adults spent more time attendi

  11. Design of a Floating-point Fixed-point Fused FALU%一种定浮点合并的FALU设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云贵; 杨靓

    2011-01-01

    ALU is the key functional unit of modem CPU and DSP. This paper introduced a Floating- point Fixed - point fused FALU, Through combination of functional units reuse technology,operand isolation technology, multiple data path technology, in theory, it can reduce chip area and reduce power consumption effectively. it can execute 21kinds of instruction, Simulation shows that the FALU can function correctly.%算术逻辑单元(ALU)是现代通用处理器和DSP处理器的核心功能部件.设计了一种定浮点合并的FALU,通过结合使用功能单元复用技术、操作数隔离技术和旁路技术,理论上能有效减少芯片的面积,降低芯片的功耗.FALU能实现21种指令,仿真验证显示其功能完全正确.

  12. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically ...

  13. The Tromsø Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Erke, Maja G; von Hanno, Therese;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  To describe the study design and methodology of the Tromsø Eye Study (TES), and to describe visual acuity and refractive error in the study population. Methods:  The Tromsø Eye Study is a sub-study of the Tromsø Study, a population-based multipurpose longitudinal study in the municipality...... of Tromsø, Norway. The Tromsø Eye Study was a part of the sixth survey of the Tromsø Study, conducted from October 2007 through December 2008. The eye examination included information on self-reported eye diseases, assessment of visual acuity and refractive errors, retinal photography and optical coherence......, carotid artery ultrasound, electrocardiogram, bone densitometry, cognitive tests, questionnaires, DNA, blood and urine samples and more from the present and the five previous surveys. Results:  Visual acuity was assessed in 6459 subjects and refraction in 6566 subjects aged 38-87 years. Snellen visual...

  14. Computational see-through near-eye displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimone, Andrew S.

    See-through near-eye displays with the form factor and field of view of eyeglasses are a natural choice for augmented reality systems: the non-encumbering size enables casual and extended use and large field of view enables general-purpose spatially registered applications. However, designing displays with these attributes is currently an open problem. Support for enhanced realism through mutual occlusion and the focal depth cues is also not found in eyeglasses-like displays. This dissertation provides a new strategy for eyeglasses-like displays that follows the principles of computational displays, devices that rely on software as a fundamental part of image formation. Such devices allow more hardware simplicity and flexibility, showing greater promise of meeting form factor and field of view goals while enhancing realism. This computational approach is realized in two novel and complementary see-through near-eye display designs. The first subtractive approach filters omnidirectional light through a set of optimized patterns displayed on a stack of spatial light modulators, reproducing a light field corresponding to in-focus imagery. The design is thin and scales to wide fields of view; see-through is achieved with transparent components placed directly in front of the eye. Preliminary support for focal cues and environment occlusion is also demonstrated. The second additive approach uses structured point light illumination to form an image with a minimal set of rays. Each of an array of defocused point light sources is modulated by a region of a spatial light modulator, essentially encoding an image in the focal blur. See-through is also achieved with transparent components and thin form factors and wide fields of view (>= 100 degrees) are demonstrated. The designs are examined in theoretical terms, in simulation, and through prototype hardware with public demonstrations. This analysis shows that the proposed computational near-eye display designs offer a

  15. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a

  16. Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huanqing; Wang, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Qiuling; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yan

    2005-03-01

    Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore, the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There are four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high-order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software-ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

  17. Designing and evaluating sports footwear from the point of view of the manufacturers, specialists and wearers - an analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research work are: a to analyse the sports footwear, giving emphasis to its development, technical criteria and making, the opinion of the sportperson as an important element in parameter definition for the manufacturing and aspects concerning problems of the feet; b to verify the tecnical evolution the point of view of the manufacturers, specialists and researches; c identify the criteria adopted by wearers in their choice and evaluation. Data information was obtained from literature and bibliographical research (On-line systems, Comut, Sibradid and Internet in Portuguese, English and French. Through content analysis technique the following information was obtained: a concern on the design and manufacture of the sports footwear goes back to 19th century. Sports footwear has been moulded according to the charactectistics of type of sports, taking into consideration the rules of the games, the suggestion of specilists, the examination of the footwear and the type of injuries endured; b evaluation is an old practice, going back to the time of the footwear’s design and manufacturing. In a set of tests the first criterion was always the prevention of lesions. Five and ten criteria were adopted in 1977 and in 1980, respectively. Durability was included, enhancing consumerism; c for a host of reason the Brazilian consumer is a good of the footwear. This fact is indicative of his/her education as a consumer; d definition of parameters is urgent. They are an integral part of laws on quality control and production and propaganda material for the consumer’s orientation.

  18. 膝眼穴电致孔透皮给药治疗膝骨性关节炎30例护理干预%Study of Nursing Intervention about Eye of the Knee Point of Electroporation Transdermal Drug in Treatment of 30 Cases of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀梅; 包金花; 毕殿海

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss and evaluate current knee osteoarthritis treatment and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine nursing intervention with patients so as to improve the cure rate of osteoarthritis of knee to provide reference. Method:Ninety patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were randomly divided into 3 groups,respectively,30 cases for eye of the knee point nursing groups,nursing intervention on electroporation transdermal drug delivery group 30 cases,eye of the knee point electroporation transdermal delivery of nursing intervention group of 30 patients. Then improving of the symptom was compared after treatment. Result:Eye of the knee point electroporation transdermal delivery of nursing intervention symptoms improved significantly better than the other two groups,the difference was statistical significance(P<0.05). Conclusion:Eye of the knee point in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee nursing intervention on electroporation transdermal drug delivery have an reasonable drug price,operation simple and easy, painless,positive significance to improve the effect of holistic nursing care.%目的:探讨膝骨性关节炎患者治疗及中医特色护理干预措施,为提高膝骨性关节炎治愈率提供参考依据。方法:将90例膝骨性关节炎患者按随机数字表法分为三组,分别为膝眼穴组30例、电致孔透皮给药组30例、膝眼穴电致孔透皮给药组30例,治疗后分别进行症状改善的比较。结果:膝眼穴电致孔透皮给药症状改善明显优于其他两组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对膝骨性关节炎进行膝眼穴电致孔透皮给药护理干预,药物价廉、操作简单易行、无痛苦,对提高整体护理效果有积极意义。

  19. Optimization of the 3-Point Bending Failure of Anodized Aluminum Formed in Tartaric/Sulphuric Acid Using Doehlert Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, W.; Feki, M.; De-Petris Wery, M.; Ayedi, H. F.

    2015-02-01

    The bending failure of anodized aluminum in tartaric/sulphuric acid bath was modeled using Doehlert design. Bath temperature, anodic current density, sulphuric acid, and tartaric acid concentrations were retained as variables. Thickness measurements and 3-point bending experiments were conducted. The deflection at failure ( D f) and the maximum load ( F m) of each sample were, then, deducted from the corresponding flexural responses. The treatment of experimental results has established mathematical models of second degree reflecting the relation of cause and effect between the factors and the studied properties. The optimum path study of thickness, deflection at failure, and maximum load, showed that the three optima were opposite. Multicriteria optimization using the desirability function was achieved in order to maximize simultaneously the three responses. The optimum conditions were: C tar = 18.2 g L-1, T = 17.3 °C, J = 2.37 A dm-2, C sul = 191 g L-1, while the estimated response values were e = 57.7 µm, D f = 5.6 mm, and F m = 835 N. Using the established models, a mathematical correlation was found between deflection at failure and thickness of the anodic oxide layer. Before bending tests, aluminum oxide layer was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy. After tests, the morphology and the composition of the anodic oxide layer were inspected by SEM, optical microscopy, and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy.

  20. [Key Points for Design and Evaluation of Clinical Studies in Treating Children's Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Chinese Medical New Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen; Ma, Rong; Hu, Si-yuan

    2015-05-01

    Based on collecting data at home and abroad, we combined clinical practice of scientific researches. We also summarized key points for design and evaluation of clinical studies in treating children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by Chinese medical new drugs from objective and design, selection of diagnostic criteria, recruitment and dropping-out of subjects, effectiveness evaluation, safety evaluation, drug combination, and quality control, and so on. We hope to provide reference for design and evaluation of clinical studies by Chinese medical new drugs.

  1. The Colossal Cosmic Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Eighty-five million years ago on small planet Earth, dinosaurs ruled, ignorant of their soon-to-come demise in the great Jurassic extinction, while mammals were still small and shy creatures. The southern Andes of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina were not yet formed and South America was still an island continent. Eighty-five million years ago, our Sun and its solar system was 60,000 light years away from where it now stands [1]. Eighty-five million years ago, in another corner of the Universe, light left the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1350, for a journey across the universe. Part of this light was recorded at the beginning of the year 2000 AD by ESO's Very Large Telescope, located on the 2,600m high Cerro Paranal in the Chilean Andes on planet Earth. Astronomers classify NGC 1350 as an Sa(r) type galaxy, meaning it is a spiral with large central regions. In fact, NGC 1350 lies at the border between the broken-ring spiral type and a grand design spiral with two major outer arms. It is about 130,000 light-years across and, hence, is slightly larger than our Milky Way. The rather faint and graceful outer arms originate at the inner main ring and can be traced for almost half a circle when they each meet the opposite arm, giving the impression of completing a second outer ring, the "eye". The arms are given a blue tint as a result of the presence of very young and massive stars. The amount of dust, seen as small fragmented dust spirals in the central part of the galaxy and producing a fine tapestry that bear resemblance with blood vessels in the eye, is also a signature of the formation of stars.

  2. Personal Identification by Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Marinović, Dunja; Čoklo, Miran; Njirić, Sanja; Mužić, Vedrana

    2011-01-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems usi...

  3. Infrared Eye: Prototype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    within the wide field and slaved to the operator’s line of sight by means of an eye- tracking system. The images from both cameras are fused and shown...simultaneously on a high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye- tracking unit in order to optimize the human-machine interface. The IR Eye...system was flight tested using the Advanced system Research Aircraft (Bell 412 helicopter) from the Flight Research Laboratory of the National Research

  4. Teamwork for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development (HRD – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  5. 中药离子导入配合穴位按摩对儿童弱视的图形视觉诱发电位的影响%The Chinese Herbs Iontophoresis plus Eye Point Massage for Change of Pattern Visual Evoked Potential in Amblyopia Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何碧华; 谢祥勇; 韦丽娇; 唐勇华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on the change of pattern visual evoked potential P-VEP ) in amblyopia children. Methods One hundred and seventeen amblyopia patients( 198 eyes ) were randomly divided into control group with 58 patients( 97 eyes:79 eyes with ametropic amblyopia ,4 eyes with strabismic amblyopia, 14 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia ) and Chinese herbs iontophoresis treatment group with 59 patients( 101 eyes:84 eyes with ametropic amblyopia,5 eyes with strabismic amblyopia, 12 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia ). The control group was given eyeglasses after mydriatic optometry with 1% atropine and treated with occlusion therapy and eyesight exercise. The treatment group was given self-made Chinese herbs( pericarpium citri reticulatae viride, Semen Cassiae, chrysanthemum, borneol, Olibanum, Spearmint, the fruit of Chinese wolfberry, flowers carthami, Angelica sinensis,butterflybush flower,the root of red-rooted salvia,the seed of Chinese dodder,prepared rehmannia root ) iontophoresis plus eye point massage besides the methods mentioned above. Both groups were treated continually for 6 months. Results Before treatment, three types of amblyopia showed no significant difference in the PI 00 wave amplitude ( P100-A ) and latencyv P100-L ) of P-VEP between two groups( P >0. 05 ). After treatment, the increase of P100-A in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group( P <0.05 ),but P100-L shortened significantly compared with the controls( P <0.05 ). Conclusion Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage for amblyopia children can make P-VEP-P100 wave latency shortened and amplitude increased, and it is an effective method for the treatment of amblyopia.%目的 观察中药离子导入配合眼周穴位按摩对儿童的图形视觉诱发电位(P-VEP)的影响.方法 弱视儿童117例(198只眼)按随机数字表法分为对照组58例(97只

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  7. Assessment of Corneal Epithelial Thickness in Asymmetric Keratoconic Eyes and Normal Eyes Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Catalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the characteristics of asymmetric keratoconic eyes and normal eyes by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT corneal mapping. Methods. Retrospective corneal and epithelial thickness OCT data for 74 patients were compared in three groups of eyes: keratoconic (n=22 and normal fellow eyes (n=22 in patients with asymmetric keratoconus and normal eyes (n=104 in healthy subjects. Areas under the curve (AUC of receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves for each variable were compared across groups to indicate their discrimination capacity. Results. Three variables were found to differ significantly between fellow eyes and normal eyes (all p<0.05: minimum corneal thickness, thinnest corneal point, and central corneal thickness. These variables combined showed a high discrimination power to differentiate fellow eyes from normal eyes indicated by an AUC of 0.840 (95% CI: 0.762–0.918. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that topographically normal fellow eyes in patients with very asymmetric keratoconus differ from the eyes of healthy individuals in terms of their corneal epithelial and pachymetry maps. This type of information could be useful for an early diagnosis of keratoconus in topographically normal eyes.

  8. Control and Functions of Fixational Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucci, Michele; Poletti, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Humans and other species explore a visual scene by rapidly shifting their gaze 2-3 times every second. Although the eyes may appear immobile in the brief intervals in between saccades, microscopic (fixational) eye movements are always present, even when attending to a single point. These movements occur during the very periods in which visual information is acquired and processed and their functions have long been debated. Recent technical advances in controlling retinal stimulation during normal oculomotor activity have shed new light on the visual contributions of fixational eye movements and their degree of control. The emerging body of evidence, reviewed in this article, indicates that fixational eye movements are important components of the strategy by which the visual system processes fine spatial details, enabling both precise positioning of the stimulus on the retina and encoding of spatial information into the joint space-time domain.

  9. The eyes of LITENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Eric K.

    2016-05-01

    LITENING is an airborne system-of-systems providing long-range imaging, targeting, situational awareness, target tracking, weapon guidance, and damage assessment, incorporating a laser designator and laser range finders, as well as non-thermal and thermal imaging systems, with multi-sensor boresight. Robust operation is at a premium, and subsystems are partitioned to modular, swappable line-replaceable-units (LRUs) and shop-replaceable-units (SRUs). This presentation will explore design concepts for sensing, data storage, and presentation of imagery associated with the LITENING targeting pod. The "eyes" of LITENING are the electro-optic sensors. Since the initial LITENING II introduction to the US market in the late 90s, as the program has evolved and matured, a series of spiral functional improvements and sensor upgrades have been incorporated. These include laser-illuminated imaging, and more recently, color sensing. While aircraft displays are outside of the LITENING system, updates to the available viewing modules have also driven change, and resulted in increasingly effective ways of utilizing the targeting system. One of the latest LITENING spiral upgrades adds a new capability to display and capture visible-band color imagery, using new sensors. This is an augmentation to the system's existing capabilities, which operate over a growing set of visible and invisible colors, infrared bands, and laser line wavelengths. A COTS visible-band camera solution using a CMOS sensor has been adapted to meet the particular needs associated with the airborne targeting use case.

  10. Design and Testing of an EHR-Integrated, Busulfan Pharmacokinetic Decision Support Tool for the Point-of-Care Clinician.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Abdel-Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Busulfan demonstrates a narrow therapeutic index for which clinicians routinely employ therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM. However, operationalizing TDM can be fraught with inefficiency. We developed and tested software encoding a clinical decision support tool (DST that is embedded into our electronic health record (EHR and designed to streamline the TDM process for our oncology partners. METHODS: Our development strategy was modeled based on the features associated with successful DSTs. An initial Requirements Analysis was performed to characterize tasks, information flow, user needs, and system requirements to enable push/pull from the EHR. Back-end development was coded based on the algorithm used when manually performing busulfan TDM. The code was independently validated in MATLAB using 10,000 simulated patient profiles. A 296-item heuristic checklist was used to guide design of the front-end user interface. Content experts and end-users (n=28 were recruited to participate in traditional usability testing under an IRB approved protocol. RESULTS: Decision support software was developed to systematically walk the point-of-care clinician through the TDM process. The system is accessed through the EHR which transparently imports all of the requisite patient data. Data are visually inspected and then curve fit using a model-dependent approach. Quantitative goodness-of-fit are converted to single tachometer where green alerts the user that the model is strong, yellow signals caution and red indicates that there may be a problem with the fitting. Override features are embedded to permit application of a model-independent approach where appropriate. Simulations are performed to target a desired exposure or dose as entered by the clinician and the DST pushes the user approved recommendation back into the EHR. Usability testers were highly satisfied with our DST and quickly became proficient with the software.CONCLUSIONS: With early and

  11. A software module for implementing auditory and visual feedback on a video-based eye tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanlall, Bharat; Gertner, Izidor; Geri, George A.; Arrington, Karl F.

    2016-05-01

    We describe here the design and implementation of a software module that provides both auditory and visual feedback of the eye position measured by a commercially available eye tracking system. The present audio-visual feedback module (AVFM) serves as an extension to the Arrington Research ViewPoint EyeTracker, but it can be easily modified for use with other similar systems. Two modes of audio feedback and one mode of visual feedback are provided in reference to a circular area-of-interest (AOI). Auditory feedback can be either a click tone emitted when the user's gaze point enters or leaves the AOI, or a sinusoidal waveform with frequency inversely proportional to the distance from the gaze point to the center of the AOI. Visual feedback is in the form of a small circular light patch that is presented whenever the gaze-point is within the AOI. The AVFM processes data that are sent to a dynamic-link library by the EyeTracker. The AVFM's multithreaded implementation also allows real-time data collection (1 kHz sampling rate) and graphics processing that allow display of the current/past gaze-points as well as the AOI. The feedback provided by the AVFM described here has applications in military target acquisition and personnel training, as well as in visual experimentation, clinical research, marketing research, and sports training.

  12. Eye proprioception may provide real time eye position information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Yujun

    2013-03-01

    Because of the frequency of eye movements, online knowledge of eye position is crucial for the accurate spatial perception and behavioral navigation. Both the internal monitoring signal (corollary discharge) of eye movements and the eye proprioception signal are thought to contribute to the localization of the eye position in the orbit. However, the functional role of these two eye position signals in spatial cognition has been disputed for more than a century. The predominant view proposes that the online analysis of eye position is exclusively provided by the corollary discharge signal, while the eye proprioception signal only plays a role in the long-term calibration of the oculomotor system. However, increasing evidence from recent behavioral and physiological studies suggests that the eye proprioception signal may play a role in the online monitoring of eye position. The purpose of this review is to discuss the feasibility and possible function of the eye proprioceptive signal for online monitoring of eye position.

  13. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  14. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  15. Understanding pink eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  16. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking Care of Your Skin Taking Care of Your Teeth El cuidado de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ...

  17. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  18. 中药离子导入配合按摩眼部穴位治疗儿童弱视立体视觉疗效观察%Clinical efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on stereoscopic vision of children amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢祥勇; 詹勇华; 何碧华; 韦丽娇; 程子昂

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察中药离子导入配合按摩眼部穴位治疗儿童弱视的疗效及对立体视觉的影响.方法 将符合纳入标准的弱视儿童80例142只眼,随机分为对照组(40例70只眼)和中药导入治疗组(40例72只眼).对照组用1%阿托品滴眼液点眼后验光配镜,同时采用遮盖方法及精细作业治疗;中药导入治疗组在戴镜、遮盖及精细作业的基础上,采用自拟中药方离子导入,并按摩眼部穴位,以3个月为1个疗程,连续治疗2个疗程.观察两组视力和立体视的变化.结果 中药导入治疗组总有效率97.27%,对照组总有效率为85.71%,二者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),中药导入治疗组的立体视改善情况也好于对照组.结论 中药离子导入配合按摩眼部穴位治疗儿童弱视,不仅能提高治疗弱视的有效率,还可使治疗后弱视儿童的立体视觉得到有效建立,是一种较理想的治疗方式,值得临床推广应用.%OBJECTIVE To observe the efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on stereoscopic vision of children amblyopia. METHODS Eighty amblyopia patients ( 142 eyes) were randomly divided into control group with 40 patients (70 eyes)and Chinese herbs iontophoresis treatment group with 40 patients (72 eyes). The control group was given eyeglasses after mydriatic optometry with 1% atropine and treated with occlusion therapy and eyesight exercise; the treatment group, besides the above mentioned methods, was given Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage. Both groups were treated continually for 2 courses of 6 months. The eyesight and stereoscopic vision were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The effective rate of treatment group was 97.27% while the control group was 85.71%. The difference between the two groups was significant (P<0.05).The improvement of stereoscopic vision of treatment group was better than that of control group. CONCLUSIONS The therapy of Chinese herbs

  19. Analyzing Head and Eye Movement System with CORBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Changyuan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the vestibular system in different organs of movement as well as their collaboration between working mechanism, this paper designs a model of the common object request broker architecture (CORBA for the head and eye movement system based on the vestibular function. By analyzing physiological characteristics of the head and eye movement model, and further introducing the structure features of CORBA. It focus on the component composition and the model design of CORBA components library. According to the physiology work model of head and eye movement, the CORBA model of head and eye movement is established. As well as the structure of the model is designed in real application of head and eye movement measurement system. This paper provides a new way to research the head and eye movement system through using mathematical modeling and application structure which is based on vestibular function.    

  20. The Dkk1 dose is critical for eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieven, Oliver; Rüther, Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    During mammalian ocular development, several signaling pathways control the spatiotemporal highly defined realization of the three-dimensional eye architecture. Given the complexity of these inductive signals, the developing eye is a sensitive organ for several diseases. In this study, we investigated a Dkk1+/- haploinsufficiency during eye development, resulting in coloboma and anterior eye defects, two common developmental eye disorders. Dkk1 impacts eye development from a defined developmental time point on, and is critical for lens separation from the surface ectoderm via β-catenin mediated Pdgfrα and E-cadherin expression. Dkk1 does not impact the dorso ventral retina patterning in general but is critical for Shh dependent Pax2 extension into the midline region. The described results also indicate that the retinal Dkk1 dose is critical for important steps during eye development, such as optic fissure closure and cornea formation. Further analysis of the relationship between Dkk1 and Shh signaling revealed that Dkk1 and Shh coordinatively control anterior head formation and eye induction. During eye development itself, retinal Dkk1 activation is depending on cilia mediated Gli3 regulation. Therefore, our data essentially improve the knowledge of coloboma and anterior eye defects, which are common human eye developmental defects.

  1. Reevaluation of the AAPM TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters for an 125I seed, and the influence of eye plaque design on dose distributions and dose-volume histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Prakash

    The TG-43 dosimetry parameters of the Advantage(TM) 125I model IAI-125A brachytherapy seed were studied. An investigation using modern MCNP radiation transport code with updated cross-section libraries was performed. Twelve different simulation conditions were studied for a single seed by varying the coating thickness, mass density, photon energy spectrum and cross-section library. The dose rate was found to be 6.3% lower at 1 cm in comparison to published results. New TG-43 dosimetry parameters are proposed. The dose distribution for a brachytherapy eye plaque, model EP917, was investigated, including the effects of collimation from high-Z slots. Dose distributions for 26 slot designs were determined using Monte Carlo methods and compared between the published literature, a clinical treatment planning system, and physical measurements. The dosimetric effect of the composition and mass density of the gold backing was shown to be less than 3%. Slot depth, width, and length changed the central axis (CAX) dose distributions by < 1% per 0.1 mm in design variation. Seed shifts in the slot towards the eye and shifts of the 125I-laden silver rod within the seed had the greatest impact on the CAX dose distribution, changing it by 14%, 9%, 4.3%, and 2.7% at 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm, respectively, from the inner scleral surface. The measured, full plaque slot geometry delivered 2.4% +/- 1.1% higher dose along the plaque's CAX than the geometry provided by the manufacturer and 2.2%+/-2.3% higher than Plaque Simulator(TM) (PS) treatment planning software (version 5.7.6). The D10 for the simulated tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera for the measured slot plaque to manufacturer provided slot design was 9%, 10%, and 19% higher, respectively. In comparison to the measured plaque design, a theoretical plaque having narrow and deep slots delivered 30%, 37%, and 62% lower D 10 doses to the tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera, respectively. CAX doses at --1, 0, 1, and 2 mm were also

  2. Effects of eye color and sex on accuracy in archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, J; Fleming, P; Knorr, W

    1989-04-01

    126 subjects were 47 children in Grade 7, 49 students in Grade 8, and 30 adults, who shot arrows at bull's-eye targets from varying distances. Analysis of variance of accuracy scores indicated that there was no difference for eye color, but boys scored more points than did girls.

  3. Eye-based head gestures for interaction in the car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we suggest using a new method for head gesture recognition in the automotive context. This method involves using only the eye tracker for measuring the head movements through the eye movements when the gaze point is fixed. It allows for identifying a wide range of head gestures...

  4. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically...... and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had...... by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour....

  5. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  6. Eye Tracking Technique for Product Information Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoksoo

    This paper is about the study of the design of the product information provision system using eye tracking, which helps users in deciding over purchase of the product, with a system to provide product information that the user needs by tracking eye gaze of the user via Smart phone. The system provides the user with information of the product that attracts the user's eye, by means of users' eye tracking, user information confirmation using face recognition and user's preference for product. Therefore, once it is determined that the user requires a product, the server sends the product information stored in the product information database to the user's Smart phone to provide information the user requires. The customer, provided with product information in real time, can purchase the product that he/she wants efficiently, and avoid excessive consumption with accurate product information.

  7. Eye tracking in Library and Information Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon

    2016-01-01

    . Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated. Design/methodology/approach The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two...... reference databases are searched for relevant references: Library and Information Science Abstracts and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts. The main selection criteria are peer-reviewed literature that describes the experimental setting, including which eye-tracking equipment was used......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible...

  8. Eye tracking in Library and Information Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible....... Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated. Design/methodology/approach The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two...... reference databases are searched for relevant references: Library and Information Science Abstracts and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts. The main selection criteria are peer-reviewed literature that describes the experimental setting, including which eye-tracking equipment was used...

  9. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Marcella, James A [Rochester, MN; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  10. Generation of functional eyes from pluripotent cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if functional retinas could be generated from a defined population of pluripotent Xenopus laevis cells. Animal pole cells isolated from blastula stage embryos are pluripotent. Untreated, these cells formed only epidermis, when transplanted to either the flank or eye field. In contrast, misexpression of seven transcription factors induced the formation of retinal cell types. Induced retinal cells were committed to a retinal lineage as they formed eyes when transplanted to the flanks of developing embryos. When the endogenous eye field was replaced with induced retinal cells, they formed eyes that were molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically similar to normal eyes. Importantly, induced eyes could guide a vision-based behavior. These results suggest the fate of pluripotent cells may be purposely altered to generate multipotent retinal progenitor cells, which differentiate into functional retinal cell classes and form a neural circuitry sufficient for vision.

  11. Application of 3-dimensional printing technology to construct an eye model for fundus viewing study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    Full Text Available To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system.We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs. Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy.In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value.The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research.

  12. Analysis on Basic Points for Plastic Parts Design of Wall Switch%墙壁开关塑胶件设计基本要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秀峰

    2014-01-01

    Plastic parts are the important material of wall switch; and the key point to realize the automatic produc-tion of wall switch. This paper detailedly analyzes the basic points for the plastic parts design of wall switch. And it proposes the design key points and matters needing attention to realize automatic production in wall switch industry according to the actual situation.%塑胶件是墙壁开关材料的重要组成部分,也是实现墙壁开关自动化生产的关键点,本文详细分析了墙壁开关塑胶件设计的基本要点,并根据实际情况提出了墙壁开关行业实现自动化生产的设计要点和注意事项。

  13. Personal identification by eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinović, Dunja; Njirić, Sanja; Coklo, Miran; Muzić, Vedrana

    2011-09-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems using iris recognition are among the most secure biometric systems.

  14. Atypical Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: 18 Year Interval Between Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohden, Kaitlyn L; Tang, Peter H; Lilley, Chrystia C; Lee, Michael S

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old boy developed profound loss of vision in his right eye and was found to have a 11778 mitochondrial point mutation consistent with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). He maintained 20/20 vision in the left eye for 18 years until age 23, when he experienced loss of vision in that eye. This 18 year interval between eye involvement in LHON is the longest reported to date and reinforces the variability in presentation and progression seen in this disease.

  15. The construction of individual eye model based on eye's wavefront aberration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Qi; Guo, Huan-Qing

    2005-08-01

    Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There were four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software -ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

  16. Perceptions of eye health in schools in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research exploring children's and their teachers' perceptions of eye health is lacking. This paper reports for the first time on perceptions of primary schoolchildren and their teachers of healthy and diseased eyes, things that keep eyes healthy and damage them, and what actions to be taken in case of an eye injury. Methods Using draw and write technique, 160 boys and girls (9–12 years old attending four primary schools in Abbottabad district, northern Pakistan, were invited to draw pictures in response to a set of semi-structured questions and then label them. Sixteen teachers who were currently teaching the selected students were interviewed one-on-one. Results Analysis of text accompanying 800 drawings and of the interview scripts revealed that most children and teachers perceived healthy eyes to be those which could see well, and diseased eyes to be those which have redness, watering, dirty discharge, pain, and itching; or those which have "weak eyesight" and blindness. Among things that students and teachers thought damage the eyes included sun, television, and sharp pointed objects, particularly pencils. Teachers noted that children with eye problems "have difficulty seeing the blackboard well", "screw up their eyes", and "hold their books too close". Conclusion We conclude that schoolchildren and their teachers had a good knowledge of eye health, but many of them had serious misconceptions e.g., use of kohl, medicines and eye drops keeps eyes healthy. Kohl is an important source of lead and can reduce children's intelligence even at low blood levels. Health education in schools must take into account children's existing knowledge of and misconceptions about various aspects of eye health. Such steps if taken could improve the relevance of eye health education to schoolchildren.

  17. 基于SharePoint 2013的认证辅助系统的设计与实现%Design and implementation of certiifcation auxiliary system based on SharePoint 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫丽

    2016-01-01

    The article introduces the design and implementation of certification auxiliary system based on SharePoint platform. The project combined SharePoint with traditional authentication mechanism, realized the the certification auxiliary system more easily understand and track, improved the efifciency of the relevant departments, solidiifed the certiifcation application process, improved the quality of the product certiifcation.%文章介绍了基于SharePoint平台的认证辅助系统的设计与实现。该项目将SharePoint与传统的认证机制相结合,实现了更加易于理解和跟踪的认证辅助系统,提高了相关部门的工作效率,固化了认证申请流程,加强了产品认证质量管控。

  18. Adaptations for nocturnal vision in insect apposition eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    Due to our own preference for bright light, we tend to forget that many insects are active in very dim light. Nocturnal insects possess in general superposition compound eyes. This eye design is truly optimized for dim light as photons can be gathered through large apertures comprised of hundreds of lenses. In apposition eyes, on the other hand, the aperture consists of a single lens resulting in a poor photon catch and unreliable vision in dim light. Apposition eyes are therefore typically found in day-active insects. Some nocturnal insects have nevertheless managed the transition to a strictly nocturnal lifestyle while retaining their highly unsuitable apposition eye design. Large lenses and wide photoreceptors enhance the sensitivity of nocturnal apposition eyes. However, as the gain of these optical adaptations is limited and not sufficient for vision in dim light, additional neural adaptations in the form of spatial and temporal summation are necessary.

  19. What Is Eye Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... melanomas. Melanomas develop from pigment-making cells called melanocytes . When melanoma develops in the eye, it is ... cells make the same kind of pigment as melanocytes in the skin, so it’s not surprising that ...

  20. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye cosmetic a source of lead poisoning?" Israel Journal of Medical Science, 1992 July; 28(7):417-21. Parry C, ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to ... Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI ...

  2. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  3. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  4. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ability to focus up close, inability to read letters of the phone book, need to hold newspaper ... group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness. ...

  5. Eye Injuries in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a power tool (like a drill or wheel) , OR ! If your eye is cut or punctured : • ... CIO: CPWR, Suite 1000, 8484 Georgia Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910. (Edward C. Sullivan is president of ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye May 03, 2012 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  7. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...... are robust to the inclusion of an extensive set of climate and geography controls. Moreover, using a global data set on economic activity for all terrestrial grid cells we show that the link between UVB-R and economic development survives the inclusion of country fixed effect....

  8. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disorder causing overactivity of the thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ). Bulging eyes are not the same as prominent ... or pain Whether the person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as inability to tolerate heat, increased sweating, ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  12. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  13. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  15. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cat litter boxes, cat feces, sandboxes, and any insects exposed to cat feces (cockroaches, flies, etc.). Immunocompromised ... rash. Eye symptoms vary, but may include blurred vision or floaters during active disease. The diagnosis can ...

  16. Overcoming Presbyopia by Manipulating the Eyes' Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleznyak, Leonard A.

    Presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation, is a visual condition affecting all adults over the age of 45 years. In presbyopia, individuals lose the ability to focus on nearby objects, due to a lifelong growth and stiffening of the eye's crystalline lens. This leads to poor near visual performance and affects patients' quality of life. The objective of this thesis is aimed towards the correction of presbyopia and can be divided into four aims. First, we examined the characteristics and limitations of currently available strategies for the correction of presbyopia. A natural-view wavefront sensor was used to objectively measure the accommodative ability of patients implanted with an accommodative intraocular lens (IOL). Although these patients had little accommodative ability based on changes in power, pupil miosis and higher order aberrations led to an improvement in through-focus retinal image quality in some cases. To quantify the through-focus retinal image quality of accommodative and multifocal IOLs directly, an adaptive optics (AO) IOL metrology system was developed. Using this system, the impact of corneal aberrations in regard to presbyopia-correcting IOLs was assessed, providing an objective measure of through-focus retinal image quality and practical guidelines for patient selection. To improve upon existing multifocal designs, we investigated retinal image quality metrics for the prediction of through-focus visual performance. The preferred metric was based on the fidelity of an image convolved with an aberrated point spread function. Using this metric, we investigated the potential of higher order aberrations and pupil amplitude apodization to increase the depth of focus of the presbyopic eye. Thirdly, we investigated modified monovision, a novel binocular approach to presbyopia correction using a binocular AO vision simulator. In modified monovision, different magnitudes of defocus and spherical aberration are introduced to each eye, thereby

  17. AWARENESS AND WILLINGNESS OF EYE DONATION AMONG ATTENDANTS OF PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In India it is estimated that there are approximately 6.8 million people who have vision less than 6/60 in atleast one eye due to corneal disease: the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation, pledging their eyes and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients in rural Karnataka. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - s ectional study design . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients ( n = 200 visiting various outpatient departments of the Hospital between November 2014 and December 2014. The participants answered a questionnaire (Kannada and English versions which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, pledging and willingness to donate eyes. RESULTS: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 182 (91% participants. Analysis showed that awareness was equal among males and females. Of the 182 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 108 (59.34% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the males (55.55%. 142 (71% participants wou ld recommend eye donation. Main reasons for not pledging eyes were: lack of information regarding pledging eyes (39.18%, objection by family members (33.78% and religious belief (17.56%. Educational status was associated with willingness to donate eyes (P=0.0001. Media was the major source of information about eye donation. Of those aware of eye donation only 9.34% have pledged their eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations, we need to develop more innovative strategies to target young rural population to make them pledge their eyes. Awareness has to be created through the curriculum. Training of anganawadi, ASHA workers and paramedical personnel in spreading awareness, pledging and ben efits of eye donation at community level.

  18. Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, Yael; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M; Ribak, Erez N; Artal, Pablo

    2007-06-01

    The human eye is affected by large chromatic aberration. This may limit vision and makes it difficult to see fine retinal details in ophthalmoscopy. We designed and built a two-triplet system for correcting the average longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye while keeping a reasonably wide field of view. Measurements in real eyes were conducted to examine the level and optical quality of the correction. We also performed some tests to evaluate the effect of the corrector on visual performance.

  19. AN INNER STRUGGLE: UNDER WESTERN EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Yağlıdere

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to shed light on the most significant aspect of the modern man’s inner struggle in Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes. Joseph Conrad is one of the authors of the twentieth century who was influenced by the psychological philosophy and he makes use of this influence in his works deeply. He who synthesizes the inner nature of the modern man, having conflicts himself with the deeper analysis field of the psychology aims to point out the incomprehensible and unsettled inner nature of the modern man in Under Western Eyes. Key Words: Alienation, psychology, unconscious, betrayal.

  20. AN INNER STRUGGLE: UNDER WESTERN EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Yağlıdere

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to shed light on the most significant aspect of the modern man’s inner struggle in Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes. Joseph Conrad is one of the authors of the twentieth century who was influenced by the psychological philosophy and he makes use of this influence in his works deeply. He who synthesizes the inner nature of the modern man, having conflicts himself with the deeper analysis field of the psychology aims to point out the incomprehensible and unsettled inner nature of the modern man in Under Western Eyes.

  1. Markerless monocular tracking system for guided external eye surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, C; Rupérez, M J; Alcañiz, M; Mataix, J

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a novel markerless monocular tracking system aimed at guiding ophthalmologists during external eye surgery. This new tracking system performs a very accurate tracking of the eye by detecting invariant points using only textures that are present in the sclera, i.e., without using traditional features like the pupil and/or cornea reflections, which remain partially or totally occluded in most surgeries. Two known algorithms that compute invariant points and correspondences between pairs of images were implemented in our system: Scalable Invariant Feature Transforms (SIFT) and Speed Up Robust Features (SURF). The results of experiments performed on phantom eyes show that, with either algorithm, the developed system tracks a sphere at a 360° rotation angle with an error that is lower than 0.5%. Some experiments have also been carried out on images of real eyes showing promising behavior of the system in the presence of blood or surgical instruments during real eye surgery.

  2. MEMS scanner mirror based system for retina scanning and in eye projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woittennek, Franziska; Knobbe, Jens; Pügner, Tino; Dallmann, Hans-Georg; Schelinski, Uwe; Grüger, Heinrich

    2015-02-01

    Many applications could benefit from miniaturized systems to scan blood vessels behind the retina in the human eye, so called "retina scanning". This reaches from access control to sophisticated security applications and medical devices. High volume systems for consumer applications require low cost and a user friendly operation. For example this includes no need for removal of glasses and self-adjustment, in turn guidance of focus and point of attraction by simultaneous projection for the user. A new system has been designed based on the well-known resonantly driven 2-d scanner mirror of Fraunhofer IPMS. A combined NIR and VIS laser system illuminates the eye through an eye piece designed for an operating distance allowing the use of glasses and granting sufficient field of view. This usability feature was considered to be more important than highest miniaturization. The modulated VIS laser facilitates the projection of an image directly onto the retina. The backscattered light from the continuous NIR laser contains the information of the blood vessels and is detected by a highly sensitive photo diode. A demonstrational setup has been realized including readout and driving electronics. The laser power was adjusted to an eye-secure level. Additional security features were integrated. Test measurements revealed promising results. In a first demonstration application the detection of biometric pattern of the blood vessels was evaluated for issues authentication in.

  3. Visual Analytics for Mobile Eye Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzhals, Kuno; Hlawatsch, Marcel; Seeger, Christof; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of eye tracking data often requires the annotation of areas of interest (AOIs) to derive semantic interpretations of human viewing behavior during experiments. This annotation is typically the most time-consuming step of the analysis process. Especially for data from wearable eye tracking glasses, every independently recorded video has to be annotated individually and corresponding AOIs between videos have to be identified. We provide a novel visual analytics approach to ease this annotation process by image-based, automatic clustering of eye tracking data integrated in an interactive labeling and analysis system. The annotation and analysis are tightly coupled by multiple linked views that allow for a direct interpretation of the labeled data in the context of the recorded video stimuli. The components of our analytics environment were developed with a user-centered design approach in close cooperation with an eye tracking expert. We demonstrate our approach with eye tracking data from a real experiment and compare it to an analysis of the data by manual annotation of dynamic AOIs. Furthermore, we conducted an expert user study with 6 external eye tracking researchers to collect feedback and identify analysis strategies they used while working with our application.

  4. Rotational symmetric HMD with eye-tracking capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangfang; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    As an important auxiliary function of head-mounted displays (HMDs), eye tracking has an important role in the field of intelligent human-machine interaction. In this paper, an eye-tracking HMD system (ET-HMD) is designed based on the rotational symmetric system. The tracking principle in this paper is based on pupil-corneal reflection. The ET-HMD system comprises three optical paths for virtual display, infrared illumination, and eye tracking. The display optics is shared by three optical paths and consists of four spherical lenses. For the eye-tracking path, an extra imaging lens is added to match the image sensor and achieve eye tracking. The display optics provides users a 40° diagonal FOV with a ״ 0.61 OLED, the 19 mm eye clearance, and 10 mm exit pupil diameter. The eye-tracking path can capture 15 mm × 15 mm of the users' eyes. The average MTF is above 0.1 at 26 lp/mm for the display path, and exceeds 0.2 at 46 lp/mm for the eye-tracking path. Eye illumination is simulated using LightTools with an eye model and an 850 nm near-infrared LED (NIR-LED). The results of the simulation show that the illumination of the NIR-LED can cover the area of the eye model with the display optics that is sufficient for eye tracking. The integrated optical system HMDs with eye-tracking feature can help improve the HMD experience of users.

  5. 导向系统设计中的色彩设计“交点”研究%The Study of the Major Overlapping Points in the Coloring Designs of the Orientation System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜陶

    2013-01-01

    导向设计中色彩设计与建筑色彩设计、环境色彩设计、信息载体色彩设计的“交点”比较集中地反映了导向系统的色彩设计所负载的功能价值和美学意义.三大色彩设计“交点”是导向系统色彩设计的重要环节,也体现出视觉传达设计和建筑设计、环境设计、产品设计的之间的交流与合作.导向系统不再是单一功能性设计,而是更多的带给人们视觉、心理的享受和体验,并给人以情感慰藉与关怀.%In the orientation system design system, the overlapping points of the coloring design with the Architecture coloring design, environmental coloring design and information carrier coloring design Epitomize the functional value and the aesthetic significance of the orientation system coloring design. The overlapping points of the three major coloring design plays an important role for the orientation system design. Meanwhile, they also express the communication and cooperation between visual communication design, architectural design, environmental design and product design. Based on the above reasons, orientation system coloring design is no longer the single function design, but also delivers more visual and physical experience to people. Furthermore, it brings emotional comfort and care to people.

  6. 五星级商务酒店餐饮设计要点%Analysis on Design Points of Five-star Business Hotels’ Catering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭睿; 王金智

    2014-01-01

    餐饮设计是五星级商务酒店设计中非常重要的一环。本文结合工程经验对五星级商务酒店餐饮功能构成及各部分的设计要点进行剖析,希望为五星级商务酒店餐饮设计者提供参考依据。%Catering design is a very important part of a five-star business hotel design. Combining with the engineering experience, catering function structures and design points of each part of five-star business hotel are analyzed, hoping to provide a reference basis for five-star business hotel catering designers.

  7. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  8. Design Points of Push-pull Pickling Process Section%推拉式酸洗机组工艺段的设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程化; 郭振英

    2012-01-01

    介绍了推拉式酸洗机组的特点、相关参数,以及酸洗循环系统、清洗循环系统、废气处理系统的设计要点.%The characteristics and related parameters of push-pull pickling process were introduced . The design key points about pickling circulation system, washing circulation system and waste gas treating system were described in detail. At last, the suggestion of pickling line designing was conclusively given.

  9. 单精度浮点运算单元的FPGA设计与实现%Design and Implement of Single Precision Floating-Point Unit on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素萍; 李红刚; 张慧坚; 董定超

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the principle and operation process of the floating-point unit; studies the architecture of Floating-Point Unit. To solve the deficiency which FPU design depended on software. We propose a project of the FPU design which is suitable for FPGA.This approach enhances the portability and improvement of the system and higher calculating speed. The design unit is simulated, meeting the requirements of design and realizing logic synthesis in FPGA with the model Cyclone Ⅱ EP2C35F672C6. The result shows that the operating frequency is 47. 4MHZ to meet all requirements of the design.%针对以前浮点运算依靠软件实现的弊端,提出采用自顶向下的设计方法,模块化的设计思想来实现FPU整个设计,这种设计方法增强了系统的可移植性及可改进性;系统在CycloneⅡ EP2C35FC684C6的FPGA上综合实现,验证结果表明,在满足各项功能要求的前提下,其系统最高时钟频率可达到47.4MHZ,提高了浮点运算单元的处理速度.

  10. 高速3780点FFT处理器的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of 3 780-Point FFT Processor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解春云; 刘光辉; 牛俊峰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了地面数字电视多媒体广播传输系统(DTMB)中3 780点FFT处理器的设计与实现.通过综合利用混合基算法、素因子算法和WFTA算法,来完成3 780点FFT的算法设计.采用流水线结构进行硬件实现,为进一步提高系统吞吐率,其内部3,4,5,7,9点WFTA运算单元均采用并行数据处理方式.%A implementation method of a design for high - speed 3 780-Point FFT ( Fast Fourier Transform) processor in the ( Digital Television Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting) DTMB system is introduced in this paper. The 3 780-Point FFT is implemented by means of Common Factor Algorithm ( CFA) , Prime Factor Algorithm ( PFA) and Winograd Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm ( WFTA). The pipeline structure is used for the hardware design of 3 780-Point FFT processor, while the parallel data processing methods are used to the internal 3,4,5,7,9 point WFTA operation unit, which greatly increases die throughput of the system.

  11. Eye movement-invariant representations in the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Shinji; Huth, Alexander G; Bilenko, Natalia Y; Gallant, Jack L

    2017-01-01

    During natural vision, humans make frequent eye movements but perceive a stable visual world. It is therefore likely that the human visual system contains representations of the visual world that are invariant to eye movements. Here we present an experiment designed to identify visual areas that might contain eye-movement-invariant representations. We used functional MRI to record brain activity from four human subjects who watched natural movies. In one condition subjects were required to fixate steadily, and in the other they were allowed to freely make voluntary eye movements. The movies used in each condition were identical. We reasoned that the brain activity recorded in a visual area that is invariant to eye movement should be similar under fixation and free viewing conditions. In contrast, activity in a visual area that is sensitive to eye movement should differ between fixation and free viewing. We therefore measured the similarity of brain activity across repeated presentations of the same movie within the fixation condition, and separately between the fixation and free viewing conditions. The ratio of these measures was used to determine which brain areas are most likely to contain eye movement-invariant representations. We found that voxels located in early visual areas are strongly affected by eye movements, while voxels in ventral temporal areas are only weakly affected by eye movements. These results suggest that the ventral temporal visual areas contain a stable representation of the visual world that is invariant to eye movements made during natural vision.

  12. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Point of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.

    1998-10-26

    This paper describes the design process of physical security as applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry (PoE). Included in this paper are descriptions of the elements that compose U.S. border security. The physical security design will describe the various elements that make up the process as well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry and exit of illegal contraband will be emphasized.

  13. Development of an Interactive Anatomical Three-Dimensional Eye Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K.; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a…

  14. Eye Vision Testing System and Eyewear Using Micromachines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel A. Riza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed is a novel eye vision testing system based on micromachines that uses micro-optic, micromechanic, and microelectronic technologies. The micromachines include a programmable micro-optic lens and aperture control devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF, optical wireless communication and control links, and energy harvesting and storage devices with remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. The portable lightweight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under testing, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. A basic eye vision test system is built in the laboratory for near-sighted (myopic vision spherical lens refractive error correction. Refractive error corrections from zero up to −5.0 Diopters and −2.0 Diopters are experimentally demonstrated using the Electronic-Lens (E-Lens and aperture control methods, respectively. The proposed portable eye vision test system is suited for children’s eye tests and developing world eye centers where technical expertise may be limited. Design of a novel low-cost human vision corrective eyewear is also presented based on the proposed aperture control concept. Given its simplistic and economical design, significant impact can be created for humans with vision problems in the under-developed world.

  15. Optimal Design of Test Point Based on Depth First Search%基于深度优先搜索法的测试点优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍荣昌; 陈军伟; 韩斌; 王瑞

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve that computational problem dramatically increases in the maximum information entropy and segmentation fault feature matrix-based optimization method in test point armored equipment technical condition inspection line system,it proposed a test point optimization method that delete the re-dundant test points.Based on the depth-first search method in graph theory,it does research on the rele-vant test model and the nature of the relationship between the test point and the unit under test studies,a-nalysis of the redundant nature of the test point was used to search all test points,to elect eventually re-move redundant fault isolation test points obtained with test points.This method realizes the rapid test point for optimization design method faster than ever,for the test points and more armored equipment technical condition inspection line system has an important significance.%为解决以最大故障特征信息熵和分割矩阵为基础的测试点优化方法在装甲装备技术状况检测线系统中计算量急剧增大的问题,提出了删除冗余测试点的测试点优化方法;以图论中深度优先搜索法为基础,对相关性测试性模型的性质以及测试点与被测单元的关系进行了研究,分析出冗余测试点的性质用于搜索所有测试点,从而选出最终可删除冗余测试点得到故障隔离用测试点;该方法实现了对于测试点的快速优化设计,较之以往方法计算更加快速,对于测试点多的装甲装备技术状况检测线系统有着重要的意义。

  16. Automatic system for 3D reconstruction of the chick eye based on digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Genest, Reno; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Choh, Vivian; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of anatomical specimens is very complex and accurate 3D reconstruction is important for morphological studies, finite element analysis (FEA) and rapid prototyping. Although magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and laser scanners can be used for reconstructing biological structures, the cost of the equipment is fairly high and specialised technicians are required to operate the equipment, making such approaches limiting in terms of accessibility. In this paper, a novel automatic system for 3D surface reconstruction of the chick eye from digital photographs of a serially sectioned specimen is presented as a potential cost-effective and practical alternative. The system is designed to allow for automatic detection of the external surface of the chick eye. Automatic alignment of the photographs is performed using a combination of coloured markers and an algorithm based on complex phase order likelihood that is robust to noise and illumination variations. Automatic segmentation of the external boundaries of the eye from the aligned photographs is performed using a novel level-set segmentation approach based on a complex phase order energy functional. The extracted boundaries are sampled to construct a 3D point cloud, and a combination of Delaunay triangulation and subdivision surfaces is employed to construct the final triangular mesh. Experimental results using digital photographs of the chick eye show that the proposed system is capable of producing accurate 3D reconstructions of the external surface of the eye. The 3D model geometry is similar to a real chick eye and could be used for morphological studies and FEA.

  17. Design and implementation of a beam-waveguide mirror control system for vernier pointing of the DSS-13 antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. S.; Moore, M.; Veruttipong, W.; Andres, E.

    1994-01-01

    The design and implementation of an antenna beam-waveguide (BWG) mirror position control system at the DSS-13 34-m antenna is presented. While it has several potential applications, a positioner on the last flat-plate BWG mirror (M6) at DSS 13 is installed to demonstrate the conical scan (conscan) angle-tracking technique at the Ka-band (32-GHz) operating frequency. Radio frequency (RF) beam-scanning predictions for the M6 mirror, computed from a diffraction analysis, are presented. From these predictions, position control system requirements are then derived. The final mechanical positioner and servo system designs, as implemented at DSS 13, are illustrated with detailed design descriptions given in the appendices. Preliminary measurements of antenna Ka-band beam scan versus M6 mirror tilt made at DSS 13 in December 1993 are presented. After reduction, the initial measurements are shown to be in agreement with the RF predicts. Plans for preliminary conscan experimentation at DSS 13 are summarized.

  18. Airborne forward pointing UV Rayleigh lidar for remote clear air turbulence (CAT) detection: system design and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Vrancken, Patrick; Ehret, Gerhard; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Veerman, Henk

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance airborne UV Rayleigh lidar system was developed within the European project DELICAT. With its forward-pointing architecture it aims at demonstrating a novel detection scheme for clear air turbulence (CAT) for an aeronautics safety application. Due to its occurrence in clear and clean air at high altitudes (aviation cruise flight level), this type of turbulence evades microwave radar techniques and in most cases coherent Doppler lidar techniques. The present lidar detection technique relies on air density fluctuations measurement and is thus independent of backscatter from hydrometeors and aerosol particles. The subtle air density fluctuations caused by the turbulent air flow demand exceptionally high stability of the setup and in particular of the detection system. This paper describes an airborne test system for the purpose of demonstrating this technology and turbulence detection method: a high-power UV Rayleigh lidar system is installed on a research aircraft in a forward-looking configu...

  19. Can the Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system be used to design process-based hygiene concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, N-O; Fleßa, S; Haak, J; Wilke, F; Hübner, C; Dahms, C; Hoffmann, W; Kramer, A

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions.

  20. Design and Realization of Integrated Management System for Data Interoperability between Point-of-Care Testing Equipment and Hospital Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Sang; Heo, Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to design an integrated data management system based on the POCT1-A2, LIS2-A, LIS2-A2, and HL7 standard to ensure data interoperability between mobile equipment, such as point-of-care testing equipment and the existing hospital data system, its efficiency was also evaluated. Methods The method of this study was intended to design and realize a data management system which would provide a solution for the problems that occur when point-of-care testing equipment is introduced to existing hospital data, after classifying such problems into connectivity, integration, and interoperability. This study also checked if the data management system plays a sufficient role as a bridge between the point-of-care testing equipment and the hospital information system through connection persistence and reliability testing, as well as data integration and interoperability testing. Results In comparison with the existing system, the data management system facilitated integration by improving the result receiving time, improving the collection rate, and by enabling the integration of disparate types of data into a single system. And it was found out that we can solve the problems related to connectivity, integration and interoperability through generating the message in standardized types. Conclusions It is expected that the proposed data management system, which is designed to improve the integration point-of-care testing equipment with existing systems, will establish a solid foundation on which better medical service may be provided by hospitals by improving the quality of patient service. PMID:24175121

  1. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  2. An Analog VLSI Saccadic Eye Movement System

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to understand saccadic eye movements and their relation to visual attention and other forms of eye movements, we - in collaboration with a number of other laboratories - are carrying out a large-scale effort to design and build a complete primate oculomotor system using analog CMOS VLSI technology. Using this technology, a low power, compact, multi-chip system has been built which works in real-time using real-world visual inputs. We describe in this paper the performance of a...

  3. Design and Study on Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control of the Chaos Embedded Particle Swarm Optimization for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Wind Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ho Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sliding mode extremum seeking control (SMESC of chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO Algorithm, applied to the design of maximum power point tracking in wind power systems. Its features are that the control parameters in SMESC are optimized by CEPSO, making it unnecessary to change the output power of different wind turbines, the designed in-repetition rate is reduced, and the system control efficiency is increased. The wind power system control is designed by simulation, in comparison with the traditional wind power control method, and the simulated dynamic response obtained by the SMESC algorithm proposed in this paper is better than the traditional hill-climbing search (HCS and extremum seeking control (ESC algorithms in the transient or steady states, validating the advantages and practicability of the method proposed in this paper.

  4. Key Points for Design of Centrifugal Compressor Layout%离心式压缩机布置设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方纲

    2011-01-01

    Author has introduced the category,composition of centrifugal compressor sets and division of electric explosion zone;has discussed the key points for design of centrifugal compressor layout and the piping design skill from aspects of fireproof space,building design,crane layout,main machine and auxiliary equipment arrangement,steam condensers layout etc,.%介绍了离心式压缩机组的分类、组成以及电气防爆区域的划分;从防火间距、厂房设计、起重机布置、主机和辅机布置、凝汽器布置等方面探讨了离心式压缩机的布置设计要点和配管设计技巧。

  5. Beneath Our Eyes: An Exploration of the Relationship between Technology Enhanced Learning and Socio-Ecological Sustainability in Art and Design Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclater, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    This article uses published research to explore how Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) can help to sustain learning communities to engage in creative exploration and open investigation. It then draws on this research to ask: how could we use TEL to support pedagogies of socio-ecological sustainability in the Art and Design education community?…

  6. King and Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannakij, Sing

    devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse population...

  7. [Eye and the pregnacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with changes in many organs and systems including the eyes. Sometimes in pregnancy may appear physiological and pathological ocular changes that may be associated with pre-existing problems. In such cases it is very important interdisciplinary collaboration gynecologist, ophthalmologist.

  8. Eyes for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  9. Through the creator's eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lahlou, Saadi

    2012-01-01

    of an adapted Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography (SEBE). This methodology combines (a) obtaining first person audio-visual recordings of creative action with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level, (b) accessing the subjective experience of the participant through a confrontation interview based...

  10. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  11. Gaze estimation for off-angle iris recognition based on the biometric eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Barstow, Del; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Thompson, Joseph; Bolme, David; Boehnen, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ORNL biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  12. Hobsonville Point-Design Guide & Design Code%霍伯森维尔——设计规条的要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    拉尔夫·约翰斯; 赵铁铮

    2013-01-01

    The Hobsonville project involves the comprehensive urban master planning for a new medium-density residential community on a former airbase. Hobsonville is a long-term development undertaken by Hobsonville Land Company. The first phase of development, the Buckley Precinct developed under a Comprehensive Development Plan, is nearing completion with the Hobsonville Point Park finished and the first new houses occupied. Hobsonville Point is the largest new housing development in Auckland and an important benchmark for creating a high-quality, liveable future for the city.%霍伯森维尔项目是综合性的总体城市设计项目,规划涉及在原空军基地用地上新建新型的中等密度居住社区.这是一项由霍伯森维尔土地公司所实施的长期性项目.按照综合发展计划,项目首期的伯克利区已接近完成,同时竣工的还有霍伯森维尔公园,首期住宅即将入住.霍伯森维尔现在是奥克兰最大型的住房发展社区,也是创造未来高品质宜居城市的重要里程碑.

  13. Effect of differing PowerPoint slide design on multiple-choice test scores for assessment of knowledge and retention in a theriogenology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2014-01-01

    Third-year veterinary students in a required theriogenology diagnostics course were allowed to self-select attendance at a lecture in either the evening or the next morning. One group was presented with PowerPoint slides in a traditional format (T group), and the other group was presented with PowerPoint slides in the assertion-evidence format (A-E group), which uses a single sentence and a highly relevant graphic on each slide to ensure attention is drawn to the most important points in the presentation. Students took a multiple-choice pre-test, attended lecture, and then completed a take-home assignment. All students then completed an online multiple-choice post-test and, one month later, a different online multiple-choice test to evaluate retention. Groups did not differ on pre-test, assignment, or post-test scores, and both groups showed significant gains from pre-test to post-test and from pre-test to retention test. However, the T group showed significant decline from post-test to retention test, while the A-E group did not. Short-term differences between slide designs were most likely unaffected due to required coursework immediately after lecture, but retention of material was superior with the assertion-evidence slide design.

  14. Optical eye simulator for laser dazzle events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, João M P; Freitas, José; Williamson, Craig A

    2016-03-20

    An optical simulator of the human eye and its application to laser dazzle events are presented. The simulator combines optical design software (ZEMAX) with a scientific programming language (MATLAB) and allows the user to implement and analyze a dazzle scenario using practical, real-world parameters. Contrary to conventional analytical glare analysis, this work uses ray tracing and the scattering model and parameters for each optical element of the eye. The theoretical background of each such element is presented in relation to the model. The overall simulator's calibration, validation, and performance analysis are achieved by comparison with a simpler model based uponCIE disability glare data. Results demonstrate that this kind of advanced optical eye simulation can be used to represent laser dazzle and has the potential to extend the range of applicability of analytical models.

  15. Multiple linear regression models for shear strength prediction and design of simplysupported deep beams subjected to symmetrical point loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panatchai Chetchotisak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of nonlinear strain distributions caused either by abrupt changes in geometry or in loading in deep beam, the approach for conventional beams is not applicable. Consequently, strut-and-tie model (STM has been applied as the most rational and simple method for strength prediction and design of reinforced concrete deep beams. A deep beam is idealized by the STM as a truss-like structure consisting of diagonal concrete struts and tension ties. There have been numerous works proposing the STMs for deep beams. However, uncertainty and complexity in shear strength computations of deep beams can be found in some STMs. Therefore, improvement of methods for predicting the shear strengths of deep beams are still needed. By means of a large experimental database of 406 deep beam test results covering a wide range of influencing parameters, several shapes and geometry of STM and six state-of-the-art formulation of the efficiency factors found in the design codes and literature, the new STMs for predicting the shear strength of simply supported reinforced concrete deep beams using multiple linear regression analysis is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, the regression diagnostics and the validation process are included in this study. Finally, two numerical examples are also provided for illustration.

  16. Airborne forward-pointing UV Rayleigh lidar for remote clear air turbulence detection: system design and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Veerman, Henk

    2016-11-10

    A high-performance airborne UV Rayleigh lidar system was developed within the European project DELICAT. With its forward-pointing architecture, it aims at demonstrating a novel detection scheme for clear air turbulence (CAT) for an aeronautics safety application. Due to its occurrence in clear and clean air at high altitudes (aviation cruise flight level), this type of turbulence evades microwave radar techniques and in most cases coherent Doppler lidar techniques. The present lidar detection technique relies on air density fluctuation measurement and is thus independent of backscatter from hydrometeors and aerosol particles. The subtle air density fluctuations caused by the turbulent air flow demand exceptionally high stability of the setup and in particular of the detection system. This paper describes an airborne test system for the purpose of demonstrating this technology and turbulence detection method: a high-power UV Rayleigh lidar system is installed on a research aircraft in a forward-looking configuration for use in cruise flight altitudes. Flight test measurements demonstrate this unique lidar system being able to resolve air density fluctuations occurring in light-to-moderate CAT at 5 km or moderate CAT at 10 km distance. A scaling of the determined stability and noise characteristics shows that such performance is adequate for an application in commercial air transport.

  17. Technology development and circuit design for a parallel laser programmable floating-point application specific processor. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriber, M.W.

    1989-12-01

    The laser programmable floating point application specific processor (LPASP) is a new approach at rapid development of custom VLSI chips. The LPASP is a generic application specific processor that can be programmed to perform a specific function. The effort of this thesis is to develop and test the double precision floating point adder and the laser programmable read-only memory (LPROM) that are macrocells within the LPASP. In addition, the thesis analyzes the applicability of an LPASP parallel processing system. The double precision floating point adder is an adder/subtractor macrocell designed to comply with the IEEE double precision floating point standard. An 84-pin chip of the adder was fabricated using 2 micron feature sizes. The fastest processing time was measured at 120 nanoseconds over 23 worst case test vectors. The adder uses the optimized carry multiplexed (OCM) adder that was developed at AFIT. The OCM adder is a new adder architecture that uses four parallel carry paths to attain a performance time on the order of (cubed root of M) with a gate count on the order of O (n). The redundant logic associated with the parallel propagation banks is eliminated in the OCM adder so that the largest bit-slice of the adder contains only eight 2-to-1 multiplexer gates. A 57-bit adder was fabricated using 2 micron feature sizes. The processing time for the adder is 31 nsec.

  18. Nutrition and the Aging Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Nutrition and the Aging Eye Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Steps to Keep Your Sight / Nutrition and the Aging Eye / Leading Causes of Blindness / Understanding Your Vision: ...

  19. Disability: recommendations for eye programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, CBM’s Medical Eye Care Advisory Working Group met in Hyderabad, India to discuss the inclusion of people with disabilities in eye care.As a result of these discussions, recommendations were made.

  20. Application of experimental design and response surface technique for selecting the optimum RP-HPLC conditions for the determination of moxifloxacin HCl and ketorolac tromethamine in eye drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipbhai D. Kalariya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed for the separation of moxifloxacin HCl and ketorolac tromethamine using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC on C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm with UV detection at 308 nm. Experimental designs were applied for multivariate optimization of the experimental conditions of RP-HPLC method. Three independent factors: methanol content in the mobile phase composition, buffer pH and flow rate were used to design mathematical models. Here faced central composite (FCC experimental design was used to study the response surface technique and to study in depth the effects of these independent factors. Derringer’s desirability function was applied to simultaneously optimize the retention time of last eluting peak (ketorolac tromethamine and tailing factor of moxifloxacin. The predicted optimum assay condition consisted of methanol and potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.2; 25 mM, 0.5% Triethylamine in a proportion of 60:40% v/v, respectively, as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.2 mL min−1. Using this optimum condition, baseline separation of both drugs with good resolution and a run time of less than 7 min were achieved. The optimized assay condition was validated according to ICH guidelines to confirm specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision.

  1. Ventilation system design points for general hospitals%综合医院通风设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶何明

    2012-01-01

    Presents the ventilation system form, air changes and positive/negative pressure control for main sections including the outpatient department, inpatient department, medical department and central supply department. Discusses the noticeable issues of system division, fan noise control and filter selection in design.%介绍了综合医院的门诊部、住院部、医技部及中心供应部等主要部门的通风系统的形式、换气次数及正负压要求.探讨了通风系统的划分、风机噪声的控制和过滤器的选择等设计中需要注意的问题.

  2. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  3. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  4. New drugs for the treatment of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridder III WH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available William H Ridder III, Apoorva Karsolia Southern California College of Optometry, Marshall B Ketchum University, Fullerton, CA, USA Abstract: Dry eye disease (DED is one of the most commonly encountered conditions for eye care practitioners. The prevalence of DED can be as high as 30% of the population. In the past decade, only one drug has been approved for the treatment of DED by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA in the USA (ie, Restasis® by Allergan, Inc.. The total annual cost (ie, treatment and lost productivity due to symptoms to the US economy of dry eye can be more than $55 billion. Thus, the development of new drug treatments for dry eye is important for both the dry eye patient and the ophthalmic industry. There are many drugs in development for the treatment of dry eye. This manuscript reviews the drugs listed on the ClinicalTrials.gov website (FDA list of clinical trials being investigated for the treatment of dry eye. A large number of these drugs are designed to target a specific cause of dry eye and some of these drugs will be approved for clinical use in the next 10 years. This will result in a significant increase in the clinician’s choice of treatment and potentially better control of the dry eye patient's condition. Keywords: keratoconjunctivitis sicca, clinical trials, anti-inflammatory, secretagogues

  5. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  6. Integrated modeling of steel refining, casting and rolling operations to obtain design set points for quality steel sheet production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akash; Kumar, Prabhash; Anapagaddi, Ravikiran; Reddy, Niranjan; Goyal, Sharad; Singh, A. K.; Padmanabhan, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    Non-metallic inclusions are defects present in steel which disrupt the homogeneity of structure and adversely affects the mechanical properties. To some extent silo approach based mathematical models have been successfully used to modify and control inclusions in steel making but very few attempts have been made to deal with these processes in integrated framework. With computational advancement and high promising potential of ICME (Integrated Computational Materials Engineering), physics based models can be integrated which will lead to overall increase of process understanding, control and eventually to better properties and performance of material. The objectives of the present work are: (a) using CFD based models understand the influence of various design and process parameters on inclusion removal during secondary steel making, (b) using FEM model study the effects of type and characteristics of inclusions during solid state forming operations, and finally (c) integrate these models in order to develop an integrated modeling framework. This integrated framework will determine the extent up to which inclusions can be tolerated in downstream processes without affecting the quality and properties of final steel sheet significantly and suggest modifications in upstream processes if inclusions are above acceptable limit.

  7. Validation of cytochrome P450 time-dependent inhibition assays: a two-time point IC50 shift approach facilitates kinact assay design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, E S; Mason, A K; Dehal, S S; Blanchard, A P; Morgan, L; Ho, T; Dandeneau, A; Crocker, R M; Chandler, C M; Boily, N; Crespi, C L; Stresser, D M

    2009-02-01

    1. Recent guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has advocated testing of time-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP), which can be addressed by performing IC(50) shift as well as K(I)/k(inact) determinations. 2. Direct (IC(50), K(i)) and time-dependent inhibition (IC(50) shift, K(I)/k(inact)) assays were validated in human liver microsomes with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis for the following enzyme/substrate/inhibitor combinations: CYP1A2/phenacetin/alpha-naphthoflavone/furafylline, CYP2C8/amodiaquine/montelukast/gemfibrozil-1-O-beta-glucuronide, CYP2C9/diclofenac/sulfaphenazole/tienilic acid, CYP2C19/S-mephenytoin/S-benzylnirvanol/S-fluoxetine, CYP2D6/dextromethorphan/quinidine/paroxetine, and CYP3A4/midazolam/testosterone/ketoconazole/azamulin/verapamil/diltiazem. IC(50) shift assays were performed with two pre-incubation time points (10 and 30 min) to facilitate k(inact) assay design. 3. Data obtained show good agreement with literature values. For rapid acting inhibitors, such as azamulin/CYP3A4 and tienilic acid/CYP2C9, the IC(50) shifts were similar at both time points suggesting a short maximum pre-incubation time with closely spaced time points for the K(I)/k(inact) assay. Slow acting inhibitors (such as verapamil/CYP3A4 or S-fluoxetine/CYP2C19) showed an increase in IC(50) shift between 10 and 30 min suggesting a longer maximum pre-incubation time with wider spacing of time points for K(I)/k(inact). 4. The two-time point IC(50) shift experiment proved to be an excellent method for the selection of appropriate K(I)/k(inact) assay parameters and is suitable for the routine analysis of P450 inhibition by drug candidates.

  8. 超限高层建筑电气设计重点简析%Analysis on Key Points of Electrical Design for Super High-rise Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华锡锋

    2012-01-01

    In combination with project cases, the key points of electrical design for the following aspects of super high-rise buildings are deeply analyzed : power supply scheme, emergency / stand-by power source, transformation and distribution substation, and escape lighting etc.%结合工程案例.对超限高层建筑的供电方案、应急/备用电源、变配电所,以及疏散照明等电气设计重点内容作深入分析。

  9. Tips for Buying Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  10. Checklist for Your Eye Doctor Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  11. Analyzing Head and Eye Movement System with CORBA

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Changyuan; Zhang Jing; Chen YuLong

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the vestibular system in different organs of movement as well as their collaboration between working mechanism, this paper designs a model of the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) for the head and eye movement system based on the vestibular function. By analyzing physiological characteristics of the head and eye movement model, and further introducing the structure features of CORBA. It focus on the component composition and the model design of CORBA compon...

  12. Role of the iridescent eye in stickleback female mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamarique, Iñigo Novales; Bergstrom, Carolyn; Cheng, Christiana L; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2013-08-01

    Many vertebrates exhibit prominent body colours that are used in courtship and territorial communication. Some fishes also have an eye whose iris becomes iridescent during the mating season, as in the threespine stickleback. Behavioural studies in this species have focused on the redness of the throat/jaw as the primary determinant of female mate choice. Unlike the iridescent eye, however, the red throat/jaw is not present in all stickleback populations, suggesting that the colour of the eye may be equally important for female mate choice. Here, we used data on photoreceptors and environmental light to assess body conspicuousness and the colour contrast of courtship signals for stickleback populations living in a range of waters, from clear (mesotrophic) to red light shifted (dystrophic). This analysis indicated that the redness of the throat/jaw is expressed to enhance the contrast of the eye. To test the importance of eye colour as a courtship signal, we carried out mate choice experiments in which females were presented with identical videos of a courting male but for the colour of the eye and/or the throat/jaw. Females did not choose based on differences in throat/jaw redness between videos, but preferred males with the highest contrast between the eye and the throat/jaw. This result points to the blue iridescent eye as a primary courtship signal in stickleback female mate choice.

  13. Key points of safety design of electrical installation of fountains%喷水池电气安全设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪元颐; 卢子涛; 逄京

    2000-01-01

    喷水池的电气安全是一个十分重要的问题。特别是在发生了因喷水池漏电造成数名儿童电击致死的惨痛事故之后,更引起了各方的关注。为了便于电气专业设计人员参照,特编制本要点。%Safety of electrical installation is very important for water fountains.The misery which caused losses of some children?lives because of leakage of fountain electrical equipment has aroused concerns from many parties.The key points on safety design of electrical installation of fountains are compiled for designers?reference.

  14. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years...... and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  15. "Eye Science" in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ge

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2011 is an opportune time for Yanke Xuebao (Eye Science) to launch its bilingual edition as a platform for cooperation between Chinese and international vision researchers.The yearly research output of Chinese investigators in all fields of science, but particularly biomedicine, has been growing recently by leaps and bounds.As an example, the American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO), one of the most prestigious clinical journals in our field,received more submissions from East Asian authors (Japan, China and Korea alone)than they did from the United States in 2010.Chinese investigators ranked third on the list, climbing rapidly, only after the US and Japan.Top vision research centers in China, such as Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, where Eye Science is published, now rank alongside Moorfields and Johns Hopkins as among the most prolific institutions in the world, measured by articles appearing annually in peer-reviewed SCI journals.

  16. Estimating 3D gaze in physical environment: a geometric approach on consumer-level remote eye tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibirama, Sunu; Mahesa, Rizki R.; Nugroho, Hanung A.; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    Remote eye trackers with consumer price have been used for various applications on flat computer screen. On the other hand, 3D gaze tracking in physical environment has been useful for visualizing gaze behavior, robots controller, and assistive technology. Instead of using affordable remote eye trackers, 3D gaze tracking in physical environment has been performed using corporate-level head mounted eye trackers, limiting its practical usage to niche user. In this research, we propose a novel method to estimate 3D gaze using consumer-level remote eye tracker. We implement geometric approach to obtain 3D point of gaze from binocular lines-of-sight. Experimental results show that the proposed method yielded low errors of 3.47+/-3.02 cm, 3.02+/-1.34 cm, and 2.57+/-1.85 cm in X, Y , and Z dimensions, respectively. The proposed approach may be used as a starting point for designing interaction method in 3D physical environment.

  17. Dry Eye Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  18. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  19. 基于IP核的数选式浮点矩阵相乘设计%Floating-point matrix multiplication design based on IP core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宇; 王建业; 张伟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of a few selected matrix operations, matrix operations with gow-level IP cores, using the number of the IP core embedded in a matrix selection, while floating-point addition operation to add the method to achieve floating-point matrix multiplication. Saving resource consumption while improving system performance, and improved floating-point matrix operations in the FPGA. Simulation results show that the design is feasible, and it has some practical significance and applications.%本文根据数选式矩阵运算特点,结合低阶矩阵运算IP核,采用将IP核嵌入到数选矩阵中,同时添加浮点加法运算的方法,实现浮点矩阵相乘.在节省资源消耗的同时提升了系统性能,并将改进的浮点矩阵运算在FPGA中实现.仿真结果表明该设计可行,具有一定的实际意义和应用前景.

  20. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.

  1. 基于无线RFID的新型室内语音导盲机人的整体设计%Integrated design of a RFID-based interior voice guide seeing eyes robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 靳祖光; 杨正波

    2012-01-01

    新型导盲机器人的设计目的在于辅助视力障碍者在室内行走及寻物,并增强视力障碍者的环境适应性,使人-机-环境之间保持更佳良好的交互性.介绍了新型导盲机器人的组成、定位、路径规划和软件控制流程.通过超声波、红外、RFID及语音识别等多模块信息交互融合,此机器人可轻松的实现室内避障及语音寻物等多种功能.%New guide seeing eyes robot is designed to assist the visually impaired to walk and search objects in the room, and enhance the environmental adaptability of the visually impaired, make people, machine and environment maintain a better interaction. This article elaborates the structure of the new guide robot, indoor positioning, route planning and control program diagram. Through the Information exchange and integration of ultrasound module, infrared module, RFID module and voice recognition module, the robot can easily achieve the indoor obstacle avoidance, voice navigation and route planning.

  2. 浮点指数函数的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Floating-Point Exponential Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽斯; 何虎

    2012-01-01

    An exponential function was designed for modern radar system. Numbers of floating-point were represented in IEEE-754 single precision format, which is 32- bit in length. Table-driven method was used to implement operation of floating-point exponential function, and CORDIC algotithm was introduced to simplify the design and improve the precision in a certain range. Based on the two algorithms, an improved architecture was proposed. The design was described in Verilog HDL and simulated with ModelSim6. 5b. Simulation results showed that the error range of the improved exponential function operation was reduced to 40% of the conventional method. Synthesized in 65 nm CMOS standard cell library, the circuit achieved an operating frequency of 483 MHz, satisfying requirements of the system.%设计了一种用于现代雷达系统的指数函数.设计中,浮点数格式均采用IEEE-754标准32位单精度表示[1].采用Table-driven算法实现浮点指数函数的运算.为了简化硬件的实现并提高算法实现的精度,引入了CORDIC算法.基于这两种算法结构,提出一种改进结构.采用Verilog语言描述,通过ModelSim6.5b进行仿真,结果表明,在一定的数据范围内,改进后指数函数运算结果的相对误差是传统方法的40%.在TMSC 65 nm工艺下综合,频率达到483 MHz,满足系统的工作频率要求.

  3. Evaluating the usefulness of Eye Tracking in Game-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Kiili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of educational game design is to develop solutions that please as many players as possible, but are still educationally effective. How learning happens in games is methodologically very challenging to point out and thus it is usually avoided. In this paper we tackle this challenge with eye tracking method. The aim of this research is to study the meaning of cognitive feedback in educational games and evaluate the usefulness of eye tracking method in game based learning research and game design. Based on perceptual data we evaluated the playing behavior of 43 Finnish and Austrian children aged from 7 to 16. Four different games were used as test-beds. The results indicated that players’ perception patterns varied a lot and some players even missed relevant information during playing. The results showed that extraneous elements should be eliminated from the game world in order to avoid incidental processing in crucial moments. Animated content easily grasps player’s attention, which may disturb learning activities. Especially low performers and inattentive players have difficulties in distinguishing important and irrelevant content and tend to stick to salient elements no matter of their importance for a task. However, it is not reasonable to exclude all extraneous elements because it decreases engagement and immersion. Thus, balancing of extraneous and crucial elements is essential. Overall, the results showed that eye tracking can provide important information from game based learning process and game designs. However, we have to be careful when interpreting the perceptual data, because we cannot be sure if the player understands everything that he or she is paying attention to. Thus, eye tracking should be complemented with offline methods like retrospective interview that was successfully used in this research.

  4. 裸眼3D LCD动静态图像显示的设计研究%Design and research on displaying images and texts on naked-eye 3 D LCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凡; 梁发云; 刘敏; 许鹏; 王兴鹏

    2015-01-01

    The naked-eye 3 D LCD could be applied to various image display device and can also be used to display the 2D and 3D graphics . ×ith the continuous improvement of the TFT LCD resolution,it needed better hardware technology to display the full image correctly. According to the actual demand of displaying images and texts ,the LCD driving interfaces were designed in this paper based on FPGA. And the circuital timing sequence was generated by the hardware logic algorithm to send pixel data correctly through the RGB line. The results showed that the design could achieve stably performance and acquire a dynamic display of images and texts by online de-bugging .%裸眼3D LCD能够应用到多种图像显示器件中,满足二维及三维图形显示。在TFT LCD的分辨率不断提高的情况下,也对正确显示完整图像的硬件技术提出了更高的要求。根据图像与文字显示的现实需求,使用FP-GA来驱动液晶屏接口。并用硬件逻辑算法产生LCD驱动的时序电路,配合RGB数据线完成像素的正确传送。在线调试结果表明该设计能达到稳定的显示效果,实现了图像和字符的动态显示。

  5. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging on eye development in the C57BL/6J mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, D.A.; Sulik, K.K. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1991-03-01

    An investigation was undertaken to ascertain the potential teratogenicity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fields. The C57BL/6J mouse was chosen as the experimental model with eye malformations (microphthalmia and morphologic anomalies) designated as the biological end point. This mouse strain is genetically predisposed to this type of malformation as a 10% spontaneous incidence occurs. Dams in groups of 15 were subjected to MRI imaging conditions on gestational day (Gd) 7 for 36 minutes to a spin-echo T-2-weighted scan by using a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field and a radiofrequency (RF) field of 64 MHz. One group was exposed at the magnetic isocenter while another was exposed at the entrance to the magnet lumen. There was also a sham control group. The dams were sacrificed at Gd 14. Assessment of eye abnormality was determined by, (1) a veterinary ophthalmologist, (2) a computer-based method comparing eye areas, and (3) a methodology combining both the above subjective and quantitative methods. MRI fields were found to produce malformation rates (15-37%) higher than controls (2-19% P less than or equal to .05, Kruskal-Wallis Test) for both isocenter and lumen entrance groups. The malformation rates and degree of statistical significance varied somewhat with analytical methodology and the unit of measure (right eye, left eye, or fetus). The results suggest for the first time the potential of MRI fields to produce developmental malformations in an animal model utilizing clinically realistic exposure conditions. (However, the reader is remained that the mouse strain utilized in this investigation was genetically prone to malformations).

  6. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  7. Courseware Design from Point of View of Cognitive Psychology%从认知心理学角度看课件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜英俊; 李宏敏

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the era of rapid development of information technology, multimedia courseware has become a common teaching tool. These courseware design, in addition to the need to follow the principle of Courseware, some rules should be based on cognitive psychology to design to arrange knowledge point of emission color of the order as well as the interface problem, the combine both guide the design in order to produce excellent multimedia courseware.%  在信息技术飞速发展的时代,多媒体课件已经成为一种常见的教学工具,在对这些课件进行设计的时候,除了需要遵循课件教学性的原则之外,还应根据认知心理学的一些规律来设计安排知识点的排放顺序以及界面的色彩等问题,两者结合起来指导设计才能制作出优秀的多媒体课件。

  8. An Efficient Architecture Design of Reconfigurable Float-point FFT Processor%高效可配置浮点FFT处理器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑红石; 高伟

    2012-01-01

    Large resource cost is the design bottleneck of high-precision float-point FFT processor,a novel R2/22SDF reconfigurable architecture using shared-butterfly which employs single-port-based FIFO.Radix 2/22algorithm and pipeline architecture,which is suitable for float-point design,can reduce the multiplicative complexity and improve the multiplication efficiency.The FIFO memory using double-width single-port ram can avoid the larger area and power coat of dual-port ram.Two butterfly units can be merged by the proposed shared-butterfly architecture,which solves the low utilization factor problem of traditional single-path-delay-feedback architecture.The float-point design cost is efficiently reduced and the calculator utilization factor is improved,compared with the traditional pipeline method.%为了克服高精度浮点FFT处理器具有较大资源开销的设计瓶颈,采用基于单口存储器的FIFO构建共享蝶形结构的R2/22SDF流水可配置结构.采用适合浮点设计的基2/22算法实现流水结构,不仅有利于可配置电路的实现,还能够有效减少复数乘法次数,提高复数乘法器的计算效率.采用双倍数据位宽的单口存储器实现FIFO存储器,有效避免了双口存储器面积和功耗较大的问题.改进的蝶形共享结构实现两级蝶形的合并,解决了单路径延迟反馈流水线结构蝶形单元利用率低的问题.与传统流水线结构FFT处理器设计相比,有效降低了浮点设计中的资源开销,提高了计算单元的利用效率.

  9. Through Einstein's Eyes

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, A C; Altin, P A; Bennet, F H; Hush, M R; Searle, Antony C.; Savage, Craig M.; Altin, Paul A.; Bennet, Francis H.; Hush, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a relativistically-accurate computer graphics code and have used it to produce photo-realistic images and videos of scenes where special relativistic effects dominate, either in astrophysical contexts or in imaginary worlds where the speed of light is only a few metres per second. The videos have been integrated into our under-graduate teaching programme for several years. Recently we took the next step, encouraging undergraduate students to use the code to explore relativity, develop their own videos, and eventually package them together into Through Einstein's Eyes, a multimedia CD.

  10. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    The paper was presented in the panel “Tending the tensions in co-creation: A critical, reflexive approach to co-creative methods” at the 32nd IHSCR. This paper highlights different forms of tension involved in facilitating creative processes and argues that tension is a necessity for change and t...... in constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  11. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  12. P3-8: Eye Position Distribution Depending on Head Orientation in Natural Scene Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Nakashima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We usually move our body and head as well as eyes in order to obtain information from visual environments. Although several studies reported the coordination between eye and head movements, most of them used simple stimuli and/or conditions. In this study, we investigated relationships between eye movements and head orientations while viewing natural scene images in a large size of screen. We measured participants' eye positions and head orientations simultaneously during a natural scene image viewing (each image subtended about 53 × 41 deg, in which the participant on a chair moved their head and eyes naturally for 5 s. We analyzed the eye- and head-movement data to obtain frequency distribution of eye position as a function of head orientation. The results showed a clear correlation between horizontal eye position and horizontal head orientation. When the head pointed to the left or right, the peak frequency of eye position shifted also to the left or right (relative to the head, respectively, and when the head was centered, the peak of the frequency distribution for the eye position was also centered in the head. These results are consistent with our previous study in which a visual search task was performed (visual search for “T” among “L”s. In contrast, no correlation was found between vertical direction between the eye positions and head orientations. These findings suggest that the mechanism of head-eye coordination may function only horizontally at least under the present condition.

  13. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close....... With regard to the - mainly academic - discrepancy between cross-sectional and longitudinal results, bigger samples are needed, and the juvenile myopic trend has to be acknowledged....

  14. A Seeing-eye Dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范图雨

    2000-01-01

    A seeing-eye dog is a special(特殊的) dog. It helps blind people walk along the streets and do many other things. We call these dogs ""seeing-eye"" dogs because the dogs are the ""eyes"" of the blind man and they help him to ""see"". These dogs go to special schools for several years to learn to help blind people.

  15. 地下室人防建筑设计要点探究%Explore the Design Points of Civil Air Defense Architectural of Basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of the construction in-dustry, the function of basement has a strong comprehensiven-ess, in addition to air defense requirements, as wel as the need for normal use, such as parking, and equipment. In this article, the author gives a detailed and in-depth discussion of the rel-evant points of civil air defense architectural design of basem-ent.%  随着建筑行业的快速发展,地下室的功能有着较强的综合性。除了防空要求,还有平时使用的需要,如停车,设备等。本文就地下室人防建筑设计的相关要点进行了细致、深入的探讨。

  16. 潜水运动力学分析与潜水服设计要点%Analysis of Motion Mechanics and Design Points of Wet Diving Pants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忻舟; 杜劲松

    2015-01-01

    The basic characteristics and design points of three kinds of diving suits are analyzed. Taking the diving pants as an example, the human lower limb movement, the diving environment and the wet diving suit material are analyzed, which lay the foundation for the production of wet diving suit.%分析三种潜水服的基本特点及设计要点,并以潜水裤为例,通过对人体下肢动作、潜水环境以及潜水服材料进行分析,结合潜水运动力学,为潜水服制作打下基础。

  17. 谈园林铺装表现景观意境的设计要点%On design points for landscape artistic for garden pavement performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路毅; 孙岩

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces the types of the garden paving materials,analyzes the relationship among pavement materials,pavement forms, and landscape artistic,and sums up the pavement design points for the better landscape artistic,so as to provide some reference for the following garden paving research.%介绍了园林铺装材质的种类,对铺装材质、铺装形式和景观意境形成之间的关系进行了分析,总结出了能够更好地表现景观意境的铺装设计要点,为今后园林铺装研究提供参考。

  18. Analysis of cloud IT systems data center IP network design points%云化IT系统数据中心IP组网设计要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹰

    2013-01-01

      随着云计算的日益普及,传统的烟囱式“三明治”扩展多层结构的单一IT系统组网无法适应满足现代大型数据中心多租户多系统的要求,本文参考思科和H3C公司提出的VMDC组网结构,给出了多租户IT支撑系统数据中心IP组网扁平化、接入无差异化的“精简多层”组网架构设计要点,并通过一则实际工程案例的设计运用予以介绍说明。实践证明,通过对精简多层组网结构的设计运用,能有效提高网络设备端口、带宽利用率,同时可满足多系统间安全域隔离及资源共享的需求。%  With the growing popularity of cloud computing, the traditional extended multi-layer structure of a single IT system network, like a chimney "sandwich", can not meet the requirements of large-scale multi-tenant and multi-system in data center. In this paper, refer to Cisco and H3C VMDC network architecture, design points of compacted multi-layer structure for multi-tenant IT system data center network, which includes fattening network architecture, no differentiated access, etc, is mentioned. The design points are introduced by the use of the design of an actual project. Practice proved that through the use of compacted multi-layer structure design, can effectively improve the network device port, bandwidth utilization, and to meet the needs of multi-system security domain isolation and resource sharing.

  19. Video Conference System that Keeps Mutual Eye Contact Among Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Yahagi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel video conference system is developed. Suppose that three people A, B, and C attend the video conference, the proposed system enables eye contact among every pair. Furthermore, when B and C chat, A feels as if B and C were facing each other (eye contact seems to be kept among B and C. In the case of a triangle video conference, the respective video system is composed of a half mirror, two video cameras, and two monitors. Each participant watches other participants' images that are reflected by the half mirror. Cameras are set behind the half mirror. Since participants' image (face and the camera position are adjusted to be the same direction, eye contact is kept and conversation becomes very natural compared with conventional video conference systems where participants' eyes do not point to the other participant. When 3 participants sit at the vertex of an equilateral triangle, eyes can be kept even for the situation mentioned above (eye contact between B and C from the aspect of A. Eye contact can be kept not only for 2 or 3 participants but also any number of participants as far as they sit at the vertex of a regular polygon.

  20. Eye in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic, vascular and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can affect the function of the eye. These changes are commonly transient, but in some cases they may be permanent and have consequences even after childbirth. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological or pathological and can be associated with the development of new ocular pathology or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. The most common physiological changes are alterations of corneal sensitivity and thickness, decreased tolerance to contact lenses, decreased intraocular pressure, hemeralopia and refractive errors. Possible posterior segment changes include worsening of diabetic retinopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy, increased risk of peripheral vitreochorioretinal dystrophies and retinal detachment. Thus, it should be kept in mind that the presence of any ocular symptoms in a pregnant woman requires ophthalmologic examination and further management. Knowledge of these ocular changes can help to differentiate the physiological changes from ocular manifestation of systemic disease and diseases pertaining to the eye in a pregnant woman. This article explains the effects of ocular changes in pregnancy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 16-20

  1. Reading between eye saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  2. [Formation, development and changes of the eye acupunture region-dividing acupoint location program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian; Tian, Wei-zhu

    2005-04-01

    Eye acupuncture, a micro-needling therapy, has been widely applied in clinical treatment for over 30 years. Its theoretic system, especially, the eye acupuncture region-dividing point location program has been revised for 2 times, and the third program with reasonability of acupoint distribution, strictness of angle of acupoint region is easily accepted by clinical workers. In the paper, the theoretical basis of professor Peng Jingshan's inspection of the eye for recognition of diseases, diagnosis of diseases and eye acupuncture therapy were explained, and the information, development and change of the eye acupuncture region-dividing acupoint location program were analyzed and the history of development of eye acupuncture were introduced so as to direct clinical application of eye acupuncture.

  3. The Design of Searching Bodies' Acupuncture Point for Chinese Massage Robot%中医按摩机器人人体穴位寻找功能设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜光月; 鲁守银; 张化凯

    2011-01-01

    Based on learning function in Neural Network theory and taking the project of Chinese medicine massage robot as background,this paper mainly designed and realized the function of searching bodies' Acupuncture point for Chinese massage robot. Neural Network theory is an important part of Intelligent Control theory, which is the theory to realize the intelligence of massage robot. According to the theory of Proportional Unit on body in traditional Chinese medicine, several bodies' Acupuncture point coordinates were measured by Three-Coordinate measuring instrument. Program training of the data was taken by MATLAB according to samples of Acupuncture point coordinates. Inputting another's noii-train-ing data into testing program, all coordinates can be got, and locating was realized for manipulator. In this way, the automatic function of searching Acupuncture point coordinates can be realized.%以中医按摩机器人项目为背景,基于神经网络理论中的学习功能,设计实现按摩机器人在人体穴位寻找方面的功能.神经网络理论是智能控制理论的一部分重要的内容,是实现中医按摩机器人的智能化的理论基础.根据传统中医中对于穴位同身寸的说法,利用三维坐标测量仪测量若干人体穴位坐标数据,以其中的几个穴位坐标数据为样本,并用MATLAB进行数据的编程训练.在测试程序中输入另一个人体的几个基本坐标,就可以推导出其本人的其他穴位坐标,实现为机械手的按摩定位.实现按摩机器人的自动寻找穴位的功能.

  4. Eye vision system using programmable micro-optics and micro-electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.; Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Mehdi N.

    2014-02-01

    Proposed is a novel eye vision system that combines the use of advanced micro-optic and microelectronic technologies that includes programmable micro-optic devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF) and optical wireless communication and control links, energy harvesting and storage devices and remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. This portable light weight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under test, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. Described is the basic design of the proposed system and its first stage system experimental results for vision spherical lens refractive error correction.

  5. The design and implementation of a study to investigate the effectiveness of community vs hospital eye service follow-up for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration with quiescent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Scott, L J; Rogers, C A; Muldrew, A; O'Reilly, D; Wordsworth, S; Mills, N; Hogg, R; Violato, M; Harding, S P; Peto, T; Townsend, D; Chakravarthy, U; Reeves, B C

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionStandard treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF drugs. Following multiple injections, nAMD lesions often become quiescent but there is a high risk of reactivation, and regular review by hospital ophthalmologists is the norm. The present trial examines the feasibility of community optometrists making lesion reactivation decisions.MethodsThe Effectiveness of Community vs Hospital Eye Service (ECHoES) trial is a virtual trial; lesion reactivation decisions were made about vignettes that comprised clinical data, colour fundus photographs, and optical coherence tomograms displayed on a web-based platform. Participants were either hospital ophthalmologists or community optometrists. All participants were provided with webinar training on the disease, its management, and assessment of the retinal imaging outputs. In a balanced design, 96 participants each assessed 42 vignettes; a total of 288 vignettes were assessed seven times by each professional group.The primary outcome is a participant's judgement of lesion reactivation compared with a reference standard. Secondary outcomes are the frequency of sight threatening errors; judgements about specific lesion components; participant-rated confidence in their decisions about the primary outcome; cost effectiveness of follow-up by optometrists rather than ophthalmologists.DiscussionThis trial addresses an important question for the NHS, namely whether, with appropriate training, community optometrists can make retreatment decisions for patients with nAMD to the same standard as hospital ophthalmologists. The trial employed a novel approach as participation was entirely through a web-based application; the trial required very few resources compared with those that would have been needed for a conventional randomised controlled clinical trial.

  6. Evidence for a functional subdivision of Premotor Ear-Eye Field (Area 8B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLanzilotto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Supplementary Eye Field (SEF and the Frontal Eye Field (FEF have been described as participating in gaze shift control. Recent evidence suggests, however, that other areas of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex also influence gaze shift. Herein, we have investigated electrically evoked ear- and eye movements from the Premotor Ear-Eye Field, or PEEF (area 8B of macaque monkeys. We stimulated PEEF during spontaneous condition (outside the task performance and during the execution of a visual fixation task (VFT. In the first case, we functionally identified two regions within the PEEF: a core and a belt. In the core region, stimulation elicited forward ear movements; regarding the evoked eye movements, in some penetrations, stimulation elicited contraversive fixed-vectors with a mean amplitude of 5.14°; while in other penetrations, we observed prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15° in respect to the primary eye position. On the contrary, in the belt region, stimulation elicited backward ear movements; regarding the eye movements, in some penetrations stimulation elicited prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15° in respect to the primary eye position, while in the lateral edge of the investigated region, stimulation elicited contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell beyond 15° in respect to the primary eye position. Stimulation during VFT either did not elicit eye movements or evoked saccades of only a few degrees. Finally, even though no head rotation movements were observed during the stimulation period, we viewed a relationship between the duration of stimulation and the neck forces exerted by the monkey’s head. We propose an updated vision of the PEEF composed of two functional regions, core and belt, which may be involved in integrating auditory and visual information important to the programming of gaze

  7. A two-step experimental design for a sediment bioassay using growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca for the test end point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitz, Jody A.; Besser, John M.; Giesy, John P.

    1996-01-01

    We designed a sediment bioassay using 25% growth inhibition of Hyalella azteca as the end point.Hyalella azteca exhibits size-specific fecundity, so growth is a surrogate of reproductive production. We investigated density effects on growth to address whether crowding could affect test interpretation; amphipods in 14,000/m2 exposures were 16 to 20% smaller than those at 7,000/m2. Using power analysis, we found that 20 to 25 samples are required to determine significance when α = 0.10 and 1 − β = 0.90. To minimize the need for laboratory resources, we designed a two-step (screening and confirmatory) bioassay, which we tested with field-collected sediments. The screening bioassay compared 11 sediments to a reference. Three sediments were “toxic” (significant growth inhibition when 1 − β = 0.66 and n = 5), five sediments were “nontoxic” (>90% of reference), and three sediments were “possibly toxic” (growth inhibition was insignificant). In the confirmatory bioassay, three possibly toxic and two nontoxic samples were reevaluated. Two were toxic (1 − β = 0.91 and n = 20), and the remaining four samples were nontoxic. In summary, five sediments were toxic and six sediments were nontoxic. The two-step analysis used minimal laboratory resources but maximized statistical power, where needed, to discriminate growth effects.

  8. 现场施工组织设计优化要点%The optimization key points of site construction organization design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晋钟

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the definition of site construction organization,discussed the optimization key points of site construction organi-zation design from personnel optimization,scheme optimization,scheduling planning optimization,management technology optimization and other aspects,in order to meet the new requirements of new construction organization design to scientific guidance of construction activities,improve production efficiency,reduce resource consumption,ensure project quality and safety.%介绍了现场施工组织的定义,从人员优化、方案优化、进度计划优化、管理技术优化等方面综合论述了现场施工组织设计优化的要点,以满足新型施工组织设计科学指导施工活动、提高生产效率、降低资源能耗,保证工程质量与安全的新要求。

  9. 浮点矩阵向量乘法的FPGA设计与优化%Design and Optimization of Floating-Point Matrix-Vector Multiply for FPGAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛永江; 宋庆增; 王瑞昆

    2013-01-01

    In this paper ,we design a matrix-vector multiplier which is based on IEEE-754 (32 bit ,64 bit) floating point data formats ,and the binary tree data flow .The implementation in FPGA platform is pipeline and highly efficient parallel .With Altera EP2C70 as the target device ,detailed study of the design of the hardware size ,clock speed ,capacity and peak GFLOPS .%提出了一种基于IEEE-754的32 bit、64 bit浮点数格式,二叉树数据流(binary tree data flow )的矩阵向量乘法器。其在FPGA上流水线和高度并行化的高效执行。以Altera公司的EP2C70为实现设备,研究了设计的硬件规模,时钟速度,和峰值GFLOPS能力。

  10. Key Points in Design of Traffic Engineering Signs and Markings in South Africa%南非交通工程标志标线设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马刚; 姚聪学

    2013-01-01

    With Angola CAXITO-N' ZETO Expressway Project as an example, this paper introduces laying methods of traffic engineering signs and markings in South Africa and design features including types, sizing and selection of structure materials of signs and markings, and compares them with domestic specifications to point out their principal differences. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance and reference for design of similar projects in Africa.%以安哥拉CAXITO-N' ZETO高速路项目为例,介绍非洲南部地区交通工程标志标线的布设方法,标志标线的类型、尺寸确定、结构选材等的设计特点,并与我国规范进行对比,指出两者的主要区别.旨在对非洲类似公路项目设计提供指导和借鉴.

  11. Development of a study design and implementation plan to estimate juvenile salmon survival in Lookout Point Reservoir and other reservoirs of the Willamette Project, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Monzyk, Fred R.; Pope, Adam C.; Plumb, John M.

    2016-12-23

    Survival estimates for juvenile salmon and steelhead fry in reservoirs impounded by high head dams are coveted data by resource managers.  However, this information is difficult to obtain because these fish are too small for tagging using conventional methods such as passive-integrated transponders or radio or acoustic transmitters.  We developed a study design and implementation plan to conduct a pilot evaluation that would assess the performance of two models for estimating fry survival in a field setting.  The first model is a staggered-release recovery model that was described by Skalski and others (2009) and Skalski (2016).  The second model is a parentage-based tagging N-mixture model that was developed and described in this document.  Both models are conceptually and statistically sound, but neither has been evaluated in the field.  In this document we provide an overview of a proposed study for 2017 in Lookout Point Reservoir, Oregon, that will evaluate survival of Chinook salmon fry using both models.  This approach will allow us to test each model and compare survival estimates, to determine model performance and better understand these study designs using field-collected data.

  12. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Eye Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an ... healthy lifestyle choices can help you protect your vision by reducing your risk for eye diseases , eye infections and eye injuries . Partnering with your ...

  13. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Antibiotics for Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an ... healthy lifestyle choices can help you protect your vision by reducing your risk for eye diseases , eye infections and eye injuries . Partnering with your ...

  14. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an ... healthy lifestyle choices can help you protect your vision by reducing your risk for eye diseases, eye infections and eye injuries . Partnering with your ...

  15. 复合4邻域圈提取CNN的鲁棒性设计%Robust designs for compound 4 adjoining points circle detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙莎; 刘金珠; 闵乐泉

    2011-01-01

    细胞神经网络(Cellular Neural Network,CNN)于1988年由L.O.Chua等人提出,已经成为一种处理图像和视频信号、机器人技术、生物视觉、高级大脑功能的新工具.细胞神经网络模板的鲁棒性设计是CNN在实际应用中碰到的重要课题之一.目的是设计一种能够提取复合4邻域圈的CNN,并对其模板进行鲁棒性设计,给出满足相应功能CNN的鲁棒性定理.该定理提供了能达到预先指定的图像处理功能的CNN模板参数不等式.数值模拟例子说明了理论证明的有效性.%The Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Network(CNN) has become a new tool for image and signal processing, robotic and biological visions, and higher brain functions. Robust design for CNN templates is one of the important issues for the practical applications of the CNNs. The purpose is to design a Novel Four Adjoining Points Circle Detection(NFAPCD)CNN and to set up a theorem for robust designs of NFAPCD CNNs.The theorem provides parameter inequalities to determine parameter intervals for implementing prescribed image processing functions.Numerical examples show that theoretical results are effective for computer image processing.

  16. Orbit Design of Lunar Precise Fixed-point Soft Landing and Selection of Initial Point%月球精确定点软着陆轨道设计及初始点选取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单永正; 段广仁; 张烽

    2009-01-01

    A method of applying parametric control and enhancing technique in order to solve optimal control problem of lunar probe precise Fixed-paint soft landing is studied. Firstly the inequality constraint is approximated by using constraint transformation technique. Secondly the piece-wise constant value is used to approach the optimal solution. Based on enhancing technique, each period of duration of parameters is transformed into a term of new pin, meters. So the optimal control problem is transformed into the parameter selection problem which can be solved by the classical parameter optimization method. By means of increasing the number of parameters and the iteration of optimization, the parametric solution which approaches the continuous optimal solution is derived. In the optimization process, the selection of the initial point is also studied. The result of the simulation demonstrates the proposed design scheme is simple and effective.%研究了一种应用参数化控制求解月球探测器精确定点软着陆最优控制问题的方法.首先用约束变换技术将不等式约束进行了近似处理,而后利用若干个分段的常数去逼近最优解,再根据强化技术通过时间轴上的变换,将每一段参数的持续时间转变为一组新的参数,于是最优控制问题被转化为一系列参数优化问题.最后应用经典的参数优化方法即可求得最优控制函数的一个近似解,通过增加参数个数,重复优化得到逼近连续最优解的参数化解.同时在优化过程中考虑了制动初始点的选取对结果的影响.仿真结果表明了所提设计方法是简单、有效的.

  17. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Adriaan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  18. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... recién nacidos Newborns with symptoms of conjunctivitis (pink eye) should see a doctor right away. Neonatal ...

  19. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements: fix...

  20. Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... retreatment. Workplace requirements and lifestyle activities . Discuss work, sports, and recreation with your doctor to make sure LASIK is appropriate for you. If you're a candidate for monovision , which corrects one eye for distance vision and the other eye for near vision. LASIK ...

  1. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a fever. More serious preseptal or orbital cellulitis infections can cause decreased vision, an inability to move the eye, and the appearance of the eye being pushed forward. What to do: Both forms of cellulitis are serious conditions that require urgent medical attention. ...

  2. KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE & PRACTICE REGARDING EYE DONATION AMONG PEOPLE ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL - A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge , attitudes and practices regarding eye donation in selected adult population attending tertiary eye care centre. Methods: 636 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. A questionnaire was specially designed to know the facts about awareness and willingness for eye donation among general population attending tertiary eye care centre. Questionnaire included whether they had any knowledge of eye donation , source of information , willingness to donate eyes and also impact of eye donation on corneal blindness status. Results: Knowledge about eye donation was significantly associated with education and socioeconomic status. After counseling , 84.90% of partici pants agreed to motivate other family members/ friends to fill the pledge form of eye donation. Allowance of eye donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate . Higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant predictors of knowledge status of eye donation. For motivation , higher socioeconomic status , adequate knowledge and belief that eye donation is allowed in religion were significant predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Conclusion: Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures sh ould be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media , doctors and religious scholars

  3. Using Eye Tracking to Assess Reading Performance in Patients with Glaucoma: A Within-Person Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient’s worse eye (most VF damage when compared to their better eye (least VF damage. Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P<0.001 in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8 dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of “regressions” (backward saccades and “unknown” EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma.

  4. An acoustic Maxwell’s fish-eye lens based on gradient-index metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bao-guo; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiao-jun

    2016-10-01

    We have proposed a two-dimensional acoustic Maxwell’s fish-eye lens by using the gradient-index metamaterials with space-coiling units. By adjusting the structural parameters of the units, the refractive index can be gradually varied, which is key role to design the acoustic fish-eye lens. As predicted by ray trajectories on a virtual sphere, the proposed lens has the capability to focus the acoustic wave irradiated from a point source at the surface of the lens on the diametrically opposite side of the lens. The broadband and low loss performance is further demonstrated for the lens. The proposed acoustic fish-eye lens is expected to have the potential applications in directional acoustic coupler or coherent ultrasonic imaging. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574148, 11474162, 1274171, 11674172, and 11674175), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant Nos. 20110091120040 and 20120091110001).

  5. Eye tracking and gating system for proton therapy of orbital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dongho; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Moon, Sung Ho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sung Yong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 463-712 (Korea, Republic of); Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiological Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Proton Therapy Center, McLaren Cancer Institute, Flint, Michigan 48532 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: A new motion-based gated proton therapy for the treatment of orbital tumors using real-time eye-tracking system was designed and evaluated. Methods: We developed our system by image-pattern matching, using a normalized cross-correlation technique with LabVIEW 8.6 and Vision Assistant 8.6 (National Instruments, Austin, TX). To measure the pixel spacing of an image consistently, four different calibration modes such as the point-detection, the edge-detection, the line-measurement, and the manual measurement mode were suggested and used. After these methods were applied to proton therapy, gating was performed, and radiation dose distributions were evaluated. Results: Moving phantom verification measurements resulted in errors of less than 0.1 mm for given ranges of translation. Dosimetric evaluation of the beam-gating system versus nongated treatment delivery with a moving phantom shows that while there was only 0.83 mm growth in lateral penumbra for gated radiotherapy, there was 4.95 mm growth in lateral penumbra in case of nongated exposure. The analysis from clinical results suggests that the average of eye movements depends distinctively on each patient by showing 0.44 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.86 mm for three patients, respectively. Conclusions: The developed automatic eye-tracking based beam-gating system enabled us to perform high-precision proton radiotherapy of orbital tumors.

  6. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise...... cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  7. CORELATION OF DRY EYE STATUS WITH SEVERITY OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the correlation of dry eye status with severity of diabetic retinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study. One hundred patients with diabetes mellitus attending the outpatient and in-patient department, Department of Ophthalmology, K. R. Hospital, Mysore, were included under the study, between the periods from January 2014 to July 2014 (6 months. Informed and written consent was taken from all the patients. After detailed history, all necessary ocular and systemic examination was done. All diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed for dry eye status and presence of diabetic retinopathy changes. Dry eye status was evaluated with Schirmer’s test, Tear film break up time and conjunctival impression cytology. Retinal status evaluation was done by direct ophthalmoscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy and Slit lamp Biomicroscopy using 78D lens after pupillary dilation. Diabetic retinopathy was graded accordingly to ETDRS classification. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: All data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test and contingency coefficient analysis was applied. RESULTS: A total of 100 diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed. 56 (56% patients had Diabetic retinopathy and 44(44% had normal fundus picture. Out of the 100 diabetes mellitus patients, 36 (36% patients had dry eye. Significant association (P – 0.001 between dry eye and diabetes mellitus was seen. CONCLUSION: Dry eye and diabetes mellitus have a common association. Dry eye is more frequent in diabetes mellitus patients with longer duration and in patients with Diabetic retinopathy.

  8. 众泰电动汽车公共租赁点的设计研究%Research on Design of Zhongtai Electric Vehicle Public Rental Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞海红

    2013-01-01

    汽车租赁业务已在我国发展得如火如荼,而电动汽车环保节能污染少,如果能够成为杭州城市公共交通工具,可以自由地供市民及外来游客租用,将对改善城市空气质量和缓解交通压力有重要作用。本文在与众泰汽车合作开发项目的基础上,以浙江经贸职业技术学院租赁点为例,探讨了杭州众泰电动汽车公共租赁点的硬件规划和所配套的公共租赁服务内容,以供众泰汽车开展电动汽车公共租赁项目借鉴。%As the car rental business in China has developed fast,and electric automobile has advantage of environmental protection and energy saving,if electric automobile becomes Hangzhou city public transportation which can be rented for the public and foreign visitors,it must improve city air quality and have an important role to alleviate traffic pressure. Based on the cooperation of development project with Zotye Auto,the article takes ZheJiang Economic & Trade Polytechnic rental point as an example, discusses the design of hardware planning of Hangzhou Zhongtai electric vehicle public rental point ,and the service content for supporting it,which can provide the experience For Zotye Auto developing the electric automobile public rental project.

  9. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A LAB-ON-A-PAPER FOR LOW-COST AND DISPOSABLE POINT-OF CARE DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnidar Afnidar

    2017-01-01

      This paper presents a low-cost and disposable paper based microfluidic analysis system for point-of-care diagnostics. Detection is achieved by using a colorimetric or visual indicator. Immobilized specific reagent or enzymes designed for the parameter under consideration act as capture molecules on the surface of the detection zone. The sensor is integrated into a microfluidic system made of paper (cellulose. An additional component of the analysis system is a capillary unit which is used to introduce the analyte to the detection zone. For this purpose well- defined, millimeter-sized channel, comprising hydrophobic polymer bounded onto hydrophilic paper was created. Then the detection zone was coated with a sensitive reagent layer as a sensor region. The paper based microfluidics also called lab on paper, has been fabricated using screen printing technology as the basis for low-cost, disposable, portable and technically simple fabrication for mass production. Microfluidics in paper make it feasible to run single, dual or even multiple clinical analyses on one strip of paper while still using only small volumes of a single sample. The capability of lab on paper for detection of importance clinical analyte protein in urine, saliva and blood samples has been demonstrate successfully. Lab on paper as a diagnostic system is small, disposable, and easy to use and requires no external equipment, reagents, or power sources. This kind of diagnostic system is attractive for use in developing countries, in the field, or as a low-cost alternative to more-advanced technologies already used in clinical diagnostics.   Keywords: Lab-on-a-paper, Point-of-care, Visual detection, Clinical diagnostic, Disposable sensor

  10. Preservation of enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To design a method to preserve enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory. SETTING: Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Porcine eyes were preserved using 15 methods including salt solut

  11. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a... inserted in a patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball, for...

  12. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  13. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  14. PPT动画类微课的设计与开发%Design and Development of PowerPoint Animation Micro-lecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜彩丽; 王伟伟

    2016-01-01

    微课已成为信息时代重要的教学资源,为实现信息技术与课程深度融合提供了思路。目前国内关于微课的研究主要集中在微课的基本理论及教学应用研究上,而在技术层面,关于微课的设计与开发方面的研究相对缺乏。本研究针对PPT动画类微课进行如下研究:剖析了PPT动画类微课的概念、特征、制作原则,构建并重点阐释了该类微课的设计与开发模型,并以该模型为依据设计开发了《加涅的九段教学法》微课,以期为更好地设计与开发较高水平的微课提供借鉴,进一步推动我国微课研究的快速发展。%Micro-lecture has become important teaching resources of the information age and provided a train of thought to realize deep integration of information technology and curriculum. The present domestic research on micro-lecture mainly focuses on its elementary theories and teaching application,while the research on the design and development of micro-lecture is relatively short.This paper has done the following research on PowerPoint animation.Firstly,it analyses the concept,characteristics and principles in making such micro-lecture.And then,the research constructs and emphatically explains the model of its design and development.Finally,according to this model,the author has designed and developed the micro-lecture of "Gagne’s nine-step teaching method",hoping to provide references for designing and developing rather high level’s micro-lecture and further promote the rapid development of the research on micro-lecture in China.

  15. Perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.

    2011-02-01

    Perfect imaging of electromagnetic waves using the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) requires a new concept: a point called the perfect drain that we shall call the perfect point drain. From the mathematical point of view, a perfect point drain is just like an ideal point source, except that it drains power from the electromagnetic field instead of generating it. We introduce here the perfect drain for the MFE as a dissipative region of non-zero size that completely drains the power from the point source. To accomplish this goal, the region must have a precise complex permittivity that depends on its size as well as on the frequency. The perfect point drain is obtained when the diameter of the perfect drain tends to zero. This interpretation of the perfect point drain is connected well with common concepts of electromagnetic theory, opening up both modeling in computer simulations and experimental verification of setups containing a perfect point drain.

  16. [Cloud Point extraction for determination of mercury in Chinese herbal medicine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with optimization using Box-Behnken design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Li, Shan; Zhou, Jian-dong; Xu, Ying; Long, Jun-biao; Yang, Bing-yi

    2014-08-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg in Chinese herbal medicine samples by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Hg2+ was reacted with dithizone to form hydrophobic chelate under the condition of pH. Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, chelate was quantitatively extracted into small volume of the surfactant-rich phase by heating the solution in a water bath for 15 min and centrifuging. Four variables including pH, dithizone concentration, Triton X-114 concentration and equilibrium temperature (T) showed the significant effect on extraction efficiency of total Hg evaluated by single-factor experiment, and Box-Behnken design and response surface method- ology were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum extraction efficiency. The results showed that the binomial was used to fit the response to experimental levels of each variable. ALL linear, quadratic terms of four variables, and interactions between pH and Trion X-114, pH and di- thizone affected the response value(extraction efficiency) significantly at 5% level. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5.1, Triton X-114 concentration of 1.16 g x L(-1), dithizone concentration of 4.87 mol x L(-1), and T 58.2 degrees C, the predicted value of fluorescence was 4528.74 under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value had only 2.1% difference with it. Under the conditions, fluorescence was linear to mercury concentration in the range of 1-5 microg x L(-1). The limit of detection obtained was 0.01247 microg x L(-1) with the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate determinations of 1.30%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of Hg in morindae Radix, Andrographitis and dried tangerine samples with the recoveries of 95.0%-100.0%. Apparently Box-Behnken design combined with

  17. Design and realization of 1024-point high-speed FFT processor based on FPGA%1024点高速FFT处理器的FPGA设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文芳; 周盛; 王晓春; 王立伟; 计建军; 杨军; 王延群

    2011-01-01

    Objective To design a fast fourier transform (FFT) processor to meet the needs for high-speed and real-time signal processing. Methods A 1 024-point, 32-bit, fixed, complex FFT processor was designed based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) by using radix-2 decimation in frequency(DIF) algorithm and pipeline structure in the butterfly module and ping-pong operation in data storage unit. Results When the primary clock was 100 MHz, 1 024-point FFT calculation took about 62.95us. The processor was fast enough for processing highspeed and real-time signals. Conclusion The results provides reference value that theoretical study of the FFT algorithm can be applied in the adaptive dynamic filter of ultrasonic diagnostic system and ultrasonic doppler flow measurement system.%目的 设计满足高速实时信号处理需要的快速傅里叶变换(FFT)处理器。方法采取基-2按频率抽取( DIF)FFT算法,蝶形运算单元采用流水线方式,接收数据采用乒乓操作的方法设计基于现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)的1 024点、32位字长、定点复数FFT处理器。结果在时钟100 MHz下,计算1次1 024点定点FFT耗时约为62.95 μs。该处理器能达到高速实时系统的要求。结论将FFT算法的理论研究应用于超声诊断仪中自适应动态滤波器系统和超声多普勒血流测量系统平台有一定的参考价值。

  18. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  19. Eye-hand coordination during dynamic visuomotor rotations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Masia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: for many technology-driven visuomotor tasks such as tele-surgery, human operators face situations in which the frames of reference for vision and action are misaligned and need to be compensated in order to perform the tasks with the necessary precision. The cognitive mechanisms for the selection of appropriate frames of reference are still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of changing visual and kinesthetic frames of reference during wrist pointing, simulating activities typical for tele-operations. METHODS: using a robotic manipulandum, subjects had to perform center-out pointing movements to visual targets presented on a computer screen, by coordinating wrist flexion/extension with abduction/adduction. We compared movements in which the frames of reference were aligned (unperturbed condition with movements performed under different combinations of visual/kinesthetic dynamic perturbations. The visual frame of reference was centered to the computer screen, while the kinesthetic frame was centered around the wrist joint. Both frames changed their orientation dynamically (angular velocity = 36 degrees /s with respect to the head-centered frame of reference (the eyes. Perturbations were either unimodal (visual or kinesthetic, or bimodal (visual+kinesthetic. As expected, pointing performance was best in the unperturbed condition. The spatial pointing error dramatically worsened during both unimodal and most bimodal conditions. However, in the bimodal condition, in which both disturbances were in phase, adaptation was very fast and kinematic performance indicators approached the values of the unperturbed condition. CONCLUSIONS: this result suggests that subjects learned to exploit an "affordance" made available by the invariant phase relation between the visual and kinesthetic frames. It seems that after detecting such invariance, subjects used the kinesthetic input as an informative signal rather than a

  20. Dermal, Eye, and Oral Toxicological Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    produced no corneal opacity, iritis , hyperemia, chemosis, or discharge throughout the 72 hour observation period. This sample is non-irritating to...resolved in one eye by day 7 and in the other eye by day 14. Iritis was observed in all three eyes at 24 hours which resolved in one eye by 48 hours...other eye by day 7. Only one eye displayed iritis at 24 hours which resolved by the 72 hour observation period. Hyperemia, chemosis and discharge were

  1. Review of prospects and challenges of eye tracking in volumetric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venjakob, Antje C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R

    2016-01-01

    While eye tracking research in conventional radiography has flourished over the past decades, the number of eye tracking studies that looked at multislice images lags behind. A possible reason for the lack of studies in this area might be that the eye tracking methodology used in the context of conventional radiography cannot be applied one-on-one to volumetric imaging material. Challenges associated with eye tracking in volumetric imaging are particularly associated with the selection of stimulus material, the detection of events in the eye tracking data, the calculation of meaningful eye tracking parameters, and the reporting of abnormalities. However, all of these challenges can be addressed in the design of the experiment. If this is done, eye tracking studies using volumetric imaging material offer almost unlimited opportunity for perception research and are highly relevant as the number of volumetric images that are acquired and interpreted is rising.

  2. Single eye or camera with depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2012-10-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by a short photoconducting lossi lightguide section at each pixel. The eye or camera lens selects the object point who's range is to be determined at the pixel. Light arriving at an image point trough a convex lens adds constructively only if it comes from the object point that is in focus at this pixel.. Light waves from all other object points cancel. Thus the lightguide at this pixel receives light from one object point only. This light signal has a phase component proportional to the range. The light intensity modes and thus the photocurrent in the lightguides shift in response to the phase of the incoming light. Contacts along the length of the lightguide collect the photocurrent signal containing the range information. Applications of this camera include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. An interesting application is as part of a crude teleportation system consisting of this camera and a three dimensional printer at a remote location.

  3. Coordinated control of eye and hand movements in dynamic reaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neggers, SFW; Bekkering, H

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we integrated two recent, at first sight contradictory findings regarding the question whether saccadic eye movements can be generated to a newly presented target during an ongoing hand movement. Saccades were measured during so-called adaptive and sustained pointing conditions

  4. Cloud point extraction for the determination of lead and cadmium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with multivariate optimization using Box-Behnken design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranhao, Tatiane de A; Martendal, Edmar; Borges, Daniel L.G.; Carasek, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Grupo de Pesquisa em Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-290, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Curtius, Adilson J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: curtius@qmc.ufsc.br

    2007-09-15

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Pb and Cd in undigested urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). Aliquots of 0.5 mL urine were acidified with HCl and the chelating agent ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was added along with the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 at the optimized concentrations. Phase separation was achieved by heating the mixture to 50 deg. C for 15 min. The surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by GF AAS, employing the optimized pyrolysis temperatures of 900 deg. C for Pb and 800 deg. C for Cd, using a graphite tube with a platform treated with 500 {mu}g Ru as permanent modifier. The reagent concentrations for CPE (HCl, DDTP and Triton X-114) were optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The response surfaces and the optimum values were very similar for aqueous solutions and for the urine samples, demonstrating that aqueous standards submitted to CPE could be used for calibration. Detection limits of 40 and 2 ng L{sup -1} for Pb and Cd, respectively, were obtained along with an enhancement factor of 16 for both analytes. Three control urine samples were analyzed using this approach, and good agreement was obtained at a 95% statistical confidence level between the certified and determined values. Five real samples have also been analyzed before and after spiking with Pb and Cd, resulting in recoveries ranging from 97 to 118%.

  5. Orbit determination error analysis and comparison of station-keeping costs for Lissajous and halo-type libration point orbits and sensitivity analysis using experimental design techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Steven C.

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft in orbit near libration point L1 in the Sun-Earth system are excellent platforms for research concerning solar effects on the terrestrial environment. One spacecraft mission launched in 1978 used an L1 orbit for nearly 4 years, and future L1 orbital missions are also being planned. Orbit determination and station-keeping are, however, required for these orbits. In particular, orbit determination error analysis may be used to compute the state uncertainty after a predetermined tracking period; the predicted state uncertainty levels then will impact the control costs computed in station-keeping simulations. Error sources, such as solar radiation pressure and planetary mass uncertainties, are also incorporated. For future missions, there may be some flexibility in the type and size of the spacecraft's nominal trajectory, but different orbits may produce varying error analysis and station-keeping results. The nominal path, for instance, can be (nearly) periodic or distinctly quasi-periodic. A periodic 'halo' orbit may be constructed to be significantly larger than a quasi-periodic 'Lissajous' path; both may meet mission requirements, but perhaps the required control costs for these orbits are probably different. Also for this spacecraft tracking and control simulation problem, experimental design methods can be used to determine the most significant uncertainties. That is, these methods can determine the error sources in the tracking and control problem that most impact the control cost (output); it also produces an equation that gives the approximate functional relationship between the error inputs and the output.

  6. 一种侧面指点杆鼠标的设计%Design of a Mouse TrackPoint in the Side

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雨阳; 聂文滨

    2012-01-01

    As a trackpoint input equipment of computer,now traditional mouses include:mechanical mouse,optical Mouse,trackball mouse.Although a wide range of shapes,more or less we can not avoid the strain of the wrist.This paper presents the design of a mouse TrackPoint in the side,with high efficiency and good comfort,also vacated operation.%作为计算机指点式输入设备,目前已有的普通鼠标包括:机械式鼠标、光学鼠标、轨迹球鼠标。虽然种类繁多,形状各异,但或多或少都避免不了腕关节的劳损。本文提出设计的侧面带有指点杆的鼠标,具有高效率和良好舒适度,还可腾空操作。

  7. Cloud point extraction for the determination of lead and cadmium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with multivariate optimization using Box Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Tatiane De A.; Martendal, Edmar; Borges, Daniel L. G.; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Curtius, Adilson J.

    2007-09-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Pb and Cd in undigested urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). Aliquots of 0.5 mL urine were acidified with HCl and the chelating agent ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was added along with the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 at the optimized concentrations. Phase separation was achieved by heating the mixture to 50 °C for 15 min. The surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by GF AAS, employing the optimized pyrolysis temperatures of 900 °C for Pb and 800 °C for Cd, using a graphite tube with a platform treated with 500 μg Ru as permanent modifier. The reagent concentrations for CPE (HCl, DDTP and Triton X-114) were optimized using a Box Behnken design. The response surfaces and the optimum values were very similar for aqueous solutions and for the urine samples, demonstrating that aqueous standards submitted to CPE could be used for calibration. Detection limits of 40 and 2 ng L- 1 for Pb and Cd, respectively, were obtained along with an enhancement factor of 16 for both analytes. Three control urine samples were analyzed using this approach, and good agreement was obtained at a 95% statistical confidence level between the certified and determined values. Five real samples have also been analyzed before and after spiking with Pb and Cd, resulting in recoveries ranging from 97 to 118%.

  8. Design Points for Reconstructing Low-Class Highway to Expressway%低等级公路改造为高速公路的设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭飞

    2012-01-01

    uixing Expressway is 89.3km,52.3km of which was reconstructed from second-class highway,about 58.6% of the whole expressway.The design points are introduced from aspects of horizontal and vertical program,combined part of new and old subgrade,pavement reconstruction,widening and reinforcement of bridge and reduction of influence on local traveling and traffic assurance scheme,providing references for similar engineering.%绥兴高速长89.3km,其中52.3km在原有二级路基础上改造,占全长的58.6%。从平纵方案、新旧路基结合部、路面改造、桥涵加宽及加固、减小对地方出行的影响和保通方案六个方面介绍了设计中的要点,可供类似工程参考。

  9. Binocular eye tracking with the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S B; Sheehy, C K; Roorda, A

    2016-01-01

    The development of high magnification retinal imaging has brought with it the ability to track eye motion with a precision of less than an arc minute. Previously these systems have provided only monocular records. Here we describe a modification to the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (Sheehy et al., 2012) that splits the optical path in a way that slows the left and right retinas to be scanned almost simultaneously by a single system. A mirror placed at a retinal conjugate point redirects half of each horizontal scan line to the fellow eye. The collected video is a split image with left and right retinas appearing side by side in each frame. Analysis of the retinal motion in the recorded video provides an eye movement trace with very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results are presented from scans of subjects with normal ocular motility that fixated steadily on a green laser dot. The retinas were scanned at 4° eccentricity with a 2° square field. Eye position was extracted offline from recorded videos with an FFT based image analysis program written in Matlab. The noise level of the tracking was estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.5arcmin SD for three subjects. In the binocular recordings, the left eye/right eye difference was 1-2arcmin SD for vertical motion and 10-15arcmin SD for horizontal motion, in agreement with published values from other tracking techniques.

  10. Keeping our eyes on the eyes: the case of Arcimboldo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubic, Andreja; Susac, Ana; Palmovic, Marijan

    2014-01-01

    While contemporaries often viewed his reversible composite heads as scherzi (jokes) and modem art connoisseurs as creative masterpieces, Giuseppe Arcimboldo's ingenious paintings served as inspiring stimuli for the present eye-tracking experiment. One group of participants viewed three chosen paintings in an upright, and another in an upside-down, orientation. We compared how participants viewed three selected areas of interest (AOIs) within the painting when these could, and could not, be identified as a face or distinct facial element (eyes and mouth). The obtained results indicate that the participants fixated the parts of the painting which represent faces more in the upright than in the inverted orientation. Furthermore, in the upright orientation the participants focused more on the upper AOls (eyes) than the lower AOIs (mouth). This was not the case for the inverted orientation of two paintings. In conclusion, the face inversion effect occurs even in this artistic context, and the gaze often goes where the eyes are.

  11. Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2015-02-04

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m.

  12. Design of the control system for fixed-point keeping in FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Offloading); FPSO no teiten hoji no tame no seigyokei no sekkei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijima, K.; Murata, W.; Furukawa, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The control system for keeping the fixed-point of ships against disturbance was designed by applying an ILQ (Inverse Linear Quadratic) control (possible to specify the response of controlled systems with time constant) theory, to study the effect of different time constants as design parameter on a fixed-point keeping performance. It was assumed that the controlled ship is equipped with two bow thrusters and one stern thruster of 30ton in output to generate a control force. For fixed-point keeping control, the state equation was derived to slave the controlled system to a target input. The ILQ design method uses the result of the inverse problem of optimum regulators. For designing control systems by using the ILQ control theory, the smallest time constant should be selected according to the most severe disturbance condition considering the response performance of controllers, to achieve fixed-point keeping of ships. In fixed-point keeping, it is also essential to put the initial position as close as possible to the target point. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Taboada, José J; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto

    2015-07-27

    The purpose of this study was to describe the design and characterization of a new opto-mechanical artificial eye (OMAE) with accommodative ability. The OMAE design is based on a second-pass configuration where a small source of light is used at the artificial retina plane. A lens whose focal length can be changed electronically was used to add the accommodation capability. The changes in the OMAE's aberrations with the lens focal length, which effectively changes the accommodative state of the OMAE, were measured with a commercial aberrometer. Changes in power and aberrations with room temperature were also measured. The OMAE's higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were similar to the ones of the human eye, including the rate at which fourth-order spherical aberration decreased with accommodation. The OMAE design proposed here is simple, and it can be implemented in an optical system to mimic the optics of the human eye.

  14. Edge Detection Model Based on Involuntary Eye Movements of the Eye-Retina System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Róka

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional edge-detection algorithms in image processing typically convolute afilter operator and the input image, and then map overlapping input image regions tooutput signals. Convolution also serves as a basis in biologically inspired (Sobel, Laplace,Canny algorithms. Recent results in cognitive retinal research have shown that ganglioncell receptive fields cover the mammalian retina in a mosaic arrangement, withinsignificant amounts of overlap in the central fovea. This means that the biologicalrelevance of traditional and widely adapted edge-detection algorithms with convolutionbasedoverlapping operator architectures has been disproved. However, using traditionalfilters with non-overlapping operator architectures leads to considerable losses in contourinformation. This paper introduces a novel, tremor-based retina model and edge-detectionalgorithm that reconciles these differences between the physiology of the retina and theoverlapping architectures used by today's widely adapted algorithms. The algorithm takesinto consideration data convergence, as well as the dynamic properties of the retina, byincorporating a model of involuntary eye tremors and the impulse responses of ganglioncells. Based on the evaluation of the model, two hypotheses are formulated on the highlydebated role of involuntary eye tremors: 1 The role of involuntary eye tremors hasinformation theoretical implications 2 From an information processing point of view, thefunctional role of involuntary eye-movements extends to more than just the maintenance ofaction potentials. Involuntary eye-movements may be responsible for the compensation ofinformation losses caused by a non-overlapping receptive field architecture. In support ofthese hypotheses, the article provides a detailed analysis of the model's biologicalrelevance, along with numerical simulations and a hardware implementation.

  15. Eye safety analysis for non-uniform retinal scanning laser trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelinski, Uwe; Dallmann, Hans-Georg; Grüger, Heinrich; Knobbe, Jens; Pügner, Tino; Reinig, Peter; Woittennek, Franziska

    2016-03-01

    Scanning the retinae of the human eyes with a laser beam is an approved diagnosis method in ophthalmology; moreover the retinal blood vessels form a biometric modality for identifying persons. Medical applied Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopes (SLOs) usually contain galvanometric mirror systems to move the laser spot with a defined speed across the retina. Hence, the load of laser radiation is uniformly distributed and eye safety requirements can be easily complied. Micro machined mirrors also known as Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are interesting alternatives for designing retina scanning systems. In particular double-resonant MEMS are well suited for mass fabrication at low cost. However, their Lissajous-shaped scanning figure requires a particular analysis and specific measures to meet the requirements for a Class 1 laser device, i.e. eye-safe operation. The scanning laser spot causes a non-uniform pulsing radiation load hitting the retinal elements within the field of view (FoV). The relevant laser safety standards define a smallest considerable element for eye-related impacts to be a point source that is visible with an angle of maximum 1.5 mrad. For non-uniform pulsing expositions onto retinal elements the standard requires to consider all particular impacts, i.e. single pulses, pulse sequences in certain time intervals and cumulated laser radiation loads. As it may be expected, a Lissajous scanning figure causes the most critical radiation loads at its edges and borders. Depending on the applied power the laser has to be switched off here to avoid any retinal injury.

  16. Metaphors and Symbols in The Bluest Eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雯淇

    2015-01-01

    Toni Morrison as a great African-American writer produces many perfect novels. In her novels the shining points not only lie in the internal full-bodied black cultural tradition, but also lie in the absorption of the black folk oral literature and a great number of African myth and legend. She also gets influences from the skill of the Western Magical Realism of which the most important things are the use of metaphors and symbols. There are a lot of extremely profound symbolic images in Toni Morrison’s novels. The Bluest Eye is the typical representation of these shining points. Above all, there is a great significance to analyze the symbolic images for achieving a deeper understanding of Toni Morrison ’s novels.

  17. Eyes on the Solar System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eyes on the Solar System is a software package developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology using data provided by NASA's...

  18. Applications of lobster eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  19. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  20. Head and eye Echoencephalogram (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to test for abnormalities in the eye. The ultrasound helps evaluate the farthest part of the eyeball when there are cataracts. The test may help diagnose retinal detachment or other disorders and evaluate orbital lesions and intraocular lesions.

  1. Talking with eye injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with an eye injury are usually in pain and very frightened. They need a gentle, reassuring approach. Your first task is to assess the general state of your patient. If they are alert and orientated and their general health is good, you can continue to examine them in the eye department. If their immediate general health is at risk, you will have to address this first.

  2. The interblink interval in normal and dry eye subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston PR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith J Lane,1 George Ousler,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Our aim was to extend the concept of blink patterns from average interblink interval (IBI to other aspects of the distribution of IBI. We hypothesized that this more comprehensive approach would better discriminate between normal and dry eye subjects.Methods: Blinks were captured over 10 minutes for ten normal and ten dry eye subjects while viewing a standardized televised documentary. Fifty-five blinks were analyzed for each of the 20 subjects. Means, standard deviations, and autocorrelation coefficients were calculated utilizing a single random effects model fit to all data points and a diagnostic model was subsequently fit to predict probability of a subject having dry eye based on these parameters.Results: Mean IBI was 5.97 seconds for normal versus 2.56 seconds for dry eye subjects (ratio: 2.33, P = 0.004. IBI variability was 1.56 times higher in normal subjects (P < 0.001, and the autocorrelation was 1.79 times higher in normal subjects (P = 0.044. With regard to the diagnostic power of these measures, mean IBI was the best dry eye versus normal classifier using receiver operating characteristics (0.85 area under curve (AUC, followed by the standard deviation (0.75 AUC, and lastly, the autocorrelation (0.63 AUC. All three predictors combined had an AUC of 0.89. Based on this analysis, cutoffs of ≤3.05 seconds for median IBI, and ≤0.73 for the coefficient of variation were chosen to classify dry eye subjects.Conclusion: (1 IBI was significantly shorter for dry eye patients performing a visual task compared to normals; (2 there was a greater variability of interblink intervals in normal subjects; and (3 these parameters were useful as diagnostic predictors of dry eye disease. The results of this pilot study merit investigation of IBI

  3. The ADOPT trial (Assessment of Efficacies of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapies (CRT-P/D for Heart Failure Patients in China: rationale, design, and end-points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu B

    2011-06-01

    agree, after re-evaluation of the baseline situation, they may enter into Group for Selection again. Since patients know they already have a device implant and the examiners are aware of the grouping of the patients after seeing the incision scar and post-implant electrocardiogram, this study is of open-label design; however the executive committee will be kept blind when making event-adjudication. Results: Prospectively defined primary end-points for the study include combined all-cause mortality and hospitalizations. A variety of secondary end-points will further define the efficacy and mechanism(s of action of CRT in CHF. The last date of the study shall be the day after 24 months of follow-up of the last enrolled patient. Recruitment is expected to be completed at the end of 2011 and the study should close at the beginning of 2014.Conclusion: The ADOPT trial will evaluate the effects of CRT on Chinese CHF patients and provide related research data for Chinese CHF patients who may need CRT.Keywords: heart failure, clinical trial, biventricular pacing, cardiac device

  4. Statistical design-principal component analysis optimization of a multiple response procedure using cloud point extraction and simultaneous determination of metals by ICP OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marcos A; Bruns, Roy E; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2006-11-24

    A procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of traces amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb from saline oil-refinery effluents and digested vegetable samples using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The procedure is based on cloud point extraction (CPE) of these metals as 2-(bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-amino-phenol (Br-PADAP) complexes into a micellar phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). Optimization of the procedure was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) using a Doehlert design. Principal components (PC) were used to simplify the multiple response analysis. A response surface for the first PC score is useful in determining the optimum conditions for the Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Pb determinations whereas the second PC is highly correlated with the Ni response. Improvement factors of 22, 36, 46, 25, 65 and 39, along with limits of detection (3sigma(B)) of 0.081, 0.79, 0.38, 0.83, 0.28 and 0.69 microg L(-1), and precision expressed as relative standard deviation (%R.S.D., n=8, 20.0 microg L(-1)) of 1.5, 2.2, 3.5, 2.6, 2.5 and 2.5 were achieved for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by spike tests in oil-refinery effluent samples and analysis of a vegetable certified reference material (NIST 1571, orchard leaves). Results found were in agreement with certified values.

  5. 参数化可配置IP核浮点运算器的设计与实现%Design and implementation of floating-point unit based on parameterized configurable IP core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹松; 陈平华; 陈璟

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, parameterized IP core design method is introduced into the design of floating-point unit, through extracting usable parameters, the floating-point unit can be designed into a parameterized, configurable, reusable IP core. Finally,simulation verified the feasibility and effectiveness of floating-point unit as parameterized IP core.%将参数化可配置IP核的设计方法引入到浮点运算器设计中,通过设计时提取的可用参数,将浮点运算器设计成为参数化、可配置、可重用的IP核.通过仿真验证了实现参数化IP核浮点运算器的可行性和有效性.

  6. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  7. Eye Health in Sports and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer ... protection. High-Risk Sports For all age groups, sports-related eye injuries occur most frequently in baseball, basketball and racquet ...

  8. On subwavelength imaging with Maxwell's fish eye lens

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a subwavelength image of a sharp object may be achieved in some cases, however, its spot-size is larger than the spot size of the initial object field. The image resolution is determined by the field spot size of the image corresponding to the zeroth order component of the object field. Our explicit analysis consists very well with the FEM results for a fish eye lens. Time-domain simulation is also given to verify our conclusion. Multi-point imaging for a single object point is also demonstrated.

  9. Can Maxwell's fish eye lens really give perfect imaging?

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a good image of a sharp object may be achieved in some cases, however, its spot-size is larger than the spot size of the initial object field. The image resolution is determined by the field spot size of the image corresponding to the zeroth order component of the object field. Our explicit analysis consists very well with the FEM results for a fish eye lens. Time-domain simulation is also given to verify our conclusion. Multi-point images for a single object point are also demonstrated.

  10. The eye of the beholder: Can patterns in eye movement reveal aptitudes for spatial reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Victoria A; Fraser, Graham M; Kryklywy, James H; Mitchell, Derek G V; Wilson, Timothy D

    2016-07-08

    Mental rotation ability (MRA) is linked to academic success in the spatially complex Science, Technology, Engineering, Medicine, and Mathematics (STEMM) disciplines, and anatomical sciences. Mental rotation literature suggests that MRA may manifest in the movement of the eyes. Quantification of eye movement data may serve to distinguish MRA across individuals, and serve as a consideration when designing visualizations for instruction. It is hypothesized that high-MRA individuals will demonstrate fewer eye fixations, conduct shorter average fixation durations (AFD), and demonstrate shorter response times, than low-MRA individuals. Additionally, individuals with different levels of MRA will attend to different features of the block-figures presented in the electronic mental rotations test (EMRT). All participants (n = 23) completed the EMRT while metrics of eye movement were collected. The test required participants view pairs of three-dimensional (3D) shapes, and identify if the pair is rotated but identical, or two different structures. Temporal analysis revealed no significant correlations between response time, average fixation durations, or number of fixations and mental rotation ability. Further analysis of within-participant variability yielded a significant correlation for response time variability, but no correlation between AFD variability and variability in the number of fixations. Additional analysis of salience revealed that during problem solving, individuals of differing MRA attended to different features of the block images; suggesting that eye movements directed at salient features may contribute to differences in mental rotations ability, and may ultimately serve to predict success in anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 357-366. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 μm tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 μl/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient μa and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

  12. 即指即译翻译器的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of the Point-Translation translator System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊

    2013-01-01

    With the social development, the global integration acceleration, it is particularly important to master an foreign language, in the process of the learning a foreign language, the use of electronic dictionaries provides users with a more efficient way to query, based on the reasons above, this Point and Translation Translator is developed. This system is based on a computer desktop translator, its main function is include Screen Translation, word query and thesaurus management. First, key technologies involved in this topic are explained and introduced, and then based on all system do demand description of functions and running environment, followed by the design part of the system, including interface design and database design, at last do more specific of described on achieved of the system, The system achieve a string of random interception of the user from the screen to form words and query in the data thesaurus, displayed to the user through the interface, at the same time, the system also provides the thesaurus management functions, to add, modify, delete, and so on. Alternating combination of theory and practice in this article from a technical introduction to each part of the system is completed carefully. Strive to make the best of a paper describing and the system presents.%随着社会的发展,全球一体化加速,掌握一门外语显得尤为重要,在学习外语过程中,电子词典的使用为用户提供了更高效的查询方式,基于以上的原因开发了这款即指即译翻译器。本系统是基于电脑桌面程序的翻译器,它主要功能是:屏幕取词、单词查询和词库管理。论文先对本课题涉及的关键技术进行逐个的解释与介绍,然后对整个系统做了功能与运行环境的需求说明,接着进行系统的设计部分,包括界面设计和数据库设计,最后对系统的实现做了更具体的阐述。本系统实现了用户从屏幕中随机截取字符串,构成

  13. Drugs affecting the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  14. Incidence and pattern of dry eye after cataract surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngamjit Kasetsuwan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence and severity pattern of dry eye after phacoemulsification. SETTING: King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. METHODS: Samples were collected from ninety-two uncomplicated cataract patients who were 18 years old or older. Dry eye incidence and pattern were analyzed at days 0, 7, 30 and 90 after phacoemulsification using (1 Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire, (2 tear break up time (TBUT, (3 Oxford ocular surface staining system, and (4 Schirmer I test without anesthesia. RESULTS: Seven days after phacoemulsification, the incidence of dry eye was 9.8% (95% confidence interval; 3.6-16.0%. The severity of dry eye peaked seven days post-phacoemulsification and was measured by OSDI questionnaire and all three clinical tests. Within thirty days and 3 months post-surgery, both the symptoms and signs showed rapid and gradual improvements, respectively. However, dry eye post-phacoemulsification was not significantly associated with sex and systemic hypertension (P = 0.26, 0.17 and 0.73, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of dry eye after phacoemulsification was 9.8%. Symptoms and signs of dry eye occurred as early as seven days post-phacoemulsification and the severity pattern improved over time. We recommend that ophthalmologists should evaluate patients both before and after phacoemulsification to prevent further damage to the ocular surface and able to manage the patient promptly and effectively so the patient will not have a poor quality of life and vision due to dry eye syndrome.

  15. 基于AdaBoost算法的人脸人眼分类器的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Face and Eye Categorizer Based on AdaBoost Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪仕才; 冯桑; 呙腾

    2015-01-01

    人脸检测和人眼定位是检测驾驶疲劳的首要工作,而人眼准确定位和检测速度直接影响后续疲劳检测的实时性和鲁棒性。基于AdaBoost算法检测速度快,泛化能力强等特点,通过建立针对驾驶环境下的人脸、人眼样本集,深入研究驾驶员的人脸人眼识别问题。实验证明,AdaBoost级联分类器不仅能够准确检测人的正脸,而且对于侧脸、戴眼睛和部分遮挡也有很高的识别率。%Face detection and eyes orientation are the primary task of detecting driver fatigue, and the real-time and robustness of the following fa-tigue detection is directly influenced by the accurate orientation of human eyes and the speed of detection. Studies the recognition prob-lem of driver's face and eyes further through establishing the sample database of face and eye under the driving environment, which is based on the features of fast detection speed and strong generalization ability of AdaBoost algorithm. Experimental results show that the AdaBoost cascade classifier can not only accurately detect frontal faces, but also have very high recognition rate for a face in profile or with glasses and the partially occluded face.

  16. Effects of acupoint area and non-acupoint area of eye-acupuncture on expressions of VIP and AQP 8 in colonic tissues in rats with D-IBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧慧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the point specificity of eye-acupuncture and the mechanism of eye-acupuncture on diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS).Methods Forty male Wistar rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into a normal group,a model group,a eye-acupuncture point(AA) group and

  17. QuantEYE: The Quantum Optics Instrument for OWL

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, D; Fosbury, R A E; Naletto, G; Nilsson, R; Occhipinti, T; Tamburini, F; Uthas, H; Zampieri, L

    2005-01-01

    QuantEYE is designed to be the highest time-resolution instrument on ESO:s planned Overwhelmingly Large Telescope, devised to explore astrophysical variability on microsecond and nanosecond scales, down to the quantum-optical limit. Expected phenomena include instabilities of photon-gas bubbles in accretion flows, p-mode oscillations in neutron stars, and quantum-optical photon bunching in time. Precise timescales are both variable and unknown, and studies must be of photon-stream statistics, e.g., their power spectra or autocorrelations. Such functions increase with the square of the intensity, implying an enormously increased sensitivity at the largest telescopes. QuantEYE covers the optical, and its design involves an array of photon-counting avalanche-diode detectors, each viewing one segment of the OWL entrance pupil. QuantEYE will work already with a partially filled OWL main mirror, and also without [full] adaptive optics.

  18. Design and test on growing point removal mechanism of melon vegetable grafting stock%瓜类蔬菜嫁接砧木生长点去除机构设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼建忠; 李建平; 朱盘安

    2016-01-01

    Grafting has been widely used in production of melon vegetables, which can effectively prevent vegetable diseases and ensure the quality of vegetables. Different from manual grafting method with low efficiency and low survival rate, vegetable grafting machine significantly reduces the labor intensity and improves the productivity. Insert-type machine does not need to fix the plant that is grafted, and only needs to insert scion directly into the stock, which is easy to operate. It can avoid removing the cotyledon of stock and retain the nutrients, which make the plant more likely to survive after grafting. It has been widely applied at present. Removal of growing point of melon vegetable stock is one of the key problems which need to be solved for this kind of grafting machine designing. The incomplete removal of growing point will lead to the regrowing of growing point, which will affect the joint of scion and stock, even need to use artificial method to remove the growing point again. In this paper, the growing point removal mechanism of melon vegetable grafting was designed. By imitating human finger in conjunction with each joint, the growing point was removed from the stock without being damaged. Through analyzing the trajectory of the removal of growing point, the implementation of growing point forming principle, and establishing the growing point removal model, the stock growing point removal mechanism was designed in order to solve the problems of incomplete removal of growing point and the stock easy to be damaged in removal process. Finger has good flexibility in the removal of the growing point, and the force is automatically reduced through joint buffer when the force is too large, so the finger does not hurt the cotyledons. Finger can instantly bend when it reaches the bottom, which is resulting from the action of removing growth point and makes the growing point divorced from stock. This provides the design basis for the growth point removal

  19. 门式刚架轻型房屋钢结构的设计要点%The design key points of steel structure of light-weight buildings of portal frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成柱; 孙峰; 张兰兰

    2012-01-01

    对门式刚架轻型房屋钢结构的设计过程进行了分析,从规范的选择、基本规定、结构布置、构件设计、关键节点处理等方面进行了论述,并进行了有关的设计要点的研究,从而达到了强化设计要点的效果。%This paper analysed the design process of steel structure of light-weight buildings of portal frame,made discussion from the standard selection,basic rules,structure arrangement,structure design,key nodes process and other aspects,and researched the relevant design key points,so as to achieve the effect of strengthening design key points.

  20. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dietze, G, E-mail: rolf.behrens@ptb.d [Paracelsusstrasse 7, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-21

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.