WorldWideScience

Sample records for design alternatives phase

  1. Multi-phase alternative current machine winding design | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... single-phase to 18-phase excitation. Experimental results of a five-phase induction machine supplied from a static five-phase supply are provided to support the proposed design. Keywords: AC machine, Multi-phase machine, Stator winding, Five-phase. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol.

  2. Crossbar H-mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Kitamura, R.; Kondo, Y.; Kurennoy, S.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a Crossbar H-mode (CH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The CH-DTL accelerates muons from β = v/c = 0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The design and results are described in this paper.

  3. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  4. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  5. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  6. Enhanced Design Alternative I: Low Temperature Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) 1, the low temperature repository design concept (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This technical document will provide supporting information for Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA). Preparation of this evaluation will be in accordance with the technical document preparation plan (TDPP), (CRWMS M and O 1999b). EDA 1, one of five EDAs, was evolved from evaluation of a series of design features and alternatives developed during the first phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) process. Low, medium, and high temperature concepts were developed from the design features and alternatives prepared during Phase 1 of the LADS effort (CRWMS M and O 1999a). EDA 1 will first be evaluated against a single Screening Criterion, outlined in CRWMS M and O 1999a, which addresses post-closure performance of the repository. The performance of the repository is defined quantitatively as the peak radiological dose rate to an average individual of a critical group at a distance of 20 km from the repository site within 10,000 years. To satisfy this criterion the peak dose rate must not exceed the anticipated regulatory level of 25 mrem/yr within 10,000 years. If the EDA meets the screening criterion, the EDA will be further evaluated against the LADS Phase 2 Evaluation Criteria contained in CRWMS M and O 1999a

  7. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  8. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  9. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Sr.

    1982-03-01

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  10. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ON THE LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökay Nemli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood based panel manufacturers use increasing volumes of laminates. Laminates are resistant to the water, humidity, scratch, abrasion, burning and chemicals. These products consist of printed decor papers that have been saturated with thermosetting resin. In this study, laminate types, composition form and design alternatives were investigated.

  11. Enhanced Access Design Alternative I Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eble, G.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) 1, the low temperature repository design concept (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This technical document will provide supporting information for Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA). Preparation of this evaluation will be in accordance with the technical document preparation plan (TDPP), (CRWMS M and O 1999b). EDA 1, one of five EDAs, was evolved from evaluation of a series of design features and alternatives developed during the first phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) process. Low, medium, and high temperature concepts were developed from the design features and alternatives prepared during Phase 1 of the LADS effort (CRWMS M and O 1999a). EDA 1 will first be evaluated against a single Screening Criterion, outlined in CRWMS M and O 1999a, which addresses post-closure performance of the repository. The performance of the repository is defined quantitatively as the peak radiological dose rate to an average individual of a critical group at a distance of 20 km from the repository site within 10,000 years. To satisfy this criterion the peak dose rate must not exceed the anticipated regulatory level of 25 mrem/yr within 10,000 years. If the EDA meets the screening criterion, the EDA will be further evaluated against the LADS Phase 2 Evaluation Criteria contained in CRWMS M and O 1999a

  12. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    for the installation of the fender and perhaps for removing it if new oil-risers are to be initialled. The use of crane boats is expensive and weather-dependent.With these effect sin mind, a study of the energy absorption in the fender system, i.e. the fender itself and the frame, is needed for further development......On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...... designs are searched for the fender.Today, an often used improvement of the fender is to fill it with grout or concrete. However, this improvement is not optimal since the fillings increase the weight of the fender beyond the crane capacity of the platform. Thus, crane boats are needed...

  13. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  14. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    mean with a specific alternative fuel; a standard for the fuel. Since we today live in a global society with international trade, the work with standards has to be carried out by international standardization organizations such as CEN and ISO. In the work on standardization of alternative fuels, it is of course important that all existing knowledge and experiences on production, distribution and use of alternative fuels are taken into account to avoid duplication of work and to limit the time and resources needed to produce standards. The International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels, (IEA/AMF) is an organization with competence and more than 20 years of experience on alternative fuels. In April 2002 IEA/AMF's Executive Committee decided to start a new Annex, Annex XXVII on 'Standardization of alternative fuels'. This report is the result of phase one of Annex XXVII.

  15. Alternating phase focussing including space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, W.H.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Longitudinal stability can be obtained in a non-relativistic drift tube accelerator by traversing each gap as the rf accelerating field rises. However, the rising accelerating field leads to a transverse defocusing force which is usually overcome by magnetic focussing inside the drift tubes. The radio frequency quadrupole is one way of providing simultaneous longitudinal and transverse focusing without the use of magnets. One can also avoid the use of magnets by traversing alternate gaps between drift tubes as the field is rising and falling, thus providing an alternation of focussing and defocusing forces in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. The stable longitudinal phase space area is quite small, but recent efforts suggest that alternating phase focussing (APF) may permit low velocity acceleration of currents in the 100-300 ma range. This paper presents a study of the parameter space and a test of crude analytic predictions by adapting the code PARMILA, which includes space charge, to APF. 6 refs., 3 figs

  16. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  17. Alternate technologies for MRS design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.; Triplett, M.B.; Ashton, W.B.; Kelly, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the process conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to evaluate candidate MRS concepts and to recommend the two most preferred concepts. The eight concepts studied are: metal cask (stationary and transportable); concrete cask (silo); concrete cask-in-trench; field drywell; tunnel drywell; open cycle vault; closed cycle vault; and tunnel rack vault. To achieve a more equitable comparison of the concepts, conceptual design analyses were performed for the candidate concepts using a common set of specified design requirements selected with consideration of the MRS mission. Using this normalized conceptual design information, the MRS concepts were evaluated and compared on the basis of their relative performance on seven criteria: flexibility, concept maturity, cost, environmental impacts, safety and licensing, socioeconomic impacts, and siting requirements. These seven criteria were judged to form a reasonable and complete basis for the evaluation of MRS concepts' ability to satisfy the MRS mission requirements. 5 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  18. British Columbia : an alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostergaard, P.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines' approach to the electricity market. A brief overview of the electric system in the province was provided, examining capacity (primarily hydro based) and the utility sector with its public ownership. In British Columbia, 80 per cent of the electricity is generated by British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro). The rates are based on cost of service. British Columbia's market is western North America. A comparison of monthly bills for several large cities, both Canadian and American, was displayed. The market reviews conducted in 1995, 1998, and 2002 were reviewed and the major recommendations discussed. The author identified the opportunities in the province, discussing natural gas and coal for electricity production, resource potential, demand, and private sector capacity. The challenges facing the province are: cost effective development of resources to meet energy demand; aging infrastructure, high reliability requirements and economic growth; evolving electricity market structure in the United States; and, monopoly. The transmission system was reviewed with reference to trade with the Pacific Northwest, flexibility and storage. The energy plan objectives for the future were presented, including low rates and public ownership, secure and reliable supply, more private sector opportunities, and environmental responsibility. The alternative market structure includes regulated market characteristics, access to trade, and customer focus. figs

  19. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-15

    March 2003 the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor fuels (IEA/AMF) decided to continue annex XXVII 'Standardization of alternative fuels' with a second phase. The purpose of the second phase was to go further in the contacts with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as well as the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and their technical committees, to better understand their needs and to investigate how IEA/AMF could contribute to their work. It was also scheduled to put forward proposals on how IEA/AMF could cooperate with CEN and ISO and their technical committees (TC: s), primarily ISO/TC 28 'Petroleum Products and Lubricants' and CEN/TC 19 'Petroleum Products, Lubricants and Related Products'. The main part of the work in IEA/AMF annex XXVII phase two has focused on personal contacts within CEN/TC 19 and ISO/TC 28, but also on data and information collection from websites and written information. Together with the analysis of this information, the internal organization of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and ISO/TC 28 and of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and CEN/TC 19 have also been discussed and analysed.

  20. Remoting alternatives for a multiple phased-array antenna network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zan; Foshee, James J.

    2001-10-01

    Significant improvements in technology have made phased array antennas an attractive alternative to the traditional dish antenna for use on wide body airplanes. These improvements have resulted in reduced size, reduced cost, reduced losses in the transmit and receive channels (simplifying the design), a significant extension in the bandwidth capability, and an increase in the functional capability. Flush mounting (thus reduced drag) and rapid beam switching are among the evolving desirable features of phased array antennas. Beam scanning of phased array antennas is limited to +/-45 degrees at best and therefore multiple phased array antennas would need to be used to insure instantaneous communications with any ground station (stations located at different geographical locations on the ground) and with other airborne stations. The exact number of phased array antennas and the specific installation location of each antenna on the wide body airplane would need to be determined by the specific communication requirements, but it is conceivable as many as five phased array antennas may need to be used to provide the required coverage. Control and switching of these antennas would need to be accomplished at a centralized location on the airplane and since these antennas would be at different locations on the airplane an efficient scheme of remoting would need to be used. To save in cost and keep the phased array antennas as small as possible the design of the phased array antennas would need to be kept simple. A dish antenna and a blade antenna (small size) could also be used to augment the system. Generating the RF signals at the central location and then using RF cables or waveguide to get the signal to any given antenna could result in significant RF losses. This paper will evaluate a number of remoting alternatives to keep the system design simple, reduce system cost, and utilize the functional capability of networking multiple phased array antennas on a wide body

  1. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  2. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 8: Open-cycle MHD. [energy conversion efficiency and design analysis of electric power plants employing magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D. Q.

    1976-01-01

    Electric power plant costs and efficiencies are presented for three basic open-cycle MHD systems: (1) direct coal fired system, (2) a system with a separately fired air heater, and (3) a system burning low-Btu gas from an integrated gasifier. Power plant designs were developed corresponding to the basic cases with variation of major parameters for which major system components were sized and costed. Flow diagrams describing each design are presented. A discussion of the limitations of each design is made within the framework of the assumptions made.

  3. Development of a Numerical Fish Surrogate for Improved Selection of Fish Passage Design and Operation Alternatives for Lower Granite Dam: Phase I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nestler, John

    2000-01-01

    .... The overall goal of this research is to develop and apply an approach for integrating biological and hydraulic information to support selection of optimum designs and project operations for Surface...

  4. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  5. Reliability in the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H.; Majumdar, D.

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs

  6. An alternate end design for SSC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, C.; Caspi, S.; Taylor, C.

    1989-02-01

    Experience in the SSC dipole program has shown that fabrication of cylindrical coil ends is difficult. Cable stiffness requires large forces to maintain the proper position of the conductors in the end during winding. After winding, the coil ends remain distorted nd significant motion of the need conductors is required to force the coil end into the molding cavity. Local mechanical stresses are high during this process and extra pieces of insulation are required to prevent turn-to-turn shorts from developing during the winding and molding steps. Prior to assembly the coil end is compressed in a mold cavity and injected with a filler material to correct surface irregularities and fill voids in the end. LBL has developed an alternate design which permits the conductors to be wound over the end using minimal force and technician coerosion. The conductors are placed on a conical surface where the largest diameter over the outer layer conductors is 10 cm. No coil end spaces or insulation pieces between turns are required. The conductor geometry was analytically optimized to meet SSC multipole requirements for the ends. The first 1-m dipole utilizing this end geometry has been constructed and successfully tested. Design and construction data are presented. Also model test results, including training and multipole measurements of the end are given. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  7. SARCOPENIA: DESIGNING PHASE IIB TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHUMLEA, WM.C.; CESARI, M.; EVANS, W.J.; FERRUCCI, L.; FIELDING, R.A.; PAHOR, M.; STUDENSKI, S.; VELLAS, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass and functionality that can lead to the development of disability, frailty and increased health care costs. The development of interventions aimed at preventing and/or treating sarcopenia is complex, requiring the adoption of assumptions and standards that are not well established scientifically or clinically. A number of investigators and clinicians (both from academia and industry) met in Rome (Italy) in 2009 to develop a consensus definition of sarcopenia. Subsequently, in Albuquerque (New Mexico, USA) in 2010, the same group met again to consider the complex issues necessary for designing Phase II clinical trials for sarcopenia. Current clinical trial data indicate that fat-free mass (FFM) parameters are responsive to physical activity/nutritional treatment modalities over short time periods, but pharmacological trials of sarcopenia have yet to show significant efficacy. In order to conduct a clinical trial within a reasonable time frame, groups that model or display accelerated aging and loss of FFM are necessary. Few studies have used acceptable designs for testing treatment effects, sample sizes or primary outcomes that could provide interpretable findings or effects across studies. Dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the measure of choice for assessing FFM, but sufficient time is needed for changes to be detected accurately and reliably. A tool set that would allow clinical, basic and epidemiological research on sarcopenia to advance rapidly toward diagnosis and treatment phases should be those reflecting function and strength. PMID:21623466

  8. Properties of heavy ion linacs with alternating phase focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitinghoff, H.; Junior, P.; Klein, H.

    1976-01-01

    General aspects for the application of alternating phase focusing are discussed. The results demand necessary linac parameters. The possibility of their accomplishment by already existing or feasible linac structures with acceleration rates of 2 - 3 MV/m will be considered

  9. Alternating direction methods for classical and ptychographic phase retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zaiwen; Yang, Chao; Liu, Xin; Marchesini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the augmented Lagrangian alternating direction method (ADM) can be used to solve both the classical and ptychographic phase retrieval problems. We point out the connection between ADM and projection algorithms such as the hybrid input–output algorithm, and compare its performance against standard algorithms for phase retrieval on a number of test images. Our computational experiments show that ADM appears to be less sensitive to the choice of relaxation parameters, and it usually outperforms the existing techniques for both the classical and ptychographic phase retrieval problems. (paper)

  10. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  11. Alternative pavement designs : Randolph park and ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Previous research on alternative pavement type bidding has proven that various treatments : are unique in terms of constructability, material characteristics, and associated performance. : While some treatments may have higher initial costs, it is im...

  12. Alloy phase stability and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocks, G.M.; Pope, E.P.; Giamei, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    At the level of basic quantum theory the papers in this symposium reflect the great progress that has been made in understanding the physical properties of both ordered and disordered alloys based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). DFT provides a quantitative parameter-free (often referred to as first principles) theory of the ground state properties of these systems. This general approach has also been used in combination with classical elasticity and dislocation theory to provide the first quantitative understanding of some of the mechanical properties of intermetallic alloys. Recent advances have built on DFT theory to provide the first glimpses of a theory of the finite temperature phase stability of alloys. It is the strength of these first principles theories that the understanding of materials properties is in terms of the underlying electronic structure. At the level of atomistic simulation, based on semi-empirical potentials, again much progress has been made in understanding the properties of extended defects such as grain boundaries and dislocations. On the experimental front increasingly sophisticated tools are being brought to bear in order to understand both the underlying electronic structure and detailed atomic arrangements. This information, together with input from theory, is playing an increasing role in guiding alloy design efforts. At the more practical level a number of these sophisticated alloy design efforts have in recent years produced impressive results across a broad front. The properties of existing materials are continually being improved and new ones developed. Often this progress is based on a deeper understanding of the properties at the atomistic and electronic level. The design of new ordered intermetallic alloys that have reached or are reaching commercialization represents one of the major achievements of this investment of intellectual resources

  13. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  14. Evaluating design alternatives using conjoint experiments in virual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Leeuwen, van J.P.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the design of an experiment based on conjoint measurement that explores the possibility of using the Internet to evaluate design alternatives. These design alternatives are presented as panoramic views, and preferences are measured by asking subjects which

  15. 40 CFR 60.4111 - Alternate Hg designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate Hg designated representative... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4111 Alternate Hg designated representative. (a) A certificate of representation under § 60.4113...

  16. Investigation of alternating-phase focusing for superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagalovsky, L.; Delayen, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a new model of alternating-phase focusing (APF) dynamics applicable to ion linacs with short independently controlled superconducting cavities. The equations of motion are derived for a cylindrically symmetric electric field represented by a traveling wave with continuous periodic phase modulation. Solutions are obtained and analyzed for both the linear and nonlinear particle motion. Problems of linear stability and overall longitudinal acceptance are solved using standard mathematical techniques for periodic systems; analytical results are obtained. It is shown that the main beam dynamical aspects of APF are adequately described by four parameters; equilibrium synchronous phase, phase modulation amplitude, length of APF period, and incremental energy gain. The model can be applied to study the feasibility of realizing APF in a low-β section of a proton linac. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs

  17. Digital Hardware Design Teaching: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkrid, Khaled; Clayton, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware design teaching in the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven teaching, deep learning, affordability, and flexibility. This has identified…

  18. Design Alternative Evaluation No. 3: Post-Closure Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide input to the Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) for License Application Design Selection (LADS). Its purpose is to develop and evaluate conceptual designs for post-closure ventilation alternatives that enhance repository performance. Post-closure ventilation is expected to enhance repository performance by limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages. Limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages will reduce corrosion

  19. Alternative Work Schedules: Designing Compatible Work Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Pamela L.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to improve the quality of working life through changes in environmental factors, such as flexible hours, are likely to bring limited and short-term advantages unless the work process itself is well-designed and compatible with the environmental changes. (Author/LBH)

  20. Tipster Text Phase 2 Architecture Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-19

    TIPSTER Text Phase II Architecture Design Version 2.1p 19 June 1996 Ralph Grishman New York University grishman @cs.nyu.edu and the TIPSTER...1996 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1996 to 00-00-1996 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TIPSTER Text Phase II Architecture Design 5a. CONTRACT

  1. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Station design alternatives report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report provides the results of investigating the basis for including Station Design Alternatives (SDAs) in the regulatory guidance given for nuclear plant environmental reports (ERs), explains approaches or processes for evaluating SDAs at the early site permit (ESP) stage, and applies one of the processes to each of the ten systems or subsystems considered as SDAS. The key objective o this report s to demonstrate an adequate examination of alternatives can be performed without the extensive development f design data. The report discusses the Composite Suitability Approach and the Established Cutoff Approach in evaluating station design alternatives and selects one of these approaches to evaluate alternatives for each of the plant or station that were considered. Four types of ALWRs have been considered due to the availability of extensive plant data: System 80+, AP600, Advanced Boiling Reactor (ABWR), and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). This report demonstrates the feasibility of evaluating station design alternatives when reactor design detail has not been determined, quantitatively compares the potential ental impacts of alternatives, and focuses the ultimate selection of a alternative on cost and applicant-specific factors. The range of alternatives system is deliberately limited to a reasonable number to demonstrate the or to the three most commonly used at operating plants

  2. Alternate cap designs under RCRA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrod, W.E. III; Yager, R.E.; Craig, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste and mixed wastes have been disposed of in several sites in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Tennessee. Most of these materials have been placed in shallow land burial pits (SLB). Closure plans have been developed and approved by appropriate regulatory agencies for several of these sites. A variety of cap (final cover) designs for closure of these sites were investigated to determine their ability to inhibit infiltration of precipitation to the waste. The most effective designs are those that use synthetic materials as drainage layers and/or impermeable liners. The more complex, multi-layer systems perform no better than simpler covers and would complicate construction and increase costs. Despite the successful analytical results described in this paper, additional considerations must be factored into use of geosynthetic as well as natural materials

  3. Beam dynamics of alternating-phase-focused linac

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Y; Kapin, V

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to find an array of synchronous phases for alternating-phase-focused (APF) linacs is presented. The phase array is described with a smooth function having free parameters. With a set of the parameters, a simulation on the beam dynamics was made and distributions of the six-dimensional phase spaces were calculated for each set of the parameters. The parameters were varied, and numbers of the simulations have been performed. An optimum set of the parameters were determined so that the simulations of the beam dynamics yield large acceptances and small emittances of the extracted beams. Since the APF linac can provide both axial and radial stability of beams just with the rf acceleration-field, no additional focusing element inside of drift tubes are necessary. Comparing with conventional linacs having focusing elements, it has advantage in construction and operation costs as well as its acceleration rate. Therefore, the APF linacs would be suited for an injector of medical synchrotrons. A practic...

  4. Design alternatives, components key to optimum flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha-Leite, O.

    1992-01-01

    A properly designed flare works as an emissions control system with greater than 98% combustion efficiency. The appropriate use of steam, natural gas, and air-assisted flare tips can result in smokeless combustion. Ground flare, otherwise the elevated flare is commonly chosen because it handles larger flow releases more economically. Flaring has become more complicated than just lighting up waste gas. Companies are increasingly concerned about efficiency. In addition, U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have become more active, resulting in tighter regulations on both safety and emissions control. These regulations have resulted in higher levels of concern and involvement in safety and emissions matters, not to mention smoke, noise, glare, and odor. This first to two articles on flare design and components looks at elevated flares, flare tips, incinerator-type flares, flare pilots, and gas seals. Part 2 will examine knockout drums, liquid-seal drums, ignition systems, ground flares, vapor recovery systems, and flare noise

  5. Matter of transformation : designing an alternative tomorrow inspired by phenomenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, C.C.M.; Lévy, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this month’s cover story, Caroline Hummels and Pierre Lévy propose an alternative, value-based vision for design: Can we create alternative ways to engage with the world based on trusting our senses? Where intuition is as valuable as logic? Where commitment and engagement are valuable assets for

  6. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Herring, J.S.; Housley, G.K.; Sohal, M.S.; Milobar, D.G.; Cable, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900 C. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Juelich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ∼10 (micro)m thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ∼1400 (micro)m thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900 C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is

  7. 40 CFR 72.22 - Alternate designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative is selected shall include a procedure for the owners and operators of the source and affected units at the source to authorize the alternate designated representative to act in lieu...) In the event of a conflict, any action taken by the designated representative shall take precedence...

  8. RIP INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR LA DESIGN SELECTION: ENHANCED DESIGN ALTERNATIVE V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Mon

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b, Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. Performance credit of the inner barrier material is not taken in this calculation. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative V are provided in a Design Input Request (CRWMS M and O 1999e, Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations, Item 3)

  9. Comparison of different SFL design alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivars Neretnieks, Ivars [Chemima AB, Taeby (Sweden); Moreno, Luis [LMQuimica, Vaarby (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Four different design options for a repository for long-lived nuclear waste from the future dismantling of the nuclear power plants have been compared. The time scales considered range up to 100,000 years. The repository is to be located at about 500 m depth in granitic rock. The vault can be a tunnel about 200 m long and on the order of 15 X 15 meters, in which the waste is surrounded by either a hydraulic cage, a concrete buffer or a bentonite buffer about 2 m thick. A fourth option is to make a silo, called Supersilo, about as high as wide, surrounded by both concrete and bentonite. In order to compare potential release rates of radionuclides from the waste to the seeping water in the rock a number of simple models have been devised. Some of these models allow the water flow rates through vaults to be assessed under various conditions and configurations. Other models are used to calculate the uptake by molecular diffusion to the water in the rock that seeps past the vaults. Moreover other models are used to calculate the rate of transport of nuclides by diffusion and flow through the buffer and waste. The decay of the nuclides during their passage from the waste to the flowing water through and past the vaults is accounted for. Many nuclides of interest decay considerably in the buffer. The mathematical form of the models is made so simple that essentially hand calculations can be used to explore the strength of different barriers and design options. The simple models are validated against more complex coupled models accounting for simultaneously competing processes. The more complex models are solved by numerical methods. The toolbox of simple models is used to calculate the strength of the barriers in the different design options under various conditions. Examples of activity releases of three nuclides with different sorption characteristics and half-lives are presented. It is found that a hydraulic cage is not a good option as it promotes the release of

  10. Comparison of different SFL design alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivars Neretnieks, Ivars; Moreno, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Four different design options for a repository for long-lived nuclear waste from the future dismantling of the nuclear power plants have been compared. The time scales considered range up to 100,000 years. The repository is to be located at about 500 m depth in granitic rock. The vault can be a tunnel about 200 m long and on the order of 15 X 15 meters, in which the waste is surrounded by either a hydraulic cage, a concrete buffer or a bentonite buffer about 2 m thick. A fourth option is to make a silo, called Supersilo, about as high as wide, surrounded by both concrete and bentonite. In order to compare potential release rates of radionuclides from the waste to the seeping water in the rock a number of simple models have been devised. Some of these models allow the water flow rates through vaults to be assessed under various conditions and configurations. Other models are used to calculate the uptake by molecular diffusion to the water in the rock that seeps past the vaults. Moreover other models are used to calculate the rate of transport of nuclides by diffusion and flow through the buffer and waste. The decay of the nuclides during their passage from the waste to the flowing water through and past the vaults is accounted for. Many nuclides of interest decay considerably in the buffer. The mathematical form of the models is made so simple that essentially hand calculations can be used to explore the strength of different barriers and design options. The simple models are validated against more complex coupled models accounting for simultaneously competing processes. The more complex models are solved by numerical methods. The toolbox of simple models is used to calculate the strength of the barriers in the different design options under various conditions. Examples of activity releases of three nuclides with different sorption characteristics and half-lives are presented. It is found that a hydraulic cage is not a good option as it promotes the release of

  11. Demonstration of a free piston Stirling engine driven linear alternator, phase I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldwater, B.; Piller, S.; Rauch, J.; Cella, A.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the work performed under Phase I of the free piston Stirling engine demonstrator program are described. The objective of the program is to develop a 2 kW free piston Stirling engine/linear alternator energy conversion system, for an isotopic heat source, with a greater than 30% overall efficiency. Phase I was a 15-month effort to demonstrate the feasibility of the system through analysis and experimental testing of the individual components. An introduction to Stirling engines and the details of the tasks completed are presented in five major sections: (1) introduction to Stirling engine; (2) preliminary design of an advanced free piston Stirling demonstrator engine; (3) design and test of a 1 kWE output linear alternator; (4) test of a model free piston Stirling engine; and (5) development of a free piston Stirling engine computer simulation code

  12. Demonstration of a free piston Stirling engine driven linear alternator, phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldwater, B.; Piller, S.; Rauch, J.; Cella, A.

    1977-03-30

    The results of the work performed under Phase I of the free piston Stirling engine demonstrator program are described. The objective of the program is to develop a 2 kW free piston Stirling engine/linear alternator energy conversion system, for an isotopic heat source, with a greater than 30% overall efficiency. Phase I was a 15-month effort to demonstrate the feasibility of the system through analysis and experimental testing of the individual components. An introduction to Stirling engines and the details of the tasks completed are presented in five major sections: (1) introduction to Stirling engine; (2) preliminary design of an advanced free piston Stirling demonstrator engine; (3) design and test of a 1 kWE output linear alternator; (4) test of a model free piston Stirling engine; and (5) development of a free piston Stirling engine computer simulation code.

  13. 31 CFR 0.104 - Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the... Responsibilities § 0.104 Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. The...

  14. Incorporating alternative design clinical trials in network meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorlund K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund,1–3 Eric Druyts,1,4 Kabirraaj Toor,1,5 Jeroen P Jansen,1,6 Edward J Mills1,3 1Redwood Outcomes, Vancouver, BC, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 5School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Introduction: Network meta-analysis (NMA is an extension of conventional pairwise meta-analysis that allows for simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions. Well-established drug class efficacies have become commonplace in many disease areas. Thus, for reasons of ethics and equipoise, it is not practical to randomize patients to placebo or older drug classes. Unique randomized clinical trial designs are an attempt to navigate these obstacles. These alternative designs, however, pose challenges when attempting to incorporate data into NMAs. Using ulcerative colitis as an example, we illustrate an example of a method where data provided by these trials are used to populate treatment networks. Methods: We present the methods used to convert data from the PURSUIT trial into a typical parallel design for inclusion in our NMA. Data were required for three arms: golimumab 100 mg; golimumab 50 mg; and placebo. Golimumab 100 mg induction data were available; however, data regarding those individuals who were nonresponders at induction and those who were responders at maintenance were not reported, and as such, had to be imputed using data from the rerandomization phase. Golimumab 50 mg data regarding responses at week 6 were not available. Existing relationships between the available components were used to impute the expected proportions in this missing subpopulation. Data for placebo maintenance

  15. Information about robustness, reliability and safety in early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster

    methods, and an industrial case to assess how the use of information about robustness, reliability and safety as practised by current methods influences concept development. Current methods cannot be used in early design phases due to their dependence on detailed design information for the identification...... alternatives. This prompts designers to reuse working principles that are inherently flawed, as they are liable to disturbances, failures and hazards. To address this issue, an approach based upon individual records of early design issues consists of comparing failures and benefits from prior working...... principles, before making a decision, and improving the more suitable alternatives through this feedback. Workshops were conducted with design practitioners to evaluate the potential of the approach and to simulate decision-making and gain feedback on a proof-of-concept basis. The evaluation has demonstrated...

  16. Process of establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for conceptual design of a VLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Young Bae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a process for establishing design requirements and selecting alternative configurations for the conceptual phase of aircraft design has been proposed. The proposed process uses system-engineering-based requirement-analysis techniques such as objective tree, analytic hierarchy process, and quality function deployment to establish logical and quantitative standards. Moreover, in order to perform a logical selection of alternative aircraft configurations, it uses advanced decision-making methods such as morphological matrix and technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution. In addition, a preliminary sizing tool has been developed to check the feasibility of the established performance requirements and to evaluate the flight performance of the selected configurations. The present process has been applied for a two-seater very light aircraft (VLA, resulting in a set of tentative design requirements and two families of VLA configurations: a high-wing configuration and a low-wing configuration. The resulting set of design requirements consists of three categories: customer requirements, certification requirements, and performance requirements. The performance requirements include two mission requirements for the flight range and the endurance by reflecting the customer requirements. The flight performances of the two configuration families were evaluated using the sizing tool developed and the low-wing configuration with conventional tails was selected as the best baseline configuration for the VLA.

  17. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, W.L. Jr.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules

  18. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G.; Cantrell, K.J.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described

  19. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  20. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  1. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste

  2. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint an...

  3. Design alternatives report for the cesium removal demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Cesium Removal Demonstration (CRD) project will use liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stored in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks to demonstrate cesium removal from sodium nitrate-based supernates. This report presents the results of a conceptual design study to scope the alternatives for conducting the demonstration at ORNL. Factors considered included (1) sorbent alternatives, (2) facility alternatives, (3) process alternatives, (4) process disposal alternatives, and (5) relative cost comparisons. Recommendations included (1) that design of the CRD system move forward based on information obtained to date from tests with Savannah River Resin, (2) that the CRD system be designed so it could use crystalline silicotitanates (CST) if an engineered form of CST becomes available prior to the CRD, (3) that the system be designed without the capability for resin regeneration, (4) that the LLLW solidification facility be used for the demonstration (5) that vitrification of the loaded resins from the CRD be demonstrated at the Savannah River Site, and (6) that permanent disposal of the loaded and/or vitrified resin at the Nevada Test Site be pursued.

  4. Design alternatives report for the cesium removal demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Cesium Removal Demonstration (CRD) project will use liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stored in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks to demonstrate cesium removal from sodium nitrate-based supernates. This report presents the results of a conceptual design study to scope the alternatives for conducting the demonstration at ORNL. Factors considered included (1) sorbent alternatives, (2) facility alternatives, (3) process alternatives, (4) process disposal alternatives, and (5) relative cost comparisons. Recommendations included (1) that design of the CRD system move forward based on information obtained to date from tests with Savannah River Resin, (2) that the CRD system be designed so it could use crystalline silicotitanates (CST) if an engineered form of CST becomes available prior to the CRD, (3) that the system be designed without the capability for resin regeneration, (4) that the LLLW solidification facility be used for the demonstration (5) that vitrification of the loaded resins from the CRD be demonstrated at the Savannah River Site, and (6) that permanent disposal of the loaded and/or vitrified resin at the Nevada Test Site be pursued

  5. Cell and stack design alternatives. Final report, August 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Jr., D. Q.; King, Robert B.

    1980-02-01

    The work described comprised the first phase of a planned six phase program to develop commercially viable phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) driven on-site integrated energy systems (OS/IES). The Phase I effort was organized as three major technical tasks; (1) study of system design alternatives; (2) fuel cell design alternatives; and (3) methane conditioner study. It was decided that comprehensive modeling of one application would most effectively utilize the resources available for the study of systems design alternatives. A 48 unit apartment complex located in Albany, New York and built to HUD minimum standards was selected as being typical of the applications that will be served by the systems. The time varying space conditioning (HVAC) and electrical requirements including the effects of varying weather conditions, living habits and occupancy patterns were modeled. These requirements formed the basis for comparing the performance and cost of the alternative configurations with each other and with a conventional system. Five basic alternative OS/IES configurations plus four variations were selected from a preliminary list of 13 basic configurations for detailed performance nd cost evaluations. Study procedures and results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  6. Nonvolatile memory design magnetic, resistive, and phase change

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hai

    2011-01-01

    The manufacture of flash memory, which is the dominant nonvolatile memory technology, is facing severe technical barriers. So much so, that some emerging technologies have been proposed as alternatives to flash memory in the nano-regime. Nonvolatile Memory Design: Magnetic, Resistive, and Phase Changing introduces three promising candidates: phase-change memory, magnetic random access memory, and resistive random access memory. The text illustrates the fundamental storage mechanism of these technologies and examines their differences from flash memory techniques. Based on the latest advances,

  7. Alternative design concept for the second Glass Waste Storage Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainisch, R.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents an alternative design concept for storing canisters filled with vitrified waste produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) has the capacity to store 2,262 canisters and is projected to be completely filled by the year 2000. Current plans for glass waste storage are based on constructing a second Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB2) once the existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) is filled to capacity. The GWSB2 project (Project S-2045) is to provide additional storage capacity for 2,262 canisters. This project was initiated with the issue of a basic data report on March 6, 1989. In response to the basic data report Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) prepared a draft conceptual design report (CDR) for the GWSB2 project in April 1991. In May 1991 WSRC Systems Engineering issued a revised Functional Design Criteria (FDC), the Rev. I document has not yet been approved by DOE. This document proposes an alternative design for the conceptual design (CDR) completed in April 1991. In June 1992 Project Management Department authorized Systems Engineering to further develop the proposed alternative design. The proposed facility will have a storage capacity for 2,268 canisters and will meet DWPF interim storage requirements for a five-year period. This document contains: a description of the proposed facility; a cost estimate of the proposed design; a cost comparison between the proposed facility and the design outlined in the FDC/CDR; and an overall assessment of the alternative design as compared with the reference FDC/CDR design

  8. Expert System Approach For Generating And Evaluating Engine Design Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.; Chew, Meng-Sang; Issa, Ghassan F.

    1989-03-01

    Artificial intelligence is becoming an increasingly important subject of study for computer scientists, engineering designers, as well as professionals in other fields. Even though AI technology is a relatively new discipline, many of its concepts have already found practical applications. Expert systems, in particular, have made significant contributions to technologies in such fields as business, medicine, engineering design, chemistry, and particle physics. This paper describes an expert system developed to aid the mechanical designer with the preliminary design of variable-stroke internal-combustion engines. The expert system accomplished its task by generating and evaluating a large number of design alternatives represented in the form of graphs. Through the application of structural and design rules directly to the graphs, optimal and near optimal preliminary design configurations of engines are deduced.

  9. RIP Input Tables from WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.M. Monib

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. ''Software Routine Report for WAPDEG'' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II-3. The aging period in the EDA II design (CRWMS M and O 1999f. ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'', Item 1 Row 9 Column 3) was replaced in the case of EDA II-3 with 25 years preclosure ventilation, leading to a total of 50 years preclosure ventilation. The waste packages are line loaded in the repository and no backfill is used

  10. Alternate design of ITER cryostat skirt support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Manish Kumar; Gupta, Girish Kumar; Bhardwaj, Anil Kumar; Jha, Saroj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The skirt support of ITER cryostat is a support system which takes all the load of cryostat cylinder and dome during normal and operational condition. The present design of skirt support has full penetration weld joints at the bottom (shell to horizontal plate joint). To fulfill the requirements of tolerances and control the welding distortions, we have proposed to change the full penetration weld into fillet weld. A detail calculation is done to check the feasibility and structural impact due to proposed design. The calculations provide the size requirements of fillet weld. To verify the structural integrity during most severe load case, finite element analysis (FEA) has been done in line with ASME section VIII division 2. By FEA 'Plastic Collapse' and 'Local Failure' modes has been assessed. 5° sector of skirt clamp has been modeled in CATIA V5 R21 and used in FEA. Fillet weld at shell to horizontal plate joint has been modeled and symmetry boundary condition at ± 2.5° applied. 'Elastic Plastic Analysis' has been performed for the most severe loading case i.e. Category IV loading. The alternate design of Cryostat Skirt support system has been found safe by analysis against Plastic collapse and Local Failure Modes with load proportionality factor 2.3. Alternate design of Cryostat skirt support system has been done and validated by FEA. As per alternate design, the proposal of fillet weld has been implemented in manufacturing. (author)

  11. WAG (water-alternating-gas) process design: an update review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, M.K. [University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Petroleum and Gas Engineering], e-mail: mkzahoor@uet.edu.pk; Derahman, M.N.; Yunan, M.H. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor (Malaysia). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2011-04-15

    The design and implementation of water-alternating-gas (WAG) process in an improved and cost-effective way are still under process. Due to the complexities involved in implementing the process and the lack of information regarding fluid and reservoir properties, the water-alternating-gas process has not yet been as successful as initially expected. This situation can be overcome by better understanding the fluid distribution and flow behavior within the reservoir. The ultimate purpose can be achieved with improved knowledge on wettability and its influence on fluid distribution, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and other design parameters. This paper gives an insight on the WAG process design and the recently developed correlations which are helpful in incorporating the effects of wettability variations on fluid dynamics within the reservoir. (author)

  12. Environmental comparison of a railway bridge with alternative designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2012-01-01

    Railway bridges are complex structures that remain for a long life span and consume large amount of material and energy throughout the life span. All of those lead to considerable resource depletion and environmental burdens. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a comprehensive tool...... for quantifying and assessing the environmental impacts of the products through its whole life cycle. This paper presents a comparative case study between two alternative designs of Banafjäl Bridge: ballast track design and fixed slab track design. The methodology of LCA is utilized as a supporting tool...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4112 - Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in owners and operators. 60.4112 Section 60.4112... Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4112 Changing Hg designated...

  14. Phase-alternated composite π/2 pulses for solid state quadrupole echo NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, A.; Narasimhan, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    Phase-alternated composite π/2 pulses have been constructed for spin I=1 to overcome quadrupole interaction effects in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) spectroscopy. Magnus expansion approach is used to design these sequences in a manner similar to the NMR coherent averaging theory. It is inferred that the symmetric phase-alternated composite π/2 pulses reported here are quite successful in producing quadrupole echo free phase distortions. This effectiveness of the present composite pulses is due to the fact that most of them are of shorter durations as compared to the ones reported in literature. In this theoretical procedure, irreducible spherical tensor operator formalism is employed to simplify the complexity involved in the evaluation of Magnus expansion terms. It has been argued in this paper that composite π/2 pulse sequences for this purpose can also be derived from the broadband inversion π pulses which are designed to compensate electric field gradient(efg) inhomogeniety in spin I=1 nuclear quadrupole resonance(NQR) spectroscopy. (author). 28 refs

  15. The Alternative Design Features for Safety Enhancement in Shutdown Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hae Cheol; Kim, Myung Ki; Chung, Bag Soon; Seo, Mi Ro

    2009-01-01

    PSA can be used to confirm that the new plant design is complied with the applicable safety goals, and to select among the alternate design options. A shutdown PSA provides insight for outage planning schedule, outage management practices, and design modifications. Considering the results of both LPSD PSA studies and operating experiences for low power and shutdown, the improvements can be proposed to reduce the high risk contribution. The improvements/enhancements during shutdown operation may be divided into categories such as hardware, administrative management, and operational procedure. This paper presents on an example how the risk related to an accidental situation can be reduced, focusing the hardware design changes for the newly designed NPPs

  16. Mechanical Engineering and Design of the LHC Phase II Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Gentini, L; Mariani, N; Perret, R; Timmins, M A

    2010-01-01

    Phase II collimators will complement the existing system to improve the expected high RF impedance and limited efficiency of Phase I jaws. An international collaborative effort has been launched to identify novel advanced materials responding to the very challenging requirements of the new collimators. Complex numerical calculations simulating extreme conditions and experimental tests are in progress. In parallel, an innovative modular design concept of the jaw assembly is being developed to allow fitting in alternative materials, minimizing the thermally induced deformations, withstanding accidents and accepting high radiation doses. Phase II jaw assembly is made up of a molybdenum back-stiffener ensuring high geometrical stability and a modular jaw split in threes sectors. Each sector is equipped with a high-efficiency independent cooling circuit. Beam position monitors (BPM) are embedded in the jaws to fasten setup time and improve beam monitoring. An adjustment system will permit to fine-tune the jaw flat...

  17. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm[sup 3] and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10[sup 14] n/cm[sup 2]/s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm[sup 3] has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. Computer models for the HEU and LEU designs have been exchanged between TUM and ANL and discrepancies have been resolved. The following issues are addressed: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, stability of the fuel plates, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply, the radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. Calculations were also done to address the possibility that new high density LEU fuels could be developed that would allow conversion of the TUM HEU design to LEU fuel. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility

  18. Lessons learned by southern states in designating alternative routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southem region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations. Under DOT regulations (49 CFR 177.826), carriers of highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (which include spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste) must use preferred routes selected to reduce time in transit. Such preferred routes consist of (1) an interstate system highway with use of an interstate system bypass or beltway around cities when available, and (2) alternate routes selected by a ''state routing agency.''

  19. THE ALTERNATIVE CORELDRAWINGS AN IDEAL SOLUTION FOR DESIGNERS, IN EMBROIDERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Florea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The machine beaded appearance coincides with the first sewing machine mechanical America sold out in the best-known company of sewing machines in the world: The singer Company in the year 1863. The first machine beaded computer-assisted has been constructed by Wilcom in 1980. After 1990, developments in microprocessors allowed that all types of mechanical machines beaded to turn to digital machines beaded. These machines use digital designs. Developments in digital beaded machines allowed customization industrial products made in series. The raw material that is most important is a digital drawing. List of most important brands is high. Taking into account the number of large editors for embroidery it is almost impossible for a designer to know CAD design for all text editors. This is a problem both for designers but also for producers. A practical solution for designers is CorelDrawings what offers the convenience of design specific vector graphic-designers. Automatic conversion of the vector, the library with textures, simulate embroideries and save specific formats great brands make CorelDrawings a practical alternative. Designer can focus on specific problems without using a large number of editors for each brand. We approached a drawing of the logo to demonstrate practical capabilities. Drawing digital was saved in a format and open industrial professional editor Wilcom Designer. Export to grid format may allow analysis and discussions with the customer before it has been transposed into production.

  20. Alternative Hydrocarbon Propulsion for Nano / Micro Launch Vehicle, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical innovation proposed here is the application of an alternative hydrocarbon fuel – densified propylene, in combination with liquid oxygen (LOX) – that...

  1. Alternative materials for FDOT sign structures : phase I literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Inspections of tubular sign structures by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) have : revealed occurrences of premature corrosion on the inside of galvanized steel tubes. As a result, FDOT : engineers are seeking alternative materials that...

  2. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M.; Massmann, J.W.; Freeze, R.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site

  3. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance. LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm 3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. The following issues raised by TUM were addressed in Ref. 1: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses three additional safety issues that were raised by TUM in Ref. 2: stability of the involute fuel plates, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, and a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility

  4. Computational analysis of the SRS Phase III salt disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimenna, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    In late 1997, the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP), facility was shut down and an evaluation of alternative methods to process the liquid high-level waste stored in the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste storage tanks was begun. The objective was to determine whether another process might avoid the operational difficulties encountered with ITP for a lower cost than modifying the existing structured approach to evaluating proposed alternatives on a common basis to identify the best one. Results from the computational analysis were a key part of the input used to select a primary and a secondary salt disposition alternative. This paper describes the process by which the computation needs were identified, addressed, and accomplished with a limited staff under stringent schedule constraints

  5. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  6. Tracking costs of alternatively fueled buses in Florida - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this project is to continue collecting and reporting the data on the performance and costs of alternatively fueled public transit vehicles in the state in a consistent manner in order to keep the Bus Fuels Fleet Evaluation Tool (BuFFeT) c...

  7. Human factors in design modifications: panel alternative stop in Almaraz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Y.; Bote, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering has acquired a crucial role in the development of any design modification (DM), where every aspect relative to any interaction with the human user has to be taken into account at any stage thereof. Considering this, during the last years, Almaraz Nuclear Powe Plants has developed a program of Human Factors Engineering in order to reach the internationally recognized standards or systematic collected on NUREG 0711 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NRC). One of the most important projects of this program at Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has been the implementation of the Alternative Stop Panel and their corresponding Transfer Panels. (Author)

  8. An Evaluation of Alternative Designs for a Grid Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Waheed, Abdul; Meyers, David; Yan, Jerry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Globus information service wasn't working well. There were many updates of data from Globus daemons which saturated the single server and users couldn't retrieve information. We created a second server for NASA and Alliance. Things were great on that server, but a bit slow on the other server. We needed to know exactly how the information service was being used. What were the best servers and configurations? This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the evaluation of alternative designs for a Grid Information Service. Details are given on the workload characterization, methodology used, and the performance evaluation.

  9. Identifying Effective Design Approaches to Allocate Genotypes in Two-Phase Designs: A Case Study in Pelargonium zonale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Molenaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust phenotypic data allow adequate statistical analysis and are crucial for any breeding purpose. Such data is obtained from experiments laid out to best control local variation. Additionally, experiments frequently involve two phases, each contributing environmental sources of variation. For example, in a former experiment we conducted to evaluate production related traits in Pelargonium zonale, there were two consecutive phases, each performed in a different greenhouse. Phase one involved the propagation of the breeding strains to obtain the stem cutting count, and phase two involved the assessment of root formation. The evaluation of the former study raised questions regarding options for improving the experimental layout: (i Is there a disadvantage to using exactly the same design in both phases? (ii Instead of generating a separate layout for each phase, can the design be optimized across both phases, such that the mean variance of a pair-wise treatment difference (MVD can be decreased? To answer these questions, alternative approaches were explored to generate two-phase designs either in phase-wise order (Option 1 or across phases (Option 2. In Option 1 we considered the scenarios (i using in both phases the same experimental design and (ii randomizing each phase separately. In Option 2, we considered the scenarios (iii generating a single design with eight replicates and splitting these among the two phases, (iv separating the block structure across phases by dummy coding, and (v design generation with optimal alignment of block units in the two phases. In both options, we considered the same or different block structures in each phase. The designs were evaluated by the MVD obtained by the intra-block analysis and the joint inter-block–intra-block analysis. The smallest MVD was most frequently obtained for designs generated across phases rather than for each phase separately, in particular when both phases of the design were

  10. Identifying Effective Design Approaches to Allocate Genotypes in Two-Phase Designs: A Case Study in Pelargonium zonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Heike; Boehm, Robert; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Robust phenotypic data allow adequate statistical analysis and are crucial for any breeding purpose. Such data is obtained from experiments laid out to best control local variation. Additionally, experiments frequently involve two phases, each contributing environmental sources of variation. For example, in a former experiment we conducted to evaluate production related traits in Pelargonium zonale , there were two consecutive phases, each performed in a different greenhouse. Phase one involved the propagation of the breeding strains to obtain the stem cutting count, and phase two involved the assessment of root formation. The evaluation of the former study raised questions regarding options for improving the experimental layout: (i) Is there a disadvantage to using exactly the same design in both phases? (ii) Instead of generating a separate layout for each phase, can the design be optimized across both phases, such that the mean variance of a pair-wise treatment difference (MVD) can be decreased? To answer these questions, alternative approaches were explored to generate two-phase designs either in phase-wise order (Option 1) or across phases (Option 2). In Option 1 we considered the scenarios (i) using in both phases the same experimental design and (ii) randomizing each phase separately. In Option 2, we considered the scenarios (iii) generating a single design with eight replicates and splitting these among the two phases, (iv) separating the block structure across phases by dummy coding, and (v) design generation with optimal alignment of block units in the two phases. In both options, we considered the same or different block structures in each phase. The designs were evaluated by the MVD obtained by the intra-block analysis and the joint inter-block-intra-block analysis. The smallest MVD was most frequently obtained for designs generated across phases rather than for each phase separately, in particular when both phases of the design were separated with a

  11. Alternative bipolar plates design and manufacturing for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Chuan; Norhamidi Muhamad; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates is one of the important components in fuel cell stack, it comprise up to 80% of the stack volume. Traditionally, these plates have been fabricated from graphite, owing to its chemical nobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity; but these plates are brittle and relatively thick. Therefore increasing the stack volume and size. Alternatives to graphite are carbon-carbon composite, carbon-polymer composite and metal (aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and nickel based alloy). The use of coated and uncoated metal bipolar plates has received attention recently due to the simplicity of plate manufacturing. The thin nature of the metal substrate allows for smaller stack design with reduced weight. Lightweight coated metals as alternative to graphite plate is being developed. Beside the traditional method of machining and slurry molding, metal foam for bipolar plates fabrication seems to be a good alternative. The plates will be produced with titanium powder by Powder Metallurgy method using space holders technique to produce the meal foam flow-field. This work intends to facilitate the materials and manufacturing process requirements to produce cost effective foamed bipolar plates for fuel cell

  12. Creating An Alternative Design for Asita Corporate Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Elise

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find the solution to the problem outlined, which is to create an alternative design for corporate identity of ASITA. ASITA is a non-profit organization to foster tours and travel agencies in Indonesia. The writer conducted interview to the ASITA Jakarta Chapter, which was appointed to represent ASITA in providing the data needed by the writer. The writer interviewed the advisor of the organization, which had once served as chairperson of ASITA. The result of the research is new corporate identity system of ASITA based on a concept that ASITA as an organization, serves as a compass that guides and assists in every direction. The writer found that corporate identity is an important element to define an organization as well as giving impact on its first impression. To create good corporate identity, several things such as elements of design, color, typography, etc need to be put into attention. 

  13. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N. Erb; S. Miller; V. Vallikat

    1999-01-01

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  14. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.W.; Geuther, W.J.; Strankman, M.R.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.D.; Black, D.M.; Pottmeyer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  15. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  16. Liverpool Telescope 2: beginning the design phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, Christopher M.; Steele, Iain A.; Barnsley, Robert M.; Bates, Stuart D.; Bode, Mike F.; Clay, Neil R.; Collins, Chris A.; Jermak, Helen E.; Knapen, Johan H.; Marchant, Jon M.; Mottram, Chris J.; Piascik, Andrzej S.; Smith, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic 2-metre telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004, and currently seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient followup and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Work has begun on a successor facility with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2'. We are entering a new era of time domain astronomy with new discovery facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the next generation of optical survey facilities such as LSST are set to revolutionise the field of transient science in particular. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time, and will be designed to meet the challenges of this new era. Following a conceptual design phase, we are about to begin the detailed design which will lead towards the start of construction in 2018, for first light ˜2022. In this paper we provide an overview of the facility and an update on progress.

  17. HLW Salt Disposition Alternatives Identification Preconceptual Phase I Summary Report (Including Attachments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the process used by the Team to systematically develop alternative methods or technologies for final disposition of HLW salt. Additionally, this report summarizes the process utilized to reduce the total list of identified alternatives to an ''initial list'' for further evaluation. This report constitutes completion of the team charter major milestone Phase I Deliverable

  18. Calculation of drift seepage for alternative emplacement designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Birkholzer, Jens

    1999-01-01

    The calculations presented in this report are performed to obtain seepage rates into drift and boreholes for two alternative designs of drift and waste emplacement at Yucca Mountain. The two designs are defined according to the Scope of Work 14012021M1, activity 399621, drafted October 6, 1998, and further refined in a conference telephone call on October 13, 1998, between Mark Balady, Jim Blink, Rob Howard and Chin-Fu Tsang. The 2 designs considered are: (1) Design A--Horizontal boreholes 1.0 m in diameter on both sides of the drift, with each borehole 8 m long and inclined to the drift axis by 30 degrees. The pillar between boreholes, measured parallel to the drift axis, is 3.3 m. In the current calculations, a simplified model of an isolated horizontal borehole 8 m long will be simulated. The horizontal borehole will be located in a heterogeneous fracture continuum representing the repository layer. Three different realizations will be taken from the heterogeneous field, representing three different locations in the rock. Seepage for each realization is calculated as a function of the percolation flux. Design B--Vertical boreholes, 1.0 m in diameter and 8.0 m deep, drilled from the bottom of an excavated 8.0 m diameter drift. Again, the drift with the vertical borehole will be assumed to be located in a heterogeneous fracture continuum, representing the rock at the repository horizon. Two realizations are considered, and seepage is calculated for the 8-m drift with and without the vertical 1-m borehole at its bottom

  19. Aqueous phase oxidation techniques as an alternative to incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Adamson, M.G.; Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Chiba, Z.; Gregg, D.W.; Wang, F.T.

    1992-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has three aqueous phase techniques under development for oxidation of high value or high risk waste steams. One is direct electrochemical oxidation and one is mediated electrochemical oxidation utilizing regenerable, strongly oxidizing cations such as Ag(II), Co (III), Ce(IV), etc. These cations can either attack oxidizable materials directly and/or indirectly via first reacting with water to generate OH radicals which then attack the oxidizable materials. The third system utilizes H 2 O 2 and UV light to generate OH radicals directly which in turn attack the oxidizable materials. All systems have the advantage of a chemical off-switch in that when the power is turned off, the reaction quickly subsides. All systems operate with low concentrations (typically <5 wt %) of oxidizable materials, therefore, the stored energy for possible run-away reactions is very low. 15 figures, 22 references

  20. Assessment of alternative vessel and blanket design on ITER operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavinato, M., E-mail: mario.cavinato@f4e.europa.e [FUSION FOR ENERGY Joint Undertaking, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Portone, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R. [FUSION FOR ENERGY Joint Undertaking, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, DIMET, Universita degli Studi di Napoli (Italy); Artaserse, G. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, DIMET, Universita degli Studi di Reggio Calabria (Italy); Mattei, M. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, DIAM, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Roma 29, Aversa, CE 81031 Italy (Italy); Pironti, A. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, DIMET, Universita degli Studi di Napoli (Italy); Villone, F. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, DIMET, Universita degli Studi di Cassino (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    In the framework of the ITER project, an investigation has been conducted on an alternative vessel and blanket design, aimed at reducing cost and production risk. The modifications proposed have a strong impact on plasma control since they affect the main conducting structures surrounding the plasma column, providing passive stabilization but at the same time shielding the field generated by the active coils to control the plasma motion and shape. An extensive analysis was performed to assess the plasma vertical controllability and the modified requirements to the in-vessel vertical stability coils system as well as to the external Poloidal Field coils system. A similar analysis was aimed at assessing the performance of the shape control system in presence of the modified structures. The effect on plasma breakdown was also evaluated in terms of maximum initial loop voltage, quality of magnetic null and the flux loss related to the breakdown delay that was quantified under the same hypothesis employed by ITER for the baseline design. Furthermore, the modified design presents issues for the magnetic diagnostic system, related to the shielding of the probes by the eddy currents, which were analysed with a 3D model. The results of the analyses performed have some general interest in particular regarding the influence on plasma stability of 3D structures with close proximity to the plasma. The present paper aims at giving an overview of the analyses that have been carried out and a summary of the results in terms of impact of the modified design on plasma control and scenario, and in general an evaluation of the role of passive structure in plasma vertical stability and shape control.

  1. Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design. Attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    After presentation of the foregoing paper by Dr. Nelson Hanan of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) proposing an alternative LEU core with one fuel ring and a power level of 33 MW, a presentation was made by Dr. Klaus Boning of the Technical University of Munich comparing the FRM-II HEU design with an LEU design by Tlm that had two fuel rings and a power level of 40 MW. Dr. Boning raised the following issues concerning the use of LEU fuel in FRM-H reactor designs: (1) qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, (2) gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, (3) the radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents, and (4) cost and schedule. These issues are addressed in this Attachment. In his presentation, Dr. Hanan mentioned that ANL was also investigating other LEU designs. This work led to a second alternative LEU design that has the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 /s peak neutron flux in the reflector) and the same fuel lifetime (50 full power days) as the HEU design, but uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of only 4.5 g/cm 3 . This design was achieved by using a fuel plate that has a fuel meat thickness of 0.76 mm, a cladding thickness of 0.38 mm, and a water channel gap of 2.2 mm. A comparison is shown of the main characteristics of this second alternative LEU design with those of the FRM-II HEU design. The ANL core again has one fuel ring with the same dimensions. With this LEU design, a two stage process is no longer necessary because LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 is fully qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II

  2. Designing a suitable alternative to oil-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgate, M.; Irwin, G.; Cousins, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on wireline logging problems which have plagued the reservoir section of development wells in Welton oil field in the East Midlands area of England. And resulting incomplete or poor-quality logging data spurred a look at ways of improving hole conditions. Oil-based muds often are seen as the ideal solution, but they are expensive. Their use also commits the operator to additional costs from safeguarding personnel and limiting environmental impact. Such expense was initiated to develop a cheaper, more environmentally friendly, water-based alternative. A wide-ranging review was carried out to determine the most cost-effective options to obtain reservoir information. This included an examination of lithology, casing design, bit selection, hydraulics, logging requirements and techniques, and development of a suitable water-based mud. This holistic approach was seen as the most effective method of avoiding use of oil-based mud. After successful experimentation, a water-based mud was used in subsequent wells at Welton. A high-salt mud system and the drilling principles discussed here produced significant improvement in hole conditions. Application of a holistic approach led to many operational improvements. For instance, the casing shoe was deepened to case off the most troublesome zone in the local Edlington formation. There also was a better awareness of alternative logging techniques, the commercial factors that influenced their use and their operational and technical limitations. Logging problems were reduced but not eliminated. Where there were problems, application of improved techniques minimized their impact. Last, but not least, there was an unexpected spin-off in that the bit chosen to reduce hole erosion also reduced the time taken to drill the section

  3. NASA Alternative Orion Small Cell Battery Design Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Chuck

    2016-01-01

    and analysis were completed and reviewed for endorsement by NASA Engineering and Safety Center team members. All Key Test Objectives were met and the small cell design alternative was demonstrated and selected to be a feasible drop in replacement for the MPCV Orion CM Battery for EM2 mission.

  4. Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, S.C.; Hanan, N.A.; Matos, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The FRM-II reactor design of the Technical University of Munich has a compact core that utilizes fuel plates containing highly-enriched uranium (HEU, 93%). This paper presents an alternative core design utilizing low-enriched uranium (LEU, 3 that provides nearly the same neutron flux for experiments as the HEU design, but has a less favourable fuel cycle economy. If an LEU fuel with a uranium density of 6.0 - 6.5 g/cm 3 . were developed, the alternative design would provide the same neutron flux and use the same number of cores per year as the HEU design. The results of this study show that there are attractive possibilities for using LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II. Further optimization of the LEU design and near-term availability of LEU fuel with a uranium density greater than 4.8 g/cm 3 would enhance the performance of the LEU core. The REKIR Program is ready to exchange information with the Technical University of Munich to resolve any differences that may exist and to identify design modifications that would optimize reactor performance utilizing LEU fuel. (author)

  5. Challenges in thermal design of industrial single-phase power inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of thermal aspects in design process of an industrial single-phase inverter, choice of its topology and components. Stringent design inputs like very high overload level, demand for natural cooling and very wide input voltage range have made conventional circuit topology inappropriate therefore asking for alternative solution. Different power losses calculations in semiconductors are performed and compared, outlining the guidelines how to choose the final topology. Some recommendations in power magnetic components design are given. Based on the final project, a 20kVA single-phase inverter for thermal power plant supervisory and control system is designed and commissioned.

  6. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  7. Design of clinical trials Phase I and II with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, C.A.; Soroa, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    We presented some usual designs for clinical studies in Phase I and Phase II. For Phase I we considered the 3 + 3 Classic design, designs with accelerated titration and those with dose escalation schemes with overdose control (EWOC). For Phase II designs with efficacy outcomes are presented. The design proposed by Fleming is discussed as well as those with inclusion of patients in two stages: Gehan’s design and the Optimal two–stage Simon’s design. We also discussed the design of combined endpoints of efficacy and safety of Bryant and Day with an application example of therapeutically Lu-177. Finally some proposals for phase II trials with control group are considered. (authors) [es

  8. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Design Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch vehicle subsystem preliminary design tools that are fast, accurate, and seamlessly integrated into an electronic design and optimization environment have...

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative fuels and motive designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This project was funded by the Federal Railroad Administration to better understand the potential cost and benefits of using alternative fuels for U.S. freight and passenger locomotive operations. The framework for a decision model was developed by T...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions of alternative pavement designs: framework development and illustrative application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Qingbin; Schwartz, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pavement rehabilitation is carbon intensive and the choice of pavement type is a critical factor in controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The existing body of knowledge is not able to support decision-making on pavement choice due to a lack of consensus on the system boundaries, the functional units and the estimation periods. Excessive data requirements further inhibit the generalization of the existing methodologies for design evaluation at the early planning stage. This study proposes a practical life-cycle GHG estimation approach, which is arguably effective to benchmark pavement emissions given project bid tabulation. A set of case studies conducted for this study suggest that recycled asphalt pavement (e.g., foam stabilized base (FSB), and warm mix asphalt (WMA)) would prevent up to 50% of GHGs from the initial construction phase. However, from a life-cycle perspective, pavement emissions are dictated largely by the traffic characteristics and the analysis period for the use phase. The benefits from using recycled materials (e.g., FSB) are likely to diminish if the recycled products do not perform as well as those properly proportioned with less recycled materials, or if the recycled materials are locally unavailable. When the AADT reaches 10,000, use phase releases more than 97% of the life cycle emissions and the emissions difference among alternative designs will be within 1%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Technical report on LWR design decision methodology. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Energy Incorporated (EI) was selected by Sandia Laboratories to develop and test on LWR design decision methodology. Contract Number 42-4229 provided funding for Phase I of this work. This technical report on LWR design decision methodology documents the activities performed under that contract. Phase I was a short-term effort to thoroughly review the curret LWR design decision process to assure complete understanding of current practices and to establish a well defined interface for development of initial quantitative design guidelines

  12. Design of Phase II Non-inferiority Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the development of inexpensive treatment regimens and less invasive surgical procedures, we are confronted with non-inferiority study objectives. A non-inferiority phase III trial requires a roughly four times larger sample size than that of a similar standard superiority trial. Because of the large required sample size, we often face feasibility issues to open a non-inferiority trial. Furthermore, due to lack of phase II non-inferiority trial design methods, we do not have an opportunity to investigate the efficacy of the experimental therapy through a phase II trial. As a result, we often fail to open a non-inferiority phase III trial and a large number of non-inferiority clinical questions still remain unanswered. In this paper, we want to develop some designs for non-inferiority randomized phase II trials with feasible sample sizes. At first, we review a design method for non-inferiority phase III trials. Subsequently, we propose three different designs for non-inferiority phase II trials that can be used under different settings. Each method is demonstrated with examples. Each of the proposed design methods is shown to require a reasonable sample size for non-inferiority phase II trials. The three different non-inferiority phase II trial designs are used under different settings, but require similar sample sizes that are typical for phase II trials.

  13. Rapid Robot Design Validation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  14. A phase one AR/C system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachmar, Peter M.; Polutchko, Robert J.; Matusky, Martin; Chu, William; Jackson, William; Montez, Moises

    1991-01-01

    The Phase One AR&C System Design integrates an evolutionary design based on the legacy of previous mission successes, flight tested components from manned Rendezvous and Proximity Operations (RPO) space programs, and additional AR&C components validated using proven methods. The Phase One system has a modular, open architecture with the standardized interfaces proposed for Space Station Freedom system architecture.

  15. System design description for master equipment list, phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    This System Design Description (SDD) is for the Master Equipment List Phase I (MEL). It has been prepared following the WI-IC-CM-3-10, ''Software Practices,'' (Ref. 6). This SDD describes the internal design for implementation of the MEL Phase I

  16. Design of Versatile Food Extruder, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for food processing equipment for crews on long-term Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) missions. It is proposed to design a food...

  17. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE PAYMENT DESIGNS FOR FARMLAND DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Steven D.

    1999-01-01

    Four alternative payment rules were examined to evaluate their ability to accomplish the objectives of the development rights purchase program. Paying the true economic value for the development rights does not allow the program to target high quality agricultural land. Modifying the payment strategy by offering a minimum payment will provide some extra incentive for high quality agricultural land in areas with little development pressure, but will provide little help in areas with high devel...

  18. Values-led Participatory Design as a pursuit of meaningful alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Tuck Wah; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative...... conceptualizations for IT that are particularly meaningful to them. However, how PD works with values in the design process has not been made explicit. In this paper, we aim to (i) explicate this values-led PD approach, (ii) illustrate how this approach can lead to outcomes that are meaningful alternatives, and (iii...

  19. Using the Phase Space to Design Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Architecture that is responsive, adaptive, or interactive can contain active architectural elements or robotic sensor-actuator systems. The consideration of architectural robotic elements that utilize distributed control and distributed communication allows for self-organization, emergence...... with materializations left by robot swarms or elements, rather than robots' internal states. We detail a case study examination of design methodology using the formation space concept for assessment and decision-making in the design of active architectural artifacts......., and evolution on site in real-time. The potential complexity of behaviors in such architectural robotic systems requires design methodology able to encompass a range of possible outcomes, rather than a single solution. We present an approach of adopting an aspect of complexity science and applying...

  20. LWR design decision methodology: Phase II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Techniques were identified to augment existing design process at the component and system level in order to optimize cost and safety between alternative system designs. The method was demonstrated using the Surry Low Pressure Injection System (LPIS). Three possible backfit options were analyzed for the Surry LPIS, assessing the safety level of each option and estimating the acquisition and installation costs for each

  1. LWR design decision methodology: Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Techniques were identified to augment existing design process at the component and system level in order to optimize cost and safety between alternative system designs. The method was demonstrated using the Surry Low Pressure Injection System (LPIS). Three possible backfit options were analyzed for the Surry LPIS, assessing the safety level of each option and estimating the acquisition and installation costs for each. (DLC)

  2. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  3. Regulatory design governing progression of population growth phases in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustino Martínez-Antonio

    Full Text Available It has long been noted that batch cultures inoculated with resting bacteria exhibit a progression of growth phases traditionally labeled lag, exponential, pre-stationary and stationary. However, a detailed molecular description of the mechanisms controlling the transitions between these phases is lacking. A core circuit, formed by a subset of regulatory interactions involving five global transcription factors (FIS, HNS, IHF, RpoS and GadX, has been identified by correlating information from the well- established transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli and genome-wide expression data from cultures in these different growth phases. We propose a functional role for this circuit in controlling progression through these phases. Two alternative hypotheses for controlling the transition between the growth phases are first, a continuous graded adjustment to changing environmental conditions, and second, a discontinuous hysteretic switch at critical thresholds between growth phases. We formulate a simple mathematical model of the core circuit, consisting of differential equations based on the power-law formalism, and show by mathematical and computer-assisted analysis that there are critical conditions among the parameters of the model that can lead to hysteretic switch behavior, which--if validated experimentally--would suggest that the transitions between different growth phases might be analogous to cellular differentiation. Based on these provocative results, we propose experiments to test the alternative hypotheses.

  4. Regulatory design governing progression of population growth phases in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; Lomnitz, Jason G; Sandoval, Santiago; Aldana, Maximino; Savageau, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    It has long been noted that batch cultures inoculated with resting bacteria exhibit a progression of growth phases traditionally labeled lag, exponential, pre-stationary and stationary. However, a detailed molecular description of the mechanisms controlling the transitions between these phases is lacking. A core circuit, formed by a subset of regulatory interactions involving five global transcription factors (FIS, HNS, IHF, RpoS and GadX), has been identified by correlating information from the well- established transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli and genome-wide expression data from cultures in these different growth phases. We propose a functional role for this circuit in controlling progression through these phases. Two alternative hypotheses for controlling the transition between the growth phases are first, a continuous graded adjustment to changing environmental conditions, and second, a discontinuous hysteretic switch at critical thresholds between growth phases. We formulate a simple mathematical model of the core circuit, consisting of differential equations based on the power-law formalism, and show by mathematical and computer-assisted analysis that there are critical conditions among the parameters of the model that can lead to hysteretic switch behavior, which--if validated experimentally--would suggest that the transitions between different growth phases might be analogous to cellular differentiation. Based on these provocative results, we propose experiments to test the alternative hypotheses.

  5. Design and Analysis of Multi-Phase BLDC Motors for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Boztas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design and analysis of multi-phase brushless direct current (BLDC motor for electric vehicles (EV. In this work, hub-wheels having 110Nm, 900rpm rated values have been designed for the proposed EV. This EV can produce 440 Nm without using transmission, differential and other mechanical components which have very high losses due to the mechanical fraction. The motors to be used in the EV have been designed as 3-, 5- and 7-phase by Infolytica/Motor Solve Software to compare their performances at the same load conditions. The same rotor geometry has been utilized for the motors. However, slot numbers and dimensions of the stator have been determined by considering the motor phase number. Performance curves of phase-currents, output powers, torques, efficiencies and power factors have been presented for these motors at the same operating conditions. It can be possible to use lower power switches in motor drive system thanks to the phase current reduction since the phase currents decrease proportionally to motor phase number. This work shows that the multi-phase BLDC motors are a good alternative in order to obtain lower torque and lower power inverter structure than the 3-phase BLDC motors which are used as standard.

  6. Design Anthropology, Emerging Technologies and Alternative Computational Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    Emerging technologies are providing a new field for design anthropological inquiry that unite experiences, imaginaries and materialities in complex way and demands new approaches to developing sustainable computational futures.......Emerging technologies are providing a new field for design anthropological inquiry that unite experiences, imaginaries and materialities in complex way and demands new approaches to developing sustainable computational futures....

  7. Schema Design Alternatives for Multi-Granular Data Warehousing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Data warehousing is widely used in industry for reporting and analysis of huge volumes of data at different levels of detail. In general, data warehouses use standard dimensional schema designs to organize their data. However, current data warehousing schema designs fall short in their ability...

  8. Alternative designs of a superconducting synchronous generator: the Southampton approach

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, K.F.; Lukasik, B.; Sykulski, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes various designs undertaken at the University of Southampton for building both cored and coreless superconducting synchronous generators using high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. An overview of electromagnetic and mechanical design issues is presented and scalability is considered. Results are included for the full (original) size machine and extended to a double size unit.

  9. Modeling and design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Hodges, George; Piccione, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Issues related to the design of biphasic (liquid) catalytic reaction operations are discussed. A chemical system involving the reaction of an organic-phase soluble reactant (A) with an aqueous-phase soluble reactant (B) in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) is modeled and based on it......, some of the design issues related to improved reaction operation are analyzed. Since the solubility of the different forms of the PTC in the organic solvent affects ultimately the catalyst partition coefficients, therefore, the organic solvent plays an important role in the design of PTC-based reacting...

  10. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M and O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M and O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M and O and DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M and O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, ''Performance

  11. Visual Geolocations. Repurposing online data to design alternative views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Colombo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Data produced by humans and machines is more and more heterogeneous, visual, and location based. This availability inspired in the last years a number of reactions from researchers, designers, and artists that, using different visual manipulations techniques, have attempted at repurposing this material to add meaning and design new perspectives with specific intentions. Three different approaches are described here: the design of interfaces for exploring satellite footage in novel ways, the analysis of urban esthetics through the visual manipulation of collections of user-generated contents, and the enrichment of geo-based datasets with the selection and rearrangement of web imagery.

  12. Standard and alternative landfill capping design in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Franz-Georg; Mueller, Werner W.

    2004-01-01

    Engineered capping systems are in most cases an indispensable and often the only efficient component required by the long-term safety concept for landfills, mine tailings tips and contaminated land. In Germany the composite liner is the main component of standard landfill cappings for municipal and hazardous waste landfills and the compacted clay liner (CCL) for landfills for inert or low-contamination waste. The composite liner is a technically highly effective but very expensive system. Research and experience has given rise to concern about the proper long-term performance of a conventional single CCL as a landfill capping. Therefore, alternative capping systems are discussed and applied for landfills and for the containment of contaminated sites. This paper gives an overview on various alternative engineered cappings and suitable systems for capping reflecting the state of the art and the expert view in Germany. According to the European Council Directive on the landfill of waste an impermeable mineral layer is recommended for the surface sealing of non-hazardous landfills and a composition of artificial sealing liner and impermeable mineral layer for hazardous landfills. In both cases a drainage layer thickness of at least 0.5 m is suggested. These recommendations should be interpreted flexibly and to some extent modified in the light of the experience and results presented in this paper

  13. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997)

  14. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-10-02

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997).

  15. Alternative designs of high-temperature superconducting synchronous generators

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, K. F.; Lukasik, B.; Sykulski, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the different possible designs of both cored and coreless superconducting synchronous generators using high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes, with particular reference to demonstrators built at the University of Southampton using BiSCCO conductors. An overview of the electromagnetic, thermal, and mechanical issues is provided, the advantages and drawbacks of particular designs are highlighted, the need for compromises is explained, and practical solutions are offer...

  16. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design with Transition Prediction, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enhance aerodynamic design capabilities, Desktop Aeronautics proposes to significantly improve upon the integration (performed in Phase 1) of a new sweep/taper...

  17. Contact Stress Design Parameters for Titanium Bearings, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air-Lock's Phase I effort tested the effects of ball induced contact stresses on Titanium bearing races. The contact stress design limit that would achieve a...

  18. Design and Implementation of GSM Based Transformer Phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the design and implementation of a transformer phase monitoring system, which continuously check for blown fuses on each phases of the distribution transformer was carried out. The system promptly reports any transformer with blown J&P fuse via a preprogrammed SMS which will state the location of the ...

  19. Reliability improvement through alternative designs-A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Chattopadhyay, Gopi; Kumar, Uday

    2007-01-01

    In today's competitive world, reliability of equipment is extremely important to maintain quality and delivery deadlines. This is achieved by using proper maintenance and design changes for unreliable subsystems and components of a complex system. It is significant to develop a strategy for maintenance, replacement and design changes related to those subsystems and components. An analysis of down time along with causes is essential to identify the unreliable components and subsystems. This paper presents an analysis of failure data of solenoid coils of automatic internal grinding machine used in a bearing manufacturing plant. It analyses various replacement and change of design options such as introduction of pneumatic system in place of electromagnetic solenoids for improvement of reliability of the plunger movement mechanism

  20. Ergonomics intervention on an alternative design of a spinal board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Susanti, Lusi; Rahmayanti, Dina

    2017-09-01

    A spinal board is the evacuation tool of first aid to help the injured spinal cord. The existing spinal board has several weaknesses, both in terms of user comfort and the effectiveness and efficiency of the evacuation process. This study designs an ergonomic spinal board using the quality function deployment approach. A preliminary survey was conducted through direct observation and interviews with volunteers from the Indonesian Red Cross. Data gathered were translated into a questionnaire and answered by 47 participants in West Sumatra. The results indicate that the selection of materials, the application of strap systems as well as the addition of features are very important in designing an ergonomic spinal board. The data were used in designing an ergonomic spinal board. The use of anthropometric data ensures that this product can accommodate safety and comfort when immobilized, as well as the flexibility and speed of the rescue evacuation process.

  1. Developing an energy design tool: Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidell, J.A.; Deringer, J.D.

    1987-02-01

    This report documents the planning phase of a proposed four-phase project for creating computer software to provide energy expertise in a manageable form to architects and engineers - thereby decreasing energy use in new buildings. The government sponsored software would be integrated with commercially developed software for use in the design of buildings. The result would be an integrated software package to aid the designer in the building design process and to provide expert insight into the energy related implications of a proposed design.

  2. Positron computed tomography. Present and future design alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Sung-Cheng Huang; Kuhl, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    There are six commercial companies in the United States of America, Canada, Europe and Asia that have or are developing PCT programs. Although positron computed tomography (PCT) system designs are still evolving and all the complex issues of system optimization are still not completely defined, some design concepts have achieved general acceptance. Circumferential designs employing hexagonal, octagonal or circular geometries are preferred since they maximize the tomographic plane efficiency. Bismuth germanate has become the detector of choice because of its high efficiency (intrinsic photopeak and geometric through high packing densities) when the small detectors required for high spatial resolution are used. Caesium fluoride detectors are also being investigated because of their short coincidence time resolution and potential for time of flight measurements. Multiplane systems, consisting of stacked single plane geometries, have been developed to provide higher overall organ efficiency, with some compromise in image quality compared with a single plane system. The most poorly characterized aspect of multiplane systems is the slit and septa shielding design that has a large impact on random and scatter coincidences, count-rate capability, efficiency and uniformity of spatial resolution. Present PCT systems have spatial resolutions in the tomographic plane of about 8 to 17 mm and axial resolution of about 12 to 18 mm. PCT systems that have been or are now being developed are providing the means to demonstrate the unique capability of PCT to provide quantitative measurements of local biochemical and functional processes in man

  3. Design element alternatives for stress-management intervention websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Reg A; Gatien, Gary; Hagerty, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members learn how to manage mild to moderate stress and depressive symptoms using a self-help intervention with progress tracking and 24/7 availablility. It was designed using web-based, health-management intervention design elements that have been proven effective and users reported they prefer. These included interactivity, self-pacing, and pleasing aesthetics. Users learned how to manage stress by accessing modules they choose, and by practicing proven stress management strategies interactively immediately after login. Test results of Stress Gym with Navy members demonstrated that it was effective, with significant decreases in reported perceived stress levels from baseline to follow-up assessment. Stress Gym used design elements that may serve as a model for future websites to emulate and improve upon, and as a template against which to compare and contrast the design and functionality of future online, health-intervention websites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An alternative design concept in reverse osmosis desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Hilgendorff, W.; Kaschemekat, J.

    1976-01-01

    A highly adaptable plate system for reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration with easily accessible flat membranes is introduced, employing a straight-channel construction of plastic components, designed to tolerate comparatively bold operations conditions at the calculated expense of membrane service life. Pilot installations are illustrated. (orig.) [de

  5. Alternate Materials In Design Of Radioactive Material Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  6. RIP Input Tables From Wapdeg For LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon; K.G. Mast; J.H. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. 'Software Routine Report for WAPDEG' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages over which they are placed. The waste packages are composed of two corrosion resistant materials (CRM) barriers. The outer barrier is composed of 2 cm of Alloy 22 and the inner barrier is composed of 1.5 cm of titanium grade 7. The WAPDEG simulation results are post-processed into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative IIIb

  7. The active phasing experiment: Part II. Design and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Araujo, C.; Brast, R.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Noethe, L.; Sedghi, B.; Surdej, I.; Wilhelm, R.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Langlois, M.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the Active Phasing Experiment, designed under the lead of ESO, is to validate wavefront control concepts for ELT class telescopes. This instrument includes an Active Segmented Mirror, located in a pupil image. It will be mounted at a Nasmyth focus of one of the Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. APE contains four different types of phasing sensors, which are developed by Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Arcetri, Instituto Astrofisica Canarias, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille and ESO. These phasing sensors can be compared simultaneously under identical optical and environmental conditions. All sensors receive telecentric F/15 beams with identical optical quality and intensity. Each phasing sensor can measure segmentation errors of the active segmented mirror and correct them in closed loop. The phasing process is supervised by an Internal Metrology system developed by FOGALE Nanotech and capable of measuring piston steps with an accuracy of a few nanometers. The Active Phasing Experiment is equipped with a turbulence generator to simulate atmospheric seeing between 0.45 and 0.85 arcsec in the laboratory. In addition, the Active Phasing Experiment is designed to control simultaneously with the phasing corrections the guiding and the active optics of one of the VLT Unit Telescopes. This activity is supported by the European Community (Framework Programme 6, ELT Design Study, contract No 011863).

  8. Pre-design mixer-settler based on phase inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widiatmo, Djarot S.W

    1998-01-01

    The mixer settler was designed to extract uranium from organic phase by n-Dodecane and to separate heavy metal from liquid waste. The mixer settler was designed to save solvent without reducing the extraction efficiency. Extraction efficiency depend on : two phase dispersion on mixing, the type of droplet formation and completeness phase separation. The mixer settler has three main part i.e. mixer chamber, droplet formation device and phase inversion column. Mixer chamber was operated in laminar mixing, the total flow rate 200 ml.second -1 . The mixer chamber dimensions was 5 cm diameter and 7 cm height. It was completed with paddle mixer 3 cm diameter, 1 cm height and the speed rotation was 300 rpm. The droplet formation device was perforated plate 5 cm diameter with 1 mm holes. Phase Inversion column dimensions was 5 cm diameter and 50 cm height. (author)

  9. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  10. Design study of CEPC Alternating Magnetic Field Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, T; Cai, Y; Cui, X; Gao, J; Koratzinos, M; Su, F; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Xiao, M; Zhang, C

    2017-01-01

    The CEPC is a next generation circular e+e- collider proposed by China. The design of the full energy booster ring of the CEPC is especially challenging. The ejected beam energy is 120 GeV, but that of the injected beam is only 6 GeV. In a conventional approach, the low magnetic field of the main dipole magnets creates problems. We propose operating the booster ring as a large wiggler at low beam energies and as a normal ring at high energies to avoid the problem of very low dipole magnet fields.

  11. Electric market models, competitive model and alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnedillo, O.

    2007-01-01

    Almost ten years after the liberalization of the Spanish electric system, its market design has remained basically unchanged. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider whether the current model continues to be adequate or whether it should be changed. However, although the current model is far from the absolute optimum, it is suited to the current state of the Spanish system. Only some improvements, such as the reform of the capacity guarantee payment can be undertaken immediately. It will only be possible to undertake other improvements as distribution companies cover all of their electricity needs in forward contracts acquired through a competitive process. (Author)

  12. Alternative Design for Visual Identity of Yayasan Batik Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Putri Nugroho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to create a logo as the main visual identity. It is together with the graphic elements to support the overall visual identity of the organization and also apply the corporate identity to various applications to effectively foster the professional and trustworthy image of the organization as the foundation in Indonesia aiming for preserving and advancing Batik as the national asset. The writer used qualitative and quantitative method. Qualitative method included Face-to-face interview with the vice secretary of YBI, e-mail interview with the previous logo designer and direct survey to Textile Museum Jakarta and Batik Gallery; and Quantitative method through online survey. The result of the project is a new visual identity for Yayasan Batik Indonesia, which portrays its vision and mission. Design is the core in attaining an advantageous visual identity that could portray the image of the respected organization. When a consistency is applied through the whole visual identity, professional character of the organization is achieved. 

  13. The start up as a phase of architectural design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iara Sousa; Lima, Francisco de Paula Antunes; Duarte, Francisco José de Castro Moura

    2012-01-01

    Alterations made in the architectural design can be considered as a continuous process, from its conception to the moment a built environment is already in use. This article focuses on the "moving phase", which is the initial moment of the environment occupation and the start-up of services. It aims to show that the continuity of ergonomics interventions during the "moving phase" or start up may reveal the built environment inadequacies; clearly showing needs not met by the design and allowing making instant decisions to solve non-foreseen problems. The results have revealed some lessons experienced by users during a critical stage not usually included in the design process.

  14. An Alternative View of Some FIA Sample Design and Analysis Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen

    2005-01-01

    Sample design and analysis decisions are the result of compromises and inputs from many sources. The end result would likely change if different individuals or groups were involved in the planning process. Discussed here are some alternatives to the procedures that are currently being used for the annual inventory. The purpose is to indicate that alternatives exist and...

  15. Providing training enhances the biomechanical improvements of an alternative computer mouse design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, A.; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Odell, D.; Dennerlein, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    To determine if an alternative mouse promotes more neutral postures and decreases forearm muscle activity and if training enhances these biomechanical benefits is the purpose of the study. Computer mouse use is a risk factor for developing musculoskeletal disorders; alternative mouse designs can

  16. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: The case study of a new Italian incineration line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scipioni, A.; Mazzi, A.; Niero, M.; Boatto, T.

    2009-01-01

    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).

  17. Phase diagrams of a spin-1 Ising superlattice with alternating transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Lo Russo, S.; Mattei, G.; Ainane, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of alternating transverse fields Ω a and Ω b on the critical behavior of an alternating spin-1 Ising superlattice are studied within an effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the single-site spin correlation. Critical temperatures are calculated as a function of the thickness of the superlattice and the strength of the transverse field. Depending on the values of the transverse fields Ω a and Ω b , the critical temperature can increase or decrease with increasing the thickness of the film, such result is not obtained in the uniform transverse field case (Ω a = Ω b ). Furthermore, for each thickness L of the film, a long range ordered phase persist at low temperature for selected values of the transverse field Ω a and arbitrary values of Ω b . The effects of interlayer and intralayer exchange interactions are also examined

  18. Phase diagrams of a spin-1 Ising superlattice with alternating transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.

    2000-09-01

    The effects of alternating transverse fields Ω a and Ω b on the critical behavior of an alternating spin-1 Ising superlattice are studied within an effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the single-site spin correlations. Critical temperatures are calculated as a function of the thickness of the superlattice and the strength of the transverse field. Depending on the values of the transverse fields Ω a and Ω b , the critical temperature can increase or decrease with increasing the thickness of the film, such result is not obtained in the uniform transverse field case (Ω a = Ω b ). Furthermore, for each thickness L of the film, a long range ordered phase persists at low temperature for selected values of the transverse field Ω a and arbitrary values of Ω b . The effects of interlayer and intralayer exchange interactions are also examined. (author)

  19. Virtual Design of a Controller for a Hydraulic Cam Phasing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Markus; Ulbrich, Heinz

    2010-09-01

    Hydraulic vane cam phasing systems are nowadays widely used for improving the performance of combustion engines. At stationary operation, these systems should achieve a constant phasing angle, which however is badly disturbed by the alternating torque generated by the valve actuation. As the hydraulic system shows a non-linear characteristic over the full operation range and the inductivity of the hydraulic pipes generates a significant time delay, a full model based control emerges very complex. Therefore a simple feed-forward controller is designed, bridging the time delay of the hydraulic system and improving the system behaviour significantly.

  20. Computational issues in alternating projection algorithms for fixed-order control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt; Grigoriadis, K.

    1997-01-01

    Alternating projection algorithms have been introduced recently to solve fixed-order controller design problems described by linear matrix inequalities and non-convex coupling rank constraints. In this work, an extensive numerical experimentation using proposed benchmark fixed-order control design...... examples is used to indicate the computational efficiency of the method. These results indicate that the proposed alternating projections are effective in obtaining low-order controllers for small and medium order problems...

  1. Inequality aspects of alternative CO2 agreement designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Heinz

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the expected climate change, due to the atmospheric accumulation of CO 2 and other trace gases, has become an increasingly important issue in energy policy. Given the important contribution of CO 2 to the greenhouse effect, and the global character of the problem, an international agreement on curbing CO 2 emissions is under current consideration. The design of such an agreement inevitably raises significant questions of equity and efficiency. In the international political debate, most emphasis is generally put on the distributive aspect. Interestingly, the discussion usually focuses on equity in terms of the distribution of emissions. From an economic perspective, it appears more natural to address the equity issue from the point of view of income. It is obvious that a given degree of abatement can have dramatically different economic effects in different countries. Of course, this aspect is implicitly at the centre of all CO 2 related equity considerations. In what follows, this issue will be addressed explicitly, by examining the applicability and the implications of various economic approaches to distributive justice. (author)

  2. Ignition assist systems for direct-injected, diesel cycle, medium-duty alternative fuel engines: Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.K.

    2000-02-23

    This report is a summary of the results of Phase 1 of this contract. The objective was to evaluate the potential of assist technologies for direct-injected alternative fuel engines vs. glow plug ignition assist. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ignition system life of 10,000 hours and a system cost of less than 50% of the glow plug system, while meeting or exceeding the engine thermal efficiency obtained with the glow plug system. There were three tasks in Phase 1. Under Task 1, a comprehensive review of feasible ignition options for DING engines was completed. The most promising options are: (1) AC and the ''SmartFire'' spark, which are both long-duration, low-power (LDLP) spark systems; (2) the short-duration, high-power (SDHP) spark system; (3) the micropilot injection ignition; and (4) the stratified charge plasma ignition. Efforts concentrated on investigating the AC spark, SmartFire spark, and short-duration/high-power spark systems. Using proprietary pricing information, the authors predicted that the commercial costs for the AC spark, the short-duration/high-power spark and SmartFire spark systems will be comparable (if not less) to the glow plug system. Task 2 involved designing and performing bench tests to determine the criteria for the ignition system and the prototype spark plug for Task 3. The two most important design criteria are the high voltage output requirement of the ignition system and the minimum electrical insulation requirement for the spark plug. Under Task 3, all the necessary hardware for the one-cylinder engine test was designed. The hardware includes modified 3126 cylinder heads, specially designed prototype spark plugs, ignition system electronics, and parts for the system installation. Two 3126 cylinder heads and the SmartFire ignition system were procured, and testing will begin in Phase 2 of this subcontract.

  3. Phased-array design for MST and ST radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    All of the existing radar systems fully dedicated to clear-air radar studies use some type of phased-array antennas. The effects of beam-steering techniques including feed networks and phase shifters; sidelobe control; ground-clutter suppression; low altitude coverage; arrays with integrated radiating elements and feed networks; analysis of coaxial-collinear antennas; use of arrays with multiple beams; and array testing and measure on structural design of the antenna are discussed.

  4. Design of multi-phase dynamic chemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenrui; Tan, Junjun; Hsieh, Ming-Chien; Pan, Ting; Goodwin, Jay T.; Mehta, Anil K.; Grover, Martha A.; Lynn, David G.

    2017-08-01

    Template-directed polymerization reactions enable the accurate storage and processing of nature's biopolymer information. This mutualistic relationship of nucleic acids and proteins, a network known as life's central dogma, is now marvellously complex, and the progressive steps necessary for creating the initial sequence and chain-length-specific polymer templates are lost to time. Here we design and construct dynamic polymerization networks that exploit metastable prion cross-β phases. Mixed-phase environments have been used for constructing synthetic polymers, but these dynamic phases emerge naturally from the growing peptide oligomers and create environments suitable both to nucleate assembly and select for ordered templates. The resulting templates direct the amplification of a phase containing only chain-length-specific peptide-like oligomers. Such multi-phase biopolymer dynamics reveal pathways for the emergence, self-selection and amplification of chain-length- and possibly sequence-specific biopolymers.

  5. Design analysis of engineered alternatives for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Djordjevic, S.; Adams, M.; Spangler, L.; Valdez, J.; Vetter, D.; Drez, P.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of several engineered alternatives, designed to enhance the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), were evaluated relative to the performance of the baseline design. This evaluation was performed using a computer program referred to as the Design Analysis Model which couples salt creep closure, brine inflow, gas generation and dissipation to realistically simulate these interrelated processes over a 10,000 year period following the decommissioning of the repository. Analyses of the baseline design and nine alternative designs were performed for the undisturbed repository conditions, as well as three human intrusion events. Improvements in repository performance of up to four orders of magnitude were predicted for various engineered alternative waste forms. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Design and control of phased ICRF antenna arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, R.H.; Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Phased antenna arrays operating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are used to produce highly directional wave spectra, primarily for use in current drive experiments. RF current drive using phased antennas has been demonstrated in both the JET and DIII-D tokamaks, and both devices are planning to operate new four-element arrays beginning early next year. Features of antenna design that are relevant to phased operation and production of directional spectra are reviewed. Recent advances in the design of the feed circuits and the related control systems for these arrays should substantially improve their performance, by reducing the coupling seen by the matching networks and rf power supplies caused by the mutual impedance of the array elements. The feed circuit designs for the DIII-D and JET phased antenna arrays are compared. The two configurations differ significantly due to the fact that one power amplifier is used for the entire array in the former case, and one per element in the latter. The JET system uses automatic feedback control of matching, phase and amplitude of antenna currents, and the transmitter power balance. The design of this system is discussed, and a time dependent model used to predict its behavior is described

  7. Greening Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Methods Using Alternative Solvents for Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Yabré

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The greening of analytical methods has gained increasing interest in the field of pharmaceutical analysis to reduce environmental impacts and improve the health safety of analysts. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC is the most widely used analytical technique involved in pharmaceutical drug development and manufacturing, such as the quality control of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations, as well as the analysis of drugs in biological samples. However, RP-HPLC methods commonly use large amounts of organic solvents and generate high quantities of waste to be disposed, leading to some issues in terms of ecological impact and operator safety. In this context, greening HPLC methods is becoming highly desirable. One strategy to reduce the impact of hazardous solvents is to replace classically used organic solvents (i.e., acetonitrile and methanol with greener ones. So far, ethanol has been the most often used alternative organic solvent. Others strategies have followed, such as the use of totally aqueous mobile phases, micellar liquid chromatography, and ionic liquids. These approaches have been well developed, as they do not require equipment investments and are rather economical. This review describes and critically discusses the recent advances in greening RP-HPLC methods dedicated to pharmaceutical analysis based on the use of alternative solvents.

  8. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams

  9. Structural optimization of an alternate design for the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster field joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Rogers, James L., Jr.; Chang, Kwan J.

    1987-01-01

    A structural optimization procedure is used to determine the shape of an alternate design for the Shuttle's solid rocket booster field joint. In contrast to the tang and clevis design of the existing joint, this alternate design consists of two flanges bolted together. Configurations with 150 studs of 1 1/8 in diameter and 135 studs of 1 3/16 in diameter are considered. Using a nonlinear programming procedure, the joint weight is minimized under constraints on either von Mises or maximum normal stresses, joint opening and geometry. The procedure solves the design problem by replacing it by a sequence of approximate (convex) subproblems; the pattern of contact between the joint halves is determined every few cycles by a nonlinear displacement analysis. The minimum weight design has 135 studs of 1 3/16 in diameter and is designed under constraints on normal stresses. It weighs 1144 lb per joint more than the current tang and clevis design.

  10. Statistical controversies in clinical research: requiem for the 3 + 3 design for phase I trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, X; Ezzalfani, M; Le Tourneau, C

    2015-09-01

    More than 95% of published phase I trials have used the 3 + 3 design to identify the dose to be recommended for phase II trials. However, the statistical community agrees on the limitations of the 3 + 3 design compared with model-based approaches. Moreover, the mechanisms of action of targeted agents strongly challenge the hypothesis that the maximum tolerated dose constitutes the optimal dose, and more outcomes including clinical and biological activity increasingly need to be taken into account to identify the optimal dose. We review key elements from clinical publications and from the statistical literature to show that the 3 + 3 design lacks the necessary flexibility to address the challenges of targeted agents. The design issues raised by expansion cohorts, new definitions of dose-limiting toxicity and trials of combinations are not easily addressed by the 3 + 3 design or its extensions. Alternative statistical proposals have been developed to make a better use of the complex data generated by phase I trials. Their applications require a close collaboration between all actors of early phase clinical trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography with variable duration of alternating phase elution steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A; Shishilov, Oleg N

    2014-06-20

    The multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography separation processes consist of a succession of two isocratic counter-current steps and are characterized by the shuttle (forward and back) transport of the sample in chromatographic columns. In this paper, the improved MDM method based on variable duration of alternating phase elution steps has been developed and validated. The MDM separation processes with variable duration of phase elution steps are analyzed. Basing on the cell model, analytical solutions are developed for impulse and non-impulse sample loading at the beginning of the column. Using the analytical solutions, a calculation program is presented to facilitate the simulation of MDM with variable duration of phase elution steps, which can be used to select optimal process conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture. Two options of the MDM separation are analyzed: 1 - with one-step solute elution: the separation is conducted so, that the sample is transferred forward and back with upper and lower phases inside the column until the desired separation of the components is reached, and then each individual component elutes entirely within one step; 2 - with multi-step solute elution, when the fractions of individual components are collected in over several steps. It is demonstrated that proper selection of the duration of individual cycles (phase flow times) can greatly increase the separation efficiency of CCC columns. Experiments were carried out using model mixtures of compounds from the GUESSmix with solvent systems hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of the theory. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Properties of alternative microbial hosts used in synthetic biology: towards the design of a modular chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhyun; Salvador, Manuel; Saunders, Elizabeth; González, Jaime; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The chassis is the cellular host used as a recipient of engineered biological systems in synthetic biology. They are required to propagate the genetic information and to express the genes encoded in it. Despite being an essential element for the appropriate function of genetic circuits, the chassis is rarely considered in their design phase. Consequently, the circuits are transferred to model organisms commonly used in the laboratory, such as Escherichia coli, that may be suboptimal for a required function. In this review, we discuss some of the properties desirable in a versatile chassis and summarize some examples of alternative hosts for synthetic biology amenable for engineering. These properties include a suitable life style, a robust cell wall, good knowledge of its regulatory network as well as of the interplay of the host components with the exogenous circuits, and the possibility of developing whole-cell models and tuneable metabolic fluxes that could allow a better distribution of cellular resources (metabolites, ATP, nucleotides, amino acids, transcriptional and translational machinery). We highlight Pseudomonas putida, widely used in many different biotechnological applications as a prominent organism for synthetic biology due to its metabolic diversity, robustness and ease of manipulation. PMID:27903818

  13. FLUIDDYNAMIC ASPECTS OF GAS-PHASE ETHYLENE POLYMERIZATION REACTOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardani R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative importance of design variables affecting the fluiddynamic behavior of a fluidized bed reactor for the gas-phase ethylene polymerization is discussed, based on mathematical modeling. The three-phase bubbling fluidized bed model is based on axially distributed properties for the bubble, cloud and emulsion phases, combined with correlations for population balance and entrainment. Under the operating conditions adopted in most industrial processes, the reactor performance is affected mainly by the reaction rate and solids entrainment. Simulation results indicate that an adequate design of the freeboard and particle collecting equipment is of primary importance in order to produce polymeric particles with the desired size distribution, as well as to keep entrainment and catalyst feed rates at adequate levels.

  14. Overview of adaptive phased management repository design development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is implementing Adaptive Phased Management, Canada's plan for long-term management of used nuclear fuel. The organization is proceeding with the process for selecting a site in partnership with an informed and willing host community to safely and securely container and isolate used nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository in a suitable rock formation. Adaptive Phased Management is the culmination of more than 30 years of research, development and demonstration of repository concepts in Canada. Adaptive Phased Management uses a phased and adaptive step-wise approach to the multi-barrier system which is consistent with the long-term waste management approaches being developed in many other countries with nuclear power programs such as Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and France. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is examining and developing conceptual designs for a deep geological repository and associated facilities for the placement of used nuclear fuel in long-lived containers. This paper will examine two of these generic conceptual designs which have recently been refined and updated. These conceptual designs will be used to support a pre-project review of repository design and safety by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. (author)

  15. An alternative approach in operator allocation labor intensive manufacturing system: A three-phase methodology framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Rani, Ruzanita; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira

    2013-04-01

    Operator allocation is one of the most important decisions that can affect productivity in labor-intensive manufacturing system. Improper decision on operator allocation will reduce company's throughput and increase waste. Therefore, all factors such as operators' performance and operational constraints need to be considered in making the best operator allocation decision. Most of previous studies used two phases methodology. In two phases methodology, they used operational constraints and treated all operators to have the same level of performance for making decision on operator allocation. Therefore, in this paper a three-phase methodology is proposed to determine the optimal operator allocation. This methodology advances the existing approach on operator allocation by combining operators' performance and operational constraints. The methodology starts with evaluating the operators' performance. Then, it is followed with determining inputs and outputs for operator allocation alternatives and it ends with determining the optimal operator allocation. This paper will give ideas and directions to the management of the manufacturing company in determining the optimal operator allocation decision.

  16. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kessler, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullens, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rath, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  17. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Kessler, B. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Mullens, M. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  18. The Single-Phase ProtoDUNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi, B. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); et al.

    2017-06-21

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single-phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It's technical design is given in this report.

  19. Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, Phase 1. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penswick, L.B.; Beale, W.T.; Wood, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis

  20. Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penswick, L. Barry; Beale, William T.; Wood, J. Gary

    1990-01-01

    As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis.

  1. Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs.

  2. Evaluating a proposed apprach for managing collaborative design in the conceptual design phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the findings of prior research on managing collaborative design in the conceptual design phase of a building project. The prior research was explorative. It used several building projects in the Netherlands as case studies - De Resident in The Hague, Nieuw Stadshart in Almere,

  3. Current Status of HCCR TBM Design for the Preliminary Design Phase Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Dae; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Dong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu Young [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) TBM-set will be installed in the equatorial port no.18 of ITER inside the vacuum vessel directly facing the plasma. TBM-set refers the TBM and associated shield and connecting support. After the Conceptual Design Review (CDR), Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) design is being updated for the preparation of the preliminary design phase. The manufacturability is considered based on the TBM-set model of the conceptual design phase. In this work, the design changes for each component of the TBM-set is described in comparison with the CD phase. The current design direction and details is presented. The first wall (FW) is component facing the plasma directly. This component should have a superior cooling performance. Present Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) design was described in comparison with the CD model. The manufacturability was considered in current PD phase. The detained design of the connecting support will be determined reflecting the load assessment. The structural integrity will be confirmed with a various load condition.

  4. Alternate phase variation in expression of two major surface membrane proteins (MBA and UU376) of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Stiedl, Thomas; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum are commensals and pathogens of the human urogenital tract and of newborn infants. There are four distinct U. parvum serovars and 10 distinct U. urealyticum serovars. Both species possess a distinct immunodominant variable surface protein, the multiple banded antigen (MBA), which shows size variability among isolates as a result of changes in the number of C-terminal repeating units. Adjacent to the MBA gene (UU375) lies UU376, which was annotated as 'Ureaplasma-specific conserved hypothetical gene'. In four different strains of U. parvum serovar 3, we demonstrated expression of UU376 by Western blot analysis and phase variation between UU376, here designated Upvmp376 (Ureaplasma phase-variable membrane protein 376), and MBA after application of selective pressure with hyperimmune antisera directed against either protein. By Southern blot analysis, we found that the switch between MBA and Upvmp376 expression is associated with a DNA inversion event in which the nonrepetitive region of the MBA gene and its putative promoter region are opposed to either the repetitive region of MBA or UU376. We propose that in U. parvum serovar 3, and presumably in all U. parvum and U. urealyticum, an inversion event at specific sites effects an alternate ON/OFF switching of the genes UU375 and UU376.

  5. Determination of complex formation constants by phase sensitive alternating current polarography: Cadmium-polymethacrylic acid and cadmium-polygalacturonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigosa, Anna Maria; Gusmão, Rui; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2007-10-15

    The use of phase sensitive alternating current polarography (ACP) for the evaluation of complex formation constants of systems where electrodic adsorption is present has been proposed. The applicability of the technique implies the previous selection of the phase angle where contribution of capacitive current is minimized. This is made using Multivariate Curve Resolution by Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) in the analysis of ACP measurements at different phase angles. The method is checked by the study of the complexation of Cd by polymethacrylic (PMA) and polygalacturonic (PGA) acids, and the optimal phase angles have been ca. -10 degrees for Cd-PMA and ca. -15 degrees for Cd-PGA systems. The goodness of phase sensitive ACP has been demonstrated comparing the determined complex formation constants with those obtained by reverse pulse polarography, a technique that minimizes the electrode adsorption effects on the measured currents.

  6. Design for the second phase Rokkasho LLW burial facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumata, Tadamasa

    1997-01-01

    Rokkasho Low Level radioactive Waste management center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (hereafter called JNFL) has been operating for five years and about 90,000 (200 liter) drums have already been buried. Currently, JNFL is planning the 2nd phase of the burial program. The basic design of the new facility has been completed and applied for license additionally. Wastes buried in the 2nd phase facility are mainly dry active wastes from nuclear power plants. Inflammable wastes except for plastics are incinerated before they are disposed, because organic materials can generate gas and their degraded materials affect the distribution coefficients of the radionuclides. Most of the aluminum wastes which can generate hydrogen gas by corrosion are also removed from the waste. The 2nd phase facility accepts metal, plastics and non-flammable wastes. These are solidified with mortar in the 200 liter drums at the power plants. The radioactive inventory of the 2nd phase facility is considered to be as much as that of the 1st phase facility. (author)

  7. Alternate design concept for the SSC dipole magnet cryogenic support post

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipski, A.; Nicol, T.H.; Richardson, R.

    1991-03-01

    New materials and developments in the field of advanced composites have created the opportunity to take a fresh look into the design of the cryogenic supports for SSC collider dipole cryostats. Although the present reentrant post design meets the structural and thermal requirements, its assembly requires precision and proficiency. The objective of the proposed alternate concept is to reduce the overall cost of the support post by means of simplifying and optimizing its component design and assembly process. The present shrink fitted tube assembly may potentially be replaced by injection molded parts. New resin systems with lower thermal conductivity and high strength properties enable the utilization of automated production techniques such as injection molding and filament winding. This paper will provide analysis and design information for the alternate support post concept and compare its test performance and cost to the present support post. 3 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Polarized phase shift mask: concept, design, and potential advantages to photolithography process and physical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoping; Grobman, Warren D.; Reich, Alfred J.; Thompson, Matthew A.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept and design of a novel phase shift mask technology, Polarized Phase Shift Mask (P:PSM). The P:PSM technology utilizes non-interference between orthogonally polarized light sources to avoid undesired destructive interference seen in conventional two-phase shift mask technology. Hence P:PSM solves the well-known 'phase edge' or 'phase conflict' problem. By obviating the 2nd exposure and 2nd mask in current Complementary Phase Shift Mask (C:PSM) technology, this single mask/single exposure technology offers significant advantages towards photolithography process as well as pattern design. We use examples of typical design and process difficulties associated with the C:PSM technology to illustrate the advantages of the P:PSM technology. We present preliminary aerial image simulation results that support the potential of this new reticle technology for enhanced design flexibility. We also propose possible mask structures and manufacturing methods for building a P:PSM.

  9. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  10. Long-term strategies for flood risk management: scenario definition and strategic alternative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de K.; Klijn, F.; McGahey, C.; Mens, M.; Wolfert, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews some mainstream existing methods of scenario development and use, as well as experiences with the design and assessment of strategic alternatives for flood risk management. Next, a procedure and methods are proposed and discussed. Thirdly, the procedure and methods are tried on

  11. DESIGN WITH THE SENSES AND FOR THE SENSES: AN ALTERNATIVE TEACHING MODEL FOR DESIGN STUDIO

    OpenAIRE

    May al-Ibrashy; Tammy Gaber

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, Juhani Pallasmaa wrote a compact, yet, eye-opening book expressing his growing concern about the architectural profession’s waning ability to reference all the senses of the body in the design process. Bit by bit, the perceptive chasm between the architect and architecture was widening both in the design process and in the cognitive experience of existing architecture. More than a decade later, these concerns have heightened as the ramifications of this design divide appear in t...

  12. Automatic alternative phase-shift mask CAD layout tool for gate shrinkage of embedded DRAM in logic below 0.18 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, Hidetoshi; Kawahira, Hiroichi

    1998-09-01

    An automatic alternative phase shift mask (PSM) pattern layout tool has been newly developed. This tool is dedicated for embedded DRAM in logic device to shrink gate line width with improving line width controllability in lithography process with a design rule below 0.18 micrometers by the KrF excimer laser exposure. The tool can crete Levenson type PSM used being coupled with a binary mask adopting a double exposure method for positive photo resist. By using graphs, this tool automatically creates alternative PSM patterns. Moreover, it does not give any phase conflicts. By adopting it to actual embedded DRAM in logic cells, we have provided 0.16 micrometers gate resist patterns at both random logic and DRAM areas. The patterns were fabricated using two masks with the double exposure method. Gate line width has been well controlled under a practical exposure-focus window.

  13. Design Technology Aspects of the Millimeter Waveband Phase Shifter Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Komissarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a technique, which takes into consideration the design technology aspects to create a waveguide ferrite Faradays’ phase shifter (WFFPS of the shortwave part of the millimeter wave range. Only using the calculation and analysis techniques based on the electro-dynamic high-level models for designed devices enables us to solve this task successfully.In assembling the WFFPS, its individual parts are connected by dint of glue (rod, yokes, dielectric transition transformers. Thus the layers of glue, possible air gaps, and misalignment of individual parts, obviously have effect on the WFFPS characteristics and should be taken into account at the stage of device calculation and design. Therefore, the aim is to analyze the impact of these technology features on the characteristics of WFFPS.The calculation algorithm of the waveguide transition, which matches WFFPS with the waveguide transmission line or integrated phased array antenna (PAA element radiator in view of possible air or adhesive gaps apparition is based on the solving problem of diffraction of electromagnetic waves. Eigenvalue problem solution by Galerkin method must be preceded to the electromagnetic waves diffraction on the stepped waveguide transition by method of partial areas (Trefftz method solution. As a result, a system of linear inhomogeneous equations is determined. Its solution is the basis for the algorithm to define the numerical values of complex amplitudes of waves excited in all longitudinally uniform areas with a laterally nonuniform ferritedielectric filling, into which splits the waveguide ferrite phase shifter.To take into account the effect of air or glue gap arising when assembling the phase shifter, a designed calculation model is added by the transition step from a material having the same dielectric constant as that of the material filling the gap. The paper presents numerical investigation findings concerning the influence of

  14. Alternative Design Study Report: WindPACT Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study; November 1, 2000 -- February 28, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poore, R.; Lettenmaier, T.

    2003-08-01

    This report presents the Phase I results of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study. Global Energy Concepts, LLC performed this work under a subcontract with NREL. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines to be reduced. Other parts of the WindPACT project have examined blade and logistics scaling, balance-of-station costs, and rotor design. This study was designed to investigate innovative drive train designs.

  15. Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munday, E.B.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF 6 , which is generated from the reaction of ClF 3 with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps

  16. A comparison of alternative 60-mer probe designs in an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbanks Benjamin D

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays have proven powerful for functional genomics studies. Several technologies exist for the generation of whole-genome arrays. It is well documented that 25mer probes directed against different regions of the same gene produce variable signal intensity values. However, the extent to which this is true for probes of greater length (60mers is not well characterized. Moreover, this information has not previously been reported for whole-genome arrays designed against bacteria, whose genomes may differ substantially in characteristics directly affecting microarray performance. Results We report here an analysis of alternative 60mer probe designs for an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide array for the GC rich, β-proteobacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia. Probes were designed using the ArrayOligoSel3.5 software package and whole-genome microarrays synthesized by Agilent, Inc. using their in-situ, ink-jet technology platform. We first validated the quality of the microarrays as demonstrated by an average signal to noise ratio of >1000. Next, we determined that the variance of replicate probes (1178 total probes examined of identical sequence was 3.8% whereas the variance of alternative probes (558 total alternative probes examined designs was 9.5%. We determined that depending upon the definition, about 2.4% of replicate and 7.8% of alternative probes produced outlier conclusions. Finally, we determined none of the probe design subscores (GC content, internal repeat, binding energy and self annealment produced by ArrayOligoSel3.5 were predictive or probes that produced outlier signals. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrated that the use of multiple probes per target sequence is not essential for in-situ synthesized 60mer oligonucleotide arrays designed against bacteria. Although probes producing outlier signals were identified, the use of ratios results in less than 10% of such outlier conclusions. We also determined that

  17. Wide gap Chern Mott insulating phases achieved by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongli; Gangopadhyay, Shruba; Köksal, Okan; Pentcheva, Rossitza; Pickett, Warren E.

    2017-12-01

    Quantum anomalous Hall insulators, which display robust boundary charge and spin currents categorized in terms of a bulk topological invariant known as the Chern number (Thouless et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 405-408 (1982)), provide the quantum Hall anomalous effect without an applied magnetic field. Chern insulators are attracting interest both as a novel electronic phase and for their novel and potentially useful boundary charge and spin currents. Honeycomb lattice systems such as we discuss here, occupied by heavy transition-metal ions, have been proposed as Chern insulators, but finding a concrete example has been challenging due to an assortment of broken symmetry phases that thwart the topological character. Building on accumulated knowledge of the behavior of the 3d series, we tune spin-orbit and interaction strength together with strain to design two Chern insulator systems with bandgaps up to 130 meV and Chern numbers C = -1 and C = 2. We find, in this class, that a trade-off between larger spin-orbit coupling and strong interactions leads to a larger gap, whereas the stronger spin-orbit coupling correlates with the larger magnitude of the Hall conductivity. Symmetry lowering in the course of structural relaxation hampers obtaining quantum anomalous Hall character, as pointed out previously; there is only mild structural symmetry breaking of the bilayer in these robust Chern phases. Recent growth of insulating, magnetic phases in closely related materials with this orientation supports the likelihood that synthesis and exploitation will follow.

  18. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  19. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  20. DESIGN WITH THE SENSES AND FOR THE SENSES: AN ALTERNATIVE TEACHING MODEL FOR DESIGN STUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May al-Ibrashy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, Juhani Pallasmaa wrote a compact, yet, eye-opening book expressing his growing concern about the architectural profession’s waning ability to reference all the senses of the body in the design process. Bit by bit, the perceptive chasm between the architect and architecture was widening both in the design process and in the cognitive experience of existing architecture. More than a decade later, these concerns have heightened as the ramifications of this design divide appear in the form of architecture whose divorced virtual quality has spilled over from the design process into built reality. The illusion of virtual reality – as achieved by 3D simulation in all its glories – has pulled the architect into a zone of false confidence where he/she feels that the design has come to life before it is built and that every corner and detail can be simulated and therefore understood. But can it be touched, smelt, tasted or heard? In fact, is even what we see on the screen anywhere close to what we see as we move bodily through its spaces? This phenomenon is addressed in a design studio run by the two authors of this paper. The purpose of the design studio, which is held in the Department of Architectural Engineering, of the Faculty of Engineering of the British University in Egypt, is to design a community centre linked to a place of worship within a residential compound currently under construction on the outskirts of Cairo. The graduating class of ten students is in the final and fourth year of a program that emphasized the engineering and project management aspects of architecture at the expense of theory and history of art and architecture. The university has no humanities or liberal arts program as yet, and students have minimal contact to arts within the university system. Contact hours in design studios are limited and design is mostly computer-aided. The need to re-emphasize the physical, tactile, polemic and holistic aspects

  1. Design of Chern insulating phases in honeycomb lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Warren E.; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Pentcheva, Rossitza

    2018-06-01

    The search for robust examples of the magnetic version of topological insulators, referred to as quantum anomalous Hall insulators or simply Chern insulators, so far lacks success. Our groups have explored two distinct possibilities based on multiorbital 3d oxide honeycomb lattices. Each has a Chern insulating phase near the ground state, but materials parameters were not appropriate to produce a viable Chern insulator. Further exploration of one of these classes, by substituting open shell 3d with 4d and 5d counterparts, has led to realistic prediction of Chern insulating ground states. Here we recount the design process, discussing the many energy scales that are active in participating (or resisting) the desired Chern insulator phase.

  2. Multi-band phase shifter design using modified slotline configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulandhaisamy, Indhumathi; Rajendran, Dinesh Babu; Kanagasabai, Malathi; Gurusamy, Gunasekaran; Moorthy, Balaji; George, Jithila V.; Lawrance, Livya

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an analog multiband phase shifter using slotline configuration is proposed. To implement the design, a pair of modified Split Ring Resonator (SRR) is employed. The periodic property of SRR provides multiband characteristics, whether the coupling slot gives the phase variations over the bands. The operation is well explained with an equivalent circuit model and its characteristics have been studied both in simulation and measurement. The prototype operates in 1.77-2.16, 3.5-3.97, 5.08-5.33, 6.43-6.93, and 8.01-8.59 GHz frequency bands which can be utilized for GSM, GPS, WLAN, C-band, and X-band applications, respectively.

  3. An alternating direction algorithm for two-phase flow visualization using gamma computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian; Wang, Huaxiang; Cui, Ziqiang; Yang, Chengyi

    2012-12-01

    In order to build high-speed imaging systems with low cost and low radiation leakage, the number of radioactive sources and detectors in the multiphase flow computed tomography (CT) system has to be limited. Moreover, systematic and random errors are inevitable in practical applications. The limited and corrupted measurement data have made the tomographic inversion process the most critical part in multiphase flow CT. Although various iterative reconstruction algorithms have been developed based on least squares minimization, the imaging quality is still inadequate for the reconstruction of relatively complicated bubble flow. This paper extends an alternating direction method (ADM), which is originally proposed in compressed sensing, to image two-phase flow using a low-energy γ-CT system. An l(1) norm-based regularization technique is utilized to treat the ill-posedness of the inverse problem, and the image reconstruction model is reformulated into one having partially separable objective functions, thereafter a dual-based ADM is adopted to solve the resulting problem. The feasibility is demonstrated in prototype experiments. Comparisons between the ADM and the conventional iterative algorithms show that the former has obviously improved the space resolution in reasonable time.

  4. Phases for the value chain design and analysis in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio García Vega

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Value generation is a key issue in the management of organizations because it allows the consumer satisfaction, dynamic face of competition and reward the owners or shareholders. Its treatment reflects both the academic and the business world; i.e. teachers, researchers, executives and managers of the enterprises, whether they are micro, small, medium or large. Although there are different approaches to the subject, this paper will seek to develop an approach from a competitive perspective and through the value chain, as it can be considered a valid tool for designing and analysing how organizations generate value. Also, this research tries to present the evolution of the generation of value, based on the classical models of McKinsey & Co. and Michael Porter. Then some approaches and contributions to the value chain of different authors and from different perspectives are presented, so that we can count with a number of additional ideas, which the author considers relevant to face the value chain design and analysis. Finally, on the basis of capital contribution of the mentioned Harvard University Professor, a series of recommendations for the strategic application of the value chain in the management of today's organizations, which are organized into nine phases (phases for the design and analysis of the value chain are presented.

  5. Cryptographic analysis on the key space of optical phase encryption algorithm based on the design of discrete random phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Li, Zengyan

    2013-07-01

    The key space of phase encryption algorithm using discrete random phase mask is investigated by numerical simulation in this paper. Random phase mask with finite and discrete phase levels is considered as the core component in most practical optical encryption architectures. The key space analysis is based on the design criteria of discrete random phase mask. The role of random amplitude mask and random phase mask in optical encryption system is identified from the perspective of confusion and diffusion. The properties of discrete random phase mask in a practical double random phase encoding scheme working in both amplitude encoding (AE) and phase encoding (PE) modes are comparably analyzed. The key space of random phase encryption algorithm is evaluated considering both the encryption quality and the brute-force attack resistibility. A method for enlarging the key space of phase encryption algorithm is also proposed to enhance the security of optical phase encryption techniques.

  6. Design and construction of two phases flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with design of the gamma ray correlometer and flow loop system for measuring the velocity between two parallel cross-sections of a pipeline. In the laboratory, the radioisotope source and detector were collimated by brass with small beam slit respectively. The flow loop system consists of transparent pipeline, adjustable frequency pump and water container. As a result, when the construction of the flow loop and correlometer is completed, the velocity of two phases flow can be measured by the cross-correlation techniques. (Author)

  7. Bases, assumptions, and results of the flowsheet calculations for the decision phase salt disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Jacobs, R.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Durate, O.E.; Paul, P.K.; Elder, H.H.; Pike, J.A.; Fowler, J.R.; Rutland, P.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Smith III, F.G.; Hang, T.; Subosits, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    The High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team was formed on March 13, 1998, under the sponsorship of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High Level Waste (HLW) Vice President and General Manager. The Team is chartered to identify options, evaluate alternatives, and recommend a selected alternative(s) for processing HLW salt to a permitted waste form

  8. Prototypical spent nuclear fuel rod consolidation equipment: Phase 2, Final design report: Volume 1, Detailed design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blissell, W.H.; Ciez, A.P.; Goedicke, F.E.; Bessko, C.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the Westinghouse Final Design for the Prototypical Spent Fuel Consolidation Equipment Demonstration Project. This design represents a fully qualified, licensable, cost effective spent fuel rod consolidation system. As a result of significant concerns raised by DOE and its Technical Review Committee during the 30% Design Review, significant changes were made to the original Preliminary Design resulting from Phase I activities. These changes focused on increased automation, end fitting removal, the rod pulling process and the need to maintain the consolidation canisters as clean as possible. As a result of these changes, the new system is greatly enhanced with a much greater probability of meeting or exceeding the project functional requirements. As a result of delays in resolving cost and contractual differences, additional bench testing was not conducted during Phase II. It is however our belief that the current design exceeds the 90% confidence level required by DOE because of the confidence gained from the Phase I tests, the additional engineering detail completed and the fact that our rod pulling tool has been demonstrated in a similar application at Oconee while our ID tube cutter is a modified (mounting method only) off-the-shelf design. 7 refs., 49 figs., 36 tabs

  9. How to target inter-regional phase synchronization with dual-site Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saturnino, Guilherme Bicalho; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2017-01-01

    oscillations in two connected cortical areas. While the frequency of ds-TACS is matched, the phase of stimulation is either identical (in-phase stimulation) or opposite (anti-phase stimulation) in the two cortical target areas. In-phase stimulation is thought to synchronize the endogenous oscillations...... and hereby to improve behavioral performance. Conversely, anti-phase stimulation is thought to desynchronize neural oscillations in the two areas, which is expected to decrease performance. Critically, in- and anti-phase ds-TACS should only differ with respect to temporal phase, while all other stimulation...... unambiguously the causal contribution of phase coupling to specific cognitive processes in the human brain....

  10. Performance Evaluation of the Single-Phase Split-Source Inverter Using an Alternative DC-AC Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelhakim, Ahmed; Mattavelli, Paolo; Davari, Pooya

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates and evaluates the performance of a single-phase split-source inverter (SSI), where an alternative unidirectional dc-ac configuration is used. Such configuration is utilized in order to use two common-cathode diodes in a single-device instead of using two separate diodes, r...

  11. Alternative Shear Panel Configurations for Light Wood Construction. Development, Seismic Performance, and Design Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoski, James; Fischer, Chad; Allison, Tim; Malach, Kelly Jo

    2002-04-01

    Shear panels are used in light wood construction to resist lateral loads resulting from earthquakes or strong winds. These panels are typically made of wooden sheathing nailed to building frame members, but this standard panel design interferes with the installation of sheet insulation. A non-insulated shear panel conducts heat between the building interior and exterior wasting considerable amounts of energy. Several alternative shear panel designs were developed to avoid this insulation-mounting problem and sample panels were tested according to standard cyclic test protocols. One of the alternative designs consisted of diagonal steel straps nailed directly to the structural framing. Several others consisted of sheathing nailed to 2 x 4 framing then set into a larger 2 x 6 structural frame in such a way that no sheathing protruded beyond the edge of the 2 x 6 members. Also samples of industry-standard shear panels were constructed and tested in order to establish a performance baseline. Analytical models were developed to size test panels and predict panel behavior. A procedure was developed for establishing design capacities based on both test data and established baseline panel design capacity. The behavior of each panel configuration is documented and recommended design capacities are presented.

  12. Phase 1 space fission propulsion system design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems operating at 80 kWe or above could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At these power levels it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission performance requirements. In selecting the system design to pursue, seven evaluation criteria were identified: safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of three potential concepts was performed: an SP-100 based pumped liquid lithium system, a direct gas cooled system, and a heatpipe cooled system. For power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the heatpipe system has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the heatpipe approach. Successful development and utilization of a 'Phase 1' fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system

  13. Methodology for assessing the impacts of alternative rate designs on industrial energy use. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-11

    A task was undertaken to develop a method for analyzing industrial user responses to alternative rate designs. The method described considers the fuel switching and conservation responses of industrial users and the impact to a hypothetical utility regarding revenue stability, annual gas demand, and seasonal fluctuations. Twenty-seven hypothetical industrial plant types have been specified. For each combustor in the plant, the fuel consumption by season, initial fuel type, fuel switching costs, conservation costs, and amount of fuel conservable is provided. The decision making takes place at the plant level and is aggregated to determine the impact to the utility. Section 2 discusses the factors affecting an industrial user's response to alternative rate designs. Section 3 describes the methodology, includes an overview of the model and an example industrial user's response to a set of fuel prices. The data describing the 27 hypothetical firms is in an appendix.

  14. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ''state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations

  15. Increasing spelling achievement: an analysis of treatment procedures utilizing an alternating treatments design.

    OpenAIRE

    Ollendick, T H; Matson, J L; Esveldt-Dawson, K; Shapiro, E S

    1980-01-01

    Two studies which examine the effectiveness of spelling remediation procedures are reported. In both studies, an alternating treatment design was employed. In the first study, positive practice overcorrection plus positive reinforcement was compared to positive practice alone and a no-remediation control condition. In the second study, positive practice plus positive reinforcement was compared to a traditional corrective procedure plus positive reinforcement and a traditional procedure when u...

  16. Predicting the effectiveness of road safety campaigns through alternative research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamos, Giannis; Nathanail, Eftihia

    2016-12-01

    A large number of road safety communication campaigns have been designed and implemented in the recent years; however their explicit impact on driving behavior and road accident rates has been estimated in a rather low proportion. Based on the findings of the evaluation of three road safety communication campaigns addressing the issues of drinking and driving, seat belt usage, and driving fatigue, this paper applies different types of research designs (i.e., experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental designs), when estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, implements a cross-design assessment, and conducts a cross-campaign evaluation. An integrated evaluation plan was developed, taking into account the structure of evaluation questions, the definition of measurable variables, the separation of the target audience into intervention (exposed to the campaign) and control (not exposed to the campaign) groups, the selection of alternative research designs, and the appropriate data collection methods and techniques. Evaluating the implementation of different research designs in estimating the effectiveness of road safety campaigns, results showed that the separate pre-post samples design demonstrated better predictability than other designs, especially in data obtained from the intervention group after the realization of the campaign. The more constructs that were added to the independent variables, the higher the values of the predictability were. The construct that most affects behavior is intention, whereas the rest of the constructs have a lower impact on behavior. This is particularly significant in the Health Belief Model (HBM). On the other hand, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and descriptive norms, are significant parameters for predicting intention according to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The theoretical and applied implications of alternative research designs and their applicability in the evaluation of road safety

  17. Alternatives for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Lake, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    It is possible to develop an optimal strategy for implementing burnup credit in spent fuel transport casks. For transport, the relative risk is rapidly reduced if additional pre-transport controls such as a cavity dryness verifications are conducted prior to transport. Some other operational and design features that could be incorporated into a burnup credit cask strategy are listed. These examples represent many of the system features and alternatives already available for use in developing a broadly based criticality safety strategy for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks. 4 refs., 1 tab

  18. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Phase 1 High-Level Waste Feed Tanks Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CRAWFORD, T.W.

    1999-01-01

    A recent revision of the US Department of Energy privatization contract for the immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) at Hanford necessitates the investigation of alternative waste feed sources to meet contractual feed requirements. This analysis identifies wastes to be considered as HLW feeds and develops and conducts alternative analyses to comply with established criteria. A total of 12,426 cases involving 72 waste streams are evaluated and ranked in three cost-based alternative models. Additional programmatic criteria are assessed against leading alternative options to yield an optimum blended waste feed stream

  19. Evaluation of alternative public transportation systems in Izmit urban transportation via axiomatic design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen AKMAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the world and in our country, most of urban transportation is performed by public transportation. Public transportation is a system which provides transportation easiness and opportunity to people, not to vehicles. Therefore, giving priority to public transportation system is necessary in organizing urban transportation. In this study, in order to reduce traffic intensity and to facilitate passenger transportation in Izmit urban transportation, It is tried to determine appropriate public transportation system. For this, firstly, alternatives which could be used for public transportation were determined. These alternatives are metro, metrobus, tram, light rail system and monorail. Afterwards, the variables affecting decision making about public transportation were determined. These variables are cost, transportation line features, vehicle characteristics, sensitivity to environment and customer satisfaction. Lastly, most appropriate public transportation system is proposed by using the axiomatic design method. As a result, light trail system and metrobus are determined as the most appropriate alternatives for Izmit public transportation system.Keywords: Urban transportation, Multi criteria decision making, Axiomatic design

  20. Facile preparation of an alternating copolymer-based high molecular shape-selective organic phase for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Abul K; Noguchi, Hiroki; Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2018-06-22

    The synthesis of a new alternating copolymer-grafted silica phase is described for the separation of shape-constrained isomers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tocopherols in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Telomerization of the monomers (octadecyl acrylate and N-methylmaleimide) was carried out with a silane coupling agent; 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), and the telomer (T) was grafted onto porous silica surface to prepare the alternating copolymer-grafted silica phase (Sil-alt-T). The new hybrid material was characterized by elemental analyses, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, and solid-state 13 C and 29 Si cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy. The results of 13 C CP/MAS NMR demonstrated that the alkyl chains of the grafted polymers in Sil-alt-T remained disordered, amorphous, and mobile represented by gauche conformational form. Separation abilities and molecular-shape selectivities of the prepared organic phase were evaluated by the separation of PAHs isomers and Standard Reference Material 869b, Column Selectivity Test Mixture for Liquid Chromatography, respectively and compared with commercially available octadecylsilylated silica (ODS) and C 30 columns as well as previously reported alternating copolymer-based column. The effectiveness of this phase is also demonstrated by the separation of tocopherol isomers. Oriented functional groups along the polymer main chains and cavity formations are investigated to be the driving force for better separation with multiple-interactions with the solutes. One of the advantages of the Sil-alt-T phase to that of the previously reported phase is the synthesis of the telomer first and then immobilized onto silica surface. In this case, the telomer was characterized easily with simple spectroscopic techniques and the molecular mass and polydispersity index of the telomer were determined by size exclusion

  1. Data compressor designed to improve recognition of magnetic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, E. E.; Saravia, G.; Cortez, L. V.

    2012-02-01

    Data compressors available in the web have been used to determine magnetic phases for two-dimensional (2D) systems [E. Vogel, G. Saravia, F. Bachmann, B. Fierro, J. Fischer, Phase transitions in Edwards-Anderson model by means of information theory, Physica A 388 2009 4075-4082]. In the present work, we push this line forward along four different directions. First, the compressor itself: we design a new data compressor, named wlzip, optimized for the recognition of information having physical (or scientific) information instead of the random digital information usually compressed. Second, for the first time we extend the data compression analysis to the 3D Ising ferromagnetic model using wlzip. Third, we discuss the tuning possibilities of wlzip in terms of the number of digits considered in the compression to yield maximum definition; in this way, the transition temperature of both 2D and 3D Ising ferromagnets can be reported with very good resolution. Fourth, the extension of the time window through which the data file is actually compressed is also considered to get optimum accuracy. The paper is focused on the new compressor, its algorithm in general and the way to apply it. Advantages and disadvantages of wlzip are discussed. Toward the end, we mention other possible applications of this technique to recognize stable and unstable regimes in the evolution of variables in meteorology (such as pollution content or atmospheric pressure), biology (blood pressure) and econophysics (prices of the stock market).

  2. Design and Analysis of MEMS Linear Phased Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS linear phased array based on “multi-cell” element is designed to increase radiation sound pressure of transducer working in bending vibration mode at high frequency. In order to more accurately predict the resonant frequency of an element, the theoretical analysis of the dynamic equation of a fixed rectangular composite plate and finite element method simulation are adopted. The effects of the parameters both in the lateral and elevation direction on the three-dimensional beam directivity characteristics are comprehensively analyzed. The key parameters in the analysis include the “cell” number of element, “cell” size, “inter-cell” spacing and the number of elements, element width. The simulation results show that optimizing the linear array parameters both in the lateral and elevation direction can greatly improve the three-dimensional beam focusing for MEMS linear phased array, which is obviously different from the traditional linear array.

  3. Crafting decision options and alternatives for designing cultural observation system using general morphological modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Moghaddampour

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available According to connoisseurs, cultural system is encountering a fully new space in future decades and cultural indicators will be exposed by some dangers; for the same reason, cultural observation activities in management dialogue of Iran are emphasized; the concept of “observation” in Iran is facing with challenges including being far from the concepts of futures studies and the focus on “cultural indicators monitoring” while cultural engineering needs foresight and identification of affecting progressive and deterring factors on the culture. The present study aims at providing alternatives to design an observation system by considering the monitoring and scanning simultaneously to bring out strategic and futurist vision for cultural organizations. To this end, the solution space and morphological field of observation (parameters and values by using MA/Carma Viewer software package is designed based on the literature review and forming a five-member expert group and specialized conversations. Upon Internal Consistency Assessment of parameters and by considering some values as drivers, Parameters Activity Check was conducted to study the reactions by other parameters and values. After sense-making and proper understanding of the model behavior, an Inference and “What-If” model were devised; some configurations were studied and provided in order to aware a part of proper alternatives for designing a cultural observation system (two scenarios. Scenario selection is different due to contingencies and conditions of executing the process as well as the users’ needs and goals in cultural observation system and cultural organizations can make decisions and design detailed observation systems by using morphological models, solution space and alternatives provided in the present study and depended on their goals and needs.

  4. Sustainable covers for uranium mill tailings, USA: alternative design, performance, and renovation - 16369

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, William J.; Benson, Craig H.; Albright, William H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management is investigating alternatives to conventional cover designs for uranium mill tailings. A cover constructed in 2000 near Monticello, Utah, USA, was a redundant design with a conventional low-conductivity composite cover overlain with an alternative cover designed to mimic the natural soil water balance as measured in nearby undisturbed native soils and vegetation. To limit percolation, the alternative cover design relies on a 160-cm layer of sandy clay loam soil overlying a 40- cm sand capillary barrier for water storage, and a planting of native sagebrush steppe vegetation to seasonally release soil water through evapotranspiration (ET). Water balance monitoring within a 3.0-ha drainage lysimeter, embedded in the cover during construction, provided convincing evidence that the cover has performed well over a 9-year period (2000- 2009). The total cumulative percolation, 4.8 mm (approximately 0.5 mm yr -1 ), satisfied a regulatory goal of -1 . Most percolation can be attributed to the very wet winter and spring of 2004-2005, when soil water content exceeded the storage capacity of the cover. Diversity, percent cover, and leaf area of vegetation increased over the monitoring period. Field and laboratory evaluations several years after construction show that soil structural development, changes in soil hydraulic properties, and development of vegetation patterns have not adversely impacted cover performance. A new test facility was constructed in 2008 near Grand Junction, Colorado, USA, to evaluate low-cost methods for renovating or transforming conventional covers into more sustainable ET covers. (authors)

  5. A Alternative Analog Circuit Design Methodology Employing Integrated Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Jeffery L.

    In consideration of the computer processing power now available to the designer, an alternative analog circuit design methodology is proposed. Computer memory capacities no longer require the reduction of the transistor operational characteristics to an imprecise formulation. Therefore, it is proposed that transistor modelling be abandoned in favor of fully characterized transistor data libraries. Secondly, availability of the transistor libraries would facilitate an automated selection of the most appropriate device(s) for the circuit being designed. More specifically, a preprocessor computer program to a more sophisticated circuit simulator (e.g. SPICE) is developed to assist the designer in developing the basic circuit topology and the selection of the most appropriate transistor. Once this is achieved, the circuit topology and selected transistor data library would be downloaded to the simulator for full circuit operational characterization and subsequent design modifications. It is recognized that the design process is enhanced by the use of heuristics as applied to iterative design results. Accordingly, an artificial intelligence (AI) interface is developed to assist the designer in applying the preprocessor results. To demonstrate the retrofitability of the AI interface to established programs, the interface is specifically designed to be as non-intrusive to the host code as possible. Implementation of the proposed methodology offers the potential to speed the design process, since the preprocessor both minimizes the required number of simulator runs and provides a higher acceptance potential of the initial and subsequent simulator runs. Secondly, part count reductions may be realizable since the circuit topologies are not as strongly driven by transistor limitations. Thirdly, the predicted results should more closely match actual circuit operations since the inadequacies of the transistor models have been virtually eliminated. Finally, the AI interface

  6. Design and first measurements of an alternative calorimetry chamber for the HZB quadrupole resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Keckert, Sebastian; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The systematic research on superconducting thin films requires dedicated testing equipment. The Quadrupole Resonator (QPR) is a specialized tool to characterize the superconducting RF properties of circular planar samples. A calorimetric measurement of the RF surface losses allows the surface resistance to be measured with sub nano-ohm resolution. This measurement can be performed over a wide temperature and magnetic field range, at frequencies of 433, 866 and 1300 MHz. The system at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) is based on a resonator built at CERN and has been optimized to lower peak electric fields and an improved resolution. In this paper the design of an alternative calorimetry chamber is presented, providing flat samples for coating which are easy changeable. All parts are connected by screwing connections and no electron beam welding is required. Furthermore this design enables exchangeability of samples between the resonators at HZB and CERN. First measurements with the new design show ambiguous r...

  7. An alternative design of reference blocks during the ultrasonic of ferritic welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon Torriente, S.; Galeano Alvarez, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an alternative design which can be used to construct the reference blocks required to make the sensibility adjustment during the ultrasonic control ferritic welded joints. The major possibilities of this design are seen when it's used together with the well known AVG method, however it can be properly used with the reference block technique. In addition, the most general facts to keep in mind during the construction of this means are outlined, and besides advantages and problems involved with the use of some basics reference reflectors of wide spread use. Also formulates are given that can be used to obtain the size of the disk shaped reflector corresponding to the basics reference reflectors that this design includes

  8. Mechanical Design of an Alternate Structure for LARP Nb$_{3}$Sn Quadrupole Magnets for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Anerella, M; Kovach, P; Schmalzle, J; Wanderer, P; Ambrosio, G; Lamm, M J; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G L

    2011-01-01

    An alternative structure for the 120 mm Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnet is presently under development for use in the upgrade for LHC at CERN. The design aims to build existing technology developed in LARP with the LQ and HQ magnets and to further optimize the features required for operation in the accelerator. The structure includes features for maintaining mechanical alignment of the coils to achieve the required field quality. It also includes a helium containment vessel and provisions for cooling with 1.9 K helium. The development effort includes the assembly of a six inch model to verify required coil load is achieved. Status of the R&D effort and an update on the magnet design, including its incorporation into the design of a complete one meter cold mass is presented.

  9. Towards for Analyzing Alternatives of Interaction Design Based on Verbal Decision Analysis of User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Mendes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In domains (as digital TV, smart home, and tangible interfaces that represent a new paradigm of interactivity, the decision of the most appropriate interaction design solution is a challenge. HCI researchers have promoted in their works the validation of design alternative solutions with users before producing the final solution. User experience with technology is a subject that has also gained ground in these works in order to analyze the appropriate solution(s. Following this concept, a study was accomplished under the objective of finding a better interaction solution for an application of mobile TV. Three executable applications of mobile TV prototypes were built. A Verbal Decision Analysis model was applied on the investigations for the favorite characteristics in each prototype based on the user’s experience and their intentions of use. This model led a performance of a qualitative analysis which objectified the design of a new prototype.

  10. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design with updated test stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2018-03-01

    Underground refuge alternatives require an air source to supply breathable air to the occupants. This requires pressure relief valves to prevent unsafe pressures from building up within the refuge alternative. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) mandates that pressure relief valves prevent pressure from exceeding 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure when a fan or compressor is used for the air supply. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) tested a variety of pressure relief valves using an instrumented test fixture consisting of data acquisition equipment, a centrifugal blower, ductwork and various sensors to determine if the subject pressure relief valves meet the MSHA requirement. Relief pressures and flow characteristics, including opening pressure and flow rate, were measured for five different pressure relief valves under a variety of conditions. The subject pressure relief valves included two off-the-shelf modified check valves, two check valves used in MSHA-approved built-in-place refuge alternatives, and a commercially available valve that was designed for a steel refuge alternative and is currently being used in some built-in-place refuge alternatives. The test results showed relief pressures ranging from 0.20 to 1.53 kPa (0.03 to 0.22 psi) and flow rates up to 19.3 m 3 /min (683 scfm). As tested, some of the pressure relief valves did not meet the 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi) relief specification.

  11. Exploration of alternate catalytic mechanisms and optimization strategies for retroaldolase design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelic, Sinisa; Kipnis, Yakov; Wang, Ling; Pianowski, Zbigniew; Vorobiev, Sergey; Su, Min; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Xiao, Rong; Kornhaber, Gregory; Hunt, John F; Tong, Liang; Hilvert, Donald; Baker, David

    2014-01-09

    Designed retroaldolases have utilized a nucleophilic lysine to promote carbon-carbon bond cleavage of β-hydroxy-ketones via a covalent Schiff base intermediate. Previous computational designs have incorporated a water molecule to facilitate formation and breakdown of the carbinolamine intermediate to give the Schiff base and to function as a general acid/base. Here we investigate an alternative active-site design in which the catalytic water molecule was replaced by the side chain of a glutamic acid. Five out of seven designs expressed solubly and exhibited catalytic efficiencies similar to previously designed retroaldolases for the conversion of 4-hydroxy-4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-butanone to 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde and acetone. After one round of site-directed saturation mutagenesis, improved variants of the two best designs, RA114 and RA117, exhibited among the highest kcat (>10(-3)s(-1)) and kcat/KM (11-25M(-1)s(-1)) values observed for retroaldolase designs prior to comprehensive directed evolution. In both cases, the >10(5)-fold rate accelerations that were achieved are within 1-3 orders of magnitude of the rate enhancements reported for the best catalysts for related reactions, including catalytic antibodies (kcat/kuncat=10(6) to 10(8)) and an extensively evolved computational design (kcat/kuncat>10(7)). The catalytic sites, revealed by X-ray structures of optimized versions of the two active designs, are in close agreement with the design models except for the catalytic lysine in RA114. We further improved the variants by computational remodeling of the loops and yeast display selection for reactivity of the catalytic lysine with a diketone probe, obtaining an additional order of magnitude enhancement in activity with both approaches. © 2013.

  12. Computer Based Porosity Design by Multi Phase Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burblies, Andreas; Busse, Matthias

    2008-02-01

    A numerical simulation technique called Multi Phase Topology Optimization (MPTO) based on finite element method has been developed and refined by Fraunhofer IFAM during the last five years. MPTO is able to determine the optimum distribution of two or more different materials in components under thermal and mechanical loads. The objective of optimization is to minimize the component's elastic energy. Conventional topology optimization methods which simulate adaptive bone mineralization have got the disadvantage that there is a continuous change of mass by growth processes. MPTO keeps all initial material concentrations and uses methods adapted from molecular dynamics to find energy minimum. Applying MPTO to mechanically loaded components with a high number of different material densities, the optimization results show graded and sometimes anisotropic porosity distributions which are very similar to natural bone structures. Now it is possible to design the macro- and microstructure of a mechanical component in one step. Computer based porosity design structures can be manufactured by new Rapid Prototyping technologies. Fraunhofer IFAM has applied successfully 3D-Printing and Selective Laser Sintering methods in order to produce very stiff light weight components with graded porosities calculated by MPTO.

  13. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Salmon

    Full Text Available This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  14. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Salmon, Christian; Bissinger, Alexa; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Gebreyesus, Alegnta; Geremew, Haimanot; Wendel, Sarah K; Wendell, Sarah; Azaza, Aklilu; Salumu, Maurice; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Two Alternative Core Design Concepts for the Special Purpose Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Werner, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hummel, Andrew J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kennedy, John C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, Robert C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dion, Axel M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ananth, Krishnan P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Special Purpose Reactor (SPR) is a small 5 MWt, heat pipe-cooled, fast reactor based on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Mega-Power concept. The LANL concept features a stainless steel monolithic core structure with drilled channels for UO2 pellet stacks and evaporator sections of the heat pipes. Two alternative active core designs are presented here that replace the monolithic core structure with simpler and easier to manufacture fuel elements. The two new core designs are simply referred to as Design A and Design B. In addition to ease of manufacturability, the fuel elements for both Design A and Design B can be individually fabricated, assembled, inspected, tested, and qualified prior to their installation into the reactor core leading to greater reactor system reliability and safety. Design A fuel elements will require the development of a new hexagonally-shaped UO2 fuel pellet. The Design A configuration will consist of an array of hexagonally-shaped fuel elements with each fuel element having a central heat pipe. This hexagonal fuel element configuration results in four radial gaps or thermal resistances per element. Neither the fuel element development, nor the radial gap issue are deemed to be serious and should not impact an aggressive reactor deployment schedule. Design B uses embedded arrays of heat pipes and fuel pins in a double-wall tank filled with liquid metal sodium. Sodium is used to thermally bond the heat pipes to the fuel pins, but its usage may create reactor transportation and regulatory challenges. An independent panel of U.S. manufacturing experts has preliminarily assessed the three SPR core designs and views Design A as simplest to manufacture. Herein are the results of a preliminary neutronic, thermal, mechanical, material, and manufacturing assessment of both Design A and Design B along with comparisons to the LANL concept (monolithic core structure). Despite the active core differences, all three reactor concepts behave

  16. Statistical inference for extended or shortened phase II studies based on Simon's two-stage designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjun; Yu, Menggang; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-06-07

    Simon's two-stage designs are popular choices for conducting phase II clinical trials, especially in the oncology trials to reduce the number of patients placed on ineffective experimental therapies. Recently Koyama and Chen (2008) discussed how to conduct proper inference for such studies because they found that inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan used. In particular, they proposed an inference method for studies when the actual second stage sample sizes differ from planned ones. We consider an alternative inference method based on likelihood ratio. In particular, we order permissible sample paths under Simon's two-stage designs using their corresponding conditional likelihood. In this way, we can calculate p-values using the common definition: the probability of obtaining a test statistic value at least as extreme as that observed under the null hypothesis. In addition to providing inference for a couple of scenarios where Koyama and Chen's method can be difficult to apply, the resulting estimate based on our method appears to have certain advantage in terms of inference properties in many numerical simulations. It generally led to smaller biases and narrower confidence intervals while maintaining similar coverages. We also illustrated the two methods in a real data setting. Inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan. Reported P-values, point estimates and confidence intervals for the response rate are not usually adjusted for the design's adaptiveness. Proper statistical inference procedures should be used.

  17. Feasibility Demonstration of a Multi-Cylinder Stirling Convertor with a Duplex Linear Alternator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Stirling Technology Company (STC) proposes to integrate an existing Multi-Cylinder Free-Piston Stirling Engine (MPFPSE) with innovative compact linear alternators....

  18. Results of developing and problems of further improvements for WWER-1000 FA of alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanov, V.L.; Panyushkin, A.K.; Zheleznyak, V.M.; Samojlov, O.B.; Kuul', V.S.; Kurylev, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    A new fuel assembly of alternative design (FAA) is created for a WWER-1000 reactor which is characteristic of dimensional stability on operation. The FAA includes a frame of 15 alloy Eh-110 spacer grids spot welded to 6 alloy Eh-635 angle sections. In-core tests show that the FAA is stable to form changing. It is concluded that the FAA can serve as a basis for development of promising fuel cycle with high burnups, specifically, for a 4 year cycle with the use of uranium-gadolinium fuel [ru

  19. Design of sustainable chemical processes: Systematic retrofit analysis, generation and evaluation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Gani, Rafiqul; Matos, Henrique

    2008-01-01

    eliminating the need to identify trade-off-based solutions. These indicators are also able to reduce (where feasible) a set of safety indicators. An indicator sensitivity analysis algorithm has been added to the methodology to define design targets and to generate sustainable process alternatives. A computer-aided...... tool has been developed to facilitate the calculations needed for the application of the methodology. The application of the indicator-based methodology and the developed software are highlighted through a process flowsheet for the production of vinyl chlorine monomer (VCM)....

  20. Feed-water heaters alternative design comparison; Comparacion de disenos alternativos de calentadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Toledano, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    A procedure is presented for the alternative design comparison of feed water heaters, based in the failure records of damaged tubes during operation. The procedure is used for cases in which non-continuous or random inspections are made to the feed-water heaters. [Espanol] Se presenta un procedimiento para comparar disenos alternativos de calentadores, basandose en los registros de fallas de los tubos rotos acumuladas durante su operacion. El procedimiento se emplea para casos en los que se realizan inspecciones a los calentadores no continuas, ya sea periodicas o al azar.

  1. Alternative methods of determining phase transition temperatures of phospholipids that constitute liposomes on the example of DPPC and DMPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentak, Danuta, E-mail: danuta.pentak@us.edu.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • New phase transition for DMPC was found. • FT-IR method is an important addition to the DSC studies. • The proposed method for determining the T{sub C} give very consistent results. - Abstract: In this work, alternatives to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a method of determining the main phospholipid phase transition temperature are presented. The bilayer phase transitions from the ripple gel phase (P{sub β{sup ′}}) to the liquid-crystal phase (L{sub α}) of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. In this work, two correlations between the DSC and FT-IR methods, and NMR and EPR methods are shown. The proposed methods allow for determining the T{sub C} temperature with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, a comparison of results obtained using the DSC and FT-IR methods allowed for an observation of a new DMPC phase transition. The liposomes analyzed in this work were obtained by the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV)

  2. Stockpile stewardship and management programmatic environmental impact statement data for the no action and phase-out alternatives at the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    Alternatives for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are being considered under the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSM). The three alternatives under consideration include: continuing the secondary manufacturing operations in a down-sized footprint; no action; and phasing out the secondary manufacturing operations at Y-12. This report provides specific environmental data requested for the Y-12 Plant alternatives of no action and phase out

  3. Retrofitting a spent fuel pool spray system for alternative cooling as a strategy for beyond design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Christoph; Vujic, Zoran [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Due to requirements for nuclear power plants to withstand beyond design basis accidents, including events such as happened in 2011 in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, alternative cooling of spent fuel is needed. Alternative spent fuel cooling can be provided by a retrofitted spent fuel pool spray system based on the AP1000 plant design. As part of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant's Safety Upgrade Program, Krsko Nuclear Power Plant decided on, and Westinghouse successfully designed a retrofit of the AP1000 {sup registered} plant spent fuel pool spray system to provide alternative spent fuel cooling.

  4. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  5. Alternatives for Jet Engine Control. Volume 1: Modelling and Control Design with Jet Engine Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    This document compiles a comprehensive list of publications supported by, or related to, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant NSG-3048, entitled "Alternatives for Jet Engine Control". Dr. Kurt Seldner was the original Technical Officer for the grant, at Lewis Research Center. Dr. Bruce Lehtinen was the final Technical Officer. At the University of Notre Dame, Drs. Michael K. Sain and R. Jeffrey Leake were the original Project Directors, with Dr. Sain becoming the final Project Director. Publications cover work over a ten-year period. The Final Report is divided into two parts. Volume i, "Modelling and Control Design with Jet Engine Data", follows in this report. Volume 2, "Modelling and Control Design with Tensors", has been bound separately.

  6. A Modified Jonckheere Test Statistic for Ordered Alternatives in Repeated Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Tül Kübra AKDUR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new test based on Jonckheere test [1] for  randomized blocks which have dependent observations within block is presented. A weighted sum for each block statistic rather than the unweighted sum proposed by Jonckheereis included. For Jonckheere type statistics, the main assumption is independency of observations within block. In the case of repeated measures design, the assumption of independence is violated. The weighted Jonckheere type statistic for the situation of dependence for different variance-covariance structure and the situation based on ordered alternative hypothesis structure of each block on the design is used. Also, the proposed statistic is compared to the existing test based on Jonckheere in terms of type I error rates by performing Monte Carlo simulation. For the strong correlations, circular bootstrap version of the proposed Jonckheere test provides lower rates of type I error.

  7. Up-Rating - An Alternative Approach to Meeting Future Power Demands - Exploitation of Design Margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Barnaby; Schwarz, Thomas [AREVA NP GmbH, Freyeslebenstr. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Up-rating is a world-wide implemented approach that takes advantage of increased calculation and analytic abilities developed since commissioning and applies them to old plants. In doing so, what would possibly be considered today as over-engineered design margins are exploited and plant performance is improved, without necessarily involving extensive modifications or replacement of hardware. It is therefore a short-term alternative, compared to new plants, with little change in environmental ramifications for power production capacity gained. Up-rating is also more accepted by the wider community and licensing authorities, thus complimenting the building of new plants. The 10% thermal up-rating of the nuclear power plant at Almaraz, Spain, requires a comprehensive reanalysis of all power components. This paper focuses on those measures required to ensure the performance of the steam generators at increased load as an example of design margin exploitation in such crucial components. (authors)

  8. Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Sumit [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Krok, Michael [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-02-08

    This document constitutes GE’s final report for the Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration program for DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Award DE-FC02-05CH11349. It contains the final report for Phase I in Appendix I, and the results the work performed in Phase II. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate a Microgrid Energy Management (MEM) framework for a broad set of Microgrid applications that provides unified controls, protection, and energy management. This project contributed to the achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program goals by developing a fully automated power delivery microgrid network that: - Reduces carbon emissions and emissions of other air pollutants through increased use of optimally dispatched renewable energy, - Increases asset use through integration of distributed systems, - Enhances reliability, security, and resiliency from microgrid applications in critical infrastructure protection, constrained areas of the electric grid, etc. - Improves system efficiency with on-site, distributed generation and improved economic efficiency through demand-side management.

  9. Design studies of heavy ion linear accelerators constructed of independently phased spiral resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Armstrong, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are reported for two linear accelerators for heavy ions. One accelerator is a high-intensity machine which would operate with 100 percent duty factor and would produce tin ions with 6.1 MeV/A. Alternatively, it could be operated under pulsed conditions with 25 percent duty factor and would then accelerate uranium ions to 8.1 MeV/A, tin ions to 10.5 MeV/A, and all lighter ions to higher velocities. It would be injected with a positive multicharge ion source and a 4-MV single-ended dc generator. Also, design studies are reported for small postaccelerator injected by a model FN tandem. Both accelerators use three-drift-tube spiral resonators operating at room temperature. Magnetic quadrupole singlets are placed between all resonators to provide radial focussing. Each resonator is independently phased according to the velocity of the ion to be accelerated. The ability to adjust the phase of each resonator permits variations in final energy and other beam properties with great flexibility. (U.S.)

  10. Design and development of a digital phase ratio meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majee, B C [Reactor Control Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Roy, S B; Meghal, A M [Uranium Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Uranium purification at Uranium Metal Plant is being carried out using solvent extraction process. The feed is aqueous uranyl nitrate solution with 2-4% insoluble silica particles. The solvent is tri-butyl phosphate diluted with commercial grade kerosene. Extraction is conducted in a slurry extractor equipment using compressed air as mixing and solution-interstage transferring medium. To ensure the organic continuous mode in the mixer and to avoid stable emulsion formation, organic to aqueous ratio maintained in each mixer is 10 to 12 whereas optimum extraction process requires an overall organic to aqueous ratio of 2. Therefore, a high volume of internal recirculation of organic is being arranged by the air-lift in mixers. For a smooth, continuous efficient extraction, mixer organic to aqueous ratio is a very critical parameter and it is required to be monitored periodically to take corrective actions during the operation by controlling the compressed air flow rate. Trials were conducted to select a suitable method of autocontrol of this phase ratio and a system has been designed for this purpose. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Establishing a cost model when estimating product cost in early design phases

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Johanna; Sjöberg, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    About 75% of the total product cost is determined in the early design phase, which means that the possibilities to affect costs are relatively small when the design phase is completed. For companies, it is therefore vital to conduct reliable cost estimates in the early design phase, when selecting between different design choices. When conducting a cost estimate there are many uncertainties. The aim with this study is therefore to explore how uncertainties regarding product cost can be consid...

  12. Two-phase aqueous micellar systems: an alternative method for protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Yagui C. O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase aqueous micellar systems can be exploited in separation science for the extraction/purification of desired biomolecules. This article reviews recent experimental and theoretical work by Blankschtein and co-workers on the use of two-phase aqueous micellar systems for the separation of hydrophilic proteins. The experimental partitioning behavior of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD in two-phase aqueous micellar systems is also reviewed and new results are presented. Specifically, we discuss very recent work on the purification of G6PD using: i a two-phase aqueous micellar system composed of the nonionic surfactant n-decyl tetra(ethylene oxide (C10E4, and (ii a two-phase aqueous mixed micellar system composed of C10E4 and the cationic surfactant decyltrimethylammonium bromide (C10TAB. Our results indicate that the two-phase aqueous mixed (C10E4/C10TAB micellar system can improve significantly the partitioning behavior of G6PD relative to that observed in the two-phase aqueous C10E4 micellar system.

  13. An alternative design for a metal image slicing IFU for EAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.; Robertson, David J.; Rolt, Stephen; Talbot, R. Gordon

    2012-09-01

    The Centre for Advanced Instrumentation (CfAI) of Durham University (UK) has developed a conceptual design for the Integral Field Unit (IFU) for EAGLE based on diamond-machined monolithic multi-faceted metal-mirror arrays as an alternative to the glass IFU which is currently baselined. The CfAI has built up substantial expertise with the design, manufacture, integration, alignment and acceptance testing of such systems, through the successful development of IFUs for the Gemini Near-InfraRed Spectrograph (GNIRS) and JWST NIRSpec and 24 IFUs for ESO’s K-band Multi-Object Spectrometer (KMOS). The unprecedented performance of the KMOS IFUs (Strehl risks and cost. Through the timely completion of the KMOS IFUs, which required the fabrication of an unprecedented 1152 optical surfaces, the CfAI have demonstrated that they have the capacity to produce the required volume within reasonable schedule constraints. All the facilities (design, fabrication e.g. diamond machining, metrology, integration and test) required for the successful realisation of such systems are available in-house, thus minimising programmatic risks. This paper presents the opto-mechanical design and predicted performance (based on the actual measured performance of the KMOS IFUs) of the proposed metal IFU.

  14. Passive solar commercial buildings: design assistance and demonstration program. Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-26

    The final design of the Mount Airy Public Library is given. Incremental passive design costs are discussed. Performance and economic analyses are made and the results reported. The design process is thoroughly documented. Considerations discussed are: (1) building energy needs; (2) site energy potentials, (3) matching energy needs with site energy potentials, (4) design indicators for best strategies and concepts, (5) schematic design alternatives, (6) performance testing of the alternatives, (7) design selection, and (8) design development. Weather data and Duke Power electric rates are included. (LEW)

  15. Lithography alternatives meet design style reality: How do they "line" up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Optical lithography resolution scaling has stalled, giving innovative alternatives a window of opportunity. One important factor that impacts these lithographic approaches is the transition in design style from 2D to 1D for advanced CMOS logic. Just as the transition from 3D circuits to 2D fabrication 50 years ago created an opportunity for a new breed of electronics companies, the transition today presents exciting and challenging time for lithographers. Today, we are looking at a range of non-optical lithography processes. Those considered here can be broadly categorized: self-aligned lithography, self-assembled lithography, deposition lithography, nano-imprint lithography, pixelated e-beam lithography, shot-based e-beam lithography .Do any of these alternatives benefit from or take advantage of 1D layout? Yes, for example SAPD + CL (Self Aligned Pitch Division combined with Complementary Lithography). This is a widely adopted process for CMOS nodes at 22nm and below. Can there be additional design / process co-optimization? In spite of the simple-looking nature of 1D layout, the placement of "cut" in the lines and "holes" for interlayer connections can be tuned for a given process capability. Examples of such optimization have been presented at this conference, typically showing a reduction of at least one in the number of cut or hole patterns needed.[1,2] Can any of the alternatives complement each other or optical lithography? Yes.[3] For example, DSA (Directed Self Assembly) combines optical lithography with self-assembly. CEBL (Complementary e-Beam Lithography) combines optical lithography with SAPD for lines with shot-based e-beam lithography for cuts and holes. Does one (shrinking) size fit all? No, that's why we have many alternatives. For example NIL (Nano-imprint Lithography) has been introduced for NAND Flash patterning where the (trending lower) defectivity is acceptable for the product. Deposition lithography has been introduced in 3D NAND Flash to

  16. An alternative phase-space distribution to sample initial conditions for classical dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vela, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new quantum-type phase-space distribution is proposed in order to sample initial conditions for classical trajectory simulations. The phase-space distribution is obtained as the modulus of a quantum phase-space state of the system, defined as the direct product of the coordinate and momentum representations of the quantum initial state. The distribution is tested by sampling initial conditions which reproduce the initial state of the Ar-HCl cluster prepared by ultraviolet excitation, and by simulating the photodissociation dynamics by classical trajectories. The results are compared with those of a wave packet calculation, and with a classical simulation using an initial phase-space distribution recently suggested. A better agreement is found between the classical and the quantum predictions with the present phase-space distribution, as compared with the previous one. This improvement is attributed to the fact that the phase-space distribution propagated classically in this work resembles more closely the shape of the wave packet propagated quantum mechanically

  17. A note on “An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems”

    OpenAIRE

    R. Venkata Rao

    2012-01-01

    A paper published by Maniya and Bhatt (2011) (An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 61, 542-549) proposed an alternative multiple attribute decision making method named as “Preference Selection Index (PSI) method” for selection of an optimal facility layout design. The authors had claimed that the method was logical and more appropriate and the method gives directly the o...

  18. Randomized controlled trials and neuro-oncology: should alternative designs be considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Alireza; Shin, Samuel; Cooper, Benjamin; Srivastava, Archita; Bhandari, Mohit; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    quality of design/reporting of RCTs in neuro-oncology persist. Quality improvement is necessary. Consideration of alternative strategies should be considered.

  19. Design and Construction of an Automatic Three-Phase Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The device can also amplify input voltage as low as 50V a.c to a constant 220V a.c. Furthermore, if no power is sensed, from the three live phases, that is if all the phases are in OFF STATE, the device auto-connect to a power generating plant. Keywords: Power Supply; stabilizer; phase Change-over Switch ...

  20. Helium-cooled pebble bed test blanket module alternative design and fabrication routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, M.

    2007-01-01

    According to first results of the recently started European DEMO study, a new blanket integration philosophy was developed applying so-called multi-module segments. These consist of a number of blanket modules flexibly mounted onto a common vertical manifold structure that can be used for replacing all modules in one segment at one time through vertical remote-handling ports. This principle gives new freedom in the design choices applied to the blanket modules itself. Based on the alternative design options considered for DEMO also the ITER test blanket module was newly analyzed. As a result of these activities it was decided to keep the major principles of the reference design like stiffening grid, breeder unit concept and perpendicular arrangement of pebble beds related to the First Wall because of the very positive results of thermo-mechanical and neutronics studies. The present paper gives an overview on possible further design optimization and alternative fabrication routes. One of the most significant improvements in terms of the hydraulic performance of the Helium cooled reactor can be reached with a new First Wall concept. That concept is based on an internal heat transfer enhancement technique and allows drastically reducing the flow velocity in the FW cooling channels. Small ribs perpendicular to the flow direction (transverse-rib roughness) are arranged on the inner surface of the First Wall cooling channels at the plasma side. In the breeder units cooling plates which are mostly parallel but bent into U-shape at the plasma-side are considered. In this design all flow channels are parallel and straight with the flow entering on one side of the parallel plate sections and exiting on the other side. The ceramic pebble beds are embedded between two pairs of such type of cooling plates. Different modifications could possibly be combined, whereby the most relevant discussed in this paper are (i) rib-cooled First Wall channels, (ii) U-bent cooling plates for

  1. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  2. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  5. Alternative practices in curriculum design. Participation as a key factor and speaking out as right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Barco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990s, in the context of neo-liberal policies, curricular changes ocurred in Latin América which gave a leading role to technicians and experts in education, in the process of writing the curricular documents. Beyond the critiques these policies can receive, it is necessary to find alternative ways of elaborating curricular documents, based on democratic idea of teacher's real participation.In an action-research within the scope of a university and two experiences referred to in this work, different participative styles emerged, according to their particular circumstances. This work referred to these processes and its theoretical foundations, reporting alternative ways of curricular design based on teacher's participation and its different forms. The aim is to enhance how teachers as a social subject can 'stand up for themselves'and 'speak out' in the specific practice of writing curricular documents. Taking into account that teaching practices rewrite curricular documents, different dynamics in curricular change are possible, allowing adjusting and adapting realities in each institution, and propelling collaborative work.

  6. Evaluation of DCS III Transmission Alternatives. Phase 1A report. Appendix B. Regulatory Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-26

    Resolution DK). B.1.1.5 Importance of the RR in the DCS III Study. The ITU Radio Regulation offers a means to appraise viability of the alternatives to be...interference 466-1 483 Measurement of performance by means of signal 482 Measurement of noise in actual traffic 481 Table B.l-6. Communication Satellite...Economic and technical aspects of the choice of transmission systems GAS 5 Economic conditions and tel ecommunication development GAS 6 Economic and

  7. User-Centered Design and Augmentative and Alternative Communication Apps for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lubas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Communication difficulties are among the most frequent characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Lack of communication can have a significant impact on the child’s life. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC apps are a common form of AAC interventions that involve a combination of affordable technology with software that can be utilized to assist with communication. While AAC apps have been found to have some impact on improving the communication skills of children with ASD, current research exploring this topic is still limited. Focusing on the design process of AAC apps may provide better insight into improving clinical outcomes and user success. The user-centered design process incorporates a continuous cycle of user feedback to help inform and improve the functions and the capabilities of the technology, and it is an essential component in AAC app development. This article outlines how the user-centered design process could be adopted for the development of AAC apps for children with ASD.

  8. Holography microscopy as an artifact-free alternative to phase-contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorek, Lukáš; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    Artifact-free microscopic images represent a key requirement of multi-parametric image analysis in modern biomedical research. Holography microscopy (HM) is one of the quantitative phase imaging techniques, which has been finding new applications in life science, especially in morphological screening, cell migration, and cancer research. Rather than the classical imaging of absorbing (typically stained) specimens by bright-field microscopy, the information about the light-wave's phase shifts induced by the biological sample is employed for final image reconstruction. In this comparative study, we investigated the usability and the reported advantage of the holography imaging. The claimed halo-free imaging was analyzed compared to the widely used Zernike phase-contrast microscopy. The intensity and phase cross-membrane profiles at the periphery of the cell were quantified. The intensity profile for cells in the phase-contrast images suffers from the significant increase in intensity values around the cell border. On the contrary, no distorted profile is present outside the cell membrane in holography images. The gradual increase in phase shift values is present in the internal part of the cell body projection in holography image. This increase may be related to the increase in the cell internal material according to the dry mass theory. Our experimental data proved the halo-free nature of the holography imaging, which is an important prerequisite of the correct thresholding and cell segmentation, nowadays frequently required in high-content screening and other image-based analysis. Consequently, HM is a method of choice whenever the image analysis relies on the accurate data on cell boundaries.

  9. Simulation Study Using an Injection Phase-locked Magnetron as an Alternative Source for SRF Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Plawski, Tomasz E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As a drop-in replacement for the CEBAF CW klystron system, a 1497 MHz, CW-type high-efficiency magnetron using injection phase lock and amplitude variation is attractive. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using analytical models and MATLAB/Simulink simulations. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron has not been built yet, previously measured characteristics of a 2.45GHz cooker magnetron are used as reference. The results of linear responses to the amplitude and phase control of a superconducting RF (SRF) cavity, and the expected overall benefit for the current CEBAF and future MEIC RF systems are presented in this paper.

  10. Designing Alternative Transport Methods for the Distributed Data Collection of ATLAS EventIndex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the key and challenging tasks of the ATLAS EventIndex project is to index and catalog all the produced events not only at CERN but also at hundreds of worldwide grid sites, and convey the data in real time to a central Hadoop instance at CERN. While this distributed data collection is currently operating correctly in production, there are some issues that might impose performance bottlenecks in the future, with an expected rise in the event production and reprocessing rates. In this work, we first describe the current approach based on a messaging system, which conveys the data from the sources to the central catalog, and we identify some weaknesses of this system. Then, we study a promising alternative transport method based on an object store, presenting a performance comparison with the current approach, and the architectural design changes needed to adapt the system to the next run of the ATLAS experiment at CERN.

  11. Relative risk measure suitable for comparison of design alternatives of interim spent nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferjencik, M.

    1997-01-01

    Accessible reports on risk assessment of interim spent nuclear fuel storage facilities presume that only releases of radioactive substances represent undesired consequences. However, only certain part of the undesired consequences is represented by them. Many other events are connected with safety and are able to cause losses to the operating company. The following two presumptions are pronounced based on this. 1. Any event causing a disturbance of a safety function of the storage facility is an incident event. 2. Any disturbance of a safety function is an undesired consequence. If the facility safety functions are identified and if the severity of their disturbances is quantified, then it is possible to combine consequence severity quantifications and event frequencies into a risk measure. Construction and application of such a risk measure is described in this paper. The measure is shown to be a tool suitable for comparison of interim storage technology design alternatives. (author)

  12. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE DIGITAL HOME CONTROL INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pastorino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An inquiry of the National Statistics Institute of Spain shows that 74% of the Spanish population with disabilities suffers some kind of limitation performing Daily Basic Activities, while 1.39 million cannot perform them at all without the assistance of specialized personnel. Digital Home Systems could mitigate disabled people’s difficulties to carry out those activities, giving the opportunity to manage home appliances through a single control. Digital Home Systems have to provide specific and adapted control interfaces based on Augmentative and Alternative Communication languages in order to be an efficient solution to the problem and to allow most vulnerable groups of people with disabilities to reach the highest level of autonomy.  This paper describes a Digital Home Interface capable of adapting layouts, styles and contents to device capability, user preferences and appliances’ features; designed with a combination of web technologies, standard languages for abstract interface definition and AAC systems.

  13. Design of materials with extreme thermal expansion using a three-phase topology optimization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Torquato, S.

    1997-01-01

    Composites with extremal or unusual thermal expansion coefficients are designed using a three-phase topology optimization method. The composites are made of two different material phases and a void phase. The topology optimization method consists in finding the distribution of material phases...... materials having maximum directional thermal expansion (thermal actuators), zero isotropic thermal expansion, and negative isotropic thermal expansion. It is shown that materials with effective negative thermal expansion coefficients can be obtained by mixing two phases with positive thermal expansion...

  14. Holography microscopy as an artifact-free alternative to phase-contrast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pastorek, Lukáš; Venit, Tomáš; Hozák, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2018), s. 179-186 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Holography microscopy * Phase-contrast * Halo effect Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2016

  15. General-purpose heat source development. Phase II: conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.; Grinberg, I.M.; Hulbert, L.E.

    1978-11-01

    Basic geometric module shapes and fuel arrays were studied to determine how well they could be expected to meet the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) design requirements. Seven conceptual designs were selected, detailed drawings produced, and these seven concepts analyzed. Three of these design concepts were selected as GPHS Trial Designs to be reanalyzed in more detail and tested. The geometric studies leading to the selection of the seven conceptual designs, the analyses of these designs, and the selection of the three trial designs are discussed

  16. Practical aspects of the use of three-phase alternating current electric machines in electricity storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucur, Violeta

    2015-02-01

    Of three-phase alternating current electric machines, it brings into question which of them is more advantageous to be used in electrical energy storage system by pumping water. The two major categories among which are given dispute are synchronous and the asynchronous machine. To consider the synchronous machine with permanent magnet configuration because it brings advantages compared with conventional synchronous machine, first by removing the necessary additional excitation winding. From the point of view of loss of the two types of machines, the optimal adjustment of the magnetic flux density is obtained to minimize the copper loss by hysteresis and eddy currents.

  17. Design and Fabrication of the First Commercial-Scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert synthesis gas (syngas), primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to methanol. Because of its superior heat management the process can utilize directly the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. The LPMEOHM Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., a partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company, to produce methanol from coal-derived syngas. Construction of the LPMEOH~ Process Demonstration Plant at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport was completed in January 1997. Following commissioning and shakedown activities, the fwst production of methanol from the facility occurred on April 2, 1997. Nameplate capacity of 260 short tons per day (TPD) was achieved on April 6, 1997, and production rates have exceeded 300 TPD of methanol at times. This report describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the Kingsport LPMEOEFM reactor, which is the first commercial-scale LPMEOEPM reaetor ever built. The vessel is 7.5 feet in diameter and 70 feet tall with design conditions of 1000 psig at 600 `F. These dimensions represent a significant scale-up from prior experience at the DOE-owned Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, where 18-inch and 22-inch diameter reactors have been tested successfidly over thousands of hours. The biggest obstacles discovered during the scale- up, however, were encountered during fabrication of the vessel. The lessons learned during this process must be considered in tailoring the design for future sites, where the reactor dimensions may grow by yet another factor of two.

  18. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  19. Probing phase- and frequency-dependent characteristics of cortical interneurons using combined transcranial alternating current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sara J; Thirugnanasambandam, Nivethida

    2017-06-01

    Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral stimulation combined with TMS can be used to study cortical interneuronal circuitry. By combining these procedures with concurrent transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), Guerra and colleagues recently showed that different cortical interneuronal populations are differentially modulated by the phase and frequency of tACS-imposed oscillations (Guerra A, Pogosyan A, Nowak M, Tan H, Ferreri F, Di Lazzaro V, Brown P. Cerebral Cortex 26: 3977-2990, 2016). This work suggests that different cortical interneuronal populations can be characterized by their phase and frequency dependency. Here we discuss how combining TMS and tACS can reveal the frequency at which cortical interneuronal populations oscillate, the neuronal origins of behaviorally relevant cortical oscillations, and how entraining cortical oscillations could potentially treat brain disorders. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Manufacturing For Design of Titanium Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I program proposes to exploit the tremendous benefits that could be offered by the development of a microstructural refinement and control technology...

  1. Single-Phase Mail Survey Design for Rare Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, J. Michael; Andrews, William R.; Mathiowetz, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Although using random digit dialing (RDD) telephone samples was the preferred method for conducting surveys of households for many years, declining response and coverage rates have led researchers to explore alternative approaches. The use of address-based sampling (ABS) has been examined for sampling the general population and subgroups, most…

  2. Hadron cancer therapy complex using nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator and gantry design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keil

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG rings for cancer hadron therapy offer reduced physical aperture and large dynamic aperture as compared to scaling FFAGs. The variation of tune with energy implies the crossing of resonances during acceleration. Our design avoids intrinsic resonances, although imperfection resonances must be crossed. We consider a system of three nonscaling FFAG rings for cancer therapy with 250 MeV protons and 400   MeV/u carbon ions. Hadrons are accelerated in a common radio frequency quadrupole and linear accelerator, and injected into the FFAG rings at v/c=0.1294. H^{+}/C^{6+} ions are accelerated in the two smaller/larger rings to 31 and 250  MeV/68.8 and 400   MeV/u kinetic energy, respectively. The lattices consist of doublet cells with a straight section for rf cavities. The gantry with triplet cells accepts the whole required momentum range at fixed field. This unique design uses either high-temperature superconductors or superconducting magnets reducing gantry magnet size and weight. Elements with a variable field at the beginning and at the end set the extracted beam at the correct position for a range of energies.

  3. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  4. Compact Kinetic Mechanisms for Petroleum-Derived and Alternative Aviation Fuels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To be useful for computational combustor design and analysis using tools like the National Combustion Code (NCC), low-dimensional chemical kinetic mechanisms for...

  5. Multi-Disciplinary Multi-Fidelity Design Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To meet the design challenges of tomorrow, NASA and industry require advancements in the state-of-the-art for physics-based design and analysis frameworks. In...

  6. Cold in-place recycle phase III, mix design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This projects purpose is to revise the UDOT accepted design methods for Cold In-Place Recycling so that they : better reflect field behavior and target the desirable attributes of the material. The previous design process failed to : adequately pr...

  7. 77 FR 14012 - Eligible Telecommunications Carrier Designation for Participation in Mobility Fund Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...; DA 12-271] Eligible Telecommunications Carrier Designation for Participation in Mobility Fund Phase I... Wireless Telecommunications and Wireline Competition Bureaus describe the process and requirements for applicants seeking Eligible Telecommunications Carrier (ETC) Designation from the Commission for...

  8. Haldane to Dimer Phase Transition in the Spin-1 Haldane System with Bond-Alternating Nearest-Neighbor and Uniform Next-Nearest-Neighbor Exchange Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, Tonegawa; Makoto, Kaburagi; Takeshi, Nakao; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kobe University; Faculty of Cross-Cultural Studies, Kobe University; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kobe University

    1995-01-01

    The Haldane to dimer phase transition is studied in the spin-1 Haldane system with bond-alternating nearest-neighbor and uniform next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions, where both interactions are antiferromagnetic and thus compete with each other. By using a method of exact diagonalization, the ground-state phase diagram on the ratio of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction constant to the nearest-neighbor one versus the bond-alternation parameter of the nearest-neighbor interactions is...

  9. Best practices of Building Information Modelling (BIM) implementation in design phase for construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, N.; Zainal Abidin, N. A.; Zainal, R.; Sarpin, N.; Rahim, M. H. I. Abd; Saikah, M.

    2017-11-01

    Implementation of Building Information Modelling (BIM) was expected to bring improvement in current practices of Malaysian construction industry. In the design phase, there is a lack of a ready pool of skilled workers who are able to develop BIM strategic plan and effectively utilise it. These create boundaries for BIM nature in Malaysian construction industry specifically in the design phase to achieve its best practices. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to investigate the current practices of BIM implementation in the design phase as well as the best practices factors of BIM implementation in the design phase. The qualitative research approach is carried out through semi-structured interviews with the designers of different organisations which adopt BIM in the design phase. Data collection is analysed by executing content analysis method. From the findings, the best practices factors of BIM implementation in design phase such as the incentive for BIM training, formal approach to monitoring automated Level of Detailing (LOD), run a virtual meeting and improve Industry Foundation Class (IFC). Thus, best practices factors which lead to practices improvements in the design phase of project development which subsequently improves the implementation of BIM in the design phase of Malaysian construction industry.

  10. Ground-state phase diagram of an (S, S') = (1, 2) spin-alternating chain with competing single-ion anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonegawa, T; Okamoto, K; Sakai, T; Kaburagi, M

    2009-01-01

    Employing various numerical methods, we determine the ground-state phase diagram of an (S, S') = (1, 2) spin-alternating chain with antiferromagnetic nearest-neighboring exchange interactions and uniaxial single-ion anisotropies. The resulting phase diagram consists of eight kinds of phases including two phases which accompany the spontaneous breaking of the translational symmetry and a ferrimagnetic phase in which the ground-state magnetization varies continuously with the uniaxial single-ion anisotropy constants for the S=1 and S =2 spins. The appearance of these three phases is attributed to the competition between the uniaxial single-ion anisotropies of both spins.

  11. Critical behavior and microscopic structure of charged AdS black holes via an alternative phase space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Dehyadegari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS black holes have similar thermodynamic behavior as the Van der Waals fluid system, provided one treats the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic variable (pressure in an extended phase space. In this paper, we disclose the deep connection between charged AdS black holes and Van der Waals fluid system from an alternative point of view. We consider the mass of an AdS black hole as a function of square of the charge Q2 instead of the standard Q, i.e. M=M(S,Q2,P. We first justify such a change of view mathematically and then ask if a phase transition can occur as a function of Q2 for fixed P. Therefore, we write the equation of state as Q2=Q2(T,Ψ where Ψ (conjugate of Q2 is the inverse of the specific volume, Ψ=1/v. This allows us to complete the analogy of charged AdS black holes with Van der Waals fluid system and derive the phase transition as well as critical exponents of the system. We identify a thermodynamic instability in this new picture with real analogy to Van der Waals fluid with physically relevant Maxwell construction. We therefore study the critical behavior of isotherms in Q2–Ψ diagram and deduce all the critical exponents of the system and determine that the system exhibits a small–large black hole phase transition at the critical point (Tc,Qc2,Ψc. This alternative view is important as one can imagine such a change for a given single black hole i.e. acquiring charge which induces the phase transition. Finally, we disclose the microscopic properties of charged AdS black holes by using thermodynamic geometry. Interestingly, we find that scalar curvature has a gap between small and large black holes, and this gap becomes exceedingly large as one moves away from the critical point along the transition line. Therefore, we are able to attribute the sudden enlargement of the black hole to the strong repulsive nature of the internal constituents at the phase transition.

  12. Ion-assisted phase separation in compound films: An alternate route to ordered nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, observations of highly ordered, hexagonal arrays of self-organized nanostructures on binary or impurity-laced targets under normal-incidence ion irradiation have excited interest in this phenomenon as a potential route to high-throughput, low-cost manufacture of nanoscale devices or nanostructured coatings. The currently prominent explanation for these structures is a morphological instability driven by ion erosion discovered by Bradley and Shipman; however, recent parameter estimates via molecular dynamics simulations suggest that this erosive instability may not be active for the representative GaSb system in which hexagonal structures were first observed. Motivated by recent experimental and numerical evidence suggesting the likely importance of phase separation during thin-film processing, we here generalize the Bradley-Shipman theory to include the effect of ion-assisted phase separation. The resulting system admits a chemically driven finite-wavelength instability that can explain the order of observed patterns even when the erosive Bradley-Shipman instability is inactive. In a relevant simplifying limit, it also provides an intuitive instability criterion similar to results in thin-film deposition, as well as predictions on pattern wavelengths that agree qualitatively with experimental observations. Finally, we identify a characteristic experimental signature that distinguishes the chemical and morphological instabilities and highlights the need for specific additional experimental data on the GaSb system

  13. Creating an information quantum leap in early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Heller, Alfred; Hurup-Felby, Brian

    2014-01-01

    and manufacturing. This also means that design theories, tools, and techniques cannot be adopted directly from other design disciplines such as product design where different solutions can be developed for each individual or group. The natural environment has dynamic, unpredictable, and sometimes chaotic properties...... and behavior. This is more true than ever when considering the challenge of climate change. The requirements and behavior of the human users also vary in time. To meet these challenges, Civil and Environmental Engineering projects must be designed to be flexible so they can adjust for temporary changes...... role in stabilizing the energy demand through e.g. thermal storage in building components. Design in Civil and Environmental Engineering also defines the reality in which we live, work, and play. Thus, it borders other fields such as architecture, landscape design, and urban planning -­‐ influencing...

  14. Code Development for Control Design Applications: Phase I: Structural Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bir, G. S.; Robinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    The design of integrated controls for a complex system like a wind turbine relies on a system model in an explicit format, e.g., state-space format. Current wind turbine codes focus on turbine simulation and not on system characterization, which is desired for controls design as well as applications like operating turbine model analysis, optimal design, and aeroelastic stability analysis. This paper reviews structural modeling that comprises three major steps: formation of component equations, assembly into system equations, and linearization

  15. A design concept for an MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) microstrip phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Smetana, Jerry; Acosta, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka proposed design, which concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required.

  16. Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During initial design studies, parametric variation of vehicle geometry is routine. In addition, rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate...

  17. Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate and finalize designs. Insufficient correlation between wind tunnel results and flight tests, have...

  18. Multi-Disciplinary Multi-Fidelity Design Environment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration will develop a collaborative simulation and design environment that will seamlessly integrate the people, data, and tools required for analyzing...

  19. Design of Linear - and Minimum-phase FIR-equalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Jensen, K.J.; Gaunholt, Hans

    1996-01-01

    an error function which is quadratic in the filtercoefficients. The advantage of the quadratic function is the ability to find the optimal coefficients solving a system of linear equations without iterations.The transformation to a minimum-phase equalizer is carried out by homomorphic deconvolution...

  20. Polymeric microsieves via phase separation microfabrication: Process and design optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikel, M.; Culfaz, P.Z.; Bolhuis-Versteeg, Lydia A.M.; Perez, J. Garduno; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Phase separation microfabrication (PSμF) is a fabrication method that allows the preparation of membranes having micropattern surface topologies. PSμF has been successfully used for manufacturing polymeric microsieves. The technique benefits from the vertical shrinkage of polymer solutions to ensure

  1. Use of probabilistic design methods for NASA applications. [to be used in design phase of Space Transportation Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability evaluation process designed to improve the reliability of advanced launch systems. The work performed includes the development of a reliability prediction methodology to be used in the design phase of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). This includes prediction techniques which use historical data bases as well as deterministic and probabilistic engineering models for predicting design reliability. In summary, this paper describes a probabilistic design approach for the next-generation liquid rocket engine, the STME.

  2. General-purpose heat source development. Phase I: design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.

    1978-09-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the necessary design requirements for a 238 PuO 2 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). Systems and missions applications, as well as accident conditions, were considered. The results of these studies, along with the recommended GPHS design requirements, are given in this report

  3. An integrative approach to the design methodology for 3-phase power conditioners in Photovoltaic Grid-Connected systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey-Boué, Alexis B.; García-Valverde, Rafael; Ruz-Vila, Francisco de A.; Torrelo-Ponce, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A design methodology for Photovoltaic grid-connected systems is presented. ► Models of the Photovoltaic Generator and the 3-phase Inverter are described. ► The power factor and the power quality are regulated with vector control. ► Simulation and experimental results validate the design methodology. ► The proposed methodology can be extended to any Renewable or Industrial System. - Abstract: A novel methodology is presented in this paper, for the design of the Power and Control Subsystems of a 3-phase Photovoltaic Grid-Connected system in an easy and comprehensive way, as an integrative approach. At the DC side of the Power Subsystem, the Photovoltaic Generator modeling is revised and a simple model is proposed, whereas at the AC side, a vector analysis is done to deal with the instantaneous 3-phase variables of the grid-connected Voltage Source Inverter. A d–q control approach is established in the Control Subsystem, along with its specific tuned parameters, as a vector control alternative which will allow the decoupled control of the instantaneous active and reactive powers. A particular Case of Study is presented to illustrate the behavior of the design methodology regarding the fulfillment of the Photovoltaic plant specifications. Some simulations are run to study the performance of the Photovoltaic Generator together with the exerted d–q control to the grid-connected 3-phase inverter, and some experimental results, obtained from a built flexible platform, are also shown. The simulations and the experimental results validate the overall performance of the 3-phase Photovoltaic Grid-Connected system due to the attained unitary power factor operation together with good power quality. The final validation of the proposed design methodology is also achieved.

  4. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project

  5. Second law analysis of reverse osmosis desalination plants: An alternative design using pressure retarded osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharqawy, Mostafa H.; Zubair, Syed M.; Lienhard, John H.

    2011-01-01

    A second law analysis of a reverse osmosis desalination plant is carried out using reliable seawater exergy formulation instead of a common model in literature that represents seawater as an ideal mixture of liquid water and solid sodium chloride. The analysis is performed using reverse osmosis desalination plant data and compared with results previously published using the ideal mixture model. It is demonstrated that the previous model has serious shortcomings, particularly with regard to calculation of the seawater flow exergy, the minimum work of separation, and the second law efficiency. The most up-to-date thermodynamic properties of seawater, as needed to conduct an exergy analysis, are given as correlations in this paper. From this new analysis, it is found that the studied reverse osmosis desalination plant has very low second law efficiency (<2%) even when using the available energy recovery systems. Therefore, an energy recovery system is proposed using the (PRO) pressure retarded osmotic method. The proposed alternative design has a second law efficiency of 20%, and the input power is reduced by 38% relative to original reverse osmosis system. -- Highlights: ► A previously proposed model for the calculation of seawater flow exergy gives incorrect values. ► Reverse osmosis desalination plants have very low second law efficiency (<2%) even when using the available energy recovery systems. ► A PRO energy recovery device increases the RO plant’s second law efficiency to 20% and reduces the input power.

  6. On the failure modes of alternative containment designs following postulated core meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Knee, H.E.; Okrent, D.

    1977-01-01

    The containment response to a postulated core meltdown accident in a PWR ice condenser containment, a BWR Mark III containment and a BWR non-inerted Mark I containment has been examined to see if the WASH-1400 containment failure mode judgement for the Surry large, dry containment and the Peach Bottom Mark I inerted-containment are likely to be appropriate for these alternative containment plant designs. For the PWR, the representative accident chosen for the analysis is a large cold leg break accompanied by a loss of all electric power while the BWR respresentative event chosen is a recirculation line break without adequate core cooling function. Two containment event paths are studied for each of these two cases, depending on whether or not containment vapor suppression function is assumed to be available. Both the core and the containment pressure and temperature response to the accident events are computed for the four time intervals which characterize (a) blowdown of the pipe break, (b) core melt, (c) vessel melt-through, and (d) containment foundation penetration. The calculations are based on a best esimate of the most probable sequence, but certain phenomena and events were followed down multiple tracks. It appears that the non-inerted Mark I containment is not so vulnerable to overpressurization from hydrogen burning as the Mark III; however, acceptable temperatures may be exceeded. (Auth.)

  7. Development of dose calculation program (DBADOSE) incorporating alternative source term due to design basis accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Young Jig; Nam, Ki Mun; Lee, Yu Jong; Chung, Chan Young

    2003-01-01

    Source terms presented in TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4 have been used for radiological analysis of design basis accidents for licensing existing pressurized water reactor (PWR). However, more realistic and physically-based source term based on results of study and experiments for about 30 years after the publication of TID-14844 was developed and presented in NUREG-1465 published by U.S NRC in 1995. In addition, ICRP has revised dose concepts and criteria through the publication of ICRP-9, 26, 60 and recommended effective dose concepts rather than critical organ concept since the publication of ICRP-26. Accordingly, multipurpose computer program called DBADOSE incorporating alternative source terms in NUREG-1465 and effective dose concepts in ICRP-60 was developed. Comparison of results of DBADOSE with those of POSTDBA and STARDOSE was performed and verified and no significant difference and inaccuracy were found. DBADOSE will be used to evaluate accidental doses for licensing application according to the domestic laws that are expected to be revised in the near future

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of the Pratt and Whitney alternate design SSME fuel turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, K. R.; Beach, T. A.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The three dimensional viscous time-mean flow in the Pratt and Whitney alternate design space shuttle main engine fuel turbine is simulated using the average passage Navier-Stokes equations. The migration of secondary flows generated by upstream blade rows and their effect on the performance of downstream blade rows is studied. The present simulation confirms that the flow in this two stage turbine is highly three dimensional and dominated by the tip leakage flow. The tip leakage vortex generated by the first blade persists through the second blade and adversely affects its performance. The greatest mixing of the inlet total temperature distortion occurs in the second vane and is due to the large leakage vortex generated by the upstream rotor. It is assumed that the predominant spanwise mixing mechanism in this low aspect ratio turbine is the radial transport due to the deterministically unsteady vortical flow generated by upstream blade rows. A by-product of the analysis is accurate pressure and heat loads for all blade rows under the influence of neighboring blade rows. These aero loads are useful for advanced structural analysis of the vanes and blades.

  9. An alternative design method for the double-layer combined die using autofrettage theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The double-layer combined die is used for its longer life in forging. Autofrettage is a well-known elastic–plastic technology that increases the durability of thick-walled cylinders. This study explores an alternative design method of the double-layer combined die using autofrettage theory. An analytical solution for the autofrettage process of the double-layer combined die is obtained based on Lamé's equation. The relationship between the autofrettage pressure and the yield radius of the die insert is obtained, and expressions of residual stresses and displacements, which are directly related to geometric parameters, material properties and internal pressure, are derived. The finite-element simulation of a specific case is performed, and good agreement between theoretical calculations and simulation results is found. Furthermore, the effects of important parameters, including the ratio of the plastic area and yield strength of the die insert and the outer diameters of the die insert and stress ring, on the autofrettage effect are investigated. Compared with the conventional combined die, the autofrettaged die can bear larger working pressure, as expected. The use of the autofrettaged die can reduce the amount of expensive material required for the die insert and the working space of the die set, which would benefit the practical forging process.

  10. Overlapping research and design phases through participatory strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casciola, Lara Clare; Vasco, Maria Crucera; Grøndal, Esben

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the implications, with regard to service design education, of a project in the second semester of the Service Systems Design Master’s program at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. The learning objective of this project is to develop student capabilities in the design and deploy......This paper explores the implications, with regard to service design education, of a project in the second semester of the Service Systems Design Master’s program at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. The learning objective of this project is to develop student capabilities in the design...... and deployment of service concepts within a systemic environment. Topics introduced as part of the program’s curriculum in this semester that contribute to engaging students in this type of thinking include both technical (production systems, IT systems) and social (user participation and social innovation......) aspects. As the case study is discussed, note will be taken of the influence of this educational approach in the design team’s choices throughout the project process. Through this exploration, a discussion can be held on the opportunities and challenges presented to students as they attempt to combine...

  11. LWR design decision methodology. Phase III. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertucio, R.; Held, J.; Lainoff, S.; Leahy, T.; Prather, W.; Rees, D.; Young, J.

    1982-01-01

    Traditionally, management decisions regarding design options have been made using quantitative cost information and qualitative safety information. A Design Decision Methodology, which utilizes probabilistic risk assessment techniques, including event trees and fault trees, along with systems engineering and standard cost estimation methods, has been developed so that a quantitative safety measure may be obtained as well. The report documents the development of this Design Decision Methodology, a demonstration of the methodology on a current licensing issue with the cooperation of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS), and a discussion of how the results of the demonstration may be used addressing the various issues associated with a licensing position on the issue

  12. Numerical cooling strategy design for hot rolled dual phase steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwanpinij, Piyada; Prahl, Ulrich; Bleck, Wolfgang [RWTH Aachen (DE). Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy (IEHK); Togobytska, Nataliya; Weiss, Wolf; Hoemberg, Dietmar [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany)

    2010-10-21

    In this article, the Mo-Mn dual phase steel and its process parameters in hot rolling are discussed. The process window was derived by combining the experimental work in a hot deformation dilatometer and numerical calculation of process parameters using rate law models for ferrite and martensite transformation. The ferrite formation model is based on the Leblond and Devaux approach while martensite formation is based on the Koistinen- Marburger (K-M) formula. The carbon enrichment during ferrite formation is taken into account for the following martensite formation. After the completion of the parameter identification for the rate law model, the evolution of phases in multiphase steel can be addressed. Particularly, the simulations allow for predicting the preferable degree of retained strain and holding temperature on the run out table (ROT) for the required ferrite fraction. (orig.)

  13. Experimental study on spray characteristics of alternate jet fuels using Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels have gained global attention due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. The chemical and physical properties of GTL jet fuels are different from conventional jet fuels owing to the difference in their production methodology. It is important to study the spray characteristics of GTL jet fuels as the change of physical properties can affect atomization, mixing, evaporation and combustion process, ultimately affecting emission process. In this work, spray characteristics of two GTL synthetic jet fuels are studied using a pressure-swirl nozzle at different injection pressures and atmospheric ambient condition. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size and velocity are compared with those of regular Jet A-1 fuel at several axial and radial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. Experimental results show that although the GTL fuels have different physical properties such as viscosity, density, and surface tension, among each other the resultant change in the spray characteristics is insignificant. Furthermore, the presented results show that GTL fuel spray characteristics exhibit close similarity to those of Jet A-1 fuel. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  14. Comparison of Global Sizing Velocimetry and Phase Doppler Anemometry measurements of alternative jet fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Reza; Kannaiyan, Kumaran

    2013-11-01

    Atomization plays a crucial precursor role in liquid fuel combustion that directly affects the evaporation, mixing, and emission levels. Laser diagnostic techniques are often used to study the spray characteristics of liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to compare the spray measurements of Gas-to Liquid (GTL) jet fuels obtained using Global Sizing Velocimetry (GSV) and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques at global and local levels, respectively. The chemical and physical properties of GTL fuels are different from conventional jet fuels, owing to the difference in their production methodology. In this work, the experimental facility, the measurement techniques, and spray characteristics of two different GTL fuels are discussed and compared with those of Jet A-1 fuel. Results clearly demonstrate that although the global measurement gives an overall picture of the spray, fine details are obtained only through local measurements and complement in gaining more inferences into the spray characteristics. The results also show a close similarity in spray characteristics between GTL and Jet A-1 fuels. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis for Design Optimization Integrated Software Tools, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposed project is to provide a new set of sensitivity analysis theory and codes, the Sensitivity Analysis for Design Optimization Integrated...

  16. Computer Aided Design Tools for Extreme Environment Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to provide Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools for radiation-tolerant, wide-temperature-range digital, analog, mixed-signal, and radio-frequency...

  17. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design with Transition Prediction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enhance aerodynamic design capabilities, Desktop Aeronautics proposes to combine a new sweep/taper integrated-boundary-layer (IBL) code that includes transition...

  18. Design phase identification of high pile rebound soils : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    An engineering problem has occurred when installing displacement piles in certain soils. During driving, piles are rebounding excessively during each hammer blow, causing delay and as a result may not achieve the required design capacities. Piles dri...

  19. Advanced Control System Design for Hypersonic Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Guidance and control system design for hypersonic vehicles is more challenging than their subsonic and supersonic counterparts. Some of these challenges are (i)...

  20. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above

  1. Alternating twist structures formed by electroconvection in the nematic phase of an achiral bent-core molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shingo; Dhara, Surajit; Sadashiva, B K; Shimbo, Yoshio; Takanishi, Yoichi; Araoka, Fumito; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    We report an unusual electroconvection in the nematic phase of a bent-core liquid crystal. In a voltage-frequency diagram, two frequency regions exhibiting prewavy stripe patterns were found, as reported by Wiant We found that these stripes never show extinction dark when cells were rotated under crossed polarizers. Based on the color interchange in between neighboring stripes by the rotation of the cells or an analyzer, twisted molecular orientation is suggested; i.e., the directors are alternately twisted from the top to the bottom surfaces with a pretilt angle in adjacent stripes, which is an analogue of the twisted (splayed) structure observed in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal cells. The transmittance spectra calculated using the 4x4 matrix method from the model structure are consistent with the experimental observation.

  2. Preliminary design of an osmotic-type salinity gradient energy converter. Phase I, design effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-30

    The base case that was studied for this Phase I Interim Report is a 50 kWe design with 3.5% salt water (seawater) on one side and saturated salt water on the other side of the semi-permeable membrane. This case included a solar evaporation pond. The report includes system descriptions, system component descriptions, siting restrictions, environmental considerations, pretreatment, membrane characteristics, preliminary system capital costs, and recommendations for further work. During the course of the study and investigations, it was decided to extend the review to develop an additional basic flow sheet using brackish water instead of seawater with a solar pond. This option requires reduced flow rates and therefore can utilize smaller and less expensive components as compared to the seawater base case. Based on data for reverse osmosis water purification systems, the operating costs for pretreatment and labor would also be expected to be less for the brackish water system than for the seawater system. Finally, the use of brackish water systems greatly increases the potential number of sites available for a practical Osmo-Hydro Power System.

  3. Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III

    1992-01-01

    The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.

  4. Building information modeling in the architectural design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The overall economical benefits of Building Information Modeling are generally comprehensible, but are there other problems with the implementation of BIM as a formulized system in a field that ultimately is dependant on a creative input? Is optimization and economic benefit really contributing...... with an architectural quality? In Denmark the implementation of the digital working methods related to BIM has been introduced by government law in 2007. Will the important role of the architect as designer change in accordance with these new methods, and does the idea of one big integrated model represent a paradox...... in relation to designing? The BIM mindset requires changes on many levels....

  5. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF

  6. Alternatives for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Lake, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional assumption used in evaluating criticality safety of spent fuel cask is that the spent fuel is as reactive as when it was fresh (new). This is known as the fresh fuel assumption. It avoids a number of calculational and verification difficulties, but could take a heavy toll in decreased efficiency. The alternative to the fresh fuel assumption is called burnup credit. That is, the reduced reactivity of spent fuel that comes about from depletion of fissile radionuclides and net increase in neutron absorbers (poisons) is taken into account. It is recognizable that the use of burnup credit will in fact increase the percentage of unacceptable or non-specification fuel available for misloading. This could reduce individual cask safety margins if current practices with respect to loading procedures are maintained. As such, additional operational, design, analysis, and validation requirements should be established that, as a minimum, compensate for any potential reduction in fuel loading safety margin. This method is based on a probabilistic (PRA) approach and is called a relative risk comparison. The method assumes a linear risk model, and uses a selected probability function to compare the system of interest and an acceptable reference system by varying the features of each to assess effects on system safety. While risk is the product of an event probability and its consequence, the consequences of criticality in a cask are considered to be both unacceptable and the same, regardless of the initiating sequence. Therefore, only the probability of the event is considered in a relative risk evaluation

  7. Design for unusual environment (space). Complementary use of modelling and testing phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambiaghi, Danilo; Cambiaghi, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Designing for space requires a great imagination effort from the designer. He must perceive that the stresses experimented by the facilities he is designing will be quite different in space (during the mission), in launch phase and on ground (before launch handling phase), and he must design for all such environmental conditions. Furthermore he must design for mechanical and thermal environment, which often lead to conflicting needs. Virtual models may help very much in balancing the conflicting requirements, but models must be validated to be reliable. Test phase help validating the models, but may overstress the items. The aim of the designer is to reach an efficient and safe design through a balanced use of creativity, modelling and testing

  8. Scan-to-BIM in the pre-design phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slavova, Galina

    2017-01-01

    The high demand for energy-efficiency of buildings nowadays has triggered the need for gathering documentation on existing construction conditions. This information is then used to design buildings with high consideration to the site or to allow the renovation of old buildings that can no longer ...... Information Modelling (BIM) and 3D laser scanning....

  9. Magnet design technical report---ITER definition phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: conceptual design; radiation damage of ITER magnet systems; insulation system of the magnets; critical current density and strain sensitivity; toroidal field coil structural analysis; stress analysis for the ITER central solenoid; and volt-second capabilities and PF magnet configurations

  10. Design and control of single-phase dynamic voltage restorer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Meena

    ... voltage sag and swell. Modelling of the DVR and its controller design is included in ..... simulation study of DVR is accomplished in MATLAB/. Simulink. Parameters of ..... During this process, the PWM signals generated by the DSP are not as ...

  11. Design and implementation of FPGA-based phase modulation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Section 3 deals with the implementation process of the digital con- .... To aid the analysis of the SRC, a simulation model based on the state-space technique is ... compensator designed using 'SISO' tool in Matlab, is a PI compensator which ...

  12. Update and Improve Subsection NH - Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayama, Tai

    2009-01-01

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  13. Design of a welltest for determining two-phase hydraulic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a well test to determine two-phase hydraulic properties of a low permeability, low porosity formation. Estimation of gas-related parameters in such formations is difficult using standard pumping tests mainly because of the strong fluctuations in the pressure and flow rate data which are a consequence of gas bubbles evolving in the test interval. Even more important is the fact that the data do not allow distinguishing among alternative conceptual models. The estimated parameters are therefore uncertain, highly correlated, and ambiguous. In this study we examine a test sequence that could be appended to a standard hydraulic testing program. It is shown that performing a series of water and gas injection tests significantly reduces parameter correlations, thus decreasing the estimation error. Moreover, the extended test sequence makes possible the identification of the model that describes relative permeabilities and capillary pressures. This requires, however, that data of high accuracy are collected under controlled test conditions. The purpose of this report is to describe the modeling approach, assumptions and limitations of the procedure, and to provide practical recommendations for future testing

  14. Treating Youths with Selective Mutism with an Alternating Design of Exposure-Based Practice and Contingency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Jennifer; Kearney, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Selective mutism is a severe childhood disorder involving failure to speak in public situations in which speaking is expected. The present study examined 9 youths with selective mutism treated with child-focused, exposure-based practices and parent-focused contingency management via an alternating treatments design. Broadband measures of…

  15. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  16. Design and Analysis of Winglets for Military Aircraft. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    determine the effect of the AFFDI/Boeing winglets on the KC-135A’s aerodynamic performance and longitudinal and lateral-directional stability. A... Aerodynamic Synthesis and Flight Research, task 143101, Unified Flight Mechanics Technology, work unit 14310125, Design and Analysis of Winglets for...1 TI LOW-SPEED AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF L ~AFFDLIBOEING WINGLET ON THE KC-135A ......................... 1 1 Description of Analytic Model

  17. Phase I (or phase II) dose-ranging clinical trials: proposal of a two-stage Bayesian design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Sarah; Chevret, Sylvie

    2003-02-01

    We propose a new design for phase I (or phase II) dose-ranging clinical trials aiming at determining a dose of an experimental treatment to satisfy safety (respectively efficacy) requirements, at treating a sufficiently large number of patients to estimate the toxicity (respectively failure) probability of the dose level with a given reliability, and at stopping the trial early if it is likely that no dose is safe (respectively efficacious). A two-stage design was derived from the Continual Reassessment Method (CRM), with implementation of Bayesian criteria to generate stopping rules. A simulation study was conducted to compare the operating characteristics of the proposed two-stage design to those reached by the traditional CRM. Finally, two applications to real data sets are provided.

  18. SNR-optimized phase-sensitive dual-acquisition turbo spin echo imaging: a fast alternative to FLAIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Park, Jaeseok

    2013-07-01

    Phase-sensitive dual-acquisition single-slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo imaging was recently introduced, producing high-resolution isotropic cerebrospinal fluid attenuated brain images without long inversion recovery preparation. Despite the advantages, the weighted-averaging-based technique suffers from noise amplification resulting from different levels of cerebrospinal fluid signal modulations over the two acquisitions. The purpose of this work is to develop a signal-to-noise ratio-optimized version of the phase-sensitive dual-acquisition single-slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo. Variable refocusing flip angles in the first acquisition are calculated using a three-step prescribed signal evolution while those in the second acquisition are calculated using a two-step pseudo-steady state signal transition with a high flip-angle pseudo-steady state at a later portion of the echo train, balancing the levels of cerebrospinal fluid signals in both the acquisitions. Low spatial frequency signals are sampled during the high flip-angle pseudo-steady state to further suppress noise. Numerical simulations of the Bloch equations were performed to evaluate signal evolutions of brain tissues along the echo train and optimize imaging parameters. In vivo studies demonstrate that compared with conventional phase-sensitive dual-acquisition single-slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo, the proposed optimization yields 74% increase in apparent signal-to-noise ratio for gray matter and 32% decrease in imaging time. The proposed method can be a potential alternative to conventional fluid-attenuated imaging. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as an Alternative Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), and Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used in buses. At present, there do not exist co...

  20. Considerations for rigid vs. flexible pavement designs when allowed as alternate bids : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the research conducted for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) : concerning the use of pavement alternates. The scope of the project includes reviewing the state-of-thepractice : in methods used for pavement type sele...

  1. A Novel Automatic Phase Selection Device: Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Haitao; Li, Na; Zhang, Nan; Lv, Wei; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-01-01

    At present, AICD completion is an effective way to slow down the bottom water cone. Effective extension of the period without water production. According on the basis of investigating the AICD both at home and abroad, this paper designed a new type of AICD, and with the help of fluid numerical simulation software, the internal flow field was analysed, and its structure is optimized. The simulation results show that the tool can restrict the flow of water well, and the flow of oil is less.

  2. Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and...

  3. Innovative Structural and Material Concepts for Low-Weight Low-Drag Aircraft Design, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this multi-phase project is to explore, develop, integrate, and test several innovative structural design concepts and new material...

  4. Lightweight Design of an HTS Coil for the VASIMR Experiment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II SBIR contract Tai-Yang Research Company of Tennessee proposes to design, fabricate, and test an ultra-lightweight High Temperature Superconducting...

  5. Model-Based Design Tools for Extending COTS Components To Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this Phase I project is to prove the feasibility of using model-based design (MBD) tools to predict the performance and useful life of...

  6. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project team applied the life cycle design methodology to the design analysis of three alternative air intake manifolds: a sand cast aluminum, brazed aluminum tubular, and nylon composite. The design analysis included a life cycle inventory analysis, environmental regulatory...

  7. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis

  8. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  9. Novel BCH Code Design for Mitigation of Phase Noise Induced Cycle Slips in DQPSK Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, M. Y.; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead......We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead...

  10. Analyzing Two-Phase Single-Case Data with Non-overlap and Mean Difference Indices: Illustration, Software Tools, and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolov, Rumen; Losada, José L; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Two-phase single-case designs, including baseline evaluation followed by an intervention, represent the most clinically straightforward option for combining professional practice and research. However, unless they are part of a multiple-baseline schedule, such designs do not allow demonstrating a causal relation between the intervention and the behavior. Although the statistical options reviewed here cannot help overcoming this methodological limitation, we aim to make practitioners and applied researchers aware of the available appropriate options for extracting maximum information from the data. In the current paper, we suggest that the evaluation of behavioral change should include visual and quantitative analyses, complementing the substantive criteria regarding the practical importance of the behavioral change. Specifically, we emphasize the need to use structured criteria for visual analysis, such as the ones summarized in the What Works Clearinghouse Standards, especially if such criteria are complemented by visual aids, as illustrated here. For quantitative analysis, we focus on the non-overlap of all pairs and the slope and level change procedure, as they offer straightforward information and have shown reasonable performance. An illustration is provided of the use of these three pieces of information: visual, quantitative, and substantive. To make the use of visual and quantitative analysis feasible, open source software is referred to and demonstrated. In order to provide practitioners and applied researchers with a more complete guide, several analytical alternatives are commented on pointing out the situations (aims, data patterns) for which these are potentially useful.

  11. Critical appraisal of arguments for the delayed-start design proposed as alternative to the parallel-group randomized clinical trial design in the field of rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M; Jenz, Eva; Großhennig, Anika; Koch, Armin

    2017-08-17

    A number of papers have proposed or evaluated the delayed-start design as an alternative to the standard two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial (RCT) design in the field of rare disease. However the discussion is felt to lack a sufficient degree of consideration devoted to the true virtues of the delayed start design and the implications either in terms of required sample-size, overall information, or interpretation of the estimate in the context of small populations. To evaluate whether there are real advantages of the delayed-start design particularly in terms of overall efficacy and sample size requirements as a proposed alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease. We used a real-life example to compare the delayed-start design with the standard RCT in terms of sample size requirements. Then, based on three scenarios regarding the development of the treatment effect over time, the advantages, limitations and potential costs of the delayed-start design are discussed. We clarify that delayed-start design is not suitable for drugs that establish an immediate treatment effect, but for drugs with effects developing over time, instead. In addition, the sample size will always increase as an implication for a reduced time on placebo resulting in a decreased treatment effect. A number of papers have repeated well-known arguments to justify the delayed-start design as appropriate alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease and do not discuss the specific needs of research methodology in this field. The main point is that a limited time on placebo will result in an underestimated treatment effect and, in consequence, in larger sample size requirements compared to those expected under a standard parallel-group design. This also impacts on benefit-risk assessment.

  12. Design and hardware alternatives for a Safety-Parameter Display System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeycutt, F.; Merten, W.T.; Roy, G.M.; Segraves, E.; Stone, G.P.

    1981-05-01

    The SPDS is a dedicated control room operator aid and is viewed as an important safety improvement within the context of other post-TMI fixes. Hardware configurations and components to implement the NSAC display format of a Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) are evaluated. The evaluation was made on the basis of five alternative hardware configurations which use commercially available components. Four of the alternatives use computer/video display architecture. The fifth alternative is a simple hardwired system which uses strip chart recorders. SPDS regulatory requirements are defined by NUREG 0696. Overall feasibility of the NSAC concept was evaluated in terms of performance, reliability, cost, licensability, and flexibility. The flexibility evaluation relates to the ability to handle other display formats, the data acquisition needs of the other emergency facilities and the impact of expected future NRC requirements

  13. The engineering design evolution of IFMIF: From CDR to EDA phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Mario, E-mail: mario.perez@ifmif.org

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Brief description of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), its background and scope its Engineering Design and Validation Activities (EVEDA) phase. • Description and justification of the main design evolutions from previous phases; and in particular from the baseline described in the “Comprehensive Design Report” (CDR). - Abstract: The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), presently in its Engineering Design and Engineering Validation Activities (EVEDA) phase, started in 2007 under the framework of the Broader Approach (BA) Agreement between Japanese Government and EURATOM. The mandate assigned was to develop an integrated engineering design of IFMIF together with accompanying sub-projects to validate the major technological challenges that included the construction of either full scale prototypes or cleverly devised scaled down facilities, which are essential to reliably face the construction of IFMIF on schedule and cost. The Engineering Design Activities were accomplished on-schedule with the release of its “Intermediate Engineering Design Report (IIEDR)” in June 2013 compliant with our mandate. This paper highlights the design improvements implemented from the previous Conceptual Design Phase.

  14. Theory and design of a half-mode SIW Ferrite LTCC phase shifter

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2015-05-01

    A half mode SIW based Ferrite LTCC phase shifter is presented in this work. A theoretical model to predict the phase shift in the partially magnetized state has been derived. Contrary to the bulky external magnets employed by conventional ferrite phase shifters for biasing, this design uses bias windings embedded within the ferrite substrate. This not only enables miniaturization but also reduces the required bias fields considerably by avoiding the demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-dielectric interface for external biasing schemes). The design is optimized with the aid of magnetostatic and microwave simulations which are later verified through measurements of a prototype. The fabricated phase shifter provides a differential phase shift of 110°/cm and an FoM of 55°/dB for an applied DC current of 240 mA.

  15. A comparative analysis for multiattribute selection among renewable energy alternatives using fuzzy axiomatic design and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Cengiz; Kaya, Ihsan; Cebi, Selcuk [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367, Macka-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    Renewable energy is the energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat which are renewable. Energy resources are very important in perspective of economics and politics for all countries. Hence, the selection of the best alternative for any country takes an important role for energy investments. Among decision-making methodologies, axiomatic design (AD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) are often used in the literature. The fuzzy set theory is a powerful tool to treat the uncertainty in case of incomplete or vague information. In this paper, fuzzy multicriteria decision- making methodologies are suggested for the selection among renewable energy alternatives. The first methodology is based on the AHP which allows the evaluation scores from experts to be linguistic expressions, crisp, or fuzzy numbers, while the second is based on AD principles under fuzziness which evaluates the alternatives under objective or subjective criteria with respect to the functional requirements obtained from experts. The originality of the paper comes from the fuzzy AD application to the selection of the best renewable energy alternative and the comparison with fuzzy AHP. In the application of the proposed methodologies the most appropriate renewable energy alternative is determined for Turkey. (author)

  16. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  17. Providing Training Enhances the Biomechanical Improvements of an Alternative Computer Mouse Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, A.; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Odell, D.; Dennerlein, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine if an alternative mouse promotes more neutral postures and decreases forearm muscle activity and if training enhances these biomechanical benefits. Background: Computer mouse use is a risk factor for developing musculoskeletal disorders;

  18. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  19. Alternative Fuels and Hybrid Technology: A Classroom Activity Designed to Evaluate a Contemporary Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy MacArthur, Amy H.; Copper, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    As petroleum reserves are being depleted worldwide and energy costs are increasing, the use of alternative fuels is being more widely considered as a solution to the impending energy crisis. In this classroom activity students are presented with a real-world problem in which they must evaluate the properties and environmental impacts of a variety…

  20. Conceptual design report for environmental, safety and health phase III FY-91 line item

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-09-01

    The Mound Facility (Mound), located in Miamisburg, Ohio, is a Department of Energy (DOE) development and production facility performing support work for DOE`s weapons and energy-related programs. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies (EG&G) is the Operating Contractor (OC) for this Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility. The work performed at Mound emphasizes nuclear energy and explosives technology. Mound is currently implementing an Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program designed to protect its employees, the public, and the environment from adverse effects caused by the facility`s activities. Design has been completed, and construction is in progress for Phase I of this multiphase program. Phase II has been submitted for fiscal year (FY) 89 funding and Phase IV is being submitted as an FY 92 line item. This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) addresses Phase III of the ES&H program.

  1. Selection and development of innovative design alternatives: Ethical, social and uncertainty issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Innovative engineering design shapes the development of novel technologies and is ethically as well as socially relevant, because it affects what kind of possibilities and consequences will arise. A major challenge in engineering design work on innovative technologies is the multitude of uncertainties in the form of known unknowns, unknown unknowns, complexities, and ambiguities. The evaluation and generation of design concepts are general and essential parts of the design process in which va...

  2. Design of materials with extreme thermal expansion using a three-phase topology optimization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Torquato, S.

    1997-01-01

    We show how composites with extremal or unusual thermal expansion coefficients can be designed using a numerical topology optimization method. The composites are composed of two different material phases and void. The optimization method is illustrated by designing materials having maximum therma...

  3. SSME Alternate Turbopump Development Program: Design verification specification for high-pressure fuel turbopump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The design and verification requirements are defined which are appropriate to hardware at the detail, subassembly, component, and engine levels and to correlate these requirements to the development demonstrations which provides verification that design objectives are achieved. The high pressure fuel turbopump requirements verification matrix provides correlation between design requirements and the tests required to verify that the requirement have been met.

  4. An Alternative View of the Instructional Design Process: A Response to Smith and Boling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Yanchar, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A recent literature review by Smith and Boling (2009) critically examines the received view of instructional design in educational technology. Smith and Boling conclude that the foundational literature characterizes design in a way that leads to a constrained understanding of design, especially by novices. They suggest that as a field we move…

  5. A Comparison of Problem-Solving Alternatives Used by Environmental Designers. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, D. Michael; Nadler, Gerald

    This study compared the effectiveness of three design strategies using nine architecture graduate students to solve three typical room design problems. Open-ended (5 step), traditional (10 step), and systematic (15 step) strategies were developed based on a national survey of design methodologists. Each strategy was applied by three subjects…

  6. Comparing identically designed grayscale (50 phase level) and binary (5 phase levels) splitters: actual versus modeled performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2006-04-01

    Performance of diffractive optics is determined by high-quality design and a suitable fabrication process that can actually realize the design. Engineers who are tasked with developing or implementing a diffractive optic solution into a product need to take into consideration the risks of using grayscale versus binary fabrication processes. In many cases, grayscale design doesn't always provide the best solution or cost benefit during product development. This fabrication dilemma arises when the engineer has to select a source for design and/or fabrication. Engineers come face to face with reality in view of the fact that diffractive optic suppliers tend to provide their services on a "best effort basis". This can be very disheartening to an engineer who is trying to implement diffractive optics. This paper will compare and contrast the design and performance of a 1 to 24 beam, two dimensional; beam splitter fabricated using a fifty (50) phase level grayscale and a five (5) phase level binary fabrication methods. Optical modeling data will be presented showing both designs and the performance expected prior to fabrication. An overview of the optical testing methods used will be discussed including the specific test equipment and metrology techniques used to verify actual optical performance and fabricated dimensional stability of each optical element. Presentation of the two versions of the splitter will include data on fabrication dimensional errors, split beam-to-beam uniformity, split beam-to-beam spatial size uniformity and splitter efficiency as compared to the original intended design performance and models. This is a continuation of work from 2005, Laser Beam Shaping VI.

  7. Two-Phase Iteration for Value Function Approximation and Hyperparameter Optimization in Gaussian-Kernel-Based Adaptive Critic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Dynamic Programming (ADP with critic-actor architecture is an effective way to perform online learning control. To avoid the subjectivity in the design of a neural network that serves as a critic network, kernel-based adaptive critic design (ACD was developed recently. There are two essential issues for a static kernel-based model: how to determine proper hyperparameters in advance and how to select right samples to describe the value function. They all rely on the assessment of sample values. Based on the theoretical analysis, this paper presents a two-phase simultaneous learning method for a Gaussian-kernel-based critic network. It is able to estimate the values of samples without infinitively revisiting them. And the hyperparameters of the kernel model are optimized simultaneously. Based on the estimated sample values, the sample set can be refined by adding alternatives or deleting redundances. Combining this critic design with actor network, we present a Gaussian-kernel-based Adaptive Dynamic Programming (GK-ADP approach. Simulations are used to verify its feasibility, particularly the necessity of two-phase learning, the convergence characteristics, and the improvement of the system performance by using a varying sample set.

  8. Fast optimization method of designing a wideband metasurface without using the Pancharatnam-Berry phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Sai; Ma, Hua; Lv, Yueguang; Wang, Jiafu; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jieqiu; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-01-22

    Arbitrary control of electromagnetic waves remains a significant challenge although it promises many important applications. Here, we proposed a fast optimization method of designing a wideband metasurface without using the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase, of which the elements are non-absorptive and capable of predicting the wideband and smooth phase-shift. In our design method, the metasurface is composed of low-Q-factor resonant elements without using the PB phase, and is optimized by the genetic algorithm and nonlinear fitting method, having the advantages that the far field scattering patterns can be quickly synthesized by the hybrid array patterns. To validate the design method, a wideband low radar cross section metasurface is demonstrated, showing good feasibility and performance of wideband RCS reduction. This work reveals an opportunity arising from a metasurface in effective manipulation of microwave and flexible fast optimal design method.

  9. Concept design and alternate arrangements of orbiter mid-deck habitability features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, R. A.; Ciciora, J. A.; Porter, K. L.; Stevenson, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    The evaluations and recommendations for habitability features in the space shuttle orbiter mid-deck are summarized. The orbiter mission plans, the mid-deck dimensions and baseline arrangements along with crew compliments and typical activities were defined. Female and male anthropometric data based on zero-g operations were also defined. Evaluations of baseline and alternate feasible concepts provided several recommendations which are discussed.

  10. Analysis of Central Design Agency Alternatives for Navy Industrial Fund Accounting Systems: A Proposed Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Postgraduate School ANA01611I NM61"fa Monterey, California 93940 1 CON TROLLING OFFICE NAMC &NO Accaes ii uOmvo*a Naval Postgraduate School March 1980...judge alternative 3, it is further recomended that the Naval Audit Service, private contractor or other independent agent be comissioned to perform an in...Government Accounting, Government Accounting, Auditing , and Financial Reporting, Chicago, Municipal Finance Officer’s Association, 1968, p. 3-4. 4

  11. Innovative IPV from attenuated Sabin poliovirus or newly designed alternative seed strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2012-11-01

    This article gives an overview of the patent literature related to innovative inactivated polio vaccine (i-IPV) based on using Sabin poliovirus strains and newly developed alternative recombinant poliovirus strains. This innovative approach for IPV manufacturing is considered to attribute to the requirement for affordable IPV in the post-polio-eradication era, which is on the horizon. Although IPV is a well-established vaccine, the number of patent applications in this field was seen to have significantly increased in the past decade. Currently, regular IPV appears to be too expensive for universal use. Future affordability may be achieved by using alternative cell lines, alternative virus seed strains, improved and optimized processes, dose sparing, or the use of adjuvants. A relatively short-term option to achieve cost-price reduction is to work on regular IPV, using wild-type poliovirus strains, or on Sabin-IPV, based on using attenuated poliovirus strains. This price reduction can be achieved by introducing efficiency in processing. There are also multiple opportunities to work on dose sparing, for example, by using adjuvants or fractional doses. Renewed interest in this field was clearly reflected in the number and diversity of patent applications. In a later stage, several innovative approaches may become even more attractive, for example the use of recombinant virus strains or even a totally synthetic vaccine. Currently, such work is mainly carried out by research institutes and universities and therefore clinical data are not available.

  12. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical University of Denmark has tested the DGNB-UD system in two experimental design projects for similar locations to find out how it can be used in the early-phase design process. This paper describes these ...

  13. Design of Helical Capacitance Sensor for Holdup Measurement in Two-Phase Stratified Flow: A Sinusoidal Function Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lam Ghai; Pao, William K. S.; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Tang, Tong Boon

    2016-01-01

    A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design. PMID:27384567

  14. Design of Helical Capacitance Sensor for Holdup Measurement in Two-Phase Stratified Flow: A Sinusoidal Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Ghai Lim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function, with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.

  15. Design of Helical Capacitance Sensor for Holdup Measurement in Two-Phase Stratified Flow: A Sinusoidal Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lam Ghai; Pao, William K S; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Tang, Tong Boon

    2016-07-04

    A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a 'sine-like' function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.

  16. Design and fabrication of a low cost Darrieus vertical axis wing turbine system. Phase I. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-06-22

    The contract has two phases, a design phase and a fabrication and installation phase. Presented is the work completed in Phase I, the design phase. The Sandia 17 m was used as the background machine from which design information was drawn. By concentrating the modifications on an existing design, emphasis was focused on component cost reduction rather than selection of optimal configuration or operating modes. The resulting design is a stretched version of the Sandia 17 m preserving the same rotor diameter and many other good features, but in the meantime lighter in weight, larger in capacity, and anticipated to be more cost effective.

  17. Evaluation of the influence of dominance rules for the assembly line design problem under consideration of product design alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, Jonathan; Lionel, Amodeo

    2018-06-01

    The current competitive situation increases the importance of realistically estimating product costs during the early phases of product and assembly line planning projects. In this article, several multi-objective algorithms using difference dominance rules are proposed to solve the problem associated with the selection of the most effective combination of product and assembly lines. The list of developed algorithms includes variants of ant colony algorithms, evolutionary algorithms and imperialist competitive algorithms. The performance of each algorithm and dominance rule is analysed by five multi-objective quality indicators and fifty problem instances. The algorithms and dominance rules are ranked using a non-parametric statistical test.

  18. Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-12

    This report presents the effort to extend the single-phase analytical Terry turbine model to cover two-phase off-design conditions. The work includes: (1) adding well-established two-phase choking models – the Isentropic Homogenous Equilibrium Model (IHEM) and Moody’s model, and (2) theoretical development and implementation of a two-phase nozzle expansion model. The two choking models provide bounding cases for the two-phase choking mass flow rate. The new two-phase Terry turbine model uses the choking models to calculate the mass flow rate, the critical pressure at the nozzle throat, and steam quality. In the divergent stage, we only consider the vapor phase with a similar model for the single-phase case by assuming that the liquid phase would slip along the wall with a much slower speed and will not contribute the impulse on the rotor. We also modify the stagnation conditions according to two-phase choking conditions at the throat and the cross-section areas for steam flow at the nozzle throat and at the nozzle exit. The new two-phase Terry turbine model was benchmarked with the same steam nozzle test as for the single-phase model. Better agreement with the experimental data is observed than from the single-phase model. We also repeated the Terry turbine nozzle benchmark work against the Sandia CFD simulation results with the two-phase model for the pure steam inlet nozzle case. The RCIC start-up tests were simulated and compared with the single-phase model. Similar results are obtained. Finally, we designed a new RCIC system test case to simulate the self-regulated Terry turbine behavior observed in Fukushima accidents. In this test, a period inlet condition for the steam quality varying from 1 to 0 is applied. For the high quality inlet period, the RCIC system behaves just like the normal operation condition with a high pump injection flow rate and a nominal steam release rate through the turbine, with the net addition of water to the primary system; for

  19. Affordances and use plans : an analysis of two alternatives to function-based design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, A.J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Function-based design approaches have been criticized for being too narrow to properly guide design. Specifically, they are said to be unable to cope with nonfunctional considerations, such as cost or maintenance issues without invoking other concepts, such as constraints. This paper investigates

  20. Selection and development of innovative design alternatives : Ethical, social and uncertainty issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Innovative engineering design shapes the development of novel technologies and is ethically as well as socially relevant, because it affects what kind of possibilities and consequences will arise. A major challenge in engineering design work on innovative technologies is the multitude of

  1. Bayesian enhancement two-stage design for single-arm phase II clinical trials with binary and time-to-event endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haolun; Yin, Guosheng

    2018-02-21

    Simon's two-stage design is one of the most commonly used methods in phase II clinical trials with binary endpoints. The design tests the null hypothesis that the response rate is less than an uninteresting level, versus the alternative hypothesis that the response rate is greater than a desirable target level. From a Bayesian perspective, we compute the posterior probabilities of the null and alternative hypotheses given that a promising result is declared in Simon's design. Our study reveals that because the frequentist hypothesis testing framework places its focus on the null hypothesis, a potentially efficacious treatment identified by rejecting the null under Simon's design could have only less than 10% posterior probability of attaining the desirable target level. Due to the indifference region between the null and alternative, rejecting the null does not necessarily mean that the drug achieves the desirable response level. To clarify such ambiguity, we propose a Bayesian enhancement two-stage (BET) design, which guarantees a high posterior probability of the response rate reaching the target level, while allowing for early termination and sample size saving in case that the drug's response rate is smaller than the clinically uninteresting level. Moreover, the BET design can be naturally adapted to accommodate survival endpoints. We conduct extensive simulation studies to examine the empirical performance of our design and present two trial examples as applications. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

  2. Clinical implementation of x-ray phase-contrast imaging: Theoretical foundations and design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical foundation and design considerations of a clinical feasible x-ray phase contrast imaging technique were presented in this paper. Different from the analysis of imaging phase object with weak absorption in literature, we proposed a new formalism for in-line phase-contrast imaging to analyze the effects of four clinically important factors on the phase contrast. These are the body parts attenuation, the spatial coherence of spherical waves from a finite-size focal spot, and polychromatic x-ray and radiation doses to patients for clinical applications. The theory presented in this paper can be applied widely in diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures. As an example, computer simulations were conducted and optimal design parameters were derived for clinical mammography. The results of phantom experiments were also presented which validated the theoretical analysis and computer simulations

  3. Use of alternative sources of energy: design study of photovoltaic based parking area lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraki, V.; Loucas, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes the lighting of the parking area and the surrounding streets of the north west part of the University Campus of Patras, using an alternative source of energy, the photovoltaic energy. The sizing of the proposed system results to a reliable, autonomous system which covers the total of the energy needs without any maintenance. Although the energy produced is more expensive compared to the grid electricity nowadays, such solutions seem necessary and well promising for the future as the fuel reserves are limited. (authors)

  4. DESIGNING CULTURALLY CONSCIOUS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION TO FOSTER ASIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Herliana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating an Asian model of alternative dispute resolution which considers Asian cultures is important. A mere adoption of western standard will less likely accommodate Asian’s unique way of handling disputes. Culture-related problems can be avoided if international commercial mediation or arbitration is tuned in to cultural needs and expectations. Penyusunan model alternatif penyelesaian sengketa gaya Asia yang mengakomodasi budaya setempat penting untuk dilakukan. Penerapan standar barat tidak selamanya cocok dengan cara unik orang Asia dalam memandang suatu sengketa. Konflik kultural dapat dihindari apabila mediasi atau arbitrase bisnis internasional disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan budaya setempat.

  5. Exploratory Shaft, Phase 1, Project B-314: Title 1 design report system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlen, D.F.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes the project and the project systems, the principal design bases, and principal hazards and project interfaces. This report also contains the Title 1 Estimate Summary. 5 figs., 8 tabs

  6. The design of cermet fuel phase fraction and fuel particle diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Sheng.

    1986-01-01

    UO 2 -Zr-2 is an ideal cermet fuel. As an exemplification with this fuel, this paper emphatically elucidates the irradiation theory of cermet fuel and its application in the design of cermet fuel phase fraction and of fuel particle diameter. From the point of view of the irradiation theory and the consideration for sandwich rolling, the suitable volume fraction of UO 2 phase of 25% and diameter of UO 2 particle of 100 +- 15 μm are selected

  7. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  8. Design of a K-Band Transmit Phased Array For Low Earth Orbit Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Thomas; Miller, Stephen; Kershner, Dennis; Anzic, Godfrey

    2000-01-01

    The design of a light weight, low cost phased array antenna is presented. Multilayer printed wiring board (PWB) technology is utilized for Radio Frequencies (RF) and DC/Logic manifold distribution. Transmit modules are soldered on one side and patch antenna elements are on the other, allowing the use of automated assembly processes. The 19 GHz antenna has two independently steerable beams, each capable of transferring data at 622 Mbps. A passive, self-contained phase change thermal management system is also presented.

  9. Proposal and design of phase-modulated fiber gratings in transmission for pulse shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Miguel A; Shu, Xuewen; Sugden, Kate

    2013-01-01

    An approach to pulse shaping using a phase-modulated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in transmission is proposed and designed. We show that phase-modulated FBGs can provide transmission responses suitable for pulse shaping applications, offering important technological feasibility benefits, since the coupling strength remains basically uniform in the grating. Moreover, this approach retains the substantial advantages of FBGs in transmission, such as optimum energy efficiency, no requirement for an optical circulator, and robustness against fabrication errors.

  10. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume discusses the design, performance and failures of feed pumps, and recommendations for research on pump dynamics, design, and specifications.

  11. Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Trujillo, G.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs

  12. Service design as the ground for alternative social and economic scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbordone, Maria Antonietta; Morelli, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    , such as experience, time, knowledge, new roles in working and consuming. The actions triggered by service design move the center of value production from material goods to immaterial actions and performances. Services also propose new dynamics of relational mediation among stakeholders in social and economic systems......This paper focuses on Service Design as the theoretical and operative framework for activities in very diversified contexts. Within this framework, the paper analyses the design of services and service systems as a form of mediation, integration and diffusion of new operational practices...

  13. An Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Concept's Europa Science Phase Orbit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robert E.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Clark, Karla B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), the proposed NASA element of the proposed joint NASA-ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), could launch in February 2020 and conceivably arrive at Jupiter in December of 2025. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months. This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only.

  14. Enabling Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling During Early Phases of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James B.; Dees, Patrick D.; Diaz, Manuel J.

    2015-01-01

    During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult -- in both cost and schedule -- to enact. Indeed, the current capability-based paradigm that has emerged because of the constrained economic environment calls for the infusion of knowledge acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bring knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture as the need for more economically viable access to space solutions are needed in today's constrained economic environment. The problem of ascent trajectory optimization is not a new one. There are several programs that are widely used in industry that allows trajectory analysts to, based on detailed vehicle and insertion orbit parameters, determine the optimal ascent trajectory. Yet, little information is known about the launch vehicle early in the design phase - information that is required of many different disciplines in order to successfully optimize the ascent trajectory. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi

  15. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  16. Alternative transport network designs and their implications for intermodal transhipment technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Woxenius, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Six principles for operation of the rail part of intermodal rail freight transport systems are described: direct link, corridor, hub-and-spoke, connected hubs, static routes, and dynamic routes. The first part is a theoretical discussion of the characteristics of the transport network designs. The theory is then applied to intermodal freight transport by analysing how each transport network design affects the need for terminal performance. The discussion includes a classification of existing ...

  17. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  18. BOP2: Bayesian optimal design for phase II clinical trials with simple and complex endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heng; Lee, J Jack; Yuan, Ying

    2017-09-20

    We propose a flexible Bayesian optimal phase II (BOP2) design that is capable of handling simple (e.g., binary) and complicated (e.g., ordinal, nested, and co-primary) endpoints under a unified framework. We use a Dirichlet-multinomial model to accommodate different types of endpoints. At each interim, the go/no-go decision is made by evaluating a set of posterior probabilities of the events of interest, which is optimized to maximize power or minimize the number of patients under the null hypothesis. Unlike other existing Bayesian designs, the BOP2 design explicitly controls the type I error rate, thereby bridging the gap between Bayesian designs and frequentist designs. In addition, the stopping boundary of the BOP2 design can be enumerated prior to the onset of the trial. These features make the BOP2 design accessible to a wide range of users and regulatory agencies and particularly easy to implement in practice. Simulation studies show that the BOP2 design has favorable operating characteristics with higher power and lower risk of incorrectly terminating the trial than some existing Bayesian phase II designs. The software to implement the BOP2 design is freely available at www.trialdesign.org. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A test section design to simulate horizontal two-phase air-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, Jose Luiz H.; Cesar, Silvia B.G.; Coutinho, Jorge A.; Freitas, Sergio Carlos; Addor, Pedro N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work an air-water two-phase flow horizontal test section assembling at Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) is presented. The test section was designed to allow four-phase flow patterns to be simulated: bubble flow, stratified flow, wave flow and slug flow. These flow patterns will be identified by non-conventional ultrasonic techniques which have been developed to meet this particular application. Based on the separated flow and drift-flux models the test section design steps are shown. A description of the test section and its instrumentation and data acquisition system is also provided. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Market Design Programme - Phase IV; Utvaerdering av Market Designprogrammet - etapp IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Tomas

    2013-08-15

    The Market Design program was established in year 2000 to study issues related to markets, regulations and policy instruments related to the deregulation of the Swedish electricity market. Through the years, the focus has widened to include not only Sweden but also international cooperation on these issues. The fourth phase of the program is now underway between the years 2010 and 2013. The overall project objective of this fourth phase is to increase knowledge about the Nordic and North European electricity market. Specific objective is to create new knowledge that affects market design of the single market area (Nordic, EU) and to contribute to constructive meetings between researchers, energy companies and government agencies on Market Design Issues. The purpose of the evaluation of the Market Design Program phase IV has been to investigate the results and benefits of the program in relation to the program's original objectives and to examine the need for and areas of further research and possible ways for the research in Market Design. The evaluation has been carried through in four phases during spring and summer 2013. The work has included reading, interviews with program stakeholders, analysis and reporting.

  1. Design and control of an alternative distillation sequence for bioethanol purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, Massimiliano; Ramírez-Márquez, César; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is a green fuel considered to be a sustainable alternative to petro-derived gasoline. The transport sector contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emission and consequently has a negative impact on the air quality and is responsible for the increase of the greenhouse...... separation is presented. The steady state performance and the dynamic beavior are analyzed compared with the classical configuration reported in the literature. RESULTS: Ethanol-water azeotropic separation represents a challenge for bioethanol purification. Usually a three column sequence is used to obtain...... fuel grade bioethanol by extractive distillation. In order to reduce bioethanol purification cost a two column separation sequence is proposed. This configuration shows a 10% saving in capital costs together with higher ethanol recovery and better control properties compared with the classical three...

  2. Modelling the Preferences of Students for Alternative Assignment Designs Using the Discrete Choice Experiment Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Kennelly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how a discrete choice experiment (DCE can be used to learn more about how students are willing to trade off various features of assignments such as the nature and timing of feedback and the method used to submit assignments. A DCE identifies plausible levels of the key attributes of a good or service and then presents the respondent with alternative bundles of these attributes and their levels and asks the respondent to choose between particular bundles. We report results from a DCE we conducted with undergraduate business students regarding their preferences for assignment systems. We find that the most important features of assignments are how relevant the assignments are for exam preparation and the nature of the feedback that students receive. We also find that students generally prefer online to paper assignments. We argue that the DCE approach has a lot of potential in education research.

  3. Harnessing Alternative Energy Sources to Enhance the Design of a Wave Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Wave energy has the power to replace a non-renewable source of electricity for a home near the ocean. I built a small-scale wave generator capable of producing approximately 5 volts of electricity. The generator is an array of 16 small generators, each consisting of 200 feet of copper wire, 12 magnets, and a buoy. I tested my design in the Pacific Ocean and was able to power a string of lights I had attached to the generator. While the waves in the ocean moved my buoys, my design was powered by the vertical motion of the waves. My generator was hit with significant horizontal wave motion, and I realized I wasn't taking advantage of that direction of motion. To make my generator produce more electricity, I experimented with capturing the energy of the horizontal motion of water and incorporated that into my generator design. My generator, installed in the ocean, is also exposed to sun and wind, and I am exploring the potential of solar and wind energy collection in my design to increase the electricity output. Once I have maximized my electricity output, I would like to explore scaling up my design.

  4. Designing Preclinical Instruction for Psychomotor Skills (III)--Instructional Engineering: Design Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Pamela J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In the third of a series of articles on teaching psychomotor skills in dental education, the design of instructional materials is discussed. Steps include identifying appropriate teaching strategies for the tasks; organizing and sequencing subskills; identifying and collecting common errors; and drafting learning exercises for each subskill. (MSE)

  5. A framework to support decision making in the selection of sustainable drainage system design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingming; Sweetapple, Chris; Fu, Guangtao; Farmani, Raziyeh; Butler, David

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a new framework for decision making in sustainable drainage system (SuDS) scheme design. It integrates resilience, hydraulic performance, pollution control, rainwater usage, energy analysis, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and costs, and has 12 indicators. The multi-criteria analysis methods of entropy weight and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) were selected to support SuDS scheme selection. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated with a SuDS case in China. Indicators used include flood volume, flood duration, a hydraulic performance indicator, cost and resilience. Resilience is an important design consideration, and it supports scheme selection in the case study. The proposed framework will help a decision maker to choose an appropriate design scheme for implementation without subjectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate Change, Coastal Vulnerability and the Need for Adaptation Alternatives: Planning and Design Examples from Egypt and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jeffress Williams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Planning and design of coastal protection for high-risk events with low to moderate or uncertain probabilities are a challenging balance of short- and long-term cost vs. protection of lives and infrastructure. The pervasive, complex, and accelerating impacts of climate change on coastal areas, including sea-level rise, storm surge and tidal flooding, require full integration of the latest science into strategic plans and engineering designs. While the impacts of changes occurring are global, local effects are highly variable and often greatly exacerbated by geophysical (land subsidence, faulting, oceanographic (ocean circulation, wind patterns and anthropogenic factors. Reducing carbon emissions is needed to mitigate global warming, but adaptation can accommodate at least near future change impacts. Adaptation should include alternatives that best match region-specific risk, time frame, environmental conditions, and the desired protection. Optimal alternatives are ones that provide protection, accommodate or mimic natural coastal processes, and include landforms such as barrier islands and wetlands. Plans are often for 50 years, but longer-term planning is recommended since risk from climate change will persist for centuries. This paper presents an assessment of impacts of accelerating climate change on the adequacy of coastal protection strategies and explores design measures needed for an optimum degree of protection and risk reduction. Three coastal areas facing similar challenges are discussed: Abu-Qir Bay, Nile River delta plain, Egypt; Lake Borgne, New Orleans, Louisiana delta plain; and the New York City region.

  7. Alternative concepts for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This conceptual design report is provided by the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program to assist states and compact regions in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities in accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendment Act of 1985. The report provides conceptual designs and evaluations of six widely considered concepts for LLW disposal. These are shallow land disposal (SLD), intermediate depth disposal (IDD), below-ground vaults (BGV), above-ground vaults (AGV), modular concrete canister disposal (MCCD), earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB). 40 refs., 45 figs., 77 tabs

  8. Energy Conservation Alternatives Study (ECAS): Conceptual Design and Implementation Assessment of a Utility Steam Plant with Conventional Furnace and Wet Lime Stack Gas Scrubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to estimate the technical/economic characteristics of a steam power plant (3500 pounds per square inch gauge, 1000 degrees Fahrenheit / 1000 degrees Fahrenheit) with a coal-burning radiant furnace and a wet lime stack gas scrubber to control sulfur emissions. Particulate emissions were controlled by an electrostatic precipitator operating at 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The stack gas from the scrubber was reheated from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 250 degrees Fahrenheit as a base case, and from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 175 degrees Fahrenheit as an alternate case. The study was performed on a basis consistent with the General Electric ECAS Phase II evaluation of advanced energy conversion systems for electric utility baseload applications using coal or coal-derived fuels. A conceptual design of the power plant was developed, including the on-site calcination of limestone to lime and the provision of sludge ponds to store the products of flue gas scrubbing. From this design, estimates were derived for power plant efficiency, capital cost, environmental intrusion characteristics, natural resource requirements, and cost of electricity at an assumed capacity factor of 65 percent. An implementation assessment was performed where factors affecting applicability of the conceptual design power plant in electric utility generation systems were appraised. At 250 degrees Fahrenheit and 175 degrees Fahrenheit stack gas temperatures respectively, the plants showed a cost of electricity of 39.8 and 37.0 mills per kilowatt-hours and overall plant efficiencies of 32 percent and 34 percent.

  9. High Efficiency Large-Angle Pancharatnam Phase Deflector Based on Dual Twist Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    construction and characterization of a ±40° beam steering device with 90% diffraction efficiency based on our dual-twist design at 633nm wavelength...N. & Escuti, M. J. Achromatic Wollaston prism beam splitter using polarization gratings. Opt. Lett. 41, 4461–4463 (2016). 13. Slussarenko, S., et...High-efficiency large-angle Pancharatnam phase deflector based on dual-twist design Kun Gao1, Colin McGinty1, Harold Payson2, Shaun Berry2, Joseph

  10. Alternative designs for megavoltage machines for cancer treatment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Svensson, H.; Hanson, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    In developing countries radiation therapy is often performed with antiquated cobalt-60 units, the radioactive sources of which are long decayed and, thus, treatments are ineffective. Furthermore the cost involved in the disposal of spent radionuclide sources discourages owners from proper removal and storage, and accidents occur. Although present design of microwave electron linear accelerators provide excellent beam characteristics, developing countries in many locations do not have the infrastructure to maintain such machines. After an analysis of the radiotherapy situation world-wide - especially from the viewpoint of maintenance - a consensus was reached on the radiotherapy equipment performance requirements. To meet these requirements, several accelerator designs were considered. Among the most promising new designs were the klystron/linac and the high frequency linear accelerator, the microtron in a radiation head, the high frequency betatron, also in a radiation accelerator, and DC accelerators. Possible treatment designs, including those of modular nature, were presented. Since it is estimated that by the year 2015, barring a dramatic and unforeseen cure for cancer, a total of 10,000 machines will be needed to provide treatment for an estimated 10 million new cases per year in developing countries, the impact of such high technology simple machine could be substantial in providing equity and quality for the management of cancer patients. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  11. Alternative designs for megavoltage machines for cancer treatment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, C [Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC (United States); Svensson, H [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hanson, G P [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    In developing countries radiation therapy is often performed with antiquated cobalt-60 units, the radioactive sources of which are long decayed and, thus, treatments are ineffective. Furthermore the cost involved in the disposal of spent radionuclide sources discourages owners from proper removal and storage, and accidents occur. Although present design of microwave electron linear accelerators provide excellent beam characteristics, developing countries in many locations do not have the infrastructure to maintain such machines. After an analysis of the radiotherapy situation world-wide - especially from the viewpoint of maintenance - a consensus was reached on the radiotherapy equipment performance requirements. To meet these requirements, several accelerator designs were considered. Among the most promising new designs were the klystron/linac and the high frequency linear accelerator, the microtron in a radiation head, the high frequency betatron, also in a radiation accelerator, and DC accelerators. Possible treatment designs, including those of modular nature, were presented. Since it is estimated that by the year 2015, barring a dramatic and unforeseen cure for cancer, a total of 10,000 machines will be needed to provide treatment for an estimated 10 million new cases per year in developing countries, the impact of such high technology simple machine could be substantial in providing equity and quality for the management of cancer patients. 4 refs, 2 tabs.

  12. Design rules for phase-change materials in data storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencer, Dominic; Salinga, Martin [I. Physikalisches Institut IA, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut IA, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance, Section Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (JARA-FIT), 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-05-10

    Phase-change materials can rapidly and reversibly be switched between an amorphous and a crystalline phase. Since both phases are characterized by very different optical and electrical properties, these materials can be employed for rewritable optical and electrical data storage. Hence, there are considerable efforts to identify suitable materials, and to optimize them with respect to specific applications. Design rules that can explain why the materials identified so far enable phase-change based devices would hence be very beneficial. This article describes materials that have been successfully employed and discusses common features regarding both typical structures and bonding mechanisms. It is shown that typical structural motifs and electronic properties can be found in the crystalline state that are indicative for resonant bonding, from which the employed contrast originates. The occurence of resonance is linked to the composition, thus providing a design rule for phase-change materials. This understanding helps to unravel characteristic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity which are discussed in the subsequent section. Then, turning to the transition kinetics between the phases, the current understanding and modeling of the processes of amorphization and crystallization are discussed. Finally, present approaches for improved high-capacity optical discs and fast non-volatile electrical memories, that hold the potential to succeed present-day's Flash memory, are presented. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Design rules for phase-change materials in data storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencer, Dominic; Salinga, Martin; Wuttig, Matthias

    2011-05-10

    Phase-change materials can rapidly and reversibly be switched between an amorphous and a crystalline phase. Since both phases are characterized by very different optical and electrical properties, these materials can be employed for rewritable optical and electrical data storage. Hence, there are considerable efforts to identify suitable materials, and to optimize them with respect to specific applications. Design rules that can explain why the materials identified so far enable phase-change based devices would hence be very beneficial. This article describes materials that have been successfully employed and dicusses common features regarding both typical structures and bonding mechanisms. It is shown that typical structural motifs and electronic properties can be found in the crystalline state that are indicative for resonant bonding, from which the employed contrast originates. The occurence of resonance is linked to the composition, thus providing a design rule for phase-change materials. This understanding helps to unravel characteristic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity which are discussed in the subsequent section. Then, turning to the transition kinetics between the phases, the current understanding and modeling of the processes of amorphization and crystallization are discussed. Finally, present approaches for improved high-capacity optical discs and fast non-volatile electrical memories, that hold the potential to succeed present-day's Flash memory, are presented. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.

  15. Improved Titanium Billet Inspection Sensitivity through Optimized Phased Array Design, Part I: Design Technique, Modeling and Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupien, Vincent; Hassan, Waled; Dumas, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Reductions in the beam diameter and pulse duration of focused ultrasound for titanium inspections are believed to result in a signal-to-noise ratio improvement for embedded defect detection. It has been inferred from this result that detection limits could be extended to smaller defects through a larger diameter, higher frequency transducer resulting in a reduced beamwidth and pulse duration. Using Continuum Probe Designer TM (Pat. Pending), a transducer array was developed for full coverage inspection of 8 inch titanium billets. The main challenge in realizing a large aperture phased array transducer for billet inspection is ensuring that the number of elements remains within the budget allotted by the driving electronics. The optimization technique implemented by Continuum Probe Designer TM yields an array with twice the aperture but the same number of elements as existing phased arrays for the same application. The unequal area element design was successfully manufactured and validated both numerically and experimentally. Part I of this two-part series presents the design, simulation and modeling steps, while Part II presents the experimental validation and comparative study to multizone

  16. Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making in the Design of Innovative Lock Walls for Barge Impact; Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, James

    2001-01-01

    .... This research project consists of two phases: Phase 1, which culminates with this report, investigated the use of multiple-criteria decision-making in the design process of lock approach walls to consider barge impact and earthquake loads...

  17. An alternative approach to compensators design for photon beams used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkovic, S.; Zauhar, G.; Bistrovic, M.; Faj, D.; Kaliman, Z.; Smilovic Radojcic, D.

    2007-01-01

    The use of compensators in order to achieve desired dose distribution has a long history and is a well-established technique in radiation therapy planning. There are several different calculation methods for determining a compensator's thickness. An alternative method that is based on the Cunningham's modification of Clarkson's method to calculate scattered radiation in beams with an inhomogeneous cross-section is proposed. It is well known that the total dose distribution of radiotherapy photon beam consists of the contributions of the primary beam, attenuated by the tissue layer, and the scattered radiation generated by the primary radiation in single and multiple photon scatter events. The scattered component can be represented as a function of the primary radiation. The central point of our method is the numerical estimation of the primary distribution required to achieve the desired total distribution. Now using the calculated primary distribution, the shape of the modulator could be determined. In this way the contribution of the scattered component is validated in a more accurate way than using effective attenuation coefficients, which is a common practice. The method is verified in various clinical situations and compared with the standard method. The accuracy, although dependent on geometry, was improved by at least 2%. With more complex geometries there is an even higher gain in accuracy with our method when compared to the standard method

  18. Design of Two Alternative Routes for the Synthesis of Naftifine and Analogues as Potential Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Abonia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two practical and efficient approaches have been implemented as alternative procedures for the synthesis of naftifine and novel diversely substituted analogues 16 and 20 in good to excellent yields, mediated by Mannich-type reactions as the key step of the processes. In these approaches, the γ-aminoalcohols 15 and 19 were obtained as the key intermediates and their subsequent dehydration catalyzed either by Brønsted acids like H2SO4 and HCl or Lewis acid like AlCl3, respectively, led to naftifine, along with the target allylamines 16 and 20. The antifungal assay results showed that intermediates 18 (bearing both a β-aminoketo- and N-methyl functionalities in their structures and products 20 were the most active. Particularly, structures 18b, 18c, and the allylamine 20c showed the lowest MIC values, in the 0.5–7.8 µg/mL range, against the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Interesting enough, compound 18b bearing a 4-Br as the substituent of the phenyl ring, also displayed high activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC80 = 7.8 µg/mL, being fungicide rather than fungistatic with a relevant MFC value = 15.6 µg/mL against C. neoformans.

  19. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Dealing with subjectivity in early product design phase: a systematic approch to exploit QFD potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raharjo, H.; Brombacher, A.C.; Xie, M.

    2008-01-01

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD), as a customer-driven tool, is generally used in the early phase of new or improved products/services design process, and therefore most of the input parameters are highly subjective in nature. The five major input components of the QFD, which are laid in the House

  1. Technical Design Report for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS TDAQ System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069742; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Achenbach, Ralf; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexandrov, Evgeny; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, John Thomas; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Augusto, José; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Ballestrero, Sergio; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Batraneanu, Silvia; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bauss, Bruno; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertelsen, Henrik; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogdan, Mircea Arghir; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borga, Andrea; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Brawn, Ian; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Ciodaro Xavier, Thiago; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citraro, Saverio; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Crone, Gordon Jeremy; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drake, Gary; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebke, Johannes; Edmunds, Daniel; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ermoline, Iouri; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Faulkner, Peter; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Front, David Moris; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghibaudi, Marco; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibson, Stephen; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Green, Barry; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Higuchi, Kota; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Jansweijer, Peter Paul Maarten; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joos, Markus; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahra, Christian; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Kazarov, Andrei; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kiese, Patric Karl; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kolos, Serguei; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; K{ö}nig, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Laurens, Philippe; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberali, Valentino; Liberti, Barbara; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Luciano, Pierluigi; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Luongo, Carmela; Lupu, Nachman; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Macey, Tom; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Maldaner, Stephan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meessen, Christophe; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaidis, Spyridon; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Panes, Boris; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Piendibene, Marco; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Weiming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Quinonez, Fernando; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisin, Hernan; Reiss, Andreas; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schettino, Vinicius; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Klaus; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Shooltz, Dean; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sicoe, Alexandru Dan; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silva Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Siyad, Mohamed Jimcaale; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloviev, Igor; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stahlman, Jonathan; Staley, Richard; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Stupak, John; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taghavirad, Saeed; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Vieira De Souza, Julio; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wenzel, Volker; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2013-01-01

    The Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is to allow the ATLAS experiment to efficiently trigger and record data at instantaneous luminosities that are up to three times that of the original LHC design while maintaining trigger thresholds close to those used in the initial run of the LHC.

  2. Inertial subsystem functional and design requirements for the orbiter (Phase B extension baseline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, J. H.; Green, J. P., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The design requirements use the Phase B extension baseline system definition. This means that a GNC computer is specified for all command control functions instead of a central computer communicating with the ISS through a databus. Forced air cooling is used instead of cold plate cooling.

  3. Design of a ring resonator-based optical beam forming network for phased array receive antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Klooster, J.W.J.R.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Meijerink, Arjan; Zhuang, L.; Marpaung, D.A.I.; van Etten, Wim; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Schippers, H.; Verpoorte, J.; Wintels, M.

    2008-01-01

    A novel squint-free ring resonator-based optical beam forming network (OBFN) for phased array antennas (PAA) is proposed. It is intended to provide broadband connectivity to airborne platforms via geostationary satellites. In this paper, we present the design of the OBFN and its control system. Our

  4. Control system design for the constellation acquisition phase of the LISA mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, Francesca; Gath, Peter F, E-mail: francesca.cirillo@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: peter.gath@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium GmbH Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the constellation acquisition phase for the LISA mission is to establish the three laser links between the three spacecraft of the LISA constellation so that the interferometric measurements for the science experiment can commence. The laser beam acquisition for LISA is extremely challenging given the 5 million km distance between the spacecraft, the inherent limits of the attitude sensors accuracy, the orbit determination accuracy issues and the time required to phase-lock the incoming and outgoing laser signals. This paper presents the design of the control system for the acquisition phase of the LISA constellation: the acquisition operational procedure is outlined, guidance laws are defined together with the Gyro Mode attitude control principle, which implements a Kalman filter for disturbances rejection purposes. Constellation-wide non-linear simulations demonstrate that the LISA constellation acquisition phase is feasible by means of the proposed control strategy.

  5. Control system design for the constellation acquisition phase of the LISA mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, Francesca; Gath, Peter F

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the constellation acquisition phase for the LISA mission is to establish the three laser links between the three spacecraft of the LISA constellation so that the interferometric measurements for the science experiment can commence. The laser beam acquisition for LISA is extremely challenging given the 5 million km distance between the spacecraft, the inherent limits of the attitude sensors accuracy, the orbit determination accuracy issues and the time required to phase-lock the incoming and outgoing laser signals. This paper presents the design of the control system for the acquisition phase of the LISA constellation: the acquisition operational procedure is outlined, guidance laws are defined together with the Gyro Mode attitude control principle, which implements a Kalman filter for disturbances rejection purposes. Constellation-wide non-linear simulations demonstrate that the LISA constellation acquisition phase is feasible by means of the proposed control strategy.

  6. Stress engineering for the design of morphotropic phase boundary in piezoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Tomoya, E-mail: ohno@mail.kitami-it.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan); Yanagida, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Kentaroh [Department of Materials Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan); Arai, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naonori; Wakiya, Naoki; Suzuki, Hisao [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8561 (Japan); Satoh, Shigeo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaragi University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa-cho, Hitachi, Ibaragi 316-0033 (Japan); Matsuda, Takeshi [Department of Materials Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan)

    2015-06-30

    Alkoxide-derived lead zirconate titanate thin films having Zr/Ti = 50/50 to 60/40 compositions with different residual stress conditions were deposited on a Si wafer to clarify the effects of the residual stress on the morphotropic phase boundary shift. The residual stress condition was controlled to − 0.1 to − 0.9 GPa by the design of the buffer layer structure on the Si wafer. Results show that the maximum effective piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} was obtained at 58/42 composition under − 0.9 GPa compressive residual stress condition. Moreover, the MPB composition shifted linearly to Zr-rich phase with increasing compressive residual stress. - Highlights: • The residual stress in lead zirconate titanate film on silicon was controlled. • The maximum residual stress in lead zirconate titanate film was − 0.9 GPa. • The morphotropic phase boundary shifted to zirconium rich phase by the strain.

  7. Conceptual Design of the LHC Interaction Region Upgrade Phase-I

    CERN Document Server

    Ostojic, R; Baglin, V; Ballarino, A; Cerutti, F; Denz, R; Fartoukh, S; Fessia, P; Foraz, K; Fürstner, M; Herr, Werner; Karppinen, M; Kos, N; Mainaud-Durand, H; Mereghetti, A; Muttoni, Y; Nisbet, D; Prin, H; Tock, J P; Van Weelderen, R; Wildner, E

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is starting operation with beam. The primary goal of CERN and the LHC community is to ensure that the collider is operated efficiently and that it achieves nominal performance in the shortest term. Since several years the community has been discussing the directions for maximizing the physics reach of the LHC by upgrading the experiments, in particular ATLAS and CMS, the LHC machine and the CERN proton injector complex, in a phased approach. The first phase of the LHC interaction region upgrade was approved by Council in December 2007. This phase relies on the mature Nb-Ti superconducting magnet technology with the target of increasing the LHC luminosity to 2 to 3 10^34 cm^-2s^-1, while maximising the use of the existing infrastructure. In this report, we present the goals and the proposed conceptual solutions for the LHC IR Upgrade Phase-I which include the recommendations of the conceptual design review.

  8. Ventilation of high-speed flows, an alternating methodology for the ventilator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga V, Juan G.; Navarrete, J.; Galeano B, Luis A.

    1996-01-01

    This article is about a research developed at Universidad de los Andes on the ventilation of high velocity flows as prevention against cavitations erosion. The research was a consequence of the results found in the physical model of the Guavio River Hydroelectric Project near Bogota and was based in a general model study of a spillway with ventilation system, which did not represent a particular prototype. In the Guavio study one conclusion was obtained:in every ventilation system there are three unknowns which are the air discharge injected to the water flow (design object variable), the sub pressure under the water jet and the jump length of that jet. In the research those three variables were studied using dimensional analysis and multivariable regressions in order to find a set of three equations that allow the design of this type of structures. The new equations are more general than those reported in technical literature

  9. Exploring Alternatives for Representing and Accessing Design Knowledge About Enterprise Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathy, Karthikeyan; Purao, Sandeep

    Enterprise integration refers to solutions that facilitate meaningful interactions among heterogeneous legacy applications. The scale, complexity and specificity of most enterprise integration efforts mean that design knowledge for enterprise integration has resisted codification. Important exceptions to this include: use of Business Process Models (BPM) to understand integration requirements; and Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIP), which present designers with abstract descriptions of recurring design tactics for integrating applications. The two, however, can be at odds. BPM encourages the control flow perspective; whereas EIP codifies an operational perspective. Mapping between the two to develop coherent solutions, therefore, tends to be problematic. To bridge the gap, we suggest an approach that builds on the theory of speech acts. We develop essential components of such an approach, including a re-representation of EIP as structures of speech acts, a characterization of tasks in BPM with action types, and a mapping between speech acts and action types. These components are accompanied by inference rules that produce a mapping between sets of tasks in a business process and structures of speech acts to allow reasoning on identification of appropriate EIPs for given set of tasks. We demonstrate usefulness of the proposed approach by application to industry cases.

  10. Novel phase diagram behavior and materials design in heterostructural semiconductor alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Aaron M; Siol, Sebastian; Ndione, Paul F; Peng, Haowei; Deml, Ann M; Matthews, Bethany E; Schelhas, Laura T; Toney, Michael F; Gordon, Roy G; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D; Ginley, David S; Gorman, Brian P; Tate, Janet; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Structure and composition control the behavior of materials. Isostructural alloying is historically an extremely successful approach for tuning materials properties, but it is often limited by binodal and spinodal decomposition, which correspond to the thermodynamic solubility limit and the stability against composition fluctuations, respectively. We show that heterostructural alloys can exhibit a markedly increased range of metastable alloy compositions between the binodal and spinodal lines, thereby opening up a vast phase space for novel homogeneous single-phase alloys. We distinguish two types of heterostructural alloys, that is, those between commensurate and incommensurate phases. Because of the structural transition around the critical composition, the properties change in a highly nonlinear or even discontinuous fashion, providing a mechanism for materials design that does not exist in conventional isostructural alloys. The novel phase diagram behavior follows from standard alloy models using mixing enthalpies from first-principles calculations. Thin-film deposition demonstrates the viability of the synthesis of these metastable single-phase domains and validates the computationally predicted phase separation mechanism above the upper temperature bound of the nonequilibrium single-phase region.

  11. The Design of Phase-Locked-Loop Circuit for Precision Capacitance Micrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shujie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High precision non-contact micrometer is normally divided into three categories: inductance micrometer, capacitance micrometer and optical interferometer micrometer. The capacitance micrometer is widely used because it has high performance to price ratio. With the improvement of automation level, precision of capacitance micrometer is required higher and higher. Generally, capacitance micrometer consists of the capacitance sensor, capacitance/voltage conversion circuit, and modulation and demodulation circuits. However, due to the existing of resistors, capacitors and other components in the circuit, the phase shift of the carrier signal and the modulated signal might occur. In this case, the specific value of phase shift cannot be determined. Therefore, error caused by the phase shift cannot be eliminated. This will reduce the accuracy of micrometer. In this design, in order to eliminate the impact of the phase shift, the phase-locked-loop (PLL circuit is employed. Through the experiment, the function of tracking the input signal phase and frequency is achieved by the phase-locked-loop circuit. This signal processing method can also be applied to tuber electrical resistance tomography system and other precision measurement circuit.

  12. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.I: Accelerator \\& in the Technical Design Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  13. A simple and efficient alternative to implementing systematic random sampling in stereological designs without a motorized microscope stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Neal R; Poda, Daniel; Sutherland, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    When properly applied, stereology is a very robust and efficient method to quantify a variety of parameters from biological material. A common sampling strategy in stereology is systematic random sampling, which involves choosing a random sampling [corrected] start point outside the structure of interest, and sampling relevant objects at [corrected] sites that are placed at pre-determined, equidistant intervals. This has proven to be a very efficient sampling strategy, and is used widely in stereological designs. At the microscopic level, this is most often achieved through the use of a motorized stage that facilitates the systematic random stepping across the structure of interest. Here, we report a simple, precise and cost-effective software-based alternative to accomplishing systematic random sampling under the microscope. We believe that this approach will facilitate the use of stereological designs that employ systematic random sampling in laboratories that lack the resources to acquire costly, fully automated systems.

  14. SustainPro - A tool for systematic process analysis, generation and evaluation of sustainable design alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    the user through the necessary steps according to work-flow of the implemented methodology. At the end the design alternatives, are evaluated using environmental impact assessment tools and safety indices. The extended features of the methodology incorporate Life Cycle Assessment analysis and economic....... The software tool is based on the implementation of an extended systematic methodology for sustainable process design (Carvalho et al. 2008 and Carvalho et al. 2009). Using process information/data such as the process flowsheet, the associated mass / energy balance data and the cost data, SustainPro guides...... analysis. The application and the main features of SustainPro are illustrated through a case study of ß-Galactosidase production....

  15. Design and Analysis of Multi-Phase BLDC Motors for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Boztas, Gullu; Yildirim, Merve; Aydogmus, Omur

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a design and analysis of multiphase brushless direct current (BLDC) motor for electric vehicles (EV). In this work, hub-wheels having 110Nm, 900rpm rated values have been designed for the proposed EV. This EV can produce 440 Nm without using transmission, differential and other mechanical components which have very high losses due to the mechanical fraction. The motors to be used in the EV have been designed as 3-, 5- and 7-phase by Infolytica/Motor Solve Software to compa...

  16. Results of the RAMI analyses performed for the IFMIF accelerator facility in the engineering design phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Enric, E-mail: enric.bargallo@esss.se [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Arroyo, Jose Manuel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Abal, Javier; Dies, Javier; De Blas, Alfredo; Tapia, Carlos [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Moya, Joaquin; Ibarra, Angel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • RAMI methodology used for IFMIF accelerator facility is presented. • Availability analyses and results are shown. • Main accelerator design changes are proposed. • Consequences and conclusions of the RAMI analyses are described. - Abstract: This paper presents a summary of the RAMI (Reliability Availability Maintainability Inspectability) analyses done for the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) Accelerator facility in the Engineering Design Phase. The methodology followed, the analyses performed, the results obtained and the conclusions drawn are described. Moreover, the consequences of the incorporation of the RAMI studies in the IFMIF design are presented and the main outcomes of these analyses are shown.

  17. Results of the RAMI analyses performed for the IFMIF accelerator facility in the engineering design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargalló, Enric; Arroyo, Jose Manuel; Abal, Javier; Dies, Javier; De Blas, Alfredo; Tapia, Carlos; Moya, Joaquin; Ibarra, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • RAMI methodology used for IFMIF accelerator facility is presented. • Availability analyses and results are shown. • Main accelerator design changes are proposed. • Consequences and conclusions of the RAMI analyses are described. - Abstract: This paper presents a summary of the RAMI (Reliability Availability Maintainability Inspectability) analyses done for the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) Accelerator facility in the Engineering Design Phase. The methodology followed, the analyses performed, the results obtained and the conclusions drawn are described. Moreover, the consequences of the incorporation of the RAMI studies in the IFMIF design are presented and the main outcomes of these analyses are shown.

  18. Interplanetary Trajectory Design for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Qu, Min; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob A.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents mission performance analysis methods and results for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger NEA. It details the optimization and design of heliocentric low-thrust trajectories to asteroid targets for the ARRM solar electric propulsion spacecraft. Extensive searches were conducted to determine asteroid targets with large pick-up mass potential and potential observation opportunities. Interplanetary trajectory approximations were developed in method based tools for Itokawa, Bennu, 1999 JU3, and 2008 EV5 and were validated by end-to-end integrated trajectories.

  19. SUSTAINABLE ALLOY DESIGN: SEARCHING FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENT ALTERNATIVES THROUGH CRYSTAL ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Oni, X. Sang, S. V. Raju, S. Dumpala, S. Broderick , A. Kumar, S. Sinnott, S. Saxena, 
K. Rajan, and J. M. LeBeau, Applied Physics Letters 106...Discovery and Design Eds. T. Lookman, F. Alexander and K.Rajan: Springer Series in Materials Science (2016) 2. S.R. Broderick and K. Rajan “Discovering...Cr-Co-Zn-Mn alloy” Intermetallics 68, 107-112 (2016) 5. O.Wodo , S. Broderick and K. Rajan, “ Microstructural Informatics to Driven Rational

  20. Optimal Design of an Achromatic Angle-Insensitive Phase Retarder Used in MWIR Imaging Polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo-Guo, Kang; Qiao-Feng, Tan; Guo-Fan, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Dielectric gratings with period in the range from λ/10 to λ/4 with λ being the illumination wavelength not only exclude higher order diffractions but also exhibit strong dispersion of effective indices which are proportional to the wavelength. Moreover, they are insensitive to the incident angle of the illumination wave. With these features, we can design a true zero-order achromatic and angle-insensitive phase retarder which can be used as the polarization state analyzer in middle wave infrared (MWIR) imaging polarimetry. A design method using effective medium theory is described, and the performance of the designed phase retarder is evaluated by rigorous coupled wave analysis theory. The calculation results demonstrate that the retardance deviates from 45° by < ±1.6° within a field of view ±10° over the MWIR bandwidth (3–5 μm). (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  1. The Implications of Encoder/Modulator/ Phased Array Designs for Future Broadband LEO Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderaar, Mark; Jensen, Chris A.; Terry, John D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the effects of modulation and channel coding on the design of wide angle scan, broadband, phased army antennas. In the paper we perform several trade studies. First, we investigate the amplifier back-off requirement as a function of variability of modulation envelope. Specifically, we contrast constant and non-constant envelope modulations, as well as single and multiple carrier schemes. Additionally, we address the issues an(f concerns of using pulse shaping filters with the above modulation types. Second, we quantify the effects of beam steering on the quality of data, recovery using selected modulation techniques. In particular, we show that the frequency response of the array introduces intersymbol interference for broadband signals and that the mode of operation for the beam steering controller may introduce additional burst or random errors. Finally, we show that the encoder/modulator design must be performed in conjunction with the phased array antenna design.

  2. Tradeoff analysis for Dependable Real-Time Embedded Systems during the Early Design Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe

    Embedded systems are becoming increasingly complex and have tight competing constraints in terms of performance, cost, energy consumption, dependability, flexibility, security, etc. The objective of this thesis is to propose design methods and tools for supporting the tradeoff analysis of competing...... to processing elements, as well as the processor voltage and frequency levels for executing each task, such that transient faults are tolerated, the real-time constraints of the application are satisfied, and the energy consumed is minimized. In this thesis, we target the early design phases, when decisions...... have a high impact on the subsequent implementation choices. However, due to a lack of information, the early design phases are characterized by uncertainties, e.g., in the worst-case execution times (WCETs), in the functionality requirements, or in the hardware component costs. In this context, we...

  3. Analysis of three-phase power-supply systems using computer-aided design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberst, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    A major concern of every designer of large, three-phase power-supply systems is the protection of system components from overvoltage transients. At present, three computer-aided circuit design programs are available in the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) National Computer Center that can be used to analyze three-phase power systems: MINI SCEPTRE, SPICE I, and SPICE II. These programs have been used at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to analyze the operation of a 200-kV dc, 20-A acceleration power supply for the High Voltage Test Stand. Various overvoltage conditions are simulated and the effectiveness of system protective devices is observed. The simulated overvoltage conditions include such things as circuit breaker openings, pulsed loading, and commutation voltage surges in the rectifiers. These examples are used to illustrate the use of the computer-aided, circuit-design programs discussed in this paper

  4. Materials development for alternative rotor designs for improved fossil-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlin, R.B.; Bertilsson, J.E.; Ernst, P.; Uggowitzer, P.J.; Speidel, M.O.

    1987-01-01

    At present developments are underway aimed at an improvement of the operating efficiency of steam turbines by an increase in the operating temperature and pressure. As a result certain critical components such as the high-pressure and intermediate-pressure rotors will be subject to higher levels of creep loading. In order to avoid the use of expensive austenitic materials with their inferior thermal fatigue properties, improved ferritic steels with 9-12% Chromium are required. The present paper considers development work on 9-12% Cr steels being performed worldwide. In particular European activities focused on boron-containing steels are highlighted. Steels with up to 100 ppm boron, now under long-term creep rupture testing, will exceed the design goal of a 10/sup 5/ hour creep rupture strength of 100 MPa at 600 0 C (-- 1100 0 F). The optimization of the steels included not only alloy composition but also austenitizing and tempering heat treatment. Weldability tests using the tungsten inert gas technique have shown positive results. Long-term testing to validate this design approach is underway

  5. Alternative design of pipe sleeve for liquid removal mechanism in mortar slab layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, W. M. H. Wan; Anting, N.; Lim, A. J. M. S.; Prasetijo, J.; Shahidan, S.; Din, M. F. Md; Anuar, M. A. Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Porosity is one of the mortar’s characteristics that can cause problems, especially in the room space that used high amount of water, such as bathrooms. Waterproofing is one of the technology that normally used to minimize this problem which is preventing deep penetration of liquid water or moisture into underlying concrete layers. However, without the proper mechanism to remove liquid water and moisture from mortar system, waterproofing layer tends to be damaged after a long period of time by the static formation of liquid water and moisture at mortar layer. Thus, a solution has been proposed to drain out water that penetrated into the mortar layer. This paper introduces a new solution using a Modified Pipe Sleeve (MPS) that installed at the mortar layer. The MPS has been designed considering the percentage surface area of the pipe sleeve that having contact with mortar layer (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) with angle of holes of 60°. Infiltration test and flow rate test have been conducted to identify the effectiveness of the MPS in order to drain out liquid water or moisture from the mortar layer. In this study shows that, MPS surface area 10%, angled 60°, function effectively as a water removal compared to other design.

  6. Screened selection design for randomised phase II oncology trials: an example in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Christina; Pettitt, Andrew; Billingham, Lucinda

    2013-07-03

    As there are limited patients for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia trials, it is important that statistical methodologies in Phase II efficiently select regimens for subsequent evaluation in larger-scale Phase III trials. We propose the screened selection design (SSD), which is a practical multi-stage, randomised Phase II design for two experimental arms. Activity is first evaluated by applying Simon's two-stage design (1989) on each arm. If both are active, the play-the-winner selection strategy proposed by Simon, Wittes and Ellenberg (SWE) (1985) is applied to select the superior arm. A variant of the design, Modified SSD, also allows the arm with the higher response rates to be recommended only if its activity rate is greater by a clinically-relevant value. The operating characteristics are explored via a simulation study and compared to a Bayesian Selection approach. Simulations showed that with the proposed SSD, it is possible to retain the sample size as required in SWE and obtain similar probabilities of selecting the correct superior arm of at least 90%; with the additional attractive benefit of reducing the probability of selecting ineffective arms. This approach is comparable to a Bayesian Selection Strategy. The Modified SSD performs substantially better than the other designs in selecting neither arm if the underlying rates for both arms are desirable but equivalent, allowing for other factors to be considered in the decision making process. Though its probability of correctly selecting a superior arm might be reduced, it still performs reasonably well. It also reduces the probability of selecting an inferior arm. SSD provides an easy to implement randomised Phase II design that selects the most promising treatment that has shown sufficient evidence of activity, with available R codes to evaluate its operating characteristics.

  7. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Q W; Lais, S; Gentner, C; Braun, O

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  8. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q. W.; Lais, S.; Gentner, C.; Braun, O.

    2012-11-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  9. Sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D): rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, A John; Fava, Maurizio; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Lavori, Philip W; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Sackeim, Harold A; Thase, Michael E; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Quitkin, Frederic M; Kashner, T Michael; Kupfer, David J; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Alpert, Jonathan; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J; Biggs, Melanie M; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Lebowitz, Barry D; Ritz, Louise; Niederehe, George

    2004-02-01

    naturalistic follow-up phase with brief monthly and more complete quarterly assessments.

  10. Design and control of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede; Hansen, Steffan

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a step-by-step procedure for designing the LCL filter of a front-end three-phase active rectifier. The primary goal is to reduce the switching frequency ripple at a reasonable cost, while at the same time achieving a high-performance front-end rectifier (as characterized...... by a rapid dynamic response and good stability margin). An example LCL filter design is reported and a filter has been built and tested using the values obtained from this design. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of the design procedure both for the LCL filter and for the rectifier...... a powerful tool to design an LCL-filter-based active rectifier while avoiding trial-and-error procedures that can result in having to build several filter prototypes....

  11. Alternative Evaluation Designs for Data-Centered Technology-Based Geoscience Education Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper will present different strategies for how to evaluate contrasting K-12 geoscience classroom-based interventions with different goals, leveraging the first author's experiences as principal investigator of four NSF and NASA-funded geoscience education projects. Results will also be reported. Each project had its own distinctive features but all had in common the broad goal of bringing to high school classrooms uses of real place-based geospatial data to study the relationships of Earth system phenomena to climate change and sustainability. The first project's goal was to produce templates and exemplars for curriculum and assessment designs around studying contrasting geoscience topics with different data sets and forms of data representation. The project produced a near transfer performance assessment task in which students who studied climate trends in Phoenix turned their attention to climate in Chicago. The evaluation looked at the technical quality of the assessment instrument as measured by inter-rater reliability. It then analyzed the assessment results against student responses to the instructional tasks about Phoenix. The evaluation proved useful in pinpointing areas of student strength and weakness on different inquiry tasks, from simple map interpretation to analysis of contrasting claims about what the data indicate. The goal of the second project was to produce an exemplar curriculum unit that bridges Western science and traditional American Indian ecological knowledge for student learning and skill building about local environmental sustainability issues. The evaluation looked at the extent to which Western and traditional perspectives were incorporated into the design of the curriculum. The curriculum was not constructed with a separate assessment, yet evidence centered design was utilized to extrapolate from the exemplar unit templates for future instructional and assessment tasks around other places, other sustainability problems, and

  12. Designing instruction to support mechanical reasoning: Three alternatives in the simple machines learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Ann Frances

    2001-07-01

    Creating a classroom environment that fosters a productive learning experience and engages students in the learning process is a complex endeavor. A classroom environment is dynamic and requires a unique synergy among students, teacher, classroom artifacts and events to achieve robust understanding and knowledge integration. This dissertation addresses this complex issue by developing, implementing, and investigating the simple machines learning environment (SIMALE) to support students' mechanical reasoning and understanding. SIMALE was designed to support reflection, collaborative learning, and to engage students in generative learning through multiple representations of concepts and successive experimentation and design activities. Two key components of SIMALE are an original web-based software tool and hands-on Lego activities. A research study consisting of three treatment groups was created to investigate the benefits of hands-on and web-based computer activities on students' analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. The study was conducted with two populations of students that represent a diverse group with respect to gender, ethnicity, academic achievement and social/economic status. One population of students in this dissertation study participated from the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program that serves minorities and under-represented groups in science and mathematics. The second group was recruited from the Academic Talent Development Program (ATDP) that is an academically competitive outreach program offered through the University of California at Berkeley. Results from this dissertation show success of the SIMALE along several dimensions. First, students in both populations achieved significant gains in analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. Second, significant differences that were found on pre-test measures were eliminated

  13. Comparison of two alternative study designs in assessment of medicines utilisation in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellis, Georgi; Lutsar, Irja; Varendi, Heili; Toompere, Karolin; Turner, Mark A; Duncan, Jennifer; Metsvaht, Tuuli

    2014-07-16

    Estimates of prevalence are known to be affected by the design of cross-sectional studies. A pan-European study provided an opportunity to compare the effect of two cross-sectional study designs on estimates of medicines use. A Service evaluation survey (SES) and a web-based point-prevalence study (PPS) were conducted as part of a European study of neonatal exposure to excipients. Neonatal units from all European Union countries plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Serbia were invited to participate. All medicines prescribed to neonates were recorded during three-day and one-day study periods in the SES and PPS, respectively. In the PPS individual demographic and prescription data were also collected.To compare the probabilities that a particular medicine would be reported by each study multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models with crossed random effects were applied. The relationship between medicines exposure at the unit and individual levels in the PPS data was assessed using polynomial regression with square root transformation. Of 31 invited countries 20 and 21 with 115 and 89 units joined the SES and PPS, respectively. Out of 5,572,859 live births in invited countries in 2010 a higher proportion was covered by units participating in the SES compared to the PPS (11% vs 6%, respectively; OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.87-1.89). A greater number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), manufacturers and trade names were registered in the SES compared to the PPS. High correlation between the two studies in frequency of use for each specified API was seen (R2 = 0.86). The average probability of a department to use a given API was greater in the SES compared to the PPS (OR 2.36; 95% CI 2.05-2.73) with higher frequency of use and longer average duration of prescription further increasing the difference. The polynomial regression model described the correlation between APIs exposure on unit and individual level well (R2 = 0.93). The simple data structure and longer

  14. An Application of Graphical Approach to Construct Multiple Testing Procedure in a Hypothetical Phase III Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naitee eTing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many multiple testing procedures (MTP have been developed in recent years. Among these new procedures, the graphical approach is flexible and easy to communicate with non-statisticians. A hypothetical Phase III clinical trial design is introduced in this manuscript to demonstrate how graphical approach can be applied in clinical product development. In this design, an active comparator is used. It is thought that this test drug under development could potentially be superior to this comparator. For comparison of efficacy, the primary endpoint is well established and widely accepted by regulatory agencies. However, an important secondary endpoint based on Phase II findings looks very promising. The target dose may have a good opportunity to deliver superiority to the comparator. Furthermore, a lower dose is included in case the target dose may demonstrate potential safety concerns. This Phase III study is designed as a non-inferiority trial with two doses, and two endpoints. This manuscript will illustrate how graphical approach is applied to this design in handling multiple testing issues.

  15. Methodology for the nuclear design validation of an Alternate Emergency Management Centre (CAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueso César

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology is devised by coupling different codes. The study of weather conditions as part of the data of the site will determine the relative concentrations of radionuclides in the air using ARCON96. The activity in the air is characterized depending on the source and release sequence specified in NUREG-1465 by RADTRAD code, which provides results of the inner cloud source term contribution. Known activities, energy spectra are inferred using ORIGEN-S, which are used as input for the models of the outer cloud, filters and containment generated with MCNP5. The sum of the different contributions must meet the conditions of habitability specified by the CSN (Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body (TEDE <50 mSv and equivalent dose to the thyroid <500 mSv within 30 days following the accident doses so that the dose is optimized by varying parameters such as CAGE location, flow filtering need for recirculation, thicknesses and compositions of the walls, etc. The results for the most penalizing area meet the established criteria, and therefore the CAGE building design based on the methodology presented is radiologically validated.

  16. Methodology for the nuclear design validation of an Alternate Emergency Management Centre (CAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueso César

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology is devised by coupling different codes. The study of weather conditions as part of the data of the site will determine the relative concentrations of radionuclides in the air using ARCON96. The activity in the air is characterized depending on the source and release sequence specified in NUREG-1465 by RADTRAD code, which provides results of the inner cloud source term contribution. Known activities and energy spectra are inferred using ORIGEN-S, which are used as input for the models of the outer cloud, filters and containment generated with MCNP5. The sum of the different contributions must meet the conditions of habitability specified by the CSN (Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body (TEDE <50 mSv and equivalent dose to the thyroid <500 mSv within 30 days following the accident doses so that the dose is optimized by varying parameters including CAGE location, flow filtering need for recirculation, thicknesses and compositions of the walls, etc. The results for the most penalizing area meet the established criteria, and therefore the CAGE building design based on the methodology presented is radiologically validated.

  17. Rosetta comparative modeling for library design: Engineering alternative inducer specificity in a transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ramesh K; Chakraborti, Subhendu; Kern, Theresa L; Fox, David T; Strauss, Charlie E M

    2015-07-01

    Structure-based rational mutagenesis for engineering protein functionality has been limited by the scarcity and difficulty of obtaining crystal structures of desired proteins. On the other hand, when high-throughput selection is possible, directed evolution-based approaches for gaining protein functionalities have been random and fortuitous with limited rationalization. We combine comparative modeling of dimer structures, ab initio loop reconstruction, and ligand docking to select positions for mutagenesis to create a library focused on the ligand-contacting residues. The rationally reduced library requirement enabled conservative control of the substitutions by oligonucleotide synthesis and bounding its size within practical transformation efficiencies (∼ 10(7) variants). This rational approach was successfully applied on an inducer-binding domain of an Acinetobacter transcription factor (TF), pobR, which shows high specificity for natural effector molecule, 4-hydroxy benzoate (4HB), but no native response to 3,4-dihydroxy benzoate (34DHB). Selection for mutants with high transcriptional induction by 34DHB was carried out at the single-cell level under flow cytometry (via green fluorescent protein expression under the control of pobR promoter). Critically, this selection protocol allows both selection for induction and rejection of constitutively active mutants. In addition to gain-of-function for 34DHB induction, the selected mutants also showed enhanced sensitivity and response for 4HB (native inducer) while no sensitivity was observed for a non-targeted but chemically similar molecule, 2-hydroxy benzoate (2HB). This is unique application of the Rosetta modeling protocols for library design to engineer a TF. Our approach extends applicability of the Rosetta redesign protocol into regimes without a priori precision structural information. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility: Documentation of impact analysis for design alternatives presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct and operate a new Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The proposed DWTF would replace the existing Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities at LLNL. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to assess the environmental consequences of the proposed DWTF and its alternatives. This report presents the assumptions, methodologies, and analyses used to estimate the waste flows, air emissions, ambient air quality impacts, and public health risks that are presented in the DEIS. Two DWTF design alternatives (Level I and Level II) have been designated as reasonable design alternatives considering available technologies, environmental regulations, and current and future LLNL waste generation. Both design alternatives would include new, separate radioactive and nonradioactive liquid waste treatment systems, a solidification unit, a new decontamination facility, storage and treatment facilities for reactive materials, a radioactive waste storage area, receiving and classification areas, and a uranium burn pan. The Level I design alternative would include a controlled-air incinerator system, while the Level II design alternative would include a rotary kiln incinerator system. 43 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs

  19. Quantum design and synthesis of a boron-oxygen-yttrium phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Chirita, Valeriu; Kreissig, Ulrich; Czigany, Zsolt; Schneider, Jochen M.; Helmersson, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to design a crystalline boron-oxygen-yttrium (BOY) phase. The essential constituent is yttrium substituting for oxygen in the boron suboxide structure (BO 0.17 ) with Y/B and O/B ratios of 0.07. The calculations predict that the BOY phase is 0.36 eV/atom more stable than crystalline BO 0.17 and experiments confirm the formation of crystalline thin films. The BOY phase was synthesized with reactive rf magnetron sputtering and identified with x-ray and selected area electron diffraction. Films with Y/B ratios ranging from 0.10 to 0.32, as determined via elastic recoil detection analysis, were grown over a wide range of temperatures (300-600 deg. C) and found to withstand 1000 deg. C

  20. FPGA-based real-time phase measuring profilometry algorithm design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guomin; Tang, Hongwei; Zhong, Kai; Li, Zhongwei; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-11-01

    Phase measuring profilometry (PMP) has been widely used in many fields, like Computer Aided Verification (CAV), Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) et al. High frame-rate (HFR) real-time vision-based feedback control will be a common demands in near future. However, the instruction time delay in the computer caused by numerous repetitive operations greatly limit the efficiency of data processing. FPGA has the advantages of pipeline architecture and parallel execution, and it fit for handling PMP algorithm. In this paper, we design a fully pipelined hardware architecture for PMP. The functions of hardware architecture includes rectification, phase calculation, phase shifting, and stereo matching. The experiment verified the performance of this method, and the factors that may influence the computation accuracy was analyzed.

  1. Design of a compact high-energy setup for x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, Markus; Yaroshenko, Andre; Bech, Martin; Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Chabior, Michael; Wolf, Johannes; Tapfer, Arne; Meiser, Jan; Kunka, Danays; Amberger, Maximilian; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-03-01

    The main shortcoming of conventional biomedical x-ray imaging is the weak soft-tissue contrast caused by the small differences in the absorption coefficients between different materials. This issue can be addressed by x-ray phasesensitive imaging approaches, e.g. x-ray Talbot-Lau grating interferometry. The advantage of the three-grating Talbot-Lau approach is that it allows to acquire x-ray phase-contrast and dark-field images with a conventional lab source. However, through the introduction of the grating interferometer some constraints are imposed on the setup geometry. In general, the grating pitch and the mean x-ray energy determine the setup dimensions. The minimal length of the setup increases linearly with energy and is proportional to p2, where p is the grating pitch. Thus, a high-energy (100 keV) compact grating-based setup for x-ray imaging can be realized only if gratings with aspect-ratio of approximately 300 and a pitch of 1-2 μm were available. However, production challenges limit the availability of such gratings. In this study we consider the use of non-binary phase-gratings as means of designing a more compact grating interferometer for phase-contrast imaging. We present simulation and experimental data for both monochromatic and polychromatic case. The results reveal that phase-gratings with triangular-shaped structures yield visibilities that can be used for imaging purposes at significantly shorter distances than binary gratings. This opens the possibility to design a high-energy compact setup for x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Furthermore, we discuss different techniques to achieve triangular-shaped phase-shifting structures.

  2. Study of the liquid-film-forming apparatus as an alternative aeration system: design criteria and operating condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongprasith, Narapong; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Painmanakul, Pisut

    2017-06-01

    Aeration is an important factor in aquaculture systems because it is a vital condition for all organisms that live in water and respire aerobically. Generally, mechanical surface aerators are widely used in Thailand due to their advantage for increasing dissolved oxygen (DO) and for their horizontal mixing of aquaculture ponds with large surface areas. However, these systems still have some drawbacks, primarily the low oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) and energy. Regarding this issue, alternative aeration systems should be studied and applied. Therefore, this research aims to study the aeration mechanism obtained by the diffused-air aeration combined with a liquid-film-forming apparatus (LFFA). The effect of gas flow rates, types, and patterns of aerator installation were investigated in an aquaculture pond of 10 m × 10 m × 1.5 m. The analytical parameters were volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k L a), OTE, and aeration efficiency (AE). From the results, the '4-D' with partitions was proposed as the suitable pattern for the LFFA installation. The advantage could be obtained from high energy performance with 1.2 kg/kW h of AE. Then, the operation conditions can be applied as a design guideline for this alternative aeration system in the aquaculture ponds.

  3. Relative position control design of receiver UAV in flying-boom aerial refueling phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shuai; Yuan, Suozhong

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes the design of the relative position-keeping control of the receiver unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with the time-varying mass in the refueling phase utilizing an inner-outer loop structure. Firstly, the model of the receiver in the refueling phase is established. And then tank model is set up to analyze the influence of fuel transfer on the receiver. Subsequently, double power reaching law based sliding mode controller is designed to control receiver translational motion relative to tanker aircraft in the outer loop while active disturbance rejection control technique is applied to the inner loop to stabilize the receiver. In addition, the closed-loop stabilities of the subsystems are established, respectively. Finally, an aerial refueling model under various refueling strategies is utilized. Simulations and comparative analysis demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controllers. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Designing cylindrical implosion experiments on NIF to study deceleration phase of Rayleigh-Taylor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirani, N.; Kline, J. L.; Loomis, E.; Sauppe, J. P.; Palaniyappan, S.; Flippo, K.; Srinivasan, B.; Malka, E.; Bose, A.; Shvarts, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) hydrodynamic instability occurs when a lower density fluid pushes on a higher density fluid. This occurs in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at each of the capsule interfaces during the initial acceleration and the deceleration as it stagnates. The RT instabilities mix capsule material into the fusion fuel degrading the Deuterium-Tritium reactivity and ultimately play a key role in limiting target performance. While significant effort has focused on understanding RT at the outer capsule surface, little work has gone into understanding the inner surface RT instability growth during the deceleration phase. Direct measurements of the RT instability are difficult to make at high convergence in a spherical implosion. Here we present the design of a cylindrical implosion system for the National Ignition Facility for studying deceleration phase RT. We will discuss the experimental design, the estimated instability growth, and our outstanding concerns.

  5. Concurrent topological design of composite structures and materials containing multiple phases of distinct Poisson's ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kai; Yuan, Philip F.; Xu, Shanqing; Xie, Yi Min

    2018-04-01

    Most studies on composites assume that the constituent phases have different values of stiffness. Little attention has been paid to the effect of constituent phases having distinct Poisson's ratios. This research focuses on a concurrent optimization method for simultaneously designing composite structures and materials with distinct Poisson's ratios. The proposed method aims to minimize the mean compliance of the macrostructure with a given mass of base materials. In contrast to the traditional interpolation of the stiffness matrix through numerical results, an interpolation scheme of the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using different parameters is adopted. The numerical results demonstrate that the Poisson effect plays a key role in reducing the mean compliance of the final design. An important contribution of the present study is that the proposed concurrent optimization method can automatically distribute base materials with distinct Poisson's ratios between the macrostructural and microstructural levels under a single constraint of the total mass.

  6. Conceptual Design of a Single Phase 33 MVA HTS Transformer with a Tertiary Winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Kim, W. S.; Hahn, S. Y.; Hwang, Y. I.; Choi, K. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed a 3 phase, 100 MVA, 154 kV class HTS transformer substituting for a 60 MVA conventional transformer. The power transformer of 154 kV class has a tertiary winding besides primary and secondary windings. So the HTS transformer should have the 3rd superconducting winding. In this paper, we designed conceptually the structure of the superconducting windings of a single phase 33 MVA transformer. The electrical characteristics of the HTS transformer such as % impedance and AC loss vary with the arrangement of the windings and gaps between windings. We analyzed the effects of the winding parameters, evaluated the cost of each design, and proposed a suitable HTS transformer model for future power distribution system.

  7. Noise-shaping all-digital phase-locked loops modeling, simulation, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Brandonisio, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a novel approach to the analysis and design of all-digital phase-locked loops (ADPLLs), technology widely used in wireless communication devices. The authors provide an overview of ADPLL architectures, time-to-digital converters (TDCs) and noise shaping. Realistic examples illustrate how to analyze and simulate phase noise in the presence of sigma-delta modulation and time-to-digital conversion. Readers will gain a deep understanding of ADPLLs and the central role played by noise-shaping. A range of ADPLL and TDC architectures are presented in unified manner. Analytical and simulation tools are discussed in detail. Matlab code is included that can be reused to design, simulate and analyze the ADPLL architectures that are presented in the book.   • Discusses in detail a wide range of all-digital phase-locked loops architectures; • Presents a unified framework in which to model time-to-digital converters for ADPLLs; • Explains a procedure to predict and simulate phase noise in oscil...

  8. Reliability of mechanical and phased-array designs for serial intravascular ultrasound examinations--animal and clinical studies in stented and non-stented coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, J C; Bertrand, O F; Mongrain, R; Lespérance, J; Grégoire, J; Paiement, P; Bonan, R

    2000-10-01

    Both mechanical and multi-element intravascular ultrasound designs have potential advantages and limitations that may impact on their value for clinical and research purposes. Determination of the reproducibility of measurements is critical before a given system can be used in studies such as regression of atherosclerosis trials. We performed serial intravascular ultrasound imaging with catheters using mechanical and phased-array designs in stented and non-stented coronary arteries in dogs and in patients. Both systems correlated well for areas (r > or = 0.90, p or = 0.84. p mechanical designs for measurements of area (mean difference in dogs and in patients: -0.24 and 0.96 mm2, p mechanical system (r > or = 0.96 for all measurements). The differences in absolute and relative variability between the mechanical and phased-array designs, both for reanalysis of same frames and serial pullbacks, were very small. Although multi-element and mechanical intravascular ultrasound designs are not strictly interchangeable, their similar reproducibility and the small differences in measurements demonstrate that both designs are acceptable alternatives for trials of regression of atherosclerosis. Determination of the variability for serial pullbacks of both designs was also important to assess the statistical power of such trials.

  9. Pilot testing of environment-friendly low-emission alternative drive components for city buses. Phase 1. Technical final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doemeland, H.; Haase, G.; Sarnes, J.; Schultheis, S.; Schuenemann, M.; Strauss, A.; Voss, K.; Aepler, E.; Stachel, K.; Wolter, M.; Lenz, W.

    1993-05-01

    The report describes pilot tests of environment-friendly, low-emission city buses with alternative drive systems. The following problems are discussed: Natural gas as primary energy source, natural gas drives, safety requirements, measurement and testing technology for natural gas engines, environmental effects, operating concepts, operating cost. (HW) [de

  10. 43 CFR 11.82 - Damage determination phase-alternatives for restoration, rehabilitation, replacement, and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided by those resources had the discharge of oil or release of the hazardous substance under... recovery with minimal management actions. Possible alternatives within this range could reflect varying rates of recovery, combinations of management actions, and needs for resource replacements or...

  11. Detail design of a 10.4-m stretched-membrane dish. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes efforts conducted under Tasks 3 and 4 of the second phase of the project to develop a single-element stretched-membrane dish concept to reduce the cost of a high-performance concentrating solar collector. We completed the detailed design for such a collector suitable to drive a 25-kWe Stirling motor generator. The design includes the collectors, optical element, the drive, and support systems. The aperture of the optical element was sized to provide the required energy to the engine based on test data and analytical models of the concentrator receiver, and engine. The design of the optical element was improved based on experience gained from the design, fabrication, and testing of several prototypes.

  12. A novel method to design sparse linear arrays for ultrasonic phased array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Chen, Bin; Shi, Ke-Ren

    2006-12-22

    In ultrasonic phased array testing, a sparse array can increase the resolution by enlarging the aperture without adding system complexity. Designing a sparse array involves choosing the best or a better configuration from a large number of candidate arrays. We firstly designed sparse arrays by using a genetic algorithm, but found that the arrays have poor performance and poor consistency. So, a method based on the Minimum Redundancy Linear Array was then adopted. Some elements are determined by the minimum-redundancy array firstly in order to ensure spatial resolution and then a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the remaining elements. Sparse arrays designed by this method have much better performance and consistency compared to the arrays designed only by a genetic algorithm. Both simulation and experiment confirm the effectiveness.

  13. Advanced conceptual design report solid waste retrieval facility, phase I, project W-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    Project W-113 will provide the equipment and facilities necessary to retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste from Trench 04 of the 218W-4C burial ground. As part of the retrieval process, waste drums will be assayed, overpacked, vented, head-gas sampled, and x-rayed prior to shipment to the Phase V storage facility in preparation for receipt at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) studies focused on project items warranting further definition prior to Title I design and areas where the potential for cost savings existed. This ACD Report documents the studies performed during FY93 to optimize the equipment and facilities provided in relation to other SWOC facilities and to provide additional design information for Definitive Design

  14. Knowledge Transfer between Service and Design Phases in the Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed, Saeema

    2009-01-01

    Communication between departments in any company involved in the different phases of product lifecycle is crucial in order to correct faults from previous products. This paper illustrates a case study from the oil industry where knowledge transfer across departments is analysed. Interviews...... with engineering designers and service engineers were carried out. Knowledge arising from the operation of drilling machineries was investigated and compared to that relevant for the engineering designers; furthermore the mechanisms involved in the transfer of knowledge between service and design were investigated....... Differences in knowledge needs were observed in the two departments: engineering designers were more orientated towards knowledge of machinery at a component level while service engineers were interested in obtaining an overview of the systems. The study showed that communication between the departments...

  15. The Design of a High Speed Low Power Phase Locked Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tiankuan; Hou, Suen; Liang, Zhihua; Liu, Chonghan; Su, Da-Shung; Teng, Ping-Kun; Xiang, Annie C; Ye, Jingbo

    2009-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout system calls for the development of radiation tolerant, high speed and low power serializer ASIC. We have designed a phase locked loop using a commercial 0.25-μm Silicon-on- Sapphire (SoS) CMOS technology. Post-layout simulation indicates that tuning range is 3.79 – 5.01 GHz and power consumption is 104 mW. The PLL has been submitted for fabrication. The design and simulation results are presented.

  16. Single Phase Current-Source Active Rectifier for Traction: Control System Design and Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been motivated by industrial demand for single phase current-source active rectifier dedicated for reconstruction of older types of dc machine locomotives. This paper presents converters control structure design and simulations. The proposed converter control is based on the mathematical model and due to possible interaction with railway signaling and required low switching frequency employs synchronous PWM. The simulation results are verified by experimental tests performed on designed laboratory prototype of power of 7kVA

  17. Development strategy and process models for phased automation of design and digital manufacturing electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Petrushevskaya, A. A.; Lipatnikov, V. A.; Smirnova, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The strategy of quality of electronics insurance is represented as most important. To provide quality, the processes sequence is considered and modeled by Markov chain. The improvement is distinguished by simple database means of design for manufacturing for future step-by-step development. Phased automation of design and digital manufacturing electronics is supposed. The MatLab modelling results showed effectiveness increase. New tools and software should be more effective. The primary digital model is proposed to represent product in the processes sequence from several processes till the whole life circle.

  18. Erosion Control and Environment Restoration Plan Development, Matagorda County, Texas. Phase 2. Preliminary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    recommended groin system. ......................... 37  Figure 23. H1% and Hs at the groin toe as a function of storm surge...phases of work. Keep in mind, the recommended groin system design will advance the shoreline; however, without dune and vegetation management, it...will not create a wider dry beach. Since the existing beach is presumably in equili- brium, the dune and vegetation will advance with the shoreline

  19. Design and Analysis of Two-Phase Boost DC-DC Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Taufik Taufik; Tadeus Gunawan; Dale Dolan; Makbul Anwari

    2010-01-01

    Multiphasing of dc-dc converters has been known to give technical and economical benefits to low voltage high power buck regulator modules. A major advantage of multiphasing dc-dc converters is the improvement of input and output performances in the buck converter. From this aspect, a potential use would be in renewable energy where power quality plays an important factor. This paper presents the design of a 2-phase 200W boost converter for battery charging application. Analysis of results fr...

  20. The application and design of distributed control system in reactor shutdown system of Qinshan phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guoquan; Liu Wangtian; Yu Yijun; Xiong Weihua

    2006-03-01

    The design, commissioning and running of the reactor trip parameter monitoring system used in Qinshan Phase III are introduced. The applying technology of Distributed Control System realized trip parameter monitoring and realized the function of trip parameters quick data acquisitioning, transferring, saving, alarm, query. The applying of trip parameters monitoring system improved the abilities of plant status monitoring and event analyzing, and increased the security and economy of nuclear power plant. (authors)

  1. Design of a Subscale Propellant Slag Evaluation Motor Using Two-Phase Fluid Dynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Dill, Richard A.; Purinton, David C.; Sambamurthi, Jay K.

    1996-01-01

    Small pressure perturbations in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) are caused by the periodic expulsion of molten aluminum oxide slag from a pool that collects in the aft end of the motor around the submerged nozzle nose during the last half of motor operation. It is suspected that some motors produce more slag than others due to differences in aluminum oxide agglomerate particle sizes that may relate to subtle differences in propellant ingredient characteristics such as particle size distributions or processing variations. A subscale motor experiment was designed to determine the effect of propellant ingredient characteristics on the propensity for slag production. An existing 5 inch ballistic test motor was selected as the basic test vehicle. The standard converging/diverging nozzle was replaced with a submerged nose nozzle design to provide a positive trap for the slag that would increase the measured slag weights. Two-phase fluid dynamic analyses were performed to develop a nozzle nose design that maintained similitude in major flow field features with the full scale RSRM. The 5 inch motor was spun about its longitudinal axis to further enhance slag collection and retention. Two-phase flow analysis was used to select an appropriate spin rate along with other considerations, such as avoiding bum rate increases due to radial acceleration effects. Aluminum oxide particle distributions used in the flow analyses were measured in a quench bomb for RSRM type propellants with minor variations in ingredient characteristics. Detailed predictions for slag accumulation weights during motor bum compared favorably with slag weight data taken from defined zones in the subscale motor and nozzle. The use of two-phase flow analysis proved successful in gauging the viability of the experimental program during the planning phase and in guiding the design of the critical submerged nose nozzle.

  2. An analytical inductor design procedure for three-phase PWM converters in power factor correction applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Haase, Frerk

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyze...... to calculate the core loss in the PFC application. To investigate the impact of the dc link voltage level, two inductors for different dc voltage levels are designed and the results are compared.......This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyzes...... circuit is used to provide the inductor current harmonic spectrum. Therefore, using the harmonic spectrum, the low and high frequency copper losses are calculated. The high frequency minor B-H loops in one switching cycle are also analyzed. Then, the loss map provided by the measurement setup is used...

  3. Reassessment of HIV-1 acute phase infectivity: accounting for heterogeneity and study design with simulated cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    2015-03-01

    = 1.7 mo (95% CrI: 0.55-6.8. The wide credibility intervals reflect an inability to distinguish a long, mildly infectious acute phase from a short, highly infectious acute phase, given the 10-mo Rakai observation intervals. The total additional risk, measured as excess hazard-months attributable to the acute phase (EHMacute can be estimated more precisely: EHMacute = (RHacute - 1 × dacute, and should be interpreted with respect to the 120 hazard-months generated by a constant untreated chronic phase infectivity over 10 y of infection. From the Rakai data, we estimated that EHMacute = 8.4 (95% CrI: -0.27 to 64. This estimate is considerably lower than previously published estimates, and consistent with our independent estimate from viral load trajectories, 5.6 (95% confidence interval: 3.3-9.1. We found that previous overestimates likely stemmed from failure to account for risk heterogeneity and bias resulting from the retrospective cohort study design. Our results reflect the interaction between the retrospective cohort exclusion criteria and high (47% rates of censorship amongst incident serodiscordant couples in the Rakai study due to loss to follow-up, couple dissolution, or study termination. We estimated excess physiological infectivity during the acute phase from couples data, but not the proportion of transmission attributable to the acute phase, which would require data on the broader population's sexual network structure.Previous EHMacute estimates relying on the Rakai retrospective cohort data range from 31 to 141. Our results indicate that these are substantial overestimates of HIV-1 acute phase infectivity, biased by unmodeled heterogeneity in transmission rates between couples and by inconsistent censoring. Elevated acute phase infectivity is therefore less likely to undermine TasP interventions than previously thought. Heterogeneity in infectiousness and susceptibility may still play an important role in intervention success and deserves attention in

  4. Reassessment of HIV-1 Acute Phase Infectivity: Accounting for Heterogeneity and Study Design with Simulated Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Steve E.; Dushoff, Jonathan; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2015-01-01

    .79–57) and d acute = 1.7 mo (95% CrI: 0.55–6.8). The wide credibility intervals reflect an inability to distinguish a long, mildly infectious acute phase from a short, highly infectious acute phase, given the 10-mo Rakai observation intervals. The total additional risk, measured as excess hazard-months attributable to the acute phase (EHMacute) can be estimated more precisely: EHMacute = (RHacute - 1) × d acute, and should be interpreted with respect to the 120 hazard-months generated by a constant untreated chronic phase infectivity over 10 y of infection. From the Rakai data, we estimated that EHMacute = 8.4 (95% CrI: -0.27 to 64). This estimate is considerably lower than previously published estimates, and consistent with our independent estimate from viral load trajectories, 5.6 (95% confidence interval: 3.3–9.1). We found that previous overestimates likely stemmed from failure to account for risk heterogeneity and bias resulting from the retrospective cohort study design. Our results reflect the interaction between the retrospective cohort exclusion criteria and high (47%) rates of censorship amongst incident serodiscordant couples in the Rakai study due to loss to follow-up, couple dissolution, or study termination. We estimated excess physiological infectivity during the acute phase from couples data, but not the proportion of transmission attributable to the acute phase, which would require data on the broader population's sexual network structure. Conclusions Previous EHMacute estimates relying on the Rakai retrospective cohort data range from 31 to 141. Our results indicate that these are substantial overestimates of HIV-1 acute phase infectivity, biased by unmodeled heterogeneity in transmission rates between couples and by inconsistent censoring. Elevated acute phase infectivity is therefore less likely to undermine TasP interventions than previously thought. Heterogeneity in infectiousness and susceptibility may still play an important role in

  5. The High Aspect Ratio Design (HARD): A candidate ITER concept with improved technology phase performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Wesley, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    The High Aspect Ratio Design (HARD) International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) concept developed by the US ITER team is an alternate to the low-aspect-ratio ITER design developed by the ITER participants during the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The CDA design, referred to hereafter as ITER CDA, has an aspect ratio, A, of 2.79, a toroidal magnetic field, B T , of 4.85 T, and a plasma current, I p , of 22 MA for operation with an ignited plasma. In contrast, HARD employs higher aspect ratio, A = 4.0, higher toroidal field, B T = 7.11 T, and lower plasma current, I p = 14.8 MA for ignition operation. The cross sections of the two designs are compared in. The parameters and performance of HARD and ITER CDA for inductively driven ignition operation are compared in. The HARD parameters provide the same ignition performance (ignition margin evaluated against ITER-89P confinement scaling) as ITER CDA in a device with comparable size and cost. However, the reason for advancing HARD rather than ITER CDA as the ITER design concept is not inductively driven ignition performance but HARD's significantly enhanced potential to achieve the technology testing and steady-state operation goals of the ITER objectives with non-inductive current drive

  6. A novel perovskite oxide chemically designed to show multiferroic phase boundary with room-temperature magnetoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Posada, Carmen M.; Castro, Alicia; Kiat, Jean-Michel; Porcher, Florence; Peña, Octavio; Algueró, Miguel; Amorín, Harvey

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing activity in the search of novel single-phase multiferroics that could finally provide distinctive magnetoelectric responses at room temperature, for they would enable a range of potentially disruptive technologies, making use of the ability of controlling polarization with a magnetic field or magnetism with an electric one (for example, voltage-tunable spintronic devices, uncooled magnetic sensors and the long-searched magnetoelectric memory). A very promising novel material concept could be to make use of phase-change phenomena at structural instabilities of a multiferroic state. Indeed, large phase-change magnetoelectric response has been anticipated by a first-principles investigation of the perovskite BiFeO3-BiCoO3 solid solution, specifically at its morphotropic phase boundary between multiferroic polymorphs of rhombohedral and tetragonal symmetries. Here, we report a novel perovskite oxide that belongs to the BiFeO3-BiMnO3-PbTiO3 ternary system, chemically designed to present such multiferroic phase boundary with enhanced ferroelectricity and canted ferromagnetism, which shows distinctive room-temperature magnetoelectric responses.

  7. Design and Development of a compact and ruggest phase and flouresence microscope for space utilization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase 1 we propose to develop a novel microscope by integrating Fourier phase contrast microscopy (FPCM) and epi-fluorescence microscopy. In FPCM, the...

  8. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongqiang; Nunez, Felipe; Doyle III, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is incr...

  9. Conceptual design of a two-phase flow absorber system for neutron flux regulation in a CANDU-PHW-1250 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepp, R.M.; Moeck, E.O.

    1979-07-01

    A two-phase absorber control (TOPAC) system has been under development at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to meet the need for improved spatial neutron flux control for future CANDU power reactors. Aspects of the conceptual design study presented in this paper include system controllability, in-reactor noise sensitiity, the effect of equipment malfunctions on plant operation, and a comparison with competing systems. The TOPAC system is shown to be a viable alternative to existing and future neutron flux regulating systems based on liquid H 2 O zone compartments. (auth)

  10. Status of the Astrid core at the end of the pre-conceptual design phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenaud, Ms.; Devictor, N.; Mignot, G.; Varaine, F.; Venard, C.; Martin, L.; Phelip, M.; Lorenzo, D.; Serre, F.; Bertrand, F.; Alpy, N.; Le-Flem, M.; Gavoille, P.; Lavastre, R.; Richard, P.; Verrier, D.; Schmitt, D.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the ASTRID project, core design studies are being conducted by the CEA with support from AREVA and EDF. The pre-conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the GEN IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. This involves limiting the consequences of 1) a hypothetical control rod withdrawal accident (by minimizing the core reactivity loss during the irradiation cycle), and 2) an hypothetical loss-of-flow accident (by reducing the sodium void worth). Two types of cores are being studied for the ASTRID project. The first is based on a 'large pin/small spacing wire' concept derived from the SFR V2b, while the other is based on an innovative CFV design. A distinctive feature of the CFV core is its negative sodium void worth. In 2011, the evaluation of a preliminary version (v1) of this CFV core for ASTRID underlined its potential capacity to improve the prevention of severe accidents. An improved version of the ASTRID CFV core (v2) was proposed in 2012 to comply with all the control rod withdrawal criteria, while increasing safety margins for all unprotected-loss-of-flow (ULOF) transients and improving the general design. This paper describes the CFV v2 design options and reports on the progress of the studies at the end of pre-conceptual design phase 1 concerning: - Core performance, - Intrinsic behavior during unprotected transients, - Simulation of severe accident scenarios, - Qualification requirements. The paper also specifies the open options for the materials, sub-assemblies, absorbers, and core monitoring that will continue to be studied during the conceptual design phase. (authors)

  11. Carboplatin versus alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin for the adjuvant treatment of canine appendicular osteosarcoma: a randomized, phase III trial†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, K. A.; Uhl, J. M.; Szivek, A; Allstadt Frazier, S. D.; Rebhun, R. B.; Rodriguez, C. O.

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous published studies describing adjuvant chemotherapy for canine appendicular osteosarcoma, there is no consensus as to the optimal chemotherapy protocol. The purpose of this study was to determine whether either of two protocols would be associated with longer disease-free interval (DFI) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma following amputation. Dogs with histologically confirmed appendicular osteosarcoma that were free of gross metastases and underwent amputation were eligible for enrollment. Dogs were randomized to receive either six doses of carboplatin or three doses each of carboplatin and doxorubicin on an alternating schedule. Fifty dogs were included. Dogs receiving carboplatin alone had a significantly longer DFI (425 versus 135 days) than dogs receiving alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin (P = 0.04). Toxicity was similar between groups. These results suggest that six doses of carboplatin may be associated superior DFI when compared to six total doses of carboplatin and doxorubicin. PMID:24118677

  12. Carboplatin versus alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin for the adjuvant treatment of canine appendicular osteosarcoma: a randomized, phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, K A; Uhl, J M; Szivek, A; Allstadt Frazier, S D; Rebhun, R B; Rodriguez, C O

    2016-03-01

    Despite numerous published studies describing adjuvant chemotherapy for canine appendicular osteosarcoma, there is no consensus as to the optimal chemotherapy protocol. The purpose of this study was to determine whether either of two protocols would be associated with longer disease-free interval (DFI) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma following amputation. Dogs with histologically confirmed appendicular osteosarcoma that were free of gross metastases and underwent amputation were eligible for enrollment. Dogs were randomized to receive either six doses of carboplatin or three doses each of carboplatin and doxorubicin on an alternating schedule. Fifty dogs were included. Dogs receiving carboplatin alone had a significantly longer DFI (425 versus 135 days) than dogs receiving alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin (P = 0.04). Toxicity was similar between groups. These results suggest that six doses of carboplatin may be associated superior DFI when compared to six total doses of carboplatin and doxorubicin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Phase diagrams in mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers within the effective-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Polat, Yasin; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The phase diagrams in the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers on a honeycomb lattice are investigated and discussed by the use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The interaction of the nearest-neighbour spins of each layer is taken to be positive (ferromagnetic interaction) and the interaction of the adjacent spins of the nearest-neighbour layers is considered to be either positive or negative (ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic interaction). The temperature dependence of the layer magnetizations of the system is examined to characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the phase transitions and obtain the phase transition temperatures. The system exhibits both second- and first-order phase transitions besides triple point (TP), critical end point (E), multicritical point (A), isolated critical point (C) and reentrant behaviour depending on the interaction parameters. We have also studied the temperature dependence of the total magnetization to find the compensation points, as well as to determine the type of behaviour, and N-type behaviour in Néel classification nomenclature existing in the system. The phase diagrams are constructed in eight different planes and it is found that the system also presents the compensation phenomena depending on the sign of the bilinear exchange interactions. (general)

  14. Market Design. Evaluation of the third phase 2006-2009; Market Design. Utvaerdering av den tredje etappen 2006-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Carl (Global to Local Sweden AB, Raaaa (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    Market Design started 2001 and has since then supported more than 50 projects. During phase III, i.e. 2006 - 2009, 18 project were supported with a total programme budget of 18 MSEK. Market Design has focused on issues related to the deregulated electricity market primarily in Sweden. The aims have been to improve the performance of the market, to develop knowledge and support research groups. The analysis in this report is limited to phase III of the programme. It is based on almost 40 interviews with stakeholders close to the programme such as the board, contractors and programme officers as well as others with thorough insight into issues of importance to the electricity market. Furthermore, a number of relevant documents related to Market Design have been analyzed. The focus of the evaluation has been to address the following issues; relevance, benefits of the programme and the projects, dissemination of results, programme administration and the achievement of programme goals. The interviews reveal that some additional issues need to be addressed further. The evaluation shows that the programme has a clearly identified role in relation to other RandD programmes. No duplicate work has been identified. The board of the programme provides a sufficient guarantee. The results of the analyses are as fellows: The interviews show that all relevant research areas have been dealt with. Nothing of significance (research areas or projects) has been omitted. The time gap between program definition and execution might require a larger budget reserve to deal with unforeseen circumstances especially in view of rapidly changing market conditions. Market Design has provided a common basis for decision making amongst governmental bodies and utilities regarding the development of the Nordic electricity market. A network of key officials working in the area, not the least the board, has been established to the benefit of regulatory aspects of market development. The value of this

  15. Design aspects of gamma densitometers for void fraction measurements in small scale two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.M.C.; Banerjee, S.

    1981-01-01

    Design procedure for a single-beam gamma densitometer operated in the count mode is described. The design is simple, compact and is particularly suited for small scale two-phase flow experiments with thin-metal walled or non-metallic test sections. The choice of gamma sources, scintillators and signal processing systems is discussed. The procedure has been applied by the authors in the design of densitometers for two transient experiments: refilling and rewetting experiments and flow boiling experiments. Good average void measurements were obtained for relatively fast transients. It has also been shown that some useful flow parameters other than void fractions can be obtained if two or more densitometers are used, eg, the average rewetting and entrained liquid velocities in the refilling and rewetting experiments, and the average void velocity in the flow boiling experiments. (orig.)

  16. Conceptual phase A design of a cryogenic shutter mechanism for the SAFARI flight instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, Max; Wehmeier, Udo J.; Vuilleumier, Aurèle; Messina, Gabriele; Meyer, Michael R.

    2012-09-01

    We present a conceptual design for a cryogenic optical mechanism for the SAFARI instrument. SAFARI is a long wavelength (34-210 micron) Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) to fly as an ESA instrument on the JAXA SPICA mission projected to launch in 2021. SPICA is a large 3m class space telescope which will have an operating temperature of less than 7K. The SAFARI shutter is a single point of failure flight mechanism designed to operate in space at a temperature of 4K which meets redundancy and reliability requirements of this challenging mission. The conceptual design is part of a phase A study led by ETH Institute for Astronomy and conducted by RUAG Space AG.

  17. DESIGN OF MIRRORS AND APODIZATION FUNCTIONS IN PHASE-INDUCED AMPLITUDE APODIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, Eric, E-mail: eric.j.cady@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA, 91109 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs are a promising technology for imaging exoplanets, with the potential to detect Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. A PIAA system nominally consists of a pair of mirrors that reshape incident light without attenuation, coupled with one or more apodizers to mitigate diffraction effects or provide additional beam shaping to produce a desired output profile. We present a set of equations that allow apodizers to be chosen for any given pair of mirrors, or conversely mirror shapes chosen for given apodizers, to produce an arbitrary amplitude profile at the output of the system. We show how classical PIAA systems may be designed by this method and present the design of a novel four-mirror system with higher throughput than a standard two-mirror system. We also discuss the limitations due to diffraction and the design steps that may be taken to mitigate them.

  18. Design and Control of Parallel Three Phase Voltage Source Inverters in Low Voltage AC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hassane Margoum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and hierarchical control of three phase parallel Voltage Source Inverters are developed in this paper. The control scheme is based on synchronous reference frame and consists of primary and secondary control levels. The primary control consists of the droop control and the virtual output impedance loops. This control level is designed to share the active and reactive power correctly between the connected VSIs in order to avoid the undesired circulating current and overload of the connected VSIs. The secondary control is designed to clear the magnitude and the frequency deviations caused by the primary control. The control structure is validated through dynamics simulations.The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control structure.

  19. Innovative design for a phase 1 trial with intra-patient dose escalation: The Crotoxin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Medioni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Crotoxin has a broad antitumor activity but has shown frequent neurotoxic toxicity. To induce tolerance and limit this toxicity, we propose a new design with intra-patient dose escalation. Methods: A new Dose Limiting Toxicity definition was used. The concept of Target Ceiling Dose was introduced. Results: Dose Limiting Toxicity was the inability to dose escalate twice. Target Ceiling Dose was the highest planned dose to be administered to a patient and could change for patients along time. Recommended Dose was defined similarly as in a (3 + 3 conventional design. Conclusion: This innovant design was used and the clinical trial is now closed for inclusions. Results will be presented later. Keywords: Clinical trial, Phase 1, Intra-patient dose escalation, Cancer

  20. Core/shell PLGA microspheres with controllable in vivo release profile via rational core phase design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meiling; Yao, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Huilin; He, Haibing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Tian; Tang, Xing; Xu, Hui

    2018-02-27

    Highly soluble drugs tend to release from preparations at high speeds, which make them need to be taken at frequent intervals. Additionally, some drugs need to be controlled to release in vivo at certain periods, so as to achieve therapeutic effects. Thus, the objective of this study is to design injectable microparticulate systems with controllable in vivo release profile. Biodegradable PLGA was used as the matrix material to fabricate microspheres using the traditional double emulsification-solvent evaporation method as well as improved techniques, with gel (5% gelatine or 25% F127) or LP powders as the inner phases. Their physicochemical properties were systemically investigated. Microspheres prepared by modified methods had an increase in drug loading (15.50, 16.72, 15.66%, respectively) and encapsulation efficiencies (73.46, 79.42, 74.40%, respectively) when compared with traditional methods (12.01 and 57.06%). The morphology of the particles was characterized by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the amorphous nature of the encapsulated drug was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. To evaluate their release behaviour, the in vitro degradation, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacodynamics were subsequently studied. Traditional microspheres prepared in this study with water as the inner phase had a relatively short release period within 16 d when compared with modified microspheres with 5% gelatine as the inner phase, which resulted in a smooth release profile and appropriate plasma LP concentrations over 21 d. Thus this type of modified microspheres can be better used in drugs requiring sustained release. The other two formulations containing 25% F127 and LP micropowders presented two-stage release profiles, resulting in fluctuant plasma LP concentrations which may be suitable for drugs requiring controlled release. All the results suggested that drug release rates from