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Sample records for deserti ferocactus acanthodes

  1. Influence of photoperiod on growth for three desert CAM species. [Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, and Opuntia ficus-indica were maintained in environmental growth chambers under a constant total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for 1 yr to investigate the effects of photoperiod on growth of these Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. As the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h, growth increased 33% for A. deserti, 81% for F. acanthodes, and 50% for O. ficus-indica. Such increases were explained based on PAR saturation of the C{sub 3} photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle utilized by CAM plants during the daytime. In particular, the highest instantaneous PAR occurred for the shortest photoperiod and led to less growth for the same total daily PAR. Also, the total daily net CO{sub 2} uptake which occurred primarily at night, increased 53% as the photoperiod was increased from 6 to 18 h for O. ficus-indica, even though the accompanying night length decreased. The only other observed morphological effect was the sevenfold increase in the number of new cladodes initiated as the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h for O. ficus-indica. The influence of photoperiod on the daily pattern of net CO{sub 2} uptake and lack of effect of drought on plant survival under long photoperiods for O. ficus-indica differ from previous reports on this and other CAM species.

  2. Productivity of selected plant species adapted to arid regions. [Crassulacean metabolizing plants; Agave deserti and Ferocactus acanthodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The biomass potential of selected arid region species for alcohol production merits careful consideration. The basis for this interest is the current low agronomic use of arid lands and the potential productivity of certain species adapted to these lands. Plants displaying Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are particularly interesting with reference to biomass for fuel in regions with low rainfall, because plants with this photosynthetic process are strikingly efficient in water requirements. For CAM plants, CO/sub 2/ fixation occurs primarily at night, when tissue surface temperature and hence transpirational water loss is less than daytime values. For Agave deserti in the Sonoran desert, the water-use efficiency (mass of CO/sub 2/ fixed/mass of water transpired) over an entire year is an order of magnitude or more larger than for C-3 and C-4 plants. This indicates how well adapted CAM species are to arid regions. The potential productivity per unit land area of CAM plants is fairly substantial and, therefore, of considerable economic interest for arid areas where growth of agricultural plants is minimal.

  3. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

  4. Implications of seed size for seedling survival in Carnegiea gigantea and Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.; Pierson, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Larger seeds have been shown to convey benefits for seedling survival but the mechanisms of this process are not well understood. In this study, seed size and seedling survival were compared for 2 sympatric cactus species, Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose and Ferocactus wislizeni (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose, in laboratory and field experiments in the northern Sonoran Desert. Both species have small seeds, but Ferocactus seeds are nearly twice as long and 3 times as heavy as those of Carnegiea. The difference in size is perpetuated after germination: new Ferocactus seedlings have 4 times the estimated volume of new Carnegiea seedlings. In an outdoor experiment, annual survivorship of both species was low but was 6 times higher for Ferocactus (6 seedlings, 8.1%) than Carnegiea (1 seedling, 1.4%). The pattern of seedling mortality in relation to temperature and rain suggests that, after the initial flush of seed and seedling predation, drought and heat took a greater toll on Carnegiea than Ferocactus seedlings, probably because the larger seedling volume of Ferocactus conferred greater drought tolerance. In addition, F. wislizeni could become established without benefit of nurse plants whereas C. gigantea could not; this might reflect differential tolerance to high soil temperatures.

  5. The study of the extreme radiation tolerance mechanisms of the bacterium Deinococcus deserti by a functional genomics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulermo, R.

    2009-12-01

    The genome of Deinococcus deserti, a highly radiation-tolerant bacterium, was analyzed and compared to those of D. radiodurans and D. geothermalis. About 230 proteins are specifically conserved in these 3 species, including IrrE, a regulator protein essential for radio tolerance. D.deserti has several supplementary DNA repair genes, like imuY and dnaE2 (trans-lesion DNA polymerases). Moreover, D. deserti has 3 recA that code for 2 different RecA proteins (RecAC et RecAP). To study these genes, genetic tools were developed for D. deserti. Different results suggest that IrrE, required for the induction of several genes after irradiation, has peptidase activity. The 2 RecA proteins are functional for DNA repair. D. deserti is mutable by UV, which requires ImuY, DnaE2 and RecAC, but not RecAP. (author)

  6. Water Relations and Photosynthesis of a Desert CAM Plant, Agave deserti1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel, Park S.

    1976-01-01

    The water relations and photosynthesis of Agave deserti Engelm., a plant exhibiting Crassulacean acid metabolism, were measured in the Colorado desert. Although no natural stomatal opening of A. deserti occurred in the summer of 1975, it could be induced by watering. The resistance for water vapor diffusion from a leaf (RWV) became less than 20 sec cm−1 when the soil water potential at 10 cm became greater than −3 bars, as would occur after a 7-mm rainfall. As a consequence of its shallow root system (mean depth of 8 cm), A. deserti responded rapidly to the infrequent rains, and the succulent nature of its leaves allowed stomatal opening to continue for up to 8 days after the soil became drier than the plant. When the leaf temperature at night was increased from 5 to 20 C, RWV increased 5-fold, emphasizing the importance of cool nighttime temperatures for gas exchange by this plant. Although most CO2 uptake occurred at night, a secondary light-dependent rise in CO2 influx generally occurred after dawn. The transpiration ratio (mass of water transpired/mass of CO2 fixed) had extremely low values of 18 for a winter day, and approximately 25 for an entire year. PMID:16659721

  7. Major soluble proteome changes in Deinococcus deserti over the earliest stages following gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedieu, Alain; Sahinovic, Elodie; Guerin, Philippe; Armengaud, Jean; Blanchard, Laurence; Fochesato, Sylvain; Groot, Arjan de; Meunier, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Deinococcus deserti VCD115 has been isolated from Sahara surface sand. This radio-tolerant bacterium represents an experimental model of choice to understand adaptation to harsh conditions encountered in hot arid deserts. We analysed the soluble proteome dynamics in this environmentally relevant model after exposure to 3 kGy gamma radiation, a non-lethal dose that generates massive DNA damages. For this, cells were harvested at different time lapses after irradiation and their soluble proteome contents have been analysed by 2-DE and mass spectrometry. In the first stage of the time course we observed accumulation of DNA damage response protein DdrB (that shows the highest fold change ∼11), SSB, and two different RecA proteins (RecAP and RecAC). Induction of DNA repair protein PprA, DNA damage response protein DdrD and the two gyrase subunits (GyrA and GyrB) was also detected. A response regulator of the SarP family, a type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease and a putative N-acetyltransferase are three new proteins found to be induced. In a more delayed stage, we observed accumulation of several proteins related to central metabolism and protein turn-over, as well as helicase UvrD and novel forms of both gyrase subunits differing in terms of isoelectric point and molecular weight. Conclusions: Post-translational modifications of GyrA (N-terminal methionine removal and acetylation) have been evidenced and their significance discussed. We found that the Deide-02842 restriction enzyme, which is specifically found in D. deserti, is a new potential member of the radiation/desiccation response regulon, highlighting the specificities of D. deserti compared to the D. radiodurans model. (authors)

  8. De novo transcriptome assembly of drought tolerant CAM plants, Agave deserti and Agave tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Stephen M; Martin, Jeffrey A; Simpson, June; Abraham-Juarez, María Jazmín; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2013-08-19

    Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to xeric environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis), and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets limits the scope of investigations into the molecular-genetic basis of Agave traits. Here, we present comprehensive, high quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of two Agave species, A. tequilana and A. deserti, built from short-read RNA-seq data. Our analyses support completeness and accuracy of the de novo transcriptome assemblies, with each species having a minimum of approximately 35,000 protein-coding genes. Comparison of agave proteomes to those of additional plant species identifies biological functions of gene families displaying sequence divergence in agave species. Additionally, a focus on the transcriptomics of the A. deserti juvenile leaf confirms evolutionary conservation of monocotyledonous leaf physiology and development along the proximal-distal axis. Our work presents a comprehensive transcriptome resource for two Agave species and provides insight into their biology and physiology. These resources are a foundation for further investigation of agave biology and their improvement for bioenergy development.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Drought-Tolerant CAM plants Agave deserti and Agave tequilana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Stephen M.; Martin, Jeffrey A.; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2013-03-25

    Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to hot and arid environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis) and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets limits the scope of investigations into the molecular-genetic basis of Agave traits. Here, we present comprehensive, high quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of two Agave species, A. tequilana and A. deserti, from short-read RNA-seq data. Our analyses support completeness and accuracy of the de novo transcriptome assemblies, with each species having approximately 35,000 protein-coding genes. Comparison of agave proteomes to those of additional plant species identifies biological functions of gene families displaying sequence divergence in agave species. Additionally, we use RNA-seq data to gain insights into biological functions along the A. deserti juvenile leaf proximal-distal axis. Our work presents a foundation for further investigation of agave biology and their improvement for bioenergy development.

  10. A new Labdane Diterpene and Other Constituents from Marrubium deserti Noe ex coss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocine Dendougui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of the chloroform soluble part of the hydroalcoholic extract of Marrubium deserti allowed us to describe a new labdane diterpene, 6-dehydroxy-19-acetyl-marrubenol (3 beside three other diterpenes : 19-acetyl-marrubenol (6 , 6-acetyl-marrubenol (7 and 16-epoxy-9-hydroxy-labda-13(16, 14- diene (1. This latter derivative is described for the first time as natural compound. Phytol (2, and three sterols: b -sitosterol (4, stigmasterol (5 and b -sitosterol 3-O-glucoside (8 were also isolated from this species. Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was accomplished by means of spectroscopic techniques, especially NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

  11. Does Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae) have a between-year seed bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2000-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments at Tumamoc Hill, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A., demonstrated that Ferocactus wislizeni, a common perennial cactus in the northern Sonoran Desert, has a between-year seed bank. In laboratory studies, F. wislizeni seeds lost dormancy during storage at room temperature and had a light requirement for germination. Field experiments suggested that as much as 2% of the annual seed crop might escape post-dispersal predation even when unprotected; where suitable safe sites exist, a higher percentage might escape. Germination of seed recovered monthly from above- and below-ground components of an artificial seed bank showed that seeds can survive at least 18 months in and on the soil. Seed banks enable F. wislizeni to take advantage of favorable rains and temperatures throughout the growing season, thus increasing the number of opportunities for germination. Moreover, seed banks enable F. wislizeni to respond hugely when the climate seems especially favorable, thus producing the large cohorts necessary to compensate for high seedling mortality. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

  12. MX Siting Investigation. Preliminary Biological and Cultural Resources Inventory and Environmental Evaluation of the Proposed Operational Base Sites in Coyote Spring Valley and the Milford-Beryl Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-20

    Stanleya pinriata (desert prince- plume) Stanleya sp. X CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii (Engel- X X X X X X mann echinocereus) Ferocactus acanthodes...TABLE 3-3 (Cont.) Site Number Species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CACTACEAE (Cont.) Ferocactus sp X X X X *Neolloydia sp. X *-Opuntia basilaris (beavertail X X

  13. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using 14 CO 2 techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO 2 uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%

  14. Reproductive biology of Ferocactus recurvus (Mill.) Borg subsp. recurvus (Cactaceae) in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Acosta, E; Zavala-Hurtado, J A; Golubov, J; Casas, A

    2017-09-01

    Mexico has one of the highest diversities of barrel cacti species worldwide; however, all are threatened and require conservation policies. Information on their reproductive biology is crucial, but few studies are available. Ferocactus recurvus subsp. recurvus is a barrel cactus endemic to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley. Our research aimed to characterise its floral and pollination biology. We hypothesised bee pollination, as suggested by its floral morphology and behaviour, and self-incompatibility, like most barrel cacti studied. Three study sites were selected in the semiarid Zapotitlán Valley, Mexico. We examined 190 flowers from 180 plants to determine: morphometry and behaviour of flowers, flower visitors and probable pollinators, and breeding system. Flowers showed diurnal anthesis, lasting 2-5 days, the stigma being receptive on day 2 or 3 after the start of anthesis. Flowers produced scarce/no nectar and main visitors were bees (Apidae), followed by flies (Muscidae), ants (Formicidae), thrips (Thripidae) and hummingbirds (Throchilidae); however, only native bees and occasionally wasps contacted the stigma and anthers. Pollination experiments revealed that this species is self-incompatible and xenogamous. In natural conditions, fruit set was 60% and cross-pollination fruit set was 100%. Percentage seed germination resulting from cross-pollination was higher than in the control treatment. Our results provide ecological information for conservation programmes to ensure a high probability of breeding and seed production in natural populations of F. recurvus. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Evaluation and management of 2 ferocactus spines in the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David J; Kim, Tim I; Kubis, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman, who had fallen face first in a cactus 1 week earlier, presented with a small, mobile, noninflamed subcutaneous nodule at the rim of her right lateral orbit with no other functional deficits. A CT scan was obtained, which revealed a 4-cm intraorbital tubular-shaped foreign body resembling a large cactus spine. A second preoperative CT scan, obtained for an intraoperative guidance system, demonstrated a second cactus spine, which was initially not seen on the first CT scan. Both spines were removed surgically without complication. The authors discuss factors that can cause diagnosis delay, review the radiographic features of cactus spines, and discuss the often times benign clinical course of retained cactus spine foreign bodies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of cactus spines in the orbit. Health-care professionals should have a low threshold for imaging in cases of traumatic injuries involving cactus spines.

  16. Kangaroo rats: intraspecific variation in Dipodomys spectabilis Merriam and Dipodomys deserti Stephens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nader, Iyad A

    1978-01-01

    Twenty morpholoigcl characters in addition to color were studied throughout the geographic range of two species of kangaroo rats, the banner-tailed kangaroo rat Dipodomys spectabilis and the desert...

  17. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Launaea acanthodes on DNA Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Enzymes Activities in Diabetic Rats Testes Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tafakko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As one of the most prevalent disorders in the adolescents, the comorbidity of social anxiety disorder and depression leads to bad outcomes for them. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the midfulness-based cognitive therapy on the cognitive-behavioral avoidance and mental rumination in patients with comorbidity of social anxiety and depression. Materials & Methods: In the controlled follow-up pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study, 30 female high-school students with the social anxiety and depression comorbiduty were studied in Khorramabad in the academic year 2015-16. The subjects, selected via purposeful sampling method, were randomly divided into two 15-person groups including experimental and control groups. Data was collected by the structured clinical interview for Axis 1 disorders, the social anxiety questionnaire for the adolescents, Beck depression inventory- second edition, the cognitive-behavioral avoidance scale, and the ruminative responces scale. Eight 2-hour group mindfulness-based cognitive-therapy training sessions (one session per week were conducted in experimental group, while control group received no intervention. Finally, posttest was conducted in both groups and a follow-up step was conducted 2 month latter. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using multi-variable covariance analysis test. Findings: The mean scores of the cognitive-behavioral avoidance and mental rumination items in the posttest and follow-up steps significantly decreased in experimental group compared to control group (p<0.01. Conclusion: The mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduces the cognitive-behavioral avoidance, as well as the mental rumination, in the patients with the social anxiety and depression comorbidity.

  18. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement, Flight Operations in the Sells Airspace Overlying the Tohono O’Odham Indian Reservation & Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Southern Arizona. Revised Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    al. 1970. Endocrine and metabolic effects of noise in normal, hypertensive and psychotic subjects. IN: Physiological Effects of Noise. Welch, B. L...Perognathus baileyi Bannertail Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys spectabilis Cactus Mouse Peromyscus eremicus Canyon Mousea Peromyscus crinitus Desert Kangaroo Rat...Dipodomys deserti Desert Pocket Mouse Perognathus penicillatus Desert Woodrat Neotoma lepida Merriam Kangaroo Rat Dipodomys merriami Merriam Mouse

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11181-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available id:none) Pyrobaculum aerophilum str. IM2,... 94 2e-17 AM944373_1( AM944373 |pid:n...one) Propionibacterium freudenreichii s... 93 3e-17 CP001114_2205( CP001114 |pid:none) Deinococcus deserti V

  20. MX Siting Investigation. DTN/OBTS Field Surveys. Volume III. Biological Resources Nevada and Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    Tumble mustard F MYCW Lepidium fremontii Desert pepperweed F CW,W CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii Hedgehog cactus S MY Ferocactus acant’,jodes...Lepidium sp. Pepperweed F MS Sisymbrium altissimum Tumble mustard F Js Sisymbrium sp. Tumble mustard F BS CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii Engelmannii...Streptanthella F BS,W lorostris StetnhlaTwist flower F PJ cordatus CACTACEAE Echinocereus Hedgehog cactus S BIS triglochidiatus Opuntia erinacea Prickly pear S PJ

  1. Summary of Threatened and Endangered Bat-Related Restrictions on Military Training, Testing, and Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    include Palmer’s agave ( Agave palmeri), Parry’s agave (A. parryi ), de- sert agave (A. deserti), and amole (A. schotti). Amole is considered to be an...of blooming paniculate agaves (reviewed by Cockrum 1991). Actual dates of these seasonal movements by lesser long-nosed bats are rather variable...roosting colonies require extensive stands of cacti or agave for food (USFWS 1997). Therefore, destruction of food plants many miles from roost

  2. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of some wild Saudi Arabian Asteraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Elsaid, Mansour S

    2014-07-01

    To study the antioxidant properties of crude extract of different Asteraceae plants. The antioxidant properties of six extracts were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelation, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities. Picris cyanocarpa (P. cyanocarpa) and Anthemis deserti (A. deserti) had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger while Achillia fragrantissima (A. fragrantissima) and Artemissia monosperma (A. monosperma) were the most efficient as ion chelator (100% at 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL) A. fragrantissima and Rhantarium appoposum (R. appoposum) showed 100% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 200 and 400 μg/mL, while butylatedhydroxy toluene and ascorbic acid showed 100 and 95% inhibition percentage at 400 μg/mL, respectively. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl toluene and ascorbic acid. In most tests P. cyanocarpa and A. deserti had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial host and reporter gene optimization for genetically encoded whole cell biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutesco, Catherine; Prévéral, Sandra; Escoffier, Camille; Descamps, Elodie C T; Prudent, Elsa; Cayron, Julien; Dumas, Louis; Ricquebourg, Manon; Adryanczyk-Perrier, Géraldine; de Groot, Arjan; Garcia, Daniel; Rodrigue, Agnès; Pignol, David; Ginet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Whole-cell biosensors based on reporter genes allow detection of toxic metals in water with high selectivity and sensitivity under laboratory conditions; nevertheless, their transfer to a commercial inline water analyzer requires specific adaptation and optimization to field conditions as well as economical considerations. We focused here on both the influence of the bacterial host and the choice of the reporter gene by following the responses of global toxicity biosensors based on constitutive bacterial promoters as well as arsenite biosensors based on the arsenite-inducible P ars promoter. We observed important variations of the bioluminescence emission levels in five different Escherichia coli strains harboring two different lux-based biosensors, suggesting that the best host strain has to be empirically selected for each new biosensor under construction. We also investigated the bioluminescence reporter gene system transferred into Deinococcus deserti, an environmental, desiccation- and radiation-tolerant bacterium that would reduce the manufacturing costs of bacterial biosensors for commercial water analyzers and open the field of biodetection in radioactive environments. We thus successfully obtained a cell survival biosensor and a metal biosensor able to detect a concentration as low as 100 nM of arsenite in D. deserti. We demonstrated that the arsenite biosensor resisted desiccation and remained functional after 7 days stored in air-dried D. deserti cells. We also report here the use of a new near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent reporter candidate, a bacteriophytochrome from the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, which showed a NIR fluorescent signal that remained optimal despite increasing sample turbidity, while in similar conditions, a drastic loss of the lux-based biosensors signal was observed.

  4. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron reactions of desert succulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetti, M.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increase in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60{degree}C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30{degree}C/20{degree}C, treatment at 50{degree}C cause these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30{degree}C/20{degree}C to 45{degree}C/35{degree}C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3{degree}C to 8{degree}C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45{degree}C/35{degree}C plants treated at 60{degree}C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plants so far reported.

  5. Healing potential of Iranian traditional medicinal plants on burn wounds in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghasemi Pirbalouti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Malva sylvestris, Punica granatum, Amygdalus communis, Arnebia euchroma and Scrophularia deserti are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani whose have been used as remedy against edema, burn, and wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethanol extracts of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers, A. communis leaves, A. euchroma roots and S. deserti stems were used to evaluate the burn healing activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Burns were induced in Wistar rats divided into nine groups as following; Group-I: normal rats were treated with simple ointment base (control, Group-II: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control, Groups-III and -VII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals, Groups VIII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts, Group-IX: diabetic rats received the standard drug (Silver Sulfadiazine. The efficacy of treatments was evaluated based on wound area, epithelialization time and histopathological characteristics. Wound contraction showed that there is high significant difference between the different groups (p<0.001. At the 18th day, A. euchroma, S. deserti, A. communis and mixed extract ointment treated groups healed 80-90%. At the 9th and 18th days the experiment, the best results were obtained with A. communis and standard drug, when compared to the other groups as well as to the controls. It may be concluded that almond leaves (sweet and bitter formulated in the simple ointment base is effective in the treatment of burns and thus supports its traditional use.

  6. Evolutionary history of the genus Tarentola (Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae from the Mediterranean Basin, estimated using multilocus sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rato Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pronounced morphological conservatism within Tarentola geckos contrasted with a high genetic variation in North Africa, has led to the hypothesis that this group could represent a cryptic species complex, a challenging system to study especially when trying to define distinct evolutionary entities and address biogeographic hypotheses. In the present work we have re-examined the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships between and within all Mediterranean species of Tarentola, placing the genealogies obtained into a temporal framework. In order to do this, we have investigated the sequence variation of two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA, and four nuclear markers (ACM4, PDC, MC1R, and RAG2 for 384 individuals of all known Mediterranean Tarentola species, so that their evolutionary history could be assessed. Results Of all three generated genealogies (combined mtDNA, combined nDNA, and mtDNA+nDNA we prefer the phylogenetic relationships obtained when all genetic markers are combined. A total of 133 individuals, and 2,901 bp of sequence length, were used in this analysis. The phylogeny obtained for Tarentola presents deep branches, with T. annularis, T. ephippiata and T. chazaliae occupying a basal position and splitting from the remaining species around 15.38 Mya. Tarentola boehmei is sister to all other Mediterranean species, from which it split around 11.38 Mya. There are also two other major groups: 1 the T. mauritanica complex present in North Africa and Europe; and 2 the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, T. neglecta and T. mindiae, occurring only in North Africa. The cladogenesis between these two groups occurred around 8.69 Mya, coincident with the late Miocene. Contrary to what was initially proposed, T. neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to both T. fascicularis and T. deserti. Conclusions At least in the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa, the lineages obtained have some

  7. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of seven Artemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohabatkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of seven Artemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs toxicity and HIV-1 replication. Methods: The studied Artemisia species were Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression was performed by HIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increased PBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency of CD4 expression in PBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts of Artemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  8. [New species of mites of the genus Ptilonyssus (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) isolated from Passeriformes (Aves: Passeriformes) from Russia and neighboring countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniukovich, M K; Butenko, O M

    2003-01-01

    Eight new species of the genus Ptilonyssus (Berl. et Troues.) (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) from nasal cavities of the passeriformes from territory of the former USSR are described: P. ammomani sp. n. from Ammomanus deserti (Alaudidae) collected in Turkmenistan; P. spini sp. n. from Spinus spinus (Fringillidae) of Kaliningrad district (Russia); P. ripariae sp. n. from Riparia riparia (Hirundinidae) and P. acanthopneustes sp. n. from Phylloscopus borealis (Sylviidae) collected in Tjumen district (Russia); P. pyrrhulinus sp. n. from Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Fringillidae) and P. anthi sp. n. from Anthus trivialis (Motacillidae) of Rjazan district; P. sylviicola sp. n. from Sylviae communis (Sylviidae) collected in Tatarstan; P. cyanosylviae sp. n. from Cyanosylvia svecica (Turdidae) collected from Novosibirsk district.

  9. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of the Geomyoidea superfamily rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2006-05-24

    A new short interspersed element (SINE) was isolated from the genome of desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti) using single-primer PCR. This SINE consists of two monomers: the left monomer (IDL) resembles rodent ID element and other tRNAAla(CGC)-derived SINEs, whereas the right one (Geo) shows no similarity with known SINE sequences. PCR and hybridization analyses demonstrated that IDL-Geo SINE is restricted to the rodent superfamily Geomyoidea (families Geomyidea and Heteromyidea). Isolation and analysis of IDL-Geo from California pocket mouse (Chaetodipus californicus) and Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) revealed some species-specific features of this SINE family. The structure and evolution of known dimeric SINEs are discussed.

  10. The demographic consequences of mutualism: ants increase host-plant fruit production but not population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Ness, Joshua H; Bronstein, Judith L; Morris, William F

    2015-10-01

    The impact of mutualists on a partner's demography depends on how they affect the partner's multiple vital rates and how those vital rates, in turn, affect population growth. However, mutualism studies rarely measure effects on multiple vital rates or integrate them to assess the ultimate impact on population growth. We used vital rate data, population models and simulations of long-term population dynamics to quantify the demographic impact of a guild of ant species on the plant Ferocactus wislizeni. The ants feed at the plant's extrafloral nectaries and attack herbivores attempting to consume reproductive organs. Ant-guarded plants produced significantly more fruit, but ants had no significant effect on individual growth or survival. After integrating ant effects across these vital rates, we found that projected population growth was not significantly different between unguarded and ant-guarded plants because population growth was only weakly influenced by differences in fruit production (though strongly influenced by differences in individual growth and survival). However, simulations showed that ants could positively affect long-term plant population dynamics through services provided during rare but important events (herbivore outbreaks that reduce survival or years of high seedling recruitment associated with abundant precipitation). Thus, in this seemingly clear example of mutualism, the interaction may actually yield no clear benefit to plant population growth, or if it does, may only do so through the actions of the ants during rare events. These insights demonstrate the value of taking a demographic approach to studying the consequences of mutualism.

  11. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  12. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both

  13. New insights into plant glycoside hydrolase family 32 in Agave species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila de Dios, Emmanuel; Gomez Vargas, Alan D; Damián Santos, Maura L; Simpson, June

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of agaves for commercial applications, an understanding of fructan metabolism in these species at the molecular and genetic level is essential. Based on transcriptome data, this report describes the identification and molecular characterization of cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences for genes encoding fructosyltransferases, invertases and fructan exohydrolases (FEH) (enzymes belonging to plant glycoside hydrolase family 32) from four different agave species (A. tequilana, A. deserti, A. victoriae-reginae, and A. striata). Conserved amino acid sequences and a hypervariable domain allowed classification of distinct isoforms for each enzyme type. Notably however neither 1-FFT nor 6-SFT encoding cDNAs were identified. In silico analysis revealed that distinct isoforms for certain enzymes found in a single species, showed different levels and tissue specific patterns of expression whereas in other cases expression patterns were conserved both within the species and between different species. Relatively high levels of in silico expression for specific isoforms of both invertases and fructosyltransferases were observed in floral tissues in comparison to vegetative tissues such as leaves and stems and this pattern was confirmed by Quantitative Real Time PCR using RNA obtained from floral and leaf tissue of A. tequilana. Thin layer chromatography confirmed the presence of fructans with degree of polymerization (DP) greater than DP three in both immature buds and fully opened flowers also obtained from A. tequilana.

  14. New insights into plant glycoside hydrolase family 32 in Agave species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eAvila-de Dios

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the use of agaves for commercial applications, an understanding of fructan metabolism in these species at the molecular and genetic level is essential. Based on transcriptome data, this report describes the identification and molecular characterization of cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences for genes encoding fructosyltransferases, invertases and fructan exohydrolases (enzymes belonging to plant glycoside hydrolase family 32 from four different agave species (A. tequilana, A. deserti, A. victoriae-reginae and A. striata. Conserved amino acid sequences and a hypervariable domain allowed classification of distinct isoforms for each enzyme type. Notably however neither 1-FFT nor 6-SFT encoding cDNAs were identified. In silico analysis revealed that distinct isoforms for certain enzymes found in a single species, showed different levels and tissue specific patterns of expression whereas in other cases expression patterns were conserved both within the species and between different species. Relatively high levels of in silico expression for specific isoforms of both invertases and fructosyltransferases were observed in floral tissues in comparison to vegetative tissues such as leaves and stems and this pattern was confirmed by Quantitative Real Time PCR using RNA obtained from floral and leaf tissue of A. tequilana. Thin layer chromatography confirmed the presence of fructans with degree of polymerization (DP greater than DP three in both immature buds and fully opened flowers also obtained from A. tequilana.

  15. Rare birds in Slovenia in 2015 – Slovenian Rarities Committee’s Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanžel Jurij

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report by the Slovenian Rarities Committee presents records of rare bird species in Slovenia in 2015, with some addenda for previous years. The numbers in brackets refer to the number of records (first number and individuals (second number recorded between 1 Jan 1950 and 31 Dec 2014. Since 1 Jan 2013, submission to the Committee has been required for 37 additional species, 17 of which are regional rarities. Records of these species are not numbered, since records from previous years were not collected by the Committee. One new species, the Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti, was added to category A. Other notable observations were the first record of Parrot Crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus after 1909, the second record of Baillon’s Crake Zapornia pusilla, the third and fourth records of Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra, the fourth of Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus, the fifth of Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi and the sixth of Grey Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius. Four species were added to category E: Bahama Pintail Anas bahamensis, Rosy-billed Pochard Netta peposaca, Harris’s Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria. The list of birds recorded in Slovenia (as of 31 Dec 2015 contains 386 species (371 in category A, 6 in category B, 9 exclusively in category C; 4 species are both in categories A and C. Category D contains 6 species, while category E contains 38, two of which are classified into subcategory E*. These two categories are not part of the list.

  16. Covariance of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition in plant water: Species effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, L.W.; DeNiro, M.J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1989-12-01

    Leaf water becomes enriched in the heavy isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen during evapotranspiration. The magnitude of the enrichment has been shown to be influenced by temperature and humidity, but the effects of species-specific factors on leaf water enrichment of D and {sup 18}O have not been studied for different plants growing together. To learn whether leaf water enrichment patterns and processes for D and {sup 18}O are different for individual species growing under the same environmental conditions the authors tested the proposal that leaf waters in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) show high sloped (m in the leaf water equation {delta}D = m {delta}{sup 18}O + b) than in C{sub 3} plants. They determined the relationships between the stable hydrogen ({delta}D) and oxygen ({delta}{sup 18}O) isotope ratios of leaf waters collected during the diurnal cycle of evapotranspiration for Yucca schidigera, Ephedra aspera, Agave deserti, Prunus ilicifolia, Yucca whipplei, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Dyckia fosteriana, Simmondsia chinensis, and Encelia farinosa growing at two sites in southern California. The findings indicate that m in the aforementioned equation is related to the overall residence time for water in the leaf and proportions of water subjected to repeated evapotranspiration enrichments of heavy isotopes.

  17. Structural revision of some recently published iridoid glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Søren R; Caliş, Ihsan; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Søtofte, Inger

    2007-01-01

    The structures of six different iridoid glucosides have been revised. Three compounds isolated from Eremostachys glabra and designated 6,9-epi-8-O-acetylshanziside (1), 5,9-epi-penstemoside (2), and 5,9-epi-7,8-didehydropenstemoside (3) have been shown to be identical to the known iridoids barlerin (4, 8-O-acetylshanziside), penstemoside (5), and 7,8-didehydropenstemoside (6), respectively. Another compound named harpagoside-B, isolated from Scrophularia deserti and proposed to be 9-epi-6-O-methylharpagoside (11), was demonstrated from the spectroscopic data given to be the known harpagoside (10b). Finally, two alleged iridoid galactosides from Buddleja crispa named buddlejosides A and B (12a and 12b) have been shown to be the corresponding glucosides; the former is identical to agnuside (13a), while the latter is 3,4-dihydroxybenzoylaucubin (13b), an iridoid glucoside not previously published. This clearly showed that care should be taken with the interpretation of NOEs involving bridgehead protons in iridoid structures because they can be capricious and lead to erroneous structural assignments.

  18. Impact of global climate change on ecosystem-level interactions among sympatric plants from all three photosynthetic pathways. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1997-12-17

    The proposed research will determine biochemical and physiological responses to variations in environmental factors for plants of all three photosynthetic pathways under competitive situations in the field. These responses will be used to predict the effects of global climatic change on an ecosystem in the northwestern Sonoran Desert where the C{sub 3} subshrub Encelia farinosa, the C{sub 4} bunchgrass Hilaria rigida, and the CAM succulent Agave deserti are co-dominants. These perennials are relatively short with overlapping shallow roots facilitating the experimental measurements as well as leading to competition for soil water. Net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods measured in the laboratory will be analyzed using an environmental productivity index (EPI) that can incorporate simultaneous effects of soil water, air temperature, and light. Based on EPI, net CO{sub 2} uptake and hence plant productivity will be predicted for the three species in the field under various treatments. Activity of the two CO{sub 2} fixation enzymes, Rubisco and PEPCase, will be determined for these various environmental conditions; also, partitioning of carbon to various organs will be measured based on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} labeling and dry weight analysis. Thus, enzymatic and partitioning controls on competition among sympatric model plants representing all three photosynthetic pathways will be investigated.

  19. CO{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of Agaves and Cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net CO{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  20. CO{sub 2} exchange environmental productivity indices, and productivity of agaves and cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net C0{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  1. Study of in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of selected Saharan plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palici, Ionut F; Liktor-Busa, Erika; Zupkó, István; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed; Urbán, Edit; Hohmann, Judit

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of selected Saharan species, which are applied in the traditional medicine but not studied thoroughly from chemical and pharmacological point of view. The studied plants, namely Anthyllis henoniana, Centropodia forskalii, Cornulaca monacantha, Ephedra alata var. alenda, Euphorbia guyoniana, Helianthemum confertum, Henophyton deserti, Moltkiopsis ciliata and Spartidium saharae were collected from remote areas of North Africa, especially from the Tunisian region of Sahara. After drying and applying the appropriate extraction methods, the plant extracts were tested in antimicrobial screening assay, performed on 19 Gram-positive and -negative strains of microbes. The inhibition zones produced by plant extracts were determined by disc-diffusion method. Remarkable antibacterial activities were exhibited by extracts of Ephedra alata var. alenda and Helianthemum confertum against B. subtilis, M. catarrhalis and methicillin-resistant and non-resistant S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of these two species were also determined. Antiproliferative effects of the extracts were evaluated against 4 human adherent cell lines (HeLa, A431, A2780 and MCF7). Notable cell growth inhibition was found for extract of Helianthemum confertum and Euphorbia guyoniana. Our results provided data for selection of some plant species for further detailed pharmacological and phytochemical examinations.

  2. Expression of the KNOTTED HOMEOBOX Genes in the Cactaceae Cambial Zone Suggests Their Involvement in Wood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Rodríguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Petrone, Emilio; Vasco, Alejandra; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Shishkova, Svetlana; Terrazas, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem that produces secondary xylem (i.e., wood) and phloem. Different Cactaceae species develop different types of secondary xylem; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying wood formation in the Cactaceae. The KNOTTED HOMEOBOX (KNOX) gene family encodes transcription factors that regulate plant development. The role of class I KNOX genes in the regulation of the shoot apical meristem, inflorescence architecture, and secondary growth is established in a few model species, while the functions of class II KNOX genes are less well understood, although the Arabidopsis thaliana class II KNOX protein KNAT7 is known to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis. To explore the involvement of the KNOX genes in the enormous variability of wood in Cactaceae, we identified orthologous genes expressed in species with fibrous ( Pereskia lychnidiflora and Pilosocereus alensis ), non-fibrous ( Ariocarpus retusus ), and dimorphic ( Ferocactus pilosus ) wood. Both class I and class II KNOX genes were expressed in the cactus cambial zone, including one or two class I paralogs of KNAT1 , as well as one or two class II paralogs of KNAT3 - KNAT4 - KNAT5 . While the KNOX gene SHOOTMERISTEMLESS ( STM) and its ortholog ARK1 are expressed during secondary growth in the Arabidopsis and Populus stem, respectively, we did not find STM orthologs in the Cactaceae cambial zone, which suggests possible differences in the vascular cambium genetic regulatory network in these species. Importantly, while two class II KNOX paralogs from the KNAT7 clade were expressed in the cambial zone of A. retusus and F. pilosus , we did not detect KNAT7 ortholog expression in the cambial zone of P. lychnidiflora . Differences in the transcriptional repressor activity of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by the KNAT7 orthologs could therefore explain the differences in wood development in the cactus species.

  3. Covariance of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in plant water: species effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, L.W.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Leaf water becomes enriched in the heavy isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen during evapotranspiration. The magnitude of the enrichment has been shown to be influenced by temperature and humidity, but the effects of species—specific factors on leaf water enrichment of D and 18 O have not been studied for different plants growing together. Accordingly, to learn whether leaf water enrichment patterns and processes for D and 18 O are different for individual species growing under the same environmental conditions we tested the proposal that leaf waters in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) show higher slopes (m in the leaf water equation °D = m ° 18 O + b) than in C 3 plants. We determined the relationships between the stable hydrogen (°D) and oxygen (° 18 O) isotope ratios of leaf waters collected during the diurnal cycle of evapotranspiration for Yucca schidigera, Ephedra aspera, Agave deserti, Prunus ilicifolia, Yucca whipplei, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Dyckia fosteriana, Simmondsia chinensis, and Encelia farinosa growing at two sites in southern California. Slopes (m in the above leaf water equation) ranged from 1.50 to 3.21, compared to °8 for meteoric water, but differences in slope could not be attributed to carboxylation pathway (CAM vs. C 3 ) nor climate (coastal California vs. Sonoran Desert). Higher slopes were correlated with greater overall ranges of leaf water enrichment of D and 18 O. Water in plants with higher slopes also differed most from unaltered meteoric water. Leaf water isotope ratios in plants with lower slopes were better correlated with temperature and humidity. The findings indicate that m in the aforementioned equation is related to the overall residence time for water in the leaf and proportions of water subjected to repeated evapotranspiration enrichments of heavy isotopes

  4. Predictions of soil-water potentials in the north-western Sonoran Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.R.; Nobel, P.S.

    1986-03-01

    A simple computer model was developed to predict soil-water potential at a Sonoran Desert site. The variability of precipitation there, coupled with the low water-holding capacity of the sandy soil, result in large temporal and spatial variations in soil-water potential. Predicted soil-water potentials for depths of 5, 10 and 20 cm were in close agreement with measured values as the soil dried after an application of water. Predicted values at a depth of 10 cm, the mean rooting depth of Agave deserti and other succulents common at the study site, also agreed with soil-water potentials measured in the field throughout 1 year. Both soil-water potential and evaporation from the soil surface were very sensitive to simulated changes in the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. The annual duration of soil moisture adequate for succulents was dependent on the rainfall as well as on the spacing and amount of individual rainfalls. The portion of annual precipitation evaporated from the soil surface varied from 73% in a dry year (77 mm precipitation) to 59% in a wet year (597 mm). Besides using the actual precipitation events, simulations were performed using the figures for total monthly precipitation. Based on the average number of rainfalls for a particular month, the rainfall was distributed throughout the month in the model. Predictions using both daily and monthly inputs were in close agreement, especially for the number of days during a year when the soil-water potential was sufficient for water absorption by the succulent plants (above -0.5 MPa).

  5. Comparative proteomics reveals key proteins recruited at the nucleoid of Deinococcus after irradiation-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouthier de la Tour, Claire; Passot, Fanny Marie; Toueille, Magali; Servant, Pascale; Sommer, Suzanne; Mirabella, Boris; Blanchard, Laurence; Groot, Arjan de; Guerin, Philippe; Armengaud, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The nucleoids of radiation-resistant Deinococcus species show a high degree of compaction maintained after ionizing irradiation. We identified proteins recruited after irradiation in nucleoids of Deinococcus radiodurans and Deinococcus deserti by means of comparative proteomics. Proteins in nucleoid-enriched fractions from unirradiated and irradiated Deinococcus were identified and semi quantified by shotgun proteomics. The ssDNA-binding protein SSB, DNA gyrase subunits GyrA and GyrB, DNA topoisomerase I, RecA recombinase, UvrA excinuclease, RecQ helicase, DdrA, DdrB, and DdrD proteins were found in significantly higher amounts in irradiated nucleoids of both Deinococcus species. We observed, by immunofluorescence microscopy, the subcellular localization of these proteins in D. radiodurans, showing for the first time the recruitment of the DdrD protein into the D. radiodurans nucleoid. We specifically followed the kinetics of recruitment of RecA, DdrA, and DdrD to the nucleoid after irradiation. Remarkably, RecA proteins formed irregular filament-like structures 1 h after irradiation, before being redistributed throughout the cells by 3 h post-irradiation. Comparable dynamics of DdrD localization were observed, suggesting a possible functional interaction between RecA and DdrD. Several proteins involved in nucleotide synthesis were also seen in higher quantities in the nucleoids of irradiated cells, indicative of the existence of a mechanism for orchestrating the presence of proteins involved in DNA metabolism in nucleoids in response to massive DNA damage. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD00196. (authors)

  6. Factors determining Gekkotan (Reptilia, Sauria distribution in Tunisia (North Africa

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    Wided Tlili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian geckos count nine species (1 is insular relict, 1 is endemic, 2 are ubiquitous and 5 are enfeoffed. We aim to determine factors influencing their distributions. Surveys were founded on environmental divisions. Presence/absence data for 113 grids were analyzed using multivariate tools. 18 environmental variables were revealed and clustered into five factors to model species distributions. Established models were further projected on non-explored areas within Tunisian territory. The distribution of continental geckos follows an indirect bidirectional gradient; the South-northward one is physiologically stressful and the North-southward one is biologically stressful. Five biogeographic regions were established showing concordance with climatic and vegetation regionalization. The distribution of non-anthropophilic species is positively correlated to thermal amplitudes gradient. The distribution of anthropophilic taxa is positively correlated to agricultural land-use. Oasis, sebkhas and chotts are particular landscapes that disturb both distributions. Predicted areas follow the yielded distribution patterns despite some discrepancy for S. sthenodactylus. The niche characterizing shows that land use and altitude increase the probability of occurrence of H. turcicus and T. mauritanica. Alternatively, they decrease the probability of the presence of T. deserti, T. neglecta, T. tripolitanus and S. petrii. Models could also show that the absence of S. sthenodactylus in northern regions is attributed to high altitudes and cereal land-use. As to T. fascicularis, the displacement of the northern limits of its range is mostly attributed to an improvement of field investigations. Established model of its distribution shows a restricted area of probable occurrence in central Tunisia confirming its endemism.

  7. Aplicação dos modelos PESERA e MEDALUS para avaliação dos riscos de erosão do solo e de desertificação da bacia hidrográfica do Vale do Gaio Use of PESERA and MEDALUS models to assess soil erosion risks and land desertification in Vale do Gaio watershed

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    M. C. Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho testaram-se duas metodo­logias de avaliação dos riscos de erosão do solo e de desertificação na bacia hidrográfi­ca de Vale do Gaio (513 km², localizada no Alentejo. Os solos dominantes na bacia são os Cambissolos, Luvissolos e Regossolos. Os sistemas de Montado de Azinho e Sobro e os sistemas agrícolas de sequeiro domi­nam, por sua vez, a ocupação dos solos. O risco de erosão foi avaliado por estimativas das perdas do solo por erosão hídrica, atra­vés do modelo PESERA. As áreas em risco de desertificação foram determinadas com base na metodologia MEDALUS. As três classes mais representativas de perdas do solo por erosão hídrica, com base nos dados meteorológicos de 2001-2006, foram: In this study two methodologies were tested to assess soil erosion and land deserti­fication risks in Vale do Gaio watershed (513 km², located in the Alentejo region. Cambisols, Luvisols, and Regosols are the dominant soils in the watershed. Oak tree Mediterranean woodland, Agricultural crops and pastures are the major land uses. Soil erosion risks were assessed by estimating soil loss by water erosion with the PESERA model. Land area at risk of desertification was determined based on the MEDALUS methodology. Based on meteorological data from the period 2001-2006, the three most representative classes of soil loss by water erosion were: <0.5 t/ha/year in 32.1% of the area; 5-10 t/ha/year in 23.3% of the area; and 10-20 t/ha/year in 16.9% of the area. Considering the same time period, the land area at risk of desertification was classified: 1.8% as none threatened; 3.9% as potential; 68.4% as fragile; and 25.9% as critical to desertification.