WorldWideScience

Sample records for desert weakly broken

  1. Broken color symmetry and weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stech, B.

    1976-01-01

    Broken colour symmetry predicts a very rich spectrum of new particles. If broken colour is relevant at all, charged psi-particles should be found in particular at the 4 GeV region. For the weak hadronic currents no completely satisfactory suggestion exists. Broken colour symmetry describes qualitatively several of the new effects observed recently. (BJ) [de

  2. Desert wanderings: pathways for whole, broken and shattered psyches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S M

    2000-07-01

    This paper challenges an implicit assumption of analytical psychology that centred, mandalic images express psychical wholeness in an optimal fashion across cultures and eras. I suggest that liminal, bardo-like eras, such as our 'post-modern' one, constellate complex, antithetical and ec-centric images, which are process-oriented and which encompass wholeness and fragmentation, conjunction and disjunction, thus holding and expressing actual individual and collective experience. In our era, we inhabit unfolding states of wholeness, brokenness and fragmentation. Images of wholeness, emerging spontaneously from the unconscious, may reflect part or all of these contradictory realities. Examples of such antithetical Self-images are developed from the ancient midrashic traditions of the rabbis; from Jung's contemporary exposition of Pauli's 'world-clock' dream; from Kepler's discovery, at the dawn of modernity, that the planets circled the sun in ellipses rather than circles; and from a clinical illustration.

  3. Oasis in the desert: weakly broken parity in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1981-07-01

    A discussion of low energy parity restoration in simple grand unified theories, such as SO(10), is presented. The consistency of phenomenological requirements and unification constraints is emphasized and various predictions of the theory are stressed, in particular: substantially lighter W and Z bosons than in the standard model and increased stability of the proton with tau/sub p/ approx. = 10 38 years

  4. On the colour contribution to effective weak vertex in broken colour gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, R.

    1979-01-01

    Treating the breaking of colour symmetry via the mixing between the colour gluons and weak bosons (a la Rajasekaran and Roy) it is observed that the colour contribution to the effective weak vertex of a quark at zero momentum transfer is zero upto 0(α). (author)

  5. Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd; Brooks, Matthew L.; DeFalco, Lesley; MacMahon, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The deserts of California (Lead photo, Fig. 1) occupy approximately 38% of California’s landscape (Table 1) and consist of three distinct deserts: the Great Basin Desert, Mojave Desert, and Colorado Desert, the latter of which is a subdivision of the Sonoran Desert (Brown and Lowe 1980). The wide range of climates and geology found within each of these deserts result in very different vegetative communities and ecosystem processes and therefore different ecosystem services. In deserts, extreme conditions such as very high and low temperatures and very low rainfall result in abiotic factors (climate, geology, geomorphology, and soils) controlling the composition and function of ecosystems, including plant and animal distributions. This is in contrast to wetter and milder temperatures found in other ecosystems, where biotic interactions are the dominant driving force. However, despite the harsh conditions in deserts, they are home to a surprisingly large number of plants and animals. Deserts are also places where organisms display a wide array of adaptations to the extremes they encounter, providing some of the best examples of Darwinian selection (MacMahon and Wagner 1985, Ward 2009). Humans have utilized these regions for thousands of years, despite the relatively low productivity and harsh climates of these landscapes. Unlike much of California, most of these desert lands have received little high-intensity use since European settlement, leaving large areas relatively undisturbed. Desert landscapes are being altered, however, by the introduction of fire following the recent invasion of Mediterranean annual grasses. As most native plants are not fire-adapted, they Many do not recover, whereas the non-native grasses flourish. Because desert lands are slow to recover from disturbances, energy exploration and development, recreational use, and urban development will alter these landscapes for many years to come. This chapter provides a brief description of where the

  6. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  7. Broken Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common cause of a broken arm. Sports injuries. Direct blows and injuries on the field or court ... during a car accident, bike accident or other direct trauma. Child abuse. In children, a ... sports Any sport that involves physical contact or increases ...

  8. A broken symmetry ontology: Quantum mechanics as a broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The author proposes a new broken symmetry ontology to be used to analyze the quantum domain. This ontology is motivated and grounded in a critical epistemological analysis, and an analysis of the basic role of symmetry in physics. Concurrently, he is led to consider nonheterogeneous systems, whose logical state space contains equivalence relations not associated with the causal relation. This allows him to find a generalized principle of symmetry and a generalized symmetry-conservation formalisms. In particular, he clarifies the role of Noether's theorem in field theory. He shows how a broken symmetry ontology already operates in a description of the weak interactions. Finally, by showing how a broken symmetry ontology operates in the quantum domain, he accounts for the interpretational problem and the essential incompleteness of quantum mechanics. He proposes that the broken symmetry underlying this ontological domain is broken dilation invariance

  9. Broken Symmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    - The discovery of subatomic structures and of the concomitant weak and strong short-range forces raised the question of how to cope with short-range forces in relativistic quantum field theory. The Fermi theory of weak interactions, formulated in terms of point-like current-current interaction, was well-defined in lowest order perturbation theory and accounted for existing experimental data.However, it was inconsistent in higher orders because of uncontrollable divergent quant...

  10. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  11. Broken toe - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken toe - self-care URL of this page: //medlineplus. ... be done either with or without surgery. Most broken toes will heal on their own with proper care at home. It can take 4 to 6 weeks for ...

  12. Electrospin and broken SU(2) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.; Finkelstein, J.

    1983-01-01

    We identify within topological particle theory a broken SU(2) ''electrospin'' symmetry and enumerate a related collection of exact and approximate conservation laws. One component of electrospin, equal to Q-(1/2)(B-L), is always conserved. The connection of electrospin with strong and weak isospin is discussed

  13. Broken collarbone - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fall with your outstretched arm Car, motorcycle, or bicycle accident More About Your Injury A broken collarbone ... 17/2016 Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF ...

  14. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  15. Broken Reflection Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugari, Steven Louis

    1992-01-01

    We have carried out a search for broken reflection symmetry in the exotic nucleus ^{114 }Xe. Evidence for broken reflection symmetry has been previously observed in the actinide region, most notably Ra-Th nuclei, and more recently in the neutron rich nuclei ^{144}Ba, ^{146}Ce, and ^{146,148}Nd. This evidence has been discussed in terms of two conceptually different theoretical frameworks, namely alpha clustering and octupole deformation. The alpha clustering model makes global predictions of the relative strengths of enhanced electric dipole (E1) transitions characteristic of broken reflection symmetry, and predicts a dependence on isospin divided by nuclear mass (N-Z) ^2/A^2 of the reduced transition probability, B(E1), where A is the nuclear mass number and N and Z are, respectively, the neutron and proton number. The nuclei studied previously have approximately the same value of (N-Z)^2/A ^2 between 0.033 and 0.05. In ^ {114}Xe this parameter is much different, (N-Z)^2/A^2 =.0028, allowing for a test of the prediction. On the other hand, the octupole model description is less straightforward. Two terms contributing to the calculation of reduced transition strengths are based on the collective liquid drop model of nuclei and have a global dependence on A^2 Z^2. A third term, however, depends explicitly on the shell model description of the valence nucleons and can be large enough to remove this global dependence. The nucleus ^{114}Xe was produced in the heavy ion fusion evaporation reaction ^{60}Ni(^ {58}Ni,2p2n)^{114 }Xe in two separate measurements at Daresbury Laboratory and at Yale University. The nucleus was identified by means of a recoil mass spectrometer in the first reaction and by detection of evaporated neutrons in the second. Gamma ray spectra were collected in coincidence with these triggers using similar gamma detector setups. Information on the angular distributions of the gamma rays was collected for at least three separate angles in each

  16. Broken or knocked out tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken or knocked out tooth URL of this page: // ... and fluid solution. Consider buying 1 for your home first aid kit . Also ... If your tooth is badly broken, your nerve endings may be exposed. You will ...

  17. Supergraphs extended to broken supersymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feruglio, F.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Legovini, F.

    1985-01-01

    Supergraph techniques are generalized to the case of broken supersymmetry. The modified superpropagators for the O'Raifeartaigh model are obtained: they are used for the superspace renormalization and the derivation of the effective potential. (orig.)

  18. Job loss and broken partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the accumulated number of job losses and broken partnerships (defined as the end of cohabitation) on the risk of fatal and nonfatal events of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the accumulated number of job losses and broken partnerships (defined as the end of cohabitation) on the risk of fatal and nonfatal events of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  19. Thar Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-scene covers an area of 12 x 15 km in NW India in the Thar Desert. The sand dunes of the Thar Desert constantly shift and take on new shapes. Located in northwestern India and eastern Pakistan, the desert is bounded on the south by a salt marsh known as the Rann of Kutch, and on the west by the Indus River plain. About 800 kilometers long and about 490 kilometers wide, the desert's terrain is mainly rolling sandhills with scattered growths of shrub and rock outcroppings. Only about 12 to 25 centimeters of rain fall on the desert each year, and temperatures rise as high as 52 degrees Celsius. Much of the population is pastoral, raising sheep for their wool. The image is located at 24.4 degrees north latitude and 69.3 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Broken rims in railroad wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Broken wheels are one of the most common types of equipment-caused train accidents. The failure of rail car wheel rims, which : are usually the result of shattered rims or vertical split rims (VSR), are the leading cause of wheel-related accidents, a...

  1. Broken Homes: Impact on Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziey, Paul W.; Davies, Leigh

    1982-01-01

    Tends to support assertion that children from homes broken by separation, divorce, or death are less well-adjusted in terms of California Personality Inventory scales of self-control, socialization, femininity, and good impression, than children from intact homes. Age and sex were not found to be linked to the degree of maladjustment. (AH)

  2. New technique for withdrawing broken sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Cagan Efe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A sheath that is broken inside vessel is a rare complication, and intravascular fragments from broken sheaths are retrieving transcutaneously by techniques including the loop snare catheter, basket catheter, and grasping/biopsy forceps. We reported a less common type of broken central venous sheath in location and a successful unique technique for retrieving it from subclavian vein by using noncompliant balloon from 40 year old female patient.

  3. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  4. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  5. Self Derogation and Childhood Broken Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Howard B; Pokorny, Alex D.

    1971-01-01

    The data from this study makes clear that it is not the fact of broken homes per se that is related to self derogation but rather the particular characteristics of the broken home situation. Prediction of self derogation is also contingent upon such subject characteristics as race, sex and social class. (Author/CG)

  6. Topological Masses From Broken Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a formalism for computing one-loop gravitational corrections to the effective action of D-branes. In particular, we study bulk to brane mediation of supersymmetry breaking in models where supersymmetry is broken at the tree-level in the closed string sector (bulk) by Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions, while it is realized on a collection of D-branes in a linear or non-linear way. We compute the gravitational corrections to the fermion masses $m_{1/2}$ (gauginos or goldstino) induced from the exchange of closed strings, which are non-vanishing for world-sheets with Euler characteristic -1 (``genus 3/2'') due to a string diagram with one handle and one hole. We show that the corrections have a topological origin and that in general, for a small gravitino mass, the induced mass behaves as $m_{1/2}\\propto g^4 m_{3/2}$, with $g$ the gauge coupling. In generic orbifold compactifications however, this leading term vanishes as a consequence of cancellations caused by discrete symmetries, and the remainder...

  7. Weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  8. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly

  9. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Open-string models with broken supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnotti, A.

    2002-01-01

    I review the salient features of three classes of open-string models with broken supersymmetry. These suffice to exhibit, in relatively simple settings, the two phenomena of 'brane supersymmetry' and 'brane supersymmetry breaking'. In the first class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is broken both in the closed and in the open sectors. In the second class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is broken in the closed sector, but is exact in the open sector, at least for the low-lying modes, and often for entire towers of string excitations. Finally, in the third class of models, to lowest order supersymmetry is exact in the closed (bulk) sector, but is broken in the open sector. Brane supersymmetry breaking provides a natural solution to some old difficulties met in the construction of open-string vacua. (author)

  11. Subconjunctival Hemorrhage (Broken Blood Vessel in Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subconjunctival hemorrhage (broken blood vessel in eye) Overview A subconjunctival hemorrhage (sub-kun-JUNK-tih-vul HEM-uh-ruj) ... may not even realize you have a subconjunctival hemorrhage until you look in the mirror and notice ...

  12. Toe and Metatarsal Fractures (Broken Toes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable Javascript in your browser. Toe and Metatarsal Fractures (Broken Toes) The structure of the foot is ... received in an emergency room. What Is a Fracture? A fracture is a break in the bone. ...

  13. Perilaku Agresif Siswa dari Keluarga Broken Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Pratama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is based because of the aggressive behavior shown by the students, especially students who come from a broken home. The purpose of this study is to describe the aggressive behavior that is owned by a student who comes from a broken home in terms of attacking people physically, verbally, and damaging and destroying property and wealth of others. The results of this research shows that in general student’s aggressivebehavior are on average level. Implications of research in guidance and counseling is as the basis for programs to prevent and cope with aggressive behavior that is owned by the students, especially students who come from a broken home. Cooperation with the homeroom teacher mentors, teachers and other school personnel will also help identify students who have an aggressive behavior, especially students who come from a broken home to immediately provided services.

  14. Nobel Prize for work on broken symmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Nobel Prize for Physics goes to three physicists who have worked on broken symmetries in particle physics. The announcement of the 2008 Nobel Prize for physics was transmitted to the Globe of Science and Innovation via webcast on the occasion of the preview of the Nobel Accelerator exhibition.On 7 October it was announced that the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences had awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize for physics to three particle physicists for their fundamental work on the mechanisms of broken symmetries. Half the prize was awarded to Yoichiro Nambu of Fermilab for "the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics". The other half is shared by Makato Kobayashi of Japan’s KEK Institute and Toshihide Maskawa of the Yukawa Institute at the University of Kyoto "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in Nature". At th...

  15. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies

  16. Bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A variant of the bag model in which chiral symmetry is broken and which provides a description of all the experimental data on the light hadrons, including the pion, is discussed. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated in this model. The problem of taking into account the center-of-mass motion in bag models and the boundary conditions in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry are also discussed

  17. Supersymmetric models with broken Lorentz invariance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakulin Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several supersymmetric theories with broken Lorentz invariance are considered. We study at the component level Lorentz violating representations of the supersymmetry algebra and construct Lagrangians for the scalar and vector supermultiplets with broken Lorentz invariance. Lorentz violating model for the gravitational supermultiplet is constructed using the superfield formalism as supersymmetric extension of the linearized Einstein-aether theory. The most general Lagrangian of the linearized Einstein-aether supergravity is constructed. We show that the Lagrangian for this model is unique and obtain its bosonic part in components. The constraints imposed by supersymmetry on the parameters of the theory are obtained. The phenomenological consequences of the model are discussed.

  18. Phenomenology of muon number violation in spontaneously broken gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, O.U.

    1980-01-01

    The phenomenology of muon number violation in gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is studied. In the first chapter a brief introduction to the concept of muon number and to spontaneously broken gauge theories is given. A review of the phenomenology and experimental situation regarding different muon number violating processes is made in the second chapter. A detailed phenomenological study of the μe conversion process μ - + (A,Z) → e - + (A,Z) is given in the third chapter. In the fourth chapter some specific gauge theories incorporating spontaneously broken horizontal gauge symmetries between different fermion generations are discussed with special reference to muon number violation in the theories. The μe conversion process seems to be a good process to search for muon number violation if it occurs. The K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference is likely to constrain muon number violating rates to lie far below present experimental limits unless strangeness changing neutral currents changing strangeness by two units are suppressed

  19. Are Food Deserts Also Play Deserts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Hunter, Gerald; Williamson, Stephanie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    Although food deserts are areas that lack easy access to food outlets and considered a barrier to a healthy diet and a healthy weight among residents, food deserts typically comprise older urban areas which may have many parks and street configurations that could facilitate more physical activity. However, other conditions may limit the use of available facilities in these areas. This paper assesses the use of parks in two Pittsburgh food desert neighborhoods by using systematic observation. We found that while the local parks were accessible, they were largely underutilized. We surveyed local residents and found that only a minority considered the parks unsafe for use during the day, but a substantial proportion suffered from health limitations that interfered with physical activity. Residents also felt that parks lacked programming and other amenities that could potentially draw more park users. Parks programming and equipment in food desert areas should be addressed to account for local preferences and adjusted to meet the needs and limitations of local residents, especially seniors.

  20. Lut Desert, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Iran is a large country with several desert regions. In the Dasht-E-Lut (Lut Desert) (30.5N, 58.5E) an area known as Namak-Zar, about 100 miles east of the city of Kerman, is at the center of this photograph. Some of the world's most prominent Yardangs (very long, parallel ridges and depressions) have been wind eroded in these desert dry lake bed sediments. At the left of the photo is a large field of sand dunes at right angles to the wind.

  1. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  2. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes. S Mahadevan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 395-405. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0395-0405. Keywords.

  3. Broken windows, mediocre methods, and substandard statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Broken windows theory states that cues of inappropriate behavior like litter or graffiti amplify norm-violating behavior. In a series of quasi-experiments, Keizer, Lindenberg, and Steg altered cues of inappropriate behavior in public places and observed how many passersby subsequently violated

  4. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes. S Mahadevan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 395-405. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0395-0405. Keywords.

  5. Monopoles and strings in broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.-M.; Tsou, S.T.

    1984-05-01

    When a U(1) gauge theory is spontaneously broken, work has shown that a monopole cannot exist isolated but must be attached to a string carrying both energy and a quantized magnetic flux. The authors wish to consider whether and how this result can be generalized to non-abelian theories. (author)

  6. PERIODIC-SOLUTIONS IN SPONTANEOUSLY BROKEN THEORIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRIHAYE, Y; KUNZ, J

    A class of spontaneously broken field theories is proposed, and the occurrence of their periodic, classical solutions is investigated in detail. The emergence of multiple solutions is observed, their normal modes of oscillation are studied, and the bifurcations of the classical energy functional are

  7. Holography with broken Poincaré symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korovins, J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the extensions of the holographic dualities to the situations where part of the Poincaré group has been broken. Such theories are particularly relevant for applications of gauge/gravity dualities to condensed matter systems, which usually exhibit non-relativistic symmetry.

  8. Desert Pavement Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, synthetic topography DEM...

  9. Ratchet device with broken friction symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2002-01-01

    An experimental setup (gadget) has been made for demonstration of a ratchet mechanism induced by broken symmetry of a dependence of dry friction on external forcing. This gadget converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation, the direction of which is in ac......An experimental setup (gadget) has been made for demonstration of a ratchet mechanism induced by broken symmetry of a dependence of dry friction on external forcing. This gadget converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation, the direction of which...... is in accordance with given theoretical arguments. Despite the setup being three dimensional, the ratchet rotary motion is proved to be described by one simple dynamic equation. This kind of motion is a result of the interplay of friction and inertia....

  10. Simple Technique for Removing Broken Pedicular Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Agrawal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for removing a broken pedicle screw should ideally be technically easy and minimally invasive, as any damage to the pedicle, during removal of the broken screw, may weaken the pedicle, thus compromising on the success of re-instrumentation. We describe the case of a 32-year old man who had undergone surgery for traumatic third lumbar vertebral body fracture three years prior to current admission and had developed the complication of pedicle screw breakage within the vertebral body. The patient underwent re-exploration and removal of the distal screws. Through a paravertebral incision and muscle separation, the screws and rods were exposed and the implants were removed.

  11. Reflectivities of uniform and broken layered clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Differences between the reflectivities of uniform layered clouds and of broken clouds taken from the same layers of the Californian coast were investigated using 1 km data obtained by the AVHRRs on the NOAA-9 and -10 satellites during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observations (June 29 - July 18, 1987). The reflectivities are compared at 0.63 micron, where cloud droplets are nonabsorbing, and at 3.7 micron, where the cloud droplets absorb and the single-scattering albedo is about 0.9. It was found that, at visible wavelengths, the reflectivities of broken clouds were only 80-85 percent of those of the same clouds where they formed regions of extensive uniform layers. The radiation not reflected was transmitted to the surface. The results suggest that the presatellite estimates of the planetary albedo may be too large because they failed to allow for the effects of cloud boundaries on cloud reflectivities.

  12. The US patent system is broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczenik, George

    2013-08-01

    In discussions in this issue of RBM Online relating to a patent granted to Auxogyn, Professor Renee Reijo Pera claims this is not about a "broken patent system". I shall demonstrate how dysfunctional the patent system has become and how much in denial 'inventor' Renee Reijo Pera is about her invention differing from a naturally occurring phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  14. Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in onedimensional loop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 6. Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in ... Keywords. Non-local transformation; broken symmetry; sine-Gordon; sech interaction. ... A specific type of classically broken symmetry is restored in quantum theory. One-dimensional sine-Gordon system and ...

  15. Broken Homes: Stable Risk, Changing Reasons, Changing Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Dorrian Apple

    1985-01-01

    Cohort membership and two measures of social disadvantage were used as explanatory variables in analysis of the risk of growing up in a broken home and of the living arrangements of children with broken homes. The risk of a broken home by age 16 proved to be stable across cohorts and greater for those from disadvantaged homes. (Author/BL)

  16. Suitability of Broken Bottles as Fine Aggregate for Production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of broken bottles as partial replacement of river sand for production of concrete was investigated. The grading of the broken bottles and sand fell in zone II. The specific gravity of the bottles was 2.55 and that of sand was 2.65. Sand was replaced with the broken bottles in the proportions of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, ...

  17. Strength Assessment of Broken Rock Postgrouting Reinforcement Based on Initial Broken Rock Quality and Grouting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfa Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate postgrouting rock mass strength growth is important for engineering design. In this paper, using self-developed indoor pressure-grouting devices, 19 groups of test cubic blocks were made of the different water cement ratio grouting into the broken rock of three kinds of particle sizes. The shear strength parameters of each group under different conditions were tested. Then this paper presents a quantitative calculation method for predicting the strength growth of grouted broken rock. Relational equations were developed to investigate the relationship between the growth rates of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, absolute value of uniaxial tensile strength (AUTS, internal friction angle, and cohesion for post- to pregrouting broken rock based on Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. From previous test data, the empirical equation between the growth rate of UCS and the ratio of the initial rock mass UCS to the grout concretion UCS has been determined. The equations of the growth rates of the internal friction coefficient and UCS for grouting broken rock with rock mass rating (RMR and its increment have been established. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results. These observations are important for engineered design of grouting reinforcement for broken rock mass.

  18. Remote Sensing Field Guide - Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    kankar, kunkur, silcrete, gres polymorphe, porcellanite, sarsen, puddingstone, meulieres. SUMMARY ShEET - DESER ’ DURICRUSTS SPECIAL AND MINOR FEATURES...especially in Tunisia, Algeria, and in the coastal Namib Desert (Africa); in the Rajasthan Desert of west India; in various Middle Eastern deserts...Iran, and in crystalline rocks (granites and metamorphic rocks) in the southern coast- al Namib Desert of southwest Africa. All of these occurrences

  19. Ethnomycological survey of traditional usage and indigenous knowledge on desert truffles among the native Sahara Desert people of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradai, Lyès; Neffar, Souad; Amrani, Khaled; Bissati, Samia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-03-13

    Desert truffles are edible hypogeous fungi, highly appreciated by the inhabitants of hot-desert settlements. Native Saharan people use truffles for food, promoting tourism, increasing fertility, and treatment of eye diseases and fatigue. This study consists of a cross-sectional survey focusing on the knowledge, use and ethnomycological practices of desert truffles among the native people of the Algerian Northern Sahara. The study was conducted through direct interviews with 60 truffle-hunters in the regions of Ouargla and Ghardaia. Three species were harvested and consumed by the surveyed subjects: Terfezia claveryi was the most appreciated and most expensive species, followed by Terfezia areanaria moderately preferred, then Tirmania nivea the least appreciated and least expensive. Among the 60 interviewees, 90% rely on the abundance of symbiotic plants (Helianthemum lippii) to harvest truffles, 65% begin harvesting from mid-February to March, after rains of the autumn (38%) and winter (36%), particularly in the Wadi beds (37%) and Daya landscapes (32%). Interviewees harvested truffles mainly for home consumption; however 26.7% sell any harvest surplus, and of those only 15% generate significant revenue from this source, and 73% considered the sale of desert truffles to have low financial value. Desert truffles are used in traditional medicine, especially against eye infections (22%), weakness (19%) and to promote male fertility (19%). In the case of desert truffles for consumption, the surveyed population preferred to prepare the truffles with couscous and meat, or in porridge. Respondents used price as the main criterion for deciding whether to purchase desert truffles. The surveyed trufflers use the knowledge passed from one generation to the next to help ensure a good harvest of truffles during each foray into the desert. Our findings highlight the various uses of truffles in the Sahara Desert, and how these relate to the lifestyle of local people. Copyright

  20. After science: has the tradition been broken?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-04-01

    The majority of professional scientists make use of the artefacts of science but lack understanding of what these mean; raising the question: has the tradition of science been broken? Explicit knowledge is only a selective summary but practical capability derives from implicit, traditional or 'tacit' knowledge that is handed on between- and across-generations by slow, assimilative processes requiring extended human contact through a wide range of situations. This was achieved mainly by prolonged apprenticeship to a Master. Such methods recognize the gulf between being able to do something and knowing how you have done it; and the further gap between knowing how you have done something and being able to teach it by explicit instructions. Yet the 'Master-apprentice' model of education has been almost discarded from science over recent decades and replaced with bureaucratic regulation. The main reason is probably that scientific manpower has expanded so rapidly and over such a long period as to overwhelm the slow, sure and thorough traditional methods. In their innocence of scientific culture, the younger generation of scientists are like children who have been raised by wolves; they do not talk science but spout bureaucratic procedures. It has now become accepted among the mass of professional 'scientists' that the decisions which matter most in science are those imposed upon science by outside forces: for example by employers, funders, publishers, regulators, and the law courts. It is these bureaucratic mechanisms that now constitute the 'bottom line' for scientific practice. Most of modern science is therefore apparently in the post-holocaust situation described in A canticle for Liebowitz and After Virtue, but the catastrophe was bureaucratic, rather than violent. So, the tradition has indeed been broken. However, for as long as the fact is known that the tradition has been broken, and living representatives of the tradition are still alive and active, there still

  1. Absorption of solar radiation in broken clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A.; Zhuravleva, T.B. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-04-01

    It is recognized now that the plane-parallel model unsatisfactorily describes the transfer of radiation through broken clouds and that, consequently, the radiation codes of general circulation models (GCMs) must be refined. However, before any refinement in a GCM code is made, it is necessary to investigate the dependence of radiative characteristics on the effects caused by the random geometry of cloud fields. Such studies for mean fluxes of downwelling and upwelling solar radiation in the visible and near-infrared (IR) spectral range were performed by Zuev et al. In this work, we investigate the mean spectral and integrated absorption of solar radiation by broken clouds (in what follows, the term {open_quotes}mean{close_quotes} will be implied but not used, for convenience). To evaluate the potential effect of stochastic geometry, we will compare the absorption by cumulus (0.5 {le} {gamma} {le} 2) to that by equivalent stratus ({gamma} <<1) clouds; here {gamma} = H/D, H is the cloud layer thickness and D the characteristic horizontal cloud size. The equivalent stratus clouds differ from cumulus only in the aspect ratio {gamma}, all the other parameters coinciding.

  2. Gauge-Higgs unification with broken flavour symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olschewsky, M.

    2007-05-15

    } gauge bosons much above the compactification scale. Such a behaviour has no counterpart within the customary approximation scheme of an ordinary orbifold theory. This way tree-level flavour-changing-neutral-currents are naturally suppressed. In a second step the electroweak gauge group SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} is broken to U(1){sub em} by VEVs for the unitary factors e{sup A{sub y}} at the electroweak scale. This breaking is equivalent to a Wilson line breaking. Making some simplifying assumptions we also calculate fermion masses and CKM mixing angles. As for the gauge bosons an exponential fermion mass splitting occurs naturally. Fermion masses and mixing angles are determined by the VEVs for e{sup {eta}} and e{sup A{sub y}} of PTs for quarks and leptons. The model predicts a large Higgs sector consisting of altogether 30 Higgs particles. The model in its simplest form also predicts the (too small) weak mixing angle {theta}{sub W}=0.125. (orig.)

  3. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  4. Ratchet due to broken friction symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2002-01-01

    A ratchet mechanism that occurs due to asymmetric dependence of the friction of a moving system on its velocity or a driving force is reported. For this kind of ratchet, instead of a particle moving in a periodic potential, the dynamics of which have broken space-time symmetry, the system must...... be provided with sonic internal structure realizing such a velocity- or force-friction dependence. For demonstration of a ratchet mechanism of this type, an experimental setup (gadget) that converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation has been built and experiments...... with it have been carried out. In this device, an asymmetry of friction dependence on an applied force appears, resulting in rectification of rotary motion, In experiments, our setup is observed to rotate only in one direction, which is in accordance with given theoretical arguments, Despite the setup being...

  5. Logotherapy Counseling to Improve Acceptance of Broken Home Child

    OpenAIRE

    Erlangga, Erwin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to increase the enrollment of children of a broken home that life has meaning. Subjects are 100 children in Demak whose families experiencing divorce. Research themes include three things: individual counseling, engineering logotherapy, reception, and a child of a broken home. Data obtained based on interviews, observation, and psychological scale showed that of the 100 children of a broken home has a low acceptance that individual counseling with logotherapy techniques were c...

  6. Gauge theories of weak interactions II (Circa 1981-82 C.E.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beg, M.A.B.; Sirlin, A.

    1982-01-01

    This article is a sequel to 'Gauge Theories of Weak Interactions (Circa 1973-74)', published in the Annual Review of Nuclear Science. Our purpose is to survey the state of the art eight years after. We examine the known structure of weak interactions in the light of the theory associated with the names of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg. We review briefly the methodology of spontaneously broken gauge theories, in the canonical framework with elementary spin-0 fields injected into the Lagrangian, and its application to the SU(3)sub(C) x SU(2)sub(L) x U(1) based standard model of quark-lepton interactions. Calculations of loop-level effects are described both in the context of the standard model and of SU(5)-based grand unification; specially emphasized is our contention that the renormalizability of the theory plays a crucial role in its ability to reproduce physical reality. Under the heading 'extensions of standard QFD' we consider possible ways of making the desert bloom, which are tied to the canonical methodology; mentioned here are QFD models which survived the discovery in 1978, of parity nonconservation in the electron proton interaction; also mentioned are a few models that did not survive but which appear to be resurrectable by simple adjustment of the Higgs sector. More radical possibilities are considered in the penultimate section, on 'generalizations of QFD', where we present a critical review of recent theoretical speculations about dynamical symmetry breaking, composite models of quarks and leptons and the status of QFD as a fundamental theory. We conclude with a catalogue of unsolved problems and an appraisal of the outlook. (orig.)

  7. Model for predicting the frequency of broken rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vesković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Broken rails can cause train delays, trains cancelations and, unfortunately, they are common causes of accidents. This affects planning of a resources, budget and organization of railway track maintenance. Planning of railway track maintenance cannot be done without an estimation of number of rails that will be replaced due to the broken rail incidents. There are many factors that influence broken rails and the most common are: rail age, annual gross tonnage, degree of curve and temperature in the time of breakage. The fuzzy logic model uses acquired data as input variables to predict the frequency of broken rails for the certain rail types on some Sections.

  8. Logotherapy Counseling to Improve Acceptance of Broken Home Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erlangga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to increase the enrollment of children of a broken home that life has meaning. Subjects are 100 children in Demak whose families experiencing divorce. Research themes include three things: individual counseling, engineering logotherapy, reception, and a child of a broken home. Data obtained based on interviews, observation, and psychological scale showed that of the 100 children of a broken home has a low acceptance that individual counseling with logotherapy techniques were considered appropriate to increase the enrollment of children of a broken home. Factors - factors that affect the acceptance of a child of a broken home is self-blame, anger and did not have a purpose in life again. In addition the environment is also a significant effect on the enrollment of children of a broken home. Environmental labeling of families experiencing divorce as a family that failed so that children are increasingly stressed with the stamp of the community. Based on the field test results, the level of acceptance of the child of a broken home increases after the individual is given counseling services with logotherapy techniques. Indicated by changes in the level of acceptance of children of a broken home before being given treatment (initial evaluation and after (final evaluation of 130 points. The results of effectiveness test statistic t test calculations also showed 0,010 <0.05.It was concluded that counseling individuals with logotherapy effective technique to increase the enrollment of children of a broken home

  9. Jeeps Penetrating a Hostile Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Herb

    2009-01-01

    Several jeeps are poised at base camp on the edge of a desert aiming to escort one of them as far as possible into the desert, while the others return to camp. They all have full tanks of gas and share their fuel to maximize penetration. In a friendly desert it is best to leave caches of fuel along the way to help returning jeeps. We solve the…

  10. Food Deserts and Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro A. Alviola; Rodolfo M. Nayga; Michael Thomsen

    2013-01-01

    We utilize a panel data set from 2007 to 2009 on the state of Arkansas to identify and determine the effect of food deserts on school district obesity rates. We define food deserts as low-income areas with limited food access. Using both classical panel data models and spatial error models, we find no statistically significant relationship between school district obesity rates and the existence of food deserts in Arkansas. This finding is consistent across different model specifications, in s...

  11. A systematic review of food deserts, 1966-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulac, Julie; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Cummins, Steven

    2009-07-01

    "Food deserts," areas characterized by poor access to healthy and affordable food, may contribute to social and spatial disparities in diet and diet-related health outcomes. However, the extent to which food deserts exist is debated. We review the evidence for the existence of food deserts in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. We conducted a systematic review of primary, quantitative, observational studies, published in English or French, that used geographic or market-basket approaches in high-income countries. The literature search included electronic and hand searches and peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1966 through 2007. We also contacted key researchers to identify other studies. We analyzed the findings and quality of the studies qualitatively. Forty-nine studies in 5 countries met inclusion criteria; the amount and consistency of the evidence varied by country. These studies were a mix of geographic and market-basket approaches, but the methodologic quality of studies and completeness of reported findings were mixed. We found clear evidence for disparities in food access in the United States by income and race. Findings from other high-income countries were sparse and equivocal. This review suggests that food deserts exist in the United States, where area-level deprivation compounds individual disadvantage. Evidence for the existence of food deserts in other high-income nations is weak.

  12. Planck driven by vision, broken by war

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Brandon R

    2015-01-01

    Planck's Law, an equation used by physicists to determine the radiation leaking from any object in the universe, was described by Albert Einstein as "the basis of all twentieth-century physics." Max Planck is credited with being the father of quantum theory, and his work laid the foundation for our modern understanding of matter and energetic processes. But Planck's story is not well known, especially in the United States. A German physicist working during the first half of the twentieth century, his library, personal journals, notebooks, and letters were all destroyed with his home in World War II. What remains, other than his contributions to science, are handwritten letters in German shorthand, and tributes from other scientists of the time, including his close friend Albert Einstein. In Planck: Driven by Vision, Broken by War, Brandon R. Brown interweaves the voices and writings of Planck, his family, and his contemporaries-with many passages appearing in English for the first time-to create a portrait of...

  13. Mesoscopic fluctuations in disordered superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Shinsei; Furusaki, Akira; Ludwig, Andreas; Mudry, Christopher

    2005-03-01

    The mesoscopic regime in the problem of Anderson localization is a scaling regime in which disorder effects remain weak. It can be realized in quasi-one and higher dimensional systems. Fluctuations in the global density of states, the local density of states, as well as in the conductance were first studied for conventional metals in the pioneering works of Stone and Lee on the one hand, and Altshuler, Kravtsov, and Lerner, on the other hand. Here we extend the analysis of the conductance fluctuations by Altshuler, Kravtsov, and Lerner to dirty superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry in near two spatial dimensions.

  14. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  15. Evaluation of the Legibility of Broken Lines for Partial Sight

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 秀之

    2000-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the legibility of broken lines for persons with partial sight. The subjects were 10 persons with simulated partial sight, and 4 persons with partial sight. The simulation was obtained using filters and convex lenses. The 30 kind of broken lines was evaluated by the original test that the subjects were read directions of the broken lines in distinction from solid lines. The thickness of lines varied from 0.1mm. to 0.7mm. in 4 steps. The results...

  16. Desert tortoise hibernation: Temperatures, timing, and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Haines, D.F.; Tracy, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the onset, duration, and termination of hibernation in Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) over several years at multiple sites in the northeastern part of their geographic range, and recorded the temperatures experienced by tortoises during winter hibernation. The timing of hibernation by Desert Tortoises differed among sites and years. Environmental cues acting over the short-term did not appear to influence the timing of the hibernation period. Different individual tortoises entered hibernation over as many as 44 days in the fall and emerged from hibernation over as many as 49 days in the spring. This range of variation in the timing of hibernation indicates a weak influence at best of exogenous cues hypothesized to trigger and terminate hibernation. There do appear to be regional trends in hibernation behavior as hibernation tended to begin earlier and continue longer at sites that were higher in elevation and generally cooler. The emergence date was generally more similar among study sites than the date of onset. While the climate and the subsequent timing of hibernation differed among sites, the average temperatures experienced by tortoises while hibernating differed by only about five degrees from the coldest site to the warmest site. ?? 2007 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  17. Renormalization of extended QED with spontaneously broken supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibold, K.

    1980-01-01

    Using the BPHZ subtraction scheme in the version of Lowenstein and Zimmermann gauge and supersymmetry Ward identities are proved to all orders of perturbation theory for the super QED where supersymmetry is spontaneously broken. (orig.)

  18. Operator-product expansion with spontaneously broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.S.; Lee, T.

    1989-01-01

    The operator-product expansion is a most important tool in quantum field theory, and it is often employed in theories that have a spontaneously broken symmetry such as QCD where chiral symmetry is broken. Claims have been made that the operator-product expansion does not apply to theories with a spontaneously broken symmetry. Although these claims have been previously rebutted, none of these works provide a precise and careful definition of the needed renormalized composite operators and of the operator-product expansion. This we do here for the simple case of scalar field theory. We show explicitly for the first two orders of perturbation theory that operator-product expansion does hold for the spontaneously broken theory for the case of the two-point Green's function. This we do both for the case of a single scalar field and also for the O(N) linear σ-model. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  19. Characterization and Preparation of Broken Rice Proteins Modified by Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Hou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broken rice is an underutilized by-product of milling. Proteins prepared from broken rice by treatments with alkaline protease and papain have been characterized with regard to nutritional and functional properties. The protein content and the protein recovery were 56.45 and 75.45 % for alkaline protease treatment, and 65.45 and 46.32 % for papain treatment, respectively. Protease treatment increased the lysine and valine content, leading to a more balanced amino acid profile. Broken rice proteins had high emulsifying capacity, 58.3–71.6 % at neutral pH, and adequate water holding capacity, ranging from 1.96 to 2.93 g/g of proteins. At pH=7.0, the broken rice protein had the highest water holding capacity and the best interfacial activities (emulsifying capacity, emulsifying stability, foaming capacity and foaming stability, which may be the result of the higher solubility at pH=7.0. The interfacial activities increased with the increase in the mass fraction of broken rice proteins. The proteins prepared by the papain treatment had higher water holding capacity (p>0.05, emulsifying capacity (p0.05 than alkaline protease treatment at the same pH or mass fraction. To test the fortification of food products with broken rice proteins, pork sausages containing the proteins were prepared. Higher yield of the sausages was obtained with the increased content of broken rice proteins, in the range of 2.0–9.0 %. The results indicate that broken rice proteins have potential to be used as the protein fortification ingredient for food products.

  20. Broken homes, parental psychiatric illness, and female delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offord, David R; Abrams, Nola; Allen, Nancy; Poushinsky, Mary

    1979-04-01

    Fifty-nine families with delinquent daughters were compared with 59 families, matched on socioeconomic class, with daughters of the same age who were not delinquent. The frequency of broken homes was found to be the strongest distinguishing factor between probands and controls. Parental disabilities appeared to play a part in the incidence of delinquency among girls, particularly when the disabilities result in a broken home.

  1. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  2. Discrete symmetries: A broken look at QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1996-01-01

    The alphabet soup of discrete symmetries is briefly surveyed with a view towards those which can be tested at LISS and two particularly interesting cases are called out. A LISS experiment may be able to distinguish CP violation that is not due to the QCD θ term. The elements of a model of parity violation in proton-nucleon scattering, which is consistent with lower energy LAMPF and ANL results, are reviewed in the light of new information on diquarks and the proton spin fraction carried by quarks. The prediction that the parity violating total cross section asymmetry should be large at LISS energies is confirmed. The results of such an experiment can be used both to obtain new information about the diquark substructure of the nucleon and to provide bounds on new right-chiral weak interactions

  3. Root communication among desert shrubs.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahall, B E; Callaway, R M

    1991-01-01

    Descriptive and experimental studies of desert shrub distributions have revealed important questions about the mechanisms by which plants interact. For example, do roots interact by mechanisms other than simple competition for limiting resources? We investigated this question using the desert shrubs Ambrosia dumosa and Larrea tridentata grown in chambers that allowed observation of roots during intraplant and intra- and interspecific interplant encounters. Two types of root "communication" we...

  4. Axion monodromy and the weak gravity conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Axions with broken discrete shift symmetry (axion monodromy) have recently played a central role both in the discussion of inflation and the 'relaxion' approach to the hierarchy problem. We suggest a very minimalist way to constrain such models by the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls: While the electric side of the conjecture is always satisfied if the cosine-oscillations of the axion potential are sufficiently small, the magnetic side imposes a cutoff, Λ 3 ∝mfM pl , independent of the height of these 'wiggles'. We compare our approach with the recent related proposal by Ibanez, Montero, Uranga and Valenzuela. We also discuss the non-trivial question which version, if any, of the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls should hold. In particular, we show that string compactifications with branes of different dimensions wrapped on different cycles lead to a 'geometric weak gravity conjecture' relating volumes of cycles, norms of corresponding forms and the volume of the compact space. Imposing this 'geometric conjecture', e.g. on the basis of the more widely accepted weak gravity conjecture for particles, provides at least some support for the (electric and magnetic) conjecture for domain walls.

  5. Proton-neutron correlations in a broken-pair model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkermans, J.N.L.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis nuclear-structure calculations are reported which were performed with the broken-pair model. The model which is developed, is an extension of existing broken-pair models in so far that it includes both proton and neutron valence pairs. The relevant formalisms are presented. In contrast to the number-non-conserving model, a proton-neutron broken-pair model is well suited to study the correlations which are produced by the proton-neutron interaction. It is shown that the proton-neutron force has large matrix elements which mix the proton- with neutron broken-pair configurations. This occurs especially for Jsup(PI)=2 + and 3 - pairs. This property of the proton-neutron force is used to improve the spectra of single-closed shell nuclei, where particle-hole excitations of the closed shell are a special case of broken-pair configurations. Using Kr and Te isotopes it is demonstrated that the proton-neutron force gives rise to correlated pair structures, which remain remarkably constant with varying nucleon numbers. (Auth.)

  6. Broken-Rotor-Bar Diagnosis for Induction Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinjiang; Gao, Robert X; Yan Ruqiang

    2011-01-01

    Broken rotor bar is one of the commonly encountered induction motor faults that may cause serious motor damage to the motor if not detected timely. Past efforts on broken rotor bar diagnosis have been focused on current signature analysis using spectral analysis and wavelet transform. These methods require accurate slip estimation to localize fault-related frequency. This paper presents a new approach to broken rotor bar diagnosis without slip estimation, based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Hilbert transform. Specifically, the Hilbert transform first extracts the envelope of the motor current signal, which contains broken rotor fault-related frequency information. Subsequently, the envelope signal is adaptively decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by the EEMD algorithm. Two criteria based on the energy and correlation analyses have been investigated to automate the IMF selection. Numerical and experimental studies have confirmed that the proposed approach is effective in diagnosing broken rotor bar faults for improved induction motor condition monitoring and damage assessment.

  7. Weak C* Hopf Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, K. -H.

    1996-01-01

    Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.

  8. A Longitudianl Study of the Link Between Broken Homes and Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan

    Possible explanatory theories of the relationship between broken homes and crime include the following: (1) broken homes lead to crimes if there are "catalytic agents"; (2) broken homes lead to crime if these homes fail to provide certain conditions which promote socialization; and (3) broken homes and crime have a common source, but not…

  9. Management of broken instrument by file bypass technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Parveen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Different devices and techniques have been developed to retrieve fractured instruments during the endodontic procedures. This case report describes the management of a broken instrument, which was accidentally broken during cleaning and shaping of the root canal in right 2nd molar tooth. A # 25 stainless steel K-file was separated in mesiobuccal canal of the treated tooth. At first, a radiograph was taken to confirm the level of separation of the instrument. The instrument was found to be separated at the apical 3rd of the mesial canal and then file bypass technique was performed. Calcium hydroxide dressing was given for 7 days followed by obturation with guttapercha cone and zinc oxide eugenol sealer in lateral condensation technique. It can be concluded that bypass technique can be considered as simple and effective technique for the management of broken instrument into the root canal.

  10. The effect of brokenness on cloud-climate sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshvardhan, MR.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of the effect of brokenness on the infrared and albedo feedback of clouds in climate models using a simplified treatment of broken cloudiness. It is shown that the individual feedback terms computed using the plane-parallel assumption differ markedly from the computations performed for a regular array of cuboidal clouds. If the cloudiness changes such that clear areas become cloudy but the nature of the broken cloud field remains unchanged, then both the feedbacks are magnified, the infrared more so than the albedo. However, if individual elements in the cloud field are increased horizontally in a constrained area, the feedbacks can be enhanced or diminished depending on the cloud fraction and aspect ratio of the elements. It is also shown that, in the global average, the ratio of the change in outgoing infrared flux to global albedo, as deduced from satellite measurements, will be larger than model simulations using planiform clouds.

  11. Electro-weak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    By electro-weak theory is meant the unified field theory that describes both weak and electro-magnetic interactions. The development of a unified electro-weak theory is certainly the most dramatic achievement in theoretical physics to occur in the second half of this century. It puts weak interactions on the same sound theoretical footing as quantum elecrodynamics. Many theorists have contributed to this development, which culminated in the works of Glashow, Weinberg and Salam, who were jointly awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics. Some of the important ideas that contributed to this development are the theory of beta decay formulated by Fermi, Parity violation suggested by Lee and Yang, and incorporated into immensely successful V-A theory of weak interactions by Sudarshan and Marshak. At the same time ideas of gauge invariance were applied to weak interaction by Schwinger, Bludman and Glashow. Weinberg and Salam then went one step further and wrote a theory that is renormalizable, i.e., all higher order corrections are finite, no mean feat for a quantum field theory. The theory had to await the development of the quark model of hadrons for its completion. A description of the electro-weak theory is given

  12. Moving the Force: Desert Storm and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Desert Shield~ Desert Storm, we could have met our airlift deployment requirements 20 to 35 percent faster. ~° Similar analyses of the Somalian Restore...DATE DEC 1994 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Moving The Force: Desert Storm and Beyond 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...MOVING THE FORCE: Desert Storm and Beyond SCOTT W. CONRAD McNair Paper 32 December 1994 INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC STUDIES NATIONAL DEFENSE

  13. Elastoconductivity as a probe of broken mirror symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlobil, Patrik; Maharaj, Akash V.; Hosur, Pavan; Shapiro, M. C.; Fisher, I. R.; Raghu, S.

    2015-07-27

    We propose the possible detection of broken mirror symmetries in correlated two-dimensional materials by elastotransport measurements. Using linear response theory we calculate the“shear conductivity” Γ x x , x y , defined as the linear change of the longitudinal conductivity σ x x due to a shear strain ε x y . This quantity can only be nonvanishing when in-plane mirror symmetries are broken and we discuss how candidate states in the cuprate pseudogap regime (e.g., various loop current or charge orders) may exhibit a finite shear conductivity. We also provide a realistic experimental protocol for detecting such a response.

  14. Weak interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model

  15. Integrated Desert Terrain Forecasting for Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    McDonald, Todd Caldwell. Root patterns for Larrea tridentata in relation to soil morphology in Mojave desert soils of different ages, The Mojave Desert...McDonald, E.V., and Caldwell, T.G., 2009, Root patterns for Larrea tridentata in relation to soil morphology in Mojave desert soils of different ages, in

  16. Esaki Diodes in van der Waals Heterojunctions with Broken-Gap Energy Band Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rusen; Fathipour, Sara; Han, Yimo; Song, Bo; Xiao, Shudong; Li, Mingda; Ma, Nan; Protasenko, Vladimir; Muller, David A; Jena, Debdeep; Xing, Huili Grace

    2015-09-09

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions composed of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials are emerging as a solid-state materials family that exhibits novel physics phenomena that can power a range of electronic and photonic applications. Here, we present the first demonstration of an important building block in vdW solids: room temperature Esaki tunnel diodes. The Esaki diodes were realized in vdW heterostructures made of black phosphorus (BP) and tin diselenide (SnSe2), two layered semiconductors that possess a broken-gap energy band offset. The presence of a thin insulating barrier between BP and SnSe2 enabled the observation of a prominent negative differential resistance (NDR) region in the forward-bias current-voltage characteristics, with a peak to valley ratio of 1.8 at 300 K and 2.8 at 80 K. A weak temperature dependence of the NDR indicates electron tunneling being the dominant transport mechanism, and a theoretical model shows excellent agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the broken-gap band alignment is confirmed by the junction photoresponse, and the phosphorus double planes in a single layer of BP are resolved in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time. Our results represent a significant advance in the fundamental understanding of vdW heterojunctions and broaden the potential applications of 2D layered materials.

  17. Hunting the weak bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of the production of weak bosons in the proton-antiproton colliding beam facilities which are currently being developed, is discussed. The production, decay and predicted properties of these particles are described. (W.D.L.).

  18. History of Weak Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  19. Unexpected weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Stéphane Coen and Miro Erkintalo from the University of Auckland in New Zealand talk to Nature Photonics about their surprising findings regarding a weak long-range interaction they serendipitously stumbled upon while researching temporal cavity solitons.

  20. Weakly oval electron lense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system

  1. A broken fenestrated tracheostomy tube fragment removed from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspiration of a broken tracheostomy tube fragment is a relatively rare complication with the potential to result in serious airway complications. Case reports of tracheal fragment aspiration have been documented infrequently in the past, with the earliest documented case in 1960. What follows is a case report of an ...

  2. Broken Heart Syndrome – An intra operative complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Wani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Broken Heart Syndrome in a 56 year old Postmenopausal woman suffered while undergoing simple biopsy procedure for vocal cord polyp that lead to physical, mental and financial burden both for the patient as well as the doctors. A team of cardiologists based on clinical and echocardiographic findings made the diagnosis of this case.

  3. Cancellation of global anomalies in spontaneously broken gauge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    broken gauge theories. MARCO FABBRICHEsI. INFN and Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste,. Italy. Abstract. I discuss the generalization to global gauge anomalies of the familiar proce- dure for the cancellation of local gauge anomalies in effective theories of spontaneously.

  4. Cancellation of global anomalies in spontaneously broken gauge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Higgs phase of a gauge theory [6]. The would-be Goldstone bosons—the angular components of the Higgs field—are the scalar fields that can be used to write the WZ term. This idea had already been put forward in [7] where the interplay between renormalizability and anomaly cancellation in spontaneously broken ...

  5. Broken CP Symmetry and the Physics Nobel Prize–2008

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. Broken CP Symmetry and the Physics Nobel Prize – 2008. Anjan S Joshipura. General Article Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 596-609. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Enticing arsonists with broken windows and social disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas S. Thomas; David T. Butry; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2011-01-01

    In criminology, it is well understood that indicators of urban decay, such as abandoned buildings littered with broken windows, provide criminals with signals identifying neighborhoods with lower crime detection and apprehension rates than better maintained neighborhoods. Whether it is the resident population’s sense of apathy, lack of civic pride, or fear of...

  7. Pidgin, 'broken' English and Othering in Ghanaian literature | Dako ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at the manner in which speakers of pidgin and 'broken' English are 'Othered' in four Ghanaian literary texts: Kobina Sekyi's The Blinkards (1918), R.E. Obeng's Eighteenpence (1942), Cameron Duodu's The Gab Boys (1968) and Kofi Anyidoho's Earthchild : with Brain Surgery (1985). In these works ...

  8. Broken CP Symmetry and the Physics Nobel Prize–2008

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    physics, CP violation and other topics which go beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics. akoto Kobayashi and Toshihide askawa (see ox 1) shared the physics Nobel Prize for 2008 with Yoichiro. Nambu “for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three.

  9. Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in one-dimensional loop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 6. Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in onedimensional loop space. Pinaki Patra ... For one-dimensional loop space, a nonlinear nonlocal transformation of fields is given to make the action of the self-interacting quantum field to the free one. A specific ...

  10. Children and Broken Homes: Sources for the Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Eloise

    The depreciating attitude toward family life in our society has intensified in the past few years. It is not unusual to find substantial numbers of children in a first grade classroom who live in broken homes. Divorce is the answer for more young couples than ever before, and as a result the children involved must face growing up with a parent…

  11. Light hadrons in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A version of the bag model with broken chiral symmetry is proposed. A satisfactory description of the experimental data on light hadrons including the pion is obtained. The estimate of the pion-nucleon σ term is given in the framework of this model. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated. The centre-of-mass motion problem in bag models is discussed

  12. Review of "Spend Smart: Fix Our Broken School Funding System"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    ConnCAN's Spend Smart: "Fix Our Broken School Funding System" was released concurrently with a bill introduced in the Connecticut legislature, based on the principles outlined in the report. However, the report is of negligible value to the policy debate over Connecticut school finance because it provides little or no support for any of…

  13. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  14. Food insecurity and food deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Nadine L

    2015-08-15

    Food insecurity has been steadily increasing in the United States with prevalence at nearly 15% of all households. Nurse practitioners can assess for food insecurity and provide local resources for families living in neighborhoods without easy access to healthy foods, otherwise known as food deserts.

  15. Desert Pathfinder at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) project celebrates the inauguration of its outstanding 12-m telescope, located on the 5100m high Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert (Chile). The APEX telescope, designed to work at sub-millimetre wavelengths, in the 0.2 to 1.5 mm range, passed successfully its Science Verification phase in July, and since then is performing regular science observations. This new front-line facility provides access to the "Cold Universe" with unprecedented sensitivity and image quality. After months of careful efforts to set up the telescope to work at the best possible technical level, those involved in the project are looking with satisfaction at the fruit of their labour: APEX is not only fully operational, it has already provided important scientific results. "The superb sensitivity of our detectors together with the excellence of the site allow fantastic observations that would not be possible with any other telescope in the world," said Karl Menten, Director of the group for Millimeter and Sub-Millimeter Astronomy at the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) and Principal Investigator of the APEX project. ESO PR Photo 30/05 ESO PR Photo 30/05 Sub-Millimetre Image of a Stellar Cradle [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 627 pix - 200k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1254 pix - 503k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1539 x 2413 pix - 1.3M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 30/05 is an image of the giant molecular cloud G327 taken with APEX. More than 5000 spectra were taken in the J=3-2 line of the carbon monoxide molecule (CO), one of the best tracers of molecular clouds, in which star formation takes place. The bright peak in the north of the cloud is an evolved star forming region, where the gas is heated by a cluster of new stars. The most interesting region in the image is totally inconspicuous in CO: the G327 hot core, as seen in methanol contours. It is a truly exceptional source, and is one of the richest sources of emission from complex organic molecules in the

  16. Weak radiative hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.L.; Booth, E.C.; Gall, K.P.; McIntyre, E.K.; Miller, J.P.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Bassalleck, B.; Hall, J.R.; Larson, K.D.; Wolfe, D.M.; Fickinger, W.J.; Robinson, D.K.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Hessey, N.P.; Lowe, J.; Horvath, D.; Salomon, M.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements of the Σ + and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K - p → Yπ where Y = Σ + or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ + → pγ to Σ + → pπ 0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ 0 . The photons from weak radiative decays and from π 0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)

  17. Rindler fluid with weak momentum relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimphun, Sunly; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2018-01-01

    We realize the weak momentum relaxation in Rindler fluid, which lives on the time-like cutoff surface in an accelerating frame of flat spacetime. The translational invariance is broken by massless scalar fields with weak strength. Both of the Ward identity and the momentum relaxation rate of Rindler fluid are obtained, with higher order correction in terms of the strength of momentum relaxation. The Rindler fluid with momentum relaxation could also be approached through the near horizon limit of cutoff AdS fluid with momentum relaxation, which lives on a finite time-like cutoff surface in Anti-de Sitter(AdS) spacetime, and further could be connected with the holographic conformal fluid living on AdS boundary at infinity. Thus, in the holographic Wilson renormalization group flow of the fluid/gravity correspondence with momentum relaxation, the Rindler fluid can be considered as the Infrared Radiation(IR) fixed point, and the holographic conformal fluid plays the role of the ultraviolet(UV) fixed point.

  18. Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission

    OpenAIRE

    Klar, Thomas A.; Jakobs, Stefan; Dyba, Marcus; Egner, Alexander; Hell, Stefan W.

    2000-01-01

    The diffraction barrier responsible for a finite focal spot size and limited resolution in far-field fluorescence microscopy has been fundamentally broken. This is accomplished by quenching excited organic molecules at the rim of the focal spot through stimulated emission. Along the optic axis, the spot size was reduced by up to 6 times beyond the diffraction barrier. The simultaneous 2-fold improvement in the radial direction rendered a nearly spherical fluorescence spot with a diameter of 9...

  19. Mass Formulae for Broken Supersymmetry in Curved Space-Time

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We derive the mass formulae for ${\\cal N}=1$, $D=4$ matter-coupled Supergravity for broken (and unbroken) Supersymmetry in curved space-time. These formulae are applicable to de Sitter configurations as is the case for inflation. For unbroken Supersymmetry in anti-de Sitter (AdS) one gets the mass relations modified by the AdS curvature. We compute the mass relations both for the potential and its derivative non-vanishing.

  20. The Quantum Hall Effect: Novel Excitations and Broken Symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Girvin, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    These pedagogical lecture notes present a general introduction to most aspects of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. This is followed by an extensive discussion of quantum Hall ferromagnetism, both for spins in single-layer systems and `pseudospins' in double-layer systems. The effective field theories describing various broken symmetry states and `skyrmion' and `meron' spin textures are derived and discussed in some detail. Pedagogical presentations on Berry phases and lowest L...

  1. Octonionic gauge theory from spontaneously broken SO(8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassig, C.C.; Joshi, G.C.

    1995-01-01

    An attempt is made to construct a gauge theory based on a bimodular representation of the octonion algebra, the non associativity of which is manifested as a non-closure of the bimodule algebra. It is found that this fact leads to gauge-noninvariance of the theory. However, the bimodule algebra can be embedded in SO(8), the gauge theory of which can be broken down to give a massless SO(7) theory together with a massive octonionic gauge theory. 7 refs

  2. Performance study of quadrupole with broken line profile pole tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Mingwu; Zhang Tianjue; Chu Chengjie

    1997-01-01

    Most of quadrupole used for beam focusing possess hyperbola profile tip. To simplify machining processes and ensure the assembling accuracy, a broken line profile pole tip is adapted instead of hyperbola. The results of the magnetic field simulation codes and the tests show the good quality field generated by such configuration: not only more uniform field gradient, but also field more concentrated at useful area. These types of quadrupole are used at CYCIAE-30 cyclotron and HI-13 tandem transportation lines

  3. Spontaneously broken Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravities as double copies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodaroli, Marco; Günaydin, Murat; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu

    2017-06-01

    Color/kinematics duality and the double-copy construction have proved to be systematic tools for gaining new insight into gravitational theories. Extending our earlier work, in this paper we introduce new double-copy constructions for large classes of spontaneously-broken Yang-Mills-Einstein theories with adjoint Higgs fields. One gauge-theory copy entering the construction is a spontaneously-broken (super-)Yang-Mills theory, while the other copy is a bosonic Yang-Mills-scalar theory with trilinear scalar interactions that display an explicitly-broken global symmetry. We show that the kinematic numerators of these gauge theories can be made to obey color/kinematics duality by exhibiting particular additional Lie-algebraic relations. We discuss in detail explicit examples with N=2 supersymmetry, focusing on Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories belonging to the generic Jordan family in four and five dimensions, and identify the map between the supergravity and double-copy fields and parameters. We also briefly discuss the application of our results to N=4 supergravity theories. The constructions are illustrated by explicit examples of tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes.

  4. Development of fortified dried broken rice as a complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpan, Monthana; Chavasit, Visith; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2005-12-01

    Commercially produced dried broken rice is widely used to prepare complementary foods for Thai infants, and it is both convenient and acceptable to persons from all socioeconomic classes. However, inadequate levels of calcium, iron, thiamine, and folate are common in complementary foods for breastfed infants. We developed dried broken rice fortified with these nutrients at levels recommended by the 2001 guidelines of the World Health Organization. The fortification process involved predrying broken rice at 90 degrees C for 1 hour, soaking in a nutrient solution (2:1 ratio of rice to solution), and drying at 70 degrees C for 1 hour and 50 minutes. Calcium lactate or calcium lactate gluconate was the calcium source, and ferrous sulfate, ferrous lactate, or ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) was the iron source. The vitamin sources were thiamine hydrochloride and folic acid. The product contained 40 mg of calcium, 5.3 mg of iron, 0.08 mg of thiamine, and 11 microg of folate per 20-g serving. Approximately 5% and 10% of calcium and iron, respectively, were lost during processing, with a thiamine loss of approximately 13%, and a folate loss ranging from 17% to 23%. The thiamine loss during accelerated storage (42 degrees C for three months) was not significant (p > .05). NaFeEDTA was the most appropriate iron fortificant because it provided prolonged product stability and high in vitro dialyzability.

  5. Clinical experience with the screw extraction set for broken screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Titanium plate systems are used frequently for bone fractures and postosteotomy fixation in craniomaxillofacial surgery. However, sometimes the head of the screw for plate fixation is deformed or the screw breaks in the bone. Screw removal can be difficult in these cases. In this study, we examined the utility of the Screw Extraction Set (Synthes Inc) in facilitating the removal of screws broken in craniomaxillofacial bones. In the past, we often encountered screw head sockets that had become deformed. In the removal of such a screw, the extraction screw tip did not engage well with the deformed screw head socket because the extraction screw tip was angled obtusely. Thus, its removal was difficult, and this method was clearly problematic. Using the Screw Extraction Set, the removal method for a screw broken in the bone was relatively easy. In particular, it was very convenient in removing broken screws in the mandibular angle and ramus, where surgery is difficult under direct vision. This system was thought to be useful for craniofacial surgeons if proper patient selection is performed.

  6. Broken instrument retrieval with indirect ultrasonics in a primary molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pk, Musale; Sc, Kataria; As, Soni

    2016-02-01

    The separation of a file during pulpectomy is a rare incident in primary teeth due to inherently wider and relatively straighter root canals. A broken instrument hinders the clinician from optimal preparation and obturation of the root canal system invariably leading to failure, although in such teeth, an extraction followed by suitable space maintenance is considered as the treatment of choice. This case report demonstrates successful nonsurgical retrieval of a separated H file fragment in 84. A 7-year-old girl was referred to the Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry for endodontic management of a primary tooth 84 with a dento-alveolar abscess. Her medical history was noncontributory. After diagnosing a broken H file in the mesio-lingual canal, the tooth was endodontically treated in two appointments. At the first session, a broken file was successfully retrieved after using low intensity ultrasonic vibrations through a DG 16 endodontic explorer viewed under an operating microscope. After abscess resolution, Vitapex root canal obturation with a preformed metal crown cementation was completed at a second session. The patient was recalled at 3, 6, 12 and 15 month interval and reported to be clinically asymptomatic and radiographically with complete furcal healing. Integration of microscopes and ultrasonics in paediatric dental practice has made it possible to save such teeth with a successful outcome. Favourable location of the separated file, relatively straighter root canal system and patient cooperation resulted in successful nonsurgical management in this case.

  7. Perilaku Komunikasi antara Guru dengan Siswa Broken Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilsyah Nur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang dilakukan merupakan penelitian kualitatif yang menggunakan beberapa informan sebagai narasumber untuk menjawab permasalahan tentang opini publik terhadap komunikasi interpersonal dalam mengatasi orang tua broken home. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perilaku komunikasi siswa broken home di sekolah belum sepenuhnya efektif. Hal ini disebabkan oleh: intensitas komunikasi antara orang tua dan anak yang masih kurang sehingga anak enggan untuk terbuka kepada orang tuanya mengenai prestasi belajar. Kurangnya dukungan, rasa empati serta sikap positif yang diberikan orang tua kepada anak juga mempengaruhi hubungan interpersonal diantara orang tua dan anak yang menyebabkan anak lebih terbuka kepada teman atau kerabatnya daripada orang tuanya sendiri.Kesetaraan antara orang tua dan anak masih kurang. Perilaku komunikasi yang demikian sangat berpengaruh terhadap perilaku anak di sekolah. Beberapa faktor yang menghambat prilaku komunikasi siswa broken home  diantaranya yaitu  orang tua yang kurang bisa membagi waktu antara pekerjaan dan memberikan perhatian kepada anak di rumah sehingga komunikasi dengan anak tidak berjalan dengan lancar, sikap acuh tak acuh yang ditunjukkan orang tua membuat anak menjauhkan diri dan tidak terbuka kepada orang tua dan ketidakterbukaan siswa terhadap Guru.

  8. Dust Availability in Desert Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    RAVIKOVIrCIl, 1953: KAPLAN , 19119. Si ATKINE. 1960). From Yaalon & Ginzhourg (1988). B.8 AMOUNTS AND CONCENTRATIONS OFl DUST IN THE ATMOSPHERE (see also...deposits of comparable origin and age further north along the Dead Sea Rift. Another exampie is the lava flows of latest Pleisto- cene age in the Cima ...the Cima Volcanic Field in the southern Mojave Desert, located downwind of extensive dust-producing playa surfaces. More than 1 m of a gravel-free B

  9. Influence of surface roughness of a desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical simulation study, using the current GLAS climate GCM, was carried out to examine the influence of low bulk aerodynamic drag parameter in the deserts. The results illustrate the importance of yet another feedback effect of a desert on itself, that is produced by the reduction in surface roughness height of land once the vegetation dies and desert forms. Apart from affecting the moisture convergence, low bulk transport coefficients of a desert lead to enhanced longwave cooling and sinking which together reduce precipitation by Charney's (1975) mechanism. Thus, this effect, together with albedo and soil moisture influence, perpetuate a desert condition through its geophysical feedback effect. The study further suggests that man made deserts is a viable hypothesis.

  10. Axial weak currents in the Wess-Zumino term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo.

    1985-03-01

    The conventional axial gauging of the Wess-Zumino term leads to the results which do not necessarily agree with the expectations on the basis of quark level Ward-Takahashi identities. This discrepancy arises from the fact that the quark level anomalous identities reflect the short distance structure of QCD, whereas the gauging of the Wess-Zumino term reflects the axial symmetry in the spontaneously broken chiral phase. The low energy theorem for axial weak fields is not sharply defined, in contrast to the case of vector fields where no such complications arise. (author)

  11. Managing Pain from a Broken Hip: A Guide for Adults and Their Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products & Tools Research Methods Get Involved Browse Products Home Managing Pain From a Broken Hip Managing Pain From a Broken Hip A ... of pain and type of pain from a broken hip can change during your treatment. For ... and after you come home from the hospital. If you are caring for ...

  12. Does protection of desert tortoise habitat generate other ecological benefits in the Mojave Desert?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew L. Brooks

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the ecological effects of fenced habitat protection for the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area in the Mojave Desert. The following were higher inside than outside the natural area: (1) annual and perennial plant biomass, cover, diversity and dominance by natives, (2) soil seed...

  13. Global Diversity of Desert Hypolithic Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnabella C. Lacap-Bugler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Global patterns in diversity were estimated for cyanobacteria-dominated hypolithic communities that colonize ventral surfaces of quartz stones and are common in desert environments. A total of 64 hypolithic communities were recovered from deserts on every continent plus a tropical moisture sufficient location. Community diversity was estimated using a combined t-RFLP fingerprinting and high throughput sequencing approach. The t-RFLP analysis revealed desert communities were different from the single non-desert location. A striking pattern also emerged where Antarctic desert communities were clearly distinct from all other deserts. Some overlap in community similarity occurred for hot, cold and tundra deserts. A further observation was that the producer-consumer ratio displayed a significant negative correlation with growing season, such that shorter growing seasons supported communities with greater abundance of producers, and this pattern was independent of macroclimate. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and nifH genes from four representative samples validated the t-RFLP study and revealed patterns of taxonomic and putative diazotrophic diversity for desert communities from the Taklimakan Desert, Tibetan Plateau, Canadian Arctic and Antarctic. All communities were dominated by cyanobacteria and among these 21 taxa were potentially endemic to any given desert location. Some others occurred in all but the most extreme hot and polar deserts suggesting they were relatively less well adapted to environmental stress. The t-RFLP and sequencing data revealed the two most abundant cyanobacterial taxa were Phormidium in Antarctic and Tibetan deserts and Chroococcidiopsis in hot and cold deserts. The Arctic tundra displayed a more heterogenous cyanobacterial assemblage and this was attributed to the maritime-influenced sampling location. The most abundant heterotrophic taxa were ubiquitous among samples and belonged to the Acidobacteria

  14. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  15. Experimental study for sensorless broken bar detection in induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calis, Hakan; Cakir, Abduelkadir

    2008-01-01

    This study presents experimental results of sensorless broken bar detection in induction motors based on fluctuations of the stator current zero crossing instants before actual breakdown occurs. These fluctuations are sensed by a microcontroller (μC), and transferred to a computer for monitoring the amplitude changes on specific frequency components using fast Fourier transformation algorithms. The motor current signal is also monitored for verification purposes. The main reasons of rotor faults are broken bars, end ring faults and bearing faults. Most recent efforts are focusing on current spectrum analysis, as the current signal is easily accessible for all induction motors. Instead of sampling motor current with a high resolution analog to digital converter, zero crossing instants are recorded as the waveforms cross zero. Fluctuations in the intervals between successive zero crossings of the three phase current waveforms are analyzed in the frequency domain. Broken bars and end ring breakages, supply unbalances, rotor eccentricities and shaft misalignment faults are distinguished by monitoring amplitude changes of the 2sf, f r , and 2f spectral components, where s is the motor slip, f is supply frequency and f r is rotor speed. Appearance of only the 2sf component in zero crossing times (ZCT) of the signal spectrum implies rotor faults. The 2f component occurs only when supply is unbalanced or in the case of stator winding faults. Separation of these two faults is implemented by monitoring both components. In addition, when there is additional rotor eccentricity due to bearing deterioration or shaft misalignment, it is also necessary to monitor the f r fault signature component to distinguish mixed faults. It may be necessary to include additional signals such as motor vibration or temperature to extend the reliability of the fault detection system for critical machines

  16. Massive Kaluza-Klein theories and their spontaneously broken symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohm, O.

    2006-07-15

    In this thesis we investigate the effective actions for massive Kaluza-Klein states, focusing on the massive modes of spin-3/2 and spin-2 fields. To this end we determine the spontaneously broken gauge symmetries associated to these 'higher-spin' states and construct the unbroken phase of the Kaluza-Klein theory. We show that for the particular background AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} a consistent coupling of the first massive spin-3/2 multiplet requires an enhancement of local supersymmetry, which in turn will be partially broken in the Kaluza-Klein vacuum. The corresponding action is constructed as a gauged maximal supergravity in D=3. Subsequently, the symmetries underlying an infinite tower of massive spin-2 states are analyzed in case of a Kaluza-Klein compactification of four-dimensional gravity to D=3. It is shown that the resulting gravity-spin-2 theory is given by a Chern-Simons action of an affine algebra and also allows a geometrical interpretation in terms of 'algebra-valued' differential geometry. The global symmetry group is determined, which contains an affine extension of the Ehlers group. We show that the broken phase can in turn be constructed via gauging a certain subgroup of the global symmetry group. Finally, deformations of the Kaluza-Klein theory on AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} and the corresponding symmetry breakings are analyzed as possible applications for the AdS/CFT correspondence. (Orig.)

  17. Broken SU(8) symmetry and the new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Schiller, D.H.

    1976-05-01

    We study the mass spectra and wave functions for vector and pseudoscalar mesons in broken SU(8) (SU(8) is contained in SU(4)F * SU(2)J), where F stands for flavour and J for usual spin. The connection with the standard mass breaking in SU(4)F is worked out. We find that even in the presence of strong SU(8) breaking the ideal mixing scheme for the vector mesons can be approximately retained. For the pseudoscalar mesons the mixing of the singlet with the 63-plet representation of SU(8) turns out to be essential and stongly nonideal. (orig.) [de

  18. The MHV Lagrangian for a spontaneously broken gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchta, Sebastian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Starting from the standard Lagrangian for a SU(2) × U(1) gauge theory plus a Higgs field we derive the corresponding "maximal helicity violating" (MHV) Lagrangian. From this MHV Lagrangian one deduces simple diagrammatic rules for the calculation of multi-particle scattering amplitudes. We arrive at the MHV Lagrangian by a canonical change of the field variables in the light-cone gauge. We comment on the modifications which occur in a spontaneously broken gauge theory as compared to a pure (unbroken) Yang-Mills theory.

  19. Geometry of spontaneously broken local N=1 supersymmetry in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The authers reveal the model-independent geometric content of spontaneous breakdown of local supersymmetry in N=1 supergravities (conformal and minimal Einstien ones) via constructing nonlinear realizations of their underlying superspace gauge group. A general method of implementing such realizations consistently with the intrinsic superspace geometry of supergravity theories is proposed and its relevance to description of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the theories of similar nature (strings, membranes) is pointed out. Superspace adequate to the nonlinear realizations constructed and find the explicit relation between them and conventional curved N=1 superspaces are defined. The implications of this relationship for the N = 1 supergravity actions with spontaneously broken supersymmetry are discussed. 29 refs

  20. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    . Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social...

  1. Divining Jordan's desert waters | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To most people, a desert — by definition — is a place where water is practically nonexistent. But a team of researchers studying Jordan's badia — a large desert in the country's northwest corner — has uncovered a secret moving slowly beneath the area's vast arid expanses. Using satellite photos, knowledge of the local ...

  2. Russian deserters of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os'kin Maksim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion scales in the Russian army explained as objective factors - diffi cult fights, shortage of supply, defeat at the front, and subjective - unwillingness to participate in war, melancholy for the house, desire to help a family the work. Desertion in different years of war had various forms. If at the beginning of war there were mainly «self-arrows», in 1915, during defeats at the front - evasion from entrenchments. By the end of 1916, because of the general fatigue from war, desertion takes the real form - flight from the front to the back. After February revolution desertion becomes mass in which hundreds thousands military personnel take part already. Disorder of army and development of revolutionary process extremely strengthen desertion scales that is explained by the actual lack of punishment for this crime. Destruction of the Russian state during revolution became the main reason of coming to power of Bolsheviks, an exit of Russia from war and the army demobilization which essential part in 1917 already deserted from the front.

  3. Soflty broken supersymmetry and the fine-tuning problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.E.

    1984-02-20

    The supersymmetry of the simple Wess-Zumino model is broken, in the tree-approximation, by adding all possible parity-even(mass)-dimension 2 and 3 terms. The model is then renormalized using BPHZ and the normal product algorithm, such that supersymmetry is only softly broken (in the original sense of Schroer and Symanzik). We show that, within the above renormalization scheme, none of the added breaking terms give rise to technical fine-tuning problems (defined in the sense of Gildener) in larger models, with scalar multiplets and hierarchy of mass scales, which is in contrast to what we obtain via analytic schemes such as dimensional renormalization, or supersymmetry extension of which. The discrepancy (which can be shown to persist in more general models) originates in the inherent local ambiguity in the finite parts of subtracted Feynman integrals. Emphasizing that the issue is purely technical (as opposed to physical) in origin, and that all physical properties are scheme-independent (as they should be), we conclude that the technical fine-tuning problem, in the specific sense used in this paper, being scheme dependent, is not a well-defined issue within the context of renormalized perturbation theory. 30 references.

  4. Soflty broken supersymmetry and the fine-tuning problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.E.

    1984-01-01

    The supersymmetry of the simple Wess-Zumino model is broken, in the tree-approximation, by adding all possible parity-even[mass]-dimension 2 and 3 terms. The model is then renormalized using BPHZ and the normal product algorithm, such that supersymmetry is only softly broken (in the original sense of Schroer and Symanzik). We show that, within the above renormalization scheme, none of the added breaking terms give rise to technical fine-tuning problems (defined in the sense of Gildener) in larger models, with scalar multiplets and hierarchy of mass scales, which is in contrast to what we obtain via analytic schemes such as dimensional renormalization, or supersymmetry extension of which. The discrepancy (which can be shown to persist in more general models) originates in the inherent local ambiguity in the finite parts of subtracted Feynman integrals. Emphasizing that the issue is purely technical (as opposed to physical) in origin, and that all physical properties are scheme-independent (as they should be), we conclude that the technical fine-tuning problem, in the specific sense used in this paper, being scheme dependent, is not a well-defined issue within the context of renormalized perturbation theory. (orig.)

  5. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermous, Rachid, E-mail: rfermous@usthb.dz; Djebli, Mourad, E-mail: mdjebli@usthb.dz [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, USTHB, B.P. 32 Bab-Ezzouar, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  6. Pre-relaxation in weakly interacting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Bruno; Fagotti, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    We consider time evolution in models close to integrable points with hidden symmetries that generate infinitely many local conservation laws that do not commute with one another. The system is expected to (locally) relax to a thermal ensemble if integrability is broken, or to a so-called generalised Gibbs ensemble if unbroken. In some circumstances expectation values exhibit quasi-stationary behaviour long before their typical relaxation time. For integrability-breaking perturbations, these are also called pre-thermalisation plateaux, and emerge e.g. in the strong coupling limit of the Bose-Hubbard model. As a result of the hidden symmetries, quasi-stationarity appears also in integrable models, for example in the Ising limit of the XXZ model. We investigate a weak coupling limit, identify a time window in which the effects of the perturbations become significant and solve the time evolution through a mean-field mapping. As an explicit example we study the XYZ spin-\\frac{1}{2} chain with additional perturbations that break integrability. One of the most intriguing results of the analysis is the appearance of persistent oscillatory behaviour. To unravel its origin, we study in detail a toy model: the transverse-field Ising chain with an additional nonlocal interaction proportional to the square of the transverse spin per unit length (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 197203). Despite being nonlocal, this belongs to a class of models that emerge as intermediate steps of the mean-field mapping and shares many dynamical properties with the weakly interacting models under consideration.

  7. Desert(ed geographies: cartographies of nuclear testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Lockard

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses cartographies of nuclearism and colonial-native relations in terms of the exclusions in nuclear testing maps. It considers maps from French and British nuclear tests at Mururoa in the South Pacific and Maralinga in Australia. The paper argues that these maps rely on older Euro-American cartographic and narrative traditions of imagining empty and deserted territories in order to advance political arguments for the displacement and deterritorialisation of native peoples who occupy nuclear testing areas. Such official government nuclear cartography reproduces a colonial narrative of native abandonment. The explicit spatial expansionism of nuclear testing maps emphasises that control of place is the crux of the struggle for an anti-nuclear narrative strategy.

  8. Deserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graulund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    geographies, and the relationship between travel writing and the social, ideological and occasionally fictional constructs through which we view the different regions of the world. Covering all of the major topics and debates, this is an essential overview of the field, which will also encourage new...... and exciting directions for study. Contributors: Simon Bainbridge, Anthony Bale, Shobhana Bhattacharji, Dúnlaith Bird, Elizabeth A. Bohls, Wendy Bracewell, Kylie Cardell, Daniel Carey, Janice Cavell, Simon Cooke, Matthew Day, Kate Douglas, Justin D. Edwards, David Farley, Charles Forsdick, Corinne Fowler...

  9. Simulated climate effects of desert irrigation geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Moore, John C.; Cao, Long; Ji, Duoying; Zhao, Liyun

    2017-04-01

    Geoengineering, the deliberate large-scale manipulation of earth’s energy balance to counteract global warming, is an attractive proposition for sparsely populated deserts. We use the BNU and UVic Earth system models to simulate the effects of irrigating deserts under the RCP8.5 scenario. Previous studies focused on increasing desert albedo to reduce global warming; in contrast we examine how extending afforestation and ecological projects, that successfully improve regional environments, fair for geoengineering purposes. As expected desert irrigation allows vegetation to grow, with bare soil or grass gradually becoming shrub or tree covered, with increases in terrestrial carbon storage of 90.3 Pg C (UVic-ESCM) - 143.9 Pg C (BNU-ESM). Irrigating global deserts makes the land surface temperature decrease by 0.48 °C and land precipitation increase by 100 mm yr-1. In the irrigated areas, BNU-ESM simulates significant cooling of up to 4.2 °C owing to the increases in low cloud and latent heat which counteract the warming effect due to decreased surface albedo. Large volumes of water would be required to maintain global desert irrigation, equivalent 10 mm/year of global sea level (BNU-ESM) compensate for evapotranspiration losses. Differences in climate responses between the deserts prompt research into tailored albedo-irrigation schemes.

  10. INFLUENCE OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS LOCATION IN THE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Halem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the number of broken bars and varying load affect on the amplitudes of specific harmonic components in the process analysis of induction motors under broken rotor bars. The location of broken bars is an important factor which affects the diagnosis of the broken bars defect. In this paper the simulation is determinate for different cases for distribution of broken bars under induction motor pole in order to show the impact of broken bars location upon the amplitude of harmonic fault. The simulation results are obtained by using time stepping finite elements (TSFE method. The geometrical characteristics of motor, the effects of slotting and the magnetic saturation of lamination core are included in induction motor model.

  11. INFLUENCE OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS LOCATION IN THE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Halem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the number of broken bars and varying load affect on the amplitudes of specific harmonic components  in the process analysis of induction motors under broken rotor bars. The location of broken bars is an important factor which affects the diagnosis of the broken bars defect. In this paper the simulation is determinate for different cases for distribution of broken bars under induction motor pole in order to show the impact of broken bars location upon the amplitude of harmonic fault. The simulation results are obtained by using time stepping finite elements (TSFE method. The geometrical characteristics of motor, the effects of slotting and the magnetic saturation of lamination core are included in induction motor model.

  12. Two-colour mid-infrared absorption in an InAs/GaSb-based type II and broken-gap quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X F; Xu, W; Zeng, Z

    2007-01-01

    We examine contributions from different transition channels to optical absorption in an InAs/GaSb-based type II and broken-gap quantum well (QW). In such a structure, because both electron and hole subbands are occupied by the conducting carriers, new channels open up for electronic transition via intra- and inter-layer scattering mechanisms. We find that two absorption peaks can be observed through inter-subband transitions within the same material layer. The absorption induced by the inter-layer transition is rather weak due to a small overlap of electron and hole wavefunctions. The results suggest that InAs/GaSb-based type II and broken-gap QWs can be employed as two-colour photodetectors working at mid-infrared bandwidth at relatively high temperatures up to room-temperature

  13. Microphytic crusts: 'topsoil' of the desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Deserts throughout the world are the home of microphytic, or cryptogamic, crusts. These crusts are dominated by cyanobacteria, previously called blue-green algae, and also include lichens, mosses, green algae, microfungi and bacteria. They are critical components of desert ecosystems, significantly modifying the surfaces on which they occur. In the cold deserts of the Colorado Plateau (including parts of Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico), these crusts are extraordinarily well-developed, and may represent 70-80% of the living ground cover.

  14. Ultrathin plasmonic quarter waveplate using broken rectangular annular metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aijiao; Qian, Qinyu; Yan, Ying; Hu, Jingpei; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Chinhua

    2017-07-01

    We propose an ultrathin plasmonic metasurface-enabled quarter waveplate using a subwavelength broken rectangular annulus (BRA) arrays. The BRA structure is formed by two pairs of slits with perpendicular orientation embedded in a silver thin film. The elimination of the overlapping parts at four corners of a regular rectangular annulus increases significantly the phase anisotropy induced by localized surface plasmons, and thus decreases significantly the thickness of the metal film in order to achieve the required phase difference for a designed waveplate. Simulations show that an ultrathin quarter waveplate can be obtained with a as thin as 10 nm thickness of a silver BRA arrays at wavelength band of 1.55 μm which provides great potential in advancing manufacture of nanophotonic devices.

  15. Quantum Space-Time Deformed Symmetries Versus Broken Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G

    2002-01-01

    Several recent studies have concerned the faith of classical symmetries in quantum space-time. In particular, it appears likely that quantum (discretized, noncommutative,...) versions of Minkowski space-time would not enjoy the classical Lorentz symmetries. I compare two interesting cases: the case in which the classical symmetries are "broken", i.e. at the quantum level some classical symmetries are lost, and the case in which the classical symmetries are "deformed", i.e. the quantum space-time has as many symmetries as its classical counterpart but the nature of these symmetries is affected by the space-time quantization procedure. While some general features, such as the emergence of deformed dispersion relations, characterize both the symmetry-breaking case and the symmetry-deformation case, the two scenarios are also characterized by sharp differences, even concerning the nature of the new effects predicted. I illustrate this point within an illustrative calculation concerning the role of space-time symm...

  16. Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, T A; Jakobs, S; Dyba, M; Egner, A; Hell, S W

    2000-07-18

    The diffraction barrier responsible for a finite focal spot size and limited resolution in far-field fluorescence microscopy has been fundamentally broken. This is accomplished by quenching excited organic molecules at the rim of the focal spot through stimulated emission. Along the optic axis, the spot size was reduced by up to 6 times beyond the diffraction barrier. The simultaneous 2-fold improvement in the radial direction rendered a nearly spherical fluorescence spot with a diameter of 90-110 nm. The spot volume of down to 0.67 attoliters is 18 times smaller than that of confocal microscopy, thus making our results also relevant to three-dimensional photochemistry and single molecule spectroscopy. Images of live cells reveal greater details.

  17. Broken data: Conceptualising data in an emerging world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pink

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce and demonstrate the concept-metaphor of broken data. In doing so, we advance critical discussions of digital data by accounting for how data might be in processes of decay, making, repair, re-making and growth, which are inextricable from the ongoing forms of creativity that stem from everyday contingencies and improvisatory human activity. We build and demonstrate our argument through three examples drawn from mundane everyday activity: the incompleteness, inaccuracy and dispersed nature of personal self-tracking data; the data cleaning and repair processes of Big Data analysis and how data can turn into noise and vice versa when they are transduced into sound within practices of music production and sound art. This, we argue is a necessary step for considering the meaning and implications of data as it is increasingly mobilised in ways that impact society and our everyday worlds.

  18. Numerical and physical modelling of oil spreading in broken ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoesteen, Janne K. Oekland

    2002-01-01

    The present work focuses on oil spreading in broken ice and the content of this thesis falls into three categories: 1) The physical and numerical modelling of oil spreading in ice. 2) Ice models and parameters describing the ice cover. 3) Experiments on oil spreading in broken ice. A background study was carried out to investigate existing models for simulating oil in broken ice. Most of them describe motion of oil simply as a function of the ice motion and do not take advantage of the possibilities that recent ice models provide. We decided to choose another direction, starting from scratch with equations describing the flow of oil on top of a water surface. The equations were implemented numerically, including proper boundary conditions to account for the presence of physical restrictions in the form of ice floes in the simulation area. The implementation was designed to be able to apply data on ice motion calculated by an existing dynamic ice model. A first validation of the model was carried out using existing experimental data. As those data were obtained in a different setting, the recorded parameters and set-up of the experiment were not ideal for our purpose. However, we were able to conclude that our model behaviour was reasonable. We have carried out statistical analysis on meteorological data of wind speeds, temperatures, flow sizes and ice thickness to obtain probability distributions describing the parameters. Those data has been collected in the Pechora Sea. Wind and temperature had been recorded for a period of 30-40 years. For this region we also had available Argos satellite data from four buoys drifting in the ice in April-June 1998. The Argos data were carefully analysed to suggest probability distributions and return periods for certain speeds. (Indoor basin tests were carried out to obtain data on spreading of oil in broken ice. A set of 20 tests was conducted, each with different type of oil, ice concentration, slush concentration or ice

  19. Numerical and physical modelling of oil spreading in broken ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjoesteen, Janne K. Oekland

    2002-07-01

    The present work focuses on oil spreading in broken ice and the content of this thesis falls into three categories: 1) The physical and numerical modelling of oil spreading in ice. 2) Ice models and parameters describing the ice cover. 3) Experiments on oil spreading in broken ice. A background study was carried out to investigate existing models for simulating oil in broken ice. Most of them describe motion of oil simply as a function of the ice motion and do not take advantage of the possibilities that recent ice models provide. We decided to choose another direction, starting from scratch with equations describing the flow of oil on top of a water surface. The equations were implemented numerically, including proper boundary conditions to account for the presence of physical restrictions in the form of ice floes in the simulation area. The implementation was designed to be able to apply data on ice motion calculated by an existing dynamic ice model. A first validation of the model was carried out using existing experimental data. As those data were obtained in a different setting, the recorded parameters and set-up of the experiment were not ideal for our purpose. However, we were able to conclude that our model behaviour was reasonable. We have carried out statistical analysis on meteorological data of wind speeds, temperatures, flow sizes and ice thickness to obtain probability distributions describing the parameters. Those data has been collected in the Pechora Sea. Wind and temperature had been recorded for a period of 30-40 years. For this region we also had available Argos satellite data from four buoys drifting in the ice in April-June 1998. The Argos data were carefully analysed to suggest probability distributions and return periods for certain speeds. (Indoor basin tests were carried out to obtain data on spreading of oil in broken ice. A set of 20 tests was conducted, each with different type of oil, ice concentration, slush concentration or ice

  20. Inflation via Gravitino Condensation in Dynamically Broken Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean; Mavromatos, Nick E

    2015-01-01

    Gravitino-condensate-induced inflation via the super-Higgs effect is a UV-motivated scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local supersymmetry dynamically, entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. As an added benefit, this also removes the (as of yet unobserved) massless Goldstino associated to global supersymmetry breaking from the particle spectrum. In this review we detail the pertinent properties and outline previously hidden details of the various steps required in this context in order to make contact with current inflationary phenomenology. The class of models of SUGRA we use to exemplify our approach are minimal four-dimensional N=1 supergravity and conformal extensions thereof (with broken conformal symmetry). Therein, the gravitino condensate itself can play the role of the inflaton, however the requirement of slow-roll necessitates unnaturally large values of the wave-function renormalisation. Nevertheless, there is an alternative scenario that may provide Staro...

  1. Does a Nutritious Diet Cost More in Food Deserts?

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Linlin; Baylis, Kathy; Gundersen, Craig; Ver Ploeg, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Food deserts and their potential effects on diet and nutrition have received much attention from policymakers. While some research has found correlations between food deserts and consumer outcomes, it is unclear whether food deserts truly affect consumption behavior. In this paper, we compare food prices in food deserts and non-food deserts to check whether lack of access is associated with higher food prices of a complete diet, which could constrain the consumption of healthy foods in food d...

  2. PERILAKU KOMUNIKASI SISWA BROKEN HOME DI SMK NEGERI 3 PARE PARE (STUDI KASUS KOMUNIKASI ANTARPRIBADI)

    OpenAIRE

    RIADHEFI, DASTI

    2012-01-01

    DASTI RIADHEFI. Perilaku Komunikasi Siswa Broken Home Di SMK Negeri 3 Parepare (Dibimbing oleh Abdul Gaffar dan Sudirman Karnay ). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah :1) Untuk mengetahui perilaku komunikasi siswa Broken Home Di SMK Negeri 3 Parepare. 2) Untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang menghambat perilaku komunikasi siswa Broken Home Di SMK Negeri 3 Parepare. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di SMK Negeri 3 Parepare dan berlangsung selama dua bulan yaitu pada bulan September 2012 sampai Nov...

  3. UTILIZATION OF AMINO ACIDS OF BROKEN RICE IN GROWING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The six cannulated gilts (initial body weight 35.8 ± 0.5 kg fitted with a T-cannula in terminal ileum, were used to determine the apparent (AID and standardized (SID ileal digestibility of nitrogen (N and amino acids (AA in broken rice. Animals were fed twice daily in a two equal doses at a daily rate of 80 g.kg - 0.75. Water was offered ad libitum. The tested feed was the sole source of protein in the diet. The N-free diet was used to determine the ileal endogenous flow of AA and N. Chromium oxide (Cr2O3 was added to the diets as an indigestible marker in an amount of 0.3 % per kg of diet. After a 14 d postoperative period a 6 d adaptation period followed during which the animals were fed with an experimental diet. On d 7 ileal digesta was collected continuously for 24 h. The AID and SID of AA and N were calculated using analytically determined values of N, Cr2O3 and AA. The SID of AA was in a range from 81.6 % (tyrosine to 112.6 % (proline (P 0.05, respectively. There were no differences between standardized ileal digestibility of essential amino acids (94.3 % and nonessential amino acids (95.3 %. Regarding the ileal digestibility of AA, broken rice, a by-product from the food industry, is an appropriate source of digestible AA for growing pigs.

  4. Desert Dust and Monsoon Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent have know that heavy dust events brought on by strong winds occur frequently in the pre-monsoon season, before the onset of heavy rain. Yet scientists have never seriously considered the possibility that natural dust can affect monsoon rainfall. Up to now, most studies of the impacts of aerosols on Indian monsoon rainfall have focused on anthropogenic aerosols in the context of climate change. However, a few recent studies have show that aerosols from antropogenic and natural sources over the Indian subcontinent may affect the transition from break to active monsoon phases on short timescales of days to weeks. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Vinoj and colleagues describe how they have shown that desert dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and West Asia can strenghten the summer monsoon over the Indial subcontinent in a matter of days.

  5. Conceptual foundations of the unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the development of two lines of thought in theoretical physics: the slow growth in the understanding of symmetry, and in particular, broken or hidden symmetry; and the struggle to come to terms with the infinities in quantum field theories. He briefly describes how the convergence of these lines of thought led to his work on the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions, and suggests what role they may play in the physics of the future. 63 references

  6. Increasing of Mechanical Parameters of Desert Sand Using Pozzolanic Materia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Sajjadi, Seyed; Fakhraldin Sajjadi, Seyed; Beheshti, Seyed Mohammad; Mehmannavaz, Taha

    2016-04-01

    Research on roads to increase the resistance of weak soils to build structures on it has been increased in recent years. The present article provide the effects of different mixtures containing microsilica, cement, polypropylene waste fiber and dune sand on mechanical parameters such as, compressibility, compressive strength, bending strength and durability characteristic. In this study also is investigated evaluation the effect of road subgrade based on proposed material. The used dune sand in this research was obtained from Kashan city where is located in central desert of Iran. The obtained results show that the microsilica and cement could play a major role in reducing the cost and required time for building roads and also building foundation on these types of soils.

  7. Hijacking Subaltern’s history (broken bodies, broken voices: Decolonial critique of ‘Subaltern whiteness’ in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chammah J. Kaunda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article uses decolonial to critique the discourse of ‘subaltern whiteness’ by questioning some Afrikaner scholars’ morality of regarding ‘white Afrikaners as subaltern’. Subaltern designates submerged, subordinated, exploited or suppressed – those whose voices have been historically muted, their humanity stripped by those with sociopolitical and economic power. Within South Africa, this raises the question: to what extent can white Afrikaners be regarded as subaltern? The article proposes indivisibility of epistemic vulnerability and regenerative theological praxis both emerging within Afrikaner theological discussion as viable response to broken bodies of those who still bear the marks or scars of apartheid and rather not to seek to hijack their voice.

  8. Microbial ecology of hot desert edaphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Gunnigle, Eoin; Frossard, Aline; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Cowan, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of the Earth's surface is desert or in the process of desertification. The extreme environmental conditions that characterize these areas result in a surface that is essentially barren, with a limited range of higher plants and animals. Microbial communities are probably the dominant drivers of these systems, mediating key ecosystem processes. In this review, we examine the microbial communities of hot desert terrestrial biotopes (including soils, cryptic and refuge niches and plant-root-associated microbes) and the processes that govern their assembly. We also assess the possible effects of global climate change on hot desert microbial communities and the resulting feedback mechanisms. We conclude by discussing current gaps in our understanding of the microbiology of hot deserts and suggest fruitful avenues for future research. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Vegetation - Central Mojave Desert [ds166

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Department of Defense and the other desert managers are developing and organizing scientific information needed to better manage the natural resources of the...

  10. Vegetation - Central Mojave Desert [ds166

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Department of Defense and the other desert managers are developing and organizing scientific information needed to better manage the natural resources of the...

  11. Productivity and Energy Management in Desert Urban

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Nasri; Rahele Hekmatpanah

    2010-01-01

    Growing world population has fundamental impacts and often catastrophic on natural habitat. The immethodical consumption of energy, destruction of the forests and extinction of plant and animal species are the consequence of this experience. Urban sustainability and sustainable urban development, that is so spoken these days, should be considered as a strategy, goal and policy, beyond just considering environmental issues and protection. The desert-s climate has made a bu...

  12. Desert Shield Leader’s Safety Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    lasers. • Caution personnel to fire lasers only at designated targets and to never fire at specular surfaces such as glass , mirrors, and windows ... windstorms ) Q Large fluctuations in day/night temperatures (up to 70°F.) • Sandy deserts Q Poor wheeled vehicle off-road mobility/stability...34 desert during the day. • Monitor shadows cast by near objects such as landing gear or skid shadows during hover. • Keep windscreen and door windows

  13. Standard and Null Weak Values

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberberg, Oded; Romito, Alessandro; Gefen, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Weak value (WV) is a quantum mechanical measurement protocol, proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman. It consists of a weak measurement, which is weighed in, conditional on the outcome of a later, strong measurement. Here we define another two-step measurement protocol, null weak value (NVW), and point out its advantages as compared to WV. We present two alternative derivations of NWVs and compare them to the corresponding derivations of WVs.

  14. Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pati

    The concept of the weak measurements, for the first time, was introduced by Aharonov et al.1. Quantum state is preselected in |ψi〉 and allowed to interact weakly with apparatus. Measurement strength can be tuned and for “small g(t)” it is called 'weak measurement'. With postselection in |ψf 〉, apparatus state is shifted by an ...

  15. Weak openness and almost openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rose

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak openness and almost openness for arbitrary functions between topological spaces are defined as duals to the weak continuity of Levine and the almost continuity of Husain respectively. Independence of these two openness conditions is noted and comparison is made between these and the almost openness of Singal and Singal. Some results dual to those known for weak continuity and almost continuity are obtained. Nearly almost openness is defined and used to obtain an improved link from weak continuity to almost continuity.

  16. Weak Weak Lensing : How Accurately Can Small Shears be Measured?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Now that weak lensing signals on the order of a percent are actively being searched for (cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing, large radii in clusters...) it is important to investigate how accurately weak shears can be determined. Many systematic effects are present, and need to be

  17. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    During a long-term study on tortoise growth within 3 fenced 9-ha enclosures in Rock Valley, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, USA, tortoises have been captured annually since 1964 (Medica et al. 1975. Copeia 1975:630-643; Turner et al. 1987. Copeia 1987:974-979). Between early August and mid October 2003 we observed a significant mortality event. The Rock Valley enclosures were constructed of 6 x 6 mm mesh 1.2 m wide hardware cloth, buried 0.3 m in the soil with deflective flashing on both sides on the top to restrict the movement of small mammals and lizards from entering or leaving the enclosures (Rundel and Gibson 1996, Ecological communities and process in a Mojave Desert ecosystem: Rock Valley, Nevada, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. 369 pp.). On August 6, 2003, the carcass of an adult female Desert Tortoise No.1411 (carapace length 234 mm when alive) was collected while adult male tortoise No.4414 (carapace length 269 mm) was observed alive and in good health on the same day. Subsequently the carcass of No.4414 was found on October 16, 2003. Between October 16-17, 2003, the remains of 6 (5 adult and 1 juvenile) Desert Tortoises were found, some within each of the 3 enclosures in Rock Valley. A seventh adult tortoise was found on September 26, 2006, its death also attributed to the 2003 mortality event based upon the forensic evidence. Each of the 7 adult Desert Tortoises had the central portion of their carapace broken open approximately to the dorsal portion of the marginal scutes while the plastron was still intact (Figure 1A). Adjacent to 7 of the 8 remains we located numerous bone fragments including parts of the carapace and limbs as well as dried intestines in a nearby Range Rhatany (Krameria parvifolia) shrub. The significance of the frequent use of this shrub is puzzling. Three of the Desert Tortoise shell remains possessed distinctive intercanine punctures measuring 55-60 mm center to center indicating that this was an adult

  18. The geochemical associations of nitrate and naturally formed perchlorate in the Mojave Desert, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybrand, Rebecca A.; Michalski, Greg; Graham, Robert C.; Parker, David R.

    2013-03-01

    Perchlorate is a widely studied environmental contaminant that may adversely affect human health, and whose natural occurrence has emerged as a subject of great interest. Naturally formed perchlorate has been found to co-occur with nitrate in arid environments worldwide, but the relationship is not fully understood in the desert soils of the southwestern United States. The main objective of this research was to explore the origin, pedogenic distribution, and possible preservation of perchlorate and nitrate in the Mojave Desert mud hill deposits of California and to determine if the co-occurrence of putatively natural perchlorate was significantly correlated with nitrate in these soils. We identified 39 soil horizons in the Mojave Desert, California that contained reportable levels of perchlorate (MRL >165 μg kg-1) with a maximum concentration of 23 mg kg-1. A weak yet significant correlation was observed between perchlorate and nitrate (r2 = 0.321∗∗∗), which could be indicative of similar mechanisms of accumulation. When compared to published data for the Atacama Desert, the Mojave Desert perchlorate concentrations were remarkably lower for a given nitrate concentration. Oxygen isotopes in the nitrate were examined to identify variation within the Mojave Desert field sites, and to compare with the available literature for the Atacama Desert. The Mojave Desert Δ17O values ranged from 7‰ to 13‰, indicating a mixture of biologically and atmospherically-derived nitrate. An investigation of the distribution of perchlorate among soil horizons revealed that over sixty percent of the samples containing perchlorate were from C horizons while only twenty percent of the samples were from B horizons and even fewer in the overlying A horizons. Soil chemical, morphologic, and geologic characteristics of the soils suggest that the perchlorate, nitrate and/or other soluble salts have moved in a "bottom-up" manner wherein the salts were deposited in strata through

  19. Schrödinger operators on a periodically broken zigzag carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Schrödinger operators on a broken carbon nanotube. 473 the eigenvalues with infinite multiplicities [16]. Although we discuss spectral properties for the Schrödinger operators on periodically broken zigzag carbon nanotubes, through- out this paper, we also note that there are results on the scattering properties on quantum.

  20. suitability of broken bottles as fine aggregate for production of concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The use of broken bottles as partial replacement of river sand for production of concrete was ... material made up of cement, aggregates (fine ... as waste. Their use will reduce the nuisance they cause to man. It is therefore necessary to conduct researches on broken bottles with the view to finding ways they can be useful to ...

  1. Equipment for broken ore transport from stopes, mainly for radioactive ore transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejlik, V.; Strnadel, M.; Dostal, O.

    1975-01-01

    Equipment is described for the transport of broken ore from stopes, mainly of radioactive ores. The equipment is made from steel or plastics. It consists of a baseplate and of one or more centerings; it does not capture radioactive broken ores which improves the working environment in mines and increases safety of work. (Oy)

  2. Energy dissipation in thirty-foot broken-back culverts using laboratory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research investigates the reduction in scour downstream of a broken-back culvert by forming a hydraulic jump : inside the culvert. A broken-back culvert is used in areas of high relief and steep topography as it has one or more breaks in profile...

  3. 77 FR 19661 - City of Broken Bow, OK; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12470-001] City of Broken Bow, OK; Notice of Technical Conference March 21, 2012. Take notice that a technical conference will... for the Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam Hydroelectric Project No. 12470. This conference will be held on...

  4. Listening to What Cannot Be Said: Broken Narratives and the Lived Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokanovic, Renata; Stone, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    The core of this special issue of "Arts and Humanities in Higher Education" emerged from the "Broken Narratives and the Lived Body" conference held in 2016. The "Broken Narrative" essays included in this issue open up a critical space for understanding and theorising illness narratives that defy a conventional…

  5. Schrödinger operators on a periodically broken zigzag carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the spectra of Schrödinger operators on zigzag carbon nanotubes, which are broken by abrasion or during refining process. Throughout this paper, we assume that the carbon nanotubes are broken periodically and we deal with one of those models. Making use of the Floquet–Bloch theory, we ...

  6. Validity of the broken-pair approximation for N = 50, even-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, S.; Gambhir, Y.K.

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the broken-pair approximation as an approximation to the seniority shell model is investigated. The results of the broken-pair approximation and the seniority shell model, obtained by employing identical input information (single-particle levels and their energies, effective two-body matrix elements, 88 Sr inert core) for N = 50, even-A nuclei are compared. A close agreement obtained between the calculated broken-pair approximation and the seniority shell model energies for 90 Zr, 92 Mo, 94 Ru, and 96 Pd nuclei and large (95--100 %) overlaps between the broken-pair approximation and the senority shell model wave functions for 92 Mo, demonstrates the validity of the broken-pair approximation in this region and in general its usefulness as a good approximation to the seniority shell model

  7. Dynamically broken gauge model without fundamental scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyderman, N. J.; Guralnik, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the structure that must be generated by dynamical symmetry breaking solutions to gauge theories can be explicitly implemented with a 4-fermion interaction. This structure arises in order to obtain consistency with the constraints imposed by a Goldstone commutator proportional to (anti psi psi). One demonstrates these ideas within the context of axial electrodynamics, dynamically breaking chiral symmetry. As a pre-requisite it is shown how the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model becomes renormalizable with respect to a systematic approximation scheme that respects the Goldstone commutator of dynamically broken chiral symmetry to each order of approximation. (This approximation scheme is equivalent to a l/N expansion, where N is set to unity at the end of the calculations). This solution generates new interactions not explicitly present in the original Lagrangian and does not have a 4-fermion contact interaction. The renormalized Green's functions are shown to correspond to those of the sigma-model, summed as though the fermions had N components, and for which lambda/sub 0/ = 2g/sub 0//sup 2/. This correspondence is exact except for the possibility that the renormalized coupling of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model may be a determined number.

  8. Dynamically broken gauge model without fundamental scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyderman, N.J.; Guralnik, G.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the structure that must be generated by dynamical symmetry breaking solutions to gauge theories can be explicitly implemented with a 4-fermion interaction. This structure arises in order to obtain consistency with the constraints imposed by a Goldstone commutator proportional to [anti psi psi]. One demonstrates these ideas within the context of axial electrodynamics, dynamically breaking chiral symmetry. As a pre-requisite it is shown how the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model becomes renormalizable with respect to a systematic approximation scheme that respects the Goldstone commutator of dynamically broken chiral symmetry to each order of approximation. (This approximation scheme is equivalent to a l/N expansion, where N is set to unity at the end of the calculations). This solution generates new interactions not explicitly present in the original Lagrangian and does not have a 4-fermion contact interaction. The renormalized Green's functions are shown to correspond to those of the sigma-model, summed as though the fermions had N components, and for which lambda 0 = 2g 0 2 . This correspondence is exact except for the possibility that the renormalized coupling of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model may be a determined number

  9. Floe-size distributions in laboratory ice broken by waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Agnieszka; Evers, Karl-Ulrich; Reimer, Nils

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the analysis of floe-size distribution (FSD) data obtained in laboratory experiments of ice breaking by waves. The experiments, performed at the Large Ice Model Basin (LIMB) of the Hamburg Ship Model Basin (Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt, HSVA), consisted of a number of tests in which an initially continuous, uniform ice sheet was broken by regular waves with prescribed characteristics. The floes' characteristics (surface area; minor and major axis, and orientation of equivalent ellipse) were obtained from digital images of the ice sheets after five tests. The analysis shows that although the floe sizes cover a wide range of values (up to 5 orders of magnitude in the case of floe surface area), their probability density functions (PDFs) do not have heavy tails, but exhibit a clear cut-off at large floe sizes. Moreover, the PDFs have a maximum that can be attributed to wave-induced flexural strain, producing preferred floe sizes. It is demonstrated that the observed FSD data can be described by theoretical PDFs expressed as a weighted sum of two components, a tapered power law and a Gaussian, reflecting multiple fracture mechanisms contributing to the FSD as it evolves in time. The results are discussed in the context of theoretical and numerical research on fragmentation of sea ice and other brittle materials.

  10. Two phases of the anyon gas and broken T symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canright, G.S.; Rojo, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the first exact finite-temperature study of anyons. The authors' method is an extension to finite T of earlier numerical work with small numbers of anyons on a lattice. We study the spontaneous magnetization M 0 (T), since the signature has been identified as a key signature of broken T symmetry for anyon models. Our results confirm the two-phase picture suggested by earlier work: The authors find a low-temperature regime where M 0 is very small or zero, and a high-temperature regime where M 0 is of O(0.1 μ B ) per particle. In the high-temperature regime the authors can obtain an excellent estimate of M 0 (T) in the thermodynamic limit (which we call M 0 ∞ ). since our finite-size results extrapolate smoothly with little scatter. The authors' values for M 0 ∞ can then be compared with the results of μSR experiments on high-temperature superconductors, which set an upper experimental bound on the internal fields from such moments. The authors find that M 0 ∞ in a bulk material of many planes will almost certainly give a signal well above this threshold if (and only if) the planes are ordered ferromagnetically. In the antiferromagnetic case (which is strongly favored energetically) the signal from M 0 ∞ is probably undetectable. Finally, we estimate the transition temperature T c from our finite-size studies, obtaining a value on the order of a few hundred Kelvins

  11. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  12. Job loss and broken partnerships: do the number of stressful life events influence the risk of ischemic heart disease in men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    % confidence interval 1.02-1.85). We found no indication of dose-response relationship between number of events and risk of IHD. CONCLUSION: In this study of middle-aged men, we found only weak support for the effect of psychosocial stress on IHD measured with register based life events; we found that IHD...... was associated with broken partnerships but not with job loss. We did not find that the risk of incident IHD varied with the number of these stressful life events....

  13. Food deserts and nutritional risk in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartin, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study in San Lorenzo, Paraguay is to identify a food desert in a developing context and to test if food deserts shape residential obesity risk. This article reviews some of the debate surrounding whether food deserts really exist; and, if so, what are the dietary implications of living in a food desert. The research is an exploratory/explanatory design. The author mapped the downtown food retail district and the neighborhood food environment to identify what stores/markets. The author assessed each type of food store using an adapted version of the Nutrition Environment Measure Survey for Stores (NEMS-S) for Paraguay. Body mass index and household characteristics were collected with 68 households in a small neighborhood; and, the author matched the NEMS-S scores to the store reported by households as their primary grocery store for regression tests. The results suggest that a tradeoff exists in the local food environment between food stores which negatively impact obesity risk for local residents. Exposure to this tradeoff appears to worsen as people live longer in the food desert. Thus, the results support the location of a food desert finding in Paraguay. The underlying factors of a food desert extend beyond food access to focus on the issues of justice. A way to improve upon future research to build scholarship on the relationship between deprivation and obesity requires that sample sizes are either large or representative of the population and that the research should be based on multiple neighborhood and city sites. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hartman effect and weak measurements that are not really weak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Akhmatskaya, E.

    2011-01-01

    We show that in wave packet tunneling, localization of the transmitted particle amounts to a quantum measurement of the delay it experiences in the barrier. With no external degree of freedom involved, the envelope of the wave packet plays the role of the initial pointer state. Under tunneling conditions such ''self-measurement'' is necessarily weak, and the Hartman effect just reflects the general tendency of weak values to diverge, as postselection in the final state becomes improbable. We also demonstrate that it is a good precision, or a 'not really weak' quantum measurement: no matter how wide the barrier d, it is possible to transmit a wave packet with a width σ small compared to the observed advancement. As is the case with all weak measurements, the probability of transmission rapidly decreases with the ratio σ/d.

  15. The QpWeak experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androic, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Birchall, J.; Carlini, R. D.; Cornejo, J. C.; Covrig, S.; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dow, K.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Q p Weak collaboration completed a two year measurement program to determine the weak charge of the proton Q W p = ( 1 - 4sin 2 θ W ) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). The experiment was designed to produce a 4.0 % measurement of the weak charge, via a 2.5 % measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in the number of elastically scattered 1.165 GeV electrons from protons, at forward angles. At the proposed precision, the experiment would produce a 0.3 % measurement of the weak mixing angle at a momentum transfer of Q 2  = 0.026 GeV 2 , making it the most precise stand alone measurement of the weak mixing angle at low momentum transfer. In combination with other parity measurements, Q p Weak will also provide a high precision determination of the weak charges of the up and down quarks. At the proposed precision, a significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction could be a signal of new physics at mass scales up to ≃ 6 TeV, whereas agreement would place new and significant constraints on possible Standard Model extensions at mass scales up to ≃ 2 TeV. This paper provides an overview of the physics and the experiment, as well as a brief look at some preliminary diagnostic and analysis data.

  16. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Natalie M; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Carlson, Greg N; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2013-08-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee's common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g., the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these "weak definite" interpretations arise in "incorporated" constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g., hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g., farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. Scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti-familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725

  18. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-08-19

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.

  19. Resisting Weakness of the Will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil

    2011-01-01

    I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology.

  20. Desert basins of the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  1. Simple New Screw Insertion Technique without Extraction for Broken Pedicle Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Jin-Sang; Park, Jong-Tae

    2018-05-01

    Spinal transpedicular screw fixation is widely performed. Broken pedicle screw rates range from 3%-7.1%. Several techniques have been described for extraction of broken pedicle screws. However, most of these techniques require special instruments. We describe a simple, modified technique for management of broken pedicle screws without extraction. No special instruments or drilling in an adjacent pedicle are required. We used a high-speed air drill with a round burr. With C-arm fluoroscopy guidance, the distal fragment of a broken pedicle screw was palpated using free-hand technique through the screw entry hole. A high-speed air drill with a round burr (not a diamond burr) was inserted through the hole. Drilling began slowly and continued until enough space was obtained for new screw insertion. Using this space, we performed new pedicle screw fixation medially alongside the distal fragment of the broken pedicle screw. We performed the insertion with a previously used entry hole and pathway in the pedicle. The same size pedicle screw was used. Three patients were treated with this modified technique. New screw insertion was successful in all cases after partial drilling of the distal broken pedicle screw fragment. There were no complications, such as screw loosening, dural tears, or root injury. We describe a simple, modified technique for management of broken pedicle screws without extraction. This technique is recommended in patients who require insertion of a new screw. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Corn replacement by broken rice in meat-type quail diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TMB Filgueira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of broken rice inclusion as substitute for corn in the diet on the performance, carcass yield, and economic viability of meat-type quails between 7 and 49 days of age. A number of 288 quails was distributed according to a completely randomized design into six treatments with six replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of increasing levels of broken rice (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% in replacement of corn. Increasing levels of corn substitution by broken rice in the diet of 7- to 49-day-old meat-type quails did not affect feed intake, weight gain or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05. Relative to carcass traits, the inclusion of broken rice in the diets did not influence (p>0.05 dressing percentage or breast, leg (thigh+drumstick, liver, and gizzard yields. Moreover, feed cost per kilogram of live weight gain, cost index, and economic efficiency index were not influenced by the replacement of corn by broken rice in the diets. The performance, carcass traits and economic viability of broilers fed the different levels of broken rice inclusion were not different from the control group (p>0.05. These results indicate the economic viability of total replacement of corn by broken rice in the feeding of meat-type quails.

  3. Mixed-fault diagnosis in induction motors considering varying load and broken bars location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Jawad; Ebrahimi, Bashir Mahdi; Toliyat, H.A.; Abu-Elhaija, W.S.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous static eccentricity and broken rotor bars faults, called mixed-fault, in a three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor is analyzed by time stepping finite element method using fast Fourier transform. Generally, there is an inherent static eccentricity (below 10%) in a broken rotor bar induction motor and therefore study of the mixed-fault case could be considered as a real case. Stator current frequency spectrum over low frequencies, medium frequencies and high frequencies are analyzed; static eccentricity diagnosis and its distinguishing from the rotor bars breakage in the mixed-fault case are described. The contribution of the static eccentricity and broken rotor bars faults are precisely determined. Influence of the broken bars location upon the amplitudes of the harmonics due to the mixed-fault is also investigated. It is shown that the amplitudes of harmonics due to broken bars placed on one pole are larger than the case in which the broken bars are distributed on different poles. In addition, influence of varying load on the amplitudes of the harmonics due to the mixed-fault is studied and indicated that the higher load increases the harmonics components amplitudes due to the broken bars while the static eccentricity degree decreases. Simulation results are confirmed by the experimental results.

  4. Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchuk, Vitalii V

    2007-01-01

    In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.

  5. Ephemeral lakes and desert dust sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Natalie M.; Bryant, Robert G.; del Corral, John; Steinberger, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The processes that determine which areas are strong sources of mineral aerosols are not well known. In this study we consider the role of ephemeral lakes in modulating emissions of atmospheric mineral aerosols. We focus on two ephemeral lake regions that have been identified as source regions: the zone of Chotts in Tunisia and Algeria, and Etosha Pan in Namibia. Comparisons of satellite retrieved inundation data and the TOMS absorbing aerosol index suggest that during some periods of inundation, desert dust loadings are reduced. There is some indication that after flooded areas have dried there is increased dust loading. However, the role of the inundated ephemeral lake compared with nearby regions in modulating desert dust sources is unclear, in addition, problems with interpreting the TOMS AI make conclusions difficult. More research is required to understand the small-scale sources of atmospheric desert dust in dry, unvegetated, topographic lows.

  6. The weak decay of hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    Hypernuclei whose ground states are stable against strong decay are used to study two-baryon weak interactions. A review of th existing experimental data, including recent results from the AGS on /sub Λ/ 12 C and /sub Λ/ 11 B, shows that the lifetimes and branching ratios can be used to test the effective weak Hamiltonians used in the rate calculations. 10 refs., 4 figs

  7. Weakly Supervised Deep Detection Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bilen, Hakan; Vedaldi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Weakly supervised learning of object detection is an important problem in image understanding that still does not have a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we address this problem by exploiting the power of deep convolutional neural networks pre-trained on large-scale image-level classification tasks. We propose a weakly supervised deep detection architecture that modifies one such network to operate at the level of image regions, performing simultaneously region selection and classificati...

  8. Weakly compact operators and interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Maligranda, Lech

    1992-01-01

    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  9. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-03-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

  10. Weak interactions of elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1965-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 5: Weak Interaction of Elementary Particles focuses on the composition, properties, and reactions of elementary particles and high energies. The book first discusses elementary particles. Concerns include isotopic invariance in the Sakata model; conservation of fundamental particles; scheme of isomultiplets in the Sakata model; universal, unitary-symmetric strong interaction; and universal weak interaction. The text also focuses on spinors, amplitudes, and currents. Wave function, calculation of traces, five bilinear covariants,

  11. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  12. Oxalosis in wild desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Elliott R.; Berry, Kristin H.; Stacy, Brian; Huzella, Louis M.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Fleetwood, Michelle L.; Mense, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    We necropsied a moribund, wild adult male desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) with clinical signs of respiratory disease and elevated plasma biochemical analytes indicative of renal disease (blood urea nitrogen [415 mg/dl], uric acid [11.8 mg/dl], sodium >180 mmol/l] and chloride [139 mmol/l]). Moderate numbers of birefringent oxalate crystals, based on infrared and electron microscopy, were present within renal tubules; small numbers were seen in colloid within thyroid follicles. A retrospective analysis of 66 additional cases of wild desert tortoises was conducted to determine whether similar crystals were present in thyroid and kidney. The tortoises, from the Mojave and Sonoran deserts, were necropsied between 1992 and 2003 and included juveniles and adults. Tortoises were classified as healthy (those that died due to trauma and where no disease was identified after necropsy and evaluation by standard laboratory tests used for other tortoises) or not healthy (having one or more diseases or lesions). For all 67 necropsied tortoises, small numbers of crystals of similar appearance were present in thyroid glands from 44 of 54 cases (81%) and in kidneys from three of 65 cases (5%). Presence of oxalates did not differ significantly between healthy and unhealthy tortoises, between age classes, or between desert region, and their presence was considered an incidental finding. Small numbers of oxalate crystals seen within the kidney of two additional tortoises also were considered an incidental finding. Although the source of the calcium oxalate could not be determined, desert tortoises are herbivores, and a plant origin seems most likely. Studies are needed to evaluate the oxalate content of plants consumed by desert tortoises, and particularly those in the area where the tortoise in renal failure was found.

  13. Locating rotor broken bars in induction motors using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Jawad; Ebrahimi, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Number of broken bars and varying load have been so far proposed in the literature in the process analysis of induction motors under broken rotor bars. In this paper, it is shown that there is the third factor which affects the diagnosis of the broken bars fault. This deterministic factor is the location of the broken bars which is determined precisely here. It is also shown that distribution of the broken bars over different poles of the motor reduces the amplitude of the harmonic components due to the fault. In this paper, the stator current frequency spectrum of a faulted induction motor is obtained for all cases in which four broken bars are distributed over poles of the motor. It is shown that the amplitudes of harmonics (1 ± 2s)f s are a suitable index for locating the rotor bars breakage. In this paper, the torque frequency spectrum of a faulted induction motor has been obtained for various cases of the bars breakage location and shown that the bars breakage location influences the amplitudes of harmonic components 2sf s in the torque frequency spectrum. Time stepping finite element method (TSFEM) is used to model an induction motors with rotor broken bars. In this modeling, geometrical and physical characteristics of all parts of the motor, spatial distribution of stator windings, slots on both sides of the air gap and non-linear characteristic of the core materials are included. Meanwhile the current of the broken bar is taken to be non-zero, instead resistance of the broken bar is considered large enough. In fact, this is the real case, because there is an inter-bar current within the broken bar induction motor. Since there is noise, unbalanced magnetic pull and arc in the broken bar induction motor, acceleration of the faulty motor up to the steady-state is considered here. It is indicated that the location of the rotor bars has significant effect upon the torque of the faulty motor and when the broken bars concentrate over one pole of the motor, the

  14. Induced cosmological constant expected above the phase transition restoring the broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludman, S.A.; Ruderman, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The vacuum energy density now is small or zero but must have been prodigious if the universe was once hotter than T/sub c/approx.10 15 K and if elementary-particle symmetry is spontaneously broken by a Higgs mechanism. If symmetry is broken nondynamically, in the hot disordered phase the huge vacuum energy density is nevertheless negligible, compared to the energy density of ultrarelativistic particles. Because the broken symmetry is non-Abelian, the long-range forces arising on symmetry restoration need not lead back to an anisotropic, inhomogeneous, or domain-structure universe

  15. Mate desertion in response to female promiscuity in the socially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we report a case of such a mate desertion in the aardwolf Proteles cristatus. We suggest, however, that mate desertion should occur only rarely in response to female promiscuity. This is because a cuckolded male may still be raising some of his own offspring, and should desert only on the rare occasions when an ...

  16. An Economic View of Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne; Haider, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable policy and academic attention has been focused on the topic of food deserts. We consider this topic from an economic perspective. First, we consider how the components of a standard economic analysis apply to the study of food deserts. Second, using this economic lens, we revisit the empirical literature on food deserts to assess the…

  17. Jojoba could stop the desert creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-25

    The Sahara desert is estimated to be expanding at a rate of 5km a year. The Sudanese government is experimenting with jojoba in six different regions as the bush has the potential to stop this ''desert creep''. The plant, a native to Mexico, is long known for its resistance to drought and for the versatile liquid wax that can be extracted from its seeds. It is estimated that one hectare of mature plants could produce 3000 kg of oil, currently selling at $50 per litre, and so earn valuable foreign currency.

  18. (Pseudo-Goldstone boson interaction in D=2+1 systems with a spontaneously broken internal rotation symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph P. Hofmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-temperature properties of systems characterized by a spontaneously broken internal rotation symmetry, O(N→O(N−1, are governed by Goldstone bosons and can be derived systematically within effective Lagrangian field theory. In the present study we consider systems living in two spatial dimensions, and evaluate their partition function at low temperatures and weak external fields up to three-loop order. Although our results are valid for any such system, here we use magnetic terminology, i.e., we refer to quantum spin systems. We discuss the sign of the (pseudo-Goldstone boson interaction in the pressure, staggered magnetization, and susceptibility as a function of an external staggered field for general N. As it turns out, the d=2+1 quantum XY model (N=2 and the d=2+1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet (N=3, are rather special, as they represent the only cases where the spin-wave interaction in the pressure is repulsive in the whole parameter regime where the effective expansion applies. Remarkably, the d=2+1 XY model is the only system where the interaction contribution in the staggered magnetization (susceptibility tends to positive (negative values at low temperatures and weak external field.

  19. Δ17O Isotopic Investigation of Nitrate Salts Found in Co-Occurrence with Naturally Formed Perchlorate in the Mojave Desert, California, USA and the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybrand, R. A.; Parker, D.; Rech, J.; Prellwitz, J.; Michalski, G.

    2009-12-01

    Perchlorate is both a naturally occurring and manmade contaminant that has been identified in soil, groundwater and surface water. Perchlorate directly affects human health by interfering with iodide uptake in the thyroid gland, which may in turn lower the production of key hormones that are needed for proper growth and development. Until recently, the Atacama Desert, Chile was thought to be the only location where perchlorate salts formed naturally. Recent work has documented the occurrence of these salts in several semi-arid regions of the United States. This study identified putatively natural sources of perchlorate in the Mojave Desert of California. Soil samples were collected from six field sites varying in geologic age. The co-occurrence of perchlorate and nitrate in caliches from the Atacama Desert and soils from the Mojave Desert was also investigated. Although the former are richer in NO3-, near-ore-grade (~5%) deposits occur in the vicinity of Death Valley National Park. Weak but significant correlations exist between ClO4- and NO3- at both locations, but the perchlorate levels are much higher (up to 800 mg/kg) in the Chilean samples than in California (atmospheric origin for the Atacama nitrate salts, and a mixture between biological nitrate and atmospherically-derived nitrate for the Mojave samples. When corrected for the percentage of atmospheric nitrate measured in the Atacama samples, the Mojave samples still contain much lower perchlorate concentrations than would be expected if the occurrence of perchlorate correlated strictly with atmospherically derived nitrate. These results indicate that the variation in the origins of the nitrate salts is not the only factor influencing perchlorate distribution in these environments. These findings suggest that there are other geologic differences in landform age and stability that are crucial to understanding the co-occurrence of nitrate and perchlorate between the two locations.

  20. Search for broken time-reversal symmetry near the surface of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ films using β-detected nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, H.; Morris, G. D.; Salman, Z.; Song, Q.; Chow, K. H.; Hossain, M. D.; Levy, C. D. P.; Parolin, T. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Smadella, M.; Wang, D.; Greene, L. H.; Hentges, P. J.; Kiefl, R. F.; Macfarlane, W. A.

    2011-02-01

    Weak spontaneous magnetic fields are observed near the surface of YBa2Cu3O7-δ films using β-detected nuclear magnetic resonance. Below Tc, the magnetic field distribution in a silver film evaporated onto the superconductor shows additional line broadening, indicating the appearance of small disordered magnetic fields. The line broadening increases linearly with a weak external magnetic field applied parallel to the surface, and is depth independent up to 45 nm from the Ag/YBa2Cu3O7-δ interface. The magnitude of the line broadening extrapolated to zero applied field is less than 0.2 G, and is close to nuclear dipolar broadening in the Ag. This indicates that any fields due to broken time-reversal symmetry are less than 0.2 G.

  1. Finite-temperature effective potential of a system with spontaneously broken symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E.P. [Yaroslavl State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    A quantum-mechanical system with spontaneously broken symmetry is considered the effective potential is determined, and it is shown that with reduction of temperature the system undergoes a phase transition of the first kind.

  2. Classic theory for chromosome rearrangements with spatially restricted volume for broken ends interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'yanchuk, L.V.

    1997-01-01

    D. Lea classic theory for chromosomal rearrangements formation was modified to account for local interaction of broken chromosome ends. This assumption makes it possible to drastically improve coincidence of the theory and experiment in the case of complex rearrangements

  3. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  4. Support vector machine classifier for diagnosis in electrical machines: Application to broken bar

    OpenAIRE

    Matic, Dragan; Kulic, Filip; Pineda-Sanchez, Manuel; Kamenko, Ilija

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a support vector machine classifier for broken bar detection in electrical induction machine. It is a reliable online method, which has high robustness to load variations and changing operating conditions. The phase current is only physical value to be measured. The steady state current is analyzed for broken bar fault via motor current signature analysis technique based on Hilbert transform. A two dimensional feature space is proposed. The features are: magnitude and freq...

  5. On the covariant description of spontaneously broken symmetry in general field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Joos, H

    1976-01-01

    Reducible fields A(x) with degenerate vacuum which allow the unitary- symmetry transformation U/sup -1/(c)A(x)U(c)=A(x)+c are analysed. The mathematical properties of the 'charge integral' related to the conserved current of this spontaneously broken symmetry are described. The structure of the S-matrix theory is discussed in such a generalized field theory as a guide-line for the treatment of more complex examples of spontaneously broken symmetries. (42 refs).

  6. An evaluation of the effects of broken cryptographic primitives on Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Bitcoin cryptocurrency relies heavily on a variety of cryptographic functions and operations, which are currently assumed to be secure, but will inevitably be broken in the future. As Bitcoin tries to compete against traditional currencies, it remains to be seen how the Bitcoin protocol will need to change in response to weakened cryptography. To this end, this study systematically evaluates the effects of broken cryptographic primitives on the operation of the Bitcoin network, and the...

  7. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H.W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%.

  8. Habitat selection by juvenile Mojave Desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Halstead, Brian J.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Peaden, J. Mark; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Nafus, Melia G.

    2016-01-01

    Growing pressure to develop public lands for renewable energy production places several protected species at increased risk of habitat loss. One example is the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a species often at the center of conflicts over public land development. For this species and others on public lands, a better understanding of their habitat needs can help minimize negative impacts and facilitate protection or restoration of habitat. We used radio-telemetry to track 46 neonate and juvenile tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert, California, USA, to quantify habitat at tortoise locations and paired random points to assess habitat selection. Tortoise locations near burrows were more likely to be under canopy cover and had greater coverage of perennial plants (especially creosote [Larrea tridentata]), more coverage by washes, a greater number of small-mammal burrows, and fewer white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) than random points. Active tortoise locations away from burrows were closer to washes and perennial plants than were random points. Our results can help planners locate juvenile tortoises and avoid impacts to habitat critical for this life stage. Additionally, our results provide targets for habitat protection and restoration and suggest that diverse and abundant small-mammal populations and the availability of creosote bush are vital for juvenile desert tortoises in the Eastern Mojave Desert.

  9. Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise). Burrow collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Caleb L.; Ennen, Joshua; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    In the deserts of the southwestern U.S., burrows are utilized by the Desert Tortoise to escape environmental extremes (reviewed by Ernst and Lovich 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada. 2nd ed. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 827 pp.). However, the potential for mortality through burrow collapse and entrapment is poorly documented. Nicholson and Humphreys (1981. Proceedings of the Desert Tortoise Council, pp. 163−194) suggested that collapse due to livestock trampling may cause mortality. In addition, Lovich et al. (2011. Chelon. Cons. Biol. 10[1]:124–129) documented a Desert Tortoise that used a steel culvert as a burrow surrogate. The culvert filled completely with sediment following a significant rain event, entombing the animal and ultimately resulting in its death. We note that this mortality was associated with an anthropogenic structure; because tortoises are prodigious diggers, one might hypothesize that they have the ability to dig out of collapsed natural burrows in most situations. Circumstances described here presented us with an opportunity to test this hypothesis.

  10. The Desert Tortoise: A Delicate Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This award winning program looks at the efforts to preserve the desert tortoise in and around the Edwards Air Force Base, CA area. It also explains what people should do if they come in contact with a tortoise. This video was produced in cooperation with Edwards Air Force Base.

  11. Preventing desert locust plagues: optimizing management interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Cressman, K.; Magor, J.I.

    2007-01-01

    Solitarious desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), inhabit the central, arid, and semi-arid parts of the species¿ invasion area in Africa, the Middle East, and South-West Asia. Their annual migration circuit takes them downwind to breed sequentially where winter,

  12. Abiotic drivers of Chihuahuan Desert plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Marie Ladwig

    2014-01-01

    Within grasslands, precipitation, fire, nitrogen (N) addition, and extreme temperatures influence community composition and ecosystem function. The differential influences of these abiotic factors on Chihuahuan Desert grassland communities was examined within the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, located in central New Mexico, U.S.A. Although fire is a natural...

  13. [The relationship between teenage pregnancy and school desertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Marta; Ferrada, Cristina; Pérez, Ruth; Cid, Luis; Casanueva, Víctor; García, Apolinaria

    2004-01-01

    In Chile, the prevalence of teenage pregnancy is 17%. To assess relationship between adolescent pregnancy and school desertion. At the Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente's Departament of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in Concepción, Chile, 2001 a comparative, cross sectional and correlational study was conducted. The study group were pregnant adolescents who deserted from school system, divided in two subgroups: 86 adolescents who deserted before pregnancy and 130 who deserted during pregnancy. Twenty percent of teenagers that deserted from school before pregnancy belonged to a sublevel of poverty, compared with 5% of those who deserted during pregnancy. Flunk was frequent in both but higher in girls that deserted before pregnancy (46.5 and 36.9% respectively, (ppregnancy (27.6%). Shame (41.6%) and obstetric complications (31.7%) were the main reasons for deserting during pregnancy. Seventy percent of adolescents who deserted before pregnancy had no educational, working or recreational activities. The parental educational level of both groups was low. There is a relationship between teenage pregnancy and school desertion. Adolescents who deserted from school before pregnancy are more vulnerable.

  14. Functional limb weakness and paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J; Aybek, S

    2016-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) limb weakness describes genuinely experienced limb power or paralysis in the absence of neurologic disease. The hallmark of functional limb weakness is the presence of internal inconsistency revealing a pattern of symptoms governed by abnormally focused attention. In this chapter we review the history and epidemiology of this clinical presentation as well as its subjective experience highlighting the detailed descriptions of authors at the end of the 19th and early 20th century. We discuss the relevance that physiological triggers such as injury and migraine and psychophysiological events such as panic and dissociation have to understanding of mechanism and treatment. We review many different positive diagnostic features, their basis in neurophysiological testing and present data on sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic bedside tests with the most evidence are Hoover's sign, the hip abductor sign, drift without pronation, dragging gait, give way weakness and co-contraction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  16. Distinction of broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores using FTIR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun; Sheng, Daping; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to identify broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. For IR spectra, broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores were mainly different in the regions of 3000-2800, 1660-1600, 1400-1200 and 1100-1000 cm-1. For curve fitting, the results showed the differences in the protein secondary structures and the polysaccharide structures/content between broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. Moreover, the value of A1078/A1741 might be a potentially useful factor to distinguish broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores from G. lucidum spores. Additionally, FTIR microspectroscopy could identify broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores accurately when it was combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. The result suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is very simple and efficient for distinction of broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. The result also indicates FTIR microspectroscopy may be useful for TCM identification.

  17. Apparent digestibility of broken rice in horses using in vivo and in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, M; Peiretti, P G; Miraglia, N; Bergero, D

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the apparent digestibility of broken rice using total collection of feces and the pepsin-cellulase in vitro technique to provide updated and more accurate digestion coefficients for this by-product when fed to horses. The in vivo digestibility trial was consecutively performed, using five adult geldings, weighing 555.6 kg on average. First, hay was given as the only feedstuff, while second, the experimental diet consisted of the same hay plus broken rice at a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70/30 (on dry matter (DM) basis). Feces were collected over 6 days preceded by a 14-day adaptation period. The digestibility trial was carried out to determine the digestion coefficients for DM, organic matter (OM), CP and gross energy in both diets, while apparent digestion coefficients for the same parameters were calculated for broken rice alone, using the difference between the two sets of results. At the same time, an in vitro trial was carried out using pepsin-cellulase technique on the samples of hay and broken rice tested during the in vivo trial. As expected, supplementation with broken rice increased digestibility according to all the parameters used. The high OM digestion coefficients of broken rice were confirmed both by the calculated in vivo method and by the predicted results of pepsin-cellulase technique (92.6% and 87.1%, respectively), underlining the high digestibility of this by-product when fed to horses.

  18. [Suicidal behavior and the broken home. Critical evaluation of a "causal hypothesis"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, S; Schmidtke, A

    1988-06-01

    It has often been hypothesized that a broken home results in a "predisposition" towards suicidal behaviour. Previous findings concerning the incidence of broken homes among suicides have revealed rates that are considerably higher than might have been expected from the base rate of the incidence of broken homes among the population as a whole. However, when considering these results, it is necessary to take into account a number of general methodological problems as well as specific problems inherent in the study of the causes of suicidal behaviour. Therefore, due to methodological objections, it can be assumed that the covariation between the variable, broken home, and suicidal behaviour, as compared with other psychiatric disturbances, has been overestimated. It seems more likely that a broken home, in combination with the simultaneous and subsequent emergence of adverse circumstances, increases the probability of the appearance of deviant behaviour in general. Therefore, it would appear that the most useful approach for understanding suicidal behaviour is to analyse the learning history and background of patients who have exhibited such behaviour, while the variable, broken home, should be regarded as being only one of several factors conditioning the failure to develop or apply adequate coping strategies.

  19. Wood decay in desert riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas; Stricker, Craig A.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain forests and the woody debris they produce are major components of riverine ecosystems in many arid and semiarid regions (drylands). We monitored breakdown and nitrogen dynamics in wood and bark from a native riparian tree, Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni), along four North American desert streams. We placed locally-obtained, fresh, coarse material [disks or cylinders (∼500–2000 cm3)] along two cold-desert and two warm-desert rivers in the Colorado River Basin. Material was placed in both floodplain and aquatic environments, and left in situ for up to 12 years. We tested the hypothesis that breakdown would be fastest in relatively warm and moist aerobic environments by comparing the time required for 50% loss of initial ash-free dry matter (T50) calculated using exponential decay models incorporating a lag term. In cold-desert sites (Green and Yampa rivers, Colorado), disks of wood with bark attached exposed for up to 12 years in locations rarely inundated lost mass at a slower rate (T50 = 34 yr) than in locations inundated during most spring floods (T50 = 12 yr). At the latter locations, bark alone loss mass at a rate initially similar to whole disks (T50 = 13 yr), but which subsequently slowed. In warm-desert sites monitored for 3 years, cylinders of wood with bark removed lost mass very slowly (T50 = 60 yr) at a location never inundated (Bill Williams River, Arizona), whereas decay rate varied among aquatic locations (T50 = 20 yr in Bill Williams River; T50 = 3 yr in Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated stream warmed by treated wastewater inflows). Invertebrates had a minor role in wood breakdown except at in-stream locations in Las Vegas Wash. The presence and form of change in nitrogen content during exposure varied among riverine environments. Our results suggest woody debris breakdown in desert riverine ecosystems is primarily a microbial process with rates determined by landscape position

  20. Inflation in softly broken Seiberg-Witten models

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J

    1998-01-01

    In a recent paper we proposed a new model of inflation based on the soft-breaking of N=2 supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. The advantage of such a model is the fact that we can write an exact expression for the effective scalar potential, including perturbative and non-perturbative effects. We find that the scalar condensate that plays the role of the inflaton can drive a long period of cosmological expansion in the weak coupling Higgs region, and end inflation in the strong coupling monopole region, where reheating takes place. The model predicts the right amount of temperature anisotropies in the microwave background, a precise spectral tilt, $n=0.91$, and negligible gravitational wave perturbations.

  1. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N ν ∼ 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V E

    1997-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.

  3. Geology and geochemistry of the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, J; González, R; Townley, B; Oliveros, V; Álvarez, F; Aguilar, G; Menzies, A; Calderón, M

    2018-02-14

    The Atacama Desert, the driest of its kind on Earth, hosts a number of unique geological and geochemical features that make it unlike any other environment on the planet. Considering its location on the western border of South America, between 17 and 28 °S, its climate has been characterized as arid to hyperarid for at least the past 10 million years. Notably dry climatic conditions of the Atacama Desert have been related to uplift of the Andes and are believed to have played an important role in the development of the most distinctive features of this desert, including: (i) nitrates and iodine deposits in the Central Depression, (ii) secondary enrichment in porphyry copper deposits in the Precordillera, (iii) Li enrichment in salt flats of the Altiplano, and (iv) life in extreme habitats. The geology and physiography of the Atacama Desert have been largely shaped by the convergent margin present since the Mesozoic era. The geochemistry of surface materials is related to rock geochemistry (Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn), salt flats, and evaporite compositions in endorheic basins (As, B, and Li), in addition to anthropogenic activities (Cu, Mo, and Pb). The composition of surface water is highly variable, nonetheless in general it presents a circumneutral pH with higher conductivity and total dissolved solids in brines. Major water constituents, with the exception of HCO 3 - , are generally related to the increase of salinity, and despite the fact that trace elements are not well-documented, surface waters of the Atacama Desert are enriched in As, B, and Li when compared to the average respective concentrations in rivers worldwide.

  4. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  5. Second threshold in weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1977-01-01

    The point of view that weak interactions must have a second threshold below 300 – 600 GeV is developed. Above this threshold new physics must come in. This new physics may be the Higgs system, or some other nonperturbative system possibly having some similarities to the Higgs system. The limit of

  6. Coverings, Networks and Weak Topologies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dow, A.; Junnila, H.; Pelant, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 287-320 ISSN 0025-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/97/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Banach spaces * weak topologies * networks topologies Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  7. Weak lensing and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq deg down to a limiting magnitude of R=27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy

  8. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theory by defining submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. We prove that, in a local sense, every submanifold satisfies such an association, and other general results. Finally, we study submanifolds associated with graphs either in low dimensions or belonging to some special families. Keywords. Almost Hermitian ...

  9. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We establish an interesting link between differential geometry and graph theory by defining submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. We prove that, in a local sense, every submanifold satisfies such an association, and other general results. Finally, we study submanifolds associated with graphs either in low ...

  10. Evaluation of the desert dust effects on global, direct and diffuse spectral ultraviolet irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Román

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of a strong desert dust episode over the Iberian Peninsula, and its effect on the spectral ultraviolet (UV irradiance in Granada, Spain. Remote sensing measurements, forecast models, and synoptic analysis are used to identify a Saharan desert dust outbreak that affected the Iberian Peninsula starting 20 July 2009. Additionally, a Bentham DMc150 spectroradiometer is employed to obtain global, direct and diffuse spectral UV irradiances every 15 minutes in Granada. The desert dust caused a large attenuation of the direct UV irradiance (up to 55%, while the diffuse UV irradiance increased up to 40% at 400 nm. The UVSPEC/LibRadtran radiative transfer model is used to study the spectral dependence of the experimental UV irradiance ratios (ratios of spectral irradiance for the day with the highest aerosol load to that measured in days with low–moderate load. The spectral increase or decrease of the UV direct irradiance ratios depends on a new parameter: a threshold wavelength. The spectral dependence of the UV diffuse irradiance ratio can be explained because under the influence of the intense dust outbreak, the Mie scattering by aerosols at shorter wavelengths is stronger than the Rayleigh scattering by gases. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the aerosol absorption properties shows a substantial attenuation of UV spectral irradiance with a weak spectral dependence.

  11. Spinon decay in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with weak next nearest neighbour exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groha, Stefan; Essler, Fabian H L

    2017-01-01

    Integrable models support elementary excitations with infinite lifetimes. In the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain these are known as spinons. We consider the stability of spinons when a weak integrability breaking perturbation is added to the Heisenberg chain in a magnetic field. We focus on the case where the perturbation is a next nearest neighbour exchange interaction. We calculate the spinon decay rate in leading order in perturbation theory using methods of integrability and identify the dominant decay channels. The decay rate is found to be small, which indicates that spinons remain well-defined excitations even though integrability is broken. (paper)

  12. Broken flavor symmetries in high energy particle phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antaramian, A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past couple of decades, the Standard Model of high energy particle physics has clearly established itself as an invaluable tool in the analysis of high energy particle phenomenon. However, from a field theorists point of view, there are many dissatisfying aspects to the model. One of these, is the large number of free parameters in the theory arising from the Yukawa couplings of the Higgs doublet. In this thesis, we examine various issues relating to the Yukawa coupeng structure of high energy particle field theories. We begin by examining extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics which contain additional scalar fields. By appealing to the flavor structure observed in the fermion mass and Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, we propose a reasonable phenomenological parameterization of the new Yukawa couplings based on the concept of approximate flavor symmetries. It is shown that such a parameterization eliminates the need for discrete symmetries which limit the allowed couplings of the new scalars. New scalar particles which can mediate exotic flavor changing reactions can have masses as low as the weak scale. Next, we turn to the issue of neutrino mass matrices, where we examine a particular texture which leads to matter independent neutrino oscillation results for solar neutrinos. We, then, examine the basis for extremely strict limits placed on flavor changing interactions which also break lepton- and/or baryon-number. These limits are derived from cosmological considerations. Finally, we embark on an extended analysis of proton decay in supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories. In such theories, the dominant decay diagrams involve the Yukawa couplings of a heavy triplet superfield. We argue that past calculations of proton decay which were based on the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model require reexamination because the Yukawa couplings of that theory are known to be wrong

  13. Broken flavor symmetries in high energy particle phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antaramian, Aram [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-02-22

    Over the past couple of decades, the Standard Model of high energy particle physics has clearly established itself as an invaluable tool in the analysis of high energy particle phenomenon. However, from a field theorists point of view, there are many dissatisfying aspects to the model. One of these, is the large number of free parameters in the theory arising from the Yukawa couplings of the Higgs doublet. In this thesis, we examine various issues relating to the Yukawa coupeng structure of high energy particle field theories. We begin by examining extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics which contain additional scalar fields. By appealing to the flavor structure observed in the fermion mass and Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, we propose a reasonable phenomenological parameterization of the new Yukawa couplings based on the concept of approximate flavor symmetries. It is shown that such a parameterization eliminates the need for discrete symmetries which limit the allowed couplings of the new scalars. New scalar particles which can mediate exotic flavor changing reactions can have masses as low as the weak scale. Next, we turn to the issue of neutrino mass matrices, where we examine a particular texture which leads to matter independent neutrino oscillation results for solar neutrinos. We, then, examine the basis for extremely strict limits placed on flavor changing interactions which also break lepton- and/or baryon-number. These limits are derived from cosmological considerations. Finally, we embark on an extended analysis of proton decay in supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories. In such theories, the dominant decay diagrams involve the Yukawa couplings of a heavy triplet superfield. We argue that past calculations of proton decay which were based on the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model require reexamination because the Yukawa couplings of that theory are known to be wrong.

  14. Weak neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z 0 boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references

  15. History of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    At the 'Jackfest' marking the 65th birthday of Jack Steinberger (see July/August 1986 issue, page 29), T.D. Lee gave an account of the history of the weak interactions. This edited version omits some of Lee's tributes to Steinberger, but retains the impressive insight into the subtleties of a key area of modern physics by one who played a vital role in its development. (orig./HSI).

  16. Weak neutral-current interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z/sup 0/ boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references. (JFP)

  17. Fluctuation relations for equilibrium states with broken discrete or continuous symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, D; Gaspard, P

    2015-01-01

    Isometric fluctuation relations are deduced for the fluctuations of the order parameter in equilibrium systems of condensed-matter physics with broken discrete or continuous symmetries. These relations are similar to their analogues obtained for non-equilibrium systems where the broken symmetry is time reversal. At equilibrium, these relations show that the ratio of the probabilities of opposite fluctuations goes exponentially with the symmetry-breaking external field and the magnitude of the fluctuations. These relations are applied to the Curie–Weiss, Heisenberg, and XY models of magnetism where the continuous rotational symmetry is broken, as well as to the q-state Potts model and the p-state clock model where discrete symmetries are broken. Broken symmetries are also considered in the anisotropic Curie–Weiss model. For infinite systems, the results are calculated using large-deviation theory. The relations are also applied to mean-field models of nematic liquid crystals where the order parameter is tensorial. Moreover, their extension to quantum systems is also deduced. (paper)

  18. Broken Time Translation Symmetry as a Model for Quantum State Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper van Wezel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The symmetries that govern the laws of nature can be spontaneously broken, enabling the occurrence of ordered states. Crystals arise from the breaking of translation symmetry, magnets from broken spin rotation symmetry and massive particles break a phase rotation symmetry. Time translation symmetry can be spontaneously broken in exactly the same way. The order associated with this form of spontaneous symmetry breaking is characterised by the emergence of quantum state reduction: systems which spontaneously break time translation symmetry act as ideal measurement machines. In this review the breaking of time translation symmetry is first compared to that of other symmetries such as spatial translations and rotations. It is then discussed how broken time translation symmetry gives rise to the process of quantum state reduction and how it generates a pointer basis, Born’s rule, etc. After a comparison between this model and alternative approaches to the problem of quantum state reduction, the experimental implications and possible tests of broken time translation symmetry in realistic experimental settings are discussed.

  19. Biology of the Central Desert of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    GHAZANFAR, Shahina A

    2004-01-01

    A biological survey of the central desert of Oman was done using long distance transects. Vegetation was sparse and consisted of 200+ plant species, 22 species of mammals, 17 species of reptiles and amphibians, and more than 50 species of birds (migratory and resident). Three main vegetation types were identified based on ground substrate and the dominance of species. These were communities with Acacia Willd., Zygophyllum L., and open woodlands of Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce. Over-grazing a...

  20. Desert Shield - Leader’s Safety Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    surfaces such as glass , mirrors, and windows . • Ensure laser safety filters are installed on binoculars and other optical devices when observing...wadis Q Strong winds (30 mph in p.m.; 75 mph in windstorms ) Q Large fluctuations in day/night temperatures (up to 70°F.) • Sandy deserts a Poor...Monitor shadows cast by near objects such as landing gear or skid shadows during hover. • Keep windscreen and door windows clean of sand and dust

  1. Landscape Sustainability in a Sonoran Desert City

    OpenAIRE

    Chris A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss concepts of landscape sustainability in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix is situated in the greater Salt River Valley of the lower Sonoran Desert in the southwest United States. In this paper I use the ecological frameworks of ecosystem services and resiliency as a metric for understanding landscape sustainability. An assessment of landscape sustainability performance benchmarks were made by surveying research findings of scientists affiliated ...

  2. ON PHYTOCOENOTICAL MAPPING OF CASPIAN DESERT REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SAFRONOVA

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytoecological map (l :2.500.000 for Desert Region, including the Caspian Lowland and the Mangyshlak. has been compiled. It gives an idea of latitudinal differentiation cf vegetation. Edaphic variants and lithological composition in low mountains. The legend has been constructed according to zonal-typological principle e using an ecological-phytocoenotic classification. Heterogeneity of vegetation is reflected by means of territoria1 units (complex, series, combination and additional marks above the vegetation background. In the northern subzone vegetation is fairly monotonous and characterized by prevalence of wormwood communities (Artemisia of subgenus Seriphidium, joined in three formations: Artemisia lerchiana, A. arenaria. A. pauciflora. Small areas are occupied by shrub deserts of Calligollum aphyllum and Tamarix ramosissima. To southward of 47° N in the middle subzone on the Caspian Lowland the communities of halophyte perennial saltworts essential1y dominate, and to less extent-wormwood communities of hemipsammophytic Artemisia terrae-albae and psammophytic Artemisia arenaria and A. lerchiana. Deserts of Mangyshlak are much diverse. Dwarf semishrubs are presented by species of perennial saltworts (Anabasis salsa, Nanophyton erinaceum,Arthrophytum lehnwnianum, Salsola orientaUs and wonnwood (Artemisia terrae-albae, A. gurganica. A. santolina. To southward of 43° N in the southern subzone dwarf semishrub Salsola gemmascens and Artemisia kemrudica corrnnunities prevail.

  3. ON PHYTOCOENOTICAL MAPPING OF CASPIAN DESERT REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SAFRONOVA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytoecological map (l :2.500.000 for Desert Region, including the Caspian Lowland and the Mangyshlak. has been compiled. It gives an idea of latitudinal differentiation cf vegetation. Edaphic variants and lithological composition in low mountains. The legend has been constructed according to zonal-typological principle e using an ecological-phytocoenotic classification. Heterogeneity of vegetation is reflected by means of territoria1 units (complex, series, combination and additional marks above the vegetation background. In the northern subzone vegetation is fairly monotonous and characterized by prevalence of wormwood communities (Artemisia of subgenus Seriphidium, joined in three formations: Artemisia lerchiana, A. arenaria. A. pauciflora. Small areas are occupied by shrub deserts of Calligollum aphyllum and Tamarix ramosissima. To southward of 47° N in the middle subzone on the Caspian Lowland the communities of halophyte perennial saltworts essential1y dominate, and to less extent-wormwood communities of hemipsammophytic Artemisia terrae-albae and psammophytic Artemisia arenaria and A. lerchiana. Deserts of Mangyshlak are much diverse. Dwarf semishrubs are presented by species of perennial saltworts (Anabasis salsa, Nanophyton erinaceum,Arthrophytum lehnwnianum, Salsola orientaUs and wonnwood (Artemisia terrae-albae, A. gurganica. A. santolina. To southward of 43° N in the southern subzone dwarf semishrub Salsola gemmascens and Artemisia kemrudica corrnnunities prevail.

  4. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  5. Psikologis Komunikasi Remaja Broken Home Terhadap Konsep Diri Dan Keterbukaan Diri (Studi Deskriptif Kualitatif Psikologis Komunikasi Remaja Dari Keluarga Broken Home Terhadap Konsep Diri dan Keterbukaan Diri di Kecamatan Tanjung Beringin Kabupaten Serdang Bedagai)

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Riza Fadla

    2015-01-01

    The Research title is Adolescent Psychological Communication Broken Home to Self-Concept and Self Disclosure: a research qualitative descriptive about Adolescent Psychological Communication Broken Home to Self-Concept and Self-Disclosure in Tanjung Beringin district, Serdang Bedagai regency, want to examine how the effect of a broken home to psychological communication , self-concept and self-disclosure for adolescent. The paradigm used in this research is an interpretive paradigm by using de...

  6. Weakly Iπg-Closed Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi, O.

    2015-01-01

    called weakly Iπg-open sets in ideal topological spaces is introduced and the notion of weakly Iπg-closed sets in ideal topologicalspaces is studied. The relationships of weakly Iπg-closed sets andvarious properties of weakly Iπg-closed sets are investigated

  7. Contraction of the Gobi Desert, 2000–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sternberg, Troy; Rueff, Henri; Middleton, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Deserts are critical environments because they cover 41% of the world’s land surface and are home to 2 billion residents. As highly dynamic biomes desert expansion and contraction is influenced by climate and anthropogenic factors with variability being a key part of the desertification debate across dryland regions. Evaluating a major world desert, the Gobi in East Asia, with high resolution satellite data and the meteorologically-derived Aridity Index from 2000 to 2012 identified a r...

  8. Broken Bar Fault Detection in IM Operating Under No-Load Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RELJIC, D.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for broken rotor bar detection in a squirrel-cage induction motor (IM. The proposed method applies a single-phase AC voltage as a test signal on motor terminals, resulting in a stator backward-rotating magnetic field. The field ultimately causes additional current components in the stator windings whose magnitudes depend on the broken bar fault severity, even if the motor is unloaded. This allows robust broken bar fault detection based only on standard motor current signature analysis (MCSA technique. The proposed fault detection method is at first verified via simulations, using an IM model based on finite element analysis (FEA and multiple coupled circuit approach (MCCA. The subsequent experimental investigations have shown good agreement with both theoretical predictions and simulation results.

  9. Stuffing the nail: A simple technique for the extraction of a broken femoral nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jane; Krishna, Damodaran; Gehr, Eugene

    2017-06-01

    The extraction of broken femoral nails can be a challenging procedure and surgeons should be familiar with many different techniques. This paper demonstrates a case study and new, simple and cost effective technique for the removal of broken cannulated femoral nails. Our technique uses two guide wires of variable diameter and had several key points of differentiation from previous methods. Firstly, stuffing the nail with guide wires of greater total diameter than the cannula; secondly, reversing the second guide wire and finally, bending the tips of the wires. These innovations allow the technique to be used for narrow cannulated nails, superior purchase along the length of the nail, easy wire insertion and limited soft tissue damage. Our technique for the removal of broken femoral nails is quick, effective, cheap and easy to replicate and can be used by any generalist orthopaedic surgeon with basic equipment.

  10. Detection of broken rotor bar faults in induction motor at low load using neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessam, B; Menacer, A; Boumehraz, M; Cherif, H

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the broken rotor bars characteristic frequencies and amplitudes has a great importance for all related diagnostic methods. The monitoring of motor faults requires a high resolution spectrum to separate different frequency components. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) has been widely used to achieve these requirements. However, at low slip this technique cannot give good results. As a solution for these problems, this paper proposes an efficient technique based on a neural network approach and Hilbert transform (HT) for broken rotor bar diagnosis in induction machines at low load. The Hilbert transform is used to extract the stator current envelope (SCE). Two features are selected from the (SCE) spectrum (the amplitude and frequency of the harmonic). These features will be used as input for neural network. The results obtained are astonishing and it is capable to detect the correct number of broken rotor bars under different load conditions. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 77 FR 65133 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of.... * * * * * (c) * * * (379) * * * (i) * * * (E) Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1159...

  12. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-07-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  13. Minimal spontaneously broken hidden sector and its impact on Higgs boson physics at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabinger, Robert; Wells, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Little experimental data bears on the question of whether there is a spontaneously broken hidden sector that has no Standard Model quantum numbers. Here we discuss the prospects of finding evidence for such a hidden sector through renormalizable interactions of the Standard Model Higgs boson with a Higgs boson of the hidden sector. We find that the lightest Higgs boson in this scenario has smaller rates in standard detection channels, and it can have a sizeable invisible final state branching fraction. Details of the hidden sector determine whether the overall width of the lightest state is smaller or larger than the Standard Model width. We compute observable rates, total widths and invisible decay branching fractions within the general framework. We also introduce the 'A-Higgs Model', which corresponds to the limit of a hidden sector Higgs boson weakly mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson. This model has only one free parameter in addition to the mass of the light Higgs state and it illustrates most of the generic phenomenology issues, thereby enabling it to be a good benchmark theory for collider searches. We end by presenting an analogous supersymmetry model with similar phenomenology, which involves hidden sector Higgs bosons interacting with MSSM Higgs bosons through D-terms

  14. The head of a broken toothbrush in the parapharyngeal space: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Saileswar

    2016-01-01

    While brushing her teeth, the toothbrush of a 4-year-old female child was broken, and about 5.4 cm of it including the head was left behind in her mouth. The head of the toothbrush penetrated the lateral pharyngeal wall and got strongly impacted into the left parapharyngeal space due to the presence of bristles. The broken end of the handle was just protruding into the pharynx and was very difficult to locate. It led to a life-threatening condition. The head of the toothbrush was removed safely by endoscopic approach and the patient recovered without any complication.

  15. Broken bodies and present ghosts: Ubuntu and African women’s theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella F. Ras

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the notion of broken bodies is explored in relation to the African body and the history of colonialism in South Africa. This exploration will be rooted in a retelling of the story of the woman, Saartjie Baartman. In this retelling, the product of colonialism comes to the fore in a haunting. Jacques Derrida’s use of the concept of Hauntology is employed to investigate the ethical demand the spectre makes of us. With the help of the African concept of ubuntu and African women’s theologies, we then seek to find healing and restoration for the broken bodies.

  16. Weak decays of heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1978-08-01

    The properties that may help to identify the two additional quark flavors that are expected to be discovered. These properties are lifetime, branching ratios, selection rules, and lepton decay spectra. It is also noted that CP violation may manifest itself more strongly in heavy particle decays than elsewhere providing a new probe of its origin. The theoretical progress in the understanding of nonleptonic transitions among lighter quarks, nonleptonic K and hyperon decay amplitudes, omega minus and charmed particle decay predictions, and lastly the Kobayashi--Maskawa model for the weak coupling of heavy quarks together with the details of its implications for topology and bottomology are treated. 48 references

  17. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    . Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...... environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...

  18. Masalah-Masalah yang Dihadapi Siswa yang Berasal dari Keluarga Broken Home dan Implikasinya terhadap Program Layanan Bimbingan dan Konseling

    OpenAIRE

    Sharfina Rahmi; Mudjiran Mudjiran; Nurfahanah Nurfahanah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract, broken home’s family is the family that function of father and mother do not work functionally. Child that experience this situation called broken home child. This research aim’s to look at the description of the problems that face by student who wellborn in broken home’s family in SMA N 1 Banuhampu. This research is descriptive research, that see problems which are faced by student who wellborn in broken home’s family. The subject of this research is 39 students. Research instrumen...

  19. Fault Diagnosis of Broken Rotor Bars in Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor of Hoister Based on Duffing Oscillator and Multifractal Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhike Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to propose a novel fault diagnosis method for broken rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction motor of hoister, which is based on duffing oscillator and multifractal dimension. Firstly, based on the analysis of the structure and performance of modified duffing oscillator, the end of transitional slope from chaotic area to large-scale cycle area is selected as the optimal critical threshold of duffing oscillator by bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponent. Secondly, the phase transformation duffing oscillator from chaos to intermittent chaos is sensitive to the signals, whose frequency difference is quite weak from the reference signal. The spectrums of the largest Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams of the duffing oscillator are utilized to analyze the variance in different parameters of frequency. Finally, this paper is to analyze the characteristics of both single fractal (box-counting dimension and multifractal and make a comparison between them. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is applied to detect extra frequency component of current signal. Experimental results reveal that the method is effective for early detection of broken rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction motor of hoister.

  20. Are Wildlife Detector Dogs or People Better at Finding Desert Tortoises (Gopherus Agassizii)?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nussear, Kenneth E; Esque, Todd C; Heaton, Jill S; Cablk, Mary E; Drake, Kristina K; Valentin, Cindee; Yee, Julie L; Medica, Philip A

    2008-01-01

    .... Recent studies highlight the effectiveness of trained detector dogs to locate wildlife during field surveys, including Desert Tortoises in a semi-natural setting. Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii...

  1. Time—periodic weak solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Henriques de Brito

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In continuing from previous papers, where we studied the existence and uniqueness of the global solution and its asymptotic behavior as time t goes to infinity, we now search for a time-periodic weak solution u(t for the equation whose weak formulation in a Hilbert space H isddt(u′,v+δ(u′,v+αb(u,v+βa(u,v+(G(u,v=(h,vwhere: ′=d/dt; (′ is the inner product in H; b(u,v, a(u,v are given forms on subspaces U⊂W, respectively, of H; δ>0, α≥0, β≥0 are constants and α+β>0; G is the Gateaux derivative of a convex functional J:V⊂H→[0,∞ for V=U, when α>0 and V=W when α=0, hence β>0; v is a test function in V; h is a given function of t with values in H.

  2. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  3. Weak lensing and cosmological investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, V

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l approximately=1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended t...

  4. Characterization of Morphology, Volatile Profiles, and Molecular Markers in Edible Desert Truffles from the Negev Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Dalia; Shavit, Elinoar; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda; Barak, Ze'ev; Guy, Ofer; Zaady, Eli; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Sitrit, Yaron

    2017-03-28

    Desert truffles are mycorrhizal, hypogeous fungi considered a delicacy. On the basis of morphological characters, we identified three desert truffle species that grow in the same habitat in the Negev desert. These include Picoa lefebvrei (Pat.), Tirmania nivea (Desf.) Trappe, and Terfezia boudieri (Chatain), all associated with Helianthemum sessiliflorum. Their taxonomy was confirmed by PCR-RFLP. The main volatiles of fruit bodies of T. boudieri and T. nivea were 1-octen-3-ol and hexanal; however, volatiles of the latter species further included branched-chain amino acid derivatives such as 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal, phenylalanine derivatives such as benzaldehyde and benzenacetaldehyde, and methionine derivatives such as methional and dimethyl disulfide. The least aromatic truffle, P. lefebvrei, contained low levels of 1-octen-3-ol as the main volatile. Axenic mycelia cultures of T. boudieri displayed a simpler volatile profile compared to its fruit bodies. This work highlights differences in the volatile profiles of desert truffles and could hence be of interest for selecting and cultivating genotypes with the most likable aroma.

  5. Broken symmetries at high temperatures and the problem of baryon excess of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N

    1979-01-01

    We discuss a class of gauge theories, where spontan- eously broken symmetries, instead of being restored, persist as the temperature is increased. Applying these ideas to the specific case of the soft CP- viola tion in grand unified theories, we discuss a mechanism to generate the baryon to entropy ratio of the universe.

  6. The energy-momentum spectrum in local field theories with broken Lorentz-symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, H.J.; Buchholz, D.

    1984-05-01

    Assuming locality of the observables and positivity of the energy it is shown that the joint spectrum of the energy-momentum operators has a Lorentz-invariant lower boundary in all superselection sectors. This result is of interest if the Lorentz-symmetry is (spontaneously) broken, such as in the charged sectors of quantum electrodynamics. (orig.)

  7. Algebraic renormalization of parity-preserving QED3 coupled to scalar matter II: broken case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cima, O.M. del; Franco, D.H.T.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Piguet, O.

    1996-11-01

    In this letter the algebraic renormalization method, which is independent of any kind of regularization scheme, is presented for the parity-preserving QED 3 coupled to scalar matter in the broken regime, where the scalar assumes a finite vacuum expectation value, =v. The model shows to be stable under radiative corrections and anomaly free. (author)

  8. Machine-vision-based identification of broken inserts in edge profile milling heads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    This paper presents a reliable machine vision system to automatically detect inserts and determine if they are broken. Unlike the machining operations studied in the literature, we are dealing with edge milling head tools for aggressive machining of thick plates (up to 12 centimetres) in a single

  9. Another Look at the Relationship between the Broken Home and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Marvin D., Jr.

    Inadequate samples, methodological deficiencies, and inadequate measures of delinquency and family structure have contributed to the confusion regarding the relationship between the broken home and delinquency. This investigation, seeking to overcome many of the deficiencies of earlier research, used a large, geographically diverse sample, a…

  10. Application of extruded broken bean flour for formulation of gluten-free cake blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira Froes Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the physical and microbiological characteristics of extruded broken beans flour, in addition to developing mixtures for gluten-free cake with these flours, evaluating their technological and sensory quality. Gluten-free formulations were prepared with 45%, 60% and 75% of extruded broken beans. All analyzes of the flours and mixtures for cakes were performed according to standard techniques found in the literature. Sensory analyzes of cakes applied the 9-point structured hedonic scale. Results were submitted to variance analysis and comparison of means test (Tukey, p<0.05. The use of extruded broken beans improved the water absorbed and water solubility index of the mixtures for gluten-free cake, and for the lower viscosity and retrogradation when compared to the standard formulation. All cakes were accepted (rate ≥ 7 for all the analyzed attributes. From the technological and sensory standpoints, the development of gluten-free cake mixtures is feasible with up to 75% of extruded broken beans.

  11. Broken wing display in an unfledged Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Ramanujam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A young Bubo bengalensis was encountered in a ravine near Ousteri Lake. It was monitored for a period of 6 months. During this period it showed the broken wing display only once, which is considered to be exclusive to adults in defense of their nests, eggs, or young.

  12. The total cost of father desertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winking, Jeffrey; Gurven, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of paternal investment have long been explored by assessing the impact of father's presence on child wellbeing. Previous studies, however, have only examined the average effect of father's presence on child survivorship. Here we assess the total fitness cost to men of deserting (or the benefit of staying), by considering effects on the entire progeny. We estimate the total number of children that a deserting father can expect to lose due to reduced survivorship over the life course in five populations, and compare this loss to the benefit gains from remarrying a younger wife. We compiled the observed impacts of father's absence, as well as mortality and fertility schedules, for five foraging or foraging/horticultural populations. We calculate how many additional children a man can expect to lose due to father's absence throughout a marriage. We then calculate the minimum age difference between a first and second spouse that would be necessary to overcome this cost. Because child mortality rates drop so rapidly, the costs that men experience from desertion due to augmented child mortality are modest throughout marriage. Even hypothetically inflated father effects can be overcome with modest age differences between first and second spouses. Returns to paternal investment in terms of increased child survival are not substantial compared to those received by successfully practicing a serial mating strategy. This suggests that factors other than the ability to enhance child survival, such as female choice, are important to the evolutionary history and continued adaptive functioning of men's unique reproductive strategies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Physiological conjunction of allelochemicals and desert plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef Friedjung, Avital; Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Dudai, Nativ; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Plants exchange signals with other physical and biological entities in their habitat, a form of communication termed allelopathy. The underlying principles of allelopathy and secondary-metabolite production are still poorly understood, especially in desert plants. The coordination and role of secondary metabolites were examined as a cause of allelopathy in plants thriving under arid and semiarid soil conditions. Desert plant species, Origanum dayi, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia judaica from two different sources (cultivar cuttings and wild seeds) were studied in their natural habitats. Growth rate, relative water content, osmotic potential, photochemical efficiency, volatile composition and vital factors of allelopathy were analyzed at regular intervals along four seasons with winter showing optimum soil water content and summer showing water deficit conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the volatile composition of the leaves, ambient air and soil in the biological niche of the plants under study was carried out to determine the effects of soil water conditions and sample plants on the surrounding flora. Significant morpho-physiological changes were observed across the seasons and along different soil water content. Metabolic analysis showed that water deficit was the key for driving selective metabolomic shifts. A. judaica showed the least metabolic shifts, while A. sieberi showed the highest shifts. All the species exhibited high allelopathic effects; A. judaica displayed relatively higher growth-inhibition effects, while O. dayi showed comparatively higher germination-inhibition effects in germination assays. The current study may help in understanding plant behavior, mechanisms underlying secondary-metabolite production in water deficit conditions and metabolite-physiological interrelationship with allelopathy in desert plants, and can help cull economic benefits from the produced volatiles.

  14. Physiological conjunction of allelochemicals and desert plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Yosef Friedjung

    Full Text Available Plants exchange signals with other physical and biological entities in their habitat, a form of communication termed allelopathy. The underlying principles of allelopathy and secondary-metabolite production are still poorly understood, especially in desert plants. The coordination and role of secondary metabolites were examined as a cause of allelopathy in plants thriving under arid and semiarid soil conditions. Desert plant species, Origanum dayi, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia judaica from two different sources (cultivar cuttings and wild seeds were studied in their natural habitats. Growth rate, relative water content, osmotic potential, photochemical efficiency, volatile composition and vital factors of allelopathy were analyzed at regular intervals along four seasons with winter showing optimum soil water content and summer showing water deficit conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the volatile composition of the leaves, ambient air and soil in the biological niche of the plants under study was carried out to determine the effects of soil water conditions and sample plants on the surrounding flora. Significant morpho-physiological changes were observed across the seasons and along different soil water content. Metabolic analysis showed that water deficit was the key for driving selective metabolomic shifts. A. judaica showed the least metabolic shifts, while A. sieberi showed the highest shifts. All the species exhibited high allelopathic effects; A. judaica displayed relatively higher growth-inhibition effects, while O. dayi showed comparatively higher germination-inhibition effects in germination assays. The current study may help in understanding plant behavior, mechanisms underlying secondary-metabolite production in water deficit conditions and metabolite-physiological interrelationship with allelopathy in desert plants, and can help cull economic benefits from the produced volatiles.

  15. Nationwide Desert Highway Assessment: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binggang Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert’s comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  16. Spreading Deserts--The Hand of Man. Worldwatch Paper 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckholm, Erik; Brown, Lester R.

    The report identifies regions in which deserts and arid zones are increasing; discusses social and climatic causes of deserts; and suggests ways to cope with and reverse problems of famine, malnutrition, and drought. Increasingly, land is being sapped of its ability to sustain agriculture and human habitation north and south of the Sahara, in…

  17. The politics of accessing desert land in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Al Majd; Molle, Francois

    2016-01-01

    With the dramatic increase of the population in Jordan, the value of land has rocketed up. Urban sprawl into semi-desert or desert areas, initially not surveyed or settled by the British and considered as state land, has brought to the surface the problematic status of those lands. Likewise, the

  18. Negev: Land, Water, and Life in a Desert Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William

    In view of the continuing increased concern about the extreme fragility of deserts and desert margins, Negev provides a timely discussion of land-use practices compatible with the often conflicting goals of preservation and development. The success o f agricultural and hydrologic experiments in the Negev desert of Israel offers hope to the large percentage of the world's population that lives with an unacceptably low quality of life in desert margins. Deserts are the one remaining type of open space that, with proper use, has the potential for alleviating the misery often associated with expanding population.In addition to the science in the book, the author repeatedly reinforces the concept that “western civilization is inextricably bound to the Negev and its environs, from which it has drawn, via its desert-born religions—Judasium, Christianity, and Islam—many of the mores and concepts, and much of the imagery and love of the desert, including man's relation to nature and to ‘God’.” Deserts often are erroneously perceived to be areas of no water: In reality, these are areas in which a little rainfall occurs sporadically and unpredictably over time. This meager water supply can be meticulously garnered to produce nutritious crops and forage.

  19. Screening the Egyptian desert actinomycetes as candidates for new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a screening program to study the antimicrobial activities of desert actinomycetes as potential producers of active metabolites, 75 actinomycete strains were isolated from the Egyptian desert habitats and tested. Out of the isolated 75 organisms, 32 (42.67%) showed activity against the used test organisms.

  20. Food Deserts and Overweight Schoolchildren: Evidence from Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafft, Kai A.; Jensen, Eric B.; Hinrichs, C. Clare

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the "food desert", an area with limited access to retail food stores, has increasingly been used within social scientific and public health research to explore the dimensions of spatial inequality and community well-being. While research has demonstrated that food deserts are frequently characterized by higher levels of…

  1. Birds and conservation significance of the Namib Desert's least ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -long Namib Desert and it remains the least known coastal wetland on a desert coast rich in shorebirds. Two surveys of the Baia dos Tigres region in 1999 and 2001 indicated a rich wetland bird diversity consisting of 25 species, with a total of ...

  2. Aeromycobiota of Western Desert of Egypt | Ismail | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of airborne mycobiota at six different regions of Western desert (5 regions) and Eastern desert (1) of Egypt was determined using the exposed-plate method. A total of 44 genera, 102 species and one variety in addition to some unidentified yeasts and dark sterile mycelia were collected. Of the above, only 5 ...

  3. 75 FR 19246 - Safety Zone; Desert Storm, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... navigable waters of the Colorado River in Lake Havasu, Lake Havasu City, Arizona in support of the Desert..., which is to be held on Thompson Bay region of the Colorado River in Lake Havasu City, Arizona. A...-AA00 Safety Zone; Desert Storm, Lake Havasu, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule...

  4. Desert tortoise use of burned habitat in the Eastern Mojave desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Karla K.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; DeFalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Modlin, Andrew T.; Medica, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires burned 24,254 ha of critical habitat designated for the recovery of the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in southern Nevada during 2005. The proliferation of non-native annual grasses has increased wildfire frequency and extent in recent decades and continues to accelerate the conversion of tortoise habitat across the Mojave Desert. Immediate changes to vegetation are expected to reduce quality of critical habitat, yet whether tortoises will use burned and recovering habitat differently from intact unburned habitat is unknown. We compared movement patterns, home-range size, behavior, microhabitat use, reproduction, and survival for adult desert tortoises located in, and adjacent to, burned habitat to understand how tortoises respond to recovering burned habitat. Approximately 45% of home ranges in the post-fire environment contained burned habitat, and numerous observations (n = 12,223) corroborated tortoise use of both habitat types (52% unburned, 48% burned). Tortoises moved progressively deeper into burned habitat during the first 5 years following the fire, frequently foraging in burned habitats that had abundant annual plants, and returning to adjacent unburned habitat for cover provided by intact perennial vegetation. However, by years 6 and 7, the live cover of the short-lived herbaceous perennial desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua) that typically re-colonizes burned areas declined, resulting in a contraction of tortoise movements from the burned areas. Health and egg production were similar between burned and unburned areas indicating that tortoises were able to acquire necessary resources using both areas. This study documents that adult Mojave desert tortoises continue to use habitat burned once by wildfire. Thus, continued management of this burned habitat may contribute toward the recovery of the species in the face of many sources of habitat loss.

  5. Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

  6. Weak transitions in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some techniques to calculate the effects of the strong interactions on the matrix elements of weak processes are described. The lattice formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics is used to account for the low energy gluons, and the corresponding numerical methods are explained. The high energy contributions are included in effective lagrangians and the problem of matching the different scales related to the renormalization of the operators and wavefunctions is also discussed. The ..delta..l = 1/2 enhancement rule and the K/sup 0/-anti-K/sup 0/ are used to illustrate these techniques and the results of a numerical calculation is reported. The values obtained are very encouraging and they certainly show good qualitative agreement with the experimental values. The emphasis is on general techniques, and in particular, several improvements to this particular calculation are proposed.

  7. Weak KAM for commuting Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavidovique, M

    2010-01-01

    For two commuting Tonelli Hamiltonians, we recover the commutation of the Lax–Oleinik semi-groups, a result of Barles and Tourin (2001 Indiana Univ. Math. J. 50 1523–44), using a direct geometrical method (Stoke's theorem). We also obtain a 'generalization' of a theorem of Maderna (2002 Bull. Soc. Math. France 130 493–506). More precisely, we prove that if the phase space is the cotangent of a compact manifold then the weak KAM solutions (or viscosity solutions of the critical stationary Hamilton–Jacobi equation) for G and for H are the same. As a corollary we obtain the equality of the Aubry sets and of the Peierls barrier. This is also related to works of Sorrentino (2009 On the Integrability of Tonelli Hamiltonians Preprint) and Bernard (2007 Duke Math. J. 136 401–20)

  8. Sensory optimization of broken-rice based snacks fortified with protein and fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattana, S; Laokuldilok, N; Prinyawiwatkul, W

    2008-08-01

    A 3-component mixture experiment was used to optimize the formulation of broken-rice based snack fortified with protein and fiber based on consumer sensory acceptability. Soy protein isolate and guar gum were used as a good source of protein and fiber, respectively, according to DRV (daily reference value) based on a 2000-calorie diet. A consumer panel evaluated sensory acceptability of color, crispness, and flavor, and overall liking of 12 experimental broken-rice based snack formulations. Predicted models derived from the restricted nonintercept regression analysis were used to plot mixture response surfaces (MRS) of each sensory attribute. Areas within the MRS plots having predicted acceptability scores of at least 6.5 (on a 9-point hedonic scale) for color, crispness, flavor, and overall liking were selected to derive a predicted optimum formulation range. Flavor acceptability was a limiting factor in attaining the optimum formulation range, which consisted of 40% to 48% broken-rice flour, 8% to 16% guar gum, and 20% to 33% soy protein isolate. To verify the obtained predicted models, the formulation containing 48% broken-rice flour, 8% guar gum, and 20% soy protein isolate, which was located in the optimum area, was chosen to support our effort to utilize and add value to broken rice. Selected physicochemical measurements of the chosen optimized formulation were determined. One serving size (30 g) of the chosen optimized snack product provided 6.58 g protein and 3.80 g dietary fiber, which met the US FDA definition of a good source of protein and dietary fiber.

  9. Nuclear beta decay and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kean, D.C.

    1975-11-01

    Short notes are presented on various aspects of nuclear beta decay and weak interactions including: super-allowed transitions, parity violation, interaction strengths, coupling constants, and the current-current formalism of weak interaction. (R.L.)

  10. NASA Desert RATS 2011 Education Pilot Project and Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; McGlone, M.; Allen, J.; Tobola, K.; Graff, P.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona, as an analog to future exploration activities beyond low Earth orbit [1]. For the past several years, these tests have occurred in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, north of Flagstaff. For the 2011 Desert RATS season, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) at NASA headquarters provided support to develop an education pilot project that would include student activities to parallel the Desert RATS mission planning and exploration activities in the classroom, and educator training sessions. The development of the pilot project was a joint effort between the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP), managed at Penn State University.

  11. Fog water chemistry in the Namib desert, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Frank D.; Schemenauer, Robert S.

    This study documents the ion concentrations and ion enrichment relative to sea water, in Namib Desert fog water, with the purpose of establishing its suitability for future fogwater collection schemes, while also examining claims that Namib Desert fog water carries exceptionally high concentrations of sulphate, which may be responsible for the formation of gypsum deposits in the desert. The work suggests that Namibian fog water is at least as clean as has been reported from other coastal deserts in South America and Arabia, and provides a source of very clean water for the coastal desert region of south-western Africa. It does not appear that fog is an efficient sulphur source for the formation of the gypsum deposits, unless rare events with high concentrations of marine sulphur compounds occur.

  12. Relationship between Broken Homes and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Edosa, Ogboro Samson

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between broken homes and academic achievement of students. Three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study was correlational because the study sought to establish the extent of relationship between broken homes and academic achievement. The statistical method used in analyzing the…

  13. PERAN KELUARGA DAN GURU DALAM MEMBANGUN KARAKTER DAN KONSEP DIRI SISWA BROKEN HOME DI USIA SEKOLAH DASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Irsalina Savitri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe in depth observations on the role of the family and teachers in building the character of students broken home at primary school age. This study used a qualitative approach - a case study. Technique data collecting by interview and observation (at school and home visit in depth. Subjects of the study included two students broken home. This study menunjukkan that parents (mother and another family (grandparents, aunts, uncles that play a role in the child's everyday life. The results of this study are expected to package and represent the role of parents and teachers in building the character of students broken home. So as to cover all levels of students victims of a broken home. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan hasil pengamatan secara mendalam tentang peran keluarga dan guru dalam membangun karakter kepada siswa broken home di usia sekolah dasar. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif - studi kasus. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan cara wawancara, dan observasi (di sekolah dan home visit secara mendalam. Subjek dari penelitian mencakup 2 siswa broken home. Penelitian ini menujnjukkan bahwa orangtua (ibu dan keluarga lain (kakek, nenek, bibi, paman yang berperan dalam keseharian anak. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan mampu mengemas dan mewakili peran orangtua dan guru dalam membangun karakter siswa broken home. Sehingga mampu mengcover semua lapisan siswa korban keluarga broken home.

  14. Plant responses to an edaphic gradient across an active sand dune/desert boundary in the great basin desert.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenthal, D.M.; Ludwig, F.; Donovan, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    In arid ecosystems, variation in precipitation causes broad-scale spatial heterogeneity in soil moisture, but differences in soil texture, development, and plant cover can also create substantial local soil moisture heterogeneity. The boundary between inland desert sand dunes and adjacent desert

  15. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  16. Fault zone fabric and fault weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collettini, C.; Niemeijer, A.; Viti, C.; Marone, C.

    2009-01-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak1–6 compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength7. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals4, high fluid pressures within the fault core8,9 and dynamic processes such as

  17. Job losses and accumulated number of broken partnerships increase risk of premature mortality in Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. METHODS: Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. RESULTS......: The adjusted hazard rates for premature mortality was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.15 to 1.80) for individuals with one job loss, 1.55 (1.13 to 2.13) for individuals with one broken partnership, and 2.15 (95% CI = 1.49 to 3.10) for individuals with two or more broken partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Experience of at least one...... job loss increased the risk of premature mortality. The risk of premature mortality increased with the number of broken partnerships. There was no statistical interaction between job losses and broken partnerships....

  18. Masalah-Masalah yang Dihadapi Siswa yang Berasal dari Keluarga Broken Home dan Implikasinya terhadap Program Layanan Bimbingan dan Konseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharfina Rahmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract, broken home’s family is the family that function of father and mother do not work functionally. Child that experience this situation called broken home child. This research aim’s to look at the description of the problems that face by student who wellborn in broken home’s family in SMA N 1 Banuhampu. This research is descriptive research, that see problems which are faced by student who wellborn in broken home’s family. The subject of this research is 39 students. Research instrument is questionnaire. The results of this research is the student have a problems in academic, themselves, family lives and peer relations. In this situation guidance and counseling teacher could arrange guidance and counseling service program that match with problems of students who from broken home’s family.

  19. The effect of broken stringers on the stress intensity factor for a uniformly stiffened sheet containing a crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A linear elastic stress analysis was made of a centrally cracked sheet stiffened by riveted, uniformly spaced and sized stringers. The stress intensity factor for the sheet and the load concentration factor for the most highly loaded stringer were determined for various numbers of broken stringers. A broken stringer causes the stress intensity factor to be very high when the crack tip is near the broken stringer, but causes little effect when the crack tip extends beyond several intact stringers. A broken stringer also causes an increase in the load concentration factor of the adjacent stringers. The calculated residual strengths and fatigue-crack-growth lives of a stiffened aluminum sheet with a broken stringer were only slightly less than a sheet with all intact stringers, and were still much higher than those of an unstiffened sheet.

  20. Evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, Amy G.; Inman, Richard D.; Barr, Kelly R.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Wood, Dustin A.; Medica, Philip A.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Stephen, Catherine L.; Gottscho, Andrew D.; Marks, Sharyn B.; Jennings, W. Bryan; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave Desert, USA. We analyzed these in concurrence and located 10 regions of high genetic diversity, divergence or both among species. These were mainly concentrated along the western and southern boundaries where ecotones between mountain, grassland and desert habitat are prevalent, and along the Colorado River. We evaluated the extent to which these hotspots overlapped protected lands and utility-scale renewable energy development projects of the Bureau of Land Management. While 30–40% of the total hotspot area was categorized as protected, between 3–7% overlapped with proposed renewable energy project footprints, and up to 17% overlapped with project footprints combined with transmission corridors. Overlap of evolutionary hotspots with renewable energy development mainly occurred in 6 of the 10 identified hotspots. Resulting GIS-based maps can be incorporated into ongoing landscape planning efforts and highlight specific regions where further investigation of impacts to population persistence and genetic connectivity may be warranted.

  1. Landscape Sustainability in a Sonoran Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss concepts of landscape sustainability in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix is situated in the greater Salt River Valley of the lower Sonoran Desert in the southwest United States. In this paper I use the ecological frameworks of ecosystem services and resiliency as a metric for understanding landscape sustainability. An assessment of landscape sustainability performance benchmarks were made by surveying research findings of scientists affiliated with the Central Arizona Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER. In Phoenix, present day emphases on cultural, aesthetic, and habitat formation ecosystem services within an arid ecoregion of low natural resilience coupled to a complex matrix of socioeconomic stratification, excessive landscape water use and pruning practices has had the undesired effect of degrading landscape sustainability. This has been measured as mixed patterns of plant diversity and human-altered patterns of carbon regulation, microclimate control, and trophic dynamics. In the future, sustainable residential landscaping in desert cities such as Phoenix may be fostered through use of water-conserving irrigation technologies, oasis-style landscape design motifs, recycling of landscape green waste, and conservative plant pruning strategies.

  2. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  3. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  4. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  5. Methodology for analyzing weak spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Swainson, I.P.

    2000-02-01

    There is considerable interest in quantifying radionuclide transfer between environmental compartments. However, in many cases, it can be a challenge to detect concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides due to their low levels in environmental samples. As a result, it is valuable to develop analytical protocols to ensure consistent analysis of the areas under weak peaks. The current study has focused on testing how reproducibly peak areas and baselines can be determined using two analytical approaches. The first approach, which can be carried out using Maestro software, involves extracting net counts under a curve without fitting a functional form to the peak, whereas the second approach, which is used by most other peak fitting programs, determines net counts from spectra by fitting a Gaussian form to the data. It was found that the second approach produces more consistent peak area and baseline measurements, with the ability to de-convolute multiple, overlapping peaks. In addition, programs, such as Peak Fit, which can be used to fit a form to spectral data, often provide goodness of fit analyses, since the Gaussian form can be described using a characteristic equation against which peak data can be tested for their statistical significance. (author)

  6. The Geometry And Significance Of Weak Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Parks, A D

    2000-01-01

    Summary: The theory of weak values for quantum mechanical observables has come to serve as a useful basis for contemporary discussions concerning such varied topics as the tunnelling-time controversy and quantum stochastic processes. An intrinsic complex-valued weak energy has recently been observed experimentally and reported in the literature. In this paper it is shown that: (a) the real and imaginary valued parts of this weak energy have geometric interpretations related to a phase acquired from parallel transport in Hilbert space and the variational dynamics occurring in the associated projective Hilbert space, respectively; (b) the weak energy defines functions which translate correlation amplitudes and probabilities in time; (c) correlation probabilities can be controlled by manipulating the weak energy and there exists a condition of weak stationarity that guarantees their time invariance; and (d) a time-weak energy uncertainty relation of the usual form prevails when a suitable set of dynamical constr...

  7. Gopherus agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Non-native seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, J.R.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii) is a non-native, highly invasive weed species of southwestern U.S. deserts. Sahara Mustard is a hardy species, which flourishes under many conditions including drought and in both disturbed and undisturbed habitats (West and Nabhan 2002. In B. Tellman [ed.], Invasive Plants: Their Occurrence and Possible Impact on the Central Gulf Coast of Sonora and the Midriff Islands in the Sea of Cortes, pp. 91–111. University of Arizona Press, Tucson). Because of this species’ ability to thrive in these habitats, B. tournefortii has been able to propagate throughout the southwestern United States establishing itself in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. Unfortunately, naturally disturbed areas created by native species, such as the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), within these deserts could have facilitated the propagation of B. tournefortii. (Lovich 1998. In R. G. Westbrooks [ed.], Invasive Plants, Changing the Landscape of America: Fact Book, p. 77. Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds [FICMNEW], Washington, DC). However, Desert Tortoises have never been directly observed dispersing Sahara Mustard seeds. Here we present observations of two Desert Tortoises dispersing Sahara Mustard seeds at the interface between the Mojave and Sonoran deserts in California.

  8. Observational Evidence for Desert Amplification Using Multiple Satellite Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nan; Zhou, Liming; Dai, Yongjiu; Xia, Geng; Hua, Wenjian

    2017-05-17

    Desert amplification identified in recent studies has large uncertainties due to data paucity over remote deserts. Here we present observational evidence using multiple satellite-derived datasets that desert amplification is a real large-scale pattern of warming mode in near surface and low-tropospheric temperatures. Trend analyses of three long-term temperature products consistently confirm that near-surface warming is generally strongest over the driest climate regions and this spatial pattern of warming maximizes near the surface, gradually decays with height, and disappears in the upper troposphere. Short-term anomaly analyses show a strong spatial and temporal coupling of changes in temperatures, water vapor and downward longwave radiation (DLR), indicating that the large increase in DLR drives primarily near surface warming and is tightly associated with increasing water vapor over deserts. Atmospheric soundings of temperature and water vapor anomalies support the results of the long-term temperature trend analysis and suggest that desert amplification is due to comparable warming and moistening effects of the troposphere. Likely, desert amplification results from the strongest water vapor feedbacks near the surface over the driest deserts, where the air is very sensitive to changes in water vapor and thus efficient in enhancing the longwave greenhouse effect in a warming climate.

  9. Browning in Desert Boundaries in Asia in Recent Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Brown, Molly E.; Kug, Jong-Seong; Piao, Shilong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the changes in desert boundaries in Asia (Gobi, Karakum, Lut, Taklimakan, and Thar deserts) during the growing season (April October) in the years 1982 2008 were investigated by analyzing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, and temperature. In the desert boundary regions, the domain mean NDVI values increased by 7.2% per decade in 1982 1998 but decreased by 6.8% per decade thereafter. Accordingly, the bare soil areas (or nonvegetated areas) of the inside of the desert boundaries contracted by 9.8% per decade in the 1990s and expanded by 8.7% per decade in the 2000s. It is noted that the five deserts experience nearly simultaneous NDVI changes although they cover a very diverse area of Asia. In contrast, changes in temperature and precipitation in the deserts show rather diverse results. In desert boundaries located along 40 N (Gobi, Taklimakan, and Karakum), the decadal changes in vegetation greenness were mainly related to regional climate during the entire analysis period. Precipitation increased in the 1990s, providing favorable conditions for vegetation growth (i.e., greening), but precipitation reduced (19 mm per decade) and warming intensified (0.7 C per decade) in the 2000s, causing less moisture to be available for vegetation growth (i.e., browning). In desert boundaries below 40 N (Lut and Thar), although an increase in precipitation (8 mm per decade) led to greening in the 1990s, local changes in precipitation and temperature did not necessarily cause browning in the 2000s. Observed multidecadal changes in vegetation greenness in the present study suggest that under significant global and/or regional warming, changes in moisture availability for vegetation growth in desert boundaries are an important factor when understanding decadal changes in areas vulnerable to desertification over Asia.

  10. Browning in desert boundaries in Asia in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Brown, Molly E.; Kug, Jong-Seong; Piao, Shilong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the changes in desert boundaries in Asia (Gobi, Karakum, Lut, Taklimakan, and Thar deserts) during the growing season (April-October) in the years 1982-2008 were investigated by analyzing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, and temperature. In the desert boundary regions, the domain mean NDVI values increased by 7.2% per decade in 1982-1998 but decreased by 6.8% per decade thereafter. Accordingly, the bare soil areas (or nonvegetated areas) of the inside of the desert boundaries contracted by 9.8% per decade in the 1990s and expanded by 8.7% per decade in the 2000s. It is noted that the five deserts experience nearly simultaneous NDVI changes although they cover a very diverse area of Asia. In contrast, changes in temperature and precipitation in the deserts show rather diverse results. In desert boundaries located along 40°N (Gobi, Taklimakan, and Karakum), the decadal changes in vegetation greenness were mainly related to regional climate during the entire analysis period. Precipitation increased in the 1990s, providing favorable conditions for vegetation growth (i.e., greening), but precipitation reduced (19 mm per decade) and warming intensified (0.7°C per decade) in the 2000s, causing less moisture to be available for vegetation growth (i.e., browning). In desert boundaries below 40°N (Lut and Thar), although an increase in precipitation (8 mm per decade) led to greening in the 1990s, local changes in precipitation and temperature did not necessarily cause browning in the 2000s. Observed multidecadal changes in vegetation greenness in the present study suggest that under significant global and/or regional warming, changes in moisture availability for vegetation growth in desert boundaries are an important factor when understanding decadal changes in areas vulnerable to desertification over Asia.

  11. Broken Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the leg, which can result in a fracture. Stress fractures outside of sport situations are more common in people who have: ... shoes. Choose the appropriate shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And ... can prevent stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If ...

  12. Properties of Desert Sand and CMAS Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2014-01-01

    As-received desert sand from a Middle East country has been characterized for its phase composition and thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and NaAlSi3O8 phases in as-received desert sand and showed weight loss of approx. 35 percent due to decomposition of CaCO3 and CaSO4.2H2O when heated to 1400 C. A batch of as-received desert sand was melted into calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass at approx. 1500 C. From inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, chemical composition of the CMAS glass was analyzed to be 27.8CaO-4MgO-5Al2O3-61.6SiO2-0.6Fe2O3-1K2O (mole percent). Various physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass have been evaluated. Bulk density of CMAS glass was 2.69 g/cc, Young's modulus 92 GPa, Shear modulus 36 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.28, dilatometric glass transition temperature (T (sub g)) 706 C, softening point (T (sub d)) 764 C, Vickers microhardness 6.3 +/- 0.4 GPa, indentation fracture toughness 0.75 +/- 0.15 MPa.m (sup 1/2), and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) 9.8 x 10 (exp -6)/degC in the temperature range 25 to 700 C. Temperature dependence of viscosity has also been estimated from various reference points of the CMAS glass using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The glass remained amorphous after heat treating at 850 C for 10 hr but crystallized into CaSiO3 and Ca-Mg-Al silicate phases at 900 C or higher temperatures. Crystallization kinetics of the CMAS glass has also been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Activation energies for the crystallization of two different phases in the glass were calculated to be 403 and 483 kJ/mol, respectively.

  13. In vitro germination of desert rose varieties(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Lemos Varella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The drought stress resistance is a characteristic of the desert rose and its estimable beauty flowers, which gave it great relevance in the ornamental market. However, the desert rose production and germination is hampered by possible sterility of their male and female flowers and frequent problems in pollination, so the tissue culture is a promising alternative to the propagation of these plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on four commercial varieties of desert rose (Adenium obesum cultivated in vitro. The seeds of the varieties ‘Orange Pallet’, ‘Carnation violet’, ‘Diamond ring’ and ‘Vermiliont’ were sterilized and inoculated on Water + Agar (T0, medium MS (T1, ½ MS (T2, MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T3, MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T4, ½ MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T5, ½ MS 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T6. The seeds germination of A. obesum was initiated on the fourth day of cultivation and on the tenth day was possible to observe the expansion of the cotyledons and leaf expansion with subsequent development of early secondary root. The ‘Orange pallet’ variety germinated 100% of seeds on water + agar and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 of GA3. For ‘Diamond Ring’ and ‘Carnation violet’ the highest rate of germination occurred in treatments MS ½; 0.25 mg L-1 GA3; MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 averaging 80% and 70%, respectively. For ‘Vermiliont’ the best response was in MS and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 ranging between 70-90% germinated embryos. It was registered different malformations in all treatments like absence of roots and apexes during seedling development. The concentrations of GA3 did not affect significantly the seed germination.

  14. Abstract Knowledge in the Broken-String Problem: Evidence from Nonhuman Primates and Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Carolina; Call, Josep; Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Sabbatini, Gloria; Seed, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    There is still large controversy about whether abstract knowledge of physical problems is uniquely human. We presented 9 capuchin monkeys, 6 bonobos, 6 chimpanzees and 48 children with two versions of a broken-string problem. In the standard condition, participants had to choose between an intact and a broken string as means to a reward. In the critical condition, the functional parts of the strings were covered up and replaced by perceptually similar, but non-functional cues. Apes, monkeys and young children performed significantly better in the standard condition in which the cues played a functional role, indicating knowledge of the functional properties involved. Moreover, a control experiment with chimpanzees and young children ruled out that this difference in performance could be accounted for by differences of perceptual feedback in the two conditions. We suggest that, similar to humans, nonhuman primates partly rely on abstract concepts in physical problem-solving. PMID:25272161

  15. Support vector machine used to diagnose the fault of rotor broken bars of induction motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhitong, Cao; Jiazhong, Fang; Hongpingn, Chen

    2003-01-01

    from the SLT. Here we were done some analogical experiments of the rotor broken bar faults of induction motors used, analyzed the signals of the sample currents with Fourier transform, and constructed the spectrum characteristics from low frequency to high frequency used as learning sample vectors...... for the SVM. After a SVM is trained with learning sample vectors, so each kind of the rotor broken bar faults of induction motors can be classified. Finally the retest is demonstrated, which proves that the SVM really has preferable ability of classification. In this paper we tried applying the SVM...... to diagnose the faults of induction motors, and the results suggested that the SVM could yet be regarded as a new method in the fault diagnosis....

  16. Restoration of the symmetries broken by reversible growth in hyperelastic bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillo Alfio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we interpret the development of material in homogeneities in continuum, hyper elastic bodies in the presence of reversible growth in terms of broken symmetries [1]. By applying Noether's Theorem [1, 2, 3, 4], we find a set of equations yielding the fields necessary to compensate for the broken symmetry. As growth occurs, these fields provide for an instantaneously updated reference configuration of the body, and are responsible for the dynamical restoring of the body symmetries. In addition, we propose to use these compensating fields in order to generalize the definition of the transplant operator given in [5,6]. This work has been motivated by the current theoretical investigations on the biomechanical aspects of growth in particular cartilage.

  17. HUBUNGAN ANTARA HARGA DIRI DENGAN SIKAP TERHADAP PERILAKU SEKSUAL PRANIKAH PADA REMAJA DARI KELUARGA BROKEN HOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haesty Mulyana R.D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara harga diri dengan sikap terhadap perilaku seksual pranikah pada remaja dengan keluarga broken home. Hipotesis yang diajukan dalam penelitian ini adalah ada hubungan negatif antara harga diri dengan sikap terhadap perilaku seksual pranikah. Pengambilan subjek penelitian ini menggunakan teknik purposive sampling yang berjumlah 50 remaja dari keluarga broken home dengan batasan usia 16-18 tahun dan terdiri dari 28 remaja perempuan dan 22 remaja laki-laki. Pengambilan data penelitian menggunakan Skala Sikap terhadap Perilaku Seksual Pranikah dan Skala Harga Diri. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknik analisis korelasi Product Moment dari Pearson. Hasil analisis menunjukkan nilai rxy sebesar -0.328 (p

  18. Physical and chemical characteristics of cheese bread, using fermented broken rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa CORADO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of new food products, taking as raw material the subproducts obtained during industrial process become an economic and nutritious alternative, since these are usually discarded, caning be a significant nutritional source good. This research aimed to develop cheese bread using fermented broken rice instead of sour starch in four different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. After the development of formulations, was performed physics and chemicals characterization of products obtained, performing analysis of: proximate composition, dietary fiber, acidity, pH, ºBrix, total soluble sugars, reducing and sucrose. The increased formulations didn’t present significant differences, highlighting the average values of protein 7%, dietary fiber 9% and ash 1.9%. Broken rice, after fermentation process, becomes a profitable alternative instead of the sour starch on cheese breads, saving all the physical and chemical characteristics and being inexpensive.

  19. Mappings on weakly Lindelöf and weakly regular-Lindel¨of spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Jabor Fawakhreh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the effect of mappings and some decompositions of continuity on weakly Lindelöf spaces and weakly regular-Lindelöf spaces. We show that some mappings preserve these topological properties. We also show that the image of a weakly Lindelöf space (resp. weakly regular-Lindelöf space under an almost continuous mapping is weakly Lindelöf (resp. weakly regular-Lindelöf. Moreover, the image of a weakly regular-Lindelöf space under a precontinuous and contracontinuousmapping is Lindelöf.

  20. Weak boson emission in hadron collider processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, U.

    2007-01-01

    The O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections to many hadron collider processes are known to become large and negative at high energies, due to the appearance of Sudakov-like logarithms. At the same order in perturbation theory, weak boson emission diagrams contribute. Since the W and Z bosons are massive, the O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections and the contributions from weak boson emission are separately finite. Thus, unlike in QED or QCD calculations, there is no technical reason for including gauge boson emission diagrams in calculations of electroweak radiative corrections. In most calculations of the O(α) electroweak radiative corrections, weak boson emission diagrams are therefore not taken into account. Another reason for not including these diagrams is that they lead to final states which differ from that of the original process. However, in experiment, one usually considers partially inclusive final states. Weak boson emission diagrams thus should be included in calculations of electroweak radiative corrections. In this paper, I examine the role of weak boson emission in those processes at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN LHC for which the one-loop electroweak radiative corrections are known to become large at high energies (inclusive jet, isolated photon, Z+1 jet, Drell-Yan, di-boson, tt, and single top production). In general, I find that the cross section for weak boson emission is substantial at high energies and that weak boson emission and the O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections partially cancel

  1. ORIGIN OF THE FOG IN NAMIB DESERT IN DRY SEASON

    OpenAIRE

    KIMURA, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    The origin of the fog in the Namib Desert was generally considered the westerly advection fog over the Benguela cold current. When the author went to the Namib Desert in dry seasons in 2003 and 2004, the fog in the early morning, however, moved easterly from the inland to the Atlantic Ocean. It was the opposite direction of so called the sea fog. In addition to that, the fog in the Namib Desert showed the diurnal change: the fog arises in the early morning and disappeared before noon. The fog...

  2. How to identify food deserts in Amazonian cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gemma; Frausin Bustamante, Gina Giovanna; Parry, Luke Thomas Wyn

    2016-01-01

    Food deserts are areas without affordable access to healthy foods. This paper explores whether food deserts are present within urban areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The availability and price of a variety of food products was surveyed in a total of 304 shops, across 3 cities in 2015. Least-cost distances were calculated to estimate travel distance to access products, with map overlay used to help identify areas with poor access to a variety of healthy food - these were defined as food deserts.

  3. Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel; Mahmood Karamat; Yusoff Ismail; Qureshi Ahmad Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces w...

  4. Finite Temperature Effective Potential for Spontaneously Broken $\\lambda \\Phi^4$ Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nachbagauer, Herbert

    1994-01-01

    We present a self-consistent calculation of the finite temperature effective potential for $\\lambda \\Phi^4$ theory in four dimensions using a composite operator effective action. We find that in a spontaneously broken theory not only the so-called daisy and superdaisy graphs contribute to the next-to-leading order thermal mass, but also resummed non-local diagrams are of the same order, thus altering the effective potential at small effective mass.

  5. Urban research in a hostile setting: Godfrey Wilson in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia, 1938-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Tranberg Hansen

    Full Text Available Acknowledged for his pioneering urban anthropological research in Broken Hill through the publication of An Essay on the Economics of Detribalization in Northern Rhodesia (Parts I and II, 1940 and 1941, Godfrey Wilson's professional career was cut short by his death during World War II. The late 1990s transfer and cataloguing at the University of Cape Town of the Monica and Godfrey Wilson papers has made an enormously rich research archive accessible to the public. For the first time, Godfrey Wilson's notes from his fieldwork in Broken Hill enable us to examine his research project through his own observations. Based on a preliminary overview of these records and a tentative analysis of some of their contents, this article revisits the Broken Hill research project against the background of the published essay on the economics of detribalisation. Wilson's argument about temporary urbanisation is demonstrated through migration histories, information about length of stay in towns, and an analysis of the economics of urban livelihoods that focuses on wages including rations, household expenditures, and urban-rural transfers. But the published essay barely explains how in fact he conducted his field research. Although there are very few direct indications, we can infer some of his fieldwork practices and field methodology from notes that occasionally evoke an immediate sense of the trials and tribulations of everyday African life in Broken Hill in the early World War II years. How might experiences in the field have influenced Wilson's analysis? Overall, I discuss his work from two angles, first in the context of a time and place characterised by conflicting agendas, and secondly, in retrospect as the conceptual space and time of early World War II colonial Northern Rhodesia have yielded to different explanatory perspectives.

  6. MRI of broken bioabsorbable crosspin fixation in hamstring graft reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhru, Prashant [Department of Radiology Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Park, Brian [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Umans, Hilary [Department of Radiology Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, P.C., New York, NY (United States); DiFelice, Gregory S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Tobin, Keith [Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, P.C., New York, NY (United States)

    2011-06-15

    To report seven cases of broken bioabsorbable femoral crosspins identified by MRI in evaluation of hamstring grafts of the anterior cruciate ligament. Seven cases of broken bioabsorbable crosspins utilized in femoral fixation of ACL hamstring grafts were identified prospectively and retrospectively from our PACs database during a period from 9/1/08 to 8/31/09. All imaging was performed using 1.5 or 3.0 Tesla MRI and were evaluated for T2 signal within and surrounding the crosspin, osteolysis surrounding the fragments, displacement of fragments, and graft integrity. Time from surgery was also recorded. Seven cases of hamstring grafts with broken bioabsorbable crosspins were imaged 4 months to 3 years following grafting. There was osteolysis surrounding the crosspin in all but one case in which the graft was intact but a pin fragment was displaced into the joint. One graft failed due to aseptic foreign-body reaction to the fixation with aggressive osteolysis at 9 months post surgery. In the remaining five, the ACL graft was either completely torn, partially torn, lax, or degenerative and frayed. Of these, the crosspins were broken and angulated with osteolysis surrounding the apex of the angulated fragment or demonstrated lateral extrusion of the peripheral fragment. Bioabsorbable crosspins utilized in femoral fixation of hamstring graft reconstruction of the ACL may become fractured. While the natural history of osteo-integration of these devices as demonstrated by MRI has not been defined, osteolysis surrounding the fragments, extrusion or displacement of the fragments, and graft laxity or failure would suggest that these are abnormal findings that should be reported. (orig.)

  7. The broken-pair model for nuclei and its extension with quadrupole vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstra, P.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents calculations for low energy properties of nuclei with an odd number of particles. These are described in the Broken-Pair approximation, where it is assumed that all but three particles occur as ordered Cooper pairs; the unpaired (one or three) particles are called quasiparticles. A model is developed with which it is hoped to describe odd nuclei with two open shells in terms of both single-particle and collective degrees of freedom. (Auth.)

  8. Quantum Gravity as a Broken Symmetry Phase of a BF Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Miković

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We explain how General Relativity with a cosmological constant arises as a broken symmetry phase of a BF theory. In particular we show how to treat de Sitter and anti-de Sitter cases simultaneously. This is then used to formulate a quantisation of General Relativity through a spin foam perturbation theory. We then briefly discuss how to calculate the effective action in this quantization procedure.

  9. Broken SU(3) symmetry at low spin in {sup 178-186}Os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouldjedri, A [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Batna, Avenue Boukhelouf M El Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Benabderrahmane, M L [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Constantine, Route Ain El Bey, 25000 Constantine (Algeria)

    2003-07-01

    The test of the SU(3) symmetry near the neutron number N = 104 is extended to the osmium isotopes. It is shown that the available experimental data point towards a slightly broken SU(3) symmetry. This result is analysed theoretically using three mechanisms of symmetry breaking: the effect of SO(6), the consistent Q-formalism and the parameter symmetry of the interacting boson model.

  10. Self Disclosure Mengenai Latar Belakang Keluarga Yang Broken Home Kepada Pasangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina, Yessica

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk untuk mengetahui self disclosure seseorang mengenai latar belakang keluarga yang broken home kepada pasangannya.Self Disclosure dilihat berdasarkan beberapa aspek menurut DeVito yaitu informasi tentang (1) nilai – nilai, keyakinan dan keinginan (2) perilaku atau (3) karakteristik dan kualitas diri.Selain itu Selfdisclosure seringkali dilakukan karena berbagai alasan misalnya untuk melepaskan tekanan emosi yang dirasakan seseorang, kebutuhan untuk melepaskan rasa...

  11. Thermodynamic and pedogenic differences between desert microsites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Caldwell, Todd; Lin, Henry

    2014-05-01

    Feedbacks exist between soil properties, climate and ecological productivity. In arid alluvial fan deposits common to the southwestern United States, the strength of these complex feedbacks change slowly over long time frames (e.g., 10s to 100s of millennia) as the climate has become drier and warmer. The feedbacks are also influenced by relatively short-time-frame processes of shrub establishment and subshrub processes that create distinct interspace and sub-canopy microsites. Pedogenic processes in both cases proceed at different rates—slowly in interspaces and rapidly beneath canopies—yet both are subject to similar energy and mass inputs entering the system from above the canopy. In this study, we apply a branch of non-equilibrium (open system) thermodynamics to explain desert pedogenic processes and how the two microsites are tied together. The general concept is that energy and mass flow naturally in directions that minimize gradients, hence maximizing randomness and entropy. We hypothesize that younger soils begin as random bodies, but that energy input from the sun, and mass input from water, dust and vegetation create gradients over time, leading to microsites of pavements and canopies. These features eventually reach metastability and the potential for self-destruction increases (i.e., desert pavements eventually fall apart and erode). We seek to apply these concepts to Mojave Desert soils/ecosystems that have been studied in the field and the laboratory, with the goal of explaining and/or predicting the pathways of pedogenesis in these environments. Of particular interest is how these concepts might be applied in microsite locations influence the two-way coupling of pedologic development and ecosystem functions, and whether we can predict the strength of these feedbacks and processes using knowledge of soil systems today. The field site is found in the Mojave Natural Preserve, CA, USA, where high spatial resolution infiltrometer measurements were

  12. NUWAX-83: nucleonics in the desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    The 6-day NUWAX-83 (Nuclear Weapon Accident Exercise) held in May 1983, formally at Port Gaston, Virginia, actually in Nevada, was organized by several Federal organizations. A helicopter crash and consequent nuclear explosion contaminating a large area with 239 Pu and 241 Am was simulated. For 239 Pu, a mixture of 223 Ra and 103 Pd was used. The author participating as a member of the ORNL staff describes his experiences, with special reference to the on-site chemical analytical work and human conditions. The author refers to the deficiencies of the analytical capability and equipment, furthermore, he doubts the transferability of surveying and analytical experiences gained in the desert to an Eastern seaboard region. (A.L.)

  13. Desert ants learn vibration and magnetic landmarks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Buehlmann

    Full Text Available The desert ants Cataglyphis navigate not only by path integration but also by using visual and olfactory landmarks to pinpoint the nest entrance. Here we show that Cataglyphis noda can additionally use magnetic and vibrational landmarks as nest-defining cues. The magnetic field may typically provide directional rather than positional information, and vibrational signals so far have been shown to be involved in social behavior. Thus it remains questionable if magnetic and vibration landmarks are usually provided by the ants' habitat as nest-defining cues. However, our results point to the flexibility of the ants' navigational system, which even makes use of cues that are probably most often sensed in a different context.

  14. The oral pathological conditions of the Broken Hill (Kabwe) 1 cranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Sarah A

    2014-12-01

    The Broken Hill (Kabwe) 1 cranium exhibits dental caries on ten teeth, multiple periapical lesions, periodontal disease, severe anterior dental wear, and hypercementosis, conditions all little-studied in Middle Pleistocene humans and making Broken Hill 1 of great value to discussions of the antiquity of oral pathological conditions. These individual pathological conditions, however, have never previously been described in detail; the focus has been on diagnosing an overarching syndrome connecting the temporal and oral lesions. This case study examines the individual dentoalveolar pathological conditions to provide data for cross-comparison using ordinal scores (e.g., carious lesions, interdental septum condition), descriptions (e.g., hypercementosis, periapical lesions), and continuous measurements (cemento-enamel junction to alveolar crest distances). Differential diagnoses are explored including age-related hyposalivation, dental wear, lead poisoning, and diet, and are discussed within the context of past published attempts. Studies on recent humans have demonstrated correlations between oral disease, systemic health, and diet, suggesting Broken Hill 1 likely suffered from larger systemic inflammation related to its age, health, and perhaps subsistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. No-Cook Process for Ethanol Production Using Indian Broken Rice and Pearl Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Gohel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No-cook process using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE was evaluated for Indian broken rice and pearl millet. One-factor-at-a-time optimization method was used in ethanol production to identify optimum concentration of GSHE, under yeast fermentation conditions using broken rice and pearl millet as fermentation feedstocks. An acid fungal protease at a concentration of 0.2 kg per metric ton of grain was used along with various dosages of GSHE under yeast fermentation conditions to degrade the grain proteins into free amino nitrogen for yeast growth. To measure the efficacy of GSHE to hydrolyze no-cook broken rice and pearl millet, the chemical composition, fermentation efficiency, and ethanol recovery were determined. In both feedstocks, fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery obtained through single-step no-cook process were higher than conventional multistep high-temperature process, currently considered the ideal industrial process. Furthermore, the no-cook process can directly impact energy consumption through steam saving and reducing the water cooling capacity needs, compared to conventional high-temperature process.

  16. 'Broken hospital windows': debating the theory of spreading disorder and its application to healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Kate; Ellis, Louise A; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2018-03-22

    Research in criminology and social-psychology supports the idea that visible signs of disorder, both physical and social, may perpetuate further disorder, leading to neighborhood incivilities, petty violations, and potentially criminal behavior. This theory of 'broken windows' has now also been applied to more enclosed environments, such as organizations. This paper debates whether the premise of broken windows theory, and the concept of 'disorder', might also have utility in the context of health services. There is already a body of work on system migration, which suggests a role for violations and workarounds in normalizing unwarranted deviations from safe practices in healthcare organizations. Studies of visible disorder may be needed in healthcare, where the risks of norm violations and disorderly environments, and potential for harm to patients, are considerable. Everyday adjustments and flexibility is mostly beneficial, but in this paper, we ask: how might deviations from the norm escalate from necessary workarounds to risky violations in care settings? Does physical or social disorder in healthcare contexts perpetuate further disorder, leading to downstream effects, including increased risk of harm to patients? We advance a model of broken windows in healthcare, and a proposal to study this phenomenon.

  17. Broken rotational symmetry in the pseudogap phase of a high-T(c) superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, R; Chang, J; Leboeuf, David; Cyr-Choinière, Olivier; Laliberté, Francis; Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Ramshaw, B J; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Taillefer, Louis

    2010-01-28

    The nature of the pseudogap phase is a central problem in the effort to understand the high-transition-temperature (high-T(c)) copper oxide superconductors. A fundamental question is what symmetries are broken when the pseudogap phase sets in, which occurs when the temperature decreases below a value T*. There is evidence from measurements of both polarized neutron diffraction and the polar Kerr effect that time-reversal symmetry is broken, but at temperatures that differ significantly from one another. Broken rotational symmetry was detected from both resistivity measurements and inelastic neutron scattering at low doping, and from scanning tunnelling spectroscopy at low temperature, but showed no clear relation to T*. Here we report the observation of a large in-plane anisotropy of the Nernst effect in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(y) that sets in precisely at T* throughout the doping phase diagram. We show that the CuO chains of the orthorhombic lattice are not responsible for this anisotropy, which is therefore an intrinsic property of the CuO(2) planes. We conclude that the pseudogap phase is an electronic state that strongly breaks four-fold rotational symmetry. This narrows the range of possible states considerably, pointing to stripe or nematic order.

  18. Annealing effect on spin density of broken bonds and on the structure of amorphous germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhan'ko, F.N.; Okunev, V.D.; Samojlenko, Z.A.

    1989-01-01

    Dependence of volumetric spin density of broken bonds in a-Ge films, produced by cathode sputtering in argon, on the annealing temperature is investigated by ESR method. The film structure is controlled by the X-ray method. Two ESR lines with g=2.019 and g=2.003, their intensities changing non-monotonously with annealing temperature are observed. The line with g=2.019 is typical of only amorphous germanium state, and the line with g=2.003 is preserved after film crystallization. Under comparison of results with structural data a conclusion is made that the observed lines in ESR spectra are linked with broken bonds in peripheral regions of two types of clusters. The line with g=2.003 is conditioned by broken bonds in the peripheral cluster regions with standard cubic atom packing and the line with g=2.019 is linked with clusters of hexagonal type which is not typical of crystalline germanium standard structure

  19. Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-21

    By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field.

  20. Rocks, climate and the survival of human societies in hyper-arid and arid environments - Are the human civilization in deserts at a permanent risk of collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoav, Avni; Noa, Avriel-Avni

    2017-04-01

    The great challenges of living in the arid and hyper arid regions worldwide are the shortage of water, limited resources and the permanent uncertainty of the desert climate. These challenges are known as the main weaknesses of desert societies that are prone, according to the existing paradigm, to a permanent risk of collapse. However, in the Middle East deserts, human societies are known since prehistoric times and during the entire hyper-dry Holocene. This hints that the simple paradigm of desert societies' high vulnerability to harsh desert environments needs to be better examined. In this context we examine three case studies: 1. The Southern Sinai region in Egypt: In this region, the annual precipitation fluctuates between 20-50 mm/y. However, in this highly mountainous area, desert agriculture plots including orchards were constructed, located mainly around the byzantine monastery of Santa Katerina. During the last 1500 years, much of the water supply needed for humans and agriculture was generated from runoff developed on exposed granite rocks. 2. The southern Jordan region south of Petra: Much of this wide area connecting the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula and southern Jordan receive only 20-30 mm/y. However, the main caravan route established by the Arabian tribes during the first millennia BC managed to cross this land, supplying the water needs of many camels. Most of this water was stored in large cisterns dug into the sandstone rock formations exposed along the route, especially within the Disi Formation. 3. The Negev Highlands of southern Israel: This region is divided between the hyper arid region to the south, receiving 70-80 mm/y, and the arid region to the north receiving 90-130 mm/y. During the last two millennia, the hyper arid area was used for camel grazing and goats herds, while the northern sector was used for the construction of agriculture plots, agriculture farms and even desert towns. All these activities were sustained by runoff

  1. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well-known that, if f : M → N is an isomorphism, then there is a one-to-one corres- pondence between the submodules of M and the submodules of N. Therefore, any module. (lattice) isomorphic to a weakly distributive module, is itself weakly distributive. Lemma 2.1. Let M be a weakly distributive module and f : M → N be ...

  2. Robust weak measurements on finite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A new weak measurement procedure is introduced for finite samples which yields accurate weak values that are outside the range of eigenvalues and which do not require an exponentially rare ensemble. This procedure provides a unique advantage in the amplification of small nonrandom signals by minimizing uncertainties in determining the weak value and by minimizing sample size. This procedure can also extend the strength of the coupling between the system and measuring device to a new regime

  3. Are weak and electromagnetic interactions unified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines how well the standard electroweak model agrees with experiment. Attempts to explain to a nonparticle physicist why weak and electromagnetic interactions are unified. Discusses the Glashow model (unified SU(2)xU(1)); some basic questions; an alternative viewpoint; unified theories; non-unified theories; and weak interactions as strong interactions. Concludes that SU(2)xU(1) is a good phenomenological model for weak and electromagnetic interactions in the energy region accessible to experiment

  4. Numerical test of weak turbulence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, G. L.; Nicholson, D. R.; Shen, Mei-Mei

    1989-01-01

    The analytic theory of weak Langmuir turbulence is well known, but very little has previously been done to compare its predictions with numerical solutions of the basic dynamical evolution equations. In this paper, numerical solutions of the statistical weak turbulence theory are compared with numerical solutions of the Zakharov model of Langmuir turbulence, and good agreement in certain regimes of very weak field strength is found.

  5. Military Geography: The Interaction of Desert Geomorphology and Military Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilewitch, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    .... Battles throughout history were fought in desert regions and the future is certain to hold additional conflicts, particularly in the Middle East where Operation Iraqi Freedom currently rages at the time of this writing...

  6. Desert Peak East Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemach, Ezra [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Drakos, Peter [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Spielman, Paul [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Akerley, John [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This manuscript is a draft to replaced with a final version at a later date TBD. A summary of activities pertaining to the Desert Peak EGS project including the planning and resulting stimulation activities.

  7. Vegetation - Anza-Borrego Desert State Park [ds165

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Anza Borrego Desert State Park (ABDSP) Vegetation Map depicts vegetation within the Park and its surrounding environment. The map was prepared by the Department...

  8. Modeling Agassiz's Desert Tortoise Population Response to Anthropogenic Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojave Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations are exposed to a variety of anthropogenic threats, which vary in nature, severity, and frequency. Tortoise management in conservation areas can be compromised when the relative importance of these threats is not well underst...

  9. Assessing the Benefits of Urban Forestry in Mojave Desert Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the climate and environment change due to human activity, an understanding of the existing natural resources becomes paramount. Urban forests of Mojave Desert communities have the potential to reduce air pollution, heat island effects, and energy consumption. Regions throughou...

  10. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. S. Nowak; J. Arnone; L. Fenstermaker; and S. D. Smith

    2005-07-26

    This project provided the funding to operate and maintain the Nevada Desert FACE Facility. This support funds the CO{sub 2}, system repairs and maintenance, basic physical and biological site information, and personnel that are essential for the experiment to continue. They have continued to assess the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on three key processes: (1) leaf- to plant-level responses of desert vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}; (2) ecosystem-level responses; and (3) integration of plant and ecosystem processes to understand carbon balance of deserts. The focus is the seminal interactions among atmospheric CO{sub 2}, water, and nitrogen that drive desert responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and explicitly address processes that occur across scales (biological, spatial, and temporal).

  11. Lateral migration of linear dunes in the Strzelecki Desert, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Preferential accumulation of sand on east-facing flanks indicates that the dunes migrated eastward several metres during the Holocene. Moreover, the west-facing flanks of some dunes have experienced a minimum of tens of metres of erosion. This asymmetric erosion and deposition were caused by dune obliquity and lateral migration that may have begun as early as the Pleistocene. Dunes in the Strzelecki Desert and in the adjacent Simpson Desert display a variety of grossly different internal structures. -from Author

  12. Size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust from a desert area of northern China by eddy covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fratini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust emission accounts for a substantial portion of particles present in the troposphere. It is emitted mostly from desert areas, mainly through intense storm episodes. The aim of this work was to quantify size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust particles emitted during storm events occurring in desert areas of northern China (Alashan desert, Inner Mongolia, known to act as one of the strongest sources of mineral dust particles in the Asian continent. Long-range transport of mineral dust emitted in this area is responsible for the high particle concentrations reached in densely populated areas, including the city of Beijing. Based on a theoretical analysis, an eddy covariance system was built to get size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust particles with optical diameters ranging between 0.26 and 7.00 µm. The system was optimised to measure fluxes under intense storm event conditions. It was tested in two sites located in the Chinese portion of the Gobi desert. During the field campaign, an intense wind erosion event, classified as a "weak dust storm", was recorded in one of them. Data obtained during this event indicate that particle number fluxes were dominated by the finer fraction, whereas in terms of mass, coarser particle accounted for the largest portion. It was found that during the storm event, ratios of size-segregated particle mass fluxes remained substantially constant and a simple parameterization of particle emission from total mass fluxes was possible. A strong correlation was also found between particle mass fluxes and the friction velocity. This relationship is extremely useful to investigate mechanisms of particle formation by wind erosion.

  13. Contraction of the Gobi Desert, 2000–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Sternberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deserts are critical environments because they cover 41% of the world’s land surface and are home to 2 billion residents. As highly dynamic biomes desert expansion and contraction is influenced by climate and anthropogenic factors with variability being a key part of the desertification debate across dryland regions. Evaluating a major world desert, the Gobi in East Asia, with high resolution satellite data and the meteorologically-derived Aridity Index from 2000 to 2012 identified a recent contraction of the Gobi. The fluctuation in area, primarily driven by precipitation, is at odds with numerous reports of human-induced desertification in Mongolia and China. There are striking parallels between the vagueness in defining the Gobi and the imprecision and controversy surrounding the Sahara desert’s southern boundary in the 1980s and 1990s. Improved boundary definition has implications fGobi; desert boundary; expansion and contraction; Aridity Index; NDVI; Mongolia; China or understanding desert “greening” and “browning”, human action and land use, ecological productivity and changing climate parameters in the region. The Gobi’s average area of 2.3 million km2 in the 21st century places it behind only the Sahara and Arabian deserts in size.

  14. A note on Weak Stability Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Fernando; Gómez Muntané, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    This paper is devoted to clarify the algorithmic definition of the weak stability boundary in the framework of the planar Restricted Three Body Problem. The role of the invariant hyperbolic manifolds associated to the central manifolds of the libration points L1 and L2, as boundary of the weak stability region, is shown Peer Reviewed

  15. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs

  17. Weak interaction: past answers, present questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1977-02-01

    A historical sketch of the weak interaction is presented. From beta ray to pion decay, the V-A theory of Marshak and Sudarshan, CVC principle of equivalence, universality as an algebraic condition, PCAC, renormalized weak Hamiltonian in the rehabilitation of field theory, and some current issues are considered in this review. 47 references

  18. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    flood of papers involving contractive definition that do not require the continuity of T . This result was further generalized and extended in various ways by many authors. On the other hand Sessa [11] defined weak commutativity and proved common fixed point theorem for weakly commuting maps. Further Jungck [5] ...

  19. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  20. Moving Beyond Weak Identifiers for Proxemic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    is significantly closer than what is actually the case. This makes the smartphone a weak identifier for applications that need to track persons. With a focus on feasible interaction design, we present a concept and prototype of a platform, which seek to support proxemic interaction beyond weak identifiers...

  1. Towards a classification of weak hand holds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2016-01-01

    The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been

  2. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...

  3. Modeling the Interdependence of Hydropedology and Root Distributions of Larrea Tridentata in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, T. G.; McDonald, E. V.; Young, M. H.; Stevenson, B. A.

    2005-12-01

    The root distribution of perennial desert plants is ultimately tied to the search for water. Soil development and resulting morphology are functions of time. Morphological features are known to affect the soil water storage and infiltration in arid soils, but they have not been linked with the root distributions of perennial plant. For this study, the depth and lateral spread of Creosote ( Larrea tridentata) roots, a common evergreen shrub of the Mojave Desert, were hypothesized to be coupled with the depth of water penetration and associated hydropedology (i.e. soil age and structure). Soil morphology, soil hydrologic properties, L. tridentata root distributions, and canopy size were measured from the plant canopy to the interspace at three Mojave Desert sites. Each site consisted of a paired geomorphic chronosequence containing a young (Holocene) weakly developed soil and an older (Pleistocene) strongly developed soil on the same geomorphic unit. Particle-size distribution, coarse fragments, bulk density and horizon thickness were used to parameterize the HYDRUS and the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) models. A 50-year climatic records were developed for each site using the long-term meteorological records and the CLIGEN stochastic weather simulator. Numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate soil water distributions in relation to measure rooting patterns for each chronosequence. Numerical simulations indicated greater depth of water penetration at young sites, coinciding with the measured root distributions. Water penetration was limited to approximately 1.5 m on the young surface and 0.75 on the old interspace surfaces throughout the 50-year simulations. Deeper penetration occurred under all plant mounds, but no drainage below 2 m occurred at any site. Results from infiltrometers showed that younger coarser textured surfaces had saturated conductivities (Ksat) nearly twice that of older surfaces. Plant mound microsites were more sand-rich than

  4. Pola Komunikasi Anak-anak Delinkuen Pada Keluarga Broken Home Di Kelurahan Karombasan Selatan Kecamatan Wanea Kota Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Santi, Melissa Ribka; Koagouw, Ferry

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan menjelasakan bagaimana pola komunikasi anak-anak delinkuen di keluarga broken home. Topik ini dipilih karena melihat fenomena yang ada tentang anak-anak yang berperilaku menyimpang karena ada di keluarga broken home, anak-anak yang merasa kurang kasih sayang dari orang tua mereka karena perceraian dari orang tua sehingga anak memilih untuk mencari kesenangan di luar rumah, tetapi perilaku menyimpang yang di dapat karena kurang nya pengawasan dari orang t...

  5. PERAN KELUARGA DAN GURU DALAM MEMBANGUN KARAKTER DAN KONSEP DIRI SISWA BROKEN HOME DI USIA SEKOLAH DASAR

    OpenAIRE

    Desy Irsalina Savitri; I Nyoman Sudana Degeng; Sa’dun Akbar

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe in depth observations on the role of the family and teachers in building the character of students broken home at primary school age. This study used a qualitative approach - a case study. Technique data collecting by interview and observation (at school and home visit) in depth. Subjects of the study included two students broken home. This study menunjukkan that parents (mother) and another family (grandparents, aunts, uncles) that play a role in the child's every...

  6. Perbedaan Motivasi Belajar dan Percaya Diri antara Siswa yang Berasal dari Keluarga Utuh dengan Keluarga Broken Home

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmawatiningtyas, Sustin

    2013-01-01

    . The main purposes of this research are to find the differences of learning motivation and self-confidence of students come from intact family or peace family and the broken family. The subjects in this study were 100 students come from SMA Negeri I Panji Situbondo. They were 50 students from intact families and 50 students from families broken home. Data analysis was used statistical t-test. Results showed learning motivation of students come from intact families is more high than student...

  7. Peran Keluarga dan Guru dalam Membangun Karakter dan Konsep Diri Siswa Broken Home di Usia Sekolah Dasar

    OpenAIRE

    Savitri, Desy Irsalina; Degeng, I Nyoman Sudana; Akbar, Sa’dun

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe in depth observations on the role of the family and teachers in building the character of students broken home at primary school age. This study used a qualitative approach - a case study. Technique data collecting by interview and observation (at school and home visit) in depth. Subjects of the study included two students broken home. This study menunjukkan that parents (mother) and another family (grandparents, aunts, uncles) that play a role in the child's every...

  8. New SHRIMP zircon results from Broken Hill: towards robust stratigraphic and event timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.W.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology is a powerful means of elucidating geological ages, providing that it is integrated with unequivocal field constraints, and providing that the fundamental assumptions which are behind any isotopic dating methods are geologically validated. In an attempt to better quantify the timing of Broken Hill's complex history and to reduce some current uncertainties, we report initial results from a new U-Pb SHRIMP investigation. This program was planned within the background of our own disparate stratigraphic and structural approaches to Broken Hill geology, and with objectives to (a) benchmark our new age results with those of previous workers as well as our own previous work in the Broken Hill Group, (b) evaluate and test the evidence for reported Archaean basement terrain, (c) date stratigraphic units in the upper parts of the Willyama Supergroup, (d) better constrain the timing of deformational events. Our U-Pb SHRIMP work on zircons from layered paragneisses in the Redan Geophysical Zone near Farmcote was catalysed by Nutman and Ehlers' (1998a) preferred interpretation that these 'strondhjemitic' gneisses represent an original ∼2650 Ma protolith. Our work finds zircon provenance age signatures typical of almost all ca. 1700 Ma metasediments, whether in the Broken Hill Block or other Australian Palaeoproterozoic settings. This therefore suggests that the rocks are not Archaean basement, but are part of a Thackaringa Group package possibly deposited about 1705-1710 Ma ago. New SHRIMP work on the Alma Gneiss provides a magmatic age of 1704±3 Ma, and a minimum stratigraphic age for host Thackaringa Group. This result is within error of our ages for other granitoids (1703±3 Ma, 1704±3 Ma) in the same stratigraphic position near Farmcote. As the Thackaringa Group is no more than 1000-1500 metres thick and includes 1710-1700 Ma detrital zircons, pan of the Alma Gneiss intrusion may well have been shallowly intruded, and akin to

  9. Persisting weakness after withdrawal of a statin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygland, Åse; Ljøstad, Unn; Krossnes, Bård Kronen

    2014-04-08

    An 81-year-old woman treated with simvastatin for several years followed by atorvastatin for about 1 year presented with fatigue, weakness and unsteady gait. The finding of elevated creatine kinase (CK) and symmetric muscle weakness around shoulders and hips led to suspicion of a toxic statin-associated myopathy. Atorvastatin was withdrawn, but her weakness persisted. Owing to persisting weakness, an autoimmune myopathy (myositis) was suspected, but initially disregarded since a muscle biopsy showed necrotic muscle fibres without inflammatory cell infiltrates and myositis-specific autoantibodies were absent. After 18 months with slowly progressive weakness and increasing CK values, awareness of new knowledge about autoimmunity as a cause of necrotic myopathy, led to a successful treatment trial with intravenous immunoglobulines, followed by steroids and metothrexate. Antibodies to the target enzyme of statins (HMGCR (3-hydroksy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase)) were detected in her serum, and she was diagnosed with autoimmune necrotic myositis probably triggered by atorvastatin.

  10. From Fireproof Desert to Flammable Grassland: Buffelgrass Invasion in the Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Only a few decades ago, the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona was considered mostly fireproof, a case of not enough fine fuel to connect the dominant shrubs and cacti. This has changed with invasions by non-native, winter annual and summer-flower perennial grasses that are rapidly transforming fireproof desert into flammable grassland. Of particular concern is buffelgrass, Pennisetum ciliare, a fire-prone and invasive African perennial grass that has already converted millions of hectares across Sonora since the mid-1960s and has made quick headway in southern and central Arizona beginning in the 1980s. Near Tucson and Phoenix, AZ, buffelgrass invasion is proceeding exponentially, with population expansion (and the costs of mitigation) more than doubling every year. As this conversion progresses, there will be increased fire risks, lost tourist revenue, diminished property values, insurmountable setbacks to conservation efforts, and the threat of large ignition fronts in desert valleys routinely spreading into the mountains. Although somewhat belated, an integrated, multi-jurisdictional effort is being organized to reduce ecological and economic impacts. My presentation will summarize the history and context of buffelgrass introduction and invasion, the disconnect in attitudes and policies across state and international boundaries, ongoing management efforts, the role of science and responsibilities of scientists, accelerated spread with changing climate, and impacts to regional ecosystems and economies. This narrative may serve as a template for other semi-arid lands where buffelgrass and similar grasses have become invasive, including Australia, South America, and many islands in the Pacific Ocean (including Hawaii), Indian Ocean, and Caribbean Sea.

  11. Enhancing and restoring habitat for the desert tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat has changed unfavorably during the past 150 y for the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii, a federally threatened species with declining populations in the Mojave Desert and western Sonoran Desert. To support recovery efforts, we synthesized published information on relationships of desert tortoises with three habitat features (cover sites, forage, and soil) and candidate management practices for improving these features for tortoises. In addition to their role in soil health and facilitating recruitment of annual forage plants, shrubs are used by desert tortoises for cover and as sites for burrows. Outplanting greenhouse-grown seedlings, protected from herbivory, has successfully restored (>50% survival) a variety of shrubs on disturbed desert soils. Additionally, salvaging and reapplying topsoil using effective techniques is among the more ecologically beneficial ways to initiate plant recovery after severe disturbance. Through differences in biochemical composition and digestibility, some plant species provide better-quality forage than others. Desert tortoises selectively forage on particular annual and herbaceous perennial species (e.g., legumes), and forage selection shifts during the year as different plants grow or mature. Nonnative grasses provide low-quality forage and contribute fuel to spreading wildfires, which damage or kill shrubs that tortoises use for cover. Maintaining a diverse “menu” of native annual forbs and decreasing nonnative grasses are priorities for restoring most desert tortoise habitats. Reducing herbivory by nonnative animals, carefully timing herbicide applications, and strategically augmenting annual forage plants via seeding show promise for improving tortoise forage quality. Roads, another disturbance, negatively affect habitat in numerous ways (e.g., compacting soil, altering hydrology). Techniques such as recontouring road berms to reestablish drainage patterns, vertical mulching (“planting” dead plant material

  12. On weakly hyperbolic spaces and a convergence-extension theorem in weakly hyperbolic spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Pham Viet

    2002-11-01

    In this article we prove some properties of the weakly hyperbolic spaces. Moreover, a convergence-extension theorem for analytic hypersurfaces (not necessarily with normal crossings) in weakly hyperbolic spaces is given. (author)

  13. Lead dust in broken hill homes--a potential hazard for young children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreland, F; Lyle, D M; Wlodarczyk, J; Balding, W A; Reddan, S

    2002-01-01

    To determine the potential hazard posed by indoor lead dust to young children in Broken Hill, a silver-lead-zinc mining town in outback Australia, and the degree to which lead flux is influenced by factors such as geographical location, house construction type and condition. 116 homes were selected and 93 (80%) studied from 10 localities in Broken Hill during the spring of 1995. Lead flux was measured using 85 mm diameter polystyrene petri dishes. Dishes were placed in four rooms of each house to collect dust over a six-to-eight-week period. Data on the location, condition and construction type of each house were recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to determine predictors of lead flux. Flux data were log transformed for the analysis. Average household lead flux varied nearly seven-fold across districts from a low of 166 (distant from the mines), to a high of 1,104 microg/m2/30-day period (adjacent to the mines). Houses that were 'adequately sealed' had 2.9 times the lead flux, and 'poorly sealed' houses 4.3 times the flux, of 'very well sealed' houses. Construction material did not significantly affect these flux levels, and no statistically significant interactions were found between house condition and location or house type. Many Broken Hill homes have high levels of lead flux that pose a potential risk to young children. Quantification of this hazard provides useful information for the community that can help focus efforts on actions required to minimise lead dust in the home. Household dust is a potential source of lead for young children in at-risk communities. Information on lead flux in homes can assist these communities and public health agencies to better understand and deal more effectively with the problem.

  14. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  15. Broken SU(4) Symmetry and The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, Inti; MacDonald, Allan

    2014-03-01

    We describe a simple variational approach to understand the spin-valley broken symmetry states in the fractional quantum Hall regime of graphene. Our approach allows to predict the incompressible ground states and their charge gaps and is able to explain the observed differences between filling factor ranges | ν | normal which allows to tune the relative strength of Zeeman and valley symmetry breaking interactions. Supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under grant DE-FG03-02ER45958 and by the Welch foundation under grant TBF1473.

  16. On van der Waals-like forces in spontaneously broken supersymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radescu, E.E.

    1982-12-01

    In spontaneously broken rigid supersymmetry, Goldstone fermion pair exchange should lead to a universal interaction between massive bodies uniquely fixed by the existing low energy theorem. The resulting van der Waals-like potential is shown to be V(r)=Mmπ -3 F -4 r -7 +O(r -8 ), where M,m are the masses of the interacting bodies while √F is the scale of the breaking. The change in the situation when the supersymmetry is promoted to a local one is briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Fine-tuning problem in renormalized perturbation theory: Spontaneously-broken gauge models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.E. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1983-04-28

    We study the stability of tree-level gauge hierarchies at higher orders in renormalized perturbation theory, in a model with spontaneously-broken gauge symmetries. We confirm previous results indicating that if the model is renormalized using BPHZ, then the tree-level hierarchy is not upset by the radiative corrections. Consequently, no fine-tuning of the initial parameters is required to maintain it, in contrast to the result obtained using Dimensional Renormalization. This verifies the conclusion that the need for fine-tuning, when it arises, is an artifact of the application of a certain class of renormalization schemes.

  18. The fine-tuning problem in renormalized perturbation theory: Spontaneously-broken gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.E.

    1983-01-01

    We study the stability of tree-level gauge hierarchies at higher orders in renormalized perturbation theory, in a model with spontaneously-broken gauge symmetries. We confirm previous results indicating that if the model is renormalized using BPHZ, then the tree-level hierarchy is not upset by the radiative corrections. Consequently, no fine-tuning of the initial parameters is required to maintain it, in contrast to the result obtained using Dimensional Renormalization. This verifies the conclusion that the need for fine-tuning, when it arises, is an artifact of the application of a certain class of renormalization schemes. (orig.)

  19. Workers begin removing the broken cleat from the crawler- transporter track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A repair crews work to remove a broken cleat (shoe) on the crawler-transporter moving the Space Shuttle Endeavour to Launch Pad 39B. The crack was noticed as the crawler-transporter started up the incline to the pad. Endeavour is scheduled to be launched Nov. 30 at 10:01 p.m. EST on mission STS-97, the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Its payload includes the P6 Integrated Truss Structure and a photovoltaic (PV) module, with giant solar arrays that will provide power to the Station. The mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections.

  20. Neutrino Masses with Inverse Hierarchy from Broken $L_{e}-L_{\\mu}-L_{\\tau}$: a Reappraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Altarelli, Guido; Franceschini, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a class of models of neutrino masses and mixings with inverse hierarchy based on a broken U(1)_F flavour symmetry with charge L_e-L_\\mu-L_\\tau. The symmetry breaking sector receives separate contributions from flavon vev breaking terms and from soft mass breaking in the right handed Majorana sector. The model is able to reproduce in a natural way all observed features of the charged lepton mass spectrum and of neutrino masses and mixings (even with arbitrarily small \\theta_{13}), with the exception of a moderate fine tuning which is needed to accomodate the observed small value of r = Delta m^2_{sol} / Delta m^2_{atm}.

  1. SPECT-CT Assessment of Pseudarthrosis after Spinal Fusion: Diagnostic Pitfall due to a Broken Screw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rager, Olivier; Amzalag, Gaël; Varoquaux, Arthur; Schaller, Karl; Ratib, Osman; Tessitore, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old drug addicted female was referred for a L5-S1 posterolateral in situ fixation with autologous graft because of an L5/S1 severe discopathy with listhesis. After six months, low back pain recurred. A Tc-99m HDP SPECT-CT diagnosed a pseudarthrosis with intense uptake of the L5-S1 endplates and a fracture of the right S1 screw just outside the metal-bone interface without any uptake or bone resorption around the screw. The absence of uptake around a broken screw is a pitfall that the physician should be aware of. PMID:24159394

  2. SPECT-CT Assessment of Pseudarthrosis after Spinal Fusion: Diagnostic Pitfall due to a Broken Screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Rager

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old drug addicted female was referred for a L5-S1 posterolateral in situ fixation with autologous graft because of an L5/S1 severe discopathy with listhesis. After six months, low back pain recurred. A Tc-99m HDP SPECT-CT diagnosed a pseudarthrosis with intense uptake of the L5-S1 endplates and a fracture of the right S1 screw just outside the metal-bone interface without any uptake or bone resorption around the screw. The absence of uptake around a broken screw is a pitfall that the physician should be aware of.

  3. Copper isotope fractionation by desert shrubs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Jesica U.; Viveros, Marian; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Borrok, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Copper has two naturally occurring stable isotopes of masses 63 and 65 which can undergo mass dependent fractionation during various biotic and abiotic chemical reactions. These interactions and their resulting Cu isotope fractionations can be used to determine the mechanisms involved in the cycling of Cu in natural systems. In this study, Cu isotope changes were investigated at the organismal level in the metal-accumulating desert plant, Prosopis pubescens. Initial results suggest that the lighter Cu isotope was preferentially incorporated into the leaves of the plant, which may suggest that Cu was actively transported via intracellular proteins. The roots and stems show a smaller degree of Cu isotope fractionation and the direction and magnitude of the fractionations was dependent upon the levels of Cu exposure. Based on this and previous work with bacteria and yeast, a trend is emerging that suggests the lighter Cu isotope is preferentially incorporated into biological components, while the heavier Cu isotope tends to become enriched in aqueous solutions. In bacteria, plants and animals, intracellular Cu concentrations are strictly regulated via dozens of enzymes that can bind, transport, and store Cu. Many of these enzymes reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I). These initial results seem to fit into a broader picture of Cu isotope cycling in natural systems where oxidation/reduction reactions are fundamental in controlling the distributions of Cu isotopes.

  4. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  5. Workshop on Extraterrestrial Materials from Cold and Hot Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ludolf (Editor); Franchi, Ian A. (Editor); Reid, Arch M. (Editor); Zolensky, Michael E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Since 1969 expeditions from Japan, the United States, and European countries have recovered more than 20,000 meteorite specimens from remote ice fields of Antarctica. They represent approximately 4000-6000 distinct falls, more than all non-Antarctic meteorite falls and finds combined. Recently many meteorite specimens of a new "population" have become available: meteorites from hot deserts. It turned out that suitable surfaces in hot deserts, like the Sahara in Africa, the Nullarbor Plain in Western and South Australia, or desert high plains of the U.S. (e.g., Roosevelt County, New Mexico), contain relatively high meteorite concentrations. For example, the 1985 Catalog of Meteorites of the British Museum lists 20 meteorites from Algeria and Libya. Today, 1246 meteorites finds from these two countries have been published in MetBase 4.0. Four workshops in 1982, 1985, 1988, and 1989 have discussed the connections between Antarctic glaciology and Antarctic meteorites, and the differences between Antarctic meteorites and modern falls. In 1995, a workshop addressed differences between meteorites from Antarctica, hot deserts, and modem falls, and the implications of possible different parent populations, infall rates, and weathering processes. Since 1995 many more meteorites have been recovered from new areas of Antarctica and hot deserts around the world. Among these finds are several unusual and interesting specimens like lunar meteorites or SNCs of probable martian origin. The Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society took place in 1999 in Johannesburg, South Africa. As most of the recent desert finds originate from the Sahara, a special workshop was planned prior to this meeting in Africa. Topics discussed included micrometeorites, which have been collected in polar regions as well as directly in the upper atmosphere. The title "Workshop on Extraterrestrial Materials from Cold and Hot Deserts" was chosen and the following points were emphasized: (1) weathering

  6. Workshop on Extraterrestrial Materials from Cold and Hot Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ludolf (Editor); Franchi, Ian A. (Editor); Reid, Arch M. (Editor); Zolensky, Michael E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Since 1969 expeditions from Japan, the United States, and European countries have recovered more than 20,000 meteorite specimens from remote ice fields of Antarctica. They represent approximately 4000-6000 distinct falls, more than all non-Antarctic meteorite falls and finds combined. Recently many meteorite specimens of a new "population" have become available: meteorites from hot deserts. It turned out that suitable surfaces in hot deserts, like the Sahara in Africa, the Nullarbor Plain in Western and South Australia, or desert high plains of the U.S. (e.g., Roosevelt County, New Mexico), contain relatively high meteorite concentrations. For example, the 1985 Catalogue of Meteorites of the British Museum lists 20 meteorites from Algeria and Libya. Today, 1246 meteorites finds from these two countries have been published in MetBase 4.0. Four workshops in 1982, 1985, 1988, and 1989 have discussed the connections between Antarctic glaciology and Antarctic meteorites, and the differences between Antarctic meteorites and modem falls. In 1995, a workshop addressed differences between meteorites from Antarctica, hot deserts, and modem falls, and the implications of possible different parent populations, infall rates, and weathering processes. Since 1995 many more meteorites have been recovered from new areas of Antarctica and hot deserts around the world. Among these finds are several unusual and interesting specimens like lunar meteorites or SNCs of probable martian origin. The Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society took place in 1999 in Johannesburg, South Africa. As most of the recent desert finds originate from the Sahara, a special workshop was planned prior to this meeting in Africa. Topics discussed included micrometeorites, which have been collected in polar regions as well as directly in the upper atmosphere. The title "Workshop on Extraterrestrial Materials from Cold and Hot Deserts" was chosen and the following points were emphasized: (1) weathering

  7. Weak and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.

    1986-01-01

    The International Symposium W.E.I.N. 1986 brought together leading experts in the fields of nuclear and elementary particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In addition to current problems in nuclear physics (weak and electromagnetic nuclear properties, electroweak interactions in nuclei, exotic nuclei) this book presents fascinating contributions that arise from the interaction among these fields: lepton number violation and neutrino mass; muon physics; weak interactions and fundamental symmetries; fundamental decays; basic experiments for GUTs; weak interactions and astrophysics; GUTs, SUSYs and the early Universe. The book demonstrates that in this context nuclear physics promises exciting future developments. (orig.)

  8. Water Sources for Cyanobacteria Below Desert Rocks in the Negev Desert Determined by Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community are consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks we developed and tested a simple field conductivity system based on two wires placed about 0.5 cm apart. Based on 21 replicates recorded for one year in the Negev we conclude that in natural rains (0.25 mm to 6 mm) the variability between sensor readings is between 20 and 60% decreasing with increasing rain amount. We conclude that the simple small electrical conductivity system described here can be used effectively to monitor liquid water levels in lithic habitats. However, the natural variability of these sensors indicates that several replicates should be deployed. The results and method presented have use in arid desert reclamation programs.

  9. Monitoring of desert dune topography by multi angle sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J.; Kim, J.; Choi, Y.; Yun, H.

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the sandy desert is rapidly expanding world widely and results in a lot of risks in the socio-econimical aspects as well as the anthropogenic activities. For example, the increasing occurrences of mineral dust storm which presumably originated from the sandy deserts in northwest China become a serious threat in human activities as well as public health over Far East Asian area as the interpretation by the MODIS analysis (Zhang et al., 2007) and the particle trajectory simulation with HYSPLYT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) (Kim et al., 2011) identified. Since the sand dune activity has been recognized as an essential indicator of the progressive desertification, it is important to establish the monitoring method for the variations of topographic properties by the dune activities such as local roughness. Thus it will provide the crucial data about the extent and the transition of sandy desert. For example, it is well known the aerodynamic roughness lengths Zo which can be driven from the specialized sensor such as POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances) is essential to understand desert dune characteristics. However, for the multi temporal observation of dune fields, the availability of data set to extract Zo is limited. Therefore, we employed MISR (Multi angle imaging Spectro Radiometer) image sequence to extract multi angle topographic parameters such as NDAI (Normalized Difference Angular Index) or the variation of radiance with the viewing geometry which are representing the characteristics of target desert topography instead of Zo. In our approach, NDAI were expanded to the all viewing angles and then compared over the target sandy desert and the surrounding land covers. It showed very strong consistencies according to the land cover type and especially over the dynamic dune fields. On the other hands, the variation of NDAIs of sandy desert combining with the metrological observations were

  10. Current problems in the weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais, A

    1977-01-01

    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references. (JFP)

  11. Current problems in the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, A.

    1977-01-01

    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references

  12. Weakly supervised object detection with posterior regularization

    OpenAIRE

    Bilen, Hakan; Pedersoli, Marco; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    Bilen H., Pedersoli M., Tuytelaars T., ''Weakly supervised object detection with posterior regularization'', 25th British machine vision conference - BMVC 2014, 12 pp., September 1-5, 2014, Nottingham, UK.

  13. Foreign body reaction after PLC reconstruction caused by a broken PLLA screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kwon; Jeong, Tae-Wan; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2014-12-01

    Foreign body reactions may occur in patients who receive bioabsorbable implants during orthopedic surgery for fractures and ligament repair. The authors describe a 34-year-old man who presented with a palpable tender mass on the lateral aspect of the left knee of 1 month's duration. He underwent posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner reconstruction 3 years earlier. Physical examination showed a 1×1-cm soft, nontender mass without localized warmth on the lateral epicondyle of the distal femur. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a broken screw fragment surrounded by a cyst-like mass. Under general anesthesia, the surgeon excised the screw fragment and the fibrotic mass, enclosing it in the subcutaneous tissue at the lateral epicondyle, the site at which a poly-L-lactic acid bioabsorbable screw had been inserted to fix the graft for posterolateral corner reconstruction. Histologic evaluation showed a foreign body reaction to the degraded screw particles. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first description of a patient presenting with a delayed foreign body reaction to a broken poly-L-lactic acid bioabsorbable screw at the lateral femoral epicondyle after posterolateral corner reconstruction. Because delayed foreign body reactions can occur at any site of poly-L-lactic acid bioabsorbable screw insertion, care should be taken to avoid screw protrusion during ligament reconstruction because it can lead to screw breakage and delayed foreign body reaction. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Maximum likelihood estimation of the broken power law spectral parameters with detector design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, L.W.

    2002-01-01

    The method of Maximum Likelihood (ML) is used to estimate the spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. This methodology, which requires the complete specificity of all cosmic-ray detector design parameters, is shown to provide approximately unbiased, minimum variance, and normally distributed spectra information for events detected by an instrument having a wide range of commonly used detector response functions. The ML procedure, coupled with the simulated performance of a proposed space-based detector and its planned life cycle, has proved to be of significant value in the design phase of a new science instrument. The procedure helped make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope. This ML methodology is then generalized to estimate broken power law spectral parameters from real cosmic-ray data sets

  15. Two-phase flow phenomena in broken recirculation line of BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Arai, Kenji; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Amano, Osamu.

    1986-01-01

    When a primary recirculation line of BWR is ruptured, a primary recirculation pump may be subjected to very high velocity two-phase flow and its speed may be accelerated by this flow. It is important for safety evaluation to estimate the pump behavior during blowdown. There are two problems involved in analyzing this behavior. One problem concerns the pump characteristics under two-phase flow. The other involves the two-phase conditions at the pump inlet. If the rupture occurs at a suction side of the pump, choking is considered to occur at a broken jet pump nozzle. Then, a void fraction becomes larger downstream from the jet pump nozzle and volumetric flow through the pump will be very high. However, there is little experimental data available on two-phase flow downstream from a choking plane. Blowdown tests were performed using a simulated broken recirculation line and measured data were analyzed by TRAC-PlA. Analytical results agreed with measured data. (author)

  16. On the relationship between mouth opening and "broken mirror neurons" in autistic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolo, P B; Cattarinussi, A

    2012-02-01

    Electromyographies of the mylohyoid muscle (MH) during the execution of the goal-oriented action "grasping to eat" have been used to determine the time relationship between the opening of the mouth and the beginning of the movement. This has been used to distinguish the behaviour of typical developing (TD) children from that of highly functioning autistic (ASD) individuals. The results of previous studies appeared to provide evidence of a deficit in action chain organization in ASD subjects and prompted the hypothesis of a "broken" mirror neuron system (MNS) for these individuals. Our results show the MH activation timing is not reliable in discriminating between TD and ASD children and the distance between the food and the subject plays a key role on the MH activation timing and cannot be neglected when analysing these type of data. The preliminary investigation on the effects of external perturbations also shows that these might have an effect on the results and further investigations are warranted. It appears that there is not enough evidence to support a link between ASD and a broken mirror network system (MNS), and the experimental results must be carefully interpreted before developing therapeutic or rehabilitative protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Broken Power Law Spectral Parameters with Detector Design Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Leonard W.

    2002-01-01

    The method of Maximum Likelihood (ML) is used to estimate the spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. This methodology, which requires the complete specificity of all cosmic-ray detector design parameters, is shown to provide approximately unbiased, minimum variance, and normally distributed spectra information for events detected by an instrument having a wide range of commonly used detector response functions. The ML procedure, coupled with the simulated performance of a proposed space-based detector and its planned life cycle, has proved to be of significant value in the design phase of a new science instrument. The procedure helped make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope. This ML methodology is then generalized to estimate broken power law spectral parameters from real cosmic-ray data sets.

  18. Black South African children's understanding of health and illness: colds, chicken pox, broken arms and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Promtussananon, S

    2003-09-01

    To examine the understanding of both health and illness (colds, broken arms, chicken pox, AIDS) in the same black South African children The sample included 60 children (30 were 5-year-olds and 30 were 9-year-olds) selected by simple random sampling from a rural primary school. They were interviewed, using a semi-structured interview schedule, about their understanding of health issues and their exposure to learning about health or sickness. Differences across age in children's expressed understanding of health and illnesses were found. The 9-year-olds were more likely to give objective signs of chicken pox and AIDS than the 5-year-olds. They also knew more about objective symptoms of colds, chicken pox and AIDS, and were more likely to mention non-observable signs of colds and broken arms. Although there were no differences between the two age groups regarding 'knowing' strategies for avoiding illnesses, the older children had a more accurate knowledge about preventive measures than the younger children. The understanding of AIDS followed the same developmental sequence reported for children's understanding of general physical illness. The results have implications for the creation of developmentally appropriate and effective health and AIDS education curricula for primary and elementary grades.

  19. Brane world models with bulk perfect fluid and broken 4D Poincaré invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Chopovsky, Alexey; Eingorn, Maxim; Fakhr, Seyed Hossein; Zhuk, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    We consider 5D brane world models with broken global 4D Poincaré invariance (4D part of the spacetime metric is not conformal to the Minkowski spacetime). The bulk is filled with the negative cosmological constant and may contain a perfect fluid. In the case of empty bulk (the perfect fluid is absent), it is shown that one brane solution always has either a physical or a coordinate singularity in the bulk. We cut off these singularities in the case of compact two brane model and obtain regular exact solutions for both 4D Poincaré broken and restored invariance. When the perfect fluid is present in the bulk, we get the master equation for the metric coefficients in the case of arbitrary bulk perfect fluid equation of state (EoS) parameters. In two particular cases of EoS, we obtain the analytic solutions for thin and thick branes. First one generalizes the well known Randall-Sundrum model with one brane to the case of the bulk anisotropic perfect fluid. In the second solution, the 4D Poincaré invariance is restored. Here, the spacetime goes asymptotically to the anti-de Sitter one far from the thick brane.

  20. Processing and characterization of extruded breakfast meal formulated with broken rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop an extruded breakfast product containing broken rice and split old beans and to verify the influence of the extrusion process on their physicochemical, technological, and sensory characteristic. The final product had a protein content of 9.9 g.100 g-1, and therefore it can be considered a good source of proteins for children and teenagers. The dietary fiber content of the final edible product was 3.71 g.100 g-1. Therefore, the breakfast meal may be considered as a source of dietary fiber according to Brazilian law . As for the technological properties, the extruded product presented an expansion index of 8.89 and apparent density of 0.25 g.cm-3. With regard to the sensory analysis, the acceptance average was ranked between 6.8 and 7.7, corresponding to the categories "liked slightly" and "liked very much". With regard to purchase intention, 79% of the panelists said they would certainly or possibly purchase the product. Broken rice and split old beans are interesting alternatives for the elaboration of extruded breakfast products presenting good nutritional, technological, and sensory qualities.

  1. Advanced Model of Squirrel Cage Induction Machine for Broken Rotor Bars Fault Using Multi Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Ouachtouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squirrel cage induction machine are the most commonly used electrical drives, but like any other machine, they are vulnerable to faults. Among the widespread failures of the induction machine there are rotor faults. This paper focuses on the detection of broken rotor bars fault using multi-indicator. However, diagnostics of asynchronous machine rotor faults can be accomplished by analysing the anomalies of machine local variable such as torque, magnetic flux, stator current and neutral voltage signature analysis. The aim of this research is to summarize the existing models and to develop new models of squirrel cage induction motors with consideration of the neutral voltage and to study the effect of broken rotor bars on the different electrical quantities such as the park currents, torque, stator currents and neutral voltage. The performance of the model was assessed by comparing the simulation and experimental results. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the model, and allow detection and diagnosis of these defects.

  2. Are fungi important for breaking seed dormancy in desert species? Experimental evidence in Opuntia streptacantha (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Sánchez, P; Ortega-Amaro, M A; Jiménez-Bremont, J F; Flores, J

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of Opuntia spp. have physiological dormancy; they need a period of after-ripening to break dormancy, and the embryos have low growth potential. We evaluated the combined effects of seed age and presence of fungi on the testa on germination of Opuntia streptacantha, an abundant species in the Chihuahuan Desert (Mexico), assuming that older seeds have broken seed dormancy and fungi can reduce mechanical resistance to germination. In a preliminary experiment, we found no germination of 9-year-old (1998) and freshly collected (2007) seeds. However, we obtained 67% and 27% germination from 9-year-old and fresh non-sterilized seeds, respectively, and found fungi growing on the testa of all germinated seeds. Two fungal strains were isolated and identified using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis: Penicillium chrysogenum and Phoma sp. In a second experiment, we inoculated seeds with strains of P. chrysogenum and Phoma sp., as well as Trichoderma koningii and binucleate Rhizoctonia (Gto17S2), to evaluate their ability to break seed dormancy. Seeds inoculated with P. chrysogenum, Phoma sp. and T. koningii had higher germination than controls for both seed ages, but germination was higher in older seeds. Scanning electron microscopy showed that these fungi eroded the funiculus, reducing its resistance. Binucleate Rhizoctonia did not lead to germination and controls had almost no germination. Our results strongly indicate that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of O. streptacantha, and that the effect of fungi on seeds is species-specific. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Production of desert rose seedlings in different potting media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade the desert rose received fame in the flower market due to its striking and sculptural forms; however, the commercial production of these species is quite recent and little is known about its crop management, including substrates recommendation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different substrates on desert rose seed germination and production of its seedlings. Experiment I: freshly harvested seeds of desert rose were sown in different substrates e.g. sand, coconut fiber, semi-composted pine bark, sand + coconut fiber, semi-composted pine bark + sand and coconut fiber + semicomposted pine bark. These substrates were evaluated to study the emergence percentage of seeds, initial growth of seedlings and seedling emergence speed index (ESI. Experiment II: desert rose from the experiment I were transferred to plastic pots filled with the same substrates as in experiment I. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC of the substrates were noted every 30 days while the growth parameters of seedlings were recorded after 240 days. Results from experiment I showed higher germination rate and seedling growth in substrates containing semi-composted pine bark. Similarly, in experiment II, better quality seedlings were observed in substrates containing semi-composted pine bark. Thus, for desert rose seed germination and seedling growth, it is recommended to use substrates containing semi-composted pine bark.

  4. About some distinguishing features of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that, in contrast to strong and electromagnetic theories, additive conserved numbers (such as lepton, aromatic and another numbers) and γ 5 anomaly do not appear in the standard weak interaction theory. It means that in this interaction the additive numbers cannot be conserved. These results are the consequence of specific character of the weak interaction: the right components of spinors do not participate in this interaction. The schemes of violation of the aromatic and lepton numbers were considered

  5. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.

    1968-01-01

    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  6. Weakly Secure Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kadhe, Swanand; Sprintson, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of secure distributed data storage under the paradigm of \\emph{weak security}, in which no \\emph{meaningful information} is leaked to the eavesdropper. More specifically, the eavesdropper cannot get any information about any individual message file or a small group of files. The key benefit of the weak security paradigm is that it incurs no loss in the storage capacity, which makes it practically appealing. In this paper, we present a coding scheme, using a coset codin...

  7. Markovian bridges: Weak continuity and pathwise constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaumont, Loïc; Uribe Bravo, Gerónimo

    2011-01-01

    A Markovian bridge is a probability measure taken from a disintegration of the law of an initial part of the path of a Markov process given its terminal value. As such, Markovian bridges admit a natural parameterization in terms of the state space of the process. In the context of Feller processes with continuous transition densities, we construct by weak convergence considerations the only versions of Markovian bridges which are weakly continuous with respect to their parameter. We use this ...

  8. Joint and weak measurements on qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.L.; Pryde, G.J.; Bartlett, S.D.; Ralph, T.C.; Wiseman, H.M.; White, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Along with the well-known concept of projective measurements, quantum mechanics allows various kinds of generalized measurement operators. Two important examples are: joint measurements on two or more quantum systems that cannot be achieved by local operations (LOCC); and weak measurements that obtain less information about a system than does a projective measurement, but with correspondingly less disturbance. Unlike the result of a strong measurement, the average value of a weak measurement of an observable (its weak value), when followed by projective postselection in a complementary basis, can lie outside the range of eigenvalues. This discrepancy is not observed in analogous classical measurements. Weak values aid the resolution of quantum paradoxes, and can simplify analysis of weakly coupled systems. We use a generalized measurement device to measure the weak value of a photon's polarization in the horizontal/vertical basis (the Stokes operator S1 = |H> weak up to 47, outside the usual range -1 ≤ S1 ≤ 1. Unlike previous observations of weak values, our measurement works by entangling two separate systems, and thus can only be described by quantum theory, not a classical wave theory. Also, we have used a two-qubit joint measurement based on a controlled-NOT gate by which certain twoqubit unentangled states can be more reliably distinguished than by using LOCC. We quantify this using a payoff function, for which the optimal LOCC measurement attains 2/3, and our experimental measurement attains 0.72 ± 0.02, close to the global optimum of 3/4. (author)

  9. Synchronization of weakly coupled canard oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Köksal Ersöz, Elif; Desroches, Mathieu; Krupa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Synchronization has been studied extensively in the context of weakly coupled oscillators using the so-called phase response curve (PRC) which measures how a change of the phase of an oscillator is affected by a small perturbation. This approach was based upon the work of Malkin, and it has been extended to relaxation oscillators. Namely, synchronization conditions were established under the weak coupling assumption, leading to a criterion for the existence of synchron...

  10. Attending to weak signals: the leader's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2005-12-01

    Halverson and Isham (2003) quote sources that report the accidental death rate of simply being in a hospital is " ... four hundred times more likely than your risk of death from traveling by train, forty times higher than driving a car, and twenty times higher than flying in a commercial aircraft" (p. 13). High-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants and aircraft carriers have been pioneers in the business of recognizing weak signals. Weike and Sutcliffe (2001) note that high-reliability organizations distinguish themselves from others because of their mindfulness which enables them to see the significance of weak signals and to give strong interventions to weak signals. To act mindfully, these organizations have an underlying mental model of continually updating, anticipating, and focusing the possibility of failure using the intelligence that weak signals provides. Much of what happens is unexpected in health care. However, with a culture that is continually looking for weak signals, and intervenes and rescues when these signals are detected, the unexpected happens less often. This is the epitome of how leaders can build a culture of safety that focuses on recognizing the weak signals to manage the unforeseen.

  11. The Ocean deserts:salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their

    KAUST Repository

    Carton, Jim

    2011-04-09

    The Ocean deserts: salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their relationship to climate variability The high salinity near surface pools of the subtropical oceans are the oceanic deserts, with high levels of evaporation and low levels of precip

  12. Cryophenomena in the Cold Desert of Atacama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchroithner, Dr.; Trombotto, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    The study area of the Valle de Barrancas Blancas in the High Atacama Andes of Chile (68°39' W, 27°02' S), a kind of Patagonian "bajo sin salida", shows well preserved landforms resulting from a combination of slope, eolian, lacustrine/litoral, fluvial, glacial and periglacial regimes. They permit the reconstruction of geomorphological processes within this isolated catchment of approximately 160 km2. The mean annual air temperature varies between -2 and -4 °C and the precipitation is approximately 150 mm/a. Snowfall is frequent but the snow is quickly sublimated, redeposited and/or covered by cryosediments, i.e. mainly pumice pebbles. Water bodies present icings, even in summer. Regarding its climatic conditions the study area represents an extremely cold desertic region. Extremophile microfauna was also found. The area displays both in situ mountain permafrost and creeping permafrost. The active layer is 30 to 45 cm thick. It is a periglacial macro-environment where interdependent processes, and not only cryogenic processes but also erosion and eolian deposition and the action of fluvial washout mainly caused by precipitation, accumulation, retransportation/redeposition and melting of snow, play an important role. The cryogenic geomorphology of the Valle de Barrancas Blancas is varied and contains microforms such as patterned ground and microforms caused by cryoturbation, as well as mesoforms like rockglaciers and cryoplanation surfaces. Slopes are strongly affected by gelifluction. New cryoforms in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere like the Atacama Pingo (Pingo atacamensis) and Permafrosted Dunes ("Dunas heladas") were found. Intense niveo-eolian processes participate in the erosion of preexisting landforms, in the formation of subterraneous ice layers, and the retransportation/redeposition of snow and sediments. Studies of this periglacial environment are crucial for the understanding of Tundrean paleoenvironments and Martian conditions.

  13. Growth responses of five desert plants as influenced by biological soil crusts from a temperate desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanming; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    In almost all dryland systems, biological soil crusts (biocrusts) coexist alongside herbaceous and woody vegetation, creating landscape mosaics of vegetated and biocrusted patches. Results from past studies on the interaction between biocrusts and vascular plants have been contradictory. In the Gurbantunggut desert, a large temperate desert in northwestern China, well-developed lichen-dominated crusts dominate the areas at the base and between the sand dunes. We examined the influence of these lichen-dominated biocrusts on the germination, growth, biomass accumulation, and elemental content of five common plants in this desert: two shrubs (Haloxylon persicum, Ephedra distachya) and three herbaceous plants (Ceratocarpus arenarius, Malcolmia africana and Lappula semiglabra) under greenhouse conditions. The influence of biocrusts on seed germination was species-specific. Biocrusts did not affect percent germination in plants with smooth seeds, but inhibited germination of seeds with appendages that reduced or eliminated contact with the soil surface or prevented seeds from slipping into soil cracks. Once seeds had germinated, biocrusts had different influences on growth of shrub and herbaceous plants. The presence of biocrusts increased concentrations of nitrogen but did not affect phosphorus or potassium in tissue of all tested species, while the uptake of the other tested nutrients was species-specific. Our study showed that biocrusts can serve as a biological filter during seed germination and also can influence growth and elemental uptake. Therefore, they may be an important trigger for determining desert plant diversity and community composition in deserts.

  14. [Incidence of broken homes in schizophrenic patients. A study of 239 patients treated at a social psychiatric department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmür, M; Tschopp, A

    1987-01-01

    259 schizophrenics, 102 women and 157 men, of whom 80 were enlisted from a night clinic, 46 from the Psychiatric University Hospital and 113 from an out-patient clinic, were examined with regard to the frequency of broken home situations during their childhood. 20% had, before they were 18 yrs. old, lost a parent by death and 20% by a traumatic separation. 58% had, before they were 18 yrs. old, lost a parent or had lived together with a parent who was seriously ill or badly disturbed. No relation between the age of first illness and a broken home could, according to these research results, be established. The hypothesis that there is a higher rate of broken home situations by schizophrenics with an early outbreak of the illness, could therefore not be confirmed. Neither could a difference in the occurrence of broken home situations between males and females be observed, with the exception of the frequency of loss of parents by death, which was higher by females. The frequency of the factor 'broken home' in our examines is quite similar to the values round by Bleulers' research, 1940-1945 on male schizophrenics.

  15. Removal of a Broken Cannulated Intramedullary Nail: Review of the Literature and a Case Report of a New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A. Abdelgawad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunion of long bones fixed with nails may result in implant failure. Removal of a broken intramedullary nail may be a real challenge. Many methods have been described to allow for removal of the broken piece of the nail. In this paper, we are reviewing the different techniques to extract a broken nail, classifying them into different subsets, and describing a new technique that we used to remove a broken tibial nail with narrow canal. Eight different categories of implant removal methods were described, with different methods within each category. This classification is very comprehensive and was never described before. We described a new technique (hook captured in the medulla by flexible nail introduced from the locking hole which is a valuable technique in cases of nail of a small diameter where other methods cannot be used because of the narrow canal of the nail. Our eight categories for broken nail removal methods simplify the concepts of nail removal and allow the surgeon to better plan for the removal procedure.

  16. Concentration of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Jin Yuren; Tian Mei; Li Weiping; Zeng Ke; Wang Yaoqin; Wang Yu

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated sites contributes to the evaluation of its pollution situation and to the survey of plutonium hyper accumulator. The concentration of 239 Pu in desert plants collected from a contaminated site was determined, and the influence factors were studied. The concentration of 239 Pu in plants was (1.8±4.9) Bq/kg in dry weight, and it means that the plants were contaminated, moreover, the resuspension results in dramatic plutonium pollution of plant surface. The concentration of plutonium in plants depends on species, live stages and the content of plutonium in the rhizosphere soil. The concentration of plutonium in herbage is higher than that in woody plant, and for the seven species of desert plants investigated, it decreases in the order of Hexinia polydichotoma, Phragmites australis, Halostashys caspica, Halogeton arachnoideus, Lycium ruthenicum, Tamarix hispida and Calligonum aphyllum. (authors)

  17. [Ecophysiological Characteristics of actinomycetes of desert soils of Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenova, G M; Kozhevin, P A; Manucharova, N A; Lubsanova, D A; Dubrova, M S

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the actinomycete complex in steppe-desert light brown salty soil of desert steppes of Mongolia is represented by the genera Streptomyces and Micromonospora. The species diversity of the genus Streptomyces, which dominates the complex, decreases with increasing osmolarity of the medium. The influence of environmental factors--temperature and osmolarity of medium--on the development of metabolically active members of the phylum Actinobacteria in the domain Bacteria of the prokaryotic microbial soil community was established. The proportion of metabolically active bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria increases with increasing osmolarity and incubation temperature of soil. The dominance of the filamentous metabolically active members of the phylum Actinobacteria over the unicellular organisms was shown. The halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from the steppe-desert soils were alkalotolerant, xerophilic, and thermotolerant and exhibited antimicrobial activity with respect to Gram-positive bacteria and actinomycetes.

  18. Importance of weak minerals on earthquake mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.

    2017-12-01

    The role of weak minerals such as smectite and talc on earthquake mechanics is one of the important issues, and has been debated for recent several decades. Traditionally weak minerals in fault have been reported to weaken fault strength causing from its low frictional resistance. Furthermore, velocity-strengthening behavior of such weak mineral (talc) is considered to responsible for fault creep (aseismic slip) in the San Andreas fault. In contrast, recent studies reported that large amount of weak smectite in the Japan Trench could facilitate gigantic seismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. To investigate the role of weak minerals on rupture propagation process and magnitude of slip, we focus on the frictional properties of carbonaceous materials (CMs), which is the representative weak materials widely distributed in and around the convergent boundaries. Field observation and geochemical analyses revealed that graphitized CMs-layer is distributed along the slip surface of a fossil plate-subduction fault. Laboratory friction experiments demonstrated that pure quartz, bulk mixtures with bituminous coal (1 wt.%), and quartz with layered coal samples exhibited almost similar frictional properties (initial, yield, and dynamic friction). However, mixtures of quartz (99 wt.%) and layered graphite (1 wt.%) showed significantly lower initial and yield friction coefficient (0.31 and 0.50, respectively). Furthermore, the stress ratio S, defined as (yield stress-initial stress)/(initial stress-dynamic stress), increased in layered graphite samples (1.97) compared to quartz samples (0.14). Similar trend was observed in smectite-rich fault gouge. By referring the reported results of dynamic rupture propagation simulation using S ratio of 1.4 (typical value for the Japan Trench) and 2.0 (this study), we confirmed that higher S ratio results in smaller slip distance by approximately 20 %. On the basis of these results, we could conclude that weak minerals have lower

  19. SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  20. 76 FR 29153 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of the California... approving with the dates that they were adopted by the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD...

  1. A comparison of Bromus tectorum growth and mycorrhizal colonization in salt desert versus sagebrush habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatgrass has recently invaded marginal low elevation salt desert habitats across the Great Basin, USA. We tested the hypothesis that cheatgrass seed produced in populations from the more stressful salt desert versus upland sagebrush habitats should grow differently in salt desert soils compared to...

  2. Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii): Status-of-knowledge outline with references

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Grover; Lesley A. DeFalco

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of extant desert tortoise literature, summarizing literature on taxonomy, morphology, genetics, and paleontology and paleoecology of the desert tortoise, as well as its general ecology. Literature on desert tortoise ecology encompasses distribution and habitat, burrows and dens, reproduction, growth, physiology, feeding and nutrition, mortality...

  3. 76 FR 8730 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-151

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region.... Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration... ancillary service rates for the Desert Southwest Customer Service Region in accordance with section 302 of...

  4. 76 FR 45606 - Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... biological resource conservation across the Mojave and Colorado Desert regions of southern California. The...-N131; 80221-1112-80221-F2] Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and..., as amended, for the proposed Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP). The EIS will be a...

  5. 76 FR 21402 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Desert Sunlight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 048649, LLCAD06000, L51010000.FX0000, LVRWB09B2490] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Desert Sunlight Holdings, LLC, Desert Sunlight Solar Farm and Proposed California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment...

  6. 75 FR 52776 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Desert Sunlight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 048649, LLCAD06000, L51010000.FX0000, LVRWB09B2490] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Desert Sunlight Holdings, LLC Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project and Possible California Desert Conservation Area Plan...

  7. Desert pavement development on the lake shorelines of Lake Eyre (South), South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farraj, Asma

    2008-08-01

    To the southwest of Lake Eyre (South), South Australia, silcrete boulders exposed by the erosion of the surrounding fine sediments undergo mechanical weathering to form desert pavement. Successive palaeoshorelines of Lake Eyre have exposed an age-related sequence of different stages in the weathering of the boulders. This study investigates desert pavement development in this saline environment. In addition, it attempts to develop a model for the development of desert pavement following exposure of the silcrete boulders, based on palaeo-lake shorelines dated from previous studies. Seven stages can be recognised corresponding to stages of soil and pavement development. Prior to stage one is the actual exposure of the boulder as the result of erosion by wave action at the lake shoreline or by erosion as the lake level falls during desiccation. At stage-1 the upper surface of the boulder breaks up through mechanical weathering (salt weathering), while the rest of the boulder is still buried. At stage-2 the surface fragments fall to the edge of the stone and expose more of the stone, which continues to break-up. There is no soil development in stages 1 and 2. By stage-3 most of the stone is exposed and broken up, making a mini-hill. At this stage soil development begins with the accumulation of sandy soil between the rock fragments. At stage-4 the stones form small cones and the soil is more developed. It is sandy with a typical of colour 10 YR 6/6. At stage-5 the stones forming the small cone are completely fragmented. Stone fragments at the centre are very angular but smoother at the edges of the mini-hill as the result of weathering (etching by chemical processes?). Soil texture is silty/sand and soil colour is 7.5 YR 6/6. At stage-6 the surface is nearly flat. The soil is sandy/silt and soil colour is between 7.5 YR 5/6 and 7.5 YR 5/8. Stage-7a is the gibber plain phase, composed of small well rounded stones, as a result of continued etching of the edges of the

  8. Natural product diversity of actinobacteria in the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rateb, Mostafa E; Ebel, Rainer; Jaspars, Marcel

    2018-02-14

    The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is considered one of the most arid and extreme environment on Earth. Its core region was described as featuring "Mars-like" soils that were at one point deemed too extreme for life to exist. However, recent investigations confirmed the presence of diverse culturable actinobacteria. In the current review, we discuss a total of 46 natural products isolated to date representing diverse chemical classes characterized from different actinobacteria isolated from various locations in the Atacama Desert. Their reported biological activities are also discussed.

  9. The Problem of Weak Governments and Weak Societies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Grdešić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that, for Eastern Europe, the simultaneous presence of weak governments and weak societies is a crucial obstacle which must be faced by analysts and reformers. The understanding of other normatively significant processes will be deficient without a consciousness-raising deliberation on this problem and its implications. This paper seeks to articulate the “relational” approach to state and society. In addition, the paper lays out a typology of possible patterns of relationship between state and society, dependent on whether the state is weak or strong and whether society is weak or strong. Comparative data are presented in order to provide an empirical support for the theses. Finally, the paper outlines two reform approaches which could enable breaking the vicious circle emerging in the context of weak governments and weak societies.

  10. Multiple factors affect a population of Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the Northwestern Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Yee, Julie L.; Coble, Ashley A.; Perry, William M.; Shields, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous factors have contributed to declines in populations of the federally threatened Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and continue to limit recovery. In 2010, we surveyed a low-density population on a military test facility in the northwestern Mojave Desert of California, USA, to evaluate population status and identify potential factors contributing to distribution and low densities. Estimated densities of live tortoises ranged spatially from 1.2/km2 to 15.1/km2. Although only one death of a breeding-age tortoise was recorded for the 4-yr period prior to the survey, remains of 16 juvenile and immature tortoises were found, and most showed signs of predation by Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and mammals. Predation may have limited recruitment of young tortoises into the adult size classes. To evaluate the relative importance of different types of impacts to tortoises, we developed predictive models for spatially explicit densities of tortoise sign and live tortoises using topography (i.e., slope), predators (Common Raven, signs of mammalian predators), and anthropogenic impacts (distances from paved road and denuded areas, density of ordnance fragments) as covariates. Models suggest that densities of tortoise sign increased with slope and signs of mammalian predators and decreased with Common Ravens, while also varying based on interaction effects involving these predictors as well as distances from paved roads, denuded areas, and ordnance. Similarly, densities of live tortoises varied by interaction effects among distances to denuded areas and paved roads, density of ordnance fragments, and slope. Thus multiple factors predict the densities and distribution of this population.

  11. Geometric phase topology in weak measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-12-01

    The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1–64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η ‑ χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.

  12. Optimal performance at arbitrary power of minimally nonlinear irreversible thermoelectric generators with broken time-reversal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Liu, Wei; Li, Qianwen; Zhang, Lei; Bai, Long

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the performance at arbitrary power of minimally nonlinear irreversible thermoelectric generators (MNITGs) with broken time-reversal symmetry within linear irreversible thermodynamics, and the efficiency of MNITGs at arbitrary power is analytically derived. Furthermore, a universal bound on the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TGs) with broken time-reversal symmetry and the arbitrary power is obtained. Some system-specific characteristics are discussed and uncovered. A large efficiency at arbitrary power can also be achieved via the cooperative mechanism between the system parameters. Our results indicate that the broken time-reversal symmetry provides the physically allowed degrees of freedom for tuning the performance of thermoelectric devices, and the physical trade-off region between the efficiency and the power output can also offer the appropriate space for optimizing the performance of TGs.

  13. Management of Broken Dental Implant Abutment in a Patient with Bruxism: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Almaie, Saad

    2017-01-01

    This rare case report describes prosthodontic complications resulting from a dental implant was placed surgically more distally in the area of the missing mandibular first molar with a cantilever effect and a crest width of >12 mm in a 59-year-old patient who had a history of bruxism. Fracture of abutment is a common complication in implant was placed in area with high occlusal forces. Inability to remove the broken abutment may most often end up in discarding the implant. Adding one more dental implant mesially to the previously placed implant, improvisation of technique to remove the broken abutment without sacrificing the osseointegrated dental implant, fabrication with cemented custom-made abutment to replace the broken abutment for the first implant, and the use of the two implants to replace a single molar restoration proved reliable and logical treatment solutions to avoid these prosthodontic complications.

  14. Management of broken dental implant abutment in a patient with bruxism: A rare case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Al-Almaie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This rare case report describes prosthodontic complications resulting from a dental implant was placed surgically more distally in the area of the missing mandibular first molar with a cantilever effect and a crest width of >12 mm in a 59-year-old patient who had a history of bruxism. Fracture of abutment is a common complication in implant was placed in area with high occlusal forces. Inability to remove the broken abutment may most often end up in discarding the implant. Adding one more dental implant mesially to the previously placed implant, improvisation of technique to remove the broken abutment without sacrificing the osseointegrated dental implant, fabrication with cemented custom-made abutment to replace the broken abutment for the first implant, and the use of the two implants to replace a single molar restoration proved reliable and logical treatment solutions to avoid these prosthodontic complications.

  15. Problems with sampling desert tortoises: A simulation analysis based on field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, J.E.; Camp, R.J.; Duda, J.J.; Karl, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) was listed as a U.S. threatened species in 1990 based largely on population declines inferred from mark-recapture surveys of 2.59-km2 (1-mi2) plots. Since then, several census methods have been proposed and tested, but all methods still pose logistical or statistical difficulties. We conducted computer simulations using actual tortoise location data from 2 1-mi2 plot surveys in southern California, USA, to identify strengths and weaknesses of current sampling strategies. We considered tortoise population estimates based on these plots as "truth" and then tested various sampling methods based on sampling smaller plots or transect lines passing through the mile squares. Data were analyzed using Schnabel's mark-recapture estimate and program CAPTURE. Experimental subsampling with replacement of the 1-mi2 data using 1-km2 and 0.25-km2 plot boundaries produced data sets of smaller plot sizes, which we compared to estimates from the 1-mi 2 plots. We also tested distance sampling by saturating a 1-mi 2 site with computer simulated transect lines, once again evaluating bias in density estimates. Subsampling estimates from 1-km2 plots did not differ significantly from the estimates derived at 1-mi2. The 0.25-km2 subsamples significantly overestimated population sizes, chiefly because too few recaptures were made. Distance sampling simulations were biased 80% of the time and had high coefficient of variation to density ratios. Furthermore, a prospective power analysis suggested limited ability to detect population declines as high as 50%. We concluded that poor performance and bias of both sampling procedures was driven by insufficient sample size, suggesting that all efforts must be directed to increasing numbers found in order to produce reliable results. Our results suggest that present methods may not be capable of accurately estimating desert tortoise populations.

  16. Genetic population structure of the desert shrub species lycium ruthenicum inferred from chloroplast dna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Yonezawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    Lycium ruthenicum (Solananeae), a spiny shrub mostly distributed in the desert regions of north and northwest China, has been shown to exhibit high tolerance to the extreme environment. In this study, the phylogeography and evolutionary history of L. ruthenicum were examined, on the basis of 80 individuals from eight populations. Using the sequence variations of two spacer regions of chloroplast DNA (trnH-psbA and rps16-trnK) , the absence of a geographic component in the chloroplast DNA genetic structure was identified (GST = 0.351, NST = 0.304, NST< GST), which was consisted with the result of SAMOVA, suggesting weak phylogeographic structure of this species. Phylogenetic and network analyses showed that a total of 10 haplotypes identified in the present study clustered into two clades, in which clade I harbored the ancestral haplotypes that inferred two independent glacial refugia in the middle of Qaidam Basin and the western Inner Mongolia. The existence of regional evolutionary differences was supported by GENETREE, which revealed that one of the population in Qaidam Basin and the two populations in Tarim Basin had experienced rapid expansion, and the other populations retained relatively stable population size during the Pleistocene . Given the results of long-term gene flow and pairwise differences, strong gene flow was insufficient to reduce the genetic differentiation among populations or within populations, probably due to the genetic composition containing a common haplotype and the high number of private haplotypes fixed for most of the population. The divergence times of different lineages were consistent with the rapid uplift phases of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the initiation and expansion of deserts in northern China, suggesting that the origin and evolution of L. ruthenicum were strongly influenced by Quaternary environment changes. (author)

  17. Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Figalli, Alessio

    2016-06-23

    Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  19. Ground-water data, Sevier Desert, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Reed W.; Feltis, Richard D.

    1964-01-01

    This report is intended to serve two purposes: (1) to make available to the public basic ground-water data useful in planning and studying development of water resources, and (2) to supplement an interpretive report that will be published later.Records were collected during the period 1935-64 by the U.S. Geological survey in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer as part of the investigation of ground-water conditions in the Sevier Desert, in Juab and Millard Counties, Utah. The interpretive material will be published in a companion report by R. W. Mower and R. D. Feltis.This report is most useful in predicting conditions likely to be found in areas that are being considered as well sites. The person considering the new well can spot the proposed site on plate 1 and examine the records of nearby wells as shown in the tables and figures. From table 1 he can note such things as depth, diameter, water level, yield, use of water, temperature of water, and depth of perforations. By comparing the depth of perforations with the drillers' logs in table 3 he can note the type of material that yields water to the wells. Table 2 and figure 2 show the historic fluctuations and trends of water levels in the vicinity. From table 4 he can note the chemical quality of the water from wells in the vicinity. Table 5 shows the amount of water discharged during 1951-63 from the pumped irrigation, public supply, and industrial wells. If the reader decides from his examination that conditions are favorable, he can place an application to drill a well with the state Engineer. If the State Engineer believes unappropriated water is available, the application may be approved after minimum statutory requirements have been satisfied.The report is also useful when planning large-scale developments of water supply. This and other uses of the report will be helped by use of the interpretive report upon its release.

  20. High contrast XMT studies of in-situ electrochemical dissolution of broken dental tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David; Mitchell, Alison; Khine, Sean; Davis, Graham

    2016-10-01

    Fracture of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic files is an uncommon but potentially damaging occurrence during root canal preparation. If the broken portion of the file remains inside the tooth canal it can prevent complete preparation of the root canal with consequent negative impact on treatment outcomes. Removal of file fragment from the tooth canal is currently a mechanical process, which due to the limited working space and restricted view can lead to further problems including perforation of the tooth. Electrochemical dissolution is a relatively new method proposed to dissolve a fractured instrument, fully or partially within the canal, to enable its removal. In this article we explore the effects of electrochemical dissolution on the root canal environment using high contrast time delay integration (TDI) X-ray micro-tomography (XMT) designed specifically for dental research.

  1. Quadratic contributions of softly broken supersymmetry in the light of loop regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Dong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Wu, Yue-Liang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); International Centre for Theoretical Physics Asia-Pacific (ICTP-AP), Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-15

    Loop regularization (LORE) is a novel regularization scheme in modern quantum field theories. It makes no change to the spacetime structure and respects both gauge symmetries and supersymmetry. As a result, LORE should be useful in calculating loop corrections in supersymmetry phenomenology. To further demonstrate its power, in this article we revisit in the light of LORE the old issue of the absence of quadratic contributions (quadratic divergences) in softly broken supersymmetric field theories. It is shown explicitly by Feynman diagrammatic calculations that up to two loops the Wess-Zumino model with soft supersymmetry breaking terms (WZ' model), one of the simplest models with the explicit supersymmetry breaking, is free of quadratic contributions. All the quadratic contributions cancel with each other perfectly, which is consistent with results dictated by the supergraph techniques. (orig.)

  2. A Broken Toothbrush in the Retropharyngeal Space in a Toddler of Sixteen Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Saileswar; Goswami, Choitali

    2015-01-01

    A toddler of sixteen months fell while brushing his teeth and his mouth hit the ground. The toothbrush broke and one-third of it including the head got impacted in his throat. The attempt of his mother to remove it with her fingers further complicated the case and the toothbrush was ultimately lodged in the retropharyngeal space at the level from C1 to C5 vertebrae. It was strongly impacted due to the presence of the bristles. The broken end of the handle was just protruding into the nasopharynx and was very difficult to locate. The first attempt of its removal was unsuccessful. The toothbrush was removed safely in the second attempt without any complication. PMID:26060587

  3. Superconductivity. Observation of broken time-reversal symmetry in the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemm, E R; Gannon, W J; Wishne, C M; Halperin, W P; Kapitulnik, A

    2014-07-11

    Models of superconductivity in unconventional materials can be experimentally differentiated by the predictions they make for the symmetries of the superconducting order parameter. In the case of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt3, a key question is whether its multiple superconducting phases preserve or break time-reversal symmetry (TRS). We tested for asymmetry in the phase shift between left and right circularly polarized light reflected from a single crystal of UPt3 at normal incidence and found that this so-called polar Kerr effect appears only below the lower of the two zero-field superconducting transition temperatures. Our results provide evidence for broken TRS in the low-temperature superconducting phase of UPt3, implying a complex two-component order parameter for superconductivity in this system. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Revisiting Broken Windows: The Role of Neighborhood and Individual Characteristics in Reaction to Disorder Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Volker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The influential "broken windows" theory proposes that disorder cues in neighborhoods trigger littering and other antisocial behavior. Until now, the theory has been empirically tested only on a small scale and restricted to just one specific area. In this study, I investigated the effect of disorder cues on individual behavior once more, replicating and extending the original field experiments by Keizer, Lindenberg, and Steg (2008 and 2013. The data from 12,528 individuals were collected in 84 field experiments conducted in 33 neighborhoods. The results, based on multilevel techniques for binary data, show that the absolute effect of cues is smaller than originally thought and that neighborhood and individual characteristics moderate cue effects.

  5. Screening Indigenous Australia: Space, Place and Media in Frances Calvert’s Talking Broken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kilroy

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on the fields of postcolonial studies and media theory, this article analyzes Frances Calvert’s 1990 documentary, Talking Broken, which, inter alia, looks at the role of space, place and media amongst Australia’s ‘other’ Indigenous minority, Torres Strait Islanders. The article explores the historical and geographical complexity of the space-place-media relation (particularly in terms of the centre-periphery relations between the Torres Strait and the Australian mainland, and considers the extent to which Calvert – after the Australian bicentenary of 1988 – is able to absorb and playfully challenge such formulations. More broadly, it considers the extent to which contemporary Indigenous media might go further and enact a shift from absorbing and challenging such formulations to taking control of media institutions themselves.

  6. Controlling active self-assembly through broken particle-shape symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensink, H H; Kantsler, V; Goldstein, R E; Dunkel, J

    2014-01-01

    Many structural properties of conventional passive materials are known to arise from the symmetries of their microscopic constituents. By contrast, it is largely unclear how the interplay between particle shape and self-propulsion controls the meso- and macroscale behavior of active matter. Here we use large-scale simulations of homo- and heterogeneous self-propelled particle systems to identify generic effects of broken particle-shape symmetry on collective motion. We find that even small violations of fore-aft symmetry lead to fundamentally different collective behaviors, which may facilitate demixing of differently shaped species as well as the spontaneous formation of stable microrotors. These results suggest that variation of particle shape yields robust physical mechanisms to control self-assembly of active matter, with possibly profound implications for biology and materials design.

  7. Accidental cut-throat injuries from the broken windshield of an auto rickshaw: Two unusual cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Rajanikanta; Dhaka, Shivani; Sharma, Munish; Bakshi, Mantaran Singh; Murty, O P; Sikary, Asit Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Accidental cut-throat injuries are extremely rare and usually involve a sharp-edged weapon. In this paper, two cases of a cut-throat wound to two auto-rickshaw drivers are presented where the broken windshield of the auto-rickshaws was responsible for the wounds. In both the cases, fatal incised wounds were present over the neck, cutting the soft tissue along with the major vessels. The death occurred due to exsanguination caused by neck-vessel injury in one case and trachea along with neck-vessel injury in the second case. Although the wounds on the neck initially suggested homicide, they were found to have occurred accidentally as a result of a road traffic accident involving a head-on collision of auto rickshaws. The injuries were inflicted by the shattered glass of the windshield.

  8. Nonrestoration of spontaneously broken P, CP and PQ at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali G.; Melfo, A.; Senjanovic, G.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of P and CP violation at high temperature in models where these symmetries are spontaneously broken is investigated. It is found that in minimal models that include singlet fields, high T nonrestoration is possible for a wide range of parameters of the theory, in particular in models of CP violation with a CP-odd Higgs field. The same holds true for the invisible axion version of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism. This can provide both a way out for the domain wall problem in these theories and the CP violation required for baryogenesis. In the case of spontaneous P violation it turns out that high T nonrestoration required going beyond the minimal model. The results are shown to hold true when next-to-leading order effects are considered. (author). 33 refs, 3 figs

  9. Model for particle masses, flavor mixing, and CP violation, based on spontaneously broken discrete chiral symmetry as the origin of families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    We construct extensions of the standard model based on the hypothesis that Higgs bosons also exhibit a family structure and that the flavor weak eigenstates in the three families are distinguished by a discrete Z 6 chiral symmetry that is spontaneously broken by the Higgs sector. We study in detail at the tree level models with three Higgs doublets and with six Higgs doublets comprising two weakly coupled sets of three. In a leading approximation of S 3 cyclic permutation symmetry the three-Higgs-doublet model gives a open-quotes democraticclose quotes mass matrix of rank 1, while the six-Higgs-doublet model gives either a rank-1 mass matrix or, in the case when it spontaneously violates CP, a rank-2 mass matrix corresponding to nonzero second family masses. In both models, the CKM matrix is exactly unity in the leading approximation. Allowing small explicit violations of cyclic permutation symmetry generates small first family masses in the six-Higgs-doublet model, and first and second family masses in the three-Higgs-doublet model, and gives a nontrivial CKM matrix in which the mixings of the first and second family quarks are naturally larger than mixings involving the third family. Complete numerical fits are given for both models, flavor-changing neutral current constraints are discussed in detail, and the issues of unification of couplings and neutrino masses are addressed. On a technical level, our analysis uses the theory of circulant and retrocirculant matrices, the relevant parts of which are reviewed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  10. Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong; Nachman, Benjamin; Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel

    2017-05-01

    As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.

  11. Weak measurements in non-Hermitian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, A.

    2012-11-01

    Weak measurements’—involving a weak unitary interaction between a quantum system and a meter followed by a projective measurement—are investigated when the system has a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We show in particular how the standard definition of the ‘weak value’ of an observable must be modified. These studies are undertaken in the context of bound-state scattering theory, a non-Hermitian formalism for which the involved Hilbert spaces are unambiguously defined and the metric operators can be explicitly computed. Numerical examples are given for a model system. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  12. Weak antilocalization of composite fermions in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Antti; Kumar, Manohar; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that composite fermions in monolayer graphene display weak antilocalization. Our experiments deal with fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states in high-mobility, suspended graphene Corbino disks in the vicinity of ν =1 /2 . We find a strong temperature dependence of conductivity σ away from half filling, which is consistent with the expected electron-electron interaction-induced gaps in the FQH state. At half filling, however, the temperature dependence of conductivity σ (T ) becomes quite weak, as anticipated for a Fermi sea of composite fermions, and we find a logarithmic dependence of σ on T . The sign of this quantum correction coincides with the weak antilocalization of graphene composite fermions, indigenous to chiral Dirac particles.

  13. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  14. Weak self-adjoint differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandarias, M L

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations were introduced by Ibragimov (2006 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 318 742-57; 2007 Arch. ALGA 4 55-60). In Ibragimov (2007 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 333 311-28), a general theorem on conservation laws was proved. In this paper, we generalize the concept of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations by introducing the definition of weak self-adjoint equations. We find a class of weak self-adjoint quasi-linear parabolic equations. The property of a differential equation to be weak self-adjoint is important for constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries of the differential equation. (fast track communication)

  15. Frozen and broken color: a matrix Schroedinger equation in the semiclassical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    We consider the case of frozen color, i.e, where global color symmetry remains exact, but where colored states have a mass large compared to color-singlet mesons. Using semiclassical WKB formalism, we construct the spectrum of bound states. In order to determine the charge of the constituents, we then consider deep-inelastic scattering of an external probe (e.g., lepton) from our one-dimensional meson. We calculate explicitly the structure function, W, in the WKB limit and show how Lipkin's mechanism is manifested, as well as how scaling behavior comes. We derive the WKB formalism as a special case of a method of obtaining WKB type solutions for generalized Schroedinger equations for which the Hamiltonian is an arbitrary matrix function of any number of pairs of canonical operators. We generalize these considerations to the case of broken color symmetry - but where the breaking is not so strong as to allow low-lying states to have a large amount of mixing with the colored states. In this case, the degeneracy of excited colored states can be broken. We find that local excitation of color guarantees global excitation of color; i.e., if at a given energy colored semiclassical states can be constructed with size comparable to that of the ground state wave function, colored states of that energy will also exist in the spectrum of the full theory and will be observed. However, global existence of color does not guarantee the excitation of colored states via deep-inelastic processes

  16. Broken detailed balance and non-equilibrium dynamics in living systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnesotto, Federico; Mura, Federica; Gladrow, Jannes; Broedersz, Chase

    2018-03-05

    Living systems operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Enzymatic activity can induce broken detailed balance at the molecular scale. This molecular scale breaking of detailed balance is crucial to achieve biological functions such as high-fidelity transcription and translation, sensing, adaptation, biochemical patterning, and force generation. While biological systems such as motor enzymes violate detailed balance at the molecular scale, it remains unclear how non-equilibrium dynamics manifests at the mesoscale in systems that are driven through the collective activity of many motors. Indeed, in several cellular systems the presence of non-equilibrium dynamics is not always evident at large scales. For example, in the cytoskeleton or in chromosomes one can observe stationary stochastic processes that appear at first glance thermally driven. This raises the question how non-equilibrium fluctuations can be discerned from thermal noise. We discuss approaches that have recently been developed to address this question, including methods based on measuring the extent to which the system violates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We also review applications of this approach to reconstituted cytoskeletal networks, the cytoplasm of living cells, and cell membranes. Furthermore, we discuss a more recent approach to detect actively driven dynamics, which is based on inferring broken detailed balance. This constitutes a non-invasive method that uses time-lapse microscopy data, and can be applied to a broad range of systems in cells and tissue. We discuss the ideas underlying this method and its application to several examples including flagella, primary cilia, and cytoskeletal networks. Finally, we briefly discuss recent developments in stochastic thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, which offer new perspectives to understand the physics of living systems. . © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769

  18. Interaction between breaking/broken waves and infragravity-scale phenomena to control sediment suspension transport in the surf zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, GG

    2002-07-30

    Full Text Available error due to air bubbles was reduced by an average of 52%. MARGO 3183 24-7-02 G.G. Smith, G.P. Mocke/ Marine Geology 187 (2002) 329^345 5. Results 5.1. The role of breaking and broken waves 5.1.1. Transition zone In investigating sediment suspension.../broken waves and infragravity-scale phenomena to control sediment suspension transport in the surf zone G.G. Smith C3, G.P. Mocke CSIR, Division of Water, Environment and Forestry Technology, Jan Cilliers Street, 7599 Stellenbosch, South Africa Received 30...

  19. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  20. Weak interactions of the b quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Mohapatra, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    In weak-interaction models with two charged W bosons of comparable mass, there exists a novel possibility for the weak interactions of the b quark, in which the (u-barb)/sub R/ current occurs with maximal strength. It is noted that multimuon production in e + e - annihilation at above Q 2 > or approx. = (12 GeV) 2 will distinguish this scheme from the conventional one. We also present a Higgs system that leads naturally to this type of coupling, in a class of gauge models

  1. Gravitational Wave Detection via Weak Measurements Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Meng-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    A universal amplification scheme of ultra-small phase based on weak measurements is given and a weak measurements amplification based laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (WMA-LIGO) is suggested. The WMA-LIGO has potential to amplify the ultra-small phase signal to at least $10^{3}$ order of magnitude such that the sensitivity and bandwidth of gravitational-wave detector can be further improved. Our results not only shed a new light on the quantum measurement but also open a ne...

  2. Weak form factors of beauty baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    Full analysis of semileptonic decays of beauty baryons with J p =1/2 2 and J p =3/2 2 into charmed ones within the Quark Confinement Model is reported. Weak form factors and decay rates are calculated. Also the heavy quark limit m Q →∞ (Isgur-Wise symmetry) is examined. The weak heavy-baryon form factors in the Isgur-Wise limit and 1/m Q -corrections to them are computered. The Ademollo-Gatto theorem is spin-flavour symmetry of heavy quarks is checked. 33 refs.; 1 fig.; 9 tabs

  3. Fast measure proceeding of weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, J.

    1953-01-01

    The process of fast measure of the weak currents that we are going to describe briefly apply worthy of the provided currents by the sources to elevated value internal resistance, as it is the case for the ionization chamber, the photocells, mass spectroscopic tubes. The problem to measure weak currents is essentially a problem of amplifier and of input circuit. We intended to achieve a whole amplifier and input circuit with advanced performances, meaning that for a measured celerity we wanted to have an signal/noise ratio the most important as in the classic systems and for a same report signal/noise a more quickly done measure. (M.B.) [fr

  4. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Amphibians and land use in the Chihuahuan Desert border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    The pressures of growing borderland populations, increased land use, and Increased water use are threatening amphibians in the Chihuahuan Desert border area. In this paper, we describe potential direct threats such as loss or contamination of aquatic habitats, and indirect threats such as the sublethal effects of pesticides on developing larvae and tadpoles. More...

  6. Characterization of natural habitats and diversity of Libyan desert truffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzadi, Mozidi; Grebenc, Tine; Turunen, Ossi; Kraigher, Hojka; Taib, Hassan; Alafai, Abdulhafied; Sbissi, Imed; Assad, Mamdouh El Haj; Bedade, Dattatray; Shamekh, Salem

    2017-10-01

    Desert truffles have traditionally been used as food in Libya. Desert truffle grows and gives fruit sporadically when adequate and properly distributed rainfall occurs with existence of suitable soil and mycorrhizal host plant. The present study aimed to identify and characterize two kinds of wild desert truffles from ecological and nutritional points that were collected from the studied area. The truffle samples were identified as Terfezia (known as red or black truffle) and Tirmania (known as white truffle). The nutritional values (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) of both Libyan wild truffle ( Terfezia and Tirmania) were determined on a dry weight basis and result showed that Tirmania and Terfezia contained 16.3 and 18.5% protein, 6.2 and 5.9% lipid, 67.2 and 65% carbohydrate, respectively, in ascocarp biomass. The soil pH of the upper and lower regions of the Hamada Al-Hamra ranged between 8.2 and 8.5 giving suitable conditions for fructification. The plants, Helianthemum kahiricum and Helianthemum lippii were the dominant plants in Hamada Al-Hamra region found to form a mycorrhiza with desert truffles. The phylogenetic analysis of the genomic rDNA ITS region showed that, out of five collections three represented Tirmania pinoyi (Maire) Malencon, one Tirmania nivea (Desf.) Trappe, and one Terfezia boudieri Chatin.

  7. Erosion resistance of bionic functional surfaces inspired from desert scorpions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwu, Han; Junqiu, Zhang; Chao, Ge; Li, Wen; Ren, Luquan

    2012-02-07

    In this paper, a bionic method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components. Desert scorpion (Androctonus australis) is a typical animal living in sandy deserts, and may face erosive action of blowing sand at a high speed. Based on the idea of bionics and biologic experimental techniques, the mechanisms of the sand erosion resistance of desert scorpion were investigated. Results showed that the desert scorpions used special microtextures such as bumps and grooves to construct the functional surfaces to achieve the erosion resistance. In order to understand the erosion resistance mechanisms of such functional surfaces, the combination of computational and experimental research were carried out in this paper. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was applied to predict the erosion performance of the bionic functional surfaces. The result demonstrated that the microtextured surfaces exhibited better erosion resistance than the smooth surfaces. The further erosion tests indicated that the groove surfaces exhibited better erosion performance at 30° injection angle. In order to determine the effect of the groove dimensions on the erosion resistance, regression analysis of orthogonal multinomials was also performed under a certain erosion condition, and the regression equation between the erosion rate and groove distance, width, and height was established.

  8. Cultural and religious unification through music in Desert Rose's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silence of the Musicis a musical theatre piece produced by Desert Rose in 2010. The production not only addresses themes of prejudice and intercultural discrepancies in post-apartheid South Africa, but also carries a message of love and unity. The unifying factor in the show is music – the fusing together of the musics of ...

  9. Zimbabwean army deserters in South Africa: military bonding and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maringira, G.; Richters, A.; Gibson, D.

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of Zimbabwe's political crisis have mostly presented soldiers in the army as defenders of President Robert Mugabe's regime without any mention of the regime's victimization of its own soldiers. To escape further victimization many of these soldiers deserted and migrated to South Africa. In

  10. Book Review Nomadic Desert Birds By D Oschadleus (2004 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Adaptations of Desert Organisms series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany ISBN 3540403930 e-mail: orders@springer.de 185 pages, hardcover: EUR 99.95; £77.00; sFr 166. Ostrich 2005, 76(1&2): 93 ...

  11. Forager abundance and dietary relationships Namib Desert ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variation in diet through time and no consistent patterns were apparent. Diet niche breadth and overlap also exhibited considerable variation between species at anyone time and within a species through time. There was no consistent relationship between ant size and the size of food particle utilized. Namib Desert ants are ...

  12. Ecological and evolutionary physiology of desert birds : A progress report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI

    The adaptive significance of mechanisms of energy and water conservation among species of desert rodents, which avoid temperature extremes by remaining within a burrow during the day, is well established. Conventional wisdom holds that arid-zone birds, diurnal organisms that endure the brunt of

  13. Solar power at the edge of the Sahara desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    In Morocco, the turn in the energy sector is overseen by His Majesty the King himself: in 2009, the King introduced the Moroccan Solar Plan and created the Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy (MASEN) for its implementation. This year, the construction work for the first project complex will commence at the edge of the Sahara desert. (orig.)

  14. Academic Performance, School Desertion and Emotional Paradigm in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…

  15. i SOME ASPECTS OF ADAPTATION IN DESERT MAMMALS I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adaptation to environment, mostly in desert mammals. There does not appear to be ... Waddington (1959) then took the problem of the apparently Lamarckian adaptations further, and showed in ..... food resources is generally a bad thing since it leads to violent fluctuations in numbers, perhaps. R ep rod u ced b y Sa b in.

  16. Cutaneous adenocarcinoma in a desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu-Seida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the clinical and histopathological findings of a rare case of cutaneous adenocarcinoma in a 40-year-old desert tortoise. Surgical excision of the neoplasm improved the general health condition and locomotion of the tortoise although recurrence of the neoplasm had been recorded 1 year post-surgery.

  17. Biology of larks (Aves: Alaudidae) in the central Namib Desert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biology of six species of larks in the Namib Desert near Walvis Bay, South West Africa, was studied in 1964, 1965 and 1966. 2. All species reproduced following rainfall in summer and autumn months, with the appearance of green grass and abundant insects on which the birds fed. 3. The primarily insectivorous species ...

  18. Analysis of "The Wonderful Desert." Technical Report No. 170.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. M.; And Others

    This report presents a text analysis of "The Wonderful Desert," a brief selection from the "Reader's Digest Skill Builder" series. (The techniques used in arriving at the analysis are presented in a Reading Center Technical Report, Number 168, "Problems and Techniques of Text Analysis.") Tables are given for a…

  19. Forager abundance and dietary relationships in a Namib Desert ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen ant species coexist on a barren gravel plain habitat in the central Namib Desert. Numerical density of foragers of all species fluctuated considerably over a 17-month period. Peaks in abundance correlated to rainfall events and hence primary production pulses. The majority of foragers were nocturnal in summer and ...

  20. Activity of the Namib Desert dune ant, Camponotus detritus | Curtis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the ant Camponotus detritus was studied in the dunes of the central Namib Desert. Activity was divided into two components: transit activity and honeydew collection. Temperature governed both forms, but light controlled the initiation and termination of transit activity, which was bimodal in warm conditions and ...