Using fundamental equations to describe basic phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.
1999-01-01
When the fundamental thermodynamic balance equations (mass, energy, and momentum) are used to describe the processes in a simple refrigeration system, then one finds that the resulting equation system will have a degree of freedom equal to one. Further investigations reveal that it is the equation...... and subcooling are introduced. Since the degree of freedom was equal to one, using both the superheat and subcooling require that one of the fundamental equations must be omitted from the equation system.The main purpose of the paper is to clarify the relation between the fundamental balance equations...
Fundamental Properties of Salts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson
2012-11-01
Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.
Neutrino properties and fundamental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowles, T.J.
1996-01-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There are two components to this work. The first is a development of a new detection scheme for neutrinos. The observed deficit of neutrinos from the Sun may be due to either a lack of understanding of physical processes in the Sun or may be due to neutrinos oscillating from one type to another during their transit from the Sun to the Earth. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is designed to use a water Cerenkov detector employing one thousand tonnes of heavy water to resolve this question. The ability to distinguish muon and tau neutrinos from electron neutrinos is crucial in order to carry out a model-independent test of neutrino oscillations. We describe a developmental exploration of a novel technique to do this using 3 He proportional counters. Such a method offers considerable advantages over the initially proposed method of using Cerenkov light from capture on NaCl in the SNO. The second component of this work is an exploration of optimal detector geometry for a time-reversal invariance experiment. The question of why time moves only in the forward direction is one of the most puzzling problems in modern physics. We know from particle physics measurements of the decay of kaons that there is a charge-parity symmetry that is violated in nature, implying time-reversal invariance violation. Yet, we do not understand the origin of the violation of this symmetry. To promote such an understanding, we are developing concepts and prototype apparatus for a new, highly sensitive technique to search for time-reversal-invariance violation in the beta decay of the free neutron. The optimized detector geometry is seven times more sensitive than that in previous experiments. 15 refs
Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties
Yu, Peter Y
2010-01-01
This fourth edition of the well-established Fundamentals of Semiconductors serves to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic. Theories are presented to explain experimental results. This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind. Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. The explanations are based on physical insights. Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems. Many of these problems "lead the student by the hand" to arrive at the results. The major changes made in the fourth edition include: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established deep center known as the DX center, additional problems...
Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties
Yu, Peter Y
1996-01-01
Fundamentals of Semiconductors attempts to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic Theories are presented to explain experimental results This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors The explanations are based on physical insights Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures and problems Many of these problems 'lead the student by the hand' to arrive at the results
Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties
Yu, Peter Y
2005-01-01
Provides detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. This textbook emphasizes understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and features an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems.
Magnetic materials fundamentals, products, properties, applications
Hilzinger, Rainer
2013-01-01
At a practical level, this compendium reviews the basics of soft and hard magnetic materials, discusses the advantages of the different processing routes for the exploitation of the magnetic properties and hence assists in proper, fail-safe and economic application of magnetic materials. Essential guidelines and formulas for the calculation of the magnetic and electrical properties, temperature and long-term stability of permanent magnets, of inductive components and magnetic shielding are compiled. Selected fields of application and case studies illustrate the large diversity of technical applications. Application engineers will appreciate the comprehensive compilation of the properties and detailed characteristic curves of modern soft and hard magnetic materials. Materials scientists will enjoy the presentation of the different processing routes and their impact on the magnetic properties and students will profit from the survey from the basics of magnetism down to the applications in inductive components, ...
Mixed-valence manganites: fundamentals and main properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gor' kov, Lev P. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); L. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kresin, Vladimir Z. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: vzkresin@lbl.gov
2004-10-01
The study of manganites has been undergoing intensive development, especially following the discovery of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The most fundamental property of these materials is a strong correlation between their transport and magnetic properties. A transition to the ferromagnetic (and metallic) state occurs at a finite doping level and represents a special type of transition which should be described in terms of percolation theory. The same applies for the transition at the Curie temperature. As a result of the percolation theory approach, the view of these materials, both above and below the transition point, is that of inhomogeneous media consisting of tiny islands of interweaving sub-phases. These basic ideas have been now verified experimentally by neutron data, X-ray analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy, heat capacity and magnetization measurements, etc. The phase diagram as a function of doping displays a peculiar electron-hole asymmetry; this asymmetry as well as other features (e.g., the optical properties) can be explained in the framework of a generalized two-band picture. We trace how the ground state evolves with doping and give a self-consistent analysis of various thermodynamic, optical and transport properties of metallic manganites, isotope effect, etc. It is predicted that giant oscillations in the Josephson current of a S-AFM-S junction will occur as a function of weak external magnetic fields. The contact phenomena are also described.
Mixed-valence manganites: fundamentals and main properties
Gor'kov, Lev P.; Kresin, Vladimir Z.
2004-10-01
The study of manganites has been undergoing intensive development, especially following the discovery of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The most fundamental property of these materials is a strong correlation between their transport and magnetic properties. A transition to the ferromagnetic (and metallic) state occurs at a finite doping level and represents a special type of transition which should be described in terms of percolation theory. The same applies for the transition at the Curie temperature. As a result of the percolation theory approach, the view of these materials, both above and below the transition point, is that of inhomogeneous media consisting of tiny islands of interweaving sub-phases. These basic ideas have been now verified experimentally by neutron data, X-ray analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, heat capacity and magnetization measurements, etc. The phase diagram as a function of doping displays a peculiar electron-hole asymmetry; this asymmetry as well as other features (e.g., the optical properties) can be explained in the framework of a generalized two-band picture. We trace how the ground state evolves with doping and give a self-consistent analysis of various thermodynamic, optical and transport properties of metallic manganites, isotope effect, etc. It is predicted that giant oscillations in the Josephson current of a S-AFM-S junction will occur as a function of weak external magnetic fields. The contact phenomena are also described.
Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter
2012-01-01
in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...... is not applicable for composite porous electrodes, and we claim that even in the case of simple model electrodes no clear evidences of charge transfer limitations following Butler- Volmer have been reported. Thus, we find overall that the large differences in the literature reports indicate that no universal truth...... such as “this is the rate limiting step of H2 oxidation in a Ni-zirconia cermet electrode...” will ever be found because the actual electrode properties are so dependent on the fabrication and operation history of the electrode. This does not mean, however, that deep knowledge of mechanisms of specific SOC...
Fundamentals of amorphous solids structure and properties
Stachurski, Zbigniew H
2014-01-01
Long awaited, this textbook fills the gap for convincing concepts to describe amorphous solids. Adopting a unique approach, the author develops a framework that lays the foundations for a theory of amorphousness. He unravels the scientific mysteries surrounding the topic, replacing rather vague notions of amorphous materials as disordered crystalline solids with the well-founded concept of ideal amorphous solids. A classification of amorphous materials into inorganic glasses, organic glasses, glassy metallic alloys, and thin films sets the scene for the development of the model of ideal amorph
Diffuse scattering and the fundamental properties of materials
EIce, Gene; Barabash, Rozaliya
2009-01-01
Diffuse Scattering-the use of off-specular X-Rays and neutrons from surfaces and interfaces-has grown rapidly as a tool for characterizing the surface properties of materials and related fundamental structural properties. It has proven to be especially useful in the understanding of local properties within materials. This book reflects the efforts of physicists and materials scientists around the world who have helped to refine the techniques and applications of diffuse scattering. Major topics specifically covered include: -- Scattering in Low Dimensions -- Elastic and Thermal Diffuse Scattering from Alloys -- Scattering from Complex and Disordered Materials -- Scattering from Distorted Crystals.
Lanthanide upconversion luminescence at the nanoscale: fundamentals and optical properties
Nadort, Annemarie; Zhao, Jiangbo; Goldys, Ewa M.
2016-07-01
Upconversion photoluminescence is a nonlinear effect where multiple lower energy excitation photons produce higher energy emission photons. This fundamentally interesting process has many applications in biomedical imaging, light source and display technology, and solar energy harvesting. In this review we discuss the underlying physical principles and their modelling using rate equations. We discuss how the understanding of photophysical processes enabled a strategic influence over the optical properties of upconversion especially in rationally designed materials. We subsequently present an overview of recent experimental strategies to control and optimize the optical properties of upconversion nanoparticles, focussing on their emission spectral properties and brightness.
Correlated motions are a fundamental property of β-sheets
Fenwick, R. Bryn; Orellana, Laura; Esteban-Martín, Santi; Orozco, Modesto; Salvatella, Xavier
2014-06-01
Correlated motions in proteins can mediate fundamental biochemical processes such as signal transduction and allostery. The mechanisms that underlie these processes remain largely unknown due mainly to limitations in their direct detection. Here, based on a detailed analysis of protein structures deposited in the protein data bank, as well as on state-of-the art molecular simulations, we provide general evidence for the transfer of structural information by correlated backbone motions, mediated by hydrogen bonds, across β-sheets. We also show that the observed local and long-range correlated motions are mediated by the collective motions of β-sheets and investigate their role in large-scale conformational changes. Correlated motions represent a fundamental property of β-sheets that contributes to protein function.
Two-dimensional carbon fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications
Yihong, Wu; Ting, Yu
2013-01-01
After a brief introduction to the fundamental properties of graphene, this book focuses on synthesis, characterization and application of various types of two-dimensional (2D) nanocarbons ranging from single/few layer graphene to carbon nanowalls and graphene oxides. Three major synthesis techniques are covered: epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC, chemical synthesis of graphene on metal, and chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets or nanowalls. One chapter is dedicated to characterization of 2D nanocarbon using Raman spectroscopy. It provides extensive coverage for a
Fundamental Properties of Co-moving Stars Observed by Gaia
Bochanski, John J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Gagné, Jonathan; Nelson, Olivia; Coker, Kristina; Smithka, Iliya; Desir, Deion; Vasquez, Chelsea
2018-04-01
We have estimated fundamental parameters for a sample of co-moving stars observed by Gaia and identified by Oh et al. We matched the Gaia observations to the 2MASS and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer catalogs and fit MIST isochrones to the data, deriving estimates of the mass, radius, [Fe/H], age, distance, and extinction to 9754 stars in the original sample of 10606 stars. We verify these estimates by comparing our new results to previous analyses of nearby stars, examining fiducial cluster properties, and estimating the power-law slope of the local present-day mass function. A comparison to previous studies suggests that our mass estimates are robust, while metallicity and age estimates are increasingly uncertain. We use our calculated masses to examine the properties of binaries in the sample and show that separation of the pairs dominates the observed binding energies and expected lifetimes.
Fundamental Investigations Regarding Barrier Properties of Grafted PVOH Layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Schmid
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The current work focuses on fundamental investigations regarding the barrier properties of grafted PVOH layers produced by the Transfer Method. The layers (or papers used for the different experiments were produced and grafted during the course of this work. Papers with different types of PVOH (different Mowiol types were produced by coating. Experiments using different parameters (temperature, reaction duration, and concentration were performed using the Transfer Method. Contact angle measurements and Cobb60 measurements were carried out on the grafted and untreated PVOH layers. Furthermore, the water vapour transmission rate of the PVOH layers was determined. The results of this work showed that the method of chromatogeny or chromatogenic chemistry improves the water vapour barrier properties of grafted PVOH layers enormously.
Fundamental properties of field emission-driven direct current microdischarges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumbach, Paul; Go, David B.
2012-01-01
For half a century, it has been known that the onset of field emission in direct current microdischarges with gap sizes less than 10 μm can lead to breakdown at applied voltages far less than predicted by Paschen's law. It is still unclear how field emission affects other fundamental plasma properties at this scale. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to predict basic scaling laws for fundamental properties including ion density, electric field due to space charge, and current-voltage relations in the pre-breakdown regime. Computational results are compared with approximate analytic solutions. It is shown that field emission provides an abundance of cathode electrons, which in turn create large ion concentrations through ionizing collisions well before Paschen's criterion for breakdown is met. Breakdown due to ion-enhanced field emission occurs when the electric field due to space charge becomes comparable to the applied electric field. Simple scaling analysis of the 1D Poisson equation demonstrates that an ion density of n + ≈ 0.1V A ε 0 /qd 2 is necessary to significantly distort the electric field. Defining breakdown in terms of this critical ion density leads analytically to a simple, effective secondary emission coefficient γ ′ of the same mathematical form initially suggested by Boyle and Kisliuk [Phys. Rev. 97, 255 (1955)].
Photospheric properties and fundamental parameters of M dwarfs
Rajpurohit, A. S.; Allard, F.; Teixeira, G. D. C.; Homeier, D.; Rajpurohit, S.; Mousis, O.
2018-02-01
Context. M dwarfs are an important source of information when studying and probing the lower end of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram, down to the hydrogen-burning limit. Being the most numerous and oldest stars in the galaxy, they carry fundamental information on its chemical history. The presence of molecules in their atmospheres, along with various condensed species, complicates our understanding of their physical properties and thus makes the determination of their fundamental stellar parameters more challenging and difficult. Aim. The aim of this study is to perform a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the high-resolution H-band spectra of M dwarfs in order to determine their fundamental stellar parameters and to validate atmospheric models. The present study will also help us to understand various processes, including dust formation and depletion of metals onto dust grains in M dwarf atmospheres. The high spectral resolution also provides a unique opportunity to constrain other chemical and physical processes that occur in a cool atmosphere. Methods: The high-resolution APOGEE spectra of M dwarfs, covering the entire H-band, provide a unique opportunity to measure their fundamental parameters. We have performed a detailed spectral synthesis by comparing these high-resolution H-band spectra to that of the most recent BT-Settl model and have obtained fundamental parameters such as effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity (Teff, log g, and [Fe/H]), respectively. Results: We have determined Teff, log g, and [Fe/H] for 45 M dwarfs using high-resolution H-band spectra. The derived Teff for the sample ranges from 3100 to 3900 K, values of log g lie in the range 4.5 ≤ log g ≤ 5.5, and the resulting metallicities lie in the range ‑0.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.5. We have explored systematic differences between effective temperature and metallicity calibrations with other studies using the same sample of M dwarfs. We have also shown that the stellar
The Fundamental Physical Properties of Wolf-Rayet Stars
Massey, Philip
Massive stars are the cosmic engines that power the far-infrared luminosities of distant galaxies, and dominate the ionization of nearby HII regions. They are the primary source of carbon and oxygen in the Universe, and their core collapses manufacture all of the elements heavier than Fe. The re-ionization of the early Universe was thanks to Population III massive stars, and the super-massive black holes we find in the cores of galaxies today were seeded as a result of the black holes that formed from the first generations of massive stars. Understanding massive star evolution is the key to unlocking many astrophysical problems. The largest uncertainty in massive star evolution is the question of how Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars form. Our proposal will determine the fundamental physical properties of WRs using four archival NASA data sets for a critical comparison with present day evolution models. It is generally assumed that massive stars spend most of their post-main-sequence lives WRs. For decades we have believed that WRs form as a result of stellar winds stripping off the H-rich outer layers of a star, leaving behind a bare stellar core. In this picture, WRs are a normal stage in the evolution of the most massive stars. Recently, this scenario has been called into question. Stellar wind mass- loss rates are now known to be significantly lower than previously thought, although whether this is a factor of 3 or 10 remains unclear. If the latter is correct, then this poses a serious problem for the formation of WRs. This has created a paradigm shift, with increased importance attached to the role of binary evolution, with Roche-lobe overflow performing the stripping. Attempts to distinguish which scenario is more prevalent is complicated by the possibility of past mergers; i.e., just because a WR is not a binary today does not prove it was not one in the past. We will tackle this question from a fresh perspective, determining reliable fundamental physical properties of
Analyzing the fundamental properties of Raman amplification in optical fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard
2005-01-01
to the nonlinear refractive index due to nuclear motions and the Raman response function in the time domain. It is demonstrated that the Raman-gain coefficient may be reduced up to 60% if the signal propagates in the fundamental mode while the pump alternates between the fundamental mode and a higher order mode...
Fundamental Properties of White Dwarfs Alone and in Binaries
Fuchs, Joshua Thomas
White dwarfs are physically simple and numerous. Their properties provide insight into stellar evolution and have applications to many astrophysical questions. In this dissertation, we present new measurements of white dwarf properties in two environments that help further our knowledge of the structure and evolution of white dwarfs. We have undertaken a series of observations that enable the measurement of fundamental parameters of the white dwarf in two magnetic cataclysmic variables. We have chosen these particular systems because the lack of accretion disk and fortunate geometry leading to eclipses makes it possible to observe and characterize the white dwarf. In one system, we confirm that LSQ1725-64 is a magnetic cataclysmic variable by estimating the magnetic field strength of the white dwarf from Zeeman splitting. We measure the effective temperature of the white dwarf and the spectral type of the secondary star from spectroscopy during a state of low accretion. Our precise eclipse measurements allow us to estimate the white dwarf mass and other binary parameters of LSQ1725-64. The spectral type and color of the secondary, as well as the eclipse length, are consistent with other secondaries that have not yet evolved through the period minimum expected for cataclysmic variables. In CTCV1928-50, we detect H alpha emission from the heated face of the secondary that we use to measure the radial velocity amplitude of the secondary star. We combine this with previous measurements to estimate a white dwarf mass and other binary parameters. Our measurements in these two systems add to a limited number of measured white dwarf parameters in magnetic cataclysmic variables. We have also completed a spectroscopic survey of pulsating, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere white dwarfs. These pulsations have long offered the promise to conduct seismology of white dwarfs to understand their internal structure and composition. We have spectroscopically observed 122 DA white dwarfs
Physical properties of organic and biomaterials: Fundamentals and applications
Steven, Eden
-drain current-voltage characteristics. This dissertation aims to demonstrate the different aspects of exercising experimental physics to an inter-disciplinary research subject. The fundamental characterization and instrumentation developed in this work are intended to stimulate future discoveries by providing new experimental tools to study electronic transport properties of new materials. In addition, the device fabrication principles will be valuable for development of more environmental-friendly electronics. The treatment presented in this dissertation should serve as a roadmap for future studies of natural materials from an experimental physics point of view.
Are Neurodynamic Organizations A Fundamental Property of Teamwork?
Stevens, Ronald H.; Galloway, Trysha L.
2017-01-01
When performing a task it is important for teams to optimize their strategies and actions to maximize value and avoid the cost of surprise. The decisions teams make sometimes have unintended consequences and they must then reorganize their thinking, roles and/or configuration into corrective structures more appropriate for the situation. In this study we ask: What are the neurodynamic properties of these reorganizations and how do they relate to the moment-by-moment, and longer, performance-outcomes of teams?. We describe an information-organization approach for detecting and quantitating the fluctuating neurodynamic organizations in teams. Neurodynamic organization is the propensity of team members to enter into prolonged (minutes) metastable neurodynamic relationships as they encounter and resolve disturbances to their normal rhythms. Team neurodynamic organizations were detected and modeled by transforming the physical units of each team member's EEG power levels into Shannon entropy-derived information units about the team's organization and synchronization. Entropy is a measure of the variability or uncertainty of information in a data stream. This physical unit to information unit transformation bridges micro level social coordination events with macro level expert observations of team behavior allowing multimodal comparisons across the neural, cognitive and behavioral time scales of teamwork. The measures included the entropy of each team member's data stream, the overall team entropy and the mutual information between dyad pairs of the team. Mutual information can be thought of as periods related to team member synchrony. Comparisons between individual entropy and mutual information levels for the dyad combinations of three-person teams provided quantitative estimates of the proportion of a person's neurodynamic organizations that represented periods of synchrony with other team members, which in aggregate provided measures of the overall degree of
Are Neurodynamic Organizations A Fundamental Property of Teamwork?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronald H. Stevens
2017-05-01
Full Text Available When performing a task it is important for teams to optimize their strategies and actions to maximize value and avoid the cost of surprise. The decisions teams make sometimes have unintended consequences and they must then reorganize their thinking, roles and/or configuration into corrective structures more appropriate for the situation. In this study we ask: What are the neurodynamic properties of these reorganizations and how do they relate to the moment-by-moment, and longer, performance-outcomes of teams?. We describe an information-organization approach for detecting and quantitating the fluctuating neurodynamic organizations in teams. Neurodynamic organization is the propensity of team members to enter into prolonged (minutes metastable neurodynamic relationships as they encounter and resolve disturbances to their normal rhythms. Team neurodynamic organizations were detected and modeled by transforming the physical units of each team member's EEG power levels into Shannon entropy-derived information units about the team's organization and synchronization. Entropy is a measure of the variability or uncertainty of information in a data stream. This physical unit to information unit transformation bridges micro level social coordination events with macro level expert observations of team behavior allowing multimodal comparisons across the neural, cognitive and behavioral time scales of teamwork. The measures included the entropy of each team member's data stream, the overall team entropy and the mutual information between dyad pairs of the team. Mutual information can be thought of as periods related to team member synchrony. Comparisons between individual entropy and mutual information levels for the dyad combinations of three-person teams provided quantitative estimates of the proportion of a person's neurodynamic organizations that represented periods of synchrony with other team members, which in aggregate provided measures of the overall
Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.
2007-01-01
This work determined rheological parameters able to describe the rheological properties of the flocculant sludge presents in sulphidogenic anaerobic bioreactors, i.e. a MBR (membrane bioreactor) and a CSTR (continuous stirred tank reactor). Both sludges displayed a non-Newtonian rheological
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcin Andrzej KUREK
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The growing interest in the usage of dietary fiber in food has caused the need to provide precise tools for describing its physical properties. This research examined two dietary fibers from oats and beets, respectively, in variable particle sizes. The application of automated static image analysis for describing the hydration properties and particle size distribution of dietary fiber was analyzed. Conventional tests for water holding capacity (WHC were conducted. The particles were measured at two points: dry and after water soaking. The most significant water holding capacity (7.00 g water/g solid was achieved by the smaller sized oat fiber. Conversely, the water holding capacity was highest (4.20 g water/g solid in larger sized beet fiber. There was evidence for water absorption increasing with a decrease in particle size in regards to the same fiber source. Very strong correlations were drawn between particle shape parameters, such as fiber length, straightness, width and hydration properties measured conventionally. The regression analysis provided the opportunity to estimate whether the automated static image analysis method could be an efficient tool in describing the hydration properties of dietary fiber. The application of the method was validated using mathematical model which was verified in comparison to conventional WHC measurement results.
Critical properties of a ferroelectric superlattice described by a transverse spin-1/2 Ising model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tabyaoui, A; Saber, M; Baerner, K; Ainane, A
2007-01-01
The phase transition properties of a ferroelectric superlattice with two alternating layers A and B described by a transverse spin-1/2 Ising model have been investigated using the effective field theory within a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self spin correlation functions. The Curie temperature T c , polarization and susceptibility have been obtained. The effects of the transverse field and the ferroelectric and antiferroelectric interfacial coupling strength between two ferroelectric materials are discussed. They relate to the physical properties of antiferroelectric/ferroelectric superlattices
Photonic crystal fibers: fundamental properties and applications within sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm; Riishede, Jesper; Broeng, Jes
2003-01-01
Since the first experimental demonstration of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in 1996 by Knight et al. the optical properties and the fabrication of such fibers have attracted significant attention. The fiber structure with a lattice of air holes running along the length of the fiber provides...... a large variety of novel optical properties and improvements compared to standard optical fibers. The stack-and-pull procedure used to manufacture PCFs is a highly flexible method offering a large degree of freedom in the fabrication of PCFs with specific characteristics. A few of the remarkable optical...
Fundamental Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Boride Ceramics
2014-02-28
a two-color optical pyrometer and a programmable PID controller. Water cooled graphite pushrods and a fully articulated graphite 4-point bend...main peaks are the transverse optic (TO) peak at 789.2 cm-1 and the linear optic (LO) peak at 970.1 cm-1. These peak positions are sensitive to...1600°C and a two-color pyrometer above 1500°C. Heating rates as high as 500°C/min have been achieved. To date, four point bend tests as described by
Classification and closure properties of languages for describing concurrent system behaviours
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szijarto, M.
1981-01-01
The correspondence between sequential program schemes and formal languages is well known. The situation is more complicated in the case of parallel program schemes, and trace languages have been introduced to describe them. The author introduces the concept of the closure of a language on a so called independence relation on the alphabet of the language, and formulate several theorems about them and the trace languages. He investigates the closedness properties of Chomsky classes under closure on independence relations, and as a special case we derive a new necessary and sufficient condition for the regularity of the commutative closure of a language. 12 references.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Alberto Bagatolli
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The structure, dynamics, and stability of lipid bilayers are controlled by thermodynamic forces, leading to overall tensionless membranes with a distinct lateral organization and a conspicuous lateral pressure profile. Bilayers are also subject to built-in curvature-stress instabilities that may be released locally or globally in terms of morphological changes leading to the formation of non-lamellar and curved structures. A key controller of the bilayer’s propensity to form curved structures is the average molecular shape of the different lipid molecules. Via the curvature stress, molecular shape mediates a coupling to membrane-protein function and provides a set of physical mechanisms for formation of lipid domains and laterally differentiated regions in the plane of the membrane. Unfortunately, these relevant physical features of membranes are often ignored in the most popular models for biological membranes. Results from a number of experimental and theoretical studies emphasize the significance of these fundamental physical properties and call for a refinement of the fluid mosaic model (and the accompanying raft hypothesis.
Fundamental properties of secondary negative ion emission by sputtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimizu, Toshiki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo
1989-01-01
The report describes some results obtained from preliminary experiments on secondary negative ion emission from a cesiated surface by Xe-ion beam sputtering, which give the production probability. A measuring system is constructed for secondary negative ion emission. The system consists of a microwave ion source with a lens, a sputtering target holder with a heater, a cesium oven, a limiting aperture with a substrate for deposition, a negative-ion extractor and lens, and a ExB type mass separator. Observations are made on the dependence of negative ion current on cesium supply, dependence of negative ion current on target temperature, and negative ion production probability. The cesium supply and the target temperature are found to strongly influence the negative ion emission. By controlling these factors, the optimum condition for secondary negative ion emission is achieved with a minimum surface work function. The production probability of the negative ion is found to be very high, about 20% for carbon. Therefore, the secondary negative ion emission is considered a useful and highly efficient method to obtain high current ion beams. The constant in the Rasser's theoretical equation is experimentally determined to be 4.1 x 10 -4 eV sec/m. (N.K.)
Chang, Zhaofeng; Tian, Luping; Wu, Min; Dong, Xudong; Peng, Juan; Pan, Bo
2018-06-01
Biochar function in soil is based on properties such as sorption characteristics, and these are expected to change throughout the life cycle of the biochar. Because biochar particles cannot easily be separated from soil particles, this change is seldom investigated. Biochar-related molecular markers, such as benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) are promising tools for studying the properties of biochars in complex environmental matrices. In this study, biochars were derived from corn straw and pine wood sawdust at 200-500 °C, and their aging was simulated with NaClO. Biochar properties were characterized by elemental analysis, BET surface characterization and BPCA molecular marker analysis. Chemical oxidation decreased the surface area (SA) but increased the O content of biochars. The oxidation decreased the amount of biochars, with a mass loss in the range of 10-55%. A similar mass loss was also observed for BPCAs and was negatively related to both the pyrolysis temperature and the extent of the condensed structure (higher aromaticity). The biochar amounts were calculated quantitatively using the sum of BPCA contents, with a conversion factor (the ratio of biochar amount to BPCA content) in the range of 3.3-5.5, and were negatively related to the B5CA content. Three model pollutants, namely, bisphenol A (BPA), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and phenanthrene (PHE), were chosen to study the sorption characteristics of biochar before and after oxidation. Chemical oxidation generally increased SMX sorption but decreased PHE sorption. The nonlinear factor n, based on Freundlich equation modeling, was negatively related to B6CA for all three chemicals. The BPCA molecular markers, especially B5CA and B6CA, were correlated to the biochar properties before and after oxidation and are thus a potentially useful technique for describing the characteristics of biochar in the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mace, Andy; Rudolph, David L.; Kachanoski , R. Gary
1998-01-01
The performance of parametric models used to describe soil water retention (SWR) properties and predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a function of volumetric water content (θ) is examined using SWR and K(θ) data for coarse sand and gravel sediments. Six 70 cm long, 10 cm diameter cores of glacial outwash were instrumented at eight depths with porous cup ten-siometers and time domain reflectometry probes to measure soil water pressure head (h) and θ, respectively, for seven unsaturated and one saturated steady-state flow conditions. Forty-two θ(h) and K(θ) relationships were measured from the infiltration tests on the cores. Of the four SWR models compared in the analysis, the van Genuchten (1980) equation with parameters m and n restricted according to the Mualem (m = 1 - 1/n) criterion is best suited to describe the θ(h) relationships. The accuracy of two models that predict K(θ) using parameter values derived from the SWR models was also evaluated. The model developed by van Genuchten (1980) based on the theoretical expression of Mualem (1976) predicted K(θ) more accurately than the van Genuchten (1980) model based on the theory of Burdine (1953). A sensitivity analysis shows that more accurate predictions of K(θ) are achieved using SWR model parameters derived with residual water content (θr) specified according to independent measurements of θ at values of h where θ/h ∼ 0 rather than model-fit θr values. The accuracy of the model K(θ) function improves markedly when at least one value of unsaturated K is used to scale the K(θ) function predicted using the saturated K. The results of this investigation indicate that the hydraulic properties of coarse-grained sediments can be accurately described using the parametric models. In addition, data collection efforts should focus on measuring at least one value of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and as complete a set of SWR data as possible, particularly in the dry range.
Methods for describing the electromagnetic properties of silver and gold nanoparticles.
Zhao, Jing; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O; McMahon, Jeffrey M; Li, Shuzhou; Ausman, Logan K; Atkinson, Ariel L; Schatz, George C
2008-12-01
This Account provides an overview of the methods that are currently being used to study the electromagnetics of silver and gold nanoparticles, with an emphasis on the determination of extinction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra. These methods have proven to be immensely useful in recent years for interpreting a wide range of nanoscience experiments and providing the capability to describe optical properties of particles up to several hundred nanometers in dimension, including arbitrary particle structures and complex dielectric environments (adsorbed layers of molecules, nearby metal films, and other particles). While some of the methods date back to Mie's celebrated work a century ago, others are still at the forefront of algorithm development in computational electromagnetics. This Account gives a qualitative description of the physical and mathematical basis behind the most commonly used methods, including both analytical and numerical methods, as well as representative results of applications that are relevant to current experiments. The analytical methods that we discuss are either derived from Mie theory for spheres or from the quasistatic (Gans) model as applied to spheres and spheroids. In this discussion, we describe the use of Mie theory to determine electromagnetic contributions to SERS enhancements that include for retarded dipole emission effects, and the use of the quasistatic approximation for spheroidal particles interacting with dye adsorbate layers. The numerical methods include the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, and the finite element method (FEM) based on Whitney forms. We discuss applications such as using DDA to describe the interaction of two gold disks to define electromagnetic hot spots, FDTD for light interacting with metal wires that go from particle-like plasmonic response to the film-like transmission as wire dimension is varied, and FEM studies of
Robinson, Jason L; Fordyce, James A
2017-01-01
Among the greatest challenges facing the conservation of plants and animal species in protected areas are threats from a rapidly changing climate. An altered climate creates both challenges and opportunities for improving the management of protected areas in networks. Increasingly, quantitative tools like species distribution modeling are used to assess the performance of protected areas and predict potential responses to changing climates for groups of species, within a predictive framework. At larger geographic domains and scales, protected area network units have spatial geoclimatic properties that can be described in the gap analysis typically used to measure or aggregate the geographic distributions of species (stacked species distribution models, or S-SDM). We extend the use of species distribution modeling techniques in order to model the climate envelope (or "footprint") of individual protected areas within a network of protected areas distributed across the 48 conterminous United States and managed by the US National Park System. In our approach we treat each protected area as the geographic range of a hypothetical endemic species, then use MaxEnt and 5 uncorrelated BioClim variables to model the geographic distribution of the climatic envelope associated with each protected area unit (modeling the geographic area of park units as the range of a species). We describe the individual and aggregated climate envelopes predicted by a large network of 163 protected areas and briefly illustrate how macroecological measures of geodiversity can be derived from our analysis of the landscape ecological context of protected areas. To estimate trajectories of change in the temporal distribution of climatic features within a protected area network, we projected the climate envelopes of protected areas in current conditions onto a dataset of predicted future climatic conditions. Our results suggest that the climate envelopes of some parks may be locally unique or have
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang Zheng; Qiu Guanzhou
2007-01-01
A metallic solution model with adjustable parameter k has been developed to predict thermodynamic properties of ternary systems from those of its constituent three binaries. In the present model, the excess Gibbs free energy for a ternary mixture is expressed as a weighted probability sum of those of binaries and the k value is determined based on an assumption that the ternary interaction generally strengthens the mixing effects for metallic solutions with weak interaction, making the Gibbs free energy of mixing of the ternary system more negative than that before considering the interaction. This point is never considered in the models currently reported, where the only difference in a geometrical definition of molar values of components is considered that do not involve thermodynamic principles but are completely empirical. The current model describes the results of experiments very well, and by adjusting the k value also agrees with those from models used widely in the literature. Three ternary systems, Mg-Cu-Ni, Zn-In-Cd, and Cd-Bi-Pb are recalculated to demonstrate the method of determining k and the precision of the model. The results of the calculations, especially those in Mg-Cu-Ni system, are better than those predicted by the current models in the literature
Cold gas & mergers: fundamental difference in HI properties of different types of radio galaxies?
Emonts, Bjorn; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; van Gorkom, Jacqueline
2008-01-01
We present results of a study of large-scale neutral hydrogen (HI) gas in nearby radio galaxies. We find that the early-type host galaxies of different types of radio sources (compact, FR-I and FR-II) appear to contain fundamentally different large-scale HI properties: enormous regular rotating
Database development of fundamental properties for the buffer material in Japan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, Hirohito; Tanai, Kenji; Yui, Mikazu
2005-01-01
By the second progress report (H12 report) on research and development for the geological disposal of High-Level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) extended the database of basic properties for compacted bentonite, which were mainly saturated with distilled water as test fluid. This paper presents the effect of salinity on the basic properties of the buffer material and the status of the database development of the buffer material. For the basic properties of the buffer material, the hydraulic, swelling and mechanical properties of Kunigel V1 bentonite decrease due to the effect of salinity. The correlation among effective clay density, intrinsic permeability, swelling pressure, and unconfined compressive strength was obtained. The prototype database of fundamental properties not only for the buffer material but also for the backfill material was developed for the design of the HLW repository, through these experimental results. (author)
SPATIAL MODELLING FOR DESCRIBING SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN EASTERN CROATIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Bogunović
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize the field-scale spatial variability and test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of penetration resistance (PR, bulk density (BD and gravimetric water content (GWC in the silty loam soil in Eastern Croatia. The measurements were made on a 25 x 25-m grid which created 40 individual grid cells. Soil properties were measured at the center of the grid cell deep 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. Results demonstrated that PR and GWC displayed strong spatial dependence at 0-10 cm BD, while there was moderate and weak spatial dependence of PR, BD and GWC at depth of 10-20 cm. Semi-variogram analysis suggests that future sampling intervals for investigated parameters can be increased to 35 m in order to reduce research costs. Additionally, interpolation models recorded similar root mean square values with high predictive accuracy. Results suggest that investigated properties do not have uniform interpolation method implying the need for spatial modelling in the evaluation of these soil properties in Eastern Croatia.
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do the same accountability and control procedures described above apply to Federal property? 900.58 Section 900.58 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.58 Do the same accountability and...
Fundamental properties of Afro-American hair as related to their straightening relaxing behaviour
Quadflieg, Jutta Maria
2003-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to improve the current understanding of straightening processes in Afro hair by alkaline treatment. It is therefore fundamentally important to gain a more detailed insight into the properties of Afro-American hair. The geometry of Afro-American hair has been initially investigated by cross-sections of hair. The apparent diameter of Afro-American hair is dependent on gender. Furthermore, differences between Caucasian, Asian and Afro hair, with respect to their morphol...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, W.H.; Costa, D.A.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this work was to establish a capability for the measurement of fundamental thermodynamic properties of actinide elements in room temperature molten salts. This capability will be used to study in detail the actinide chloro- and oxo- coordination chemistries that dominate in the chloride-based molten salt media. Uranium will be the first actinide element under investigation
Cichański, Artur; Nowicki, Krzysztof; Mazurkiewicz, Adam; Topoliński, Tomasz
2010-01-01
The paper presents linear, logarithmic and exponential regression tabecular bone indices, fractal dimensions and strength. The analysis of the above parameters was supported by determining non-parametric correlation coefficients: Spearman's ρ, gamma and Kendall's τ. The principal components' analysis (PCA) was also performed in order to reduce the number of indices describing the variance in the data set. The analysis showed the most independent indices: lacunarity (λm, λmin, λmax), BMD, Conn.D., SMI, DA, ρA and age.
On the Construction and Properties of Weak Solutions Describing Dynamic Cavitation
Miroshnikov, Alexey
2014-08-21
We consider the problem of dynamic cavity formation in isotropic compressible nonlinear elastic media. For the equations of radial elasticity we construct self-similar weak solutions that describe a cavity emanating from a state of uniform deformation. For dimensions d=2,3 we show that cavity formation is necessarily associated with a unique precursor shock. We also study the bifurcation diagram and do a detailed analysis of the singular asymptotics associated to cavity initiation as a function of the cavity speed of the self-similar profiles. We show that for stress free cavities the critical stretching associated with dynamically cavitating solutions coincides with the critical stretching in the bifurcation diagram of equilibrium elasticity. Our analysis treats both stress-free cavities and cavities with contents.
Ethington, Jason; Goldmeier, David; Gaynes, Bruce I
2017-03-01
To identify pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) metrics that aid in mechanistic understanding of dosage considerations for prolonged corneal anesthesia. A rabbit model using 0.5% tetracaine hydrochloride was used to induce corneal anesthesia in conjunction with Cochet-Bonnet anesthesiometry. Metrics were derived describing PD-PK parameters of the time-dependent domain of recovery in corneal sensitivity. Curve fitting used a 1-phase exponential dissociation paradigm assuming a 1-compartment PK model. Derivation of metrics including half-life and mean ligand residence time, tau (τ), was predicted by nonlinear regression. Bioavailability was determined by area under the curve of the dose-response relationship with varying drop volumes. Maximal corneal anesthesia maintained a plateau with a recovery inflection at the approximate time of predicted corneal drug half-life. PDs of recovery of corneal anesthesia were consistent with a first-order drug elimination rate. The mean ligand residence time (tau, τ) was 41.7 minutes, and half-life was 28.89 minutes. The mean estimated corneal elimination rate constant (ke) was 0.02402 minute. Duration of corneal anesthesia ranged from 55 to 58 minutes. There was no difference in time domain PD area under the curve between drop volumes. Use of a small drop volume of a topical anesthetic (as low as 11 μL) is bioequivalent to conventional drop size and seems to optimize dosing regiments with a little effect on ke. Prolongation of corneal anesthesia may therefore be best achieved with administration of small drop volumes at time intervals corresponding to the half-life of drug decay from the corneal compartment.
How do spiral arm contrasts relate to bars, disc breaks and other fundamental galaxy properties?
Bittner, Adrian; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, Evangelie; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Bosma, Albert; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos
2017-10-01
We investigate how the properties of spiral arms relate to other fundamental galaxy properties, including bars and disc breaks. We use previously published measurements of those properties, and our own measurements of arm and bar contrasts for a large sample of galaxies, using 3.6 μm images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Flocculent galaxies are clearly distinguished from other spiral arm classes, especially by their lower stellar mass and surface density. Multi-armed and grand-design galaxies are similar in most of their fundamental parameters, excluding some bar properties and the bulge-to-total ratio. Based on these results, we revisit the sequence of spiral arm classes, and discuss classical bulges as a necessary condition for standing spiral wave modes in grand-design galaxies. We find a strong correlation between bulge-to-total ratio and bar contrast, and a weaker correlation between arm and bar contrasts. Barred and unbarred galaxies exhibit similar arm contrasts, but the highest arm contrasts are found exclusively in barred galaxies. Interestingly, the bar contrast, and its increase from flocculent to grand-design galaxies, is systematically more significant than that of the arm contrast. We corroborate previous findings concerning a connection between bars and disc breaks. In particular, in grand-design galaxies, the bar contrast correlates with the normalized disc break radius. This does not hold for other spiral arm classes or the arm contrast. Our measurements of arm and bar contrast and radial contrast profiles are publicly available.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gladush, M.G.
2017-01-01
A many particle quantum-kinetic formalism is suggested to derive the Maxwell-Bloch-type equations which describe the interaction of quantum emitters with light in a frozen dielectric. It is shown that the quantum-kinetic formalism can meet the concept of local variations of dielectric properties and their influence on the emitter. The definitions of the local response and the effective refractive index in macroscopically homogeneous media are discussed.
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE-CERN) at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility is aiming at high-precision comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons, such as charge-to-mass ratios, magnetic moments and lifetimes. Such experiments provide sensitive tests of the fundamental charge-parity-time invariance in the baryon sector. BASE was approved in 2013 and has measured since then, utilizing single-particle multi-Penning-trap techniques, the antiproton-to-proton charge-to-mass ratio with a fractional precision of 69 p.p.t. [1], as well as the antiproton magnetic moment with fractional precisions of 0.8 p.p.m. and 1.5 p.p.b., respectively [2]. At our matter companion experiment BASE-Mainz, we have performed proton magnetic moment measurements with fractional uncertainties of 3.3 p.p.b. [3] and 0.3 p.p.b. [4]. By combining the data of both experiments we provide a baryon-magnetic-moment based CPT test gpbar/gp = 1.000 000 000 2(15), which improves the uncertainty of p...
Fundamental statistical features and self-similar properties of tagged networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illes J; Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas; Derenyi, Imre
2008-01-01
We investigate the fundamental statistical features of tagged (or annotated) networks having a rich variety of attributes associated with their nodes. Tags (attributes, annotations, properties, features, etc) provide essential information about the entity represented by a given node, thus, taking them into account represents a significant step towards a more complete description of the structure of large complex systems. Our main goal here is to uncover the relations between the statistical properties of the node tags and those of the graph topology. In order to better characterize the networks with tagged nodes, we introduce a number of new notions, including tag-assortativity (relating link probability to node similarity), and new quantities, such as node uniqueness (measuring how rarely the tags of a node occur in the network) and tag-assortativity exponent. We apply our approach to three large networks representing very different domains of complex systems. A number of the tag related quantities display analogous behaviour (e.g. the networks we studied are tag-assortative, indicating possible universal aspects of tags versus topology), while some other features, such as the distribution of the node uniqueness, show variability from network to network allowing for pin-pointing large scale specific features of real-world complex networks. We also find that for each network the topology and the tag distribution are scale invariant, and this self-similar property of the networks can be well characterized by the tag-assortativity exponent, which is specific to each system.
Scaling properties of SU(2) gauge theory with mixed fundamental-adjoint action
Rinaldi, Enrico; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio
2012-01-01
We study the phase diagram of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory with fundamental-adjoint Wilson plaquette action. We confirm the presence of a first order bulk phase transition and we estimate the location of its end-point in the bare parameter space. If this point is second order, the theory is one of the simplest realizations of a lattice gauge theory admitting a continuum limit at finite bare couplings. All the relevant gauge observables are monitored in the vicinity of the fixed point with very good control over finite-size effects. The scaling properties of the low-lying glueball spectrum are studied while approaching the end-point in a controlled manner.
Investigating fundamental properties of wind turbine wake structure using particle image velocimetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whale, J. [Univ. of Edinburgh, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
1997-08-01
Low Reynolds number flow visualization tests are often used for showing the flow pattern changes associated with changes in lift-coefficients at a higher Reynolds number. In wind turbine studies, analysis of measured wake structures at small scale may reveal fundamental properties of the wake which will offer wake modellers a more complete understanding of rotor flows. Measurements are presented from experiments on a model wind turbine rig conducted in a water channel. The laser-optics technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to make simultaneous multi-point measurements of the wake flow behind small-scale rotors. Analysis of the PIV data shows trends in velocity and vorticity structure in the wake. Study of the flow close to the rotor plane reveals information on stalled flow and blade performance. (au)
Dieterich, Sergio; Henry, Todd; Jao, W.-C.; Washington, Robert; Silverstein, Michele; Winters, J.; RECONS
2018-01-01
We present a detailed comparison of atmospheric model predictions and photometric observations for late M and L dwarfs. We discuss which wavelength regions are best for determining the fundamental properties of these cool stellar and substellar atmospheres and use this analysis to refine the HR diagram for the hydrogen burning limit first presented in 2014. We also add several new objects to the HR diagram and find little qualitative difference in the HR diagram's overall morphology when compared to our 2014 results. The L2 dwarf 2MASS 0523-1403 remains the smallest hydrogen burning star for which we calculated a radius, thus likely indicating the end of the stellar main sequence. This work is supported by the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship program through grant AST-1400680.
Miyoshi, Kazuhisa
1998-01-01
This chapter presents the adhesion, friction, and wear behaviors of smooth, atomically clean surfaces of solid-solid couples, such as metal-ceramic couples, in a clean environment. Surface and bulk properties, which determine the adhesion, friction, and wear behaviors of solid-solid couples, are described. The primary emphasis is on the nature and character of the metal, especially its surface energy and ductility. Also, the mechanisms of friction and wear for clean, smooth surfaces are stated.
Fundamental properties of fracture and seismicity in a non extensive statistical physics framework.
Vallianatos, Filippos
2010-05-01
A fundamental challenge in many scientific disciplines concerns upscaling, that is, of determining the regularities and laws of evolution at some large scale, from those known at a lower scale. Earthquake physics is no exception, with the challenge of understanding the transition from the laboratory scale to the scale of fault networks and large earthquakes. In this context, statistical physics has a remarkably successful work record in addressing the upscaling problem in physics. It is natural then to consider that the physics of many earthquakes has to be studied with a different approach than the physics of one earthquake and in this sense we can consider the use of statistical physics not only appropriate but necessary to understand the collective properties of earthquakes [see Corral 2004, 2005a,b,c;]. A significant attempt is given in a series of works [Main 1996; Rundle et al., 1997; Main et al., 2000; Main and Al-Kindy, 2002; Rundle et al., 2003; Vallianatos and Triantis, 2008a] that uses classical statistical physics to describe seismicity. Then a natural question arises. What type of statistical physics is appropriate to commonly describe effects from fracture level to seismicity scale?? The application of non extensive statistical physics offers a consistent theoretical framework, based on a generalization of entropy, to analyze the behavior of natural systems with fractal or multi-fractal distribution of their elements. Such natural systems where long - range interactions or intermittency are important, lead to power law behavior. We note that this is consistent with a classical thermodynamic approach to natural systems that rapidly attain equilibrium, leading to exponential-law behavior. In the frame of non extensive statistical physics approach, the probability function p(X) is calculated using the maximum entropy formulation of Tsallis entropy which involves the introduction of at least two constraints (Tsallis et al., 1998). The first one is the
Luminescence properties of KCl:Ag{sup -} crystals excited near the fundamental absorption edge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawai, Taketoshi, E-mail: buri@p.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Hirai, Takeshi [Department of Physical Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Noji Higashi 1-1-1, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)
2012-02-15
Luminescence properties of KCl single crystals doped with Ag{sup -} centers have been investigated under various excitation energies around the fundamental absorption edge at low temperatures. Under the excitation at 6.89 eV, which is lower than the intrinsic exciton energy by 0.87 eV, the A Prime luminescence band due to the intraionic transition in the Ag{sup -} ion is dominantly observed at 2.91 eV. On the other hand, the excitation at 6.66 eV induces a broad luminescence band at 2.60 eV in addition to the A Prime luminescence band. From the comparison with the localized excitons in KCl:I crystals, the 2.60 eV luminescence band is attributed to the two-center type localized exciton related with the Ag{sup -} ion. The adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the excited states in the Ag{sup -} center and the localized exciton in KCl:Ag{sup -} are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the luminescence properties of KCl single crystals doped with Ag{sup -} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excitation around the absorption edge induces a broad luminescence at 2.60 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 2.60 eV luminescence is attributed to the exciton localized at the Ag{sup -} ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The localized exciton has the two-center type configuration of the relaxed exciton.
Howard, Jason; Hood, Zachary D.; Holzwarth, N. A. W.
2017-12-01
Solid-state electrolytes that are compatible with high-capacity electrodes are expected to enable the next generation of batteries. As a promising example, Li2OHCl was reported to have good ionic conductivity and to be compatible with a lithium metal anode even at temperatures above 100 ∘C . In this work, we explore the fundamental properties of Li2OHCl by comparing simulations and experiments. Using calculations based on density functional theory, including both static and dynamic contributions through the quasiharmonic approximation, we model a tetragonal ground state, which is not observed experimentally. An ordered orthorhombic low-temperature phase was also simulated, agreeing with experimental structural analysis of the pristine electrolyte at room temperature. In addition, comparison of the ordered structures with simulations of the disordered cubic phase provide insight into the mechanisms associated with the experimentally observed abrupt increase in ionic conductivity as the system changes from its ordered orthorhombic to its disordered cubic phase. A large Haven ratio for the disordered cubic phase is inferred from the computed tracer diffusion coefficient and measured ionic conductivity, suggesting highly correlated motions of the mobile Li ions in the cubic phase of Li2OHCl . We find that the OH bond orientations participate in gating the Li ion motions which might partially explain the predicted Li-Li correlations.
Goings, Joshua James
Time-dependent electronic structure theory has the power to predict and probe the ways electron dynamics leads to useful phenomena and spectroscopic data. Here we report several advances and extensions of broken-symmetry time-dependent electronic structure theory in order to capture the flexibility required to describe non-equilibrium spin dynamics, as well as electron dynamics for chiroptical properties and vibrational effects. In the first half, we begin by discussing the generalization of self-consistent field methods to the so-called two-component structure in order to capture non-collinear spin states. This means that individual electrons are allowed to take a superposition of spin-1/2 projection states, instead of being constrained to either spin-up or spin-down. The system is no longer a spin eigenfunction, and is known a a spin-symmetry broken wave function. This flexibility to break spin symmetry may lead to variational instabilities in the approximate wave function, and we discuss how these may be overcome. With a stable non-collinear wave function in hand, we then discuss how to obtain electronic excited states from the non-collinear reference, along with associated challenges in their physical interpretation. Finally, we extend the two-component methods to relativistic Hamiltonians, which is the proper setting for describing spin-orbit driven phenomena. We describe the first implementation of the explicit time propagation of relativistic two-component methods and how this may be used to capture spin-forbidden states in electronic absorption spectra. In the second half, we describe the extension of explicitly time-propagated wave functions to the simulation of chiroptical properties, namely circular dichroism (CD) spectra of chiral molecules. Natural circular dichroism, that is, CD in the absence of magnetic fields, originates in the broken parity symmetry of chiral molecules. This proves to be an efficient method for computing circular dichroism spectra
Fundamental and dynamic properties of intermixed InGaAs-InGaAsP quantum-well lasers
Chen, Cheng
2010-09-01
The fundamental and dynamic properties of InGaAs-InGaAsP lasers, where emission wavelengths were blue-shifted by quantum-well intermixing through ion implantation and annealing, were investigated to assess possible degradation by intermixing. It was found that the fundamental properties such as threshold current and slope efficiency were largely unchanged even after as much as 120 nm of wavelength shift. Meanwhile, the dynamic properties such as modulation efficiency and K factor were degraded after just a moderate degree of intermixing, but the degradation was not worsened by further intermixing. Provided the finite degradation of dynamic properties is tolerable, the present intermixing technique will be very useful for the fabrication of photonic integrated circuits. © 2006 IEEE.
Generation of individual diversity: a too neglected fundamental property of adaptive immune system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric eMuraille
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The fitness gains resulting from development of the adaptive immune system (AIS during evolution are still the subject of hot debate. A large random repertoire of antigenic receptors is costly to develop and could be the source of autoimmune reactions. And yet, despite their drawbacks, AIS-like systems seem to have been independently acquired in several phyla of metazoans with very different anatomies, longevities and lifestyles. This article is a speculative attempt to explore the selective pressures which favoured this striking convergent evolution. It is well known that the AIS enables an organism to produce a specific immune response against all natural or artificial antigenic structures. However, it is frequently neglected that this response is highly variable among individuals. In practice, each individual possesses a private adaptive immune repertoire. This individualisation of immune defences implies that invasion and escape immune mechanisms developed by pathogens will certainly not always be successful as the specific targets and organisation of the immune response are somewhat unpredictable. In a population where individuals display heterogeneous immune responses to infection, the probability that a pathogen is able to infect all individuals could be reduced compared to a homogeneous population. This suggests that the individual diversity of the immune repertoire is not a by-product of the AIS but of its fundamental properties and could be in part responsible for repeated selection and conservation of the AIS during metazoan evolution. The capacity of the AIS to improve the management of cooperative or parasitic symbiotic relationships at the individual level could be a secondary development due to its progressive integration into the innate immune system. This hypothesis constitutes a new scenario for AIS emergence and explains the selection of MHC restriction and MHC diversification.
Koole, R.
2008-01-01
This thesis focuses on both the fundamental aspects as well as applications of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, also called quantum dots (QDs). Due to the unique size-dependent optical and electronic properties of QDs, they hold great promise for a wide range of applications like solar cells,
Tichý, Jan; Kittinger, Erwin; Prívratská, Jana; Privatska, Jana; Janovec, Vaclav
2010-01-01
This book presents the physics of piezoleletric sensors in a straight-forward and easy-to-grasp way, from the fundamentals of phenomenological crystal physics through more complex concepts, to its explanation of several important piezoelectric materials.
Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X.
Measurements of local material properties of complex biological systems (e.g. live cells and viruses) in their respective physiological conditions are extremely important in the fields of biophysics, nanotechnology, material science, and nanomedicine. Yet, little is known about the structure-function-property relationship of live cells and viruses. In the case of live cells, the measurements of progressive variations in viscoelastic properties in vitro can provide insight to the mechanistic processes underpinning morphogenesis, mechano-transduction, motility, metastasis, and many more fundamental cellular processes. In the case of living viruses, the relationship between capsid structural framework and the role of the DNA molecule interaction within viruses influencing their stiffness, damping and electrostatic properties can shed light in virological processes like protein subunits assembly/dissassembly, maturation, and infection. The study of mechanics of live cells and viruses has been limited in part due to the lack of technology capable of acquiring high-resolution (nanoscale, subcellular) images of its heterogeneous material properties which vary widely depending on origin and physical interaction. The capabilities of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for measuring forces and topography with sub-nm precision have greatly contributed to research related to biophysics and biomechanics during the past two decades. AFM based biomechanical studies have the unique advantage of resolving/mapping spatially the local material properties over living cells and viruses. However, conventional AFM techniques such as force-volume and quasi-static force-distance curves are too low resolution and low speed to resolve interesting biophysical processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics for cells or assembly/dissasembly of viruses. To overcome this bottleneck, a novel atomic force microscopy mode is developed, that leads to sub-10-nm resolution and sub-15-minutes mapping of local
Ulmer, S; Mooser, A; Nagahama, H; Sellner, S; Smorra, C
2018-03-28
The BASE collaboration investigates the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons, such as charge-to-mass ratios and magnetic moments, using advanced cryogenic Penning trap systems. In recent years, we performed the most precise measurement of the magnetic moments of both the proton and the antiproton, and conducted the most precise comparison of the proton-to-antiproton charge-to-mass ratio. In addition, we have set the most stringent constraint on directly measured antiproton lifetime, based on a unique reservoir trap technique. Our matter/antimatter comparison experiments provide stringent tests of the fundamental charge-parity-time invariance, which is one of the fundamental symmetries of the standard model of particle physics. This article reviews the recent achievements of BASE and gives an outlook to our physics programme in the ELENA era.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'. © 2018 The Authors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huber, D.; Ireland, M.J.; Bedding, T.R.
2012-01-01
We present results of a long-baseline interferometry campaign using the PAVO beam combiner at the CHARA Array to measure the angular sizes of five main-sequence stars, one subgiant and four red giant stars for which solar-like oscillations have been detected by either Kepler or CoRoT. By combining...... interferometric angular diameters, Hipparcos parallaxes, asteroseismic densities, bolometric fluxes, and high-resolution spectroscopy, we derive a full set of near-model-independent fundamental properties for the sample. We first use these properties to test asteroseismic scaling relations for the frequency...
Quantifying the risks of solid aerosol geoengineering: the role of fundamental material properties
Dykema, J. A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Keith, D.
2017-12-01
Solid aerosols have been considered as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering due to their optical and chemical properties, which lead to different and possibly more attractive risk profiles. Solid aerosols can achieve higher solar scattering efficiency due to their higher refractive index, and in some cases may also be less effective absorbers of thermal infrared radiation. The optical properties of solid aerosols are however sensitive functions of the detailed physical properties of solid materials in question. The relevant details include the exact crystalline structure of the aerosols, the physical size of the particles, and interactions with background stratospheric molecular and particulate constituents. In this work, we examine the impact of these detailed physical properties on the radiative properties of calcite (CaCO3) solid aerosols. We examine how crystal morphology, size, chemical reactions, and interaction with background stratospheric aerosol may alter the scattering and absorption properties of calcite aerosols for solar and thermal infrared radiation. For example, in small particles, crystal lattice vibrations associated with the particle surface may lead to substantially different infrared absorption properties than bulk materials. We examine the wavelength dependence of absorption by the particles, which may lead to altered patterns of stratospheric radiative heating and equilibrium temperatures. Such temperature changes can lead to dynamical changes, with consequences for both stratospheric composition and tropospheric climate. We identify important uncertainties in the current state of understanding, investigate risks associated with these uncertainties, and survey potential approaches to quantitatively improving our knowledge of the relevant material properties.
Fundamental ecology is fundamental.
Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E
2015-01-01
The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Josefík, F.; Mikysek, T.; Svobodová, M.; Šimůnek, P.; Kvapilová, Hana; Ludvík, Jiří
2014-01-01
Roč. 33, č. 18 (2014), s. 4931-4939 ISSN 0276-7333 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : 4-COORDINATE ORGANOBORON COMPOUNDS * HETEROAROMATIC- COMPOUNDS * LUMINESCENT PROPERTIES Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.126, year: 2014
Ab initio calculations of fundamental properties of SrTe1−xOx alloys
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J Zeroual et al by Vegard's law [19], but this is not the case of the band gap value. To help, understand and control the material and behaviour of bowing and related properties, we have inves- tigated the effect of the O concentration on the structural, electronic and optical properties of the SrTe1−xOx alloys with O contents ...
2009-08-01
This study presents the numerical implementation and validation of general constitutive relationships for describing the : nonlinear behavior of asphalt concrete mixes. These constitutive relationships incorporate nonlinear viscoelasticity and : visc...
Wittmann, René; Marechal, Matthieu; Mecke, Klaus
2016-06-22
Density functional theory (DFT) for hard bodies provides a theoretical description of the effect of particle shape on inhomogeneous fluids. We present improvements of the DFT framework fundamental measure theory (FMT) for hard bodies and validate these improvements for hard spherocylinders. To keep the paper self-contained, we first discuss the recent advances in FMT for hard bodies that lead to the introduction of fundamental mixed measure theory (FMMT) in our previous paper (2015 Europhys. Lett. 109 26003). Subsequently, we provide an efficient semi-empirical alternative to FMMT and show that the phase diagram for spherocylinders is described with similar accuracy in both versions of the theory. Finally, we present a semi-empirical modification of FMMT whose predictions for the phase diagram for spherocylinders are in excellent quantitative agreement with computer simulation results.
Xian-jun Li; Ke-yang Lu; Lan-ying Lin; Yong-dong Zhou; Zhi-yong Cai; Feng Fu
2010-01-01
In this study, the effects of microwave radiation intensity, radiation time and initial wood moisture content (MC) on the properties of temperature development in Eucalyptus urophylla wood samples during the microwave explosion pretreatment have been investigated using a new microwave pretreatment equipment. The results show that 1) with the increase of microwave...
Ab initio calculations of fundamental properties of SrTe1−xOx alloys
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
form of the most popular Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE), while for electronic properties, in addition to LDA, GGA corrections; Engel–Vosko GGA (EV-GGA) and modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) schemes were also applied. The results show that the use of GGA (WC) in our calculations is more appropriate than GGA and LDA ...
Baral, Susil
Unique properties exhibited by metal nanoparticles at nanoscale have attracted a large amount of research attention and application in various aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition to several unique optical, electrical and physical properties; metal nanoparticles also exhibit "photothermal property" a special feature that makes them capable of absorbing an electromagnetic radiation and converting light energy into heat energy. As this heat generated by metal nanoparticles can be utilized to drive processes in numerous applications, understanding the heat generation and heat dissipation properties of a nanosystem and/or its surrounding is vital for its efficiency and performance. The research work presented in this dissertation explores the fundamental photothermal properties of optically excited gold nanostructures and the surrounding medium using trivalent erbium ion (Er3+) emission nanothermometry approach. Nanostructures are either fabricated or spin-coated on top of a thermal sensor film with Er3+, optically excited with 532 nm Continuous Wave (CW) laser and the relative photoluminescence intensities of Er3+ emission peaks are utilized for nanoscale temperature measurement and thermal imaging. The first project of this dissertation explores the fundamental aspects of application of photothermal property of plasmonic nanostructures for phase transformation of the surrounding water and hence steam generation. Two totally contrasting nucleation behavior of surrounding water is observed for the optical excitation of single gold nanostructures versus the colloidal solution of gold nanoparticles. The second project examines the effect of ions and ionic strength on surface plasmon extinction properties of single gold nanostructures. Performing nanoscale temperature measurement and single particle absorption and scattering measurements, we demonstrate how non-binding ions, even at the concentrations where they are not expected to bring about changes on
Fundamental Right to Property and Right to Housing in Nigeria: a Discourse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akintunde OTUBU
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Housing is one of the basic needs of human kind. Given its quintessential relevance to the overall development of man and the State; the question is posed: whether there is a right to adequate housing in the citizen to warrant a demand from the State to fulfill this right; and whether there should be such a right? This paper sets out to examine the concept of Right as it relates to housing and enters into a discourse as to whether there is a fundamental right to housing under Nigeria law. A corollary to the above is to answer the question whether such a right should be cognizable under Nigerian law. In a doctrinal research approach, the paper concedes that housing is a prerequisite to optimal utility of man and the state. Unfortunately, right to housing does not enjoy the same ranking with civil and political rights for obvious reasons enunciated in the paper. The implication is that there is no enforceable right to housing under our law. Notwithstanding, the paper posits that it is desirable for the State to create an enabling environment for the realization of this right because of its multiplier effect on the individual and the State.
Bertrand, Arnaud; Chaigneau, Alexis; Peraltilla, Salvador; Ledesma, Jesus; Graco, Michelle; Monetti, Florian; Chavez, Francisco P
2011-01-01
In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems. © 2011 Bertrand et al.
2017-07-31
Steel , Phase Transformations 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER a. REPORT b.ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT OF PAGES u u...Studies on Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties of Fusion Welds in Advanced Naval Steels Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-12-1-0475 Sc. PROGRAM...Release; distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT NUCu-140 and 10 wt% Ni steel were developed as candidate materials for use in
Some fundamental and applicative properties of [polymer/nano-SiC] hybrid nanocomposites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kassiba, A; Boucle, J; Makowska-Janusik, M; Errien, N
2007-01-01
Hybrid nanocomposites which combine polymer as host matrix and nanocrystals as active elements are promising functional materials for electronics, optics or photonics. In these systems, the physical response is governed by the nanocrystal features (size, surface and defect states), the polymer properties and the polymer-nanocrystal interface. This work reviews some selective nanostructured architectures based on active elements such as silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals and polymer host matrices. Beyond an overview of some key properties of the nanocrystals, a main part will be devoted to the electro-optical (EO) properties of SiC based hybrid systems where SiC nanocrystals are embedded in polymer matrices of different chemical nature such as poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly-vinylcarbazole (PVK) or polycarbonate. Using this approach, the organic-inorganic interface effects are emphasised with regard to the dielectric or hole transporting behaviour of PMMA and PVK respectively. These effects are illustrated through different EO responses associated with hybrid composites based on PMMA or PVK
The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation
Mierke, Claudia Tanja
2014-07-01
The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnaud Bertrand
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Sardinops sagax abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems.
The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mierke, Claudia Tanja
2014-01-01
The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in
Titov, Anatoly V.; Lomachuk, Yuriy V.; Skripnikov, Leonid V.
2014-01-01
A new approach for describing the effective electronic states of "atoms in compounds" to study the properties of molecules and condensed matter which are circumscribed by the operators heavily concentrated in atomic cores is proposed. Among the properties are hyperfine structure, space parity (P) and time reversal invariance (T) nonconservation effects, chemical shifts of x-ray emission lines (XES), M\\"{o}ssbauer effect, etc. Advantage of the approach is that a good quantitative agreement of ...
Parzen neural networks: Fundamentals, properties, and an application to forensic anthropology.
Trentin, Edmondo; Lusnig, Luca; Cavalli, Fabio
2018-01-01
A novel, unsupervised nonparametric model of multivariate probability density functions (pdf) is introduced, namely the Parzen neural network (PNN). The PNN is intended to overcome the major limitations of traditional (either statistical or neural) pdf estimation techniques. Besides being profitably simple, the PNN turns out to have nice properties in terms of unbiased modeling capability, asymptotic convergence, and efficiency at test time. Several matters pertaining the practical application of the PNN are faced in the paper, too. Experiments are reported, involving (i) synthetic datasets, and (ii) a challenging sex determination task from 1400 scout-view CT-scan images of human crania. Incidentally, the empirical evidence entails also some conclusions of high anthropological relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Self-organized criticality as a fundamental property of neural systems
Hesse, Janina; Gross, Thilo
2014-01-01
The neural criticality hypothesis states that the brain may be poised in a critical state at a boundary between different types of dynamics. Theoretical and experimental studies show that critical systems often exhibit optimal computational properties, suggesting the possibility that criticality has been evolutionarily selected as a useful trait for our nervous system. Evidence for criticality has been found in cell cultures, brain slices, and anesthetized animals. Yet, inconsistent results were reported for recordings in awake animals and humans, and current results point to open questions about the exact nature and mechanism of criticality, as well as its functional role. Therefore, the criticality hypothesis has remained a controversial proposition. Here, we provide an account of the mathematical and physical foundations of criticality. In the light of this conceptual framework, we then review and discuss recent experimental studies with the aim of identifying important next steps to be taken and connections to other fields that should be explored. PMID:25294989
FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF THE HIGHLY IONIZED PLASMAS IN THE MILKY WAY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehner, N.; Zech, W. F.; Howk, J. C.; Savage, B. D.
2011-01-01
The cooling transition temperature gas in the interstellar medium (ISM), traced by the high ions, Si IV, C IV, N V, and O VI, helps to constrain the flow of energy from the hot ISM with T>10 6 K to the warm ISM with T 4 K. We investigate the properties of this gas along the lines of sight to 38 stars in the Milky Way disk using 1.5-2.7 km s -1 resolution spectra of Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, and 15 km s -1 resolution spectra of O VI absorption from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. The absorption by Si IV and C IV exhibits broad and narrow components while only broad components are seen in N V and O VI. The narrow components imply gas with T 4 K and trace two distinct types of gas. The strong, saturated, and narrow Si IV and C IV components trace the gas associated with the vicinities of O-type stars and their supershells. The weaker narrow Si IV and C IV components trace gas in the general ISM that is photoionized by the EUV radiation from cooling hot gas or has radiatively cooled in a non-equilibrium manner from the transition temperature phase, but rarely the warm-ionized medium probed by Al III. The broad Si IV, C IV, N V, and O VI components trace collisionally ionized gas that is very likely undergoing a cooling transition from the hot ISM to the warm ISM. The cooling process possibly provides the regulation mechanism that produces (N(C IV)/N(Si IV)) = 3.9 ± 1.9. The cooling process also produces absorption lines where the median and mean values of the line widths increase with the energy required to create the ion.
Almansour, Amjad S.
The room and high temperature mechanical properties of continuous ceramic fiber reinforced matrix composites makes them attractive for implementation in aerospace and nuclear applications. However, the effect of fiber content has not been addressed in previous work. Therefore, single tow composites with fiber content ranging from 3 to 47 % was studied. Single fiber tow minicomposite is the basic architectural feature of woven and laminate ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). An in depth understanding of the initiation and evolution of damage in various ceramic fiber reinforced minicomposites with different fiber volume fractions and interphases was investigated employing several non-destructive evaluation techniques. A new technique is used to determine matrix crack content based on a damage parameter derived from speed of sound measurements which is compared with the established method using cumulative energy of Acoustic Emission (AE) events. Also, a modified theoretical model was implemented to obtain matrix stress at the onset of matrix cracking. Room temperature tensile, high temperature creep rupture and high temperature oxidation degradation loading conditions were all considered and composites' constituents were characterized. Moreover, fibers/matrix load sharing was modeled in creep and fiber volume fraction effect on load transfer was investigated using derived theoretical models. Fibers and matrix creep parameters, load transfer model results and numerical model methodology were used to construct minicomposites' creep strain model to predict creep damage of the different fiber type and content minicomposites. Furthermore, different fiber volume fractions ceramic matrix minicomposites' electrical resistivity temperature dependence isn't well understood. Therefore, the influence of fiber content, heat treatment cycles and creep on electrical resistivity measurements of SiC/SiC minicomposites were also studied here. Next, minicomposites' testing and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stubbins, James; Heuser, Brent; Hosemann, Peter; Liu, Xiang
2018-04-24
This final technical report summarizes the research performed during October 2014 and December 2017, with a focus on investigating the radiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property modifications in optimized advanced alloys for sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) structural applications. To accomplish these objectives, the radiation responses of several different advanced alloys, including austenitic steel Alloy 709 (A709) and 316H, and ferritic/ martensitic Fe–9Cr steels T91 and G92, were investigated using a combination of microstructure characterizations and nanoindentation measurements. Different types of irradiation, including ex situ bulk ion irradiation and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ion irradiation, were employed in this study. Radiation-induced dislocations, precipitates, and voids were characterized by TEM. Scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) and/or atom probe tomography (APT) were used to study radiation-induced segregation and precipitation. Nanoindentation was used for hardness measurements to study irradiation hardening. Austenitic A709 and 316H was bulk-irradiated by 3.5 MeV Fe++ ions to up to 150 peak dpa at 400, 500, and 600°. Compared to neutron-irradiated stainless steel (SS) 316, the Frank loop density of ion-irradiated A709 shows similar dose dependence at 400°, but very different temperature dependence. Due to the noticeable difference in the initial microstructure of A709 and 316H, no systematic comparison on the Frank loops in A709 vs 316H was made. It would be helpful that future ion irradiation study on 316 stainless steel could be conducted to directly compare the temperature dependence of Frank loop density in ion-irradiated 316 SS with that in neutron-irradiated 316 SS. In addition, future neutron irradiation on A709 at 400–600° at relative high dose (>10 dpa) can be carried out to compare with ion-irradiated A709. The radiation
Yashchuk, Valeriy M.; Kudrya, Vladislav Yu
2017-03-01
This paper summarizes the results of studies of the spectral properties—optical absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence—of DNA and RNA macromolecules and synthetic poly-, oligo- and mono-nucleotides, which have been carried out in our laboratory. The system of first excited singlet and triplet energy levels for DNA and RNA is evaluated using low-temperature (4.2 K-77 K) luminescent measurements. The traps of the singlet and triplet electronic excitations in these compounds are identified. An important self-protection mechanism against photo-damage of DNA and RNA by UV photons or penetrative radiation based on the capture of triplet electronic-energy excitations by the most photostable centers—in DNA, the complex formed by neighboring adenosine (A) and thymidine (T) links; in RNA, the adenosine links—is described. It is confirmed that despite similarities in the chemical and partly energy structures DNA is more stable than RNA. The spectral manifestation of the telomeres (the important functional system) in DNA macromolecules is examined. The results obtained on telomere fragments provide the possibility of finding the configuration peculiarities of the triplet excitations traps in DNA macromolecules. The resulting spreading length of the migrating singlet (l s) and triplet (l t) excitations for DNA and RNA macromolecules are evaluated.
Fundamental investigation of the transport properties of superacids in aqueous and non-aqueous media
Suarez, Sophia
In the quest to develop more efficient energy providers one of the main focus of research has been on the improvement of ion transport. In lithium battery research this has led to the incorporation of various lithium salts, ceramics and plasticizers into the poly(ethylene)oxide (PEO) matrix, the polymer most used In Proton Conduction Membrane (PCM) fuel cell research this has led to the development of new membranes, which are designed with to replicate Nafion's ((c)DuPont) proton transport but also improve upon its deficiency of transporting intact fuel molecules and its dependence upon the presence of solvating water molecules. To better understand the process of ion transport, NMR was used to investigate dynamic properties such as D (self-diffusion coefficient) and T1 (spin-lattice relaxation time) of various proton and lithium ion-conducting systems. Ionic conductivity and viscosity measurements were also performed. The systems studied includes aqueous superacid solutions (trifluoromethanesulfonic (TFSA), para-toluenesulfonic (PTSA) and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI)); nano-porous (NP-) PCM's incorporating various ceramics and 3M fuel/2M H2SO4 solutions; and P(EO)20LiBETI (LiN(SO 2CF2CF3)2 composite incorporating SiO 2 ceramic nano particles. The objective of the study of the superacid solutions was to determine the effect of concentration on the transport. It was found that beyond the ionic conductivity maximum, fluctuations in both D and T1 supports the existence of local ordering in the ionic network, caused by the reduced solvent dielectric coefficient and increasing viscosity. Of the three superacids TFSA was the most conductive and most affected by reduced solvent concentration. For the P(EO)20LiBETI composite the aim was to determine the effect of the ceramic on the ion transport of the composite in a solvent free environment. Results show that the ceramic causes only modest increase in the lithium transport below 90°C. The objective in the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
P. C. M. Vinhal, Andre; Yan, Wei; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.
2017-01-01
and the asymptotic one near the critical point. Although several crossover EOSs have been developed in the last decades their use in modeling industrial processes is rather limited. In this work, we use the crossover Soave–Redlich–Kwong (CSRK) to describe phase equilibrium and critical properties of pure n......-alkanes and methane/n-alkane binary mixtures and compare the results to two other modeling approaches of the SRK EOS. In the case of the pure fluids, CSRK gives an accurate overall description of the phase equilibrium and critical properties; nevertheless, a minor increase in the deviation of the saturation pressure...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deslattes, R.; Dombeck, T.; Greene, G.; Ramsey, N.; Rauch, H.; Werner, S.
1984-01-01
Fundamental physics experiments of merit can be conducted at the proposed intense neutron sources. Areas of interest include: neutron particle properties, neutron wave properties, and fundamental physics utilizing reactor produced γ-rays. Such experiments require intense, full-time utilization of a beam station for periods ranging from several months to a year or more
Scarcella, Akimi; Page, Ruairi; Furtado, Vivek
2016-01-01
Currently, terrorism and suicide bombing are global psychosocial processes that attracts a growing number of psychological and psychiatric contributions to enhance practical counter-terrorism measures. The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism. A systematic search strategy was established to identify instruments and studies developed to screen individuals at risk of committing extremist or terrorist offences using 20 different databases across the fields of law, medicine, psychology, sociology and politics. Information extracted was consolidated into two different tables and a 26-item checklist, reporting respectively background information, the psychometric properties of each tool, and the methodological quality markers of these tools. 37 articles met our criteria, which included a total of 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, 17 tools developed as research measures, and 9 inventories that have not been generated from a study. Just over half of the methodological quality markers required for a transparent methodological description of the instruments were reported. The amount of reported psychological properties was even fewer, with only a third of them available across the different studies. The category presenting the least satisfactory results was that containing the 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, which can be explained by the fact that half of them refrained from publishing the major part of their findings and relevant guidelines. A great number of flaws have been identified through this systematic review. The authors encourage future researchers to be more thorough, comprehensive and transparent in their methodology. They also recommend the creation of a multi-disciplinary joint working group in order to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaudhuri, N.K.; Sawant, R.M.
1997-09-01
Stability constants of the fluoride complexes of the actinides in different oxidation states measured by potentiometric method using fluoride ion selective electrode have been presented. Procedure and precautions required to overcome certain difficulties particular to actinide ions have been discussed. Literature data from various sources have been compiled. In order to have a reasonable comparison the stability constant (β 1 ) values obtained in diverse ionic strength media are converted to thermodynamic stability constant, β 1 0 , using Davies equation (a modification of Debye-Huckel equation). A correlation of the β 1 0 values with the fundamental properties of the actinide ions using various models available in the literature has been attempted. A semiempirical relation recently developed by Brown, Sylva and Ellis (BSE equation) appears to be most suitable. Using the values of ionic radii and best available values of the stability constants of a large number of metal ions from recent compilations a comparative study of the various models or relations available in the literature has been tried. For metal ions in general, the best correlation is obtained with the BSE equation. In an attempt to accommodate the unusual trend in the stability constants of the tetravalent actinides a modification in a parameter of the BSE equation has been proposed. Good agreement between the theoretically calculated and experimentally determined values for actinides in different oxidation states is then obtained in most of the cases. (author)
Harb, Moussab
2016-03-08
The author retracts this article due to similarities with a previously published article by Le Bahers, T.; Rerat, M.; Sautet, ́ P. Semiconductors Used in Photovoltaic and Photocatalytic Devices: Assessing Fundamental Properties from DFT. J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118 (12), 5997−6008 (DOI: 10.1021/jp409724c).
In this chapter, definitions of dielectric properties, or permittivity, of materials and a brief discussion of the fundamental principles governing their behavior with respect to influencing factors are presented. The basic physics of the influence of frequency of the electric fields and temperatur...
Babu, V
2014-01-01
Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav
Singh, Harjit
2011-01-01
""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag
Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl
2017-01-01
Now in its sixth edition this successful undergraduate textbook gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The chapters on galactic and extragalactic astronomy as well as cosmology were extensively modernized in the previous edition. In this new edition they have been further revised to include more recent results. The long chapter on the solar system has been split into two parts: the first one deals with the general properties, and the other one describes individual objects. A new chapter on exoplanets has been added to the end of the book next to the chapter on astrobiology. In response to the fact that astronomy has evolved enormously over the last few years, only a few chapters of this book have been left unmodified. Long considered a standard text for physical science maj...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberty, R.A.; Oppenheim, I.
1993-01-01
When temperature, pressure, and the partial pressure of a reactant are fixed, the criterion of chemical equilibrium can be expressed in terms of the transformed Gibbs energy G' that is obtained by using a Legendre transform involving the chemical potential of the reactant that is fixed. For reactions of ideal gases, the most natural variables to use in the fundamental equation are T, P', and P B , where P' is the partial pressure of the reactants other than the one that is fixed and P B is the partial pressure of the reactant that is fixed. The fundamental equation for G' yields the expression for the transformed entropy S', and a transformed enthalpy can be defined by the additional Legendre transform H'=G'+TS'. This leads to an additional form of the fundamental equation. The calculation of transformed thermodynamic properties and equilibrium compositions is discussed for a simple system and for a general multireaction system. The change, in a reaction, of the binding of the reactant that is at a specified pressure can be calculated using one of the six Maxwell equations of the fundamental equation in G'
Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan
2007-01-01
Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradhan, T.
1975-01-01
The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kolchigin Mikhail Aleksandrovich
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of implementation of principles of "green construction" in the Russian Federation. Despite the availability of the appropriate legislation in the field of environmental safety of construction, there are no legal, social, or economic incentives that may boost development of "green" technologies. Until recently, fundamentals of the state policy in the field of environmental protection of real estate development have not succeeded in motivating market players to implement advanced green technologies. However, recently, the government has begun motivating the construction industry towards the use of "green" technologies. The first activity is aimed at improving the legislation and updating the international voluntary certification according to BREAM and LEED standards. The result is the acceptance of the National Green Building Standard for real estate valuation that will open up new opportunities and prospects to the participants of the construction market. However, at the initial phase of implementation of "Fundamentals of the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation", government authorities should provide their support to proponents of green buildings, including financial inflows.
Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tiedje, Niels
2004-01-01
The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from ...
Describing migration spatial structure
Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J
The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a
Schubert, Thomas F
2015-01-01
This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to
Redmond, W H
2001-01-01
This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Masa, J
2013-01-01
Full Text Available implemented J. Masa K. Ozoemena W. Schuhmann J.H. Zagal (*) AU1Departamento de Quı´mica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quı´mica y Biologı´a, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago, Chile e-mail: jose.zagal@usach.cl M. Shao (ed... for tailoring their properties. For example, the 92properties of metalloporphyrins may be varied widely by means of substitution 93groups at the β and meso-positions of the ring (Fig. 7.1a). Furthermore, the concepts 94of supramolecular chemistry and molecular...
Teresa Cristina Fonseca Silva; Youssef Habibi; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Thomas Elder; Lucian A. Lucia
2012-01-01
Freeze-dried nanofibrillated cellulose based-aerogels were produced from cellulosic pulps extracted from Eucalyptus urograndis. Nanofibers were isolated under high pressure and modified with TEMPO-mediated oxidation and/or hydroxyapatite (HAp) to observe potential changes in mechanical properties. Two degrees of oxidation (DO), 0.1 and 0.2, were achieved as measured by...
Fundamentals of convolutional coding
Johannesson, Rolf
2015-01-01
Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The boundary-type hybrid finite element formulation coupling the Kirchhoff transformation is proposed for the two-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems in solids with or without circular holes, and the thermal conductivity of material is assumed to be in terms of temperature change. The Kirchhoff transformation is firstly used to convert the nonlinear partial differential governing equation into a linear one by introducing the Kirchhoff variable, and then the new linear system is solved by the present hybrid finite element model, in which the proper fundamental solutions associated with some field points are used to approximate the element interior fields and the conventional shape functions are employed to approximate the element frame fields. The weak integral functional is developed to link these two fields and establish the stiffness equation with sparse and symmetric coefficient matrix. Finally, the algorithm is verified on several examples involving various expressions of thermal conductivity and existence of circular hole, and numerical results show good accuracy and stability.
Higashi, Takuya; Fiderana Ramananarivo, Mihary; Ohmori, Masashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori
2015-04-01
Polymer blending effects on the properties of the mesogenic phthalocyanine thin films fabricated by heated spin-coating method were demonstrated. The spin-coated films of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2) blended with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) were prepared by controlling the temperatures of substrates and solutions with the mixed material, and the morphology and optical property of the fabricated film were studied. In the case of the low composite ratio of P3HT, the wide crack lines found in pure C6PcH2 films disappeared while maintaining the uniaxial aligned optic axis direction in the large-area with the diameters of exceeding 1 mm. The polymer blend effects were discussed by taking the anisotropic optical absorption and molecular stacking structure in the films into consideration.
Parameters Describing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Systems
Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce; Markham, Brian; Storey, Jim
2003-01-01
The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the
Knippenberg, Stefan
2016-10-07
Third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of polymethine dyes have been widely studied for applications such as all-optical switching. However, the limited accuracy of the current computational methodologies has prevented a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the lowest excited states and their influence on the molecular optical and NLO properties. Here, attention is paid to the lowest excited-state energies and their energetic ratio, as these characteristics impact the figure-of-merit for all-optical switching. For a series of model polymethines, we compare several algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) schemes for the polarization propagator with approximate second-order coupled cluster (CC2) theory, the widely used INDO/MRDCI approach and the symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction (SAC-CI) algorithm incorporating singles and doubles linked excitation operators (SAC-CI SD-R). We focus in particular on the ground-to-excited state transition dipole moments and the corresponding state dipole moments, since these quantities are found to be of utmost importance for an effective description of the third-order polarizability γ and two-photon absorption spectra. A sum-overstates expression has been used, which is found to quickly converge. While ADC(3/2) has been found to be the most appropriate method to calculate these properties, CC2 performs poorly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ekardt, Felix [Forschungsstelle Nachhaltigkeit und Klimapolitik (Germany); Rostock Univ. (Germany). Oeffentliches Recht und Rechtsphilosophie
2012-02-15
The German legislator plans the re-regulation of the plant safety for existing photovoltaic systems in order to avoid a massive shutdown of these plants, followed by network instability. The current re-regulation particularly is problematic for operators of small photovoltaic systems and is a summary of the property and no expropriation. The German legislature is obliged, not to charge the costs of the planned reorganization of the plant safety to the operators of photovoltaic systems. The Federal State has to be responsible for the former error of the VDE standards organizations. The VDE standards organizations did not recognize the problem of network instability to be regulated.
Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics
Demkov, Alexander A
2006-01-01
This book presents materials fundamentals of novel gate dielectrics that are being introduced into semiconductor manufacturing to ensure the continuous scalling of the CMOS devices. This is a very fast evolving field of research so we choose to focus on the basic understanding of the structure, thermodunamics, and electronic properties of these materials that determine their performance in device applications. Most of these materials are transition metal oxides. Ironically, the d-orbitals responsible for the high dielectric constant cause sever integration difficulties thus intrinsically limiting high-k dielectrics. Though new in the electronics industry many of these materials are wel known in the field of ceramics, and we describe this unique connection. The complexity of the structure-property relations in TM oxides makes the use of the state of the art first-principles calculations necessary. Several chapters give a detailed description of the modern theory of polarization, and heterojunction band discont...
Fundamentals of semiconductor devices
Lindmayer, Joseph
1965-01-01
Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Norman Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Zhengxin Tong; Evren Unsal; Siluni Wickramathilaka; Shaochang Wo; Peigui Yin
2008-06-30
The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo
2004-10-01
The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Jason Zhengxin Tong; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo
2006-06-08
The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed
Fundamental research data base
1983-01-01
A fundamental research data base containing ground truth, image, and Badhwar profile feature data for 17 North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota agricultural sites is described. Image data was provided for a minimum of four acquisition dates for each site and all four images were registered to one another.
Koshimizu, Masanori; Saeki, Keiichiro; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Okada, Go; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yamashita, Shinichi; Asai, Keisuke
2018-03-01
The temperature dependence of the scintillation intensity of Cs2HfCl6 was measured and found to increase monotonically from 10 to 300 K, whereas no significant dependence on temperature was observed for the scintillation decay. A simple three-state model in which two excited levels are slightly different in their energies and have similar radiative rates was able to describe the experimental trends. The model is consistent with the experimental observation of two kinds of V k centers and with theoretical predictions of two types of self-trapped excitons reported in the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martauz, P.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Utility properties of novel hybrid cement (H-Cement are influenced by pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, latent hydraulic reaction of metallurgical slag together with the alkali activation of inorganic geopolymer based on precipitated waste water coming from bauxite residues. Content of Portland cement clinker is at maximum of 20 mass %, the remaining portion consists of inorganic geopolymer. Up to 80% of CO2 emissions are saved by H-Cement manufacture compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC. No heat treatment or autoclaving is needed at H-Cement production. The field application of H-Cement is performed by the same way than that of common cements listed in EN 197-1, and is also connected with highly efficient recovery and safe disposal of red mud waste. H-Cement is suitable for ready-mixed concretes up to C30/37 strength class and is specified by beneficial shrinkage-reducing property of the concrete kept in long dry-air cure opposite to common cements.Las propiedades de un nuevo cemento híbrido (cemento-H vienen determinadas por la reaccion puzolánica de cenizas volantes, la hidráulica latente de las escorias metalúrgicas y la activación alcalina mediante las aguas residuales generadas por el tratamiento de la bauxita para dar un geopolímero inorgánico. La proporción máxima de clínker de cemento en este nuevo material es del 20%, y por ello, en su fabricación se emite hasta un 80% menos de CO2 que en la producción del cemento portland (OPC. El cemento-H se prepara sin necesidad de tratamiento térmico ni de estancia en autoclave y su aplicación es la misma que los cementos convencionales definidos en la norma EN 197-1. Por otra parte, su fabricación supone la recuperación y la valorización segura de los lodos rojos de bauxita. El cemento-H es apto para la preparación de hormigones premezclados hasta la categoría C30/37, presentando el nuevo material, además, una menor retracción que los cementos convencionales, por lo que su
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinberg, E.; Schaa, A.; Weidinger, H.G.
1984-01-01
Well-controlled laboratory heat treatments were performed in the range from 460 to 610 0 C(733 to 883 K) and from 1 to 8 h at temperature on Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes with three different degrees of initial cold work (40%, 64%, and 76%). Within this range the influence of annealing temperature T and time t and of cold work on the yield strength R /SUB pO.2/ at 400 0 C(673 K) and on the degree R of recrystallization was experimentally determined. This data base was used to verify a semi-empirical approach to describe analytically the dependence of yield strength and recrystallization on the aforementioned technological parameters T and t for the annealing and /phi/ = ln l/l /SUB o/ as a measure for the applied cold work
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grosshandler, W.; Donnelly, M.; Womeldorf, C.
1998-08-01
Alternative refrigerants are being developed by industry to prevent the further destruction of stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which had been the working fluids of choice for many air-conditioning and refrigeration machines. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are one class of compounds that are being pursued as replacements because their ozone depletion potential is zero. In general, the exchange of fluorine atoms on an HFC molecule with hydrogen atoms decreases its atmospheric lifetime, and it may also increase the efficiency of the working fluid. Both of these effects are highly desirable from environmental considerations since they act to mitigate global warming. Unfortunately, more hydrogen on a HFC is usually associated with an increase in flammability. An accepted method for determining the flammability limits of gaseous fuels is ASTM Standard E 681. The minimum and maximum concentrations of the fuel in air for flame propagation are based upon the observed ignition and growth of a flame in a vessel filled with a quiescent fuel/air mixture. a Clear distinction is sought between a non-propagating flicker and a flame which has enough horizontal propagation to be hazardous. This report reviews the past work done on premixed, counter-flowing flames, describes the current counter-flow burner facility and operating procedures, presents the experimental results with the analysis that yields the above flammability limits, and recommends further activities that could lead to a science-based methodology for assessing the risk of fire from refrigeration machine working fluids. 30 figs.
Wang, Yunquan; Ma, Jinzhu; Guan, Huade; Zhu, Gaofeng
2017-06-01
Difficulty in measuring hydraulic conductivity, particularly under dry conditions, calls for methods of predicting the conductivity from easily obtained soil properties. As a complement to the recently published EMFX model, a method based on two specific suction conditions is proposed to estimate saturated film conductivity from the soil water retention curve. This method reduces one fitting parameter in the previous EMFX model, making it possible to predict the hydraulic conductivity from the soil water retention curve over the complete moisture range. Model performance is evaluated with published data of soils in a broad texture range from sand to clay. The testing results indicate that 1) the modified EMFX model (namely the EMFX-K model), incorporating both capillary and adsorption forces, provides good agreement with the conductivity data over the entire moisture range; 2) a value of 0.5 for the tortuosity factor in the EMFX-K model as that in the Mualem's model gives comparable estimation of the relative conductivity associated with the capillary force; and 3) a value of -1.0 × 10-20 J for the Hamaker constant, rather than the commonly used value of -6.0 × 10-20 J, appears to be more appropriate to represent solely the effect of the van der Waals forces and to predict the film conductivity. In comparison with the commonly used van Genuchten-Mualem model, the EMFX-K model significantly improves the prediction of hydraulic conductivity under dry conditions. The sensitivity analysis result suggests that the uncertainty in the film thickness estimation is important in explaining the model underestimation of hydraulic conductivity for the soils with fine texture, in addition to the uncertainties from the measurements and the model structure. High quality data that cover the complete moisture range for a variety of soil textures are required to further test the method.
Fundamentals of nuclear physics
Takigawa, Noboru
2017-01-01
This book introduces the current understanding of the fundamentals of nuclear physics by referring to key experimental data and by providing a theoretical understanding of principal nuclear properties. It primarily covers the structure of nuclei at low excitation in detail. It also examines nuclear forces and decay properties. In addition to fundamentals, the book treats several new research areas such as non-relativistic as well as relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations, the synthesis of super-heavy elements, the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, and nucleosynthesis in stars, to convey to readers the flavor of current research frontiers in nuclear physics. The authors explain semi-classical arguments and derivation of its formulae. In these ways an intuitive understanding of complex nuclear phenomena is provided. The book is aimed at graduate school students as well as junior and senior undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. It is also useful for researchers to update their knowledge of diver...
DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems
Yıldız, M.; Çelik Orhan, Z.; Aksoy, Ç.; Ok, S.
2014-07-01
Low amplitude is the defining characteristic of solar-like oscillations. The space projects Kepler and CoRoT give us a great opportunity to successfully detect such oscillations in numerous targets. Achievements of asteroseismology depend on new discoveries of connections between the oscillation frequencies and stellar properties. In the previous studies, the frequency of the maximum amplitude and the large separation between frequencies were used for this purpose. In the present study, we confirm that the large separation between the frequencies has two minima at two different frequency values. These are the signatures of the He II ionization zone, and as such have very strong diagnostic potential. We relate these minima to fundamental stellar properties such as mass, radius, luminosity, age and mass of convective zone. For mass, the relation is simply based on the ratio of the frequency of minimum Δν to the frequency of maximum amplitude. These frequency comparisons can be very precisely computed, and thus the mass and radius of a solar-like oscillating star can be determined to high precision. We also develop a new asteroseismic diagram which predicts structural and evolutionary properties of stars with such data. We derive expressions for mass, radius, effective temperature, luminosity and age in terms of purely asteroseismic quantities. For solar-like oscillating stars, we now will have five very important asteroseismic tools (two frequencies of minimum Δν, the frequency of maximum amplitude, and the large and small separations between the oscillation frequencies) to decipher properties of stellar interior astrophysics.
Tsionsky, Vladimir
2007-01-01
The fundamentals, as well as the instrumentation of the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique that is used in an undergraduate laboratory experiment are being described. The QCM response can be easily used to change the properties of any system.
Pharmacobezoars described and demystified.
Simpson, Serge-Emile
2011-02-01
A bezoar is a concretion of foreign material that forms and persists in the gastrointestinal tract. Bezoars are classified by their material origins. Phytobezoars contain plant material, trichobezoars contain hair, lactobezoars contain milk proteins, and pharmacobezoars contain pharmaceutical products. Tablets, suspensions, and even insoluble drug delivery vehicles can, on rare occasions, and sometimes under specific circumstances, form pharmacobezoars. The goal of this review is to catalog and examine all of the available reports in the English language medical literature that convincingly describe the formation and management of pharmacobezoars. Articles included in this review were identified by performing searches using the terms "bezoar," "pharmacobezoar," and "concretion" in the following databases: OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, and JSTOR. The complete MEDLINE and JSTOR holdings were included in the search without date ranges. The results were limited to English language publications. Articles that described nonmedication bezoars were not included in the review. Articles describing phytobezoars, food bezoars, fecal impactions, illicit drug packet ingestions, enteral feeding material bezoars, and hygroscopic diet aid bezoars were excluded. The bibliographic references within the articles already accumulated were then examined in order to gather additional pharmacobezoar cases. The cases are grouped by pharmaceutical agent that formed the bezoar, and groupings are arranged in alphabetical order. Discussions and conclusions specific to each pharmaceutical agent are included in that agent's subheading. Patterns and themes that emerged in the review of the assembled case reports are reviewed and presented in a more concise format. Pharmacobezoars form under a wide variety of circumstances and in a wide variety of patients. They are difficult to diagnose reliably. Rules for suspecting, diagnosing, and properly managing a pharmacobezoar are highly dependent on the
[Deep mycoses rarely described].
Charles, D
1986-01-01
Beside deep mycoses very well known: histoplasmosis, candidosis, cryptococcosis, there are other mycoses less frequently described. Some of them are endemic in some countries: South American blastomycosis in Brazil, coccidioidomycosis in California; some others are cosmopolitan and may affect everyone: sporotrichosis, or may affect only immunodeficient persons: mucormycosis. They do not spare Africa, we may encounter basidiobolomycosis, rhinophycomycosis, dermatophytosis, sporotrichosis and, more recently reported, rhinosporidiosis. Important therapeutic progresses have been accomplished with amphotericin B and with antifungus imidazole compounds (miconazole and ketoconazole). Surgical intervention is sometime recommended in chromomycosis and rhinosporidiosis.
Theoretical prediction of the fundamental properties for the ternary Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6
Ghebouli, M. A.; Choutri, H.; Bouarissa, N.; Ghebouli, B.; Bouhemadou, A.; Soyalp, F.; Uçgun, E.; Ocak, H. Y.
2012-12-01
Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6 are good candidate for hydrogen storage. The structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6 compounds have been investigated using pseudo-potential plane-wave method based on the density functional theory. Computed lattice constant and H atom positional parameter at equilibrium agree well with the available experimental data. A quadratic pressure dependence of the elastic stiffness is found. A set of isotropic elastic parameters and related properties, namely bulk and shear moduli, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, average sound velocity and Debye temperature are numerically estimated in the framework of the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation for Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6 polycrystalline aggregate. The analyses of the band structure indicates that Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6 are indirect gap semiconductors. The static dielectric constant and static refractive index are inversely proportional to the fundamental gap.
Theoretical prediction of the fundamental properties for the ternary Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghebouli, M.A.; Choutri, H.; Bouarissa, N.; Ghebouli, B.; Bouhemadou, A.; Soyalp, F.; Uçgun, E.; Ocak, H.Y.
2012-01-01
Li 2 PtH 6 and Na 2 PtH 6 are good candidate for hydrogen storage. The structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of Li 2 PtH 6 and Na 2 PtH 6 compounds have been investigated using pseudo-potential plane–wave method based on the density functional theory. Computed lattice constant and H atom positional parameter at equilibrium agree well with the available experimental data. A quadratic pressure dependence of the elastic stiffness is found. A set of isotropic elastic parameters and related properties, namely bulk and shear moduli, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, average sound velocity and Debye temperature are numerically estimated in the framework of the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximation for Li 2 PtH 6 and Na 2 PtH 6 polycrystalline aggregate. The analyses of the band structure indicates that Li 2 PtH 6 and Na 2 PtH 6 are indirect gap semiconductors. The static dielectric constant and static refractive index are inversely proportional to the fundamental gap. Highlights: ► We predict elastic moduli, energy gaps and optical parameters. ► Electron effective mass is anisotropic. ► Li 2 PtH 6 and Na 2 PtH 6 are indirect gap semiconductors. ► The contribution to the optical spectra from main transitions are predicted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, Akihito; Shiba, Yukio
2009-01-01
The standard for Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant on earthquakes published by Atomic Energy Society of Japan in 2007 states that the effect of uncertainy of soil properties on the earthquake response of subsurface layers should be assessed with conducting Monte-Carlo simulations of equivalent linear analysis. This paper presents a fundamental study on the effect of uncertainty of dynamic soil properties on the earthquake response with equivalent linear approach. A series of Monte-Carlo simulations of earthquake response analysis of a simple one-dimensional soil layer model have been conducted, where uncertainty of initial shear modulus G 0 , strain dependency of G/G 0 -γ and h-γ are considered. Through a series of simulations, it is demonstrated that although the average of maximum response of the subsurface top layer increases as input earthquake motion increases, the coefficient of variance of them does not necessarily increases, and that G/G 0 -γ relationship is the most influential factor among the concerned parameters. And also, it is shown that the maximum response of ground surface plotted against the peak frequency of the frequency response function calculated with equivalent linear analysis under converged condition, distributes around the response spectrum curve of the input earthquake motion so that the maximum response can be roughly estimated from the response spectrum curve. Finally, applicability of two-point-estimate technique is examined with being compared with Monte-Carlo simulation results. (author)
Fundamentals of radiological protection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.
1978-05-01
The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)
Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy
Rule, Gordon S
2006-01-01
NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...
Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals
Khan, Ahmad Shahid
2014-01-01
Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...
How Mathematics Describes Life
Teklu, Abraham
2017-01-01
The circle of life is something we have all heard of from somewhere, but we don't usually try to calculate it. For some time we have been working on analyzing a predator-prey model to better understand how mathematics can describe life, in particular the interaction between two different species. The model we are analyzing is called the Holling-Tanner model, and it cannot be solved analytically. The Holling-Tanner model is a very common model in population dynamics because it is a simple descriptor of how predators and prey interact. The model is a system of two differential equations. The model is not specific to any particular set of species and so it can describe predator-prey species ranging from lions and zebras to white blood cells and infections. One thing all these systems have in common are critical points. A critical point is a value for both populations that keeps both populations constant. It is important because at this point the differential equations are equal to zero. For this model there are two critical points, a predator free critical point and a coexistence critical point. Most of the analysis we did is on the coexistence critical point because the predator free critical point is always unstable and frankly less interesting than the coexistence critical point. What we did is consider two regimes for the differential equations, large B and small B. B, A, and C are parameters in the differential equations that control the system where B measures how responsive the predators are to change in the population, A represents predation of the prey, and C represents the satiation point of the prey population. For the large B case we were able to approximate the system of differential equations by a single scalar equation. For the small B case we were able to predict the limit cycle. The limit cycle is a process of the predator and prey populations growing and shrinking periodically. This model has a limit cycle in the regime of small B, that we solved for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaudhuri, N.K.; Sawant, R.M.; Sood, D.D.
1999-01-01
Literature data on the stability constants of the fluoride complexes of the actinides in different oxidation states have been compiled. In order to have a reasonable inter-comparison, the stability constant (β 1 ) values obtained in diverse ionic strength media are converted to so called thermodynamic stability constants, β 1 0 using the DAVIES equation (a modification of Debye-Huckel equation). A correlation of the β 1 0 values with the fundamental properties of the actinide ions using various models available in the literature has been attempted. Using the values of ionic radii and best available values of the stability constants of a large number of metal ions from recent compilations a comparative study of the various models or relations available in the literature has been tried. For metal ions in general, the semi-empirical relation recently developed by BROWN, SYLVA and ELLIS (BSE equation) gives the best correlation. In an attempt to accommodate the unusual trend in the stability constants of the tetravalent actinides a modification in a parameter of the BSE equation has been proposed. Good agreement between the theoretically calculated and experimentally determined values for actinides in different oxidation states is obtained in most of the cases. Further improvements in theoretical relation as well as experimental data are required for better correlation. (author)
2004-01-01
Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...
DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the two modules: structure of metals (bonding, common lattic types, grain structure/boundary, polymorphis, alloys, imperfections in metals) and properties of metals (stress, strain, Young modulus, stress-strain relation, physical properties, working of metals, corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, tritium/material compatibility)
Fundamentals of Structural Geology
Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.
2005-09-01
Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors
Fofonoff, N. P.; Millard, R. C., Jr.
Algorithms for computation of fundamental properties of seawater, based on the practicality salinity scale (PSS-78) and the international equation of state for seawater (EOS-80), are compiled in the present report for implementing and standardizing computer programs for oceanographic data processing. Sample FORTRAN subprograms and tables are given…
Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime
2006-01-01
Drawing from the second edition of the best-selling Handbook of Phosphors, Fundamentals of Phosphors covers the principles and mechanisms of luminescence in detail and surveys the primary phosphor materials as well as their optical properties. The book addresses cutting-edge developments in phosphor science and technology including oxynitride phosphors and the impact of lanthanide level location on phosphor performance.Beginning with an explanation of the physics underlying luminescence mechanisms in solids, the book goes on to interpret various luminescence phenomena in inorganic and organic materials. This includes the interpretation of the luminescence of recently developed low-dimensional systems, such as quantum wells and dots. The book also discusses the excitation mechanisms by cathode-ray and ionizing radiation and by electric fields to produce electroluminescence. The book classifies phosphor materials according to the type of luminescence centers employed or the class of host materials used and inte...
Teaching the Politics of Islamic Fundamentalism.
Kazemzadeh, Masoud
1998-01-01
Argues that the rise of Islamic fundamentalism since the Iranian Revolution has generated a number of issues of analytical significance for political science. Describes three main models in teaching and research on Islamic fundamentalism: Islamic exceptionalism, comparative fundamentalisms, and class analysis. Discusses the construction of a…
Superconductivity fundamentals and applications
Buckel, Werner
2004-01-01
This is the second English edition of what has become one of the definitive works on superconductivity in German -- currently in its sixth edition. Comprehensive and easy to understand, this introductory text is written especially with the non-specialist in mind. The authors, both long-term experts in this field, present the fundamental considerations without the need for extensive mathematics, describing the various phenomena connected with the superconducting state, with liberal insertion of experimental facts and examples for modern applications. While all fields of superconducting phenomena are dealt with in detail, this new edition pays particular attention to the groundbreaking discovery of magnesium diboride and the current developments in this field. In addition, a new chapter provides an overview of the elements, alloys and compounds where superconductivity has been observed in experiments, together with their major characteristics. The chapter on technical applications has been considerably expanded...
Ultrathin magnetic structures III fundamentals of nanomagnetism
Bland, JAC
2004-01-01
The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. This volume describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. Volume IV deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is designed to be ...
Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.
Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.
2005-01-01
We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…
Image restoration fundamentals and advances
Gunturk, Bahadir Kursat
2012-01-01
Image Restoration: Fundamentals and Advances responds to the need to update most existing references on the subject, many of which were published decades ago. Providing a broad overview of image restoration, this book explores breakthroughs in related algorithm development and their role in supporting real-world applications associated with various scientific and engineering fields. These include astronomical imaging, photo editing, and medical imaging, to name just a few. The book examines how such advances can also lead to novel insights into the fundamental properties of image sources. Addr
The fundamentals of mathematical analysis
Fikhtengol'ts, G M
1965-01-01
The Fundamentals of Mathematical Analysis, Volume 1 is a textbook that provides a systematic and rigorous treatment of the fundamentals of mathematical analysis. Emphasis is placed on the concept of limit which plays a principal role in mathematical analysis. Examples of the application of mathematical analysis to geometry, mechanics, physics, and engineering are given. This volume is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a discussion on real numbers, their properties and applications, and arithmetical operations over real numbers. The reader is then introduced to the concept of function, i
Matrix formalism to describe functional states of transcriptional regulatory systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erwin P Gianchandani
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Complex regulatory networks control the transcription state of a genome. These transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs have been mathematically described using a Boolean formalism, in which the state of a gene is represented as either transcribed or not transcribed in response to regulatory signals. The Boolean formalism results in a series of regulatory rules for the individual genes of a TRN that in turn can be used to link environmental cues to the transcription state of a genome, thereby forming a complete transcriptional regulatory system (TRS. Herein, we develop a formalism that represents such a set of regulatory rules in a matrix form. Matrix formalism allows for the systemic characterization of the properties of a TRS and facilitates the computation of the transcriptional state of the genome under any given set of environmental conditions. Additionally, it provides a means to incorporate mechanistic detail of a TRS as it becomes available. In this study, the regulatory network matrix, R, for a prototypic TRS is characterized and the fundamental subspaces of this matrix are described. We illustrate how the matrix representation of a TRS coupled with its environment (R* allows for a sampling of all possible expression states of a given network, and furthermore, how the fundamental subspaces of the matrix provide a way to study key TRS features and may assist in experimental design.
articles: Describing migration spatial structure
Andrei Rogers; Frans Willekens; James Raymer; Jani Little
2002-01-01
The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a definition in this article, one that draws on the log-linear specification of the geographer's spatial interaction model. We illustrate our definition with observed migration data, we discuss extens...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hammons, L.; Hahn, H.
2011-03-28
Among the accelerator projects under construction at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is an R and D energy recovery LINAC (ERL) test facility. The ERL includes both a five-cell superconducting cavity as well as a superconducting, photoinjector electron gun. Because of the high-charge and high-current demands, effective higher-order mode (HOM) damping is essential, and several strategies are being pursued. Among these is the use of the fundamental power couplers as a means for damping some HOMs. Simulation studies have shown that the power couplers can play a substantial role in damping certain HOMs, and this presentation discusses these studies along with measurements.
DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-06-01
The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment
Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers
Koike, Yasuhiro
2014-01-01
Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.
2011-01-01
This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.
Fundamentals of klystron testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldwell, J.W. Jr.
1978-08-01
Fundamentals of klystron testing is a text primarily intended for the indoctrination of new klystron group test stand operators. It should significantly reduce the familiarization time of a new operator, making him an asset to the group sooner than has been experienced in the past. The new employee must appreciate the mission of SLAC before he can rightfully be expected to make a meaningful contribution to the group's effort. Thus, the introductory section acquaints the reader with basic concepts of accelerators in general, then briefly describes major physical aspects of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Only then is his attention directed to the klystron, with its auxiliary systems, and the rudiments of klystron tube performance checks. It is presumed that the reader is acquainted with basic principles of electronics and scientific notation. However, to preserve the integrity of an indoctrination guide, tedious technical discussions and mathematical analysis have been studiously avoided. It is hoped that the new operator will continue to use the text for reference long after his indoctrination period is completed. Even the more experienced operator should find that particular sections will refresh his understanding of basic principles of klystron testing
Harb, Moussab
2016-11-29
By applying calculations based on density functional theory, and on density functional perturbation theory, together with generalized gradient approximation-Perdew–Burke–Emzerho and screened Coulomb hybrid HSE06 functionals, we predict novel and suitable fundamental parameters of the stable monoclinic Ta0.75V0.25ON semiconductor for solar water splitting. In addition to its predicted bandgap of 2.0 eV in the required zone for solar-driven water splitting, this material reveals a high visible-light absorption coefficient, high static dielectric constant, high hole and electron mobilities along the [001] and [010] crystallographic directions, relatively low exciton binding energy, and suitable band edge energy levels for oxidizing water and reducing protons. The optical, charge-carrier transport, and redox features predicted for this material are found to be considerably better than those obtained for Ta3N5, which is the most common semiconductor photocatalyst used in visible-light-driven water splitting.
Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications
Miyoshi, Kazuhisa
2001-01-01
Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications description of the adhesion, friction, abrasion, and wear behavior of solid film lubricants and related tribological materials, including diamond and diamond-like solid films. The book details the properties of solid surfaces, clean surfaces, and contaminated surfaces as well as discussing the structures and mechanical properties of natural and synthetic diamonds; chemical-vapor-deposited diamond film; surface design and engineering toward wear-resistant, self-lubricating diamond films and coatings. The author provides selection and design criteria as well as applications for synthetic and natural coatings in the commercial, industrial and aerospace industries..
DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the following modules: thermal shock (thermal stress, pressurized thermal shock), brittle fracture (mechanism, minimum pressurization-temperature curves, heatup/cooldown rate limits), and plant materials (properties considered when selecting materials, fuel materials, cladding and reflectors, control materials, nuclear reactor core problems, plant material problems, atomic displacement due to irradiation, thermal and displacement spikes due to irradiation, neutron capture effect, radiation effects in organic compounds, reactor use of aluminum)
CO Fundamental Emission from V836 Tauri
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Najita, Joan R; Crockett, Nathan; Carr, John S
2008-01-01
We present high-resolution 4.7 micron CO fundamental spectroscopy of V836 Tau, a young star with properties that are between those of classical and weak T Tauri stars and which may be dissipating its circumstellar disk...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justin Zylstra
2014-12-01
Full Text Available I argue that dependence is neither necessary nor sufficient for relative fundamentality. I then introduce the notion of 'likeness in nature' and provide an account of relative fundamentality in terms of it and the notion of dependence. Finally, I discuss some puzzles that arise in Aristotle's Categories, to which the theory developed is applied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabíola Freire de Albuquerque
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Resumo O presente artigo analisa o problema da eficácia dos direitos fundamentais na perspectiva das relações entre os particulares (eficácia horizontal. O trabalho é eminentemente bibliográfico, utilizando-se do método comparativo. O tema vem sendo tratado por nossos tribunais de forma indireta, pois o colegiado tem reafirmado em muitos julgados a eficácia horizontal dos direitos fundamentais, porém, normalmente as teses que envolvem este tema não são deliberadamente enfrentadas nestes pronunciamentos, salvo raras exceções. Palavras-chave: Propriedade; Direitos fundamentais; Eficácia horizontal. Abstract This paper discusses the problem of the effectiveness of the fundamental rights on the perspectives of the relations between individuals (horizontal effectiveness. The work is eminently bibliographic, using comparative method. The issue is being addressed by our courts in indirect way, because the college has reaffirmed on a lot judged the horizontal effectiveness of the fundamentals rights, however, usually the thesis that surround this issue are not deliberately addressed on these statements, except on rare exceptions. Keywords: Property; Fundamental Rights; horizontal effectiveness
Fundamental statistical theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demopoulos, W.
1976-01-01
Einstein argued that since quantum mechanics is not a fundamental theory it cannot be regarded as in any sense final. The pure statistical states of the quantum theory are not dispersion-free. In this sense, the theory is significantly statistical. The problem investigated in this paper is to determine under what conditions is a significalty statistical theory correctly regarded as fundamental. The solution developed in this paper is that a statistical theory is fundamental only if it is complete; moreover the quantum theory is complete. (B.R.H.)
Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays
Schmerr, Lester W
2014-01-01
This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and
Testing Fundamental Gravitation in Space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turyshev, Slava G.
2013-10-15
General theory of relativity is a standard theory of gravitation; as such, it is used to describe gravity when the problems in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. The theory is also relied upon in many modern applications involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. Here we review the foundations of general relativity and discuss its current empirical status. We describe both the theoretical motivation and the scientific progress that may result from the new generation of high-precision tests that are anticipated in the near future.
Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia
Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.
2016-01-01
Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…
Fundamentals of crystallography
2011-01-01
Crystallography is a basic tool for scientists in many diverse disciplines. This text offers a clear description of fundamentals and of modern applications. It supports curricula in crystallography at undergraduate level.
Fundamentals of electrochemical science
Oldham, Keith
1993-01-01
Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals
Siriwardane, R.; Wightman, J. P.
1980-01-01
The acid-base properties of titanium 6-4 plates (low surface area) were investigated after three different pretreatments, namely Turco, phosphate-fluoride and Pasa-Jell. A series of indicators was used and color changes were detected using diffuse reflectance visible spectroscopy. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis was used to examine the indicator on the Ti 6-4 surface. Specular reflectance infra-red spectroscopy was used to study the adsorption of stearic acid from cyclohexane solutions on the Ti 6-4 surface.
Arithmetic fundamental groups and moduli of curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makoto Matsumoto
2000-01-01
This is a short note on the algebraic (or sometimes called arithmetic) fundamental groups of an algebraic variety, which connects classical fundamental groups with Galois groups of fields. A large part of this note describes the algebraic fundamental groups in a concrete manner. This note gives only a sketch of the fundamental groups of the algebraic stack of moduli of curves. Some application to a purely topological statement, i.e., an obstruction to the subjectivity of Johnson homomorphisms in the mapping class groups, which comes from Galois group of Q, is explained. (author)
Information security fundamentals
Peltier, Thomas R
2013-01-01
Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r
Fundamentals of structural dynamics
Craig, Roy R
2006-01-01
From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e
Religious fundamentalism and conflict
Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz
2006-01-01
This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...
Fundamentals of condensed matter physics
Cohen, Marvin L
2016-01-01
Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherrad, Djellal; Maouche, D.; Boudissa, M.; Reffas, M.; Louail, L.; Maamache, M.; Haddadi, K.; Medkour, Y.
2013-01-01
The structural, electronic and optical properties of CaXO 3 distorted perovskites compounds have been investigated by employing the Vanderbilt Ultra Soft Pseudo Potential (US-PP) using the plane wave method (PW) within density functional theory (DFT) and the local density approximation LDA. The studies of the dependence with pressure of enthalpies have confirmed the excellent mechanical stability of these materials. We have found that these compounds have a direct band gaps (G–G). The (110) charge density contour show that these distorted compounds exhibit a zig zag electronic short chains in contrast of ideal perovskites presenting a perfectly aligned chains. Elastic–electronic correlation was established between Cij individual elastic constant and the bonding-anti bonding chemical bonds. After that, some above properties were studied under hydrostatic pressure effect. CaSnO 3 perovskite was very sensitive towards pressure than CaHfO 3 . The reflectivity maximum of these materials occurs in the ultra-violet energy ranges, which indicate that these perovskites can serve in some technological applications. Optical anisotropy shows that the compound CaSnO 3 is considered as more anisotropic than CaHfO 3 . Furthermore, anisotropy maximum was found to be according to [0 1 0] and [1 0 0] directions for CaHfO 3 and CaSnO 3 , respectively
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koji Kinoshita
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The micropipette manipulation technique is capable of making fundamental single particle measurements and analyses. This information is critical for establishing processing parameters in systems such as microfluidics and homogenization. To demonstrate what can be achieved at the single particle level, the micropipette technique was used to form and characterize the encapsulation of Ibuprofen (Ibp into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microspheres from dichloromethane (DCM solutions, measuring the loading capacity and solubility limits of Ibp in typical PLGA microspheres. Formed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4, Ibp/PLGA/DCM microdroplets were uniformly solidified into Ibp/PLGA microparticles up to drug loadings (DL of 41%. However, at DL 50 wt% and above, microparticles showed a phase separated pattern. Working with single microparticles, we also estimated the dissolution time of pure Ibp microspheres in the buffer or in detergent micelle solutions, as a function of the microsphere size and compare that to calculated dissolution times using the Epstein-Plesset (EP model. Single, pure Ibp microparticles precipitated as liquid phase microdroplets that then gradually dissolved into the surrounding PBS medium. Analyzing the dissolution profiles of Ibp over time, a diffusion coefficient of 5.5 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm2/s was obtained by using the EP model, which was in excellent agreement with the literature. Finally, solubilization of Ibp into sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS micelles was directly visualized microscopically for the first time by the micropipette technique, showing that such micellization could increase the solubility of Ibp from 4 to 80 mM at 100 mM SDS. We also introduce a particular microfluidic device that has recently been used to make PLGA microspheres, showing the importance of optimizing the flow parameters. Using this device, perfectly smooth and size-homogeneous microparticles were formed for flow rates of 0.167 mL/h for
Fundamentals of evaporation and condensation phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munir, Z.A.
1979-01-01
Fundamental relationships governing evaporation and condensation processes are reviewed. The terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) model is discussed in terms of atomic steps comprising growth and evaporation of crystals. Recent results in the field are described
Origins and fundamentals of nodal aberration theory
Rogers, John R.
2017-11-01
Nodal Aberration Theory, developed by Kevin Thompson and Roland Shack, predicts several important aberration phenomena but remains poorly understood. To de-mystify the theory, we describe the origins and fundamental concepts of the theory.
Procedure to describe clavicular motion.
Gutierrez Delgado, Guivey; De Beule, Matthieu; Ortega Cardentey, Dolgis R; Segers, Patrick; Iznaga Benítez, Arsenio M; Rodríguez Moliner, Tania; Verhegghe, Benedict; Palmans, Tanneke; Van Hoof, Tom; Van Tongel, Alexander
2017-03-01
For many years, researchers have attempted to describe shoulder motions by using different mathematical methods. The aim of this study was to describe a procedure to quantify clavicular motion. The procedure proposed for the kinematic analysis consists of 4 main processes: 3 transcortical pins in the clavicle, motion capture, obtaining 3-dimensional bone models, and data processing. Clavicular motion by abduction (30° to 150°) and flexion (55° to 165°) were characterized by an increment of retraction of 27° to 33°, elevation of 25° to 28°, and posterior rotation of 14° to 15°, respectively. In circumduction, clavicular movement described an ellipse, which was reflected by retraction and elevation. Kinematic analysis shows that the articular surfaces move by simultaneously rolling and sliding on the convex surface of the sternum for the 3 movements of abduction, flexion, and circumduction. The use of 3 body landmarks in the clavicle and the direct measurement of bone allowed description of the osteokinematic and arthrokinematic movement of the clavicle. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Photovoltaics fundamentals, technology and practice
Mertens, Konrad
2013-01-01
Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of photovoltaic electricity for students and engineers new to the topic After a brief introduction to the topic of photovoltaics' history and the most important facts, Chapter 1 presents the subject of radiation, covering properties of solar radiation, radiation offer, and world energy consumption. Chapter 2 looks at the fundamentals of semiconductor physics. It discusses the build-up of semiconducto
Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C
2002-01-01
The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures
Dick, Erik
2015-01-01
This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised. The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...
Arguing against fundamentality
McKenzie, Kerry
This paper aims to open up discussion on the relationship between fundamentality and naturalism, and in particular on the question of whether fundamentality may be denied on naturalistic grounds. A historico-inductive argument for an anti-fundamentalist conclusion, prominent within the contemporary metaphysical literature, is examined; finding it wanting, an alternative 'internal' strategy is proposed. By means of an example from the history of modern physics - namely S-matrix theory - it is demonstrated that (1) this strategy can generate similar (though not identical) anti-fundamentalist conclusions on more defensible naturalistic grounds, and (2) that fundamentality questions can be empirical questions. Some implications and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.
Persistence Statements: Describing Digital Stickiness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Kunze
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a draft vocabulary for making “persistence statements.” These are simple tools for pragmatically addressing the concern that anyone feels upon experiencing a broken web link. Scholars increasingly use scientific and cultural assets in digital form, but choosing which among many objects to cite for the long term can be difficult. There are few well-defined terms to describe the various kinds and qualities of persistence that object repositories and identifier resolvers do or don’t provide. Given an object’s identifier, one should be able to query a provider to retrieve human- and machine-readable information to help judge the level of service to expect and help gauge whether the identifier is durable enough, as a sort of long-term bet, to include in a citation. The vocabulary should enable providers to articulate persistence policies and set user expectations.
Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Kunzman
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.
Fundamentals of nonlinear optics
Powers, Peter E
2011-01-01
Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop
Smith, Peter
2013-01-01
Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera
Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals
Eccles, William
2011-01-01
Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi
Fundamentals of continuum mechanics
Rudnicki, John W
2014-01-01
A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally. This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ
Reis, Mario
2013-01-01
The Fundamentals of Magnetism is a truly unique reference text, that explores the study of magnetism and magnetic behavior with a depth that no other book can provide. It covers the most detailed descriptions of the fundamentals of magnetism providing an emphasis on statistical mechanics which is absolutely critical for understanding magnetic behavior. The books covers the classical areas of basic magnetism, including Landau Theory and magnetic interactions, but features a more concise and easy-to-read style. Perfect for upper-level graduate students and industry researchers, The Fu
Fundamentals of reactor chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akatsu, Eiko
1981-12-01
In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)
Fundamentals of fluid lubrication
Hamrock, Bernard J.
1991-01-01
The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.
Formulando uma Psicopatologia Fundamental
Pereira, Mario Eduardo Costa
1998-01-01
O presente trabalho busca situar a Psicopatologia Fundamental em relação ao contexto atual da psicopatologia e delimitar seu âmbito científico naquilo que ela traz de original na discussão psicopatológica. Inicialmente, o campo da psicopatologia é estudado em relação à formalização proposta por Karl Jaspers em termos de uma psicopatologia geral. Em seguida, discute-se a incidência específica da psicanálise nesse debate. Propõe-se que a tarefa da psicopatologia fundamental tem três frentes pri...
Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín
2016-01-01
To shed light on the relation between fundamentals and adopted institutions we examine institutional choice across the ``Big Four'' US sports leagues. Despite having very similar business models and facing the same economic and legal environment, these leagues exhibit large differences in their use...... of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...
Infosec management fundamentals
Dalziel, Henry
2015-01-01
Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, A.C.D.
2002-01-01
This paper discusses the safety analysis fundamentals in reactor design. This study includes safety analysis done to show consequences of postulated accidents are acceptable. Safety analysis is also used to set design of special safety systems and includes design assist analysis to support conceptual design. safety analysis is necessary for licensing a reactor, to maintain an operating license, support changes in plant operations
Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.
Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.
This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, R.H.
1980-01-01
This introduction discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie the applied science of health physics and radiation protection. Risk assessments in nuclear medicine are made by defining the conditions of exposure, identification of adverse effects, relating exposure with effect, and estimation of the overall risk for ionizing radiations
Fundamentals of plasma physics
Bittencourt, J A
1986-01-01
A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.
Wakker, K.F.
2015-01-01
This book deals with the motion of the center of mass of a spacecraft; this discipline is generally called astrodynamics. The book focuses on an analytical treatment of the motion of spacecraft and provides insight into the fundamentals of spacecraft orbit dynamics. A large number of topics are
Fundamental partial compositeness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea
2016-01-01
We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...
Fast fundamental frequency estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom
2017-01-01
Modelling signals as being periodic is common in many applications. Such periodic signals can be represented by a weighted sum of sinusoids with frequencies being an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Due to its widespread use, numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the funda...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
BOOK I REVIEW. Fundamental Fluid. Mechanics. Good Text Book Material. V H Arakeri. Fluid Mechanics for Engineers. P N Chatterjee. MacMillan India Limited. Vol. 1, pp. 367. RS.143. Vo1.2, pp.306. RS.130. Fluid Mechanics for Engineers in two vol- umes by P N Chatterjee contains standard material for a first level ...
Fundamental requirements for petrochemical development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flint, G. B.
1999-01-01
The development of NOVA Chemicals over the past 20 years is described as an illustration of how the petrochemical industry provides markets for natural gas, natural gas liquids and the products of crude oil distillation, and functions as a conduit for upgrading products which would otherwise be sold into the fuel market. Some fundamental characteristics of the business which are foundations for competitiveness are reviewed in the process. These fundamentals help to understand why the industry locates in certain geographic regions of the world, which are often remote from end-use markets. Chief among these fundamentals is access to an adequate supply of appropriately priced feedstock; this is the single most important reason why chemical companies continue to emphasize developments in areas of the world where feedstock are advantageously priced. The cost of operations is equally significant. Cost depends not so much on location but on the scale of operations, hence the tendency towards large scale plants. Plant and product rationalization, technology and product development synergies and leverage with suppliers are all opportunities for cost reduction throughout the product supply chain. The combination of lower natural gas cost in Alberta, the lower fixed cost of extraction and the economies of scale achieved by large scale operation (five billion pounds per year of polyethylene production capacity) are the crucial factors that will enable NOVA Chemicals to maintain its competitive position and to weather the highs and lows in industry price fluctuations
Fundamental science of nanometer-size clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilcoxon, J.P.; Newcomer, P.P.; Samara, G.A.; Venturini, E.L.; Williamson, R.L.
1995-10-01
This research has produced a variety of monodisperse, nanometer-size clusters (nanoclusters for short), characterized their size and crystal structure and developed a scientific understanding of the size dependence of their physical properties. Of specific interest were the influence of quantum electronic confinement on the optical properties, magnetic properties, and dielectric properties. These properties were chosen both for their potential practical impact on various applications identified in the National Critical Technologies list (e.g., catalysis, information storage, sensors, environmental remediation, ...) as well as for their importance to the fundamental science of clusters. An Executive Summary provides a description of the major highlights.
Fundamental superstrings as holograms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dabholkar, A.; Murthy, S.
2007-06-01
The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d ( d = 3, . . . , 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings. (author)
Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying
2017-01-01
Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limiting...... cases of composite Goldstone Higgs and Technicolor-like ones. This is possible due to the existence of a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian levels, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs boson itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak...... space at the effective Lagrangian level. We show that a wide class of models of fundamental composite electroweak dynamics are still compatible with the present constraints. The results are relevant for the ongoing and future searches at the Large Hadron Collider....
Fundamentals of differential beamforming
Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao
2016-01-01
This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...
Frontiers of Fundamental Physics
2014-01-01
The 14th annual international symposium “Frontiers of Fundamental Physics” (FFP14) was organized by the OCEVU Labex. It was held in Marseille, on the Saint-Charles Campus of Aix Marseille University (AMU) and had over 280 participants coming from all over the world. FFP Symposium began in India in 1997 and it became itinerant in 2004, through Europe, Canada and Australia. It covers topics in fundamental physics with the objective to enable scholars working in related areas to meet on a single platform and exchange ideas. In addition to highlighting the progress in these areas, the symposium invites the top researchers to reflect on the educational aspects of our discipline. Moreover, the scientific concepts are also discussed through philosophical and epistemological viewpoints. Several eminent scientists, such as the laureates of prestigious awards (Nobel Prize, Fields Medal,…), have already participated in these meetings. The FFP14 Symposium developed around seven main themes, namely: Astroparticle Ph...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, E.R.; Taylor, B.N.
1995-01-01
Present technological applications require the values used for the fundamental physical and chemical constants to be more and more precise and at the same time coherent. Great importance is then attached to the task of coordinating and comparing the most recent experimental data, extracting from them as a whole, by means of a least square fit, a set of values for the fundamental constants as precise and coherent as possible. The set of values which is at present in usage, derives from a fit performed in 1986, but new experimental results already promise a large reduction in the uncertainties of various constants. A new global fit that will implement such reductions is scheduled for completion in 1995 or 1996
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fundamental and Applied Electromagnetics
Maksimenko, Sergey
2016-01-01
This book presents the most relevant and recent results in the study of “Nanoelectromagnetics”, a recently born fascinating research discipline, whose popularity is fast arising with the intensive penetration of nanotechnology in the world of electronics applications. Studying nanoelectromagnetics means describing the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and quantum mechanical low-dimensional systems: this requires a full interdisciplinary approach, the reason why this book hosts contributions from the fields of fundamental and applied electromagnetics, of chemistry and technology of nanostructures and nanocomposites, of physics of nano-structures systems, etc. The book is aimed at providing the reader with the state of the art in Nanoelectromagnetics, from theoretical modelling to experimental characterization, from design to synthesis, from DC to microwave and terahertz applications, from the study of fundamental material properties to the analysis of complex systems and devices, from commercia...
Fundamental concepts on energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, M.H.
1998-01-01
The fundamental concepts on energy and the different forms in which it is manifested are presented. Since it is possible to transform energy in a way to other, the laws that govern these transformations are discussed. The energy transformation processes are an essential compound in the capacity humanizes to survive and be developed. The energy use brings important economic aspects, technical and political. Because this, any decision to administer energy system will be key for our future life
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-06-16
This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, J.E.
1994-01-01
The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)
Fundamentals of queueing theory
Gross, Donald; Thompson, James M; Harris, Carl M
2013-01-01
Praise for the Third Edition ""This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented.""-IIE Transactions on Operations Engineering Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than pre
Fundamentals of linear algebra
Dash, Rajani Ballav
2008-01-01
FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.
Biomedical engineering fundamentals
Bronzino, Joseph D
2014-01-01
Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia
Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quintiere, James
analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... as a visiting professor at BYG.DTU financed by the Larsen and Nielsen Foundation, and is entered to the research database by Kristian Hertz responsible for the visiting professorship....
Burov, Alexey
Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?
Ion beam analysis fundamentals and applications
Nastasi, Michael; Wang, Yongqiang
2015-01-01
Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nucle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duane Knudson
2007-09-01
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones
Fundamentals of radiological protection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.
1978-04-01
A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)
Fundamentals of microwave photonics
Urick, V J; McKinney , Jason D
2015-01-01
A comprehensive resource to designing andconstructing analog photonic links capable of high RFperformanceFundamentals of Microwave Photonics provides acomprehensive description of analog optical links from basicprinciples to applications. The book is organized into fourparts. The first begins with a historical perspective of microwavephotonics, listing the advantages of fiber optic links anddelineating analog vs. digital links. The second section coversbasic principles associated with microwave photonics in both the RFand optical domains. The third focuses on analog modulationformats-starti
Fundamental of biomedical engineering
Sawhney, GS
2007-01-01
About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta
Nanomachines fundamentals and applications
Wang, Joseph
2013-01-01
This first-hand account by one of the pioneers of nanobiotechnology brings together a wealth of valuable material in a single source. It allows fascinating insights into motion at the nanoscale, showing how the proven principles of biological nanomotors are being transferred to artificial nanodevices.As such, the author provides engineers and scientists with the fundamental knowledge surrounding the design and operation of biological and synthetic nanomotors and the latest advances in nanomachines. He addresses such topics as nanoscale propulsions, natural biomotors, molecular-scale machin
Fundamentals of Project Management
Heagney, Joseph
2011-01-01
With sales of more than 160,000 copies, Fundamentals of Project Management has helped generations of project managers navigate the ins and outs of every aspect of this complex discipline. Using a simple step-by-step approach, the book is the perfect introduction to project management tools, techniques, and concepts. Readers will learn how to: ò Develop a mission statement, vision, goals, and objectives ò Plan the project ò Create the work breakdown structure ò Produce a workable schedule ò Understand earned value analysis ò Manage a project team ò Control and evaluate progress at every stage.
DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)
Franc, Jean-Pierre
2005-01-01
The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.
Morris, Carla C
2015-01-01
Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills. In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets. Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay. Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions
Fundamental concepts of mathematics
Goodstein, R L
Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people
Getzlaff, Mathias
2007-01-01
In the last decade a tremendous progress has taken place in understanding the basis of magnetism, especially in reduced dimensions. In the first part, the fundamentals of magnetism are conveyed for atoms and bulk-like solid-state systems providing a basis for the understanding of new phenomena which exclusively occur in low-dimensional systems as the giant magneto resistance. This wide field is discussed in the second part and illustrated by copious examples. This textbook is particularly suitable for graduate students in physical and materials sciences. It includes numerous examples, exercises, and references.
Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications
Tooley, Mike
2015-01-01
Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Robles Corbalá
2015-12-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda un problema clásico para poder detectar si dos espacios topológicos son homeomorfos o no. Para lo cual a cada espacio topológico se le asocia un grupo algebraico, de tal suerte que si los espacios son homeomorfos, entonces los grupos asociados serán isomorfos. Se presenta una construcción del grupo fundamental de un espacio topológico y se enfoca en demostrar que efectivamente es un grupo.
Saleh, Bahaa E A
2007-01-01
Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan
Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.
Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications
Adibi, Ali
2016-01-01
This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.
Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices
Deen, M Jamal
2012-01-01
The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...
Fundamental processes in ion plating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattox, D.M.
1980-01-01
Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process
Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions
Kohler, Susanna
2016-06-01
Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these
Quivers, words and fundamentals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2015-01-01
A systematic study of holomorphic gauge invariant operators in general N=1 quiver gauge theories, with unitary gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, was recently presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2013)094. For large ranks a simple counting formula in terms of an infinite product was given. We extend this study to quiver gauge theories with fundamental matter fields, deriving an infinite product form for the refined counting in these cases. The infinite products are found to be obtained from substitutions in a simple building block expressed in terms of the weighted adjacency matrix of the quiver. In the case without fundamentals, it is a determinant which itself is found to have a counting interpretation in terms of words formed from partially commuting letters associated with simple closed loops in the quiver. This is a new relation between counting problems in gauge theory and the Cartier-Foata monoid. For finite ranks of the unitary gauge groups, the refined counting is given in terms of expressions involving Littlewood-Richardson coefficients.
Fundamental understanding of matter: an engineering viewpoint
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cullingford, H.S.; Cort, G.E.
1980-01-01
Fundamental understanding of matter is a continuous process that should produce physical data for use by engineers and scientists in their work. Lack of fundamental property data in any engineering endeavor cannot be mitigated by theoretical work that is not confirmed by physical experiments. An engineering viewpoint will be presented to justify the need for understanding of matter. Examples will be given in the energy engineering field to outline the importance of further understanding of material and fluid properties and behavior. Cases will be cited to show the effects of various data bases in energy, mass, and momentum transfer. The status of fundamental data sources will be discussed in terms of data centers, new areas of engineering, and the progress in measurement techniques. Conclusions and recommendations will be outlined to improve the current situation faced by engineers in carrying out their work. 4 figures
Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selesi, Dora, E-mail: dora@dmi.uns.ac.rs [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Novi Sad (Serbia)
2011-07-15
Highlights: > Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. > Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. > Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. > Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. > Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P({omega}, D) Lozenge u(x, {omega}) = A(x, {omega}) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P({omega}, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A Lozenge I{sup Lozenge (-1)}, where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.
Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selesi, Dora
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. → Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. → Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. → Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. → Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P(ω, D) ◊ u(x, ω) = A(x, ω) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P(ω, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A ◊ I ◊(-1) , where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, J.C.
1983-01-01
The author introduces quantum chromodynamics as a SU(3)-Yang-Mills theory describing the interactions between the quarks. After a general introduction the Feynman rules are discussed. Then the Ward identity is considered. Thereafter the renormalization is described. Finally the beta function and asymptotic freedom are considered. (HSI)
Fundamentals of PLATO Programming.
Davis, Celia R.
This manual for authors of lessons to be used with the PLATO interactive computer system provides an overview of the system, describes its characteristics, and provides detailed instructions for the use of system features to author a lesson. An introductory chapter describes sign on procedures and various online features available to the author,…
Fundamentals of quantum mechanics
House, J E
2017-01-01
Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics, Third Edition is a clear and detailed introduction to quantum mechanics and its applications in chemistry and physics. All required math is clearly explained, including intermediate steps in derivations, and concise review of the math is included in the text at appropriate points. Most of the elementary quantum mechanical models-including particles in boxes, rigid rotor, harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, hydrogen atom-are clearly and completely presented. Applications of these models to selected “real world” topics are also included. This new edition includes many new topics such as band theory and heat capacity of solids, spectroscopy of molecules and complexes (including applications to ligand field theory), and small molecules of astrophysical interest.
Lasers Fundamentals and Applications
Thyagarajan, K
2010-01-01
Lasers: Fundamentals and Applications, serves as a vital textbook to accompany undergraduate and graduate courses on lasers and their applications. Ever since their invention in 1960, lasers have assumed tremendous importance in the fields of science, engineering and technology because of their diverse uses in basic research and countless technological applications. This book provides a coherent presentation of the basic physics behind the way lasers work, and presents some of their most important applications in vivid detail. After reading this book, students will understand how to apply the concepts found within to practical, tangible situations. This textbook includes worked-out examples and exercises to enhance understanding, and the preface shows lecturers how to most beneficially match the textbook with their course curricula. The book includes several recent Nobel Lectures, which will further expose students to the emerging applications and excitement of working with lasers. Students who study lasers, ...
Theory of fundamental interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pestov, A.B.
1992-01-01
In the present article the theory of fundamental interactions is derived in a systematic way from the first principles. In the developed theory there is no separation between space-time and internal gauge space. Main equations for basic fields are derived. In is shown that the theory satisfies the correspondence principle and gives rise to new notions in the considered region. In particular, the conclusion is made about the existence of particles which are characterized not only by the mass, spin, charge but also by the moment of inertia. These are rotating particles, the particles which represent the notion of the rigid body on the microscopical level and give the key for understanding strong interactions. The main concepts and dynamical laws for these particles are formulated. The basic principles of the theory may be examined experimentally not in the distant future. 29 refs
Fundamentals of Structural Engineering
Connor, Jerome J
2013-01-01
Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...
Fundamentals of optical waveguides
Okamoto, Katsunari
2006-01-01
Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides is an essential resource for any researcher, professional or student involved in optics and communications engineering. Any reader interested in designing or actively working with optical devices must have a firm grasp of the principles of lightwave propagation. Katsunari Okamoto has presented this difficult technology clearly and concisely with several illustrations and equations. Optical theory encompassed in this reference includes coupled mode theory, nonlinear optical effects, finite element method, beam propagation method, staircase concatenation method, along with several central theorems and formulas. Since the publication of the well-received first edition of this book, planar lightwave circuits and photonic crystal fibers have fully matured. With this second edition the advances of these fibers along with other improvements on existing optical technologies are completely detailed. This comprehensive volume enables readers to fully analyze, design and simulate opti...
Fundamental partial compositeness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sannino, Francesco [CP-Origins and Danish IAS, University of Southern Denmark,Campusvej 55 (Denmark); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN,Pisa (Italy); Theory Division, CERN,Geneva (Switzerland); Tesi, Andrea [Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vigiani, Elena [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN,Pisa (Italy)
2016-11-07
We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2){sub R}-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.
Psychology fundaments: considerations
Cambaúva, Lenita Gama
2000-01-01
O presente texto é uma reflexão acerca de alguns fundamentos da Psicologia. Por ser um conceito fundamental para o conhecimento humano da relação sujeito e objeto, aborda-se, a partir de uma concepção histórico-social do homem, a constituição do conceito de subjetividade na história do pensamento. Expõe-se, de forma preliminar, como se deu o advento das Ciências Modernas e, com elas, a ênfase nas Ciências Naturais. Da mesma forma, focaliza-se também a crítica das Ciências Humanas às Ciências ...
Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods
Friedman, Avi
2015-01-01
This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments
Automotive electronics design fundamentals
Zaman, Najamuz
2015-01-01
This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs. A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.
Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals
Kido, Ken'iti
2015-01-01
This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...
Fundamental partial compositeness
Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.
Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian, Jie
2013-01-01
Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.
Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2004-01-01
Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.
Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2007-01-01
Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.
Nanostructured metals. Fundamentals to applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grivel, J.-C.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Juul Jensen, D.; Mishin, O.V.; Nielsen, S.F.; Pantleon, W.; Toftegaard, H.; Winther, G.; Yu, T.
2009-01-01
In the today's world, materials science and engineering must as other technical fields focus on sustainability. Raw materials and energy have to be conserved and metals with improved or new structural and functional properties must be invented, developed and brought to application. In this endeavour a very promising route is to reduce the structural scale of metallic materials, thereby bridging industrial metals of today with emerging nanometals of tomorrow, i.e. structural scales ranging from a few micrometres to the nanometre regime. While taking a focus on metals with structures in this scale regime the symposium spans from fundamental aspects towards applications, uniting materials scientists and technologists. A holistic approach characterizes the themes of the symposium encompassing synthesis, characterization, modelling and performance where in each area significant progress has been made in recent years. Synthesis now covers top-down processes, e.g. plastic deformation, and bottom-up processes, e.g. chemical and physical synthesis. In the area of structural and mechanical characterization advanced techniques are now widely applied and in-situ techniques for structural characterization under mechanical or thermal loading are under rapid development in both 2D and 3D. Progress in characterization techniques has led to a precise description of different boundaries (grain, dislocation, twin, phase), and of how they form and evolve, also including theoretical modelling and simulations of structures, properties and performance. (au)
Making physics more fundamental
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1988-01-01
The stellar death throes of supernovae have been seen and admired since time immemorial. However last year's was the first to come under the combined scrutiny of space-borne radiation detectors and underground neutrino monitors as well as terrestrial optical telescopes and even gravity wave antennae. The remarkable results underline the power of modern physics to explain and interrelate processes in the furthest reaches of the cosmos and the deep interior of nuclear particles. In recent years this common ground between 'Big Bang' cosmology and particle physics has been regularly trodden and retrodden in the light of fresh new insights and new experimental results, and thinking has steadily converged. In 1983, the first Symposium on Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, organized by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), was full of optimism, with new ideas ('inflation') to explain how the relatively small variations in the structure of the Universe could have arisen through the quantum structure of the initial cataclysm
Revisiting energy efficiency fundamentals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Lombard, L.; Velazquez, D. [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX (United Kingdom)
2013-05-15
Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.
Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majer, V.
1982-01-01
The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de
Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics
Tang, C. L.
2005-06-01
Quantum mechanics has evolved from a subject of study in pure physics to one with a wide range of applications in many diverse fields. The basic concepts of quantum mechanics are explained in this book in a concise and easy-to-read manner emphasising applications in solid state electronics and modern optics. Following a logical sequence, the book is focused on the key ideas and is conceptually and mathematically self-contained. The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics are illustrated by showing their application to systems such as the hydrogen atom, multi-electron ions and atoms, the formation of simple organic molecules and crystalline solids of practical importance. It leads on from these basic concepts to discuss some of the most important applications in modern semiconductor electronics and optics. Containing many homework problems and worked examples, the book is suitable for senior-level undergraduate and graduate level students in electrical engineering, materials science and applied physics. Clear exposition of quantum mechanics written in a concise and accessible style Precise physical interpretation of the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics Illustrates the important concepts and results by reference to real-world examples in electronics and optoelectronics Contains homeworks and worked examples, with solutions available for instructors
Fundamental Neutron Physics: Theory and Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudkov, Vladimir
2016-01-01
The goal of the proposal was to study the possibility of searching for manifestations of new physics beyond the Standard model in fundamental neutron physics experiments. This involves detailed theoretical analyses of parity- and time reversal invariance-violating processes in neutron-induced reactions, properties of neutron β-decay, and the precise description of properties of neutron interactions with nuclei. To describe neutron-nuclear interactions, we use both the effective field theory approach and the theory of nuclear reaction with phenomenological nucleon potentials for the systematic description of parity- and time reversal-violating effects in the consistent way. A major emphasis of our research during the funding period has been the study of parity violation (PV) and time reversal invariance violation (TRIV) in few-body systems. We studied PV effects in non-elastic processes in three-nucleon system using both ''DDH-like'' and effective field theory (EFT) approaches. The wave functions were obtained by solving three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space for a number of realistic strong potentials. The observed model dependence for the DDH approach indicates intrinsic difficulty in the description of nuclear PV effects, and it could be the reason for the observed discrepancies in the nuclear PV data analysis. It shows that the DDH approach could be a reasonable approach for analysis of PV effects only if exactly the same strong and weak potentials are used in calculating all PV observables in all nuclei. However, the existing calculations of nuclear PV effects were performed using different potentials; therefore, strictly speaking, one cannot compare the existing results of these calculations among themselves.
Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics
Postema, Michiel
2011-01-01
This book sets out the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications. It covers the basics of linear acoustics, wave propagation, non-linear acoustics, acoustic properties of tissue, transducer components, and ultrasonic imaging modes, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications. It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.
Status of the Fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics
Salem, Walid K. Abou; Fröhlich, Jürg
2007-03-01
We describe recent progress towards deriving the Fundamental Laws of thermodynamics (the 0th, 1st, and 2nd Law) from nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics in simple, yet physically relevant models. Along the way, we clarify some basic thermodynamic notions and discuss various reversible and irreversible thermodynamic processes from the point of view of quantum statistical mechanics.
Damage analysis and fundamental studies program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doran, D.G.; Farrar, H. IV; Goland, A.N.
1978-01-01
The Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Task Group has been formed by the Office of Fusion Energy to develop procedures for applying data obtained in various irradiation test facilities to projected fusion environments. A long-range program plan has been prepared and implementation has begun. The plan and technical status are briefly described
Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier
Hewett, J.L.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Collar, J.; de Gouvea, A.; Essig, R.; Grossman, Y.; Haxton, W.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Pitts, K.; Ligeti, Z.; Patterson, J.R.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.; Ritchie, J.L.; Roodman, A.; Scholberg, K.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Zeller, G.P.; Aefsky, S.; Afanasev, A.; Agashe, K.; Albright, C.; Alonso, J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Aoki, M.; Arguelles, C.A.; Arkani-Hamed, N.; Armendariz, J.R.; Armendariz-Picon, C.; Arrieta Diaz, E.; Asaadi, J.; Asner, D.M.; Babu, K.S.; Bailey, K.; Baker, O.; Balantekin, B.; Baller, B.; Bass, M.; Batell, B.; Beacham, J.; Behr, J.; Berger, N.; Bergevin, M.; Berman, E.; Bernstein, R.; Bevan, A.J.; Bishai, M.; Blanke, M.; Blessing, S.; Blondel, A.; Blum, T.; Bock, G.; Bodek, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boyce, J.; Breedon, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Brice, S.J.; Briere, R.A.; Brodsky, S.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Browder, T.E.; Bryman, D.A.; Buckley, M.; Burnstein, R.; Caden, E.; Campana, P.; Carlini, R.; Carosi, G.; Castromonte, C.; Cenci, R.; Chakaberia, I.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Cheng, C.H.; Choudhary, B.; Christ, N.H.; Christensen, E.; Christy, M.E.; Chupp, T.E.; Church, E.; Cline, D.B.; Coan, T.E.; Coloma, P.; Comfort, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, J.; Cooper, R.J.; Cowan, R.; Cowen, D.F.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Datta, A.; Davies, G.S.; Demarteau, M.; DeMille, D.P.; Denig, A.; Dermisek, R.; Deshpande, A.; Dewey, M.S.; Dharmapalan, R.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, M.R.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dobbs, S.; Duraisamy, M.; Dutta, B.; Duyang, H.; Dwyer, D.A.; Eads, M.; Echenard, B.; Elliott, S.R.; Escobar, C.; Fajans, J.; Farooq, S.; Faroughy, C.; Fast, J.E.; Feinberg, B.; Felde, J.; Feldman, G.; Fierlinger, P.; Fileviez Perez, P.; Filippone, B.; Fisher, P.; Flemming, B.T.; Flood, K.T.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.J.; Freyberger, A.; Friedland, A.; Gandhi, R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Garcia, A.; Garcia, F.G.; Gardner, S.; Garrison, L.; Gasparian, A.; Geer, S.; Gehman, V.M.; Gershon, T.; Gilchriese, M.; Ginsberg, C.; Gogoladze, I.; Gonderinger, M.; Goodman, M.; Gould, H.; Graham, M.; Graham, P.W.; Gran, R.; Grange, J.; Gratta, G.; Green, J.P.; Greenlee, H.; Group, R.C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gudkov, V.; Guenette, R.; Haas, A.; Hahn, A.; Han, T.; Handler, T.; Hardy, J.C.; Harnik, R.; Harris, D.A.; Harris, F.A.; Harris, P.G.; Hartnett, J.; He, B.; Heckel, B.R.; Heeger, K.M.; Henderson, S.; Hertzog, D.; Hill, R.; Hinds, E.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Holt, R.J.; Holtkamp, N.; Horton-Smith, G.; Huber, P.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imber, J.; Irastorza, I.; Jaeckel, J.; Jaegle, I.; James, C.; Jawahery, A.; Jensen, D.; Jessop, C.P.; Jones, B.; Jostlein, H.; Junk, T.; Kagan, A.L.; Kalita, M.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karagiorgi, G.; Karle, A.; Katori, T.; Kayser, B.; Kephart, R.; Kettell, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Kirby, M.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.; Kneller, J.; Kobach, A.; Kohl, M.; Kopp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Korsch, W.; Kourbanis, I.; Krisch, A.D.; Krizan, P.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, K.S.; Kuno, Y.; Kutter, T.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lamm, M.; Lancaster, J.; Lancaster, M.; Lane, C.; Lang, K.; Langacker, P.; Lazarevic, S.; Le, T.; Lee, K.; Lesko, K.T.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, M.; Lindner, A.; Link, J.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.S.; Littlejohn, B.; Liu, C.Y.; Loinaz, W.; Lorenzon, W.; Louis, W.C.; Lozier, J.; Ludovici, L.; Lueking, L.; Lunardini, C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Machado, P.A.N.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Maloney, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Marsh, W.; Marshak, M.; Martin, J.W.; Mauger, C.; McFarland, K.S.; McGrew, C.; McLaughlin, G.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Meadows, B.T.; Mehdiyev, R.; Melconian, D.; Merkel, H.; Messier, M.; Miller, J.P.; Mills, G.; Minamisono, U.K.; Mishra, S.R.; Mocioiu, I.; Sher, S.Moed; Mohapatra, R.N.; Monreal, B.; Moore, C.D.; Morfin, J.G.; Mousseau, J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, P.; Muether, M.; Mumm, H.P.; Munger, C.; Murayama, H.; Nath, P.; Naviliat-Cuncin, O.; Nelson, J.K.; Neuffer, D.; Nico, J.S.; Norman, A.; Nygren, D.; Obayashi, Y.; O'Connor, T.P.; Okada, Y.; Olsen, J.; Orozco, L.; Orrell, J.L.; Osta, J.; Pahlka, B.; Paley, J.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papucci, M.; Parke, S.; Parker, R.H.; Parsa, Z.; Partyka, K.; Patch, A.; Pati, J.C.; Patterson, R.B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Paz, Gil; Perdue, G.N.; Perevalov, D.; Perez, G.; Petti, R.; Pettus, W.; Piepke, A.; Pivovaroff, M.; Plunkett, R.; Polly, C.C.; Pospelov, M.; Povey, R.; Prakesh, A.; Purohit, M.V.; Raby, S.; Raaf, J.L.; Rajendran, R.; Rajendran, S.; Rameika, G.; Ramsey, R.; Rashed, A.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Rebel, B.; Redondo, J.; Reimer, P.; Reitzner, D.; Ringer, F.; Ringwald, A.; Riordan, S.; Roberts, B.L.; Roberts, D.A.; Robertson, R.; Robicheaux, F.; Rominsky, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Rott, C.; Rubin, P.; Saito, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schellman, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, D.W.; Schneps, J.; Schopper, A.; Schuster, P.; Schwartz, A.J.; Schwarz, M.; Seeman, J.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Seth, K.K.; Shafi, Q.; Shanahan, P.; Sharma, R.; Sharpe, S.R.; Shiozawa, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Sigurdson, K.; Sikivie, P.; Singh, J.; Sivers, D.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.; Sobczyk, J.; Sobel, H.; Soderberg, M.; Song, Y.H.; Soni, A.; Souder, P.; Sousa, A.; Spitz, J.; Stancari, M.; Stavenga, G.C.; Steffen, J.H.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoeckinger, D.; Stone, S.; Strait, J.; Strassler, M.; Sulai, I.A.; Sundrum, R.; Svoboda, R.; Szczerbinska, B.; Szelc, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Tanedo, P.; Taneja, S.; Tang, J.; Tanner, D.B.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I.; Thomas, J.; Thorn, C.; Tian, X.; Tice, B.G.; Tobar, M.; Tolich, N.; Toro, N.; Towner, I.S.; Tsai, Y.; Tschirhart, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Tzanov, M.; Upadhye, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahsen, S.; Vainshtein, A.; Valencia, E.; Van de Water, R.G.; Van de Water, R.S.; Velasco, M.; Vogel, J.; Vogel, P.; Vogelsang, W.; Wah, Y.W.; Walker, D.; Weiner, N.; Weltman, A.; Wendell, R.; Wester, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitmore, J.; Widmann, E.; Wiedemann, G.; Wilkerson, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R.J.; Winter, W.; Wise, M.B.; Wodin, J.; Wojcicki, S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wongjirad, T.; Worcester, E.; Wurtele, J.; Xin, T.; Xu, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yavin, I.; Yeck, J.; Yeh, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Young, A.; Zimmerman, E.; Zioutas, K.; Zisman, M.; Zupan, J.; Zwaska, R.; Intensity Frontier Workshop
2012-01-01
The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
dynamic space - time led to spectacular advances in cosmology; predicting on the one hand an expansion of the universe ... It is difficult to describe the theoretical arguments which have led us to this conclusion. But there are .... anyone so singly responsible for so much revolutionary thinking in physics. But how easily may ...
An integration of Integrated Information Theory with fundamental physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam B Barrett
2014-02-01
Full Text Available To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesise that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.
An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics.
Barrett, Adam B
2014-01-01
To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.
Fundamentals of neuromechanics
Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J
2016-01-01
This book provides a conceptual and computational framework to study how the nervous system exploits the anatomical properties of limbs to produce mechanical function. The study of the neural control of limbs has historically emphasized the use of optimization to find solutions to the muscle redundancy problem. That is, how does the nervous system select a specific muscle coordination pattern when the many muscles of a limb allow for multiple solutions? I revisit this problem from the emerging perspective of neuromechanics that emphasizes finding and implementing families of feasible solutions, instead of a single and unique optimal solution. Those families of feasible solutions emerge naturally from the interactions among the feasible neural commands, anatomy of the limb, and constraints of the task. Such alternative perspective to the neural control of limb function is not only biologically plausible, but sheds light on the most central tenets and debates in the fields of neural control, robotics, rehabilit...
Williams, J G; Patel, Y
2016-06-06
The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.
Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals
Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham
2009-01-01
This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.
Fundamentals of electroweak theory
Hořejší, Jiří
2002-01-01
This monograph of Prof. Horejší is based on a series of his lectures which took place at Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of Charles University during 1990s. The author gives a thorough and easy-to-read account of the basic principles of the standard model of electroweak interactions, describes various theories of electromagnetic and weak interactions, and explains the gauge theory of electroweak interactions. Five appendices expound on some special techniques of the Standard Model, used in the main body of the text. Thanks to the author's pedagogical skills and professional erudition, the book can be read just with a preliminary knowledge of quantum field theory.
Measurement and Fundamental Processes in Quantum Mechanics
Jaeger, Gregg
2015-07-01
In the standard mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, measurement is an additional, exceptional fundamental process rather than an often complex, but ordinary process which happens also to serve a particular epistemic function: during a measurement of one of its properties which is not already determined by a preceding measurement, a measured system, even if closed, is taken to change its state discontinuously rather than continuously as is usual. Many, including Bell, have been concerned about the fundamental role thus given to measurement in the foundation of the theory. Others, including the early Bohr and Schwinger, have suggested that quantum mechanics naturally incorporates the unavoidable uncontrollable disturbance of physical state that accompanies any local measurement without the need for an exceptional fundamental process or a special measurement theory. Disturbance is unanalyzable for Bohr, but for Schwinger it is due to physical interactions' being borne by fundamental particles having discrete properties and behavior which is beyond physical control. Here, Schwinger's approach is distinguished from more well known treatments of measurement, with the conclusion that, unlike most, it does not suffer under Bell's critique of quantum measurement. Finally, Schwinger's critique of measurement theory is explicated as a call for a deeper investigation of measurement processes that requires the use of a theory of quantum fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganter, Bernd
2013-01-01
After a description of the four fundamental inteactions and the connection of information with energy the principle of the fast maximation together with the Ganter tableau is described. Then as example the derivation of the value of the fine-structure constant from the Ganter tableau is described. Thereafter the extension of the Ganter tableau, further properties of the Ganter tableau, and the persuasion of the Ganter tableau are considered. (HSI)
Communication technology update and fundamentals
Grant, August E
2010-01-01
New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha
Fundamentals of structural engineering
Connor, Jerome J
2016-01-01
This book-presents new methods and tools for the integration and simulation of smart devices. The design approach described in this book explicitly accounts for integration of Smart Systems components and subsystems as a specific constraint. It includes methodologies and EDA tools to enable multi-disciplinary and multi-scale modeling and design, simulation of multi-domain systems, subsystems and components at all levels of abstraction, system integration and exploration for optimization of functional and non-functional metrics. By covering theoretical and practical aspects of smart device design, this book targets people who are working and studying on hardware/software modelling, component integration and simulation under different positions (system integrators, designers, developers, researchers, teachers, students etc.). In particular, it is a good introduction to people who have interest in managing heterogeneous components in an efficient and effective way on different domains and different abstraction l...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J.; Soltys, M. N.
1983-03-01
Progress on the direct mass spectrometric sampling of pyrolysis products from wood and its constituents is described for the period from June 1982 to February 1983. A brief summary and references to detailed reports, of the qualitative demonstration of our approach to the study of the separated processes of primary and secondary pyrolysis is presented. Improvements and additions to the pyrolysis and data acquisition systems are discussed and typical results shown. Chief of these are a heated-grid pyrolysis system for controlled primary pyrolysis and a sheathed flame arrangement for secondary cracking studies. Qualitative results of the secondary cracking of cellulose, lignin, and wood are shown as are comparisons with the literature for the pyrolysis spectra of cellulose, lignin, and levoglucosan. 'Fingerprints' for a number of materials are shown, with spectra taken under carefully controlled conditions so that sensitivity calibrations for different compounds, now being determined, can be applied.
Symmetries in fundamental physics
Sundermeyer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...
Connecting Fundamental Constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Mario, D.
2008-01-01
A model for a black hole electron is built from three basic constants only: h, c and G. The result is a description of the electron with its mass and charge. The nature of this black hole seems to fit the properties of the Planck particle and new relationships among basic constants are possible. The time dilation factor in a black hole associated with a variable gravitational field would appear to us as a charge; on the other hand the Planck time is acting as a time gap drastically limiting what we are able to measure and its dimension will appear in some quantities. This is why the Planck time is numerically very close to the gravitational/electric force ratio in an electron: its difference, disregarding a π√(2) factor, is only 0.2%. This is not a coincidence, it is always the same particle and the small difference is between a rotating and a non-rotating particle. The determination of its rotational speed yields accurate numbers for many quantities, including the fine structure constant and the electron magnetic moment
Symmetries in fundamental physics
Sundermeyer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...
167th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Strangeness and Spin in Fundamental Physics
Bressani, T; Feliciello, A; Ratcliffe, Ph G
2008-01-01
Strangeness and Spin in Fundamental Physics is dedicated to the discussion of the role played by two subtle and somehow puzzling quantum numbers, the strangeness and the spin, in fundamental physics. They both relate to basic properties of the fundamental quantum field theories describing strong and electro-weak interactions and to their phenomenological applications. In some instances, like the partonic spin structure of the proton, they are deeply correlated. The many puzzling results recently obtained by measuring several spin asymmetries have stimulated gigantic progresses in the study of the spin structure of protons and neutrons. Intense theoretical activity has discovered new features of non-perturbative QCD, like strong correlations between the spin and the intrinsic motions of quarks inside the nucleons. The purpose of this publication is that of providing a complete, updated and critical account of the most recent and relevant discoveries in the above fields, both from the experimental and theoretic...
Fundamental space radiobiology
Nelson, Gregory A.
2003-01-01
The unique feature of the space radiation environment is the dominance of high-energy charged particles (HZE or high LET radiation) emitted by the Sun and galactic sources, or trapped in the Van Allen radiation belts. These charged particles present a significant hazard to space flight crews, and accelerator-based experiments are underway to quantify the health risks due to unavoidable radiation exposure. There are three principal properties of charged particles that distinguish them from conventional radiation, i.e. gamma rays and x-rays. First, they have a defined range in matter rather than an exponential absorption profile. Second, they undergo nuclear reactions to produce secondary particles. Third, and most important, they deposit their energy along well-defined linear paths or tracks rather than diffuse fields. The structured energy deposition pattern interacts on multiple scales with the biological structures of DNA, cells and tissues to produce correlated patterns of damage that evade repair systems. Traditional concepts of dose and its associated normalization parameter, RBE (relative biological effectiveness), break down under experimental scrutiny, and probabilistic models of risk based on the number of particle traversals per cell may be more appropriate. Unique patterns of DNA damage, gene expression, mobilization of repair proteins, activation of cytokines and remodeling of cellular microenvironment are observed following exposure to high LET radiation. At low levels of exposure the communication of bioactive substances from irradiated to unirradiated "bystander" cells can amplify the damage and cause a significant deviation from linearity in dose vs. response relations. Under some circumstances, there is even a multigenerational delay in the expression of radiation-induced genetic damage (genomic instability) which is not strictly dose dependent. These issues and the experimental evidence derived from ground based experiments at particle
Flatland optics: fundamentals.
Lohmann, A W; Pe'er, A; Wang, D; Friesem, A A
2000-10-01
"Flatland" is the title of a 120-year-old science fiction story. It describes the life of creatures living in a two-dimensional (2D) Flatland. A superior creature living in the three-dimensional (3D) spaceland, as we do, can easily inspect, for example, the inside of a Flatland house, as well as the content of a flat man's stomach without leaving any trace. Furthermore, the 3D person has supernatural powers that enable him to change the laws of physics in Flatland. We present here the concept of a 2D Flatland optics with one transversal coordinate x and one longitudinal coordinate z. The other transversal coordinate y allows total inspection of Flatland optics, and the freedom to change the wavelength, without using something like nonlinear optics or a Doppler shift. Monochromatic 3D light can be converted reversibly into polychromatic 2D light. A large variety of 2D systems and 2D effects will be presented here and in follow-up contributions. An epilogue faces the question, how "real" is Flatland optics?
Fundamentals of technology roadmapping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, M.L.; Bray, O.H.
1997-04-01
Technology planning is important for many reasons. Globally, companies are facing many competitive problems. Technology roadmapping, a form of technology planning can help deal with this increasingly competitive environment. While it has been used by some companies and industries, the focus has always been on the technology roadmap as a product, not on the process. This report focuses on formalizing the process so that it can be more broadly and easily used. As a DOE national security laboratory with R&D as a major product, Sandia must do effective technology planning to identify and develop the technologies required to meet its national security mission. Once identified, technology enhancements or new technologies may be developed internally or collaboratively with external partners. For either approach, technology roadmapping, as described in this report, is an effective tool for technology planning and coordination, which fits within a broader set of planning activities. This report, the second in a series on technology roadmapping, develops and documents this technology roadmapping process, which can be used by Sandia, other national labs, universities, and industry. The main benefit of technology roadmapping is that it provides information to make better technology investment decisions by identifying critical technologies and technology gaps and identifying ways to leverage R&D investments. It can also be used as a marketing tool. Technology roadmapping is critical when the technology investment decision is not straight forward. This occurs when it is not clear which alternative to pursue, how quickly the technology is needed, or when there is a need to coordinate the development of multiple technologies. The technology roadmapping process consists of three phases - preliminary activity, development of the technology roadmap, and follow-up activity.
Cepheids in Magellanic Cloud star clusters - Fundamental and overtone pulsators in NGC 2157
Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Madore, Barry F.
1990-01-01
CCD survey data are employed to examine Cepheids in young Magellanic Cloud star clusters. The properties of three Cepheids observed in NGC 2157 are described. It is detected that the two short-period (3 days) Cepheids have photometric properties that correspond to overtone pulsators and the long-period (7.7 days) Cepheid pulses in the fundamental mode. The pulsational masses for the three Cepheids are calculated to be about 5 solar masses. This mass value does not correlate with the average pulsational mass for Cepheids of 3.0 + or - 0.4 solar masses. The potential cause of this deviation in evolutionary/pulsational mass is investigated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bentsen R. G.
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Indirect methods are commonly employed to determine the fundamental flow properties needed to describe flow through porous media. Consequently, if one or more of the postulates underlying the mathematical description of such indirect methods is invalid, significant model error can be introduced into the measured value of the flow property. In particular, this study shows that effective mobility curves that include the effect of viscous coupling between fluid phases differ significantly from those that exclude such coupling. Moreover, it is shown that the conventional effective mobilities that pertain to steady-state, cocurrent flow, steady-state, countercurrent flow and pure countercurrent imbibition differ significantly. Thus, it appears that traditional effective mobilities are not true parameters; rather, they are infinitely nonunique. In addition, it is shown that, while neglect of hydrodynamic forces introduces a small amount of model error into the pressure difference curve for cocurrent flow in unconsolidated porous media, such neglect introduces a large amount of model error into the pressure difference curve for countercurrent flow in such porous media. Moreover, such neglect makes it difficult to explain why the pressure gradients that pertain to steady-state, countercurrent flow are opposite in sign. It is shown also that improper handling of the inlet boundary condition can introduce significant model error into the analysis. This is because, if a short core is used with one of the unsteady-state methods for determining effective mobility, it may take many pore volumes of injection before the inlet saturation rises to its maximal value, which is in contradiction with the usual assumption that the inlet saturation rises immediately to its maximal value. Finally, it is pointed out that, because of differences in flow regime and scale, the effective mobilities measured in the laboratory may not be appropriate for inclusion in the data
Radiotherapy and antitumoral immunity. Fundamentals of immunooncology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimovich, V.B.
1982-01-01
The fundamental states of immunooncology are described briefly: conception of immunologic inspection, antiblastomic immunologic factors, antigeny of tumor cells and mechanisms of slipping out of immune inspection, problastomic immunologic factors. The conclusion is made that tumor formation and extenstion go on under the action of opposite directed but not mutually exclusive factors of immunologic nature. Growth rate and regression of neoplasm are determined by balance between antiblastomic mechanism activity and activity of problastomic factors and factors of immunoresistant neoplasms
Fundamental structures of algebra and discrete mathematics
Foldes, Stephan
2011-01-01
Introduces and clarifies the basic theories of 12 structural concepts, offering a fundamental theory of groups, rings and other algebraic structures. Identifies essentials and describes interrelationships between particular theories. Selected classical theorems and results relevant to current research are proved rigorously within the theory of each structure. Throughout the text the reader is frequently prompted to perform integrated exercises of verification and to explore examples.
Laser Resonators and Beam Propagation Fundamentals, Advanced Concepts and Applications
Hodgson, Norman
2005-01-01
Optical Resonators provides a detailed discussion of the properties of optical resonators for lasers from basic theory to recent research. In addition to describing the fundamental theories of resonators such as geometrical optics, diffraction, and polarisation the characteristics of all important resonator schemes and their calculation are presented. Experimental examples, practical problems and a collection of measurement techniques support the comprehensive treatment of the subject. Optical Resonators is the only book currently available that provides a comprehensive overview of the the subject. Combined with the structure of the text and the autonomous nature of the chapters this work will be as suitable for those new to the field as it will be invaluable to specialists conducting research. This second edition has been enlarged by new sections on Q-switching and resonators with internal phase/amplitude control. In addition, the whole book has been brought up-to-date.
Fundamental principles of heat transfer
Whitaker, Stephen
1977-01-01
Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int
Fundamental number theory with applications
Mollin, Richard A
2008-01-01
An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory Expa
Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics
Gülçat, Ülgen
2010-01-01
This introduction to the principles of unsteady aerodynamics covers all the core concepts, provides readers with a review of the fundamental physics, terminology and basic equations, and covers hot new topics such as the use of flapping wings for propulsion.
Quantum mechanics I the fundamentals
Rajasekar, S
2015-01-01
Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals provides a graduate-level account of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and sub-nuclear levels. It covers basic concepts, mathematical formalism, and applications to physically important systems.
Composing Europe's Fundamental Rights Area
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Storgaard, Louise Halleskov
2015-01-01
The article offers a perspective on how the objective of a strong and coherent European protection standard pursued by the fundamental rights amendments of the Lisbon Treaty can be achieved, as it proposes a discursive pluralistic framework to understand and guide the relationship between the EU....... The article ends by addressing three of the most pertinent challenges to European fundamental rights protection through the prism of the proposed framework....
Fundamentals of electronic image processing
Weeks, Arthur R
1996-01-01
This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.
Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics Thermodynamics
Capitelli, Mario; D'Angola, Antonio
2012-01-01
Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics - Thermodynamics develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma thermodynamics from both classical and statistical points of view. After a refreshment of classical thermodynamics applied to the dissociation and ionization regimes, the book invites the reader to discover the role of electronic excitation in affecting the properties of plasmas, a topic often overlooked by the thermal plasma community. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the divergence of the partition function of atomic species and the state-to-state approach for calculating the partition function of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The limit of ideal gas approximation is also discussed, by introducing Debye-Huckel and virial corrections. Throughout the book, worked examples are given in order to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is a first of a series of three books to be published by the authors on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics. The next bo...
Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics transport
Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita
2013-01-01
Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Tranpsort develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals. A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties. Throughout the book, worked examples ...
Fundamentals of human resource management : emerging experiences from Africa
Itika, J.
2011-01-01
The fundamentals of human resource management are extensively described in European and American literature. This book summarises the general human resource management philosophies, theories, strategies and techniques and links them to the specific African context. The usefulness of these general
Proceedings of the 2003 NASA/JPL Workshop on Fundamental Physics in Space
Strayer, Don (Editor)
2003-01-01
The 2003 Fundamental Physics workshop included presentations ranging from forces acting on RNA to properties of clouds of degenerate Fermi atoms, to techniques to probe for a added space-time dimensions, and to flight hardware for low temperature experiments, amongst others. Mark Lee from NASA Headquarters described the new strategic plan that NASA has developed under Administrator Sean O'Keefe's leadership. Mark explained that the Fundamental Physics community now needs to align its research program and the roadmap describing the long-term goals of the program with the NASA plan. Ulf Israelsson of JPL discussed how the rewrite of the roadmap will be implemented under the leadership of the Fundamental Physics Discipline Working Group (DWG). Nick Bigelow, chair of the DWG, outlined how investigators can contribute to the writing of the roadmap. Results of measurements on very cold clouds of Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance were described by three investigators. Also, new measurements relating to tests of Einstein equivalence were discussed. Investigators also described methods to test other aspects of Einstein's relativity theories.
Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hattel, Jesper Henri; Pryds, Nini; Thorborg, Jesper
Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes comprises a thorough presentation of the basic phenomena that need to be addressed in numerical simulation of casting processes. The main philosophy of the book is to present the topics in view of their physical meaning, whenever possible......, rather than relying strictly on mathematical formalism. The book, aimed both at the researcher and the practicing engineer, as well as the student, is naturally divided into four parts. Part I (Chapters 1-3) introduces the fundamentals of modelling in a 1-dimensional framework. Part II (Chapter 4......) presents the most important aspects of solidification theory related to modelling. Part III (Chapter 5) describes the fluid flow phenomena and in part IV (Chapter 6) the stress-strain analysis is addressed. For all parts, both numerical formulations as well as some important analytical solutions...
Spatial Filtering Velocimetry Fundamentals and Applications
Aizu, Yoshihisa
2006-01-01
The first monograph devoted exclusively to spatial filtering velocimetry, this book includes fundamental theory, imaging optics, signal analysis, spatial filtering devices and systems, plus applications. Also suitable as a tutorial for students and users who are unfamiliar with optics and signal processing, Spatial Filtering Velocimetry treats the principle and properties of this velocimetric technique in a concise and easily readable form, together with full appendices. The book reviews a wide range of systems and applications of the spatial-filtering technique for velocity and related measurements, putting forth examples useful in various fields of science, medicine, and engineering.
Fundamentals of information theory and coding design
Togneri, Roberto
2003-01-01
In a clear, concise, and modular format, this book introduces the fundamental concepts and mathematics of information and coding theory. The authors emphasize how a code is designed and discuss the main properties and characteristics of different coding algorithms along with strategies for selecting the appropriate codes to meet specific requirements. They provide comprehensive coverage of source and channel coding, address arithmetic, BCH, and Reed-Solomon codes and explore some more advanced topics such as PPM compression and turbo codes. Worked examples and sets of basic and advanced exercises in each chapter reinforce the text's clear explanations of all concepts and methodologies.
Fundamentals of electromagnetics 2 quasistatics and waves
Voltmer, David
2007-01-01
This book is the second of two volumes which have been created to provide an understanding of the basic principles and applications of electromagnetic fields for electrical engineering students. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics Vol 2: Quasistatics and Waves examines how the low-frequency models of lumped elements are modified to include parasitic elements. For even higher frequencies, wave behavior in space and on transmission lines is explained. Finally, the textbook concludes with details of transmission line properties and applications. Upon completion of this book and its companion Fundame
Children describe life after Hurricane Andrew.
Coffman, S
1994-01-01
Hurricane Andrew, which devastated the south Florida coast in August 1992, left over 250,000 people homeless with multiple health and social problems. This nursing study explored the experiences of 17 children, ages 5 through 12, who lived in the geographic area of storm damage. Common experiences described by the children included remembering the storm, dealing with after-effects, and reestablishing a new life. In general, children described a sense of strangeness, articulated as "life is weird" after the hurricane. In addition to stressful responses, many positive reactions were described by children in the study, revealing that the disaster also had a maturing effect.
Fundamental Composite (Goldstone) Higgs Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cacciapaglia, G.; Sannino, Francesco
2014-01-01
We provide a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian level, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation of the conden......We provide a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian level, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation...... transforming according to the fundamental representation of the gauge group. This minimal choice enables us to use recent first principle lattice results to make the first predictions for the massive spectrum for models of composite (Goldstone) Higgs dynamics. These results are of the upmost relevance to guide...
Disposition of recently described species of Penicillium
Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.
1990-01-01
Hundred and twenty-two species, varieties, and new combinations of Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Talaromyces described since 1977 have been studied taxonomically and screened for mycotoxin production. Only 48 taxa could be accepted: Eupenicillium angustiporcatum, E. cryptum, E. lineolatum, E.
Describing content in middle school science curricula
Schwarz-Ballard, Jennifer A.
As researchers and designers, we intuitively recognize differences between curricula and describe them in terms of design strategy: project-based, laboratory-based, modular, traditional, and textbook, among others. We assume that practitioners recognize the differences in how each requires that students use knowledge, however these intuitive differences have not been captured or systematically described by the existing languages for describing learning goals. In this dissertation I argue that we need new ways of capturing relationships among elements of content, and propose a theory that describes some of the important differences in how students reason in differently designed curricula and activities. Educational researchers and curriculum designers have taken a variety of approaches to laying out learning goals for science. Through an analysis of existing descriptions of learning goals I argue that to describe differences in the understanding students come away with, they need to (1) be specific about the form of knowledge, (2) incorporate both the processes through which knowledge is used and its form, and (3) capture content development across a curriculum. To show the value of inquiry curricula, learning goals need to incorporate distinctions among the variety of ways we ask students to use knowledge. Here I propose the Epistemic Structures Framework as one way to describe differences in students reasoning that are not captured by existing descriptions of learning goals. The usefulness of the Epistemic Structures framework is demonstrated in the four curriculum case study examples in Part II of this work. The curricula in the case studies represent a range of content coverage, curriculum structure, and design rationale. They serve both to illustrate the Epistemic Structures analysis process and make the case that it does in fact describe learning goals in a way that captures important differences in students reasoning in differently designed curricula
RFID design fundamentals and applications
Lozano-Nieto, Albert
2010-01-01
RFID is an increasingly pervasive tool that is now used in a wide range of fields. It is employed to substantiate adherence to food preservation and safety standards, combat the circulation of counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and verify authenticity and history of critical parts used in aircraft and other machinery-and these are just a few of its uses. Goes beyond deployment, focusing on exactly how RFID actually worksRFID Design Fundamentals and Applications systematically explores the fundamental principles involved in the design and characterization of RFID technologies. The RFID market is expl
Theoretical methods for describing electronic states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buslaeva, T.M.; Umrejko, D.S.; Novitskij, G.G.; Sinitsyn, N.M.; Kovrikov, A.B.
1990-01-01
Theoretical description of electron states of ruthenium halogenocomplexes is presented. Properties of external electrons in ruthenium complexes, formation of chemical bonds, are considered. The main types of hybridization and corresponding spatial structures of the complexes with coordination number 2-6 are given. 5 figs.; 4 tabs
Fundamental aspects of nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haxton, W.C.
1987-01-01
I am pleased to be able to attend this symposium in honor of D. Allan Bromley and to see the new accelerator of the Yale University Nuclear Structure Laboratory. My talk on symmetry tests seems appropriate for this occasion: so much of the progress in this field depends on detailed knowledge of nuclear structure. The nuclear ''tricks'' that are played to filter and amplify interactions are possible because the nuclear spectroscopists have cataloged nuclear levels and determined their properties. I will describe how such nuclear structure studies may help to provide a window on physics beyond the standard model. My talk is not a summary of this subfield of nuclear physics. There is simply too much happening today to make a summary talk feasible. Instead, I have chosen four topics that I hope are representative of the field as a whole: parity mixing of nuclear states, time-reversal-odd nuclear moments, the Mikheyev-Smirnov enhancement of solar neutrino oscillations, and a nuclear experiment to monitor the long-term rate of stellar collapse in the galaxy. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
Fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates.
Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Wu, David T
2011-01-01
Fundamental understanding of gas hydrate formation and decomposition processes is critical in many energy and environmental areas and has special importance in flow assurance for the oil and gas industry. These areas represent the core of gas hydrate applications, which, albeit widely studied, are still developing as growing fields of research. Discovering the molecular pathways and chemical and physical concepts underlying gas hydrate formation potentially can lead us beyond flowline blockage prevention strategies toward advancing new technological solutions for fuel storage and transportation, safely producing a new energy resource from natural deposits of gas hydrates in oceanic and arctic sediments, and potentially facilitating effective desalination of seawater. The state of the art in gas hydrate research is leading us to new understanding of formation and dissociation phenomena that focuses on measurement and modeling of time-dependent properties of gas hydrates on the basis of their well-established thermodynamic properties.
Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition.
Fortney, Clarence; And Others
These instructional materials assist teachers in improving instruction on the fundamentals of welding. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and 27 references. Seven units of…
Ecological fundamentals of environmental protection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haber, W.
1993-01-01
The book reviews the state of the art of ecological knowledge. The emphasis is on ecosystem theory and in the interpretation of our environment with its irreversible anthropogenic changes. It is an important contribution to deeper knowledge about the ecological fundamentals of environmental protection and the factors that constitute nature's potential. (orig./BBR) [de
Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science
Gozalvez, Javier; Haerri, Jerome; Hartenstein, Hannes; Heijenk, Geert; Kargl, Frank; Petit, Jonathan; Scheuermann, Björn; Tieler, Tessa; Altintas, O.; Dressler, F.; Hartenstein, H.; Tonguz, O.K.
The working group on “Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science‿ discussed the lasting value of achieved research results as well as potential future directions in the field of inter- vehicular communication. Two major themes ‘with variations’ were the dependence on a specific technology (particularly
Credit cycles and macro fundamentals
Koopman, S.J.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.
2009-01-01
We use an intensity-based framework to study the relation between macroeconomic fundamentals and cycles in defaults and rating activity. Using Standard and Poor's U.S. corporate rating transition and default data over the period 1980-2005, we directly estimate the default and rating cycle from micro
Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering
Gnesi, S.; Rensink, Arend; Unknown, [Unknown
This volume contains the proceedings of FASE 2014, the 17th International Conferences on Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering, which was held in Grenoble, Italy, in April 2014 as part of the annual European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS).
Fundamental length and relativistic length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1988-01-01
It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem
van Doesum, A.; van Kesteren, H.W.M.; van Norden, G.J.
Fundamentals of EU VAT Law aims at providing a deep insight into the systematics, the functioning and the principles of the European Value Added Tax (VAT) system. VAT is responsible for generating approximately EUR 903 billion per year in tax revenues across the European Union – revenues that play a
Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Biyao Huang
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.
Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization
Biyao Huang; Xiaomin Bai; Zhenyu Zhou; Quansheng Cui; Daohua Zhu; Ruwei Hu
2017-01-01
Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.
Experimental tests of fundamental symmetries
Jungmann, K. P.
2014-01-01
Ongoing experiments and projects to test our understanding of fundamental inter- actions and symmetries in nature have progressed significantly in the past few years. At high energies the long searched for Higgs boson has been found; tests of gravity for antimatter have come closer to reality;
Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering
African Journals Online (AJOL)
W. Mahfouz
promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis of the regenerated organs. The choice of the scaffold and the type of cells is a crucial and fundamental step in regenerative medicine. In this review article, we demonstrated these three crucial factors of bladder tissue engineering, with the pros and cons of each scaffold type and.
Fundamental Matrix for a Class of Point Delay Linear Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, M. de la; Alastruey, C. F.
1998-01-01
It is difficult to establish explicit analytic forms for fundamental matrices of delayed linear systems. In this paper, an explicit form of exponential type is given for such a matrix in the case of punctual delays. The existence of real and complex fundamental matrices, for the case of real parameterizations of the differential system, is studied and discussed. Some additional commutativity properties involving the matrices parameters and the fundamental matrices as well as explicit expressions for the solution of the delayed differential system are also given. (Author)
Reversible computing fundamentals, quantum computing, and applications
De Vos, Alexis
2010-01-01
Written by one of the few top internationally recognized experts in the field, this book concentrates on those topics that will remain fundamental, such as low power computing, reversible programming languages, and applications in thermodynamics. It describes reversible computing from various points of view: Boolean algebra, group theory, logic circuits, low-power electronics, communication, software, quantum computing. It is this multidisciplinary approach that makes it unique.Backed by numerous examples, this is useful for all levels of the scientific and academic community, from undergr
Computer arithmetic and verilog HDL fundamentals
Cavanagh, Joseph
2009-01-01
Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL) is the state-of-the-art method for designing digital and computer systems. Ideally suited to describe both combinational and clocked sequential arithmetic circuits, Verilog facilitates a clear relationship between the language syntax and the physical hardware. It provides a very easy-to-learn and practical means to model a digital system at many levels of abstraction. Computer Arithmetic and Verilog HDL Fundamentals details the steps needed to master computer arithmetic for fixed-point, decimal, and floating-point number representations for all prima
Fundamentals of Agent Perception and Attention Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peters, Christopher; Castellano, Ginevra; Rehm, Matthias
2011-01-01
Perception and attention mechanisms are of great importance for entities situated within complex dynamic environments. With roles extending greatly beyond passive information services about the external environment, such mechanisms actively prioritise, augment and expedite information to ensure...... that the potentially relevant is made available so appropriate action can take place. Here, we describe the rationale behind endowing artificial entities, or virtual agents, with real-time perception and attention systems. We cover the fundamentals of designing and building such systems. Once equipped, the resulting...
Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications
Wu, Yuping
2015-01-01
Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col
Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics course
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
The course will provide an introduction to some of the basic theoretical techniques used to describe the fundamental particles and their interactions. Of central importance to our understanding of these forces are the underlying symmetries of nature and I will review the nature of these symmetries and how they are used to build a predictive theory. I discuss how the combination of quantum mechanics and relativity leads to the quantum field theory (QFT) description of the states of matter and their interactions. The Feynman rules used to determine the QFT predictions for experimentally measurable processes are derived and applied to the calculation of decay widths and cross sections.
Statistical Methods for Describing Developmental Patterns.
Burchinal, Margaret R.
1999-01-01
Describes a variety of analytic tools available to address questions about development, including growth-curve methods, hierarchical regressions, and both primary and secondary data analysis of project and extant data. Demonstrates some of these techniques using extant data from two projects to examine questions about treatment efficacy and…
Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni
2011-01-01
As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Frameworks for understanding and describing business models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin
2014-01-01
This chapter provides in a chronological fashion an introduction to six frameworks that one can apply to describing, understanding and also potentially innovating business models. These six frameworks have been chosen carefully as they represent six very different perspectives on business models ...... Maps (2001) • Intellectual Capital Statements (2003) • Chesbrough’s framework for Open Business Models (2006) • Business Model Canvas (2008)...
Modeling Approaches for Describing Microbial Population Heterogeneity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lencastre Fernandes, Rita
in a computational (CFD) fluid dynamic model. The anaerobic Growth of a budding yeast population in a continuously run microbioreactor was used as example. The proposed integrated model describes the fluid flow, the local cell size and cell cycle position distributions, as well as the local concentrations of glucose...
Phenomenological approach to describe logistic growth and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-10-18
Oct 18, 2016 ... to describe temporal evolution of systems occurring in physics, biology, statistics and economics. .... may be considered to define a new class whose growth is affected by environmental constraints like ... The growth processes may be endogenous or exoge- nous by nature. These natures do not depend on ...
Analytical Solutions To Describe Juxtaposed Sands | Adeniji ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Mathematical (linear diffusion) equations are presented for two pseudoreservoir regions intersected by fault that describe the effects of partial communicating fault on pressure transient behaviour for each fault block. Green's and source function technique solve these equations. A two-well system is considered for the ...
Pre-Big Bang, fundamental Physics and noncyclic cosmologies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gonzalez-Mestres L.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Detailed analyses of WMAP and Planck data can have significant implications for noncyclic pre-Big Bang approaches incorporating a new fundamental scale beyond the Planck scale and, potentially, new ultimate constituents of matter with unconventional basic properties as compared to standard particles. Cosmic-ray experiments at the highest energies can also yield relevant information. Hopefully, future studies will be able to deal with alternatives: i to standard physics for the structure of the physical vacuum, the nature of space-time, the validity of quantum field theory and conventional symmetries, the interpretation of string-like theories...; ii to standard cosmology concerning the origin and evolution of our Universe, unconventional solutions to the cosmological constant problem, the validity of inflationary scenarios, the need for dark matter and dark energy... Lorentz-like symmetries for the properties of matter can then be naturally stable space-time configurations resulting from more general primordial scenarios that incorporate physics beyond the Planck scale and describe the formation and evolution of the physical vacuum. A possible answer to the question of the origin of half-integer spins can be provided by a primordial spinorial space-time with two complex coordinates instead of the conventional four real ones, leading to a really new cosmology. We discuss basic questions and phenomenological topics concerning noncyclic pre-Big Bang cosmologies and potentially related physics.
Generating and Describing Affective Eye Behaviors
Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng
The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.
Describing Spirituality at the End of Life.
Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Berry, Devon M
2015-09-01
Spirituality is salient to persons nearing the end of life (EOL). Unfortunately, researchers have not been able to agree on a universal definition of spirituality reducing the effectiveness of spiritual research. To advance spiritual knowledge and build an evidence base, researchers must develop creative ways to describe spirituality as it cannot be explicitly defined. A literature review was conducted to determine the common attributes that comprise the essence of spirituality, thereby creating a common ground on which to base spiritual research. Forty original research articles (2002 to 2012) focusing on EOL and including spiritual definitions/descriptions were reviewed. Analysis identified five attributes that most commonly described the essence of spirituality, including meaning, beliefs, connecting, self-transcendence, and value. © The Author(s) 2014.
LiveDescribe: Can Amateur Describers Create High-Quality Audio Description?
Branje, Carmen J.; Fels, Deborah I.
2012-01-01
Introduction: The study presented here evaluated the usability of the audio description software LiveDescribe and explored the acceptance rates of audio description created by amateur describers who used LiveDescribe to facilitate the creation of their descriptions. Methods: Twelve amateur describers with little or no previous experience with…
How do consumers describe wine astringency?
Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Ares, Gastón
2015-12-01
Astringency is one of the most important sensory characteristics of red wine. Although a hierarchically structured vocabulary to describe the mouthfeel sensations of red wine has been proposed, research on consumers' astringency vocabulary is lacking. In this context, the aim of this work was to gain an insight on the vocabulary used by wine consumers to describe the astringency of red wine and to evaluate the influence of wine involvement on consumers' vocabulary. One hundred and twenty-five wine consumers completed and on-line survey with five tasks: an open-ended question about the definition of wine astringency, free listing the sensations perceived when drinking an astringent wine, free listing the words they would use to describe the astringency of a red wine, a CATA question with 44 terms used in the literature to describe astringency, and a wine involvement questionnaire. When thinking about wine astringency consumers freely elicited terms included in the Mouth-feel Wheel, such as dryness and harsh. The majority of the specific sub-qualities of the Mouth-feel Wheel were not included in consumer responses. Also, terms not classified as astringency descriptors were elicited (e.g. acid and bitter). Only 17 out of the 31 terms from the Mouth-feel Wheel were used by more than 10% of participants when answering the CATA question. There were no large differences in the responses of consumer segments with different wine involvement. Results from the present work suggest that most of the terms of the Mouth-feel Wheel might not be adequate to communicate the astringency characteristics of red wine to consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adiabatically describing rare earths using microscopic deformations
Nobre, Gustavo; Dupuis, Marc; Herman, Michal; Brown, David
2017-09-01
Recent works showed that reactions on well-deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region are very well described by an adiabatic method. This assumes a spherical optical potential (OP) accounting for non-rotational degrees of freedom while the deformed configuration is described by couplings to states of the g.s. rotational band. This method has, apart from the global OP, only the deformation parameters as inputs, with no additional fit- ted variables. For this reason, it has only been applied to nuclei with well-measured deformations. With the new computational capabilities, microscopic large-scale calculations of deformation parameters within the HFB method based on the D1S Gogny force are available in the literature. We propose to use such microscopic deformations in our adi- abatic method, allowing us to reproduce the cross sections agreements observed in stable nuclei, and to reliably extend this description to nuclei far from stability, describing the whole rare-earth region. Since all cross sections, such as capture and charge exchange, strongly depend on the correct calculation of absorption from the incident channel (from direct reaction mechanisms), this approach significantly improves the accuracy of cross sections and transitions relevant to astrophysical studies. The work at BNL was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the US Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC.
Fundamental research in developing countries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moravesik, M.J.
1964-01-01
Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.
Modern measurements fundamentals and applications
Petri, D; Carbone, P; Catelani, M
2015-01-01
This book explores the modern role of measurement science for both the technically most advanced applications and in everyday and will help readers gain the necessary skills to specialize their knowledge for a specific field in measurement. Modern Measurements is divided into two parts. Part I (Fundamentals) presents a model of the modern measurement activity and the already recalled fundamental bricks. It starts with a general description that introduces these bricks and the uncertainty concept. The next chapters provide an overview of these bricks and ﬁnishes (Chapter 7) with a more general and complex model that encompasses both traditional (hard) measurements and (soft) measurements, aimed at quantifying non-physical concepts, such as quality, satisfaction, comfort, etc. Part II (Applications) is aimed at showing how the concepts presented in Part I can be usefully applied to design and implement measurements in some very impor ant and broad ﬁelds. The editors cover System Identiﬁcation (Chapter 8...
Fundamentals of electronic systems design
Lienig, Jens
2017-01-01
This textbook covers the design of electronic systems from the ground up, from drawing and CAD essentials to recycling requirements. Chapter by chapter, it deals with the challenges any modern system designer faces: the design process and its fundamentals, such as technical drawings and CAD, electronic system levels, assembly and packaging issues and appliance protection classes, reliability analysis, thermal management and cooling, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), all the way to recycling requirements and environmental-friendly design principles. Enables readers to face various challenges of designing electronic systems, including coverage from various engineering disciplines; Written to be accessible to readers of varying backgrounds; Uses illustrations extensively to reinforce fundamental concepts; Organized to follow essential design process, although chapters are self-contained and can be read in any order.
Protection of fundamental rights today
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer-Abich, K.M.
1984-01-01
Technical developments can both change the methods of dealing with existing conflicts, and cause new conflicts. Meyer-Abich analyzes five conflicts caused by the technological development in the solution of which the constitutional, liberal, and democratic protection of fundamental rights is not at all guaranteed. Meyer-Abich thinks that these new conflicts can be solved in the framework of the liberal constitutional state, if legal and political consequences are taken in order to guarantee the uncharged protection of fundamental rights under changing conditions. The necessary reforms can, however, only be realized if the way how state and science see themselves changes. Both have to give up their one-sidedness into which have been pushed by conflict which havbe been caused by the scientific and technical development. Only then it will be possible to solve the jemerging conflicts without eopardizing the integritiy of the society. (orig.) [de
Fundamentals of estuarine physical oceanography
Bruner de Miranda, Luiz; Kjerfve, Björn; Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de
2017-01-01
This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.
THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Cheng K.; Hua, Chi C.
2008-01-01
In the first part of this presentation, we introduce how the fundamental pair interactions for colloidal silica particles may be constracted from a self-consistent mapping procedure and coarse-grained simulation without introducing adjustable parameters. Force fields for silica particles with diameter ranging from 1 nm to 100 nm are reported and tabulated in a simple analytical form. In the second part, we describe how the previously obtained force fields may be utilized for modeling rod-like colloidal systems. Focus is on exploring the effects of force field and particulate aspect ratio on the thermodynamic and rheological properties
Fundamental groups of singular quasi-projective varieties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eyral, Christophe
2002-09-01
We express, under appropriate conditions, the fundamental group of a singular complex quasi-projective variety as a quotient of the fundamental group of a general hyperplane section, using a generic pencil. The subgroup by which the quotient is taken is described with the help of the monodromies around the exceptional hyperplanes of the pencil. This is a new generalization of the classical Zariski-van Kampen theorem on curves. (author)
On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Borissov Pericliev
2015-12-01
Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.
Describing the learning curve for bulbar urethroplasty.
Spilotros, Marco; Malde, Sachin; Greenwell, Tamsin J
2017-12-01
Learning curves have been described for a number of urological procedures including radical prostatectomy and laparoscopic nephrectomy but rarely for urethroplasty. We describe the learning curve for bulbar urethroplasty in a single surgeon series. A retrospective case note review was performed of 91 consecutive men median age 32 years (range, 15-66 years) having bulbar urethroplasty performed by a single surgeon. Data was collected on type of urethroplasty, restricture rate (as defined by urethrogram and/or flow rate) and duration of follow up. The restricture rates were compared by quartiles and statistical analysis was by ¦Ö 2 between the first and fourth quartiles. The 91 men had 42 dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft (Dorsal BMG), 20 BMG augmented bulbobulbar anastomotic (Augmented Rooftop) and 29 bulbobulbar anastomotic (BBA) urethroplasties performed. Median follow up was 39 months for the first quartile, 42 months for the second, 36 months for the third, and 35 months for the fourth. The restricture rate was 17% in the first quartile, 8.7% in the second and third quartiles and 4.5% in the fourth quartile. There were no restrictures noted after 24 months. There were 4 restrictures in the first quartile and 1 restricture in the fourth quartile (¦Ö 2 Plearning curve for bulbar urethroplasty with a reduced restricture rate each quartile and it may take as many as 90 cases to reach optimum restricture rates.
Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?
Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O
2008-07-01
Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.
In the search of fundamental inner bond strength of solid elements.
Yaghmaee, Maziar Sahba; Riahifar, Reza
2014-01-01
In order to understand the physics behind the surface properties and nano-scale phenomena, we are motivated first to investigate the inner bond strengths as well as the effect of number of neighboring atoms and their relative distance in addition to space positions (crystallography). Therefore, in order to study the effect of the nature of metallic bond on their physico-chemical properties, we first tried to investigate and introduce a mathematical model for transforming the bulk molar cohesion energy into microscopic bond strengths between atoms. Then an algorithm for estimating the nature of bond type including the materials properties and lattice scale "cutoff" has been proposed. This leads to a new fundamental energy scale free from the crystallography and number of atoms. The results of our model in case of fundamental energy scale of metals not only perfectly describe the inter relation between binding and melting phenomena but also adequately reproduce the bond strength for different bond types with respect to other estimations reported in literatures. The generalized algorithm and calculation methodology introduced here by us are suggested to be used for developing energy scale of bulk crystal materials to explain or predict any particular materials properties related to bond strengths of metallic elements.
In the Search of Fundamental Inner Bond Strength of Solid Elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maziar Sahba Yaghmaee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to understand the physics behind the surface properties and nano-scale phenomena, we are motivated first to investigate the inner bond strengths as well as the effect of number of neighboring atoms and their relative distance in addition to space positions (crystallography. Therefore, in order to study the effect of the nature of metallic bond on their physico-chemical properties, we first tried to investigate and introduce a mathematical model for transforming the bulk molar cohesion energy into microscopic bond strengths between atoms. Then an algorithm for estimating the nature of bond type including the materials properties and lattice scale “cutoff” has been proposed. This leads to a new fundamental energy scale free from the crystallography and number of atoms. The results of our model in case of fundamental energy scale of metals not only perfectly describe the inter relation between binding and melting phenomena but also adequately reproduce the bond strength for different bond types with respect to other estimations reported in literatures. The generalized algorithm and calculation methodology introduced here by us are suggested to be used for developing energy scale of bulk crystal materials to explain or predict any particular materials properties related to bond strengths of metallic elements.
Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology
Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.
2015-12-01
Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.
Does Guru Granth Sahib describe depression?
Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Bhugra, Dinesh
2013-01-01
Sikhism is a relatively young religion, with Guru Granth Sahib as its key religious text. This text describes emotions in everyday life, such as happiness, sadness, anger, hatred, and also more serious mental health issues such as depression and psychosis. There are references to the causation of these emotional disturbances and also ways to get out of them. We studied both the Gurumukhi version and the English translation of the Guru Granth Sahib to understand what it had to say about depression, its henomenology, and religious prescriptions for recovery. We discuss these descriptions in this paper and understand its meaning within the context of clinical depression. Such knowledge is important as explicit descriptions about depression and sadness can help encourage culturally appropriate assessment and treatment, as well as promote public health through education.
Describing chaotic attractors: Regular and perpetual points
Dudkowski, Dawid; Prasad, Awadhesh; Kapitaniak, Tomasz
2018-03-01
We study the concepts of regular and perpetual points for describing the behavior of chaotic attractors in dynamical systems. The idea of these points, which have been recently introduced to theoretical investigations, is thoroughly discussed and extended into new types of models. We analyze the correlation between regular and perpetual points, as well as their relation with phase space, showing the potential usefulness of both types of points in the qualitative description of co-existing states. The ability of perpetual points in finding attractors is indicated, along with its potential cause. The location of chaotic trajectories and sets of considered points is investigated and the study on the stability of systems is shown. The statistical analysis of the observing desired states is performed. We focus on various types of dynamical systems, i.e., chaotic flows with self-excited and hidden attractors, forced mechanical models, and semiconductor superlattices, exhibiting the universality of appearance of the observed patterns and relations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verma, A.S., E-mail: ajay_phy@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India); Gautam, Ruchita; Singh, Pravesh [Department of Physics, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India); Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201206 (India); Sharma, Sheetal [Department of Physics, Swami Premanand Mahavidyalaya, Mukerian, Punjab 144211 (India); Kumari, Sarita [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India)
2016-03-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • FP-LAPW method has been used to compute the solid state properties of CdSiP{sub 2}. • Electronic and optical properties reported by WIEN2K with recently developed mBJ potential. • The elastic and thermal properties were evaluated by first principles calculations. • Hardness was calculated for the first time at different temperature and pressure. • Solar cell devices with ZnSe/ZnTe buffer layers by simulated work. - Abstract: The first principles calculations were performed by the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method as implemented in the WIEN2K code within the density functional theory to obtain the structural, electronic and optical properties of CdSiP{sub 2} in the body centered tetragonal (BCT) phase. The six elastic constants (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12}, C{sub 13}, C{sub 33}, C{sub 44} and C{sub 66}) and mechanical parameters were presented and compared with the available experimental data. The thermodynamic calculations within the quasi-harmonic approximation is used to give an accurate description of the pressure-temperature dependence of the thermal-expansion coefficient, bulk modulus, specific heat, Debye temperature, entropy Grüneisen parameters and hardness. Further, CdSiP{sub 2} solar cell devices have been modeled; device physics and performance parameters are analyzed for zinc chalcogenide (ZnX; X = Se, Te) buffer layers. Simulation results for CdSiP{sub 2} thin layer solar cell show the maximum efficiency (25.7%) with ZnSe as the buffer layer.
Frontiers of Fundamental Physics 14
The 14th annual international symposium "Frontiers of Fundamental Physics" (FFP14) was organized by the OCEVU Labex. It was held in Marseille, on the Saint-Charles Campus of Aix Marseille University (AMU) and had over 280 participants coming from all over the world. FFP Symposium began in India in 1997 and it became itinerant in 2004, through Europe, Canada and Australia. It covers topics in fundamental physics with the objective to enable scholars working in related areas to meet on a single platform and exchange ideas. In addition to highlighting the progress in these areas, the symposium invites the top researchers to reflect on the educational aspects of our discipline. Moreover, the scientific concepts are also discussed through philosophical and epistemological viewpoints. Several eminent scientists, such as the laureates of prestigious awards (Nobel Prize, Fields Medal,…), have already participated in these meetings. The FFP14 Symposium developed around seven main themes, namely: Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology, High Energy Physics, Quantum Gravity, Mathematical Physics, Physics Education, Epistemology and Philosophy. The morning was devoted to the plenary session, with talks for a broad audience of physicists in its first half (9:00-10:30), and more specialized in its second half (11:00-12:30); this part was held in three amphitheaters. The parallel session of the Symposium took place during the afternoon (14:30-18:30) with seven thematic conferences and an additional conference on open topics named "Frontiers of Fundamental Physics". These eight conferences were organized around the contributions of participants, in addition to the ones of invited speakers. Altogether, there were some 250 contributions to the symposium (talks and posters). The plenary talks were webcasted live and recorded. The slides of the talks and the videos of the plenary talks are available from the Symposium web site: http://ffp14.cpt.univ-mrs.fr/
Communication technology update and fundamentals
Grant, August E
2014-01-01
A classic now in its 14th edition, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best resource for students and professionals looking to brush up on how these technologies have developed, grown, and converged, as well as what's in store for the future. It begins by developing the communication technology framework-the history, ecosystem, and structure-then delves into each type of technology, including everything from mass media, to computers and consumer electronics, to networking technologies. Each chapter is written by faculty and industry experts who p
Fundamentals of gas particle flow
Rudinger, G
1980-01-01
Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r
Computing fundamentals digital literacy edition
Wempen, Faithe
2014-01-01
Computing Fundamentals has been tailor made to help you get up to speed on your Computing Basics and help you get proficient in entry level computing skills. Covering all the key topics, it starts at the beginning and takes you through basic set-up so that you'll be competent on a computer in no time.You'll cover: Computer Basics & HardwareSoftwareIntroduction to Windows 7Microsoft OfficeWord processing with Microsoft Word 2010Creating Spreadsheets with Microsoft ExcelCreating Presentation Graphics with PowerPointConnectivity and CommunicationWeb BasicsNetwork and Internet Privacy and Securit
Quantum Uncertainty and Fundamental Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tosto S.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes a simplified theoretical approach to infer some essential concepts on the fundamental interactions between charged particles and their relative strengths at comparable energies by exploiting the quantum uncertainty only. The worth of the present approach relies on the way of obtaining the results, rather than on the results themselves: concepts today acknowledged as fingerprints of the electroweak and strong interactions appear indeed rooted in the same theoretical frame including also the basic principles of special and general relativity along with the gravity force.
Fundamental principles of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugajski, S.
1980-01-01
After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)
Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices
Yang, Deng-Ke
2014-01-01
Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion
Foam engineering fundamentals and applications
2012-01-01
Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.
Fundamental Physics with Space Experiments
Vitale, S.
I review a category of experiments in fundamental physics that need space as a laboratory. All these experiments have in common the need of a very low gravity environment to achieve as an ideal free fall as possible: LISA, the gravitational wave observatory, and its technology demonstrator SMART-2. The satellite tests of the equivalence principle Microscope, and the ultimate sensitivity one STEP, with its close heritage from GP-B, the experiment to measure the gravito-magnetic field of the Earth. Finally the entirely new field of cold atoms in space with its promise to produce the next generation of inertial gravitational and inertial sensors for general relativity experiments.
Ultralight porous metals. From fundamentals to applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, T.
2002-01-01
Over the past few years a number of low cost metallic foams for application as the core of sandwich panels and net shaped parts have been produced. The main aim is to develop lightweight structures which are stiff, strong, absorb large amount of energy and are cheap, for application in the transport and construction industries. For example, the firewall between the engine and passenger compartment of an automobile must have adequate mechanical strength, good energy and sound absorbing properties, and adequate fire retardance. Metal foams provide all of these features, and are under serious scrutiny for this applications by a number of automobile manufacturers (e.g., BMW and Audi). Additional specialized applications for foam-cored sandwich panels range from heat sinks for electronic devices to crash barriers for automobiles, from the construction panels in lifts on aircraft carriers to the luggage containers of aircraft, from sound proofing walls along railway tracks and highways to acoustic absorbers in lean premixed combustion chambers. But there is a problem. Before metallic foams can find widespread application, their basic properties must be measured, and ideally modeled as a function of microstructural details, in order to give a design capability. This work aims at reviewing recent progress and present some new results on fundamental research regarding the micromechanical origins of the mechanical, thermal, and acoustic properties of metallic foams. (author)
Biofilm carrier migration model describes reactor performance.
Boltz, Joshua P; Johnson, Bruce R; Takács, Imre; Daigger, Glen T; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Brockmann, Doris; Kovács, Róbert; Calhoun, Jason M; Choubert, Jean-Marc; Derlon, Nicolas
2017-06-01
The accuracy of a biofilm reactor model depends on the extent to which physical system conditions (particularly bulk-liquid hydrodynamics and their influence on biofilm dynamics) deviate from the ideal conditions upon which the model is based. It follows that an improved capacity to model a biofilm reactor does not necessarily rely on an improved biofilm model, but does rely on an improved mathematical description of the biofilm reactor and its components. Existing biofilm reactor models typically include a one-dimensional biofilm model, a process (biokinetic and stoichiometric) model, and a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) mass balance that [when organizing CFSTRs in series] creates a pseudo two-dimensional (2-D) model of bulk-liquid hydrodynamics approaching plug flow. In such a biofilm reactor model, the user-defined biofilm area is specified for each CFSTR; thereby, X carrier does not exit the boundaries of the CFSTR to which they are assigned or exchange boundaries with other CFSTRs in the series. The error introduced by this pseudo 2-D biofilm reactor modeling approach may adversely affect model results and limit model-user capacity to accurately calibrate a model. This paper presents a new sub-model that describes the migration of X carrier and associated biofilms, and evaluates the impact that X carrier migration and axial dispersion has on simulated system performance. Relevance of the new biofilm reactor model to engineering situations is discussed by applying it to known biofilm reactor types and operational conditions.
A laboratory scale fundamental time?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendes, R.V.
2012-01-01
The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and ℎ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)
Describing pediatric dysphonia with nonlinear dynamic parameters
Meredith, Morgan L.; Theis, Shannon M.; McMurray, J. Scott; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.
2008-01-01
Objective Nonlinear dynamic analysis has emerged as a reliable and objective tool for assessing voice disorders. However, it has only been tested on adult populations. In the present study, nonlinear dynamic analysis was applied to normal and dysphonic pediatric populations with the goal of collecting normative data. Jitter analysis was also applied in order to compare nonlinear dynamic and perturbation measures. This study’s findings will be useful in creating standards for the use of nonlinear dynamic analysis as a tool to describe dysphonia in the pediatric population. Methods The study included 38 pediatric subjects (23 children with dysphonia and 15 without). Recordings of sustained vowels were obtained from each subject and underwent nonlinear dynamic analysis and percent jitter analysis. The resulting correlation dimension (D2) and percent jitter values were compared across the two groups using t-tests set at a significance level of p = 0.05. Results It was shown that D2 values covary with the presence of pathology in children. D2 values were significantly higher in dysphonic children than in normal children (p = 0.002). Standard deviations indicated a higher level of variation in normal children’s D2 values than in dysphonic children’s D2 values. Jitter analysis showed markedly higher percent jitter in dysphonic children than in normal children (p = 0.025) and large standard deviations for both groups. Conclusion This study indicates that nonlinear dynamic analysis could be a viable tool for the detection and assessment of dysphonia in children. Further investigations and more normative data are needed to create standards for using nonlinear dynamic parameters for the clinical evaluation of pediatric dysphonia. PMID:18947887
Nuclear physics and fundamental interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krmpotic, K.
1980-01-01
In this work, it is discussed strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions. By means of experiments and theoretical interpretation of these interactions it was possible to interpret important properties, which will be discussed here. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ganter, Bernd
2013-06-01
After a description of the four fundamental inteactions and the connection of information with energy the principle of the fast maximation together with the Ganter tableau is described. Then as example the derivation of the value of the fine-structure constant from the Ganter tableau is described. Thereafter the extension of the Ganter tableau, further properties of the Ganter tableau, and the persuasion of the Ganter tableau are considered. (HSI)
Ershov, Mikhail; Kassabov, Martin
2017-01-01
The authors introduce and study the class of groups graded by root systems. They prove that if \\Phi is an irreducible classical root system of rank \\geq 2 and G is a group graded by \\Phi, then under certain natural conditions on the grading, the union of the root subgroups is a Kazhdan subset of G. As the main application of this theorem the authors prove that for any reduced irreducible classical root system \\Phi of rank \\geq 2 and a finitely generated commutative ring R with 1, the Steinberg group {\\mathrm St}_{\\Phi}(R) and the elementary Chevalley group \\mathbb E_{\\Phi}(R) have property (T). They also show that there exists a group with property (T) which maps onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank \\geq 2, thereby providing a "unified" proof of expansion in these groups.
State duties of protection and fundamental rights
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C Starck
2000-05-01
Full Text Available Duties of protection are duties of the state to protect certain legal interests of its citizens. They cover the interests of life, health, freedom and property and also protect some other interests and certain constitutionally recognised institutions. State duties of protection must be considered in connection with fundamental rights. The foundations of modern constitutionalism and attendant procedures are essential to develop guidelines for a constructive critique of the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court. This is done with reference to the recent history of France, Germany and England. The historical excursus reveals that a single theory underlies the variety of constitutional states. The development of the constitutional state gave rise to the significance of the preservation of freedom through the maintenance of law and the separation of powers. This has given rise to various legal devices, based also in part on experience with moderate rule and earlier theories of the imperium limitatum.A textual analysis of the German Basic Law is undertaken to determine whether and how the duties of protection are expressly created. Furthermore, the duties that have been discovered in the Basic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court are considered. These duties include the protection of human life and health, personal freedom, the right to autonomous development of one's personality, freedom of science, research and teaching, marriage and the family, children, mothers, professional freedom, property and the protection of German nationals against foreign states. Finally the justification of such duties and the constitutional control of the manner of protection are considered.In a final section a critique of relevant constitutional jurisprudence is undertaken. It is argued that claims to protection cannot be directly binding law. They presuppose legislation. If statutory protection is connected with infringements of third-party fundamental rights
Laser-based molecular spectroscopy for chemical analysis: laser fundamentals.
Moore, D.S.; Vo-Dinh, T.; Velthorst, N.H.; Schrader, B.
1996-01-01
This report is 15th in a series on Spectrochemical Methods of Analysis issued by IUPAC Commission V.4. It is concerned with the fundamental properties of lasers as used in analytical molecular spectroscopy in the optical wavelength region. The present report has five main sections: Introduction to
Water-based cleaning fundamentals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harding, W.B.
1991-12-01
A basic description of water-based alkaline cleaning is presented, The nature of soils is described. The compositions of conventional cleaning compounds are given with descriptions of the functions of the ingredients. The mechanisms by which soil is removed are explained. The degrees of cleanliness required, along with the influence of the material being cleaned, are discussed. Tests for cleanliness are described.
Optical Metamaterials Fundamentals and Applications
Cai, Wenshan
2010-01-01
Metamaterials—artificially structured materials with engineered electromagnetic properties—have enabled unprecedented flexibility in manipulating electromagnetic waves and producing new functionalities. In just a few years, the field of optical metamaterials has emerged as one of the most exciting topics in the science of light, with stunning and unexpected outcomes that have fascinated scientists and the general public alike. This volume details recent advances in the study of optical metamaterials, ranging from fundamental aspects to up-to-date implementations, in one unified treatment. Important recent developments and applications such as superlenses and cloaking devices are also treated in detail and made understandable. Optical Metamaterials will serve as a very timely book for both newcomers and advanced researchers in this rapidly evolving field. Early praise for Optical Metamaterials: "...this book is timely bringing to students and other new entrants to the field the most up to date concepts. Th...
Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics
Gülçat, Ülgen
2016-01-01
In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references. The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.
Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove
1998-01-01
In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... video pictures (400 Hz), a clear impact on the seam characteristics has been identified when a hump occurs.Finally, a clear correlation between the position of the focus point, the resultant process type and the corresponding signal intensity and signal variation has been found for sheets welded...
Neuroethics as a Fundamental Ethic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josep Corcó
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In her book Braintrust, the neurophilosopher Patricia Churchland puts forward her ideas about what neuroscience has contributed so far in the study of the neural bases of ethical behaviour in human beings. The main thesis of Churchland’s book is that morality has its origins in the neurobiology of attachment and bonding; she stresses the importance of oxytocin in the cooperative behaviour of human beings, and proposes that neuroethics might eventually come to be regarded as a fundamental ethic. In my opinion, however, Churchland’s proposal raises some pertinent questions, such as, Why should we behave ethically? or, What are moral values? In this paper we assess Churchland’s main ideas in an attempt to show whether neuroscience can be of help in answering these questions.
Queueing networks a fundamental approach
Dijk, Nico
2011-01-01
This handbook aims to highlight fundamental, methodological and computational aspects of networks of queues to provide insights and to unify results that can be applied in a more general manner. The handbook is organized into five parts: Part 1 considers exact analytical results such as of product form type. Topics include characterization of product forms by physical balance concepts and simple traffic flow equations, classes of service and queue disciplines that allow a product form, a unified description of product forms for discrete time queueing networks, insights for insensitivity, and aggregation and decomposition results that allow subnetworks to be aggregated into single nodes to reduce computational burden. Part 2 looks at monotonicity and comparison results such as for computational simplification by either of two approaches: stochastic monotonicity and ordering results based on the ordering of the proces generators, and comparison results and explicit error bounds based on an underlying Markov r...
Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example
Hanssen, Joel
2010-01-01
Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.
Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications
Cengel, Yunus
2013-01-01
Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...
Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications
2013-01-01
Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...
Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove
1998-01-01
In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... of normal video and high speed video (100 Hz) can not reveal any instability in the process when humping occurs. Contrary to this, photo diode signals (sampled at 3 kHz) clearly indicate a characteristic signal when humps occur.When the seam area and seam width have manually been measured on high speed...
Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert
2016-01-01
Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...
Fundamental enabling issues in nanotechnology :
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Floro, Jerrold Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foiles, Stephen Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hearne, Sean Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoyt, Jeffrey John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seel, Steven Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Webb III, Edmund Blackburn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morales, Alfredo Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zimmerman, Jonathan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2007-10-01
To effectively integrate nanotechnology into functional devices, fundamental aspects of material behavior at the nanometer scale must be understood. Stresses generated during thin film growth strongly influence component lifetime and performance; stress has also been proposed as a mechanism for stabilizing supported nanoscale structures. Yet the intrinsic connections between the evolving morphology of supported nanostructures and stress generation are still a matter of debate. This report presents results from a combined experiment and modeling approach to study stress evolution during thin film growth. Fully atomistic simulations are presented predicting stress generation mechanisms and magnitudes during all growth stages, from island nucleation to coalescence and film thickening. Simulations are validated by electrodeposition growth experiments, which establish the dependence of microstructure and growth stresses on process conditions and deposition geometry. Sandia is one of the few facilities with the resources to combine experiments and modeling/theory in this close a fashion. Experiments predicted an ongoing coalescence process that generates signficant tensile stress. Data from deposition experiments also supports the existence of a kinetically limited compressive stress generation mechanism. Atomistic simulations explored island coalescence and deposition onto surfaces intersected by grain boundary structures to permit investigation of stress evolution during later growth stages, e.g. continual island coalescence and adatom incorporation into grain boundaries. The predictive capabilities of simulation permit direct determination of fundamental processes active in stress generation at the nanometer scale while connecting those processes, via new theory, to continuum models for much larger island and film structures. Our combined experiment and simulation results reveal the necessary materials science to tailor stress, and therefore performance, in
Islamic Fundamentalism in Modern Russia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena F. Parubochaya
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Nowadays Islam takes the stage of recovery associated with the peculiar issues associated with the Muslim society. These characteristics are expressed in the spread of ideas of Islamic fundamentalism and its supporters’ confrontation with the rest of the world. This process has affected the Russian Muslims as well, the trend developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the post soviet muslims began to realize themselves as part of one of the Muslim Ummah, coming into conflict with the secular law of the Russian Federation. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the radical Islamic ideas have begun to appear in Russia, in the conditions of the growth of nationalism these thoughts found a fertile ground. One of these ideas was associated with the construction of Sharia state in the Muslim autonomous republics of the Russian Federation and their subsequent withdrawal from Russian’s membership. The situation for the Russian state in the Muslim republics aggravated the war in Chechnya. Through Chechnya mercenaries from Arab countries started to penetrate to the Russian territory, they also brought the money for the destabilization of the internal situation in Russia. Nevertheless, separatism did not find the mass support in neighboring regions such as Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Ingushetia. It is evidently that international Jihad ideas were supported financially from abroad. The issue of funding is a key part of the development of Islamic fundamentalism in Russia, the international Islamic funds and organizations gave huge financial assistance to them. At the present moment Russian authorities lead a fruitful and a successful fight against terrorism. In the future, after the completion of the antiterrorist operation in the Middle East hundreds of terrorists may return to Russia with huge experience that can threaten the security of the Russian state.
Augmented reality. Fundamentals and nuclear related applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Hirotake
2010-01-01
In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) has attracted considerable interest from both academia and industry. Virtual Reality enables users to interact only with virtual objects in a virtual environment, but AR enables users to interact with both virtual objects and real objects in the real world. This feature supports application of AR to various fields such as education, driving, entertainment, and navigation. Especially, by application of AR to support workers in nuclear power plants, it is expected that working time and human error can be decreased. However, many problems remain unsolved to apply AR to real fields. In this lecture note, fundamental knowledge of AR is presented first including the overview of elemental technologies to realize AR. Then various AR applications to nuclear fields are described. Finally, future prospects are given. (author)
Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars
2004-01-01
This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some...... fundamental concepts related to this task, which are relevant to understand for academia and practitioners working with the subject. This is done through a description of variant specification tasks and typical aspects of system solutions. To support the description of variant specification tasks and systems...... examples. In general the paper discusses an important focus area within mass customization and build-to-order production: the nature of industrial variant specification systems....
Microelectronics from fundamentals to applied design
Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio
2016-01-01
This book serves as a practical guide for practicing engineers who need to design analog circuits for microelectronics. Readers will develop a comprehensive understanding of the basic techniques of analog modern electronic circuit design, discrete and integrated, application as sensors and control and data acquisition systems,and techniques of PCB design. · Describes fundamentals of microelectronics design in an accessible manner; · Takes a problem-solving approach to the topic, offering a hands-on guide for practicing engineers; · Provides realistic examples to inspire a thorough understanding of system-level issues, before going into the detail of components and devices; · Uses a new approach and provides several skills that help engineers and designers retain key and advanced concepts.
Hormesis: a fundamental concept in biology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edward J. Calabrese
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper assesses the hormesis dose response concept, including its historical foundations, frequency, generality, quantitative features, mechanistic basis and biomedical, pharmaceutical and environmental health implications. The hormetic dose response is highly generalizable, being independent of biology model (i.e. common from plants to humans, level of biological organization (i.e. cell, organ and organism, endpoint, inducing agent and mechanism, providing the first general and quantitative description of plasticity. The hormetic dose response describes the limits to which integrative endpoints (e.g. cell proliferation, cell migration, growth patterns, tissue repair, aging processes, complex behaviors such as anxiety, learning, memory, and stress, preconditioning responses, and numerous adaptive responses can be modulated (i.e., enhanced or diminished by pharmaceutical, chemical and physical means. Thus, the hormesis concept is a fundamental concept in biology with a wide range of biological implications and biomedical applications.
Describing phase coexistence in systems with small phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovett, R
2007-01-01
Clusters of atoms can be studied in molecular beams and by computer simulation; 'liquid drops' provide elementary models for atomic nuclei and for the critical nuclei of nucleation theory. These clusters are often described in thermodynamic terms, but the behaviour of small clusters near a phase boundary is qualitatively different from the behaviour at a first order phase transition in idealized thermodynamics. In the idealized case the density and entropy show mathematically sharp discontinuities when the phase boundary is crossed. In large, but finite, systems, the phase boundaries become regions of state space wherein these properties vary rapidly but continuously. In small clusters with a large surface/volume ratio, however, the positive interfacial free energy makes it unlikely, even in states on phase boundaries, that a cluster will have a heterogeneous structure. What is actually seen in these states is a structure that fluctuates in time between homogeneous structures characteristic of the two sides of the phase boundary. That is, structural fluctuations are observed. Thermodynamics only predicts average properties; statistical mechanics is required to understand these fluctuations. Failure to distinguish thermodynamic properties and characterizations of fluctuations, particularly in the context of first order phase transitions, has led to suggestions that the classical rules for thermodynamic stability are violated in small systems and that classical thermodynamics provides an inconsistent description of these systems. Much of the confusion stems from taking statistical mechanical identifications of thermodynamic properties, explicitly developed for large systems, and applying them uncritically to small systems. There are no inconsistencies if thermodynamic properties are correctly identified and the distinction between thermodynamic properties and fluctuations is made clear
Standardless quantification approach of TXRF analysis using fundamental parameter method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szaloki, I.; Taniguchi, K.
2000-01-01
New standardless evaluation procedure based on the fundamental parameter method (FPM) has been developed for TXRF analysis. The theoretical calculation describes the relationship between characteristic intensities and the geometrical parameters of the excitation, detection system and the specimen parameters: size, thickness, angle of the excitation beam to the surface and the optical properties of the specimen holder. Most of the TXRF methods apply empirical calibration, which requires the application of special preparation technique. However, the characteristic lines of the specimen holder (Si Kα,β) present information from the local excitation and geometrical conditions on the substrate surface. On the basis of the theoretically calculation of the substrate characteristic intensity the excitation beam flux can be approximated. Taking into consideration the elements are in the specimen material a system of non-linear equation can be given involving the unknown concentration values and the geometrical and detection parameters. In order to solve this mathematical problem PASCAL software was written, which calculates the sample composition and the average sample thickness by gradient algorithm. Therefore, this quantitative estimation of the specimen composition requires neither external nor internal standard sample. For verification of the theoretical calculation and the numerical procedure, several experiments were carried out using mixed standard solution containing elements of K, Sc, V, Mn, Co and Cu in 0.1 - 10 ppm concentration range. (author)
Fundamentals of machine elements SI version
Schmid, Steven R; Jacobson, Bo O
2014-01-01
Part I - FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Design?Design of Mechanical SystemsDesign as a Multidisciplinary EndeavorDesign of Machine ElementsComputers in DesignCatalogs and VendorsUnitsUnit ChecksSignificant FiguresSummaryLoad, Stress, and StrainIntroductionCritical SectionLoad Classification and Sign ConventionSupport ReactionsStatic EquilibriumFree-Body DiagramSupported BeamsShear and Moment DiagramsStressStress ElementStress TensorPlane StressMohr's CircleThree-Dimensional StressesOctahedral StressesStrainStrain TensorPlane StrainSummaryIntroduction to Materials and ManufacturingIntroductionDuctile and Brittle MaterialsClassification of Solid MaterialsStress-Strain DiagramsProperties of Solid MaterialsStress-Strain RelationshipsTwo-Parameter Materials ChartsEffects of ManufacturingSummaryStresses and StrainsIntroductionProperties of Beam Cross SectionsNormal Stress and StrainTorsionBending Stress and StrainTransverse Shear Stress and StrainSummaryDeformationIntroductionMoment-Curvature RelationSingularity F...
Theory of control systems described by differential inclusions
Han, Zhengzhi; Huang, Jun
2016-01-01
This book provides a brief introduction to the theory of finite dimensional differential inclusions, and deals in depth with control of three kinds of differential inclusion systems. The authors introduce the algebraic decomposition of convex processes, the stabilization of polytopic systems, and observations of Luré systems. They also introduce the elemental theory of finite dimensional differential inclusions, and the properties and designs of the control systems described by differential inclusions. Addressing the material with clarity and simplicity, the book includes recent research achievements and spans all concepts, concluding with a critical mathematical framework. This book is intended for researchers, teachers and postgraduate students in the area of automatic control engineering.
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is an international journal reporting significant new results in all aspects of fundamental and applied sciences research. We welcome experimental, computational (including simulation and modelling) and theoretical studies of fundamental and applied sciences. The work must ...
The water, fundamental ecological base?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolivar, Luis Humberto
1994-01-01
To speak of ecology and the man's interaction with the environment takes, in fact implicit many elements that, actuating harmoniously generates a conducive entropy to a better to be, however it is necessary to hierarchy the importance of these elements, finding that the water, not alone to constitute sixty five percent of the total volume of the planet, or sixty percent of the human body, but to be the well called molecule of the life, it is constituted in the main element to consider in the study of the ecology. The water circulates continually through the endless hydrological cycle of condensation, precipitation, filtration, retention, evaporation, precipitation and so forth; however, due to the quick growth of the cities, its expansion of the green areas or its border lands, result of a demographic behavior and of inadequate social establishment; or of the advance industrial excessive, they produce irreparable alterations in the continuous processes of the water production, for this reason it is fundamental to know some inherent problems to the sources of water. The water, the most important in the renewable natural resources, essential for the life and for the achievement of good part of the man's goals in their productive function, it is direct or indirectly the natural resource more threatened by the human action
Fundamental Scaling Laws in Nanophotonics
Liu, Ke; Sun, Shuai; Majumdar, Arka; Sorger, Volker J.
2016-11-01
The success of information technology has clearly demonstrated that miniaturization often leads to unprecedented performance, and unanticipated applications. This hypothesis of “smaller-is-better” has motivated optical engineers to build various nanophotonic devices, although an understanding leading to fundamental scaling behavior for this new class of devices is missing. Here we analyze scaling laws for optoelectronic devices operating at micro and nanometer length-scale. We show that optoelectronic device performance scales non-monotonically with device length due to the various device tradeoffs, and analyze how both optical and electrical constrains influence device power consumption and operating speed. Specifically, we investigate the direct influence of scaling on the performance of four classes of photonic devices, namely laser sources, electro-optic modulators, photodetectors, and all-optical switches based on three types of optical resonators; microring, Fabry-Perot cavity, and plasmonic metal nanoparticle. Results show that while microrings and Fabry-Perot cavities can outperform plasmonic cavities at larger length-scales, they stop working when the device length drops below 100 nanometers, due to insufficient functionality such as feedback (laser), index-modulation (modulator), absorption (detector) or field density (optical switch). Our results provide a detailed understanding of the limits of nanophotonics, towards establishing an opto-electronics roadmap, akin to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.
Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas
Aamodt, R. E.; Catto, P. J.; Dippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; Russell, D. A.
1992-05-01
The major portion of this program is devoted to critical ICH phenomena. The topics include edge physics, fast wave propagation, ICH induced high frequency instabilities, and a preliminary antenna design for Ignitor. This research was strongly coordinated with the world's experimental and design teams at JET, Culham, ORNL, and Ignitor. The results have been widely publicized at both general scientific meetings and topical workshops including the specialty workshop on ICRF design and physics sponsored by Lodestar in April 1992. The combination of theory, empirical modeling, and engineering design in this program makes this research particularly important for the design of future devices and for the understanding and performance projections of present tokamak devices. Additionally, the development of a diagnostic of runaway electrons on TEXT has proven particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of energetic electron confinement. This work has led to a better quantitative basis for quasilinear theory and the role of magnetic vs. electrostatic field fluctuations on electron transport. An APS invited talk was given on this subject and collaboration with PPPL personnel was also initiated. Ongoing research on these topics will continue for the remainder of the contract period and the strong collaborations are expected to continue, enhancing both the relevance of the work and its immediate impact on areas needing critical understanding.
Fundamentals of electric power conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umans, S.D.
1992-12-01
Its rugged nature and straightforward design make the induction motor the most commonly used type of electric motor. This motor ranges in size fro the fractional-horsepower, single-phase motors found in household appliances to polyphase motors rated at thousands of horsepower for industrial applications. Volume 1 of this report describes the function of induction motors, their characteristics, and induction motor testing. Volume 2 describes the characteristics of high-efficiency induction motors, with emphasis on the techniques used to obtain high efficiency. This two-volume report is written in nontechnical language and is intended for readers who require background from applications, marketing, motor planning, or managerial perspective
Fundamentals of electric power conversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Umans, S.D. (Umans (Stephen D.), Belmont, MA (United States))
1992-12-01
Its rugged nature and straightforward design make the induction motor the most commonly used type of electric motor. This motor ranges in size fro the fractional-horsepower, single-phase motors found in household appliances to polyphase motors rated at thousands of horsepower for industrial applications. Volume 1 of this report describes the function of induction motors, their characteristics, and induction motor testing. Volume 2 describes the characteristics of high-efficiency induction motors, with emphasis on the techniques used to obtain high efficiency. This two-volume report is written in nontechnical language and is intended for readers who require background from applications, marketing, motor planning, or managerial perspective.
Fundamentals of electric power conversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Umans, S.D. (Umans (Stephen D.), Belmont, MA (United States))
1992-12-01
Its rugged nature and straightforward design make the induction motor the most commonly used type of electric motor. This motor ranges in size from the fractional-horsepower, single-phase motors found in household appliances to polyphase motors rated at thousands of horsepower for industrial applications. Volume 1 of this report describes the function of induction motors, their characteristics, and induction motor testing. Volume 2 describes the characteristics of high-efficiency induction motors, with emphasis on the techniques used to obtain high efficiency. This two-volume report is written in nontechnical language and is intended for readers who require background from an applications, marketing, motor planning, or managerial perspective.
Damage analysis and fundamental studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-02-01
As a planning activity, the objectives of the workshop were to list, prioritize and milestone the activities necessary to understand, interpret and control the mechanical behavior of candidate fusion reactor alloys. Emphasis was placed on flow and fracture processes which are unique to the fusion environment since the national fusion materials program must evaluate these effects without assistance from other reactor programs. The working group on flow processes and properties was concerned with the time-dependent and independent flow. This included radiation hardening and steady state and cyclic creep. The working group on the effect of flow on fracture was concerned with the relationships between the unique flow properties of irradiated materials, such as dislocation channeling, and the fracture properties of these materials. The working group on time-dependent fracture was concerned with high-temperature, time-dependent fracture, such as stress-rupture and fatigue fracture, while also being concerned with time-dependent environmental effects on fracture. The working group on radiation-induced or enhanced embrittlement was concerned primarily with time-independent fracture of materials for near-term fusion device applications
Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P. [Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (United States)
1995-11-01
The overall goal of this research project has been to formulate a model describing effects of flue gas conditioning on particulate properties. By flue gas conditioning we mean any process by which solids, gases, or liquids are added to the combustor and/or the exhaust stream to the extent that flue gas and particulate properties may be altered. Our modeling efforts, which are included in our Final Report, are based on an understanding of how ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Flue gas conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of forces acting on the fly ash particles, and can take place through many different methods. Modification of particulate properties can alter ash resistivity or ash cohesivity and result in improved or degraded control device performance. Changes to the flue gas, addition or particulate matter such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sorbents, or the addition of reactive gases or liquids can modify these properties. If we can better understand how conditioning agents react with fly ash particles, application of appropriate conditioning agents or processes may result in significantly improved fine particle collection at low capital and operating costs.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Nigeria: fundamental science ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... consequences of its application are not well understood in many African countries like Nigeria that are majorly dependent on oil and gas economy and contributing emitters of greenhouse gases. This paper described the fundamental science of CCS and addressed the potential risks of its future implementation in Nigeria.
Fundamentals of Electrical Safety. Module SH-03. Safety and Health.
Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.
This student module on fundamentals of electrical safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes electricity and how it can affect the human body. Following the introduction, nine objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is expected to accomplish are listed (e.g., Name five common…
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations and fundamental string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilbert, G.
1988-01-01
In this paper the infinite sequence of non-linear partial differential equations known as the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations is described in simple terms and possible applications to a fundamental description of interacting strings are addressed. Lines of research likely to prove useful in formulating a description of non-perturbative string configurations are indicated. (orig.)
Damage analysis and fundamental studies program. Paper 78-97
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doran, D.G.; Reuther, T.C.; Robinson, M.T.
1978-01-01
The Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Task Group has been formed by the Office of Fusion Energy to develop procedures for applying data obtained in various irradiation test facilities to projected fusion environments. A long-range program plan has been prepared and implementation has begun. The plan and technical status are briefly described
The impact of traffic dynamics on macroscopic fundamental diagram
Knoop, V.L.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Lint, J.W.C.
2013-01-01
Literature shows that – under specific conditions – the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) describes a crisp relationship between the average flow (production) and the average density in an entire network. The limiting condition is that traffic conditions must be homogeneous over the whole
Fundamentals of Biomass pellet production
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Jens Kai; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hustad, Johan Einar
2005-01-01
to describe the forces acting on the pellet in the die. Important model parameters are the sliding friction coefficient, the ratio of compression and the material specific parameters such as the elastic moduli and the Poisson's ratio. Model calculations show how variation in the characteristic parameters...
Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals.
Cooney, David O.
1987-01-01
Describes an experiment developed and used in the unit operations laboratory course at the University of Wyoming. Involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, and is relevant to adsorption processes in general. (TW)
Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Headrick, Randall L.
2009-01-01
Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55 o to 35 o . A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35 o away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4 o misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.
Major advances in fundamental dairy cattle nutrition.
Drackley, J K; Donkin, S S; Reynolds, C K
2006-04-01
Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet
Fundamentals of convex analysis duality, separation, representation, and resolution
Panik, Michael J
1993-01-01
Fundamentals of Convex Analysis offers an in-depth look at some of the fundamental themes covered within an area of mathematical analysis called convex analysis. In particular, it explores the topics of duality, separation, representation, and resolution. The work is intended for students of economics, management science, engineering, and mathematics who need exposure to the mathematical foundations of matrix games, optimization, and general equilibrium analysis. It is written at the advanced undergraduate to beginning graduate level and the only formal preparation required is some familiarity with set operations and with linear algebra and matrix theory. Fundamentals of Convex Analysis is self-contained in that a brief review of the essentials of these tool areas is provided in Chapter 1. Chapter exercises are also provided. Topics covered include: convex sets and their properties; separation and support theorems; theorems of the alternative; convex cones; dual homogeneous systems; basic solutions and comple...
Fundamentals of Digital Manufacturing Science
Zhou, Zude; Chen, Dejun
2012-01-01
The manufacturing industry will reap significant benefits from encouraging the development of digital manufacturing science and technology. Digital Manufacturing Science uses theorems, illustrations and tables to introduce the definition, theory architecture, main content, and key technologies of digital manufacturing science. Readers will be able to develop an in-depth understanding of the emergence and the development, the theoretical background, and the techniques and methods of digital manufacturing science. Furthermore, they will also be able to use the basic theories and key technologies described in Digital Manufacturing Science to solve practical engineering problems in modern manufacturing processes. Digital Manufacturing Science is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, academic researchers and researchers in the manufacturing industry. It allows readers to integrate the theories and technologies described with their own research works, and to propose new ideas and new methods to...
Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2015-01-01
In its fifth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Dynamics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the local volume and time averaging is used to derive a complete set of conservation equations for three fluids each of them having multi components as constituents. Large parts of the book are devoted on the design of successful numerical methods for solving the obtained system of partial differential equations. Finally the analysis is repeated for boundary fitted curvilinear coordinate systems designing methods applicable for interconnected multi-blocks. This fifth edition includes various updates, extensions, improvements and corrections, as well as a completely new chapter containing the basic physics describing the multi-phase flow in tu...
Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology
Baryshev, Yurij; Teerikorpi, Pekka
The book guides the reader (astronomer, physicist, university student) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific enterprise to find out the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and material contents. The authors draw from their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character: - idiosyncratic features of the "cosmic laboratory" - Malmquist bias in determination of cosmic distances - theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - crucial tests checking the reality of space expansion - methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies - usefulness of fractal as a model to describe the large-scale structure - new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model
Nanopositioning technologies fundamentals and applications
Liu, Xinyu; Sun, Yu
2016-01-01
This book covers the state-of-the-art technologies for positioning with nanometer resolutions and accuracies, particularly those based on piezoelectric actuators and MEMS actuators. The latest advances are described, including the design of nanopositioning devices, sensing and actuation technologies, and control methods for nanopositioning. This is an ideal book for mechanical and electrical engineering students and researchers; micro and nanotechnology researchers and graduate students; as well as those working in the precision instrumentation or semiconductor industries.
BOOK REVIEWS: Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals
Whitaker, A.
2004-02-01
mechanics, which is assumed, but to examine whether it gives a consistent account of measurement. The conclusion is that after a measurement, interference terms are ‘effectively’ absent; the set of ‘one-to-one correlations between states of the apparatus and the object’ has the same form as that of everyday statistics and is thus a probability distribution. This probability distribution refers to potentialities, only one of which is actually realized in any one trial. Opinions may differ on whether their treatment is any less vulnerable to criticisms such as those of Bell. To sum up, Gottfried and Yan’s book contains a vast amount of knowledge and understanding. As well as explaining the way in which quantum theory works, it attempts to illuminate fundamental aspects of the theory. A typical example is the ‘fable’ elaborated in Gottfried’s article in Nature cited above, that if Newton were shown Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law, he could deduce the meaning of E and B, but if Maxwell were shown Schrödinger’s equation, he could not deduce the meaning of Psi. For use with a well-constructed course (and, of course, this is the avowed purpose of the book; a useful range of problems is provided for each chapter), or for the relative expert getting to grips with particular aspects of the subject or aiming for a deeper understanding, the book is certainly ideal. It might be suggested, though, that, even compared to the first edition, the isolated learner might find the wide range of topics, and the very large number of mathematical and conceptual techniques, introduced in necessarily limited space, somewhat overwhelming. The second book under consideration, that of Schwabl, contains ‘Advanced’ elements of quantum theory; it is designed for a course following on from one for which Gottfried and Yan, or Schwabl’s own `Quantum Mechanics' might be recommended. It is the second edition in English, and is a translation of the third German edition
Härtel, Andreas
2017-10-01
Ongoing scientific interest is aimed at the properties and structure of electric double layers (EDLs), which are crucial for capacitive energy storage, water treatment, and energy harvesting technologies like supercapacitors, desalination devices, blue engines, and thermocapacitive heat-to-current converters. A promising tool to describe their physics on a microscopic level is (classical) density functional theory (DFT), which can be applied in order to analyze pair correlations and charge ordering in the primitive model of charged hard spheres. This simple model captures the main properties of ionic liquids and solutions and it predicts many of the phenomena that occur in EDLs. The latter often lead to anomalous response in the differential capacitance of EDLs. This work constructively reviews the powerful theoretical framework of DFT and its recent developments regarding the description of EDLs. It explains to what extent current approaches in DFT describe structural ordering and in-plane transitions in EDLs, which occur when the corresponding electrodes are charged. Further, the review briefly summarizes the history of modeling EDLs, presents applications, and points out limitations and strengths in present theoretical approaches. It concludes that DFT as a sophisticated microscopic theory for ionic systems is expecting a challenging but promising future in both fundamental research and applications in supercapacitive technologies.
Astronomia Motivadora no Ensino Fundamental
Melo, J.; Voelzke, M. R.
2008-09-01
O objetivo principal deste trabalho é procurar desenvolver o interesse dos alunos pelas ciências através da Astronomia. Uma pesquisa com perguntas sobre Astronomia foi realizada junto a 161 alunos do Ensino Fundamental, com o intuito de descobrir conhecimentos prévios dos alunos sobre o assunto. Constatou-se, por exemplo, que 29,3% da 6Âª série responderam corretamente o que é eclipse, 30,0% da 8Âª série acertaram o que a Astronomia estuda, enquanto 42,3% dos alunos da 5Âª série souberam definir o Sol. Pretende-se ampliar as turmas participantes e trabalhar, principalmente de forma prática com: dimensões e escalas no Sistema Solar, construção de luneta, questões como dia e noite, estações do ano e eclipses. Busca-se abordar, também, outros conteúdos de Física tais como a óptica na construção da luneta, e a mecânica no trabalho com escalas e medidas, e ao utilizar uma luminária para representar o Sol na questão do eclipse, e de outras disciplinas como a Matemática na transformação de unidades, regras de três; Artes na modelagem ou desenho dos planetas; a própria História com relação à busca pela origem do universo, e a Informática que possibilita a busca mais rápida por informações, além de permitir simulações e visualizações de imagens importantes. Acredita-se que a Astronomia é importante no processo ensino aprendizagem, pois permite a discussão de temas curiosos como, por exemplo, a origem do universo, viagens espaciais a existência ou não de vida em outros planetas, além de temas atuais como as novas tecnologias.
Chronometric Geodesy and Fundamental Physics
Delva, P.; Puchades, N.; Lodewyck, J.
2016-12-01
Atomic clocks are today essential for several daily life applications, such as the building of the International Atomic Time (TAI) or Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). With the new generation of optical clocks, they reach such accuracy and stability that they are now considered in practical applications for the measurement of gravitational potential differences, thanks to the Einstein effect, or gravitational redshift. Several projects explored the possibilities of using clocks in geodesy or geophysical applications and research. This context offers a fantastic opportunity to use atomic clocks to test fundamental physics. In this talk I will present two such studies for testing the gravitational redshift and Lorentz invariance.The first project is the "Galileo gravitational Redshift test with Eccentric sATellites" (GREAT), funded by the European Space Agency (ESA). Here we use the on-board atomic clocks of the Galileo satellites 5 and 6 to look for violations of general relativity theory. These two satellites were launched on August, 30th 2014 and, because of a technical problem, the launcher brought them on an elliptic orbit. An elliptic orbit induces a periodic modulation of the gravitational redshift while the good stability of recent GNSS clocks allows to test this periodic modulation to a very good level of accuracy. The Galileo 5 and 6 satellites, with their large eccentricity and on-board H-maser clocks, are hence perfect candidates to perform this test.In the second study we propose a test of special relativity theory using a network of distant optical lattice clocks located in France, Germany and Great-Britain. By exploiting the difference between the velocities of each clock in the inertial geocentric frame, due to their different positions on the surface of the Earth, we can test the time dilation effect. The connection between these clocks, achieved with phase-compensated optical fibers, allows for an unprecedented level of statistical
Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences
Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.
2011-01-01
The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.
Quantum Computations: Fundamentals and Algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duplij, S.A.; Shapoval, I.I.
2007-01-01
Basic concepts of quantum information theory, principles of quantum calculations and the possibility of creation on this basis unique on calculation power and functioning principle device, named quantum computer, are concerned. The main blocks of quantum logic, schemes of quantum calculations implementation, as well as some known today effective quantum algorithms, called to realize advantages of quantum calculations upon classical, are presented here. Among them special place is taken by Shor's algorithm of number factorization and Grover's algorithm of unsorted database search. Phenomena of decoherence, its influence on quantum computer stability and methods of quantum errors correction are described
Fundamentals of spatial data quality
Devillers, Rodolphe
2010-01-01
This book explains the concept of spatial data quality, a key theory for minimizing the risks of data misuse in a specific decision-making context. Drawing together chapters written by authors who are specialists in their particular field, it provides both the data producer and the data user perspectives on how to evaluate the quality of vector or raster data which are both produced and used. It also covers the key concepts in this field, such as: how to describe the quality of vector or raster data; how to enhance this quality; how to evaluate and document it, using methods such as metadata;
Fundamentals of pressurized water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murray, L.
1982-01-01
In many countries, the pressurized water reactor (PWR) is the most widely used, even though it requires enrichment of the uranium to about 3% in U-235 and the moderator-coolant must be maintained at a high pressure, about 2200 pounds per square inch. Our objective in this series of seven lectures is to describe the design and operating characteristics of the PWR system, discuss the reactor physics methods used to evaluate performance, examine the way fuel is consumed and produced, study the instrumentation system, review the physics measurements made during initial startup of the reactor, and outline the administrative aspects of starting up a reactor and operating it safely and effectively
Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.
1992-01-09
The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.
Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.
1992-01-09
The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.
METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murph, S.
2012-05-02
This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.
Fundamental Work Cost of Quantum Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philippe Faist
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Information-theoretic approaches provide a promising avenue for extending the laws of thermodynamics to the nanoscale. Here, we provide a general fundamental lower limit, valid for systems with an arbitrary Hamiltonian and in contact with any thermodynamic bath, on the work cost for the implementation of any logical process. This limit is given by a new information measure—the coherent relative entropy—which accounts for the Gibbs weight of each microstate. The coherent relative entropy enjoys a collection of natural properties justifying its interpretation as a measure of information and can be understood as a generalization of a quantum relative entropy difference. As an application, we show that the standard first and second laws of thermodynamics emerge from our microscopic picture in the macroscopic limit. Finally, our results have an impact on understanding the role of the observer in thermodynamics: Our approach may be applied at any level of knowledge—for instance, at the microscopic, mesoscopic, or macroscopic scales—thus providing a formulation of thermodynamics that is inherently relative to the observer. We obtain a precise criterion for when the laws of thermodynamics can be applied, thus making a step forward in determining the exact extent of the universality of thermodynamics and enabling a systematic treatment of Maxwell-demon-like situations.
Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2011-03-01
It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles…Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both "conventional" and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.
Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2011-01-01
It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles... Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both 'conventional' and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed.
Fundamentals of applied multidimensional scaling for educational and psychological research
Ding, Cody S
2018-01-01
This book explores the fundamentals of multidimensional scaling (MDS) and how this analytic method can be used in applied setting for educational and psychological research. The book tries to make MDS more accessible to a wider audience in terms of the language and examples that are more relevant to educational and psychological research and less technical so that the readers are not overwhelmed by equations. The goal is for readers to learn the methods described in this book and immediately start using MDS via available software programs. The book also examines new applications that have previously not been discussed in MDS literature. It should be an ideal book for graduate students and researchers to better understand MDS. Fundamentals of Applied Multidimensional Scaling for Educational and Psychological Research is divided into three parts. Part I covers the basic and fundamental features of MDS models pertaining to applied research applications. Chapters in this section cover the essential features of da...
Fundamental Questions in Astrophysics: Guidelines for Future UV Observatories
Gómez de Castro, Ana I
2006-01-01
Modern astrophysics is a mature science that has evolved from its early phase of discovery and classification to a physics-oriented discipline focused in finding answers to fundamental problems ranging from cosmology to the origin and diversity of life-sustainable systems in the Universe. For this very reason, progress of modern astrophysics requires the access to the electromagnetic spectrum in the broadest energy range. The Ultraviolet is a fundamental energy domain since it is one of the most powerful tool to study plasmas at temperatures in the 3,000-300,000~K range as well as electronic transitions of the most abundant molecules in the Universe. Moreover, the UV radiation field is a powerful astrochemical and photoionizing agent. This book describes the fundamental problems in modern astrophysics that cannot progress without easy and wide-spread access to modern UV instrumentation.
Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion.
Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C
2017-05-01
Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).
Fundamentals of stochastic nature sciences
Klyatskin, Valery I
2017-01-01
This book addresses the processes of stochastic structure formation in two-dimensional geophysical fluid dynamics based on statistical analysis of Gaussian random fields, as well as stochastic structure formation in dynamic systems with parametric excitation of positive random fields f(r,t) described by partial differential equations. Further, the book considers two examples of stochastic structure formation in dynamic systems with parametric excitation in the presence of Gaussian pumping. In dynamic systems with parametric excitation in space and time, this type of structure formation either happens – or doesn’t! However, if it occurs in space, then this almost always happens (exponentially quickly) in individual realizations with a unit probability. In the case considered, clustering of the field f(r,t) of any nature is a general feature of dynamic fields, and one may claim that structure formation is the Law of Nature for arbitrary random fields of such type. The study clarifies the conditions under wh...
Multiphase Flow Dynamics 1 Fundamentals
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2012-01-01
Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its fourth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Dynmics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the local volume and time averaging is used to derive a complete set of conservation equations for three fluids each of them having multi components as constituents. Large parts of the book are devoted on the design of successful numerical methods for solving the...
Fundamental Electronic Properties of Donor-Type Graphite Intercalated Compounds.
1984-08-01
The sheets arecŕbo interplane interaction, nearest-nesghbor C-K riighl triangular and show rather small diaper - ,Inteactons, and first- and second...of occupied saps . Another advantage is the implying the existence of a second boundary between low Li vapor pressure such that our samples, sealed
Fundamental Investigations of the Tribological Properties of Biological Interfaces
2007-11-01
allowed to polymerize with o-Si " 0’r +N .N+-- O ___0 stirring at 60-75 C for 43 hours. The 0 CN 2. Soxhlet extraction reaction was terminated by exposure 3...with THF to air. The PS-modified silicon wafer CN - 4 was washed by Soxhlet extraction 4- in THF for 44 hours to remove any 0 free polymer. Scheme 1...PEG molecular weight of z kDa. Silicon wafers and 5-micron silica AFM tips were coated with PEI-g-PEG by the following method : cleaning with organic
Materials Properties at Internal Interfaces: Fundamental Atomic Issues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Browning, Nigel D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
2014-09-12
During the course of this research, the microscopy methods were applied to many different systems (see publication list). However, the work can be broadly classified into three main areas: the statistical distribution of grain boundary structures under different doping conditions, the identification of individual dopant atoms in oxide materials, and the evaluation of nucleation and growth processes in liquid and more recently. The main results from each of these efforts will be discussed in the final report.
Fundamental Properties of Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Hekmat, R.
2005-01-01
Wireless mobile ad-hoc networks are formed by mobile devices that set up a possibly short-lived network for communication needs of the moment. Ad-hoc networks are decentralized, self-organizing networks capable of forming a communication network without relying on any fixed infrastructure. Each node
Fundamental properties of devices for quantum information technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær
This thesis reports a theoretical investigation of the influence of the electronphonon interaction on semiconductor cavity quantum electrodynamical systems, specifically a quantum dot coupled to an optical microcavity. We develop a theoretical description of the decay dynamics of the quantum dot ...
Overview of Planar Magnetic Technology — Fundamental Properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2014-01-01
advantages and disadvantages in the use of planar magnetics for high frequency power converters are covered, and publications on planar magnetics are reviewed. A detailed survey of winding conduction loss, leakage inductance and winding capacitance for planar magnetics is presented so power electronics...
The integrative fundamentals of alexithymia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. A. Severyanova
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to show the interrelation between the gradually increasing alexithymia traits and the integrative self regulation style of emotional, personal and cognitive interaction with the environment. The Toronto Alexithymia scale was used for examination of 356 students of a medical university. The students were divided into 4 groups in accordance with the alexithymia degree (69 - 94 scores for a high degree. The integral methods of estimation of an individuality were: Temperament Traits Accentuation, Differential estimation of Personal anxiety, Property Concept Discrimination and Copying Strategy. We noticed that the higher was the alexithymia degree the more marked was accentuation of asthenic temperament traits (emotional instability, social and objective passivity and of personal anxiety (neural-psychic excitability and shyness. There was prevalence of inadaptive copying strategies and abstractive self-controlling style of intellectual activity. Alexithymia is the integral psychological phenomenon combining emotional, volutional, personal and mental parameters of an individuality as a whole. The structure of the phenomenon allows existence of different variants of the components and hence of its typology - the fact of scientific and practical value.
Transformation electromagnetics and metamaterials fundamental principles and applications
Werner, Douglas H
2013-01-01
Transformation electromagnetics is a systematic design technique for optical and electromagnetic devices that enables novel wave-material interaction properties. The associated metamaterials technology for designing and realizing optical and electromagnetic devices can control the behavior of light and electromagnetic waves in ways that have not been conventionally possible. The technique is credited with numerous novel device designs, most notably the invisibility cloaks, perfect lenses and a host of other remarkable devices.Transformation Electromagnetics and Metamaterials: Fundamental Princ
Spatial stability of jets - the nonaxisymmetric fundamental and reflection modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardee, P.E.
1987-01-01
A spatial stability analysis of the relativistic dispersion relation governing the growth and propagation of harmonic components comprising a perturbation to the surface of a cylindrical jet is performed. The spatial growth of harmonic components associated with the nonaxisymmetric fundamental solution and reflection solutions of several Fourier modes are analyzed. Approximate analytical expressions describing resonant frequencies and wavelengths, and maximum growth rates at resonance applicable to relativistic jets are found from the dispersion relation, and the nature of the resonances is explored. On transonic jets there is only a fundamental solution for each Fourier mode with no resonance or maximum growth rate. On supersonic jets there is a fundamental solution and reflection solutions for each Fourier mode, and each solution contains a resonance at which the growth rate is a maximum. A numerical analysis of the fundamental and first three reflection solutions of the axisymmetric and first three nonaxisymmetric Fourier modes is performed. The numerical analysis is restricted to nonrelativistic flows but otherwise covers a broad range of Mach numbers and jet densities. The numerical results are used along with the analytical results to obtain accurate expressions for resonant frequencies, wavelengths, and growth rates as a function of Mach numnber and jet density. In all cases the fastest spatial growth rate at a given frequency is of harmonic components associated with the fundamental solution of one of the nonaxisymmetric Fourier modes. The application of these results to jet structure and implication of these results for jet structure in extragalactic radio sources are considered. 23 references
Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, Michael W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)
2014-01-25
This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.
HOW TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Shal'nova
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Principles and fundamentals of proper presentation of observational epidemiological study results are focused. Principles of observational study publication developed by expert epidemiologists (STROBE statement are explained in detail.
Extracting Fundamental Periods to Segment Biomedical Signals.
Motrenko, Anastasia; Strijov, Vadim
2016-11-01
We address the problem of segmenting nearly periodic time series into period-like segments. We introduce a definition of nearly periodic time series via triplets 〈 basic shape, shape transformation, time scaling 〉 that covers a wide range of time series. To split the time series into periods, we select a pair of principal components of the Hankel matrix. We then cut the trajectory of the selected principal components by its symmetry axis and, thus, obtaining half-periods that are merged into segments. We describe a method of automatic selection of periodic pairs of principal components, corresponding to the fundamental periodicity. We demonstrate the application of the proposed method to the problem of period extraction for accelerometric time series of human gait. We see the automatic segmentation into periods as a problem of major importance for human activity recognition problem, since it allows to obtain interpretable segments: each extracted period can be seen as an ultimate entity of gait. The method we propose is more general compared to the application specific methods and can be used for any nearly periodical time series. We compare its performance to classical mathematical methods of period extraction and find that it is not only comparable to the alternatives, but in some cases performs better.
Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning
Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie
2016-01-01
Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981
New horizons in fundamental physics
Schäfer, Mirko
2017-01-01
This volume presents the state-of-the-art in selected topics across modern nuclear physics, covering fields of central importance to research and illustrating their connection to many different areas of physics. It describes recent progress in the study of superheavy and exotic nuclei, which is pushing our knowledge to ever heavier elements and neutron-richer isotopes. Extending nuclear physics to systems that are many times denser than even the core of an atomic nucleus, one enters the realm of the physics of neutron stars and possibly quark stars, a topic that is intensively investigated with many ground-based and outer-space research missions as well as numerous theoretical works. By colliding two nuclei at very high ultra-relativistic energies one can create a fireball of extremely hot matter, reminiscent of the universe very shortly after the big bang, leading to a phase of melted hadrons and free quarks and gluons, the so-called quark-gluon plasma. These studies tie up with effects of crucial importance...
Fundamentals of electromagnetics 1 internal behavior of lumped elements
Voltmer, David
2007-01-01
This book is the first of two volumes which have been created to provide an understanding of the basic principles and applications of electromagnetic fields for electrical engineering students. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics Vol 1: Internal Behavior of Lumped Elements focuses upon the DC and low-frequency behavior of electromagnetic fields within lumped elements. The properties of electromagnetic fields provide the basis for predicting the terminal characteristics of resistors, capacitors, and inductors. The properties of magnetic circuits are included as well. For slightly higher frequencie
Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky
Gash, Philip
2016-01-01
This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.
Measuring ultracool properties from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jenkins James
2013-04-01
Full Text Available We discuss the properties and of ultracool and brown dwarfs that can be measured from current large area surveys and how fundamental parameters, such as the mass function and formation history can be measured, describing our own first measurement of the formation history in the sub-stellar regime using data from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey.
Motion in a stochastic layer described by symbolic dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misguich, J.H.; Reuss, J.D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Elskens, Y. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France); Balescu, R. [Association Euratom, Brussels (Belgium)
1997-07-01
The motion in the stochastic layer surrounding an island can be studied by using the standard map: this problem is of direct relevance to the diffusion of magnetic field lines in a tokamak. In a previous work it was shown that this process can be adequately modelled by a continuous time random walk (CTRW) describing transitions of the running point between three basins representing, respectively, trapped motion around the island, and passing motion above or below the island. The sticking property of the island deeply modifies the nature of the transport process, leading to sub-diffusive behavior. In the present work it is shown that the motion can be analyzed in terms of a symbolic dynamics which leads to the possibility of an automatic measurement of the data necessary for the construction of the CTRW. The logical features of the procedure are described, and the method is applied to an analysis of long time series, thus completing the results of the previous work. (author) 10 refs.
Individual differences in fundamental social motives.
Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L
2016-06-01
Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
EU criminal law and fundamental rights
de Hert, Paul; Mitsilegas, V.; Bergström, M.; Konstadinides, Th.
2016-01-01
The chapter first offers a background analysis to EU fundamental rights law, recalling the historical affirmation of the protection of fundamental rights as a EU concern, and the important innovation brought about by the Lisbon Treaty (section 2) and the multiplicity of actors involved in the system
Local gauge invariant QED with fundamental length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadyshevsky, V.G.; Mateev, M.D.
1981-01-01
A local gauge theory of electromagnetic interactions with the fundamental length l as a new universal scale is worked out. The Lagrangian contains new extra terms in which the coupling constant is proportional to the fundamental length. The theory has an elegant geometrical basis: in momentum representation one faces de Sitter momentum space with curvature radius 1/l [ru
An Approximate Bayesian Fundamental Frequency Estimator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt
2012-01-01
Joint fundamental frequency and model order estimation is an important problem in several applications such as speech and music processing. In this paper, we develop an approximate estimation algorithm of these quantities using Bayesian inference. The inference about the fundamental frequency...
Fundamental symmetries and interactions-selected topics
Jungmann, Klaus P.
2015-01-01
In the field of fundamental interactions and symmetries numerous experiments are underway or planned in order to verify the standard model in particle physics, to search for possible extensions to it or to exploit the standard model for extracting most precise values for fundamental constants. We
Fundamental surprise in the application of airpower
2017-05-25
their home countries, in which case further publication or sale of copyrighted images is not permissible. iii Abstract Fundamental Surprise in...Fundamental Surprise in the Application of Airpower A Monograph by Lt Col Jason A. Mascetta United States Air Force School of Advanced...Director, School of Advanced Military Studies James C. Markert, COL Accepted this 25th day of May 2017 by
Analytical simulation platform describing projections in computed tomography systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youn, Hanbean; Kim, Ho Kyung
2013-01-01
To reduce the patient dose, several approaches such as spectral imaging using photon counting detectors and statistical image reconstruction, are being considered. Although image-reconstruction algorithms may significantly enhance image quality in reconstructed images with low dose, true signal-to-noise properties are mainly determined by image quality in projections. We are developing an analytical simulation platform describing projections to investigate how quantum-interaction physics in each component configuring CT systems affect image quality in projections. This simulator will be very useful for an improved design or optimization of CT systems in economy as well as the development of novel image-reconstruction algorithms. In this study, we present the progress of development of the simulation platform with an emphasis on the theoretical framework describing the generation of projection data. We have prepared the analytical simulation platform describing projections in computed tomography systems. The remained further study before the meeting includes the following: Each stage in the cascaded signal-transfer model for obtaining projections will be validated by the Monte Carlo simulations. We will build up energy-dependent scatter and pixel-crosstalk kernels, and show their effects on image quality in projections and reconstructed images. We will investigate the effects of projections obtained from various imaging conditions and system (or detector) operation parameters on reconstructed images. It is challenging to include the interaction physics due to photon-counting detectors into the simulation platform. Detailed descriptions of the simulator will be presented with discussions on its performance and limitation as well as Monte Carlo validations. Computational cost will also be addressed in detail. The proposed method in this study is simple and can be used conveniently in lab environment
Fundamentals of metal oxide catalysis
Nair, Hari
The properties of metal oxide catalysts and hence, catalytic activity are highly dependent on the composition and structure of these oxides. This dissertation has 3 parts -- all directed towards understanding relationships between structure, composition and activity in metal oxide catalysts. The first part of this dissertation focuses on supported metal oxide catalysts of tungsten, vanadium and molybdenum. Mechanisms are proposed for ethanol oxidative dehydrogenation which is used to probe the acidity and reducibility of these oxide catalysts. These studies are then used to develop a novel method to quantify active redox sites and determine the nature of the active site on these catalysts -- our results show that the intrinsic redox turn-over frequency is independent of the nature of the metal oxide and its loading and that the actual rate obtained over an oxide is only a function of the number of removable oxygen atoms linking the metal to the support. The extension of Ultraviolet-visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) to the study of active oxide domains in binary oxide catalysts is demonstrated for distinguishing between interacting and non-interacting domains in binary MoO x-WOx catalysts on alumina. We show also how the rigorous analysis of pre-edge features, absorption white-line intensity and the full width at half maximum of the white-line in X-ray Absorption Spectra provide determinants for metal atom coordination and domain size in supported metal oxide catalysts. The second part of this work looks at effects of structure variations on the activity of polyoxometalate catalysts that are promising for the production of Methacrylic Acid from Isobutane. The use of these catalysts is limited by structural changes that impact their performance -- an "activation" period is required before the catalysts become active for methacrylic acid production and structural changes also lead to degradation of the catalyst, which are also seen during thermal
STAR CLUSTERS, GALAXIES, AND THE FUNDAMENTAL MANIFOLD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.
2011-01-01
We explore whether global observed properties, specifically half-light radii, mean surface brightness, and integrated stellar kinematics, suffice to unambiguously differentiate galaxies from star clusters, which presumably formed differently and lack dark matter halos. We find that star clusters lie on the galaxy scaling relationship referred to as the fundamental manifold (FM), on the extension of a sequence of compact galaxies, and so conclude that there is no simple way to differentiate star clusters from ultracompact galaxies. By extending the validity of the FM over a larger range of parameter space and a wider set of objects, we demonstrate that the physics that constrains the resulting baryon and dark matter distributions in stellar systems is more general than previously appreciated. The generality of the FM implies (1) that the stellar spatial distribution and kinematics of one type of stellar system do not arise solely from a process particular to that set of systems, such as violent relaxation for elliptical galaxies, but are instead the result of an interplay of all processes responsible for the generic settling of baryons in gravitational potential wells, (2) that the physics of how baryons settle is independent of whether the system is embedded within a dark matter halo, and (3) that peculiar initial conditions at formation or stochastic events during evolution do not ultimately disturb the overall regularity of baryonic settling. We also utilize the relatively simple nature of star clusters to relate deviations from the FM to the age of the stellar population and find that stellar population models systematically and significantly overpredict the mass-to-light ratios of old, metal-rich clusters. We present an empirical calibration of stellar population mass-to-light ratios with age and color. Finally, we use the FM to estimate velocity dispersions for the low surface brightness, outer halo clusters that lack such measurements.
Fundamental study on recovery uranium oxide from HEPA filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izumida, T.; Noguchi, Y.
1993-01-01
Large numbers of spent HEPA filters are produced at uranium fuel fabrication facilities. Uranium oxide particles have been collected on these filters. Then, a spent HEPA filter treatment system was developed from the viewpoint of recovering the UO 2 and minimizing the volume. The system consists of a mechanical separation process and a chemical dissolution process. This paper describes the results of fundamental experiments on recovering UO 2 from HEPA filters
To acknowledge the wonder: the story of fundamental physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Squires, E.
1985-01-01
The present situation in fundamental physics is described in non-technical, non-mathematical terms. Starting with explanations of the basic concepts of atoms, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and atomic structure, the story moves on to special relativity theory, quantum field theories, strong interactions, quarks and QCD. Weak interactions, neutrinos, the Salem-Weinberg model and symmetry breaking are explained and finally, gravity and the physics of the Universe are introduced. (U.K.)
The dentate gyrus: fundamental neuroanatomical organization (dentate gyrus for dummies).
Amaral David G; Scharfman Helen E; Lavenex Pierre
2007-01-01
The dentate gyrus is a simple cortical region that is an integral portion of the larger functional brain system called the hippocampal formation. In this review, the fundamental neuroanatomical organization of the dentate gyrus is described, including principal cell types and their connectivity, and a summary of the major extrinsic inputs of the dentate gyrus is provided. Together, this information provides essential information that can serve as an introduction to the dentate gyrus — a “dent...
A new variant of a scaling hypothesis and a fundamental equation of state based on it
Kudryavtseva, I. V.; Rykov, V. A.; Rykov, S. V.; Ustyuzhanin, E. E.
2018-01-01
This paper deals with a fundamental equation of state (FEOS) for substances. We have suggested a new method. It allows constructing FEOS that is based on the scaling theory of critical phenomena and describes thermodynamic properties related to liquid and gas phases of a substance in a wide range of the pressures and temperatures. In the framework of the methodological approach, we have provided: (i) a transition of FEOS in a virial equation of state in the low density region; (ii) a transition of FEOS in a Widom equation of state in the critical region. The method has been tested on the example of FEOS of R218. The area of applicability of FEOS is 0 < ρ/ρ c < 3.2 in the density and 133 < T < 440 K in the temperature. We have compared FEOS with some equations of state and discussed the results.
Atomically Precise Colloidal Metal Nanoclusters and Nanoparticles: Fundamentals and Opportunities.
Jin, Rongchao; Zeng, Chenjie; Zhou, Meng; Chen, Yuxiang
2016-09-28
Colloidal nanoparticles are being intensely pursued in current nanoscience research. Nanochemists are often frustrated by the well-known fact that no two nanoparticles are the same, which precludes the deep understanding of many fundamental properties of colloidal nanoparticles in which the total structures (core plus surface) must be known. Therefore, controlling nanoparticles with atomic precision and solving their total structures have long been major dreams for nanochemists. Recently, these goals are partially fulfilled in the case of gold nanoparticles, at least in the ultrasmall size regime (1-3 nm in diameter, often called nanoclusters). This review summarizes the major progress in the field, including the principles that permit atomically precise synthesis, new types of atomic structures, and unique physical and chemical properties of atomically precise nanoparticles, as well as exciting opportunities for nanochemists to understand very fundamental science of colloidal nanoparticles (such as the stability, metal-ligand interfacial bonding, ligand assembly on particle surfaces, aesthetic structural patterns, periodicities, and emergence of the metallic state) and to develop a range of potential applications such as in catalysis, biomedicine, sensing, imaging, optics, and energy conversion. Although most of the research activity currently focuses on thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters, important progress has also been achieved in other ligand-protected gold, silver, and bimetal (or alloy) nanoclusters. All of these types of unique nanoparticles will bring unprecedented opportunities, not only in understanding the fundamental questions of nanoparticles but also in opening up new horizons for scientific studies of nanoparticles.
Nonlinear analysis of a rotor-bearing system using describing functions
Maraini, Daniel; Nataraj, C.
2018-04-01
This paper presents a technique for modelling the nonlinear behavior of a rotor-bearing system with Hertzian contact, clearance, and rotating unbalance. The rotor-bearing system is separated into linear and nonlinear components, and the nonlinear bearing force is replaced with an equivalent describing function gain. The describing function captures the relationship between the amplitude of the fundamental input to the nonlinearity and the fundamental output. The frequency response is constructed for various values of the clearance parameter, and the results show the presence of a jump resonance in bearings with both clearance and preload. Nonlinear hardening type behavior is observed in the case with clearance and softening behavior is observed for the case with preload. Numerical integration is also carried out on the nonlinear equations of motion showing strong agreement with the approximate solution. This work could easily be extended to include additional nonlinearities that arise from defects, providing a powerful diagnostic tool.
Modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Kaufman, H.R.
1984-01-01
Deposition methods involving ion bombardment are described, and the basic processes with which film properties are modified by ion bombardment are summarized. Examples of thin film property modification by ion bombardment during deposition, including effects which are primarily compositional as well as those which are primarily structural are presented. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of ion beam techniques in identifying and controlling the fundamental deposition parameters. 68 refs.; 15 figs.; 1 table
Fundamental phenomenological categories of garden and landscape
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie Zgarbová
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The current scientific methods describing gardens and landscapes all over the world are not always sufficient for the purpose of deep understanding of specific and close relations between landscape/garden and its inhabitants/visitors. A new dimension of qualitative investigation of these phenomena and relations between humans and the environment, as distinguished from the common mechanistic methods, has to be acquired. While a systematic anti-mechanistic research on the interaction of humans and living space is carried out especially in the United Kingdom and the United States, Continental Europe persist mechanistic in its core.In Continental Europe phenomenology as well as hermeneutics are regarded mostly as the particular areas of abstract philosophical studies that do not refer enough to practical sciences such as, for example, garden and landscape architecture. However, there are some especially transatlantic centres of applied phenomenological research. This article examines the phenomenological and hermeneutical approach as it might be used to explore the specific field of garden and landscape issues. In the first step, the nature of hermeneutics and phenomenology as compared to the common mechanistic scientific methods is discussed and the parallels between hermeneutics and phenomenology are outlined. Then, using the phenomenological method helps we give evidence on the fundamental categories of garden and landscape. These categories, in contrast to mechanistic constructions, represent garden and landscape as they are intimately experienced by humans. The focus of this research is both methodological (it is an effort to articulate a method alternative to the objectivity and abstraction of strict science, to be used in the field of garden and landscape architecture and related areas and hermeneutical (it is an effort to achieve a deeper and profound understanding of garden and landscape as the irreplaceable base for every responsible
Road lighting fundamentals, technology and application
van Bommel, Wout
2015-01-01
This book outlines the underlying principles on which modern road lighting is based, and provides the reader with knowledge of how these principles should be applied in practice. It offers a completely fresh approach to the subject, reflecting how the technology of road lighting has progressed to keep up with the changes in lamp technology, especially in solid state light sources, and the increasing awareness of energy use and environmental issues. The book is divided into three parts. Part One describes lighting of open roads, with chapters discussing visual performance and comfort (including the effects of mesopic vision and age), and international standards and recommendations for road lighting. Lighting equipment is introduced; specifically lamps and luminaires in terms of their practical properties and features, but also the road surface and its characteristics. A chapter on Lighting Design makes the link between theory and practice, providing the reader with the knowledge needed for effective lighting d...
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Blending the most fundamental Remote-Sensing principles (RS) with the most functional spatial knowledge (GIS) with the objective of the determination of the accident-prone palms and points (case study: Tehran-Hamadan Highway on Saveh Superhighway)
Fundamentally Flawed: Extension Administrative Practice (Part 1).
Patterson, Thomas F., Jr.
1997-01-01
Extension's current administrative techniques are based on the assumptions of classical management from the early 20th century. They are fundamentally flawed and inappropriate for the contemporary workplace. (SK)
Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gellman, Andrew
2004-01-01
This is the final report for the three year research program on "Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication" conducted at Carnegie Mellon with support from AFOSR grant number F49630-01-1-0069...
Strategic Information Resources Management: Fundamental Practices.
Caudle, Sharon L.
1996-01-01
Discusses six fundamental information resources management (IRM) practices in successful organizations that can improve government service delivery performance. Highlights include directing changes, integrating IRM decision making into a strategic management process, performance management, maintaining an investment philosophy, using business…
Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants
The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.
Fundamental physics with low-energy neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrón-Palos, Libertad
2016-01-01
Low-energy neutrons are playing a prominent role in a growing number of fundamental physics studies. This paper provides a brief description of the physics that some of the experiments in the area are addressing. (paper)
A fundamental equation in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackinnon, L.
1981-01-01
It is pointed out that the nondispersive de Broglie wave packet has a zero d'Alembertian, suggesting the possible reality of de Broglie waves and also that the field wave equation may be fundamental to Quantum Mechanics. (author)
PRINCIPLES, BASES, AND LAWS OF FUNDAMENTAL INFORMATICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gennady N. Zverev
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper defines the goals and problems of fundamental informatics, formulates principal laws of information universe and constructive bases of information objects and processes. The classification of semantics types of knowledge and skills is presented.
Fast and Statistically Efficient Fundamental Frequency Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom
2016-01-01
Fundamental frequency estimation is a very important task in many applications involving periodic signals. For computational reasons, fast autocorrelation-based estimation methods are often used despite parametric estimation methods having superior estimation accuracy. However, these parametric...
Fundamentals of nanoscaled field effect transistors
Chaudhry, Amit
2013-01-01
Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors gives comprehensive coverage of the fundamental physical principles and theory behind nanoscale transistors. The specific issues that arise for nanoscale MOSFETs, such as quantum mechanical tunneling and inversion layer quantization, are fully explored. The solutions to these issues, such as high-κ technology, strained-Si technology, alternate devices structures and graphene technology are also given. Some case studies regarding the above issues and solution are also given in the book. In summary, this book: Covers the fundamental principles behind nanoelectronics/microelectronics Includes chapters devoted to solutions tackling the quantum mechanical effects occurring at nanoscale Provides some case studies to understand the issue mathematically Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors is an ideal book for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in the field of microelectronics, nanoelectronics, and electronics.
How Unstable Are Fundamental Quantum Supermembranes?
Kaku, Michio
1996-01-01
String duality requires the presence of solitonic $p$-branes. By contrast, the existence of fundamental supermembranes is problematic, since they are probably unstable. In this paper, we re-examine the quantum stability of fundamental supermembranes in 11 dimensions. Previously, supermembranes were shown to be unstable by approximating them with SU(n) super Yang-Mills fields as $n \\rightarrow \\infty$. We show that this instability persists even if we quantize the continuum theory from the ver...
Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications
Maini, Anil K
2013-01-01
With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag
Structure of fundamental solution of Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bejlinson, A.A.
2005-01-01
One investigates into the structure of the fundamental solution o the Dirac equation D t m (x) being a finite functional and representing a matrix-significant generalized function of x space variables at Z space of ψ(x) entire analytic fundamental functions. One analyzes the Dirac equation solutions for neutrino and electron. The Euclidean Dirac measures of neutron D -it 0 (x) and of electron D -it m (x) are denumerable additive ones and are absolutely continuous to one another [ru
Issues of the HiPER fundamental science programme
Clark, E. L.; Kamperidis, C.; Papadogiannis, N. A.; Tatarakis, M.
2011-06-01
The HiPER infrastructure reprsents a uniquely valuable tool for scientific discovery because it will be able to generate extreme matter conditions similar to those existing in our sun and the universe. The existence of long and short laser pulses in one infrastructure is fascinating and will allow for the study of new branches of physics suck as the properties of matter under extremer conditions in the laboratory. HiPER is therefore being designed to enable a broad area of new science studies including warm dense matter studies, astrophysics in the laboratory, extreme mater studies (under extreme magnetic and electric fields), highly nonlinear laser plasma interactions etc. The scope of this presentation is to present the progress of work on: a) the fundamental science target area design and b) the shielding requirements for the fundamental science programme.
From fundamental fields to constituent quarks and nucleon form factors?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coester, F.
1991-01-01
Constituent-quark models formulated in the frame work of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics have been successful in accounting for the mass spectra of mesons and baryons. Applications to elastic electron scattering require relativistic dynamics. Relativistic quantum mechanics of constituent quarks can be formulated by constructing a suitable unitary representation of the Poincare group on the three-quark Hilbert space. The mass and spin operators of this representation specify the relativistic model dynamics. The dynamics of fundamental quark fields, on the other hand, is specified by a Euclidean functional integral. In this paper, the author shows how the dynamics of the fundamental fields can be related in principle to the Hamiltonian dynamics of quark particles through the properties of the Wightman functions
Annual report '84 Foundation for fundamental research on matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooren, M.J.H. van; Miltenburg, J.W.
1984-01-01
The Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM) makes it her aim to stimulate the fundamentally scientific research of matter in the Netherlands. She attempts to obtain this by coordinating of existing research projects and by involving her institutes and research groups in the education of young physicists. The research groups are classified in eight socalled research communities: nuclear physics, atomic physics, metals, semiconuctors, solid state, thermonuclear research and plasma physics, theoretic high-energy physics. Besides accounts of the management, financial and personnel affairs, and professional/organizational reports of the aforementioned research communities and corresponding research groups, this annual report presents a number of trend articles of which three are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with the experimental deiscovery of intermediate vector bosons at CERN, the study of macroscopic properties of nuclear matter by collision experiments of high-energetic nuclei, and how atoms can be made 'visible' by atomic-collision experiments. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs
Quantum Mechanics of Fundamental Systems: The Quest for Beauty and Simplicity
Zanelli, Jorge
2009-01-01
A collection of contributed papers by former collaborators and colleagues of the author. It includes such topics as, General Relativity, Quantum Gravity, String Theory; from mathematical structures underlying the fundamental interactions, to cosmological scenarios describing the universe at its birth
Washing Up with Hot and Cold Running Neutrons: Tests of Fundamental Physical Laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamoreaux, Steve K.
2005-01-01
The properties of the Neutron and its interactions with matter have been long applied to tests of fundamental physical principles. An example of such an application is a test of the stability of the fundamental constants of physics based on possible changes in low energy absorption resonances and the isotopic composition of a prehistoric natural reactor that operated two billion years ago in equatorial Africa. A recent re-analysis of this event indicates that some fundamental constants have changed. The focus of the presentation will be on the uses of cold and ultracold neutrons (UCNs), and in particular, the experimental search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) which would be evidence for time reversal asymmetry in the microscopic interactions within the neutron. Ultracold neutrons are neutrons with kinetic energy sufficiently low that they can be reflected from material surfaces for all angles of incidence, allowing UCNs to be stored in material bottles for times approaching the beta decay lifetime of the neutron. Vagaries associated with the production, transport, and storage of UCNs will be described, and an overview progress on development of a new neutron EDM experiment to be operated at LANSCE will be presented. This new experiment has potential to improve the measurement sensitivity by a factor of 100. Although an EDM has not be observed for any elementary particle, experimental limits have been crucial for testing extensions to the so-called Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions. Our anticipated sensitivity will be sufficient to address questions regarding the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sha, Z.D., E-mail: shaz@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Feng, Y.P. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Li, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2011-05-16
Research highlights: {yields} A weak but significant hump in trend of the coordinate number and density was observed, respectively. {yields} Our findings indicate our simulation is more accurate to describe the atomic structure of Cu-Zr MGs. The composition-structure-properties correlation was established. {yields} And the effective structural unit for this correlation is the Cu-centered full icosahedra. - Abstract: Using the large-scale atomic/molecular massively parallel simulator, the quantitative composition-structure-properties (including glass-forming ability (GFA) and mechanical behavior) correlations in the Cu-Zr metallic glasses were established. The atomic-level origin of these correlations was tracked down. It was found that the Cu-centered full icosahedron is the microscopic factor that fundamentally influences both GFA and mechanical behavior. Our findings have implications for understanding the nature, forming ability and properties of metallic glasses, and for searching novel metallic glasses with unique functional properties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sha, Z.D.; Feng, Y.P.; Li, Y.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → A weak but significant hump in trend of the coordinate number and density was observed, respectively. → Our findings indicate our simulation is more accurate to describe the atomic structure of Cu-Zr MGs. The composition-structure-properties correlation was established. → And the effective structural unit for this correlation is the Cu-centered full icosahedra. - Abstract: Using the large-scale atomic/molecular massively parallel simulator, the quantitative composition-structure-properties (including glass-forming ability (GFA) and mechanical behavior) correlations in the Cu-Zr metallic glasses were established. The atomic-level origin of these correlations was tracked down. It was found that the Cu-centered full icosahedron is the microscopic factor that fundamentally influences both GFA and mechanical behavior. Our findings have implications for understanding the nature, forming ability and properties of metallic glasses, and for searching novel metallic glasses with unique functional properties.