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Sample records for descending perineum syndrome

  1. Interest of retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy in selected cases of descending perineum syndrome with positive anti-sagging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beco Jacques

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levator plate sagging (LPS, usually called descending perineum syndrome, is one of the main defects encountered in perineology. This defect is classically associated with colo-proctologic functional troubles (dyschesia and anal incontinence but can also induce perineodynia, gynaecological and lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods A retrospective case series of nine female patients (mean age: 44.3 underwent an isolated retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy (RLPM to treat symptomatic LPS confirmed by rectal examination and/or Perineocaliper®. An anti-sagging test (support of the posterior perineum must significantly improve the symptoms that were resistant to conservative treatment. The effect of the procedure on the symptoms of the 3 axes of the perineum (urological, colo-proctologic and gynecological and on perineodynia was evaluated during a follow up consultation more than 9 months after surgery. The effect of RLPM on the position of the anal margin and on the levator plate angle was studied using rectal examination, Perineocaliper® and retro-anal ultrasound. Results Before surgery, anti-sagging tests were positive for dyschesia, urinary urgency and pain. After a mean follow-up of 16.1 months, RLPM resolved or improved 2/2 cases of stress urinary incontinence, 3/5 of urinary urgency, 3/4 of dysuria, 3/3 of anal incontinence, 7/8 of dyschesia, 3/4 of cystocele, 4/5 of rectocele, 5/8 of dyspareunia and 6/7 of perineodynia. Rectal examination showed a complete suppression of sagging in 4 patients and an improvement in the 5 others. The mean reduction of perineal descent was 1.08 cm (extremes: 0–1.5. Using retro-anal ultrasound of the levator plate, the mean reduction of sagging was 12.67 degrees (extremes: 1 – 21. Conclusion Anti-sagging tests can be used before surgery to simulate the effect of RLPM. This surgical procedure seems to improve stress urinary incontinence, frequency, nocturia, urgency, dysuria, anal

  2. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: case report in afro-descendant individual

    OpenAIRE

    Judde Lacerda Andrade Carlos; Márcio Vasconcelos de Oliveira; Claudio Lima Souza

    2014-01-01

    This is a Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) case report in afro-descendant individual, male, 3 months old, born from consanguineous union. On admission he had fever for a month, unresolved pneumonia, and hepatosplenomegaly. He evolved to bacterial sepsis, septic shock, and death. CHS presents quantitative and morphological and hematological changes. Abnormal leukocyte inclusions are the pathognomonic finding of the disease; its recognition and differentiation from other leukocyte inclusions is e...

  3. Descending pain modulation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakiath, Rosemary J; Siddall, Philip J; Kellow, John E; Hush, Julia M; Jones, Mike P; Marcuzzi, Anna; Wrigley, Paul J

    2015-12-10

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. While abdominal pain is a dominant symptom of IBS, many sufferers also report widespread hypersensitivity and present with other chronic pain conditions. The presence of widespread hypersensitivity and extra-intestinal pain conditions suggests central nervous dysfunction. While central nervous system dysfunction may involve the spinal cord (central sensitisation) and brain, this review will focus on one brain mechanism, descending pain modulation. We will conduct a comprehensive search for the articles indexed in the databases Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial (CENTRAL) from their inception to August 2015, that report on any aspect of descending pain modulation in irritable bowel syndrome. Two independent reviewers will screen studies for eligibility, assess risk of bias and extract relevant data. Results will be tabulated and, if possible, a meta-analysis will be carried out. The systematic review outlined in this protocol aims to summarise current knowledge regarding descending pain modulation in IBS. PROSPERO CRD42015024284.

  4. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: case report in afro-descendant individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judde Lacerda Andrade Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS case report in afro-descendant individual, male, 3 months old, born from consanguineous union. On admission he had fever for a month, unresolved pneumonia, and hepatosplenomegaly. He evolved to bacterial sepsis, septic shock, and death. CHS presents quantitative and morphological and hematological changes. Abnormal leukocyte inclusions are the pathognomonic finding of the disease; its recognition and differentiation from other leukocyte inclusions is essential for diagnosis and institution of therapy. Early diagnosis of CHS increases the life expectancy of the individual and provides appropriate therapeutic approach for patients affected by the disease.

  5. Fatal dissection of the descending aorta after implantation of a stent in a 19-year-old female with Turner's syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fejzic, Z.; Oort, A.M. van

    2005-01-01

    We report a fatal dissection of the descending aorta as a complication after a two-staged implantation of a stent to relieve aortic coarctation in a young female with Turner's syndrome. Implantation of the stent, with dilation up to 70 percent, and half a year later re-dilation to 100 percent, was w

  6. Giant saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm to right posterior descending artery presenting with superior vena cava syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andres; Vargas-Estrada; Dianna; Edwards; Mohammad; Bashir; James; Rossen; Firas; Zahr

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous vein grafts(SVG) pseudoaneurysms,especially giant ones,are rare and occur as a late complication of coronary artery bypass grafting. This condition affects both genders and typically occurs within the sixth decade of life. The clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic incidental finding on imaging studies to new onset angina,dyspnea,myocardial infarction or symptoms related to compression of neighboring structures. An 82-year-old woman presented with acute onset back pain,dyspnea and was noted to have significantly engorged neck veins. In the emergency department,a chest computed tomographic angiogram with intravenous contrast revealed a ruptured giant bilobed SVG pseudoaneurysm to the right posterior descending artery(RPDA). This imaging modality also demonstrated compression of the superior vena cava(SVC) by the SVG pseudoaneurysm. Coronary angiogram with bypass study was performed to establish the patency of this graft. Endovascular coiling and embolization of the SVG to RPDA was initially considered but disfavored after the coronary angiogram revealed preserved flow from the graft to this arterial branch. After reviewing the angiogram films,a surgical strategy was favored over a percutaneous intervention with a Nitinol self-expanding stent since the latter would have not addressed the superior vena cava compression caused by the giant pseudoaneurysm. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated SVCcompression by the giant pseudoaneurysm cranial lobe. Our patient underwent surgical ligation and excision of the giant pseudoaneurysm and the RPDA was regrafted successfully. In summary,saphenous vein grafts pseudoaneurysms can be life-threatening and its therapy should be guided based on the presence of mechanical complications,the patency of the affected vein graft and the involved myocardial territory viability.

  7. Descendants of Slaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the Danish television documentary series Slavernes Slægt (Descendants of Slaves, 2005) has been to enhance public awareness of Danish colonial history. As is typical of contemporary mediated memories, the account of national history is combined with 'small histories' that focus on live...... stories of individuals and their families. Participating in the series are present-day descendants of enslaved Africans who, as a result of an interest in family historical research, have found information about their black ancestry. The series challenges the supposed historical homogeneity of Nordic...... nation-states by pointing out the historical presence of black individuals. However, this article will show how discourses of family history (e.g. the focus on bloodlines) converge with old 'race' theory; the result of which is that the series inadvertently reproduces processes of visual Othering....

  8. Reconstruction of the pelvis and perineum with a free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, I

    2012-11-01

    Reconstruction of the perineum and pelvic cavity in continuity is an uncommon and difficult challenge. This case describes a 66-year-old man who presented following recurrence of a Dukes\\' B rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma that had been treated nine years previously by anterior resection, 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy. His recurrent disease was treated with radical pelvic exenteration with formation of an end colostomy and urinary ileal conduit. A post-operative pelvic collection necessitated incisional drainage via the perineum. This resulted in a perineal defect in continuity with the pelvic cavity, neither of which healed in spite of alternate day packing with antiseptic dressings. The perineum and cavity were reconstructed successfully with a microvascular transfer of the latissimus dorsi using the primary gracilis pedicle as recipient donor vessels.

  9. Descending with Angels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Islamic exorcism or psychotropic medication? “Descending with Angels” explores two highly different solutions to the same problem: namely Danish Muslims who are possessed by invisible spirits, called jinn. A Palestinian refugee living in the city of Aarhus has been committed to psychiatric...... treatment after a severe case of jinn possession which caused him to destroy the interior of a mosque, crash several cars, and insult a number of people. He sees no point in psychotropic medication since his illness has already been treated with Quranic incantations. A psychiatrist and nurse try...

  10. Descending with Angels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Islamic exorcism or psychotropic medication? “Descending with Angels” explores two highly different solutions to the same problem: namely Danish Muslims who are possessed by invisible spirits, called jinn. A Palestinian refugee living in the city of Aarhus has been committed to psychiatric...... International Ethnographic Film Festival (Edinburgh, June 2013) ADDITIONAL SCREENINGS • University of California, Berkeley, USA • University of California, Santa Cruz, USA • University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA • University of Manchester, UK • University of Heidelberg, Germany • Freie Universität...

  11. Analysis of Acoustic Access to the Prostate Through the Abdomen and Perineum for Extracorporeal Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Sabb, Brian J.; Roberts, William W.

    2010-03-01

    As part of the development of a noninvasive treatment for BPH using histotripsy, this study aimed to measure acoustic access for extracorporeal ablation of the prostate. Both transabdominal and transperineal approaches were considered. The objective was to measure the size and shape of a transducer aperture that could target the prostate without obstruction. CT images obtained from 17 subjects >56 years of age were used to create 3D reconstructions of the lower abdomen and pelvis. Target locations on the urethra at the base, mid, and apex in the prostate were marked along with a transrectal imaging probe. Evenly space rays spanning were traced from each target location towards the perineum and separately towards the abdomen with the maximum x-ray density encountered along each path recorded. The overall free aperture through the perineum was found to be a triangular shaped region bounded by the lower bones of the pelvis and the transrectal probe varying significantly in size between subjects. The free aperture through the abdomen was wedge shaped limited by the pubis also with great subject to subject variability. Average unblocked fractions of an f/1 transducer to target base, veru, and apex through the perineum were 77.0%, 94.4%, and 99.6%, respectively. Averages targeting through the abdomen were 86.1%, 52.3%, and 11.0%. Acoustic access to the prostate for through the perineum was judged to be feasible.

  12. [Application of perineum heat therapy during partum to reduce injuries that require post-partum stitches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré-Rull, Carmen; Beneit-Montesinos, Juan Vicente; Gol-Gómez, Roser; Garriga-Comas, Neus; Ferrer-Comalat, Alicia; Salgado-Poveda, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of heat, moist or dry to the perineum during delivery in order to reduce injuries requiring perineal suturing after birth, and to assess its safety in relation to the adaptation of the newborn to extrauterine life. An open multicentre clinical trial directed from the School of Nursing at the University of Barcelona was carried out between 2009 and 2010 in 5 Catalan Hospitals. The sample consisted of 198 pregnant women subjected to the natural protocol for normal delivery assistance. The pregnant women were randomized to three study groups: moist heat (MHG), dry heat (DHG), and control (CG). Usual care of the perineum was performed during labour in all groups and MHG or GCS was also applied in the perineum in the intervention groups. The Apgar score in the newborn and perineum postpartum was then assessed. Statistical tests were performed using a 95% confidence interval. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS version 17. Perinea that required no suturing: MHG 71% (47) versus CG 56% (37), OR: 1.803; (95% CI: 0.881-3.687); DHG 62% (41) versus CG 56% (37), OR:1.285 (95% CI: 0.641-2.577); MHG 71% (47) versus DHG 62% (41), OR:1.402 (95% CI: 0.680-2.890). MEAN: Apgar score 5', MHG: 9.91; DHG: 9.98, CG: 9.98. p=0.431. The application of heat therapy to the perineum during labour did not significantly reduce perineal suturing after birth. However, better perineal results were observed with moist heat. Heat therapy does not alter neonatal outcomes measured by Apgar score. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. [Obstetric damage to the perineum and the anal sphincters. Reconstruction surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kościński, Tomasz

    2014-08-01

    Damage to the perineum, vulva, anal sphincters, rectal wall and the fascial structures of the pelvic floor may be caused by obstetric trauma. Emergency surgical treatment aims at control of the bleeding, anatomical reconstruction of the disrupted tissues and minimization of the risk of infection. Suturing of the rectal wall and mucosa of the anal canal is followed by reconstruction of the perineal body internal and external anal sphincters, vulva and the perineum. Delayed surgery is undertaken after the complete healing of the obstetric tear. All cicatricial fibers must be saved to reinforce sphincters and perineal body muscles suturing. Anal levators and perineal transvers muscles suturing is used for the rectovaginal septum and pelvic floor reconstruction. Anal sphincters are reconstructed by the 'overlapping' technique. X en Z suturing is used for a perineal skin plasty.

  14. Primary tuberculosis of urethra presenting as stricture urethra and watering can perineum: A rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Babu, Suresh; Jhanwar, Ankur; Mehrotra, C N

    2016-01-01

    A young man presented with irritative lower urinary tract symptoms and multiple fistulae (watering can) in the perineum since 6 months. Micturating cystourethrogram and retrograde urethrogram was performed after 12 weeks following suprapubic cystostomy which showed bulbar urethral stricture with multiple urethrocutaneous fistulae. He underwent anastomotic urethroplasty and excision of the urethrocutaneous fistulae. Histopathology of the excised fistulous tract showed granulomatous pathology suggestive of tuberculosis. Antitubercular treatment was given for 9 months. The patient is voiding well at 12 months follow-up.

  15. Diffuse Cavernous Hemangioma of the Penis, Scrotum, Perineum, and Rectum - A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi Rajul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign lesions that occur in any part of the body. Genital hemangioma involving the entire penis and scrotum are extremely rare. More rarely they can extend in to the pelvis making preoperative imaging imperative and decisive in treatment. Very few cases have been reported in the medical literature. Hereby, a rare cavernous hemangioma that involves the entire penis, scrotum and extends into perineum and rectum in an 18-year-old male is presented with review of literature.

  16. The assessment of sensory detection thresholds on the perineum and breast compared with control body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeau, Dany; Bélanger, Marc; Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic; Courtois, Frédérique

    2014-07-01

    Few studies explored multiple sensory detection thresholds on the perineum and breast, but these normative data may provide standards for clinical conditions such as aging, genital and breast surgeries, pathological conditions affecting the genitals, and sexual function. The aim of this study was to provide normative data on sensory detection thresholds of three sensory modalities on the perineum and breast. Thirty healthy women aged between 18 and 35 years were assessed on the perineum (clitoris, labia minora, vaginal, and anal margin), breast (lateral, areola, nipple), and control body locations (neck, forearm, abdomen) for three sensory modalities (light touch, pressure, vibration). Average detection thresholds for each body location and sensory modality and statistical comparisons between the primary genital, secondary sexual, and neutral zones were the main outcome measures. Average detection thresholds for light touch suggest that the neck, forearm, and vaginal margin are most sensitive, and areola least sensitive. No statistical difference is found between the primary and secondary sexual zones, but the secondary sexual zone is significantly more sensitive than the neutral zone. Average detection thresholds for pressure suggest that the clitoris and nipple are most sensitive, and the lateral breast and abdomen least sensitive. No statistical difference is found between the primary and secondary sexual zone, but they are both significantly more sensitive than the neutral zone. Average detection thresholds for vibration suggest that the clitoris and nipple are most sensitive. The secondary sexual zone is significantly more sensitive than the primary and neutral zone, but the latter two show no difference. The current normative data from sensory detection threshold are discussed in terms of providing standard values for research and clinical conditions. Additional analysis from breast volume, body mass index, hormonal contraception, menstrual cycle, and sexual

  17. Primary tuberculosis of urethra presenting as stricture urethra and watering can perineum: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man presented with irritative lower urinary tract symptoms and multiple fistulae (watering can in the perineum since 6 months. Micturating cystourethrogram and retrograde urethrogram was performed after 12 weeks following suprapubic cystostomy which showed bulbar urethral stricture with multiple urethrocutaneous fistulae. He underwent anastomotic urethroplasty and excision of the urethrocutaneous fistulae. Histopathology of the excised fistulous tract showed granulomatous pathology suggestive of tuberculosis. Antitubercular treatment was given for 9 months. The patient is voiding well at 12 months follow-up.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Perineum in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Douglas H Jamieson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has profoundly changed and improved the investigation of abdominal and pelvic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in pediatrics. Using an imaging modality without ionizing radiation is of particular advantage because the pediatric IBD population is young and often requires repeat evaluation. MRI of the pelvis has become the imaging gold standard for detecting and monitoring perianal disease while bowel-directed imaging techniques (eg, enterography, enteroclysis and colonography can accurately evaluate bowel inflammation in IBD. With recent technological innovations leading to faster and higher resolution, the role of MRI in IBD will likely continue to expand. The present article focuses on MRI of the perineum in pediatric IBD.

  19. Clinical application of unprotected perineum midwives with perineum massage and psychological counseling%无保护会阴接生法辅以会阴按摩及心理疏导的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶碧玉

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨无保护会阴接生法辅以会阴按摩、心理疏导在临床中的应用效果。方法:将2013年6月~2014年6月174例在我院行孕期检查及分娩无并发症的孕妇随机等分为观察组和对照组,观察组采用无保护会阴接生法辅以会阴按摩、心理疏导;对照组则按传统常规方法接生。观察两组产妇分娩和会阴情况以及新生儿结局。结果:观察组孕妇第二产程用时、产时出血量和产后2 h 出血量均明显少于对照组;产时疼痛程度轻于对照组;观察组产妇会阴侧切、分娩恐惧及新生儿产瘤发生率低于对照组,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:无保护会阴接生法辅以会阴按摩、心理疏导能有效缓解孕妇分娩的恐惧感和产时疼痛程度,减少产后出血量,降低会阴损伤程度,并缩短第二产程,同时也能影响新生儿结局。%Objective:To explore the application effects of unprotected perineum midwives with perineum massage and psychological counseling in clinical treatment. Methods:Selected 174 pregnant women conducting pregnancy examination and delivery without complication in our hospital during June 2013 -June 2014,randomly divided them into observation group and control group. Adopted unprotected perineum midwives with perineum massage and psycho-logical counseling to the observation group;delivered puerperae in the control group with traditional routine method. Observed puerperae delivery and peri-neum condition as well as newborn outcome in the two groups. Results:Time of puerperae’s second stage of labor,delivery bleeding amount and postopera-tive 2 - hours bleeding amount were all significantly less than those of the control group;the delivery pain degree was lighter than that of the control group;episiotomies,fear of delivery and newborn caput succedaneum of the observation group were all lower than those of the control group,the differences of

  20. Aromaterapi Lavender dapat Menurunkan Intensitas Nyeri Perineum pada Ibu Post Partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Widayani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineals pain affects  woman ability to mobilize so that it can cause complications such as post-partum haemoragik. Trauma to the perineum also cause discomfort and dyspareunia, therefore, perineal pain management is important. Currently the handling used to relieve pain is complementary therapy aromatherapy with essential oils of lavender, because lavender has the properties of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and also soothing. Aromatherapy stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete chemical mediators that serve as pain relievers and give rise to feelings of happiness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lavender aromatherapy to the perineal pain intensity in post partum women. This study is a quasy experiment pre and post non random control in postpartum women at Bidan Praktik Mandiri in Bandung. Sampling this study using consecutive sampling technique. The data taken using the instrument in the adaptation of a Visual Analog Scale (VAS and analyzed by using the wilcoxon signed rank test. The result is there was a decrease in pain intensity before and after the administration of inhaled lavender aromatherapy (Z=-3.77 with p-value 0.001. Lavender aromatherapy can be a complementary alternative therapy to reduce pain in postpartum women but more research necessary is needed with more respondents.

  1. Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report

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    Yoshioka Takako

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A rare case of an apocrine tumor in the male perineal region is reported. A dermal cystic lesion developed in the region between the anus and scrotum of a 74-year-old Japanese male. The cystic lesion, measuring 3.5 × 5.0 cm in size, was lined by columnar or flattened epithelium with occasional apocrine features and supported by a basal myoepithelium lining. A mural nodule, measuring 1 × 1.5 cm in size, protruded into the cystic space and consisted of a solid proliferation of tubular glands with prominent apocrine secretion and basal myoepithelial cells. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the luminal cells were partially positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and human milk fat globulin 1, and the basal myoepithelial cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. Estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors were focally and weakly positive for luminal epithelium. Although no mammary-like glands were present in the dermis around the tumor, this unusual apocrine tumor has been suggested to be derived from male anogenital mammary-like glands and mimic a mammary-like gland adenoma in the male perineum.

  2. Archetypal Analysis of Orpheus Descending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-ting

    2014-01-01

    田纳西·威廉斯是二十世纪美国戏剧领域的卓越领军剧作家。他一生作品颇丰,撰写六十多部戏剧作品。1957年出版的《神琴下凡》修改自1940年的《天使之战》。本文尝试借用弗莱的原型批评,分析《神琴下凡》与希腊神话俄耳甫斯与欧律狄刻故事在情节发展和背景设置的相似点。%Tennessee Williams was one of the most prominent playwrights in twentieth century American theatre, and, apparently, he was the most poetic and tender. Orpheus Descending, published in 1957, depicts the tragic life of a wanderer Val. Its plot and setting bears a similarity to the Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. This thesis will focus on discussion of this similarity from the perspective of archetypal criticism.

  3. USIA DAN BUDAYA PANTANGMAKANAN MEMPENGARUHI PENYEMBUHAN LUKA PERINEUM PADA IBU NIFAS HARI KE 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondang Sidabutar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a long time in there covery process because of damage to the skin or skin tissue disintegritas. According to Rustam Mochtar(1998, the injured in the birth canal when not accompanied by infection will heal within6-7days. Based on the results of a survey on BPS Ny. Arifin S. Surabaya, from as many as7 of 10 respondents (70% found the wound is still wet. The purpose of this study was to determine age and cultural picture of incontinence on postpartum mother's perineal wound healing on the seventh day in the BPS Ny. Arifin S. Surabaya.In this research using descriptive method with the study population was all mothers with post natal on the seventh day stit chesin the perineum which controls BPS Ny. Arifin S. Surabaya period from July to August 2008 as many as 49 people. Sampling of non-probability sampling with a sampling technique is saturated. By using questionnaires and observation sheets as research instruments. Data created frequency tables and cross tabulations and then summed.Based on the results of research on maternal postnatal day 9 to 7, obtained the majority of postnatal mother saged <35 years of the perineal wound healed as many as 24 people (66.66% and in postpartum mothers who do not abstain from the majority of the perineal wound healed as many as17 people (77.27%.By looking at these result it can be concluded that the perineal wound healing can be influenced byculture age and abstinence from food. Therefore, the provision of good information and right by the health officer of the perineal wound care will affect the success of the perineal wound healing process.

  4. The Experience of 102 Cases Perineum Unprotected Birth%无保护接生102例体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢长芸

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨会阴无保护接生在降低会阴侧切率中的应用价值。方法通过手法对出头速度的掌控来保护会阴,明显降低了会阴侧切率和产后出血。结果了提高产科质量,降低会阴切开率,减轻分娩创伤,我院通过临床实践,采用单纯控制胎头娩出速度,不进行会阴保护的助产技术--即无保护接生,降低了会阴侧切率及产后出血。结论同时也消除了会阴侧切给准妈妈们带来的恐慌,明显降低了无医学指征的剖宫产、而且新妈妈为准妈妈们起到榜样的作用。%Objective: To investigate the protection of perineum without delivery in reducing the lateral episiotomy application value. Methods: by means of control over speed protection of perineum, significantly reduced the perineotomy rate and postpartum hemorrhage. Results: improve the quality of Obstetrics, reduce episiotomy rate, reduce the birth trauma in our hospital, the clinical practice, using the simple control of fetal head delivery speed, midwifery - not for protection of perineum is delivered without protection, reducing the lateral episiotomy rate and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion: the lateral episiotomy for mothers to panic, significantly reduced without medical indication of cesarean section, and a new mother for mothers who plays the role of an example.

  5. Topological descendants DDK and KM realizations

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz; Gato-Rivera, Beatriz; Rosado, Jose Ignacio

    1994-01-01

    The "minimal matter + scalar" system can be embedded into the twisted N=2 topological algebra in two ways: a la DDK or a la KM. Here we present some results concerning the topological descendants and their DDK and KM realizations. In particular, we prove four "no-ghost" theorems (two for null states) regarding the reduction of the topological descendants into secon- daries of the "minimal matter + scalar" conformal field theory. We write down the relevant expressions for the case of level 2 descendants.

  6. Permutations with Ascending and Descending Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    We investigate permutations in terms of their cycle structure and descent set. To do this, we generalize the classical bijection of Gessel and Reutenauer to deal with permutations that have some ascending and some descending blocks. We then provide the first bijective proofs of some known results. We also solve some problems posed in [3] by Eriksen, Freij, and Wastlund, who study derangements that descend in blocks of prescribed lengths.

  7. Locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum presenting with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum: successful management with early aggressive surgery and multimodal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luís; Alexandrino, Henrique; Soares Leite, Júlio; Castro Sousa, Francisco

    2015-12-16

    Colorectal cancer is a common malignant neoplasm and its treatment usually involves surgery associated, in some cases, depending on the staging, with chemoradiotherapy. Necrotising fasciitis of the perineum is a highly lethal infection of the perineum, perirectal tissues and genitals, requiring emergency surgical debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotics and control of sepsis. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum as the first clinical manifestation of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum, in which successful management consisted of early and aggressive surgical debridement, followed by multimodal therapy with curative intent. 2 years and 6 months after surgery the patient is well, with no evidence of local or systemic relapse.

  8. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Sagar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  9. Afro-descendant Trajectories: A Methodological Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Matos Díaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a reflection about how we think of Afro-descendant people as objectsor subjects of study. To do this, it reflects on the question: How does the study of Afrodescendantpeoples change when the so-called “unit of analysis” is not a slave, but anenslaved ancestor who is part of your contemporary cosmology? The way of arriving atthis question, and the analysis presented henceforth attempts to highlight key aspects foradvancing Afro-descendant scholarship: specifically the role of black feminist thought andpractices on ancestral consciousness; and its subsequent impact on the interpretation andproduction of historical and socio-political sources.

  10. Mycotic aneurysm rupture of the descending aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gufler, H.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Nesbitt, E.; Hauenstein, K.H. [Department of Radiology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-03-01

    A 69-year-old diabetic male with salmonella bacteremia developed hypovolemic shock and swelling of the neck. A CT examination revealed massive mediastinal hemorrhage extending into the neck soft tissues caused by false aneurysm rupture of the descending thoracic aorta. Aortography showed continuous extravasation from a large leak at the medial side of the descending thoracic aorta. Although surgical intervention was immediately performed, the patient died 3 weeks later from multiple-organ failure. In this report, CT and angiographic findings of mycotic aneurysm rupture are presented and a review is given. (orig.) With 2 figs., 11 refs.

  11. A descending hierarchy of reflection principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper can best be viewed as a portrait in miniature of a fascinating structure: a. descending hierarchy of reflection principles. Ascending hierarchies of reflection principles are amply studied, e.g. in Feferman's great paper Transfinite Recursive Progressions of Axiomatic Theories (Feferman[l

  12. Miopatia ocular descendente Descending ocular myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunjo Finkel

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.Four cases of the so-called descending ocular myopathy with a family history in three generations are reported. In the first case muscular biopsy and electromyographic studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. Descending ocular myopathy seems to be just a clinical form of muscular distrophy of late onset.

  13. Suicide awareness of japanese family descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tiemi Kawaziri Diogo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to comprehend the meaning of suicide for Japanese descendants. This was a qualitative study, based on Grounded Theory, using a structured interview with sixteen questions, digitally recorded. Subjects were ten descendants who were interviewed in 2011. The opinions of the interviewed showed factors of psychological, social and cultural origin involved in suicide, such as: heredity, religion, mental health, personality characteristics and interpersonal relationships, pleasure and pain at work, stigma and consequences of the act on the family. Family without case of suicide showed attitudes of prejudice and judgment, while those with case displayed feelings of pain in their reports. It was concluded that the Japanese rigid culture, personality, interpersonal communication and the way family and work have effects on their behavior are predisposing factors to suicide, as well as the identification of these factors contributes to a better performance of the nurse.

  14. 会阴不侧切的快速评估办法%Fast evaluation method for side cutting perineum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱虹

    2015-01-01

    1996年世界卫生组织提出“分娩爱母行动”,建议会阴侧切率应在20%,最好达到5‰。采用不侧切,无会阴保护等,严格控制会阴侧切,促进自然分娩。促进怀孕产妇产后恢复,维护妇女儿童身心健康,提高产后生活质量。我院自2013年11月至2015年2月对813名正常分娩的产妇进行会阴侧切评估,使会阴侧切率下降至30%-40%;同时对会阴进行有效的评估,也促进了新上岗的助产人员的业务培养,让她们有充分的依据,对每一位正常分娩的产妇进行良性评估,对降低会阴侧切提升了信心。%in 1996 WHo proposed “safe delivery action”,recommended the perineotomy rate should be 20%,the best reaches 5‰.the side cut, no protection of perineum, strict control of episiotomy,promote natural delivery.Promote the postpartum recovery, safeguarding women’s physical and mental health of children, improve the quality of life of postpartum. in our hospital from 2013 november to 2015 february 813 for normal delivery of maternal perineal assessment, the episiotomy rate decreased to 30%-40%; at the same time to effectively evaluate the perineum, but also promote the new posts of midwifery staff business training, so that they have sufficient basis,to assess every benign normal delivery of maternal, to reduce episiotomy to enhance confidence.

  15. Surgical Management of Intramyocardial Left Anterior Descending Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Salvatore, Sergio; Segreto, Antonio; Chiusaroli, Alessandro; Congiu, Stefano; Bizzarri, Federico

    2015-11-01

    An intramyocardial left anterior descending artery can be found in up to 30% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft procedures. We review the various techniques available to identify an intramyocardial left anterior descending artery.

  16. Dual (type IV left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdil Baskan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital coronary artery anomalies are uncommon. Dual left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD is defined as the presence of two LADs within the anterior interventricular sulcus (AIVS, and is classified into four types. Type IV is a rarely reported subtype and differs from the others, with a long LAD originating from the right coronary artery (RCA. Dual LAD is a benign coronary artery anomaly, but should be recognised especially before interventional procedures. With the increasing use of multidedector computed tomography (MDCT, it is essential for radiologists to be aware of this entity and the cross-sectional findings.

  17. FBN1 Mutations in Patients With Descending Thoracic Aortic Dissections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautbar, Ariel; LeMaire, Scott A.; Franco, Luis M.; Coselli, Joseph S.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Belmont, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm and dissection cause significant morbidity and mortality. There are several known single gene disorders that predispose to isolated aortic disease and eventually aneurysm and dissection. FBN1 mutations are associated with multiple clinical phenotypes, including Marfan syndrome (MFS), MASS phenotype, and familial ectopia lentis, but rarely with isolated aortic aneurysm and dissection. In this report, we describe three patients who presented with primary descending thoracic aortic dissection and who were found to have an FBN1 mutation. None of the patients fulfilled clinical criteria for the diagnosis of MFS, and all had few or none of the skeletal features typical of the condition. Two patients had a history of long-term hypertension, and such a history was suspected in the third patient. These observations suggest that some individuals with FBN1 mutations have significant aortic disease involvement of other systems that is typical of FBN1 mutation-related syndromes. Superimposed risk factors, such as hypertension, may weaken the aortic wall and eventually lead to aortic dissection. Given that the cost continues to decrease, we suggest that diagnostic DNA sequencing for FBN1 mutations in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissection may be a practical clinical step in evaluating such patients and at-risk family members. PMID:20082464

  18. Comparison of the anogenital distance and anthropometry of the perineum in patients with and without pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ferrer, M L; Moya-Jiménez, L C; Mendiola, J

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric measures of the perineum for women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse who are candidates for surgery, with or without urinary incontinence, and for patients without pelvic floor dysfunction. The main objective was to measure the anogenital distance in its 2 variants: anoclitoral and anofourchette. The anogenital distance appears to be determined prenatally and is influenced by the intrauterine hormonal environment. The secondary objective was to measure the length of the genital hiatus, the perineal body and the distance between the 2 ischial tuberosities. An observational case-control study was conducted with 58 patients. The cases (n=22) were patients with stages >II 2 in the Baden-Walker classification system. The controls were patients with normal pelvic floors. Measurements were performed with a digital calliper. The patients' tocogynecological history, lifestyle habits and risk factors were recorded. The case patients had a significantly shorter anogenital anofourchette distance than that of the control patients (P=.001), a significantly longer anogenital anoclitoral distance than the control patients (P=.0001) and a significantly longer genital hiatus length than the control patients (P=.02). This was an observational study with a small sample. We cannot determine whether the difference in these distances are caused by or are the result of this disease. Given that the anogenital distance appears to be determined prenatally, we question whether this changed distance could be a risk factor for developing pelvic floor dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Inverted Lymphoglandular Polyp in Descending Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old male with a history of left colon cancer, status post left colon resection for 12 years, presented with rectal bleeding. Colonoscopic examination revealed an 8 mm sessile polyp in the proximal descending colon. Microscopic examination showed that the surface of this polyp was covered with a layer of normal colonic mucosa with focal surface erosion. In the submucosal layer, an intimate admixture of multiple cystically dilated glands and prominent lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers was seen. The glands were lined by columnar epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining showed the glands were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7, with a low proliferative index, mostly consistent with reactive colonic glands. The patient remained asymptomatic after one-year follow-up. A review of the literature shows very rare descriptions of similar lesions, but none fits exactly this pattern. We would designate this inverted lymphoglandular polyp and present this case to raise the awareness of recognizing this unusual histological entity.

  20. Descending corticospinal control of intersegmental dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Kalaska, John F; Cisek, Paul

    2011-08-17

    To make an accurate movement, the CNS has to overcome the inherent complexities of the multijoint limb. For example, interaction torques arise when motion of individual arm segments propagates to adjacent segments causing their movement without any muscle contractions. Since these passive joint torques significantly add to the overall torques generated by active muscular contractions, they must be taken into account during planning or execution of goal-directed movements. We investigated the role of the corticospinal tract in compensating for the interaction torques during arm movements in humans. Twelve subjects reached to visual targets with their arm supported by a robotic exoskeleton. Reaching to one target was accompanied by interaction torques that assisted the movement, while reaching to the other target was accompanied by interaction torques that resisted the movement. Corticospinal excitability was assessed at different times during movement using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the upper-arm region of M1 (primary motor cortex). We found that TMS responses in shoulder monoarticular and elbow-shoulder biarticular muscles changed together with the interaction torques during movements in which the interaction torques were resistive. In contrast, TMS responses did not correlate with assistive interaction torques or with co-contraction. This suggests that the descending motor command includes compensation for passive limb dynamics. Furthermore, our results suggest that compensation for interaction torques involves the biarticular muscles, which span both shoulder and elbow joints and are in a biomechanically advantageous position to provide such compensation.

  1. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Descending mediastinitis managed by sternotomy, taurolidine and delayed closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Anand P; Kugathasan, Gana; Prabha, Ramesh; Malik, Paras; Kuteyi, Opeyemi; Larbalestier, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is a rare complication of upper respiratory infections. A quick diagnosis and prompt and complete surgical drainage is important for a successful outcome. A 74-year-old man with descending necrotizing mediastinitis needed a sternotomy, multiple washouts, and delayed sternal closure.

  3. 无保护会阴接生在初产妇分娩中的应用及评价%Unprotected Perineum Birth in Early Maternity Application and Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秋萍

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨初产妇无保护会阴接生的效果。方法正常分娩的初产妇139例,随机分为两组,观察组采用无保护会阴接生技术分娩,对照组采用传统保护会阴方法分娩,比较两组接生效果。结果观察组会阴切开率、会阴完整率及会阴Ⅰ°裂伤均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论无保护会阴接生技术在初产妇自然分娩的应用可降低会阴侧切率,提高会阴完整率。%Objective To investigate effect of maternal unprotected perineum deliveries. Methods 139 cases of early maternal normal delivery were randomly divided into two groups,the observation group with no delivery techniques to protect the perineum childbirth,the control group using traditional methods to protect the perineum childbirth. Midwives effects were compared.Results The rate of episiotomy,intact perineum rate and perineal lacerationⅠ°were better than the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion No protection perineum technology in early maternal birth can reduce the rate of episiotomy,increase perineum rate.

  4. Symptomatic Type IV Dual Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriacos Papadopoulos MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual left anterior descending coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly with 4 subtypes. Double left anterior descending coronary artery originating from the left main stem and the right coronary artery (type IV dual left anterior descending artery has been reported to occur in 0.01% to 0.7% of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who was found to have this anomaly during coronary angiography. The patient had been complaining of chest pain that mimics angina pectoris and exercise tolerance test was positive for myocardial ischemia.

  5. Supersymmetric Descendants of Self-Adjointly Extended Quantum Mechanical Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Hashimi, M H; Shalaby, A; Wiese, U -J

    2013-01-01

    We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant.

  6. Factors Resulting in Micron Indentation Hardness Descending in Indentation Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min; Chen Weimin

    2009-01-01

    hardness decrease can be bated if the continuous stiffness measurement technique is not adopted; this indicates that the test method itself may also be one of the factors causing the hardness being descended.

  7. Notch signaling in descending thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, S.; Ren, P.; Nguyen, M.; Coselli, J.S.; Shen, Y.H.; Lemaire, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Descending thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (DTAAD) is characterized by progressive medial degeneration, which may result from excessive tissue destruction and insufficient repair. Resistance to tissue destruction and aortic self-repair are critical in preventing medial degenerati

  8. Wellens' syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Lai

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of quite rare cause of thoracic pain suspected by emergency physician as Wellens’ syndrome. Wellens’ syndrome is a pattern of electrocardiographic T-wave changes associated with critical, proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD. This syndrome is about 10-15% of all unstable angina in emergency department (ED. The cardiologic consult was obtained in ED and it was not conclusive for a Wellens’ syndrome, so that the diagnostistic planning was wrong. The authors point out the importance of this syndrome in ED and the necessity of an urgent angiographic study as every acute coronary syndrome presented in ED. We remark the importance in ED to recognize these changes associated with critical LAD obstruction and the high risk for anterior wall myocardial infarction.

  9. 无保护性会阴接生的技巧及临床效果%The skills and clinical effects of unprotected perineum midwives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗思通; 张美玲; 刘琴

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨无保护性会阴接生的技巧及临床效果,促进自然分娩。方法选取巴州区妇幼保健院2014年4~5月期间收治的120例分娩产妇的临床资料,按不同接生方法分为观察组和对照组,每组各60例。对照组产妇采用传统的会阴保护法接生,观察组产妇采用无保护性会阴接生。比较两种接生方法的临床疗效。结果观察组产妇会阴完整率、Ⅰ度裂伤率[21.67%(13/60)、45.0%(27/60)]高于对照组[3.33%(2/60)、25.0%(15/60)];Ⅱ度裂伤率、会阴侧切率[18.33%(11/60)、15.0%(9/60)]低于对照组[33.33%(20/60)、38.33%(23/60)](P<0.05)。两组产后2 h出血量及新生儿Apgar评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。观察组产妇产后生活质量评分高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论无保护性会阴接生痛苦小,产后恢复快,创伤小。%Objective To investigate the skills and clinical effects of unprotected perineum midwives, to promote natural delivery.Methods Clinical data of 120 pregnant women in Maternal and Child Health Hopital of Bazhou District from April 2014 to May 2014 were selected, all cases were divided into observation group and control group according to different delivery methods with 60 cases in each group.Cases in control group underwent traditional protection of perineum midwives, while cases in observation group used unprotected perineum midwives.The clinical effects of the two delivery methods were compared.Results The perinaeum integrity andⅠ°laceration rate of observation group [21.67 %(13/60), 45.0 %(27/60)] were higher than those of control group [3.33%(2/60), 25.0%(15/60)].Ⅱ°laceration rate and episiotomy rate of observation group [18.33%(11/60), 15.0%(9/60)] were lower than those of control group [33.33 %(20/60), 38.33 %(23/60)] (P0.05).The maternal postpartum life quality score of observation group was higher than the

  10. Descending colon endometriosis misdiagnosis as diverticulitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Lee, Kwan Seop; Min, Soo Kee [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus. It is a common disease in menstruating females and intestinal involvement is not uncommon. Intestinal endometriosis most commonly involves the sigmoid colon, rectum, ileum, appendix, and cecum. However, the descending colon is a rare site of intestinal endometriosis. Although computed tomography (CT) findings of bowel endometriosis have been presented in several articles, there has been no report describing the CT findings of descending colon endometriosis above the pelvic cavity. Here, we report a rare case of descending colon endometriosis located in the retroperitoneal space, in which the initial impression was acute colonic diverticulitis with a small abscess on preoperative multidetector CT.

  11. 不同助产方式配合无保护会阴接生的临床分析%Clinical analysis of unprotected perineum deliver with different ways of midwifery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育芬; 叶云玲; 王茜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of unprotected perineum deliver with different ways of midwifery . Methods 1 857 cases of primiparas in Longquanyi District First people's Hospital from Oct 2011 to Aug 2014 who underwent natural childbirth were selected and divided into group A , B, C, D according to different ways of midwifery .398 cases in group A were unprotected perineum deliver , 459 cases in group B were unprotected perineum deliver with doula midwifery , 418 cases in group C were unprotected perineum deliver with bilateral perineum block anesthesia , 582 cases in group D were unprotected perineum deliver with doula midwifery combined with bilateral perineum block anesthesia .The clinical effect such as delivery success rate , perineal integrity rate, pain situation, et al were compared.Results The delivery success rate, perineal integrity rate, apgar score of group D were higher than that of the other 3 groups, the postpartum hemorrhage and second birth course of group D were less than that of the other 3 groups, the maternal satisfaction and maternal emotional state of group D were superior to that of the other 3 groups ( all P<0.05).Conclusion The unprotected perineum deliver with doula midwifery combined with bilateral perineum block anesthesia promotes the quality of obstetric deliveries which is safe and effective .%目的:探讨不同助产方式配合无保护会阴接生的临床效果。方法选取成都市龙泉驿区第一人民医院于2011年10月至2014年8月经阴道分娩的1857例初产妇,按照不同接生处理方法分为A、B、C、D组,A组398例为单纯无保护会阴接生,B组459例以导乐助娩配合无保护会阴接生,C组418例以双侧会阴阻滞麻醉配合无保护会阴接生,D组582例同时采用导乐助娩与双侧会阴阻滞麻醉配合无保护会阴接生,比较4组接生成功率、会阴完整率、疼痛情况等临床效果。结果 D组的无保护会阴接生成功率、会阴

  12. Analysis of clinical application effect of modified perineum protection noninvasive midwiferymethod%改良保护会阴无创助产法的临床应用效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧珠; 陈艳雯; 胡顺平; 李论; 王小纯

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze influence of modified perineum protection noninvasive midwifery method on maternal and neonatal outcomes, by comparing with traditional midwifery method. Methods A total of 856 primipara in need of perineum protection when crowning of fetal head at the second stage of labor were divided into observation group with 420 cases (received modified perineum protection noninvasive midwifery method) and control group with 436 cases (received traditional perineum protection midwifery method). Results There were statistically significant differences in incidences of perineal Ⅰ and Ⅱ degree laceration, perineal inapparent oedema, perineal mild oedema, and wound pain time between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Modified perineum protection noninvasive midwifery method is helpful to reducing incidences of perineal Ⅰ and Ⅱ degree laceration and perineal oedema, decreasing postpartum perineum pain time, and accelerating postpartum rehabilitation.%目的:通过与传统助产法比较,分析改良保护会阴无创助产法对母儿结局的影响。方法第二产程自胎头着冠达到需要进行会阴保护时起,将初产妇856例分为观察组420例(改良保护会阴无创助产法)和对照组436例(传统保护会阴助产法)。结果两组的会阴Ⅰ、Ⅱ度裂伤发生率、会阴不明显水肿率、会阴轻度水肿率及会阴伤口疼痛天数相比差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论改良保护会阴无创助产法有助于降低Ⅰ、Ⅱ度会阴裂伤及会阴水肿的发生率,减少患者产后会阴伤口疼痛天数,促进患者产后康复。

  13. Midwives' and doctors' perceptions of their preparation for and practice in managing the perineum in the second stage of labour: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Christine E; Lau, Rosalind; Biro, Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    to identify the perceptions of midwives and doctors at Monash Women's regarding their educational preparation and practices used for perineal management during the second stage of labour. anonymous cross-sectional semi-structured questionnaire ('The survey'). the three maternity hospitals that form Monash Women's Maternity Services, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. midwives and doctors attending births at one or more of the three Monash Women's maternity hospitals. a semi-structured questionnaire was developed, drawing on key concepts from experts and peer-reviewed literature. surveys were returned by 17 doctors and 69 midwives (37% response rate, from the 230 surveys sent). Midwives and doctors described a number of techniques they would use to reduce the risk of perineal trauma, for example, hands on the fetal head/perineum (11.8% of doctors, 61% of midwives), the use of warm compresses (45% of midwives) and maternal education and guidance with pushing (49.3% of midwives). When presented with a series of specific obstetric situations, respondents indicated that they would variably practice hands on the perineum during second stage labour, hands off and episiotomy. The majority of respondents indicated that they agreed or strongly agreed that an episiotomy should sometimes be performed (midwives 97%, doctors 100%). All the doctors had training in diagnosing severe perineal trauma involving anal sphincter injury (ASI), with 77% noting that they felt very confident with this. By contrast, 71% of the midwives reported that they had received training in diagnosing ASI and only 16% of these reported that they were very confident in this diagnosis. All doctors were trained in perineal repair, compared with 65% of midwives. Doctors were more likely to indicate that they were very confident in perineal repair (88%) than the midwives (44%). Most respondents were not familiar with the rates of perineal trauma either within their workplace or across Australia. Midwives

  14. MR defecography for obstructed defecation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar B Thapar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS form an important subset of patients with chronic constipation. Evaluation and treatment of these patients has traditionally been difficult. Magnetic resonance defecography (MRD is a very useful tool for the evaluation of these patients. We evaluated the scans and records of 192 consecutive patients who underwent MRD at our center between January 2011 and January 2012. Abnormal descent, rectoceles, rectorectal intussusceptions, enteroceles, and spastic perineum were observed in a large number of these patients, usually in various combinations. We discuss the technique, its advantages and limitations, and the normal findings and various pathologies.

  15. Contribution of afferent feedback and descending drive to human hopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuur, Abraham T.; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    to inhibit the motor cortex and this resulted in a suppression of the early EMG burst. These results suggest that sensory feedback and descending drive from the motor cortex are integrated to drive the motor neuron pool during the early EMG burst in hopping. Thus, simple reflexes work in concert with higher...

  16. DESCENDING PATHWAYS AND THE HOPPING RESPONSE IN THE RABBIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOBBELEN, JF; GRAMSBERGEN, A; VANHOF, MW

    1992-01-01

    Descending pathways were studied in 5 adult rabbits by means of HRP, injected in the cervical spinal cord (in C2 and C3) at the right side. Results indicate the existence of pathways from the contralateral motor cortex, bilateral projections from the red nuclei, from the vestibular nuclei and from s

  17. Outcomes of Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Frederik H. W.; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Lin, Peter H.; Heijmen, Robin H.; Trimarchi, Santi; Lee, W. Anthony; Moll, Frans L.; Athamneh, Husam; Muhs, Bart E.

    2010-01-01

    Background-Thoracic endovascular aortic repair offers a less invasive approach for the treatment of ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (rDTAA). Due to the low incidence of this life-threatening condition, little is known about the outcomes of endovascular repair of rDTAA and the factors t

  18. Outcomes of endovascular repair of ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.W. Jonker; H.J.M. Verhagen (Hence); P.H. Lin (Peter); R.H. Heijmen (Robin); S. Trimarchi (Santi); W.A. Lee (Anthony); F.L. Moll (Frans); H. Athamneh (Husam); B.E. Muhs (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground-: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair offers a less invasive approach for the treatment of ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (rDTAA). Due to the low incidence of this life-threatening condition, little is known about the outcomes of endovascular repair of rDTAA and

  19. Supersymmetric descendants of self-adjointly extended quantum mechanical Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hashimi, M.H., E-mail: hashimi@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Salman, M., E-mail: msalman@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Shalaby, A., E-mail: amshalab@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University (Egypt); Wiese, U.-J., E-mail: wiese@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant. -- Highlights: •Self-adjoint extension theory and contact interactions. •Application of self-adjoint extensions to supersymmetry. •Contact interactions in finite volume with Robin boundary condition.

  20. Spanish language teaching and afro-descendant identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ester Cuba Vega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no question about the role of education in the struggle against racism and for racial equality. However, schools still underachieve in the construction of cultural and social paradigms that allow to break with racial stereotypes and their treatment. What happens in Cuba, a country where there is no institutionalized racism and which promotes equality among all its citizens? What happens in Cuban schools regarding language teaching and race issues? How do afro-descendant teachers of Spanish assume this reality? By answering these questions, the present article is aimed at providing an approximation to the teaching of Spanish as a second language in Cuba from the perspective of afro-descendant teachers. Starting from the concepts of racial and ethnic identity and afro-descendant, the article presents the results of data collected among afro-descendant university teachers of Spanish in Cuba who give their viewpoints on several topics, including the use in their lessons of lear-ning materials which deal with African descent and race issues.

  1. Left Anterior Descending Artery-Pulmonary Artery Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Ege

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that coronary arteriovenous fistulas constitute approximately half (48% of coronary artery anomalies, they are rarely seen anomalies. In this report,we aim to present a coronary arteriovenous fistula case detected during a coronary angiography between left anterior descending artery and pulmonary artery.

  2. WITHDRAWN : Exercise therapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heintjes, Edith M; Berger, Marjolein; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita Ma; Bernsen, Roos Md; Verhaar, Jan An; Koes, Bart W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common problem among adolescents and young adults, characterised by retropatellar pain (behind the kneecap) or peripatellar pain (around the kneecap) when ascending or descending stairs, squatting or sitting with flexed knees. Etiology, structures

  3. WITHDRAWN : Exercise therapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heintjes, Edith M; Berger, Marjolein; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita Ma; Bernsen, Roos Md; Verhaar, Jan An; Koes, Bart W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common problem among adolescents and young adults, characterised by retropatellar pain (behind the kneecap) or peripatellar pain (around the kneecap) when ascending or descending stairs, squatting or sitting with flexed knees. Etiology, structures

  4. Descending thoracic aorta dissection associated with esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of aortic dissection with a malignancy is a rare finding and previous reports are usually those of primary aortic sarcomas. A 45-year-old male presented to us with chest pain and dysphagia for 1 month with a background history of obstructive airway disease and uncontrolled hypertension. In this report we present a case of typical descending aorta dissection with associated esophageal carcinoma.

  5. Spanish language teaching and afro-descendant identity

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Ester Cuba Vega

    2014-01-01

    There is no question about the role of education in the struggle against racism and for racial equality. However, schools still underachieve in the construction of cultural and social paradigms that allow to break with racial stereotypes and their treatment. What happens in Cuba, a country where there is no institutionalized racism and which promotes equality among all its citizens? What happens in Cuban schools regarding language teaching and race issues? How do afro-descendant teachers of S...

  6. Transient Presyncope Secondary to Posterior Descending Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Moffat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 64-year-old male initially presenting with presyncope and bradycardia, without any anginal symptoms or objective evidence of myocardial ischemia. A stress test induced no physical symptoms but revealed a left bundle branch block with multiple preventricular contractions on electrocardiogram. Subsequent catheterization revealed severe obstructive disease throughout the coronary arteries. He was treated percutaneously on two separate heart catheterizations. The presyncope and bradycardia resolved after reperfusion of the posterior descending artery.

  7. Descending control of nociception: Specificity, recruitment and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinricher, M M; Tavares, I; Leith, J L; Lumb, B M

    2009-04-01

    The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is the location of the first synapse in pain pathways, and as such, offers a very powerful target for regulation of nociceptive transmission by both local segmental and supraspinal mechanisms. Descending control of spinal nociception originates from many brain regions and plays a critical role in determining the experience of both acute and chronic pain. The earlier concept of descending control as an "analgesia system" is now being replaced with a more nuanced model in which pain input is prioritized relative to other competing behavioral needs and homeostatic demands. Descending control arises from a number of supraspinal sites, including the midline periaqueductal gray-rostral ventromedial medulla (PAG-RVM) system, and the more lateral and caudal dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt) and ventrolateral medulla (VLM). Inhibitory control from the PAG-RVM system preferentially suppresses nociceptive inputs mediated by C-fibers, preserving sensory-discriminative information conveyed by more rapidly conducting A-fibers. Analysis of the circuitry within the RVM reveals that the neural basis for bidirectional control from the midline system is two populations of neurons, ON-cells and OFF-cells, that are differentially recruited by higher structures important in fear, illness and psychological stress to enhance or inhibit pain. Dynamic shifts in the balance between pain inhibiting and facilitating outflows from the brainstem play a role in setting the gain of nociceptive processing as dictated by behavioral priorities, but are also likely to contribute to pathological pain states.

  8. Compensatory plasticity restores locomotion after chronic removal of descending projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Cynthia M; Reilly, Melissa G; Stewart, Christopher; Schlegel, Chantel; Morley, Emma; Puhl, Joshua G; Nagel, Christian; Crisp, Kevin M; Mesce, Karen A

    2015-06-01

    Homeostatic plasticity is an important attribute of neurons and their networks, enabling functional recovery after perturbation. Furthermore, the directed nature of this plasticity may hold a key to the restoration of locomotion after spinal cord injury. Here we studied the recovery of crawling in the leech Hirudo verbana after descending cephalic fibers were surgically separated from crawl central pattern generators shown previously to be regulated by dopamine. We observed that immediately after nerve cord transection leeches were unable to crawl, but remarkably, after a day to weeks, animals began to show elements of crawling and intersegmental coordination. Over a similar time course, excessive swimming due to the loss of descending inhibition returned to control levels. Additionally, removal of the brain did not prevent crawl recovery, indicating that connectivity of severed descending neurons was not essential. After crawl recovery, a subset of animals received a second transection immediately below the anterior-most ganglion remaining. Similar to their initial transection, a loss of crawling with subsequent recovery was observed. These data, in recovered individuals, support the idea that compensatory plasticity directly below the site of injury is essential for the initiation and coordination of crawling. We maintain that the leech provides a valuable model to understand the neural mechanisms underlying locomotor recovery after injury because of its experimental accessibility, segmental organization, and dependence on higher-order control involved in the initiation, modulation, and coordination of locomotor behavior.

  9. Differential effects of (-)-baclofen on Ia and descending monosynaptic EPSPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P; Enriquez, M

    1991-01-01

    1. In cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose, population synaptic responses of motoneurons produced by stimulation of group I afferents were recorded from ventral roots with a sucrose gap or extracellularly from the motor pool. These responses were depressed, and often abolished, following the intravenous injection of 1-3 mg/kg of (-)-baclofen, a presumed GABAb agonist. 2. The monosynaptic population responses of motoneurons produced by stimulation of the ipsilateral ventromedial funiculus (VMF), the bulbar reticular formation or the vestibular nucleus, were also depressed following the administration of (-)-baclofen, but to a lesser degree than responses produced by stimulation of group I fibers. 3. Depression of the synaptic actions of Ia and of descending fibers following the administration of (-)-baclofen occurred without significant changes in the presynaptic volley recorded from the cord dorsum. However, in 3/4 experiments the intraspinally recorded Ia terminal potential was reduced following the injection of (-)-baclofen. The VMF terminal potentials were also depressed, but to a lesser degree. 4. Intracellular recordings from spinal motoneurons indicate that the (-)-baclofen-induced depression of the monosynaptic Ia- and VMF-EPSPs occurred without important changes in the time course of EPSP decay. This suggests that with the amounts used, postsynaptic changes were not contributing significantly to the EPSP depression. 5. It is suggested that (-)-baclofen depresses synaptic transmission probably by activation of GABAb receptors located at the intraspinal terminations of Ia and descending fibers. The lower sensitivity of VMF actions to (-)-baclofen would be accounted for by a relatively low density of baclofen receptors in descending fiber terminals.

  10. Endovascular Repair of a Ruptured Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrain, Michael; Strickman, Neil E.; Ljubic, Branimir J.; Dougherty, Kathryn G.; Gregoric, Igor D.

    2006-01-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair has considerable potential advantages over the surgical approach as a treatment for thoracic aortic rupture, in part because open surgical repair of ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. We describe the successful endovascular deployment of stent-grafts to repair a contained rupture of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an 86-year-old man whose comorbidities prohibited surgery. Two months after the procedure, magnetic resonance angiography showed a patent stent-graft, a patent left subclavian artery, and complete exclusion of the aneurysm. PMID:16878637

  11. The Impact of the Organism on Its Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, evolutionary biologists have taken the view that an understanding of development is irrelevant to theories of evolution. However, the integration of several disciplines in recent years suggests that this position is wrong. The capacity of the organism to adapt to challenges from the environment can set up conditions that affect the subsequent evolution of its descendants. Moreover, molecular events arising from epigenetic processes can be transmitted from one generation to the next and influence genetic mutation. This in turn can facilitate evolution in the conditions in which epigenetic change was first initiated.

  12. Participation: A Descending Road of the Metaphysical Cognition of Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When we see in the world the fact that there are many beings, and we indicate that the particular beings exist in a compositional way, we face the task of learning about a new problem: how can we define and determine the relations between beings and between the elements within a being? Although the theory of participation has roots that go back to Plato, and so to a philosophy in which the pluralism of being was rejected and which accepted an identity-based conception of being, participation finds its ontological rational justification only (and ultimately in the pluralistic and compositional conception of being. With the description of participation as a “descending road” in the cognition of being, we are restricting ourselves to the presentation of how participation is understood in realistic metaphysics (while we shall leave aside the history of the question. We will show the aspects of participation that provide a foundation for wisdom-oriented cognition, and we will show the specific character of participation-oriented cognition as a “descending road.”

  13. Surgical treatment of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the descending aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Pavle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term “penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer” (PAU of the aorta describes the condition in which ulceration of an aortic atherosclerotic lesion penetrates the internal elastic lamina into media. PAU is a high-risk lesion due to its deleterious effects on the integrity of aortic wall, with potentially fatal outcome. Case report. A patient with intensive, sharp chest pain irradiating to the back but with no signs of myocardial ischemia on an electrocardiogram was referred to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography showed no pathological changes of the ascending aorta. However, multislice computed tomography (CT showed an aortic ulcer with varying degree of the subadventitial hemorrhage in the region of the thoracic aorta at the level of Th 8-9. Due to imminent rupture of the penetrating aortic ulcer, the patient was promptly prepared for surgery. A 15 cm long subadventitial hematoma was found intraoperatively in the right posterolateral aspect of the descending aorta, 5 cm above the diaphragm and 7 cm below the origin of the left subclavial artery. The affected segment of the aorta was resected, followed by an inlay aortic reconstruction with a Dacron tube graft of 24 mm. Control CT revealed satisfactory reconstruction of the descending aorta. Conclusion. PAU is a rare, but potentially fatal disease. Open surgery in patients with PAU is an effective treatment strategy, although endovascular treatment options are emerging.

  14. Intestinal arteriovenous malformation involving the descending colon: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Park, Young Chan; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Kim, Ho Kyun [Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) comprising a feeding artery, nidus, and draining vein rarely develop in the gastrointestinal tract. Although almost all AVMs are asymptomatic, they cause massive painless rectal bleeding and subsequent chronic anemia. The definitive diagnosis of AVM is achieved by selective mesenteric angiography, and surgical resection is the treatment of choice. We detected an intestinal AVM involving the descending colon in a patient with severe hematochezia. The diagnosis was made by CT angiography performed using a 64-channel MDCT and the obtained 3D reconstruction images. The AVM showed an extensive vascular network on CT images, and it was treated by surgical resection. Here, we report this case of an intestinal AVM along with its imaging findings.

  15. Moonwalker Descending Neurons Mediate Visually Evoked Retreat in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rajyashree; Wu, Ming; Branson, Kristin; Robie, Alice; Rubin, Gerald M; Dickson, Barry J

    2017-03-06

    Insects, like most animals, tend to steer away from imminent threats [1-7]. Drosophila melanogaster, for example, generally initiate an escape take-off in response to a looming visual stimulus, mimicking a potential predator [8]. The escape response to a visual threat is, however, flexible [9-12] and can alternatively consist of walking backward away from the perceived threat [11], which may be a more effective response to ambush predators such as nymphal praying mantids [7]. Flexibility in escape behavior may also add an element of unpredictability that makes it difficult for predators to anticipate or learn the prey's likely response [3-6]. Whereas the fly's escape jump has been well studied [8, 9, 13-18], the neuronal underpinnings of evasive walking remain largely unexplored. We previously reported the identification of a cluster of descending neurons-the moonwalker descending neurons (MDNs)-the activity of which is necessary and sufficient to trigger backward walking [19], as well as a population of visual projection neurons-the lobula columnar 16 (LC16) cells-that respond to looming visual stimuli and elicit backward walking and turning [11]. Given the similarity of their activation phenotypes, we hypothesized that LC16 neurons induce backward walking via MDNs and that turning while walking backward might reflect asymmetric activation of the left and right MDNs. Here, we present data from functional imaging, behavioral epistasis, and unilateral activation experiments that support these hypotheses. We conclude that LC16 and MDNs are critical components of the neural circuit that transduces threatening visual stimuli into directional locomotor output.

  16. [Foods native to indigenous and afro-descendents in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Abadía, Ximena; Carolina Pazos, Sonia; Castillo Castillo, Silvana Katerin; Pachón, Helena

    2010-09-01

    For social programs in Colombia, like those administered by the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF), it's important to know what native foods minority groups consume. This research obtained information on native foods consumed by indigenous and afro-descendents living in 10 Colombian departments: Cauca, Nariño, Amazonas, Chocó, Guainia, Vichada, Magdalena, Guajira, Cesar y Vaupés. A questionnaire was applied to key informants (individually or in groups), addressing the following topics: personal information on the informant, name and type of food, if consumed by indigenous and/or afro-Colombians, climate where produced, time of year when harvested, if consumed raw or cooked, preparations, properties ascribed to the food, and current production, use and availability. Key informants included participants in ICBF's programs, indigenous authorities, teachers, traditional healers, and others, under the supervision of professionals from ICBF's mobile unit in each department. Bibliography (n = 123 documents) was compiled and reviewed. In the departments selected, 13 municipalities were visited, 139 individuals were interviewed and at least 92 new foods (i.e., not currently included in the Colombian Food Composition Table) were identified. Among the 92, the scientific name was obtained for 62 foods. Of these, 2 were classified as other, 18 as meats, 3 as insects, and 39 as plants. Among the plants, informants mentioned fruit (n=29), leaves (n=4), seed (n=3) and roots (n=3). Indigenous and afro-descendent communities in Colombia report consuming dozens of foods that are not currently in the Colombian Food Composition Table.

  17. 无保护会阴接生法与会阴侧切接生法临床效果比较%Comparison of the Effects of Unprotected Perineum Delivery Technique and Episiotomy Delivery Technique on the Clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏冰

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较传统的会阴侧切接生方法与无保护会阴接生法对分娩结局、会阴伤口的影响。方法传统的会阴侧切组81例产妇用右手托肛会阴保护接生方法,无保护会阴接生组184例产妇不用手扶持会阴的新接生方法。对比两组第二产程时间、新生儿情况、产后出血、会阴伤口疼痛肿胀程度、会阴伤口愈合情况。结果两组孕妇年龄、孕周、新生儿体重比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);两组产妇在第二产程时间、Apgar 评分、产后出血量的比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);两组产妇会阴疼痛肿胀程度比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);无保护会阴组产妇伤口愈合分期明显高于会阴侧切组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论改良后的接生方法可降低会阴伤口疼痛肿胀程度,提高会阴伤口愈合分期,不增加第二产程时间及新生儿窒息。该方法操作简单、安全、有效,有益于保护孕产妇安全,减少会阴体损伤,值得临床推广使用。%Objective To compare the effect of unprotected perineum delivery technique and episiotomy delivery tech-nique on outcomes of delivery and the perineal wound. Methods A prospective follow-up study of 265 women with spontaneous vaginal delivery in thehospital from January to November 2013. These women were randomized into the unprotected perineum deliv-ery group(184)and the control group(81),that is routine episiotomy delivery technique group. The time of second stage of labor, newborns conditions,the blood loss,perineal pain and woundhealing stage in the two groups were compared. Results No signifi-cant difference among the pariae’s age,newborn weight,the second stage time,the scores of APCAR and the postpartum blood loss was found between groups. Women who delivered with unprotected perineum delivery techniquehad significantly lower perineal pain scores compared to women whohad an episiotomy technique

  18. Effect of shoe type on descending a curb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Juff; Heller, Michelle; Kuzel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of shoe type on the performance of women during curb descent. Performance during curb stepping may be explained by biomechanical research that has evaluated the kinematics of overground walking and stair ascent and descent. Studies have reported that women exhibit performance differences when wearing high heels, flip flops and sneakers during overground walking and stair ascent and descent. Thus, in addition to features of the curb, the type of shoe being worn may also affect performance. Although several studies have investigated curb stepping, no known studies have investigated the effects of different types of footwear on curb descent performance. This research was conducted in a real-world environment where participants wore three different types of shoes and performed a series of activities that involved curb stepping. The subjects were videotaped while descending a curb, allowing for observation of changes in gait parameters. Results of this study indicate that wearing high heels leads to performance differences as compared to wearing flip flops or sneakers.

  19. Descending lithosphere slab beneath the Northwest Dinarides from teleseismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šumanovac, Franjo; Dudjak, Darko

    2016-12-01

    The area of study covers the marginal zone between the Adriatic microplate (African plate) and the Pannonian segment (Eurasian plate). We present a tomography model for this area, with special emphasis on the northwest Dinarides. A dense distribution of temporary seismic stations in the area of the Northern Dinarides along with permanent seismic stations located in the area, allowed us to construct this P-wave tomographic model. We assembled our travel-time dataset based on 26 seismic stations were used to collect the dataset. Teleseismic events were recorded for a period of 18 months and a set of 76 distant earthquakes were used to calculate the P-wave travel-time residuals. We calculated relative rather than absolute arrival-time residuals in the inversion to obtain depths of 0-400 km. We imaged a pronounced fast velocity anomaly below the NW Dinarides which directly indicates a lithosphere slab downgoing beneath the Dinarides. This fast anomaly extends towards the NW direction to at least 250 km depth, and we interpreted it as a descending lithosphere slab. The thrusting of the Adriatic microplate may be brought about by sub-lithosphere rising movement beneath the Pannonian region, along with a push from African plate. In our interpretation, the Adriatic lower lithosphere has been detached from the crust, and steeply sinks beneath the Dinarides. A lithosphere model of the contact between the Adriatic microplate and Pannonian tectonic segment was constructed based on the tomographic velocity model and results of previous crustal studies.

  20. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  1. The nursing measures of unprotected perineum delivery with maternal decubitus delivery%产妇侧卧位分娩配合无保护会阴接生的护理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨惠芬; 钟秀珍; 黄丽燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨产妇侧卧位分娩配合无保护会阴接生法的临床护理情况。方法:选取分娩的300例产妇随机分成观察组150例(侧卧位分娩配合无保护会阴接生)和对照组150例(传统助产方式助产),对比两组的分娩结局与护理情况。结果:两组产妇在会阴结局、产后42 d Oxford盆底肌力测定结果、并发生等方面相比,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:产妇侧卧位分娩配合无保护会阴接生术,能够大大改善产妇分娩,提高产妇分娩预后,降低各种不良损伤发生率,且有利于减轻助产士的工作压力,降低其职业病发生率。%Objective To investigate the maternal side position together with the unprotected perineum midwives method of clinical nursing.Method 300 cases were randomly divided into observation group 150 cases (lateral position delivery with no pro-tection of perineum midwives)and control group 150 cases (traditional way midwifery midwifery),the birth outcomes and nursing of two groups were compared.Results Two groups of women in the perineal outcomes,postpartum 42 days Oxford pelvic floor muscle testing results,and had significant differenceby comparison (P<0.05 ).Conclusion Maternal side lies with unprotected perineum during surgery,childbirth can greatly improve the puerpera childbirth,improve the prognosis of maternity,reduce the incidence of the adverse damage,and is beneficial to reduce the work pressure midwives,reduce the incidence of occupational diseases.

  2. Effects of unprotected perineum midwifery method on the neonatal clavicular fracture%无保护会阴助产法对新生儿锁骨骨折的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂友; 陈彩儿; 黎少萍; 原绮霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨无保护会阴助产法对新生儿锁骨骨折的影响。方法选取2010年5月-2013年6月在妇产科自然分娩的产妇700例,随机分为对照组和观察组各350例。对照组采用常规的助产法,观察组采用无保护会阴助产法,观察2组新生儿锁骨骨折发生率。结果观察组产妇会阴侧切率明显低于对照组,2组软产道损伤、产后出血及会阴预后情况比较,差异无统计学意义。观察组新生儿锁骨骨折比例(1.43%)低于对照组(4.29%)。观察组产妇对助产的满意程度明显高于对照组。结论无保护会阴助产法可降低新生儿锁骨骨折发生率,符合自然分娩的规律。%Objective To explore the influence of unprotected perineum midwifery method for neonatal clavicular fracture .Methods Seven hundred pregnant women with natural labor in obstet-rics-gynecology of our hospital from May 2010 to June 2013 were randomly divided into control group (n= 350)and observation group(n= 350) .The control group was given conventional midwifery method ,the observation group was given unprotected perineum midwifery method . The rate of neonatal clavicular fracture in 2 groups were observed .Results Episiotomy rate in the observation group was higher than that in the control group .There was no significant difference of birth canal injuries , postpartum hemorrhage , prognosis between 2 groups . Clavicle fracture rate in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (1.43% vs 4 .29% ) ,and the satisfaction degree was significanfly higher than that in the control group . Conclusion The method of unprotected perineum midwifery can reduce the incidence of neonatal clavicular fracture ,it′s worthy of clinical promotion .

  3. Genetic variation and differentiation in parent-descendant cattle and bison populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation and differentiation at 32 microsatellite DNA loci is quantified for parent-descendant cattle populations and parent-descendant bison (Bison bison) populations. Heterozygosity (Ho) and numbers of alleles/locus (AR) are less in the Line 1 Hereford inbred cattle population than in t...

  4. Descending colon interposition in a patient presenting with abdominal pain and acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiref SD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Interposition of the descending colon between the kidney and the psoas major muscle is a rare hindgut anatomic variant. Presented herein is a case of descending colon interposition in a patient admitted with abdominal pain and acute appendicitis. Internal hernia was ruled out by laparoscopy.

  5. Intima-media thickness of the descending aorta in patients with bicuspid aortic valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Petrini

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Intima-media thickness of the descending aorta is not affected by aortic valve morphology (BAV/TAV; age is the main determinant of AoIMT. Genetic markers (SNPs known to influence IMT in the carotid artery seem to correlate to IMT in the descending aorta only in patients with TAV.

  6. Restless Bladder in an Elderly Woman: An Unusual Feature or a Variant of Restless Legs Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Matsubara, Takeo; Hirata, Koichi

    We herein report an elderly patient with a history of restless legs syndrome (RLS) who developed unpleasant sensations in the lower abdomen and perineum. The patient' s symptoms occurred during the evening and at rest and forced the patient to void, resulting in some symptom relief. Urological examinations and spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings were unremarkable. The adjunctive use of rotigotine resolved her symptoms. The symptoms were considered to be "restless bladder". Further studies are required to elucidate whether restless bladder is an identical condition to the clinical entities of other RLS variants or whether it represents an unusual feature of RLS.

  7. Socially responsible genetic research with descendants of the First Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Holst Pellekaan Sheila M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal Australians, one of the world’s indigenous peoples now outnumbered through colonization, are the most under-represented in genetic research because they feel that the benefits do not outweigh the social cost of involvement. Descendants of the First Australians have survived a period of European occupation during which time they were dispossessed of land, language and cultural identity resulting in inequities in health, education, and employment opportunities. Compared to Maori and Native American peoples, the ability to form organizations that help to control their affairs is very recent. The desire to control is understandably strong yet the ‘gate-keeping’ role of some organizations risks shifting the control away from smaller communities and has become increasingly politicized. In the past, research practices by Western scientists were poorly presented and have resulted in resistance to proposals that are perceived to have no beneficial outcomes for participants. In this age of advanced technological expertise in genetics, benefits to all humanity are clear to those carrying out research projects, yet not always to those being asked to participate, presenting extra challenges. Excellent guidelines for ethical conduct in research are available to assist researchers, prospective participants, and ethics committees or review boards that approve and monitor procedures. The essence of these guidelines are that research should be carried out with a spirit of integrity, respect, reciprocity, parity, recognition of survival and protection of social and cultural values, a need for control and shared responsibility. Specific Aboriginal organizations, with which researchers need to work to negotiate partnerships, vary within and between Australian states and will always expect Aboriginal personnel to be involved. People experienced in the consultation process are necessary as part of a team. By working patiently through lengthy

  8. Prevalence of common hemoglobin variants in an afro-descendent Ecuadorian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Yamila; Zurita, Camilo; Calvopiña, Diego; Villacís, Jacqueline; Mora, Marcelo

    2013-04-04

    Hemoglobinopathies are among the most studied and frequent pathologies. These genetic disorders are considered a very important health care threat in many tropical countries. Ecuador is a tropical Latin-American country with an important presence of afro-descendants (7.2%). Afro-descendants are among the ethnic groups with higher frequency of hemoglobinopathies reported. Ambuqui is a region within the Imbabura province with an important presence of afro-descendants (>50%). The present study analyzed the frequency of the most common hemoglobin variants in an asymptomatic afro-descendent population using capillary electrophoresis. From 114 individuals, 25 (22%) reported a hemoglobin variant. All individuals that presented hemoglobin variants were heterozygotes (asymptomatic). Hemoglobin S (sickle cell trait) was the most frequent variant found (14%), followed by hemoglobin E (4.4%), Fetal (2.6%) and C (1%). Prevalence of hemoglobin S was consistent with populations from other countries, but it was lower than other Ecuadorian afro-descendent populations. Frequency of hemoglobin C was lower than other afro-descendent populations. This data suggests the possibility of gene flow from Native American individuals to the Ambuqui population there by lowering the frequency of their hemoglobin variants compared with other afro-descendant populations. Evaluating the frequency of hemoglobinopathies in Ecuadorian populations is essential. Despite the high frequency of these disorders, very few health care facilities implement hemoglobinopathies tests as a routine practice.

  9. Saccular aneurysm formation of the descending aorta associated with aortic coarctation in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyuksel, Arda; Canturk, Emir; Dindar, Aygun; Akcevin, Atif

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysm of the descending aorta associated with CoA is an extremely rare congenital abnormality. In this report, we present a 16 months old female patient in whom cardiac catheterization had been performed which had revealed a segment of coarctation and saccular aneurysm in the descending aorta. The patient was operated and a 3x2 centimeters aneurysm which embraces the coarcted segment in descending aorta was resected. In summary, we present a case of saccular aortic aneurysm distal to aortic coarctation in an infant without any history of intervention or vascular inflammatory disease. Our case report seems to be the youngest patient in literature with this pathology.

  10. The social construction of Afro-descendant rights in\\ud Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ojulari, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Afro-descendant people make up around 30 per cent of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean, some 150 million people (IACHR 2011). In a context of mestizaje and the myth of racial democracy, Afro-descendant rights were not institutionalised in many Latin American states until the end of the 20th century. This reflected an invisibility at the international level where a specific normative framework on Afro-descendant rights did not begin to emerge until the beginning of the 21st cen...

  11. On the third level descendent fields in the Bullough-Dodd model and its reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Baseilhac, P

    2003-01-01

    Exact vacuum expectation values of the third level descendent fields $$ in the Bullough-Dodd model are proposed. By performing quantum group restrictions, we obtain $$ in perturbed minimal conformal field theories.

  12. Mixed Marriages Among Immigrants and Their Descendants in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Kulu, Hill; Hannemann, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates formation of endogamous and exogamous marriages among immigrants and their descendants in the UK. While there is a growing literature on various aspects of ethnic minorities’ lives in Britain, their marriage patterns have been little studied and understood. Applying event-history analysis to retrospective data from the Understanding Society study the analysis shows, first, significant differences among immigrants and their descendants in the likelihood of marrying with...

  13. Permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice: a model of post-myocardial infarction remodelling and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Lox, Marleen; Jacobs, Frank; De Geest, Bart

    2014-12-02

    Heart failure is a syndrome in which the heart fails to pump blood at a rate commensurate with cellular oxygen requirements at rest or during stress. It is characterized by fluid retention, shortness of breath, and fatigue, in particular on exertion. Heart failure is a growing public health problem, the leading cause of hospitalization, and a major cause of mortality. Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of heart failure. Ventricular remodelling refers to changes in structure, size, and shape of the left ventricle. This architectural remodelling of the left ventricle is induced by injury (e.g., myocardial infarction), by pressure overload (e.g., systemic arterial hypertension or aortic stenosis), or by volume overload. Since ventricular remodelling affects wall stress, it has a profound impact on cardiac function and on the development of heart failure. A model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice is used to investigate ventricular remodelling and cardiac function post-myocardial infarction. This model is fundamentally different in terms of objectives and pathophysiological relevance compared to the model of transient ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In this latter model of ischemia/reperfusion injury, the initial extent of the infarct may be modulated by factors that affect myocardial salvage following reperfusion. In contrast, the infarct area at 24 hr after permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery is fixed. Cardiac function in this model will be affected by 1) the process of infarct expansion, infarct healing, and scar formation; and 2) the concomitant development of left ventricular dilatation, cardiac hypertrophy, and ventricular remodelling. Besides the model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the technique of invasive hemodynamic measurements in mice is presented in detail.

  14. Particle descending velocity near the wall of a rolling circulating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Takei, Masahiro; Murata, Hiroyuki; Liu, Kai

    2014-04-01

    As part of the study to develop compact and efficient marine exhaust gas treatment system with circulating fluidized bed (CFB), effects of the swing motion of a ship on gas-solid flow in the CFB was investigated. The heat transfer efficiency of the CFB is closely related with the particle flow near the wall of riser. As a trial to evaluate the particle flow near the wall of riser quantitatively, descending velocity of particles at upright and swing condition was measured by a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Particle motion near the wall of riser was recorded through an observation window by a high speed camera. The recorded images were processed to evaluate the local descending velocity of particles under different swing amplitude and period. As results, the swing motion affects the down-flow of particles, namely, descending particle flow along the wall of riser. The time-averaged descending velocity near the wall of riser is remarkably decreased by the motion. Effect of the swing period on the particle descending velocity is really small. But as the swing amplitude increases, the descending velocity of particle decreased significantly.

  15. 无保护会阴接生法对初产妇会阴侧切率和产后疼痛的影响%Effects of Unprotected Perineum Delivery Technique on Episiotomy Rate and Postpartum Pain in Primiparas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴梅秀; 杨生兰; 张慧萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨无保护会阴接生技术对初产妇会阴侧切率和产后疼痛的影响。方法将500例初产妇按入院时间的不同分为2组,每组250例。2013年3-11月入院产妇为观察组,2012年7月至2013年2月入院的产妇为对照组。对照组产妇采用传统接生技术分娩;观察组产妇采用会阴无保护接生技术分娩。观察比较2组产妇会阴切开率,术后<48 h 会阴水肿、裂伤程度及疼痛等情况。结果对照组会阴侧切率为66.0%,观察组会阴侧切率为30.4%,对照组明显高于观察组(P<0.05)。2组均未出现会阴Ⅲ度裂伤。2组产妇产后<48 h 会阴水肿程度比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),会阴疼痛级别分布上观察组(0级45例、Ⅰ级113例)明显优于对照组(0级20例、Ⅰ级96例)(P<0.05)。结论无保护会阴接生可降低产妇会阴侧切率,同时也减轻产妇对分娩的恐惧,提高分娩舒适感,促进产妇产后的身心康复。%Objective To investigate the effects of unprotected perineum delivery technique on episiotomy rate and postpartum pain in primiparas. Methods Five hundred primiparas were divided into two groups according to admission time, with 250 primiparas in each group. Primiparas in observation group(from March 2013 to November 2013)and control group(from July 2012 to February 2013)received traditional delivery technique and unprotected perineum delivery technique, respectively. Episiotomy rate, perineal edema within 48 hours after operation, laceration degree and perineal pain were compared between the two groups. Results The episiotomy rate in control group was significantly higher than that in observation group (66.0% vs 30.4%,P0.05). The grade 0 and Ⅰ perineal pain, respectively, occurred in 45 and 113 primiparas in observation group, and in 20 and 96 primiparas in control group. There were significant differences in the incidence of grade 0 and Ⅰ perineal pain

  16. 经会阴二维超声动态观察和评估未育女性盆底%Dynamic observation and evaluation on pelvic floor in nulliparous women with trans-perineum two-dimensional ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵春娟; 应涛; 朱兆领; 胡兵

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用经会阴二维超声动态观察并评估未育女性盆底器官的形态、位置及运动,探索一种可有效观察盆底器官的影像学方法.方法 对50例未育女性行经会阴二维超声检查,分别在静息期、缩肛期和张力期动态观察盆底器官的形态、位置及运动,并获取位置的测量参数.结果 经会阴二维超声可清晰显示未育女性盆底器官的形态和位置.盆底器官静息期位于参照线头侧,缩肛期向头腹侧移动,张力期向足背侧移动,但始终位于参照线头侧;盆底器官有一定的向正常方向的移动度.结论 经会阴二维超声能清晰地显示女性盆底器官的形态、位置及运动,是一种有效的影像学方法.%Objective To dynamically observe and evaluate the shape , position and movement of pelvic floor organs in  nulliparous women with trans-perineum two-dimensional ultrasound, and to seek for effective imaging method for pelvic  floor. Methods Trans-perineal two-dimensional ultrasound was performed on 50 nulliparous women to observe the shape , position and movement of pelvic floor organs during quiet period , anus-contracting period and tension period . Linear parameters of location were measured . Results The shape and position of pelvic floor organs of nulliparous women were clearly  displayed . Pelvic floor organs located at the head side of the reference line in quiet period , but moved to the cephalic and  ventral direction during anus-contracting period while to the caudal and dorsal direction during tension period . Pelvic floor  organs could move appropriately towards the right direction . Conclusion The trans-perineum two-dimensional ultrasound  can clearly display and estimate the shape , location and movement of nulliparous women's pelvic floor organs . It is an effective imaging pattern to observe pelvic floor .

  17. Effect of delivery without perineum protection on the maternal and neonatal outcomes%无保护会阴分娩法对母婴结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉梅; 盛文伟; 朱卫国; 高健; 吕述彦; 王凤琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of delivery without perineum protection on maternal and neonatal outcomes .Methods The current study was conducted between July 1st, 2012 and February 1st, 2013. A total of 701 maternal women were included in the study , and 208 maternal women went on unprotected perineum delivery method and 493 went into routine episiotomy .Maternal and neonatal outcomes at the first day , the first week and the third month after delivery were compared and analyzed between the two groups .Results The aspects of intrapartum hemorrhage , suture material within delivery and the average hospitalization days in unprotected perineum group were significantly lower than those in the routine episiotomy group ( t= -14.58,-97.07,-21.88, respectively;P0.05) and the second stage of birth (t=1.55,P>0.05), neonatal birth weight (t =0.91,P >0.05), Apgar scores (χ2 =0.10,P>0.05) and NICU admission (χ2 =0.60,P>0.05).Conclusions The unprotected perineum delivery could decrease short-term and long-term complications , and it can be a new idea of restrictive episiotomy.%目的:探讨无保护会阴分娩法对母婴结局的影响。方法对2012年7月1日-2013年2月1日分娩的有完整随访资料的701位产妇进行回顾性分析,其中无保护会阴法208人,常规会阴切开分娩法493人,分别对产时、产后第1天、第1周和3个月的母婴结局进行对比分析。结果无保护会阴组产时出血量、缝合材料用量、平均住院时间均少于常规会阴切开组,差异均有统计学意义( t=-14.58,-97.07,-21.88;P <0.01)。会阴切开率无保护会阴组为24.04%(50/208),常规会阴切开组为61.26%(302/493),差异有统计学意义(χ2=81.06,P<0.01);会阴状态无保护会阴组完整、仅切开、仅裂伤、切开+裂伤例数分别为65,44,93,6人,常规会阴切开组分别为78,269,113,33人,差异有统计学意义(χ2=81.09

  18. Union formation and dissolution among immigrants and their descendants in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hannemann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing literature on the dynamics of immigrant fertility and mixed marriages, but partnership transitions among immigrants and ethnic minorities are little studied. Objective: This study investigates union formation and dissolution among immigrants and their descendants in the UK. Methods: We use data from the Understanding Society study and apply the techniques of event history analysis. We contrast partnership trajectories of various immigrant groups and compare these with those of the 'native' British population. Results: The analysis shows significant differences in partnership formation and dissolution among immigrants and ethnic minorities. Women of Caribbean origin have the highest cohabitation and the lowest marriage rates, whereas cohabitation remains rare among immigrants from South Asia and their descendants, as most of them marry directly. Immigrants from the Caribbean region and their descendants also show higher divorce rates than 'native' British women, whereas women of South Asian origin have a low divorce risk.

  19. ADJUSTMENT ERRORS IN ASCENDING AND DESCENDING PHASES OF TARGET LEVEL IN CONTROLLED FORCE EXERTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Demura, Shinichi

    2015-10-01

    Hand grip force adjustment errors to ascending and descending phases of a sinusoidal target force in a controlled force exertion (CFE) test were measured and the laterality of responses evaluated. 75 men (M age = 19.6 yr., SD = 1.6) performed the CFE test after one practice trial by matching handgrip force to target level (5-25% of maximal grip force). The CFE errors in ascending and descending phases of the target force were calculated as the absolute differences between actual force and target force in each phase. There were significantly smaller CFE errors in the ascending phase for both dominant and non-dominant hands, but CFE error for the dominant hand was significantly smaller in both phases. Therefore, error in force exertion in the ascending and descending phases of the target force differed, and laterality influenced error in both phases.

  20. Seawifs Technical Report Series. Volume 2: Analysis of Orbit Selection for Seawifs: Ascending Versus Descending Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Gregg, Watson W.

    1992-01-01

    Due to range safety considerations, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color instrument may be required to be launched into a near-noon descending node, as opposed to the ascending node used by the predecessor sensor, the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The relative importance of ascending versus descending near-noon orbits was assessed here to determine if descending node will meet the scientific requirements of SeaWiFS. Analyses focused on ground coverage, local times of coverage, solar and viewing geometries (zenith and azimuth angles), and sun glint. Differences were found in the areas covered by individual orbits, but were not important when taken over a 16 day repeat time. Local time of coverage was also different: for ascending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the morning and the Southern Hemisphere in the afternoon, while for descending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the afternoon and the Southern in the morning. There were substantial differences in solar azimuth and spacecraft azimuth angles both at equinox and at the Northern Hemisphere summer solstice. Negligible differences in solar and spacecraft zenith angles, relative azimuth angles, and sun glint were obtained at the equinox. However, large differences were found in solar zenith angles, relative azimuths, and sun glint for the solstice. These differences appeared to compensate across the scan, however, an increase in sun glint in descending node over that in ascending node on the western part of the scan was compensated by a decrease on the eastern part of the scan. Thus, no advantage or disadvantage could be conferred upon either ascending node or descending node for noon orbits. Analyses were also performed for ascending and descending node orbits that deviated from a noon equator crossing time. For ascending node, afternoon orbits produced the lowest mean solar zenith angles in the Northern Hemisphere, and morning orbits produced

  1. Fracture of the femoral shaft in children: advantages of the descending medullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelat, D

    1996-01-01

    In a 7-year period, 70 children aged 5-15 years (mean 9.2 years) were treated for a fracture of the femoral shaft (73 fractures: 71 closed and 2 open) by flexible medullary nailing, either ascending (12 cases) or descending (61 cases). Although the classic treatment is use of the ascending route described by the Nancy team, the subtrochanteric descending route was preferred for its simplicity. Noninvolvement of the knee by the insertion of the nail allows earlier autonomy in children. Results were satisfactory and no complications related to the method were observed. Biomechanical principles are also respected by such treatment.

  2. ETHNIC IDENTITY: FEATURES SELF-DETERMINATION OF DESCENDANTS OF MIXED MARRIAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problems of ethnic self-identity among descendants of mixed marrieages. The purpose of this research was to identify unique features of respondents experience in their choice of ethnicity. The article provides data of the case-study research that was gathered through interview process which methodologicaly bases on the theory of constructivism. Research displays how ethnic identity of the descendants of mixed marrieges is influenced by society and community. Through this work author tries to show social aspect of how ethnic identity is getting formed. Conclusions of this scientific work could be used in further research of formation of ethnic identity.

  3. Scheie syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hurler syndrome) MPS II (Hunter syndrome) MPS IV (Morquio syndrome) MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome) Causes Scheie syndrome ... Autosomal recessive Cloudy cornea Hearing loss Hurler syndrome Morquio syndrome Review Date 4/20/2015 Updated by: ...

  4. Giant aneurysm of the left anterior descending coronary artery in a pediatric patient with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amanda L; Rouster-Stevens, Kelly; Williams, Derek A; Hines, Michael H

    2010-07-01

    Behcet's disease is a rare autoimmune vasculitis characterized by oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, and ocular and cutaneous lesions. Vascular involvement usually affects the veins more commonly than the arteries, and coronary arterial involvement is extremely rare. We report an adolescent with Behcet's disease who developed a large pseudoaneurysm of the left anterior descending coronary artery requiring a coronary arterial bypass graft.

  5. Descending inhibitory pain modulation is impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olesen, S.S.; Brock, C.; Krarup, A.L.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pain is a prominent symptom in chronic pancreatitis (CP), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We investigated the role of descending pain modulation from supraspinal structures as well as central nervous system sensitization in patients with pain from CP. ME

  6. Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta predicts cardiovascular events: a transesophageal echocardiography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havasi Kálmán

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Previous studies have shown that atherosclerosis of the descending aorta detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is a good marker of coexisting coronary artery disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the presence of atherosclerosis on the descending aorta during TEE has any prognostic impact in predicting cardiovascular events. Material and Methods The study group consisted of 238 consecutive in-hospital patients referred for TEE testing (135 males, 103 females, mean age 58 +/- 11 years with a follow up of 24 months. The atherosclerotic lesions of the descending aorta were scored from 0 (no atherosclerosis to 3 (plaque >5 mm and/or "complex" plaque with ulcerated or mobile parts. Results Atherosclerosis was observed in 102 patients, (grade 3 in 16, and grade 2 in 86 patients whereas 136 patients only had an intimal thickening or normal intimal surface. There were 57 cardiovascular events in the follow-up period. The number of events was higher in the 102 patients with (n = 34 than in the 136 patients without atherosclerosis (n = 23, p =2 (HR 2.4, CI 1.0–5.5 predicted hard cardiovascular events. Conclusion Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta observed during transesophageal echocardiography is a useful predictor of cardiovascular events.

  7. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system. Limbic and non-limbic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Holstege (Gert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractFor a thorough understanding of the descending pathways of the motor system originating in the forebrain, knowledge about the anatomy and function of the structures in the more caudally located parts of the central nervous system is indispensable. In this paper an overview will be

  8. Dissecting aneurysm of arch and descending thoracic aorta presenting as a left sided hemorrhagic pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of massive hemorrhagic effusion is malignancy. Herein we present a case of dissecting aneurysm of descending thoracic aorta presenting initially with shortness of breath due to left sided massive pleural effusion. Effusion was hemorrhagic in nature with high hematocrit value. CT scan of thorax with CT angiogram was done and that revealed the diagnosis.

  9. Anatomical characterization of subcortical descending projections to the inferior colliculus in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mili B; Sons, Stacy; Yudintsev, Georgiy; Lesicko, Alexandria M H; Yang, Luye; Taha, Gehad A; Pierce, Scott M; Llano, Daniel A

    2017-03-01

    Descending projections from the thalamus and related structures to the midbrain are evolutionarily highly conserved. However, the basic organization of this auditory thalamotectal pathway has not yet been characterized. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the anatomical and neurochemical features of this pathway. Analysis of the distributions of retrogradely labeled cells after focal injections of retrograde tracer into the inferior colliculus (IC) of the mouse revealed that most of the subcortical descending projections originated in the brachium of the IC and the paralaminar portions of the auditory thalamus. In addition, the vast majority of thalamotectal cells were found to be negative for the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, parvalbumin, or calretinin. Using two different strains of GAD-GFP mice, as well as immunostaining for GABA, we found that a subset of neurons in the brachium of the IC is GABAergic, suggesting that part of this descending pathway is inhibitory. Finally, dual retrograde injections into the IC and amygdala plus corpus striatum as well into the IC and auditory cortex did not reveal any double labeling. These data suggest that the thalamocollicular pathway comprises a unique population of thalamic neurons that do not contain typical calcium-binding proteins and do not project to other paralaminar thalamic forebrain targets, and that a previously undescribed descending GABAergic pathway emanates from the brachium of the IC. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:885-900, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cartographies of the Political Camp of Afro-Descendents in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Lao-Montes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article lays out, in general terms, what it calls the political camp of Afro-descendents in Latin America. After establishing a series of theoretical and methodological criteria for the historical analysis of black movements in modernity and the Afro-American movements in particular, the article focuses on the emergence of afro-descendant movements in Latin America during the last part of the 1980s. One of the principal arguments is that in the 1990s a political camp of afro-descendents starts to emerge in the region of Latin America based on a series of developments, including the emergence of new social movements that included ethno-racial movements of Afros and indigenous people, events of regional importance like the contra-celebration of 1492 in 1992, the World Conference against Racism 2001 in Durban, South Africa, and the effects of the neoliberal pattern of globalization. The political camp of Afro-descendents is composed not only of social movements, but also of state actors and transnational actors (such as the World Bank and the Ford Foundation. The article concludes with an analysis of the challenges and perspectives of Afro-American politics in general and of Afro-Latin movements in particular considering the current crisis of the modern/colonial world-system.

  11. the priests and the descendants of levi in the book of malachi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both priests and Levites and that the author of the book of Malachi was an inspired ... covenant,2 and the passage relates that he will “purify the descendants. 1 I would like to express my ...... Prayer and Poetry in the Dead Sea Scrolls and. Related ... 1998. Malachi. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. New.

  12. Descending brain neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (de Geer): auditory responses and impact on walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorović, Maja; Hedwig, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    The activity of four types of sound-sensitive descending brain neurons in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was recorded intracellularly while animals were standing or walking on an open-loop trackball system. In a neuron with a contralaterally descending axon, the male calling song elicited responses that copied the pulse pattern of the song during standing and walking. The accuracy of pulse copying increased during walking. Neurons with ipsilaterally descending axons responded weakly to sound only during standing. The responses were mainly to the first pulse of each chirp, whereas the complete pulse pattern of a chirp was not copied. During walking the auditory responses were suppressed in these neurons. The spiking activity of all four neuron types was significantly correlated to forward walking velocity, indicating their relevance for walking. Additionally, injection of depolarizing current elicited walking and/or steering in three of four neuron types described. In none of the neurons was the spiking activity both sufficient and necessary to elicit and maintain walking behaviour. Some neurons showed arborisations in the lateral accessory lobes, pointing to the relevance of this brain region for cricket audition and descending motor control.

  13. An anatomic and clinical study of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong; Wang, Hai-Wen; Xu, Da-Chuan; Wang, Hong-Gang; Wu, Wei-Zhi; Zhang, Hui-Ru

    2011-01-01

    The composite tissue flap of the descending genicular vessels with the adductor magnus tendon is a newly developed, reliable method to repair the Achilles tendon and relevant skin defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomy of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap, and the feasibility and value for the repair of the Achilles tendon and relevant skin defects. There were 34 adult specimens used for the anatomy of this flap. The descending genicular artery originates 10.5 ± 1.6 cm above the adductor tubercle, with a diameter of 1.8 ± 0.6 mm and a length of 1.2 ± 0.5 cm. Its articular branch is distributed in the adductor magnus tendon and the medial condyle of the femur. The saphenous branch has a diameter of 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and is distributed in the skin of the upper medial calf. A total of 16 cases of trauma-induced Achilles tendon damage and calcaneus and skin defects were repaired with the vascularized adductor magnus tendon bone flap, including the reconstruction of Achilles tendon insertion and repair of relevant skin defects. All of the composite tissue flaps were viable, the skin sensation of the flaps was recovered, and all patients walked with a normal gait. Our results suggested that the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap is an alternative method to repair composite tissue defects of the Achilles tendon.

  14. Is there Equity in Use of Healthcare Services among immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    be explained by health status, socioeconomic factors, and integration. Methods: We conducted a nationwide survey in 2007 with 4,952 individuals aged 18–66 comprising ethnic Danes; immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Somalia, Turkey; and Turkish and Pakistani descendents. Data...

  15. Is there equity in use of healthcare services among immigrants, their descendents, and ethnic Danes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe S; Hempler, Nana F; Waldorff, Frans B

    2012-01-01

    be explained by health status, socioeconomic factors, and integration. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey in 2007 with 4952 individuals aged 18-66 comprising ethnic Danes; immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Somalia, Turkey; and Turkish and Pakistani descendents. Data...

  16. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system. Limbic and non-limbic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Holstege (Gert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractFor a thorough understanding of the descending pathways of the motor system originating in the forebrain, knowledge about the anatomy and function of the structures in the more caudally located parts of the central nervous system is indispensable. In this paper an overview will be presen

  17. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system. Limbic and non-limbic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.

    1991-01-01

    For a thorough understanding of the descending pathways of the motor system originating in the forebrain, knowledge about the anatomy and function of the structures in the more caudally located parts of the central nervous system is indispensable. In this paper an overview will be presented of these

  18. [Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the descendants of patients after early myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateřánková, Markéta; Karnosová, Petra; Mlíková Seidlerová, Jitka; Filipovský, Jan; Mayer, Otto

    2017-01-01

    The cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) developing as the result of atherosclerosis are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality within the Czech Republic and elsewhere. Genetic predisposition for cardiovascular diseases is amplified in the presence of routine risk factors which can be influenced. Our aim was to establish whether the level of the risk factors for ICHS already differs in the population of healthy descendants of the patients after early myocardial infarction, as opposed to the control group of examined individuals. We approached adult children (n = 127; age 28.7 ± 6.5 years) of the patients with early manifestation of ICHS, who were examined within the study EUROASPIRE IV. The examination of both the descendants and the control group (n = 199; age 28.9 ± 5.3 years) focused on identifying the risk factors for ICHS. Descendants presented arterial hypertension more often (18.9 vs 8.0 %, p = 0.003) and there were more smokers among them compared to the control group (37 vs 24.1 %, p = 0.01). The levels of triglycerides (1.13 vs 0.99 mmol/l, p = 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (2.7 vs 2.45 mmol/l, p = 0.01) were higher in the descendant group, HDL-cholesterol was similar in both groups (1.6 vs 1.67 mmol/l, p = 0.17). Increased fasting glycemia occurred more frequent in the descendant group (5.5 vs 1.5 %, p = 0.05). None of the examined participants met the criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Aortic stiffness was higher in the descendant group as opposed to the control group (6.2 vs 5.8 m/s, p = 0.001). The total calculated cardiovascular risk based on the SCORE system was also higher in the descendant group as compared to the control group - the current risk related to the age of 40 years: 0.35 (0.19-0.64) vs 0.20 (0.13-0.47), p triglycerides and impaired fasting glycemia more frequently. Unfavourable genetic predisposition along with unfitting lifestyle contributes to a higher likelihood of accumulation of risk factors, and therefore

  19. Energy cost of stair climbing and descending on the college alumnus questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, D R; Vachon, J A; Kirkland, A O; Howley, E T; Duncan, G E; Johnson, K R

    1997-09-01

    In calculating the physical activity index (PAI) on the college alumnus questionnaire, it is assumed that 8 kcal are expended for every 20 steps climbed. This value is equal to an energy cost of 0.40 kcal.step-1. Since it is assumed that subjects climb and descend an equal number of stairs, the total value reflects the energy cost of stepping up (estimated at 0.30 kcal.step-1) and stepping down (estimated at 0.10 kcal.step-1). However, these values appear to be based on theoretical calculations rather than empirical observation. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy cost of stair climbing and stair descending by measuring oxygen uptake. Twenty subjects performed continuous stair-climbing and stair-descending on an escalator at a stepping rate of 70 step.min-1. Heart rate was monitored by telemetry, and oxygen uptake was measured by the Douglas bag technique from 5 to 7 min. Results showed that the gross energy cost of stair climbing is 8.6 METs, and that of stair descending is 2.9 METs. Thus, for a 70-kg person the gross caloric costs of ascending stairs (0.15 kcal.step-1) and descending stairs (0.05 kcal.step-1) are one-half of the values previously assumed. In conclusion, the algorithm for calculating PAI on the college alumnus questionnaire should be modified to reflect a total cost of 0.20 kcal for going up and down one step. Even more precise estimates can be obtained by adjusting for body weight (going up and down one flight of stairs requires 1.63 MET.min).

  20. Modulatory effect of adenosine receptors on the ascending and descending neural reflex responses of rat ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schusdziarra Volker

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenosine is known to act as a neuromodulator by suppressing synaptic transmission in the central and peripheral nervous system. Both the release of adenosine within the small intestine and the presence of adenosine receptors on enteric neurons have been demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to characterize a possible involvement of adenosine receptors in the modulation of the myenteric reflex. The experiments were carried out on ileum segments 10 cm in length incubated in an single chambered organ bath, and the reflex response was initiated by electrical stimulation (ES. Results ES caused an ascending contraction and a descending relaxation followed by a contraction. All motility responses to ES were completely blocked by tetrodotoxin, indicating that they are mediated by neural mechanisms. Atropine blocked the contractile effects, whereas the descending relaxation was significantly increased. The A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine increased the ascending contraction, whereas the ascending contraction was reduced by the A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine. Activation of the A1 receptor further reduced the descending relaxation and the latency of the peristaltic reflex. The A2B receptor antagonist alloxazine increased ascending contraction, whereas descending relaxation remained unchanged. For A2A and A3 receptors, we found contradictory effects of the agonists and antagonists, thus there is no clear physiological role for these receptors at this time. Conclusions This study suggests that the myenteric ascending and descending reflex response of the rat small intestine is modulated by release of endogenous adenosine via A1 receptors.

  1. Stair descending exercise increases muscle strength in elderly males with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Panayiotou, George; Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Mademli, Lida; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2013-03-08

    Previous studies from our group have shown that "pure" eccentric exercise performed on an isokinetic dynamometer can induce health-promoting effects that may improve quality of life. In order to investigate whether the benefits of "pure" eccentric exercise can be transferred to daily activities, a new and friendlier way to perform eccentric exercise had to be invented. To this end, we have proceeded to the design and construction of an automatic escalator, offering both stair descending (eccentric-biased) and stair ascending (concentric-biased) exercise. Twelve elderly males (60-70 yr) with chronic heart failure participated in the present study. Participants carried out six weeks of stair descending or ascending training on the novel SmartEscalator device. Muscle damage and performance indices were evaluated before and at day 2 post exercise at the first and sixth week of training. Both training regimes increased, albeit not significantly in some cases, eccentric, concentric and isometric torque. After six weeks of stair descending exercise, eccentric, concentric and isometric peak torque increased 12.3%, 7.7% and 8.8%, respectively, whereas after stair ascending exercise eccentric, concentric and isometric peak torque increased 7.1%, 9.6% and 5.9%, respectively. Stair descending exercise appears to be a pleasant and mild activity that can be easily followed by the elderly. Compared to the more demanding stair ascending exercise, changes in muscle strength are similar or even greater. Elderly or people with impaired endurance wishing to increase their muscle strength may be benefited by participating in activities with strong eccentric component, such as stair descending.

  2. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Brietzke, Aline P.; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0−1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18–65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P pain inhibition was associated with an increase in ICF, serum BDNF levels, and DRP. We propose a framework to explain the relationship and potential

  3. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R; Brietzke, Aline P; Torres, Iraci L S; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0-1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18-65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P pain inhibition was associated with an increase in ICF, serum BDNF levels, and DRP. We propose a framework to explain the relationship and potential

  4. Increasing the Participation of Afro-Descendants in Bank-Funded Projects in Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Josefina; Aoki, Sayo

    2005-01-01

    A World Bank's Latin America and Caribbean Region's portfolio (projects) review was carried out with the aim of , (i) analyzing the reach of the Bank's Central America Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (CAESSD) projects in Afro-descendant areas, and (ii) suggesting recommendations for increasing Afro-descendent participation in Bank's projects. This note, presents a brie...

  5. Ectopic paragonimiasis on colon wall and mesocolon of the descending colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hae Jeong; Hong, Kyung Chun; Chung, Hye Kyung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    Paragonimiasis is prevalent in Far East and a kind of endemic Korean diseases. The primary site of human paragonimiasis is the lung, but the ectopic infection of lung fluke has been reported by many authors. We experienced one case of abdominal paragonimiasis in a 44 year old male with a complaint of left lower quadrant pain. Physical examination, barium enema, and other data suggested the possibility of tumor originating from the wall of descending colon. (intramural tumor). Postoperative specimen taken from the solid tumorous lesion showed parasitic granuloma, characteristic of Paragonimus Westermani. Here, we report a cases of very peculiar ectopic paragonimiasis involved descending colon wall simulating neoplastic tumor, and also review the literatures briefly.

  6. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  7. The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Bruhns, Ryan P

    2015-01-01

    Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms behind each therapy's analgesic effects. It is concluded that different forms of manual therapy elicit analgesic effects via different mechanisms, and nearly all therapies appear to be at least partially mediated by descending modulation. Additionally, future avenues of mechanistic research pertaining to manual therapy are discussed.

  8. The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms behind each therapy’s analgesic effects. It is concluded that different forms of manual therapy elicit analgesic effects via different mechanisms, and nearly all therapies appear to be at least partially mediated by descending modulation. Additionally, future avenues of mechanistic research pertaining to manual therapy are discussed.

  9. Observation of right descending pulmonary arterial size and frontal cardiac area in patent ductus arteriosus patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyung Soo; Seol, Hae Yung; Suh, Won Huk; Lee, Min Jae [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    Frontal cardiac area, right descending pulmonary arterial size and size of the ductus arteriosus were measured on 29 patients with patent ductus arteriosus,21 females and 8 males. The results are as follows: 1. Frontal cardiac area in PDA patient in this series is increased in 0.63% to 100.11 % and the average is 38.91-23.54%. 2. Central branch of the right descending pulmonary artery is dilated in 28 cases (96.55%) on pre-operative stage, and combination with dilation of central branch and constriction of peripheral branch is in 18 cases (62.1%). 3. Degree of dilation of central branch is correlated with increase of age, but it is not related with size of ductus arteriosus. 4. Increase rate of frontal cardiac area is not related with size of ductus arteriosus.

  10. Wandering spleen, gastric and pancreatic volvulus and right-sided descending and sigmoid colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ríos, Enrique; Méndez-Díaz, Cristina; Rodríguez-García, Esther; Pérez-Ramos, Tania

    2015-10-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition, characterized by a mobile spleen that is attached only by an elongated vascular pedicle, allowing it to migrate to any part of the abdomen or pelvis. Mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus usually occurs in children and may be associated with wandering spleen. Both entities result from abnormal laxity or absence of the peritoneal attachments due to abnormal fusion of the peritoneal mesenteries. Pancreatic volvulus is a very rare anomaly, with only a few isolated case reports described in association with wandering spleen. Anomalous right sided descending and sigmoid colon is a very rare entity and its association with wandering spleen has not been previously reported. We report a case of wandering spleen associated with mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus, pancreatic volvulus and rightward shift of the splenic flexure of the colon and right sided descending and sigmoid colon in a young female.

  11. Form factors of descendant operators: Resonance identities in the sinh-Gordon model

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkevich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We study the space of local operators in the sinh-Gordon model in the framework of the bootstrap form factor approach. Our final goal is to identify the operators obtained by solving bootstrap equations with those defined in terms of the Lagrangian field. Here we try to identify operators at some very particular points, where the phenomenon of operator resonance takes place. The operator resonance phenomenon being perturbative, nevertheless, results in exact identities between some local operators. By applying an algebraic approach developed earlier for form factors we derive an infinite set of identities between particular descendant and exponential operators in the sinh-Gordon theory, which generalize the quantum equation of motion. We identify the corresponding descendant operators by comparing them with the result of perturbation theory.

  12. Perceived discrimination and impaired mental health in Turkish immigrants and their descendents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Ricarda; Asbrock, Frank; Laskawi, Johanna

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the relationship between different forms of perceived ethnic discrimination, stress, and depressive and somatoform symptoms in Turkish immigrants and their descendents. Moreover, it was tested whether ethnic identification buffers the effect of discrimination on stress. Variables were assessed via online and paper-pencil questionnaires (e.g., Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotype Treatment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale) in Turkish immigrants and their descendents (N=214) from the general population in Germany. Mediation and moderated mediation models were tested. Open aggression and discrimination in everyday situations showed large effects on depressive and somatoform symptoms. Also, paternalism showed a large indirect effect on impaired mental health via perceived stress, but only for persons lowly identified with being Turkish. This study reveals the large detrimental effects of different forms of discrimination on mental health in Turkish immigrants. However, a high ethnic identification can act as a buffer against stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Method and Preliminary Study on the Effect of No Protection of Perineum Midwives to Reduce Episiotomy Rate%初产妇无保护会阴接生法对会阴侧切率降低方法及效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁容; 刘红星

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore method of primipara without protection of perineum midwives episiotomy rate of clinical effect. Methods 130 cases were chosen as the research object in March 2013~March 2014 in our hospital, according to the order in hospital were divided into two groups, which gives the control group and traditional midwives method, while the observation group uses the law of unprotected perineum midwives,compared two groups of episiotomy rates. Results The episiotomy rate of observation group was obviously lower than the control group, and compared with control group, the observation group of patients satisfaction degree is higher, comparison between groups was statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion Clinical give mothers unprotected perineum delivered method, can reduce the rate of episiotomy.%目的:探析初产妇无保护会阴接生法对降低会阴侧切率的临床效果。方法选择2013年3月~2014年3月我院收治的初产妇130例为研究对象,按照入院先后顺序分为两组,其中给予对照组传统接生法,而观察组则运用无保护会阴接生法,对比分析两组的会阴侧切率。结果观察组的会阴侧切率低于对照组,并且与对照组相比,观察组的患者满意度较高,组间对比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论临床上给予初产妇无保护会阴接生法,能够降低会阴侧切率。

  14. The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew D. Vigotsky; Bruhns, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophys...

  15. Histamine in the locus coeruleus promotes descending noradrenergic inhibition of neuropathic hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Jin, Cong-Yu; Viisanen, Hanna; You, Hao-Jun; Pertovaara, Antti

    2014-12-01

    Among brain structures receiving efferent projections from the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus is the pontine locus coeruleus (LC) involved in descending noradrenergic control of pain. Here we studied whether histamine in the LC is involved in descending regulation of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by unilateral spinal nerve ligation in the rat with a chronic intracerebral and intrathecal catheter for drug administrations. Mechanical hypersensitivity in the injured limb was assessed by monofilaments. Heat nociception was assessed by determining radiant heat-induced paw flick. Histamine in the LC produced a dose-related (1-10μg) mechanical antihypersensitivity effect (maximum effect at 15min and duration of effect 30min), without influence on heat nociception. Pretreatment of LC with zolantidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist), but not with pyrilamine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), and spinal administration of atipamezole (an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), prazosine (an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist) attenuated the antihypersensitivity effect of histamine. The histamine-induced antihypersensitivity effect was also reduced by pretreatment of LC with fadolmidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist inducing autoinhibition of noradrenergic cell bodies. Zolantidine or pyrilamine alone in the LC failed to influence pain behavior, while A-960656 (histamine H3 receptor antagonist) suppressed hypersensitivity. A plausible explanation for these findings is that histamine, due to excitatory action mediated by the histamine H2 receptor on noradrenergic cell bodies, promotes descending spinal α1/2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Blocking the autoinhibitory histamine H3 receptor on histaminergic nerve terminals in the LC facilitates release of histamine and thereby, increases descending noradrenergic pain inhibition.

  16. Curative effect of endoscopic resection in non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-feng ZHAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the curative effect of endoscopic resection in patients with non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenoma. Methods The clinical data of 9 patients with non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenoma from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2012 in the Department of Endoscopy of General Hospital of Shenyang Command were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were diagnosed with endoscopy, ultrasound endoscopy and preoperative pathology, and all of them underwent endoscopic dissection. Pathological examination and follow-up were carried out after operation. Results Nine patients, including 4 men and 5 women aged 45-78 (59.6±11.5 years old were involved. Tubulovillous adenomas were found in descending duodenum of all patients, with the size of 1.8 to 2.5cm, with a mean of 2.03±0.24cm. Endoscopic resection (EMR was used in all patients successfully. No complication was found during operation and after operation. Postoperative pathology confirmed that all the tumors were tubulovillous adenomas. Low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia was found in 4 cases, and high-grade in 5 cases. Mucosal focal carcinoma was confirmed in one case, without involvement of muscularis mucosae. The position emission tomography (PET showed no abnormal radionuclide accumulation. There were no hemorrhage or death during and after the operation. The average follow-up time was 6-58 (25.6±16.4 months. Metastases and recurrence had not been found. Conclusion Endoscopic mucosal resection is a safe, adequate method for non-ampullary descending duodenal tubulovillous adenomas. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.012

  17. Endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm via midsternotomy and without extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, C; Garzon, G; Ponce, G; Reyes, R; Rodriguez, D

    2003-12-01

    A 68-year-old man with peripheral vascular disease and associated risk factors, was diagnosed by CT-scan and aortography with an atherosclerotic descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. The patient was treated by successful endovascular grafting of the aneurysm using a midsternotomy incision and the insertion of a thoracic stent-graft through a T-Dacron tube sutured in the ascending aorta, without the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  18. A Computational Model of a Descending Mechanosensory Pathway Involved in Active Tactile Sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M Ache

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many animals, including humans, rely on active tactile sensing to explore the environment and negotiate obstacles, especially in the dark. Here, we model a descending neural pathway that mediates short-latency proprioceptive information from a tactile sensor on the head to thoracic neural networks. We studied the nocturnal stick insect Carausius morosus, a model organism for the study of adaptive locomotion, including tactually mediated reaching movements. Like mammals, insects need to move their tactile sensors for probing the environment. Cues about sensor position and motion are therefore crucial for the spatial localization of tactile contacts and the coordination of fast, adaptive motor responses. Our model explains how proprioceptive information about motion and position of the antennae, the main tactile sensors in insects, can be encoded by a single type of mechanosensory afferents. Moreover, it explains how this information is integrated and mediated to thoracic neural networks by a diverse population of descending interneurons (DINs. First, we quantified responses of a DIN population to changes in antennal position, motion and direction of movement. Using principal component (PC analysis, we find that only two PCs account for a large fraction of the variance in the DIN response properties. We call the two-dimensional space spanned by these PCs 'coding-space' because it captures essential features of the entire DIN population. Second, we model the mechanoreceptive input elements of this descending pathway, a population of proprioceptive mechanosensory hairs monitoring deflection of the antennal joints. Finally, we propose a computational framework that can model the response properties of all important DIN types, using the hair field model as its only input. This DIN model is validated by comparison of tuning characteristics, and by mapping the modelled neurons into the two-dimensional coding-space of the real DIN population. This

  19. Isolated Anomalous Origin of Left Pulmonary Artery From the Descending Aorta: An Embryologic Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanappa, Ganesh Kumar; Laohachai, Karina; Orr, Yishay; Ayer, Julian

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta is a rare malformation, accounting for 0.12% of all congenital heart defects. Anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the aorta (ALPA) constitutes a small proportion of these cases. ALPA has been reported to arise from the ascending aorta with various embryologic postulates. We report a case of isolated ALPA arising from the descending aorta in association with a patent ductus arteriosus, to emphasize its embryologic ambiguity.

  20. Asymptomatic fistula from a giant aneurysmatic left anterior descending artery to the right ventricular outflow tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustelier, Juan Valiente; Rego, Julio Oscar Cabrera; Aquiles, Eddy W Olivares; Llerena, Luis Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Coronary artery fistulas are unusual congenital or acquired coronary artery abnormalities in which blood is shunted into a cardiac chamber, great vessel or other structure, bypassing the myocardial capillary network (Jung et al. in Cardiovasc Ultrasound 5:10, 2007). We present a young adult patient with an asymptomatic fistula from a giant aneurysmatic left anterior descending artery to the right ventricular outflow tract, first diagnosed by echocardiography examination and further confirmed by 128-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

  1. A Computational Model of a Descending Mechanosensory Pathway Involved in Active Tactile Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ache, Jan M; Dürr, Volker

    2015-07-01

    Many animals, including humans, rely on active tactile sensing to explore the environment and negotiate obstacles, especially in the dark. Here, we model a descending neural pathway that mediates short-latency proprioceptive information from a tactile sensor on the head to thoracic neural networks. We studied the nocturnal stick insect Carausius morosus, a model organism for the study of adaptive locomotion, including tactually mediated reaching movements. Like mammals, insects need to move their tactile sensors for probing the environment. Cues about sensor position and motion are therefore crucial for the spatial localization of tactile contacts and the coordination of fast, adaptive motor responses. Our model explains how proprioceptive information about motion and position of the antennae, the main tactile sensors in insects, can be encoded by a single type of mechanosensory afferents. Moreover, it explains how this information is integrated and mediated to thoracic neural networks by a diverse population of descending interneurons (DINs). First, we quantified responses of a DIN population to changes in antennal position, motion and direction of movement. Using principal component (PC) analysis, we find that only two PCs account for a large fraction of the variance in the DIN response properties. We call the two-dimensional space spanned by these PCs 'coding-space' because it captures essential features of the entire DIN population. Second, we model the mechanoreceptive input elements of this descending pathway, a population of proprioceptive mechanosensory hairs monitoring deflection of the antennal joints. Finally, we propose a computational framework that can model the response properties of all important DIN types, using the hair field model as its only input. This DIN model is validated by comparison of tuning characteristics, and by mapping the modelled neurons into the two-dimensional coding-space of the real DIN population. This reveals the versatility

  2. Disability and progression in Afro-descendant patients with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Calvet Kallenbach Aurenção; Claudia Cristina Ferreira Vasconcelos; Luiz Claudio Santos Thuler; Regina Maria Papais Alvarenga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence is higher in Caucasian (CA) populations, narrowing the analysis of the impact of Afro-descendant (AD) populations in disease outcomes. Even so, recent studies observed that AD patients have a more severe course. The main objective of this study is to confirm and discuss, through a systematic review, that being AD is a risk factor for disability accumulation and/or severe progression in patients with MS. A systematic review of published data in the l...

  3. Telecast of Astronaut Neil Armstrong descending ladder to surface of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, descends the ladder of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module prior to making the first step by man on the moon. This view is a black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface camera during extravehicular activity. The black bar running through the center of the picture is an anamoly in the television ground data system at the Goldstone Tracking Station.

  4. Coronary Artery and Pulmonary Artery Fistula Originated from Significant Stenosis in the Left Anterior Descending Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Sami Kunt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistula (CAF is defined as a rare anomalous connection between a coronary artery and a major vessel or a cardiac chamber. We report a case of a left anterior descending coronary (LAD stenosis and coronary artery fistula between the LAD coronary artery and the pulmonary artery (PA. CAF is often diagnosed by coronary angiogram. We describe our diagnostic approach and review the literature on the epidemiology, the pathophysiology, the diagnostic modalities, and the treatment options.

  5. Ancestor–descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor–descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea margi...

  6. Cervical necrotising fasciitis and descending mediastinitis secondary to unilateral tonsillitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Asad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is an aggressive infection with high morbidity and mortality. We present a case of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis in a healthy young man, caused by unilateral tonsillitis with a successful outcome without aggressive debridement. Case presentation A 41-year-old man was admitted to our unit with a diagnosis of severe acute unilateral tonsillitis. On admission, he had painful neck movements and the skin over his neck was red, hot and tender. Computed tomography scan of his neck and chest showed evidence of cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis secondary to underlying pharyngeal disease. He was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. His condition improved over the next 3 days but a tender and fluctuant swelling appeared in the suprasternal region. A repeat scan showed the appearance of an abscess extending from the pretracheal region to the upper mediastinum which was drained through a small transverse anterior neck incision. After surgery, the patient's condition quickly improved and he was discharged on the 18th day of admission. Conclusion Less invasive surgical techniques may replace conventional aggressive debridement as the treatment of choice for cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending necrotizing mediastinitis.

  7. The descendents of Lyman Break Galaxies in galaxy clusters spatial distribution and orbital properties

    CERN Document Server

    Governato, F; Moore, B; Quinn, T; Stadel, J; Lake, G; Brera-Merate, O A

    2000-01-01

    We combine semi-analytical methods with a ultra-high resolution simulation of a galaxy cluster (of mass 2.3 10^14h-1Msolar, and 4 10^6 particles within its virial radius) formed in a standard CDM universe to study the spatial distribution and orbital properties of the present-day descendents of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs). At the present time only five (out of 12) of halos containing LBGs survive as separate entities inside the cluster virial radius. Their circular velocities are in the range 200 - 550 km/sec. Seven halos merged together to form the central object at the very center of the cluster. Using semi-analytical modeling of galaxy evolution we show that descendents of halos containing LBGs now host giant elliptical galaxies. Galaxy orbits are radial, with a pericenter to apocenter ratio of about 1:5. The orbital eccentricities of LBGs descendents are statistically indistinguishable from those of the average galaxy population inside the cluster, suggesting that the orbits of these galaxies are not sign...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  9. Descending effect on spinal nociception by amygdaloid glutamate varies with the submodality of noxious test stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbia, Nora; Sagalajev, Boriss; Pertovaara, Antti

    2014-06-06

    Amygdala has an important role in the processing of primary emotions, such as fear. Additionally, amygdala is involved in processing and modulation of pain. While the amygdala, particularly its central nucleus (CeA), has been shown to contribute to pain control, the descending pain regulation by the CeA is still only partly characterized. Here heat and mechanical nociception was tested in both hind limbs of healthy rats with a chronic guide cannula for microinjection of glutamate into the CeA of the left or right hemisphere. The aim was to assess whether the descending pain regulatory effect by glutamate in the amygdala varies with the submodality or the body side of nociceptive testing, brain hemisphere or the amygdaloid glutamate receptor. Motor performance was assessed with the Rotarod test. Amygdaloid glutamate, independent of the treated hemisphere, produced a dose-related heat and mechanical antinociception that varied with the submodality of testing. Heat antinociception was short lasting (minutes), bilateral and not reversed by blocking the amygdaloid NMDA receptor with MK-801. In contrast, mechanical antinociception lasted longer (>20 min), was predominantly contralateral and reversed by blocking the amygdaloid NMDA receptor. At an antinociceptive dose, amygdaloid glutamate failed to influence motor performance. The results indicate that independent of the brain hemisphere, the spatial extent and duration of the descending antinociceptive effect induced by amygdaloid glutamate varies with the amygdaloid glutamate receptor and the submodality of pain.

  10. Convection forced by a descending dry layer and low-level moist convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Vaughan, Geraint; Norton, Emily G.; Ricketts, Hugo M. A.; Morcrette, Cyril J.; Hewison, Tim J.; Browning, Keith. A.; Blyth, Alan M.

    2009-03-01

    A narrow line of convective showers was observed over southern England on 18 July 2005 during the Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP). The showers formed behind a cold front (CF), beneath two apparently descending dry layers (i.e. sloping so that they descended relative to the instruments observing them). The lowermost dry layer was associated with a tropopause fold from a depression, which formed 2 d earlier from a breaking Rossby wave, located northwest of the UK. The uppermost dry layer had fragmented from the original streamer due to rotation around the depression (This rotation was also responsible for the observations of apparent descent-ascent would otherwise be seen behind a CF). The lowermost dry layer descended over the UK and overran higher θw air beneath it, resulting in potential instability. Combined with a surface convergence line (which triggered the convection but had less impact on the convective available potential energy than the potential instability), convection was forced up to 5.5 km where the uppermost dry layer capped it. The period when convection was possible was very short, thus explaining the narrowness of the shower band. Convective Storm Initiation Project observations and model data are presented to illustrate the unique processes in this case.

  11. Schwannoma of the descending loop of the hypoglossal nerve: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Schwannomas of the descending loop of the hypoglossal nerve are very rare. They are slow-growing tumors that may masquerade a carotid body tumor. A 60-year-old female was referred for a latero-cervical mass appearing as a chemodectoma at CT-scan. At operation, a 2cm mass arising from the descending loop of the hypoglossal nerve was resected en bloc with the loop itself and a functional lymphadenectomy was associated. Post-operative course was uneventful and the patient is free from disease recurrence at one year follow-up. En bloc resection remains the real curative treatment of Schwannomas, ensuring unlimited freedom from disease, although causing functional impairment which may be significant. Nonetheless recurrence should be prevented as, beside requiring reintervention, it may harbor a malignant evolution towards sarcoma. Schwannomas of the descending lop of the hypoglossal nerve may masquerade a chemodectoma of the carotid bifurcation and can be curatively resected without any functional impairment. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. 顺产接生会阴伤口侧切与纵切的临床比较%Clinical Comparison on Perineum Wound of Side -cutting and Cross -cutting in Normal Labor/LI Yanchao, WU Xiaowei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳超; 吴晓蔚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analysis the effect and difference on side -cutting and cross-cutting of episiotomy in nor-mal labor .Methods 104 cases of vaginal delivery performed episiotomy were analyzed ,these maternal women were hos-pitalized in our hospital from February 2014 to February 2015 .The recovery effect of perineum incision and maternal sat-isfaction were compared between two methods .Results The adverse effects of side -cutting were lower than cross -cut-ting for the maternal ,the wound recovery degree and maternal pain less than cross -cutting.But the postoperative pain , wound recovery and probability of wound rupture of cross -cutting were superior to side -cutting.Conclusions Ac-cording to situation of maternal , choosing the more suitable incision method for women were very important .The correct episiotomy method can guarantee the safety of the mother's life, prevent pain enhancement , and improve maternal satis-faction , which was great significance for clinical research .%目的:对产妇进行顺产时,行会阴侧切以及纵切的效果以及差异性进行分析。方法将2014年2月~2015年2月进行顺产接生并行会阴切开术的产妇共104例的数据进行对比分析,对会阴切开不同方法的效果以及产妇的满意度进行比较。结果采取会阴侧切的产妇其所产生的不良影响低于行纵切的产妇,其伤口的恢复程度以及产妇的痛感小于纵切产妇。但是行纵切的产妇其术后痛感以及伤口的恢复程度、伤口裂开的几率要优于行侧切的产妇。结论根据产妇的自身情况,选择更适合产妇的会阴切开方法更重要,且采取正确的会阴切开法能够保证产妇的生命安全,防止痛感增强,且提高产妇的满意度,这对于临床研究具有重要意义。

  13. 试论阴升阳降实为阳升阴降%An attempt to describe on the ascending of yin and descending of yang is essentially the ascending of yang and descending of yin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢林林; 陈利国; 吴正治; 王盛飞; 陈俊蓉

    2012-01-01

    人们普遍认为阴阳升降的运动形式有阳升阴降,阴升阳降两种,可是阴为什么能升,阳为什么能降呢?通过应用阴阳相对性和阴阳互根互用及阴阳概念的确定性等理论对天降地升、心肾相交、肝升肺降等阴升阳降理论的阐释,认为阴升实为阳升,阳降从本质上讲是阴降,由此认为阴阳升降运动只有阳升阴降一种运动形式.并提倡应严格遵从阴阳属性划分标准,规范中医的基本概念,希望通过对阴升阳降理论的辨识,促进中医理论的发展,进一步指导临床.%It is generally considered that there are two kinds of movement forms of ascending and descending of yin and yang-ascending of yang and descending of yin and ascending of yin and descending of yang, but why do yin can ascend and yang can descend? Through the interpretation of the theories of the ascending of yin and descending of yang, such as the descending of heaven and ascending of earth, the harmony between the heart and the kidney and the ascending of liver and descending of lung, by applying the theories of the relativity of yin-yang, interdependence between yin and yang and the certainty of the concept of yin-yang, it's believed that the ascending of yin is actually the ascending of yang and the descending of yang is essentially the descending of yin, so the ascending of yang and descending of yin is the only movement form of the ascending and descending of yin and yang. This essay advocated that people should strictly follow the classification standard of yin and yang properties and regulate the basic concepts of TCM. It's hoped that this essay can promote the development of the theory of TCM and further to guide the clinical practice through the identification of the theory of the ascending of yin and descending of yang.

  14. Hypertension and Afro-descendant ethnicity: a bad interaction for lupus nephritis treated with cyclophosphamide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, W P; Morales, J V; Wagner, M B; Graudenz, M; Edelweiss, M I; Gonçalves, L F

    2007-01-01

    Hypertension and ethnicity are important prognostic factors in evolution of lupus nephritis. A cohort of 75 patients with lupus nephritis treated with cyclophosphamide was conducted to investigate the evolution of creatinine levels between Caucasians and Afro-descendants. A multiple linear model was used to evaluate the combined effects of ethnicity and hypertension over delta creatinine controlling confounders. Sample characteristics were: 85% females; mean (+/-SD) age of 33.6 +/- 12.0 years; 77% Caucasians; 40% hypertensive at renal biopsy; 91% WHO class IV; mean basal creatinine: 1.5 +/- 1.3 mg/dL; mean final creatinine: 2.1 +/- 2.5 mg/dL; 40% anaemia; proteinuria: 5.4 +/- 4.8 g/day. Comparing Caucasians and Afro-descendants, it was found: 28.1% versus 72.2% for hypertension (P = 0.002); 31.6% versus 66.7% for anaemia (P = 0.018); 5.9 +/- 5.0 versus 3.8 +/- 4.0. g/day (P = 0.02) for proteinuria. Other comparisons including basal creatinine did not reach statistical significance. Comparing outcomes between Caucasians and Afro-descendants, it was found: 10.5% versus 22.2% for doubling of creatinine (P = 0.24); 0.41 +/- 2.03 versus 1.05 +/- 2.41 for delta creatinine ( P = 0.29); 8.8% versus 22.2% for haemodialysis (P = 0.21) and 3.5% versus 5.6% for death (P = 0.99). Analysing delta creatinine with multiple linear regression showed that hypertension had a significant overall effect (b = 0.80; SE = 0.32; P = 0.015), ethnicity alone was not significant (b = 0.35; SE = 0.29; P = 0.228); however, the effect of hypertension on delta creatinine was more intense among Afro-descendants than among Caucasians (interaction term b = - 0.83; SE = 0.37; P = 0.027). Afro-descendants lupus patients experience worst prognosis of renal function probably due to the effect of hypertension and not ethnicity per se.

  15. Descending propriospinal neurons mediate restoration of locomotor function following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthall, Katelyn N; Hough, Ryan A; McClellan, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI. First, long RS neuron projections were interrupted by staggered spinal hemitransections on the right side at 10% body length (BL; normalized from the tip of the oral hood) and on the left side at 30% BL. For acute recovery conditions (≤1 wk) and before axonal regeneration, swimming muscle burst activity was relatively normal, but with some deficits in coordination. Second, lampreys received two spaced complete spinal transections, one at 10% BL and one at 30% BL, to interrupt long-axon RS neuron projections. At short recovery times (3-5 wk), RS and PS neurons will have regenerated their axons for short distances and potentially established a polysynaptic descending command pathway. At these short recovery times, swimming muscle burst activity had only minor coordination deficits. A computer model that incorporated either of the two spinal lesions could mimic many aspects of the experimental data. In conclusion, descending PS neurons are a viable mechanism for indirect activation of spinal locomotor CPGs, although there can be coordination deficits of locomotor activity. In the lamprey following spinal lesion-mediated interruption of long axonal projections of reticulospinal (RS) neurons, sensory stimulation still elicited relatively normal locomotor muscle burst activity, but with some coordination deficits. Computer models incorporating the spinal lesions could mimic many aspects of the experimental results

  16. Influence of intramuscular heat stimulation on modulation of nociception: complex role of central opioid receptors in descending facilitation and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hao-Jun; Lei, Jing; Ye, Gang; Fan, Xiao-Li; Li, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that the threshold to activate 'silent' or inactive descending facilitation of nociception is lower than that of descending inhibition. Thus, the development of pain therapy to effectively drive descending inhibition alone, without the confounding influences of facilitation is a challenge. To address this issue we investigated the effects of intramuscular stimulation with a heating-needle on spinal nociception, assessed by measuring nociceptive paw withdrawal reflex in rats. Additionally, involvement of the thalamic 'nociceptive discriminators' (thalamic mediodorsal (MD) and ventromedial (VM) nuclei), and opioid-mediated mechanisms were further explored. Descending facilitation and inhibition were elicited by 46°C noxious heating-needle stimulation, and were regulated by thalamic MD and VM nuclei, respectively. In contrast, innocuous heating-needle stimulation at a temperature of 43°C elicited descending inhibition modulated by the thalamic VM nucleus alone. Microinjection of μ/δ/κ-opioid receptor antagonists β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride/naltrindole/nor-binaltorphimine, into the VM nucleus attenuated the 46°C intramuscular heating-needle stimulation-evoked descending inhibition, whereas treatment of the MD nucleus with β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride significantly decreased the descending facilitation. By contrast, descending inhibition evoked by 43°C heating-needle stimulation was only depressed by naltrindole, as opposed to μ- and κ-opioid receptor antagonists, which failed to influence descending inhibition. The present study reveals distinct roles of μ-opioid receptors in the function of thalamic MD and VM nuclei,which exert facilitatory and inhibitory actions on nociception. Furthermore, innocuous, but not noxious, intramuscular heating-needle stimulation targeting δ-opioid receptors is suggested to be a promising avenue for the effective inhibition of pain.

  17. Dumping Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Digestive Diseases A-Z Dumping Syndrome What is dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, ... the colon and rectum—and anus. What causes dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome is caused by problems with ...

  18. The risk for type B aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Alexander W.; Franken, Romy; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; de Waard, Vivian; Pals, Gerard; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Groenink, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aortic dissections involving the descending aorta are a major clinical problem in patients with Marfan syndrome. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters associated with type B aortic dissection and to develop a risk model to predict type B aortic dissect

  19. Wellens' syndrome with segmental wall-motion abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Bugan, Baris; Celik,Turgay; Celik,Murat; Dermikoh,Sait; Iyisoy,Atila; Serdar ,Firtina

    2010-01-01

    Turgay Celik1, Baris Bugan1, Serdar Firtina1, Murat Celik2, Sait Demirkol1, Atila Iyisoy11Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Cardiology, Ankara, Turkey; 2Van Army District Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Van, TurkeyAbstract: Wellens' syndrome is a pattern of electrocardiographic T-wave changes associated with critical, proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery stenosis. We herein report 2 cases of Wellens' syndrome with segmental wall-motion abnormalities...

  20. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting versus coronary angioplasty for isolated type C stenosis of the left anterior descending artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariani, MA; Boonstra, PW; Grandjean, JG; Monnink, SHJ; denHeijer, P; Crijns, HJGM

    Background: Isolated stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery can be treated with medication, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass grafting. Recently a new treatment has been developed, which is called minimally invasive direct coronary artery

  1. Preplanning prediction of the left anterior descending artery maximum dose based on patient, dosimetric, and treatment planning parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin T. Cooper, MD; Xiaochun Li, PhD; Samuel M. Shin, MD; Aram S. Modrek, BS; Howard C. Hsu, MD; J.K. DeWyngaert, PhD; Gabor Jozsef, PhD; Stella C. Lymberis, MD; Judith D. Goldberg, ScD; Silvia C. Formenti, MD

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Maximum dose to the left anterior descending artery (LADmax) is an important physical constraint to reduce the risk of cardiovascular toxicity. We generated a simple algorithm to guide the positioning of the tangent fields to reliably maintain LADmax

  2. Characteristics of Ascending, Descending, Floating and Sinking Theor y based on the Concept of Translational Medicine and its Clinical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaohui; Zhai Huaqiang; Wang Wei; Wang Xiaoxia; Zhang Xiaojuan; Zhang Tian

    2013-01-01

    Ascending, descending, lfoating and sinking theory is the summarization for the effects of drugs on the body. Translational medicine establishes a bi-directional conversion channels between clinics and laboratories. This article mainly introduces the relationship between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) ascending, descending, lfoating and sinking theory and the concept of translational medicine, and how to study this theory based on the concept of translational medicine.

  3. Sibling configuration predicts individual and descendant socioeconomic success in a modern post-industrial society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lawson

    Full Text Available Growing up with many siblings, at least in the context of modern post-industrial low fertility, low mortality societies, is predictive of relatively poor performance on school tests in childhood, lower levels of educational attainment, and lower income throughout adulthood. Recent studies further indicate these relationships hold across generations, so that the descendants of those who grow up with many siblings are also at an apparent socioeconomic disadvantage. In this paper we add to this literature by considering whether such relationships interact with the sex and relative age of siblings. To do this we utilise a unique Swedish multigenerational birth cohort study that provides sibling configuration data on over 10,000 individuals born in 1915-1929, plus all their direct genetic descendants to the present day. Adjusting for parental and birth characteristics, we find that the 'socioeconomic cost' of growing up in a large family is independent of both the sex of siblings and the sex of the individual. However, growing up with several older as opposed to several younger siblings is predictive of relatively poor performance on school tests and a lower likelihood of progression to tertiary education. This later-born disadvantage also holds across generations, with the children of those with many older siblings achieving lower levels of educational attainment. Despite these differences, we find that while individual and descendant income is negatively related to the number of siblings, it is not influenced by the relative age of siblings. Thus, our findings imply that the educational disadvantage of later-born children, demonstrated here and in numerous other studies, does not necessarily translate into reduced earnings in adulthood. We discuss potential explanations for this pattern of results, and consider some important directions for future research into sibling configuration and wellbeing in modern societies.

  4. The Role of Cannabinoid Receptors in the Descending Modulation of Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rossi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous antinociceptive descending pathway represents a circuitry of the supraspinal central nervous system whose task is to counteract pain. It includes the periaqueductal grey (PAG-rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM-dorsal horn (DH axis, which is the best characterized pain modulation system through which pain is endogenously inhibited. Thus, an alternative rational strategy for silencing pain is the activation of this anatomical substrate. Evidence of the involvement of cannabinoid receptors (CB in the supraspinal modulation of pain can be found in several studies in which intra-cerebral microinjections of cannabinoid ligands or positive modulators have proved to be analgesic in different pain models, whereas cannabinoid receptor antagonists or antisense nucleotides towards CB1 receptors have facilitated pain. Like opioids, cannabinoids produce centrally-mediated analgesia by activating a descending pathway which includes PAG and its projection to downstream RVM neurons, which in turn send inhibitory projections to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Indeed, several studies underline a supraspinal regulation of cannabinoids on g-aminobutyric acid (GABA and glutamate release which inhibit and enhance the antinociceptive descending pathway, respectively. Cannabinoid receptor activation expressed on presynaptic GABAergic terminals reduces the probability of neurotransmitter release thus dis-inhibiting the PAG-RVM-dorsal horn antinociceptive pathway. Cannabinoids seem to increase glutamate release (maybe as consequence of GABA decrease and to require glutamate receptor activation to induce antinociception. The consequent outcome is behavioral analgesia, which is reproduced in several pain conditions, from acute to chronic pain models such as inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Taken together these findings would suggest that supraspinal cannabinoid receptors have broad applications, from pain control to closely related central nervous system

  5. Scimitar syndrome and evolution of managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kahrom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly that consists in part of total or partial anomalous venous drainage of the right lung to the inferior vena cava (IVC. This descending vein is visible on CXR as a curvilinear density along the right heart border and resembles the curved Turkish sword that gives the condition its name. Scimitar syndrome forms part of the large spectrum of associated conditions known as venolobar syndrome. These include right lung hypoplasia or sequestered segments of the right lung, congenital heart disease and various others. Surgical approaches to the Scimitar syndrome have varied according to the anatomic and pathologic features presented in each case. Here we review the clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic dilemmas, current medical and surgical managements of Scimitar syndrome.

  6. A lotus root-like appearance in both the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Hiromu; Taguchi, Eiji; Kotono, Yoshihiro; Suzuyama, Hiroto; Yoshida, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Shinzo; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Nishigami, Kazuhiro; Nakao, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of dyspnea on exertion. He was diagnosed with heart failure due to an old myocardial infarction. Myocardial stress perfusion scintigraphy revealed inducible myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed hazy slit lesions in both the left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary arteries (RCA). We first performed percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the LAD lesion. Subsequently, we performed PCI for the RCA lesion using multiple imaging modalities. We observed a lotus root-like appearance in both the LAD and RCA, and PCI was successful for both vessels. We describe this rare case in detail.

  7. Descending pain modulation and its interaction with peripheral sensitization following sustained isometric muscle contraction in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Nie, HongLing; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    facilitation and that the effect of descending pain modulation be dependent on peripheral muscle pain sensitivity. METHODS: Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured from 13 points bilaterally in the upper trapezius muscle and from the mid-point bilaterally in the tibialis anterior before-, immediately......) than healthy control groups (286.2±24.1s) (P0.05). Following the contraction, PPTs were increased significantly and heterogeneously in the upper trapezius over time, but not, in the tibialis anterior muscle in healthy controls. However, PPT were significantly decreased over time in the tibialis...

  8. Ancestor-descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium.

  9. Descending aortic mechanics and atrial fibrillation: a two-dimensional speckle tracking transesophageal echocardiography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Rogério; Monteiro, Ricardo; Dinis, Paulo; Santos, Maria José; Botelho, Ana; Quintal, Nuno; Cardim, Nuno; Gonçalves, Lino

    2016-11-24

    Vascular mechanics assessed with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) could be used as a new imaging surrogate of vascular stiffening. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is considered accurate as an estimate of stroke risk in non-valvular AF, although many potential stroke risk factors have not been included in this scoring method. The purpose of this research is to study the feasibility of evaluating vascular mechanics at the descending aorta in non-valvular AF patients using transesophageal 2D-STE and to analyze the association between descending aortic mechanics and stroke. We prospectively recruited a group of 44 patients referred for a transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) in the context of cardioversion for non-valvular AF. A short-axis view of the descending aorta, one to two centimeters after the aortic arch was selected for the vascular mechanics assessment with the 2D-STE methodology. The vascular mechanics parameters analyzed were circumferential aortic strain (CAS) and early circumferential aortic strain rate (CASR). A clinical assessment was performed with focus on the past stroke history and the CHA2DS2-VASc score. The mean age of our cohort was 65 ± 13 years and 75% were men; AF was known for 2.8 ± 2.5 years and it was considered paroxystic in 41% of cases. Waveforms adequate for measuring 2D-STE were present in 85% of the 264 descending aortic wall segments. The mean CAS was 3.5 ± 1.2% and the mean CASR was 0.7 ± 0.3 s(-1). The inter- and intra-observer variability for aortic mechanics was considered adequate. The median CHA2DS2VASc score was 2 (2-3). As the score increased we noted that both the CAS (r = -0.38, P = 0.01) and the CASR (r = -0.42, P mechanics assessed with transesophageal 2D-STE.

  10. Descending serotonergic facilitation and the antinociceptive effects of pregabalin in a rat model of osteoarthritic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolphin Annette C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending facilitation, from the brainstem, promotes spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and behavioural hypersensitivity in many chronic pain states. We have previously demonstrated enhanced descending facilitation onto dorsal horn neurones in a neuropathic pain model, and shown this to enable the analgesic effectiveness of gabapentin. Here we have tested if this hypothesis applies to other pain states by using a combination of approaches in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA to ascertain if 1 a role for descending 5HT mediated facilitation exists, and 2 if pregabalin (a newer analogue of gabapentin is an effective antinociceptive agent in this model. Further, quantitative-PCR experiments were undertaken to analyse the α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG in order to assess whether changes in these molecular substrates have a bearing on the pharmacological effects of ondansetron and pregabalin in OA. Results Osteoarthritis was induced via intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the knee joint. Control animals were injected with 0.9% saline. Two weeks later in vivo electrophysiology was performed, comparing the effects of spinal ondansetron (10–100 μg/50 μl or systemic pregabalin (0.3 – 10 mg/kg on evoked responses of dorsal horn neurones to electrical, mechanical and thermal stimuli in MIA or control rats. In MIA rats, ondansetron significantly inhibited the evoked responses to both innocuous and noxious natural evoked neuronal responses, whereas only inhibition of noxious evoked responses was seen in controls. Pregabalin significantly inhibited neuronal responses in the MIA rats only; this effect was blocked by a pre-administration of spinal ondansetron. Analysis of α2δ-1 and 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels in L3–6 DRG revealed a significant increase in α2δ-1 levels in ipsilateral L3&4 DRG in MIA rats. 5-HT3A subunit mRNA levels were unchanged. Conclusion These data suggest

  11. Two Successful Term Pregnancies with a Large Descending Aorta Aneurysm: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Salehpour

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aortic aneurysm is a rare but potentially lethal complication during pregnancy. In this article we described a 30-year-old woman with a large size descending aorta aneurysm (11 cm in length and 5.6 cm in its greatest diameter, who had two term uncomplicated pregnancies. The patient received prophylactic ß-blocker drug during her second pregnancy. Both pregnancies were terminated by caesarean section without any serious complications. Postpartum period was recovered successfully, but a noticeable increase in aneurysm’s length was detected in the period between two pregnancies.

  12. Minimally invasive retrieval of patent foramen ovale closure device after device migration to the descending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basoor, Abhijeet S; Cotant, John F; Halabi, Abdul R; DeGregorio, Michele; Chughtai, Haroon; Patel, Kiritkumar C

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous treatment of patent foramen ovale with a septal closure device has become a common procedure, but it is associated with various complications. Migration of the device is uncommon, and migration through the aortic valve into the aorta is rare. Managing the migration of a patent foramen ovale occluder can be challenging; it usually requires surgical retrieval of the foreign body. We report a rare case in which a patient experienced migration of a large patent foramen ovale closure device to the descending aorta. Rarer still was its successful percutaneous management.

  13. Three Super Active Regions in the Descending Phase of Solar Cycle 23

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Qi Zhang; Jiang-Tao Su; Juan Guo; Xiao-Fan Wang; Ke-Liang Hu; Gang-Hua Lin; Dong-Guang Wang; Xing-Ming Bao; Yin Zhang; Ji-Hong Liu; Shu-Dong Bao; Yuan-Yong Deng; Wei Li; Jie Chen; Jin-Ping Dun

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the magnetic configurations of three super active regions,NOAA 10484, 10486 and 10488, observed by the Huairou Multi-Channel Solar Telescope (MCST) from 2003 October 18 to November 4. Many energetic phenomena,such as flares (including a X-28 flare) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), occurred during this period. We think that strong shear and fast emergence of magnetic flux are the main causes of these events. The question is also of great interest why these dramatic eruptions occurred so close together in the descending phase of the solar cycle.

  14. Ancestor–descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor–descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR—the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea–Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485

  15. Stair descending exercise using a novel automatic escalator: effects on muscle performance and health-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Panayiotou, George; Kyparos, Antonios; Patikas, Dimitrios; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2013-01-01

    A novel automatic escalator was designed, constructed and used in the present investigation. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men. Twenty males participated and were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: a stair descending group (muscle-damaging group) and a stair ascending group (non-muscle-damaging group). Each group performed two sessions of stair descending or stair ascending exercise on the automatic escalator while a three week period was elapsed between the two exercise sessions. Indices of muscle function, insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile and redox status were assessed before and immediately after, as well as at day 2 and day 4 after both exercise sessions. It was found that the first bout of stair descending exercise caused muscle damage, induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as affected positively blood lipid profile. However, after the second bout of stair descending exercise the alterations in all parameters were diminished or abolished. On the other hand, the stair ascending exercise induced only minor effects on muscle function and health-related parameters after both exercise bouts. The results of the present investigation indicate that stair descending exercise seems to be a promising way of exercise that can provoke positive effects on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status.

  16. Psychophysical demonstration of bidirectional pain modulation (sensitization and desensitization) by ascending or descending progressions of thermal stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierck, Charles J; Riley, Joseph L; Wong, Fong; King, Christopher D; Mauderli, Andre P

    2010-08-01

    A psychophysical method of response-dependent stimulation presented ascending and descending series of thermal stimulus intensities that maintained an average rating (setpoint) of mild pain (20 on a scale of 0-100) or moderate pain (35). Subjects were presented with alternating series of thermal stimuli that increased until ratings reached or exceeded the setpoint, then decreased until ratings equaled or were less than the setpoint, then increased, etc. Plots of pain intensity ratings differed substantially for series of ascending and descending stimulus intensities. After an ascending series, pain ratings during a descending series were higher than predicted, and after a descending series, pain ratings during an ascending series were lower than predicted. Thus, the nervous system detects and discriminates between ascending and descending trends in stimulus intensity and alters the magnitude of pain sensations in the direction of the trend of increasing or decreasing stimulus intensity. Ascending (sensitizing) trend effects may increase the magnitude of pathological pain in the absence of treatment, and descending (desensitizing) trend effects likely would enhance the efficacy of procedures that reduce pain sensitivity.

  17. Study of seismic activity during the ascending and descending phases of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukma, Indriani; Abidin, Zamri Zainal

    2017-06-01

    The study of the solar cycle and geomagnetic index associated with the seismic activity from the year 1901 to the end of 2015 has been done for an area that covers the majority of China and its bordering countries. Data of sunspot number, solar wind speed, daily storm time index and earthquake number are collected from NOAA, NASA, WDC, OMNI and USGS databases and websites. The earthquakes are classified into small (M < 5) and large (M ≥ 5) magnitudes (in Richter scale). We investigated the variation of earthquake activities with the geomagnetic storm index due to the solar wind. We focused on their variation in the ascending and descending phases of solar cycle. From our study, we conclude that there is a correlation between the phases' geomagnetic index and solar wind speed. We have also suggested that there is a certain degree of correlation between solar activity and seismicity in these phases. For every solar cycle, we find that there is a trend for earthquakes to occur in greater numbers during the descending phase. This can be explained by the increment in the solar wind speed and geomagnetic storm index during this phase.

  18. HLA-E polymorphisms in an Afro-descendant Southern Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho dos Santos, Luana; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Wowk, Pryscilla Fanini; Mattar, Sibelle Botogosque; Gelmini, Georgia Fernanda; Magalhães, João Carlos Marques; Bicalho, Maria da Graça; Roxo, Valéria Maria Munhoz Sperandio

    2013-02-01

    HLA-E is a non-classical I (Ib) gene which has limited polymorphism and low levels of tissue expression. Currently, 11 alleles are described in the literature with only three protein products. In the present study we investigated HLA-E gene variations at exons 2 and 3 and calculated allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies in a sample of 152 individuals who reported themselves as being Afro-descendants and who are voluntary bone marrow donors living in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The most frequent allele in the sample analyzed was the E(∗)01:01 (59.21%). The presence of the E(∗)01:04 allele was not detected suggesting that it has a very low worldwide frequency or that this allele may be an artifact of sequencing. We reported the most frequent alleles found as well as genotypes and haplotypes and compared our results with the few other studies found in the literature. This study is the first to investigate Afro-descendants from the South of Brazil. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ascending Midbrain Dopaminergic Axons Require Descending GAD65 Axon Fascicles for Normal Pathfinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Garcia-Peña

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigrostriatal pathway (NSP is formed by dopaminergic axons that project from the ventral midbrain to the dorsolateral striatum as part of the medial forebrain bundle. Previous studies have implicated chemotropic proteins in the formation of the NSP during development but little is known of the role of substrate-anchored signals in this process. We observed in mouse and rat embryos that midbrain dopaminergic axons ascend in close apposition to descending GAD65-positive axon bundles throughout their trajectory to the striatum. To test whether such interaction is important for dopaminergic axon pathfinding, we analyzed transgenic mouse embryos in which the GAD65 axon bundle was reduced by the conditional expression of the diphtheria toxin. In these embryos we observed dopaminergic misprojection into the hypothalamic region and abnormal projection in the striatum. In addition, analysis of Robo1/2 and Slit1/2 knockout embryos revealed that the previously described dopaminergic misprojection in these embryos is accompanied by severe alterations in the GAD65 axon scaffold. Additional studies with cultured dopaminergic neurons and whole embryos suggest that NCAM and Robo proteins are involved in the interaction of GAD65 and dopaminergic axons. These results indicate that the fasciculation between descending GAD65 axon bundles and ascending dopaminergic axons is required for the stereotypical NSP formation during brain development and that known guidance cues may determine this projection indirectly by instructing the pathfinding of the axons that are part of the GAD65 axon scaffold.

  20. Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... exogenous Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and ...

  1. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... two medicines that affect the body's level of serotonin are taken together at the same time. The ...

  2. Cloacal reconstruction after a complex treatment of perineal haemangioma in a variant of PELVIS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalimas, Algirdas; Posiunas, Gintas; Strupas, Sigitas; Raugalas, Ramunas; Raistenskis, Juozas; Verkauskas, Gilvydas

    2015-10-08

    PELVIS is an acronym defining the association of perineal hemangioma, malformations of external genitalia, lipomyelomeningocele, vesicorenal abnormalities, imperforate anus and skin tag. Eleven cases have been reported according to the Orphanet data. Acronyms of LUMBAR and SACRAL syndrome have been used and most probably represent a spectrum of the same entity. Very little is known about the success and timing of cloacal reconstruction after the treatment of hemangioma. We present a variant of PELVIS syndrome and discuss the possibilities and optimal timing of surgical reconstruction. Female infant was born with persistent cloaca and multiple hemangiomas of genitals, perineal area and left thigh. Colostomy was performed after birth. In order to treat hemangioma and to make the reconstruction of cloaca possible, corticosteroid treatment orally and multiple laser treatments were performed alternating Nd:YAG laser and pulsed dye laser therapy. Cystoscopy confirmed hemangiomatosis in the mucosa of the common channel, bladder neck and septate vagina. Oral propranolol treatment was started at the age of 18 months and continued for 1 year. It induced rapid improvement of hemangiomas. Two more pulsed dye laser treatments were performed to remove residuals of hemangiomas from the perineum and genital area. Posterior sagital reconstruction by separation of the rectum, mobilization of urogenital sinus and vaginal reconstruction was performed with no major bleeding at the age of 4 years. Postoperatively, after a period of progressive rectal dilatation colostomy was closed. Girl is now 6 years old, dry day and night without residual urine and normal upper tracts. Rectal calibration is normal, fecal continence is still to be evaluated but constipation is easily manageable. CT of the spine and the perineum showed sacral dysplasia and spina bifida with lumbo-sacral lipoma and tethering of terminal filum without neurological deterioration at the moment but requiring close

  3. Gardner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Gardner Syndrome Request Permissions Gardner Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 06/2014 What is Gardner syndrome? Gardner syndrome is a subtype of familial ...

  4. Y chromosomes of 40% Chinese descend from three Neolithic super-grandfathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wei, Lan-Hai; Wang, Yi; Pan, Xue-Dong; Fu, Wen-Qing; He, Yun-Gang; Xiong, Li-Jun; Jin, Wen-Fei; Li, Shi-Lin; An, Yu; Li, Hui; Jin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Demographic change of human populations is one of the central questions for delving into the past of human beings. To identify major population expansions related to male lineages, we sequenced 78 East Asian Y chromosomes at 3.9 Mbp of the non-recombining region, discovered >4,000 new SNPs, and identified many new clades. The relative divergence dates can be estimated much more precisely using a molecular clock. We found that all the Paleolithic divergences were binary; however, three strong star-like Neolithic expansions at ∼6 kya (thousand years ago) (assuming a constant substitution rate of 1×10(-9)/bp/year) indicates that ∼40% of modern Chinese are patrilineal descendants of only three super-grandfathers at that time. This observation suggests that the main patrilineal expansion in China occurred in the Neolithic Era and might be related to the development of agriculture.

  5. Spinal inhibition of descending command to soleus motoneurons is removed prior to dorsiflexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; van de Ruit, Mark; Grey, Michael James;

    2011-01-01

    of 40-45 ms, the LLF was significantly more inhibited compared to the SLF when taking the effect on the H-reflex into account. Finally, we investigated how the CPN-induced inhibition and facilitation of the soleus MEP were modulated prior to dorsiflexion. Whereas the late facilitation (CT interval: 55...... stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve (PTN) were conditioned by prior stimulation of the common peroneal nerve (CPN) at a variety of conditioning-test (CT) intervals.MEPs in the precontracted soleus muscle were inhibited when the TMS pulse was preceded by CPN stimulation with a CT interval of 35 ms......, and they were facilitated for CT intervals of 50-55 ms. A similar inhibition of the soleus H-reflex was not observed. To investigate which descending pathways might be responsible for the afferent-evoked inhibition and facilitation, we examined the effect of CPN stimulation on short-latency facilitation (SLF...

  6. Rescue AVE Stent Placement for Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Occlusion During Diagnostic Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk D; Ernst; Six; Plokker

    1996-06-01

    In a 65-year-old male with coronary artery disease a proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery occurred during diagnostic coronary angiography. The most likely cause was an occlusive dissection. This resulted in acute myocardial ischemia and immediate cardiogenic shock. The decision was made to proceed to emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). After balloon dilatation, a 3.5 mm AVE stent was deployed successfully at the site of the lesion. This resulted in a satisfactory angiographic result and an immediate improvement of the clinical picture. We conclude that placement of an AVE stent can provide a means for restoring flow in case of acute occlusive dissection during coronary angiography.

  7. Revisiting colostomy irrigation: a viable option for persons with permanent descending and sigmoid colostomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Dea J; Arnold Long, Mary; Bauer, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation (CI) is the regular irrigation of the bowel for persons with a permanent colostomy of the descending or sigmoid colon. Although this technique was first described in the 1920s, a recent study of 985 WOC nurses found that almost half (47%) do not routinely teach CI to persons with colostomies. In a systematic review (Evidence-Based Report Card) published in this issue of the Journal, we summarized current best evidence concerning the effect of CI on bowel function and found that irrigation reduces the frequency of bowel elimination episodes and allows some patients to reduce or eliminate ongoing use of a pouching system. This article describes techniques for teaching CI and discussed additional findings associated with CI.

  8. Hysteresis in response to descending and ascending lower-body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Clare Marie; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Kenney, Richard A.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the indices of fluid redistribution and cardiovascular responses during graduated orthostatic stress were measured in 12 men subjected for 25 min to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) test protocol that involved stepwise decreases (from the starting pressure of -8 to the final -50 mm Hg), followed by stepwise increases (back to -8 mm Hg) of LBNP. The values of many variables measured during the descending phase of LBNP were significantly different from the respective values measured during the ascending phase. These differences appear to be caused by a component of fluid translocation that occurs during LBNP and cannot be reversed within the duration of the procedure. It is hypothesized that this slowly-reversed component is the sequestration of fluid in the interstitial and the lymphatic compartments.

  9. A hierarchical layout design method based on rubber band potentialenergy descending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Cheng Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strip packing problems is one important sub-problem of the Cutting stock problems. Its application domains include sheet metal, ship making, wood, furniture, garment, shoes and glass. In this paper, a hierarchical layout design method based on rubber band potential-energy descending was proposed. The basic concept of the rubber band enclosing model was described in detail. We divided the layout process into three different stages: initial layout stage, rubber band enclosing stage and local adjustment stage. In different stages, the most efficient strategies were employed for further improving the layout solution. Computational results show that the proposed method performed better than the GLSHA algorithm for three out of nine instances in utilization.

  10. Guidance studies for curved, descending approaches using the Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Results for the Microwave Landing System (MLS) guidance algorithm development conducted under the Advance Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Technology Studies (NAS1-16202) are documented. The study consisted of evaluating guidance law for vertical and lateral path control, as well as speed control, for approaches not possible with the present Instrument Landing System (ILS) equipment. Several specific approaches were simulated using the MD-80 aircraft simulation program, including curved, descending (segmented glide slope), and decelerating paths. Emphasis was placed on development of guidance algorithms specifically for approaches at Burbank, where proposed flight demonstrations are planned. Results of this simulation phase are suitable for use in future fixed base simulator evaluations employing actual hardware (autopilot and a performance management system).

  11. Disability and progression in Afro-descendant patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurenção, Juliana Calvet Kallenbach; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina Ferreira; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais

    2016-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence is higher in Caucasian (CA) populations, narrowing the analysis of the impact of Afro-descendant (AD) populations in disease outcomes. Even so, recent studies observed that AD patients have a more severe course. The main objective of this study is to confirm and discuss, through a systematic review, that being AD is a risk factor for disability accumulation and/or severe progression in patients with MS. A systematic review of published data in the last eleven years was performed, which evaluated clinical aspects and long term disability in patients with MS. Fourteen studies were included. Of these fourteen articles, thirteen observed a relationship between ancestry and poorer outcome of MS. African ancestry is a condition inherent in the patient and should be considered as an initial clinical characteristic affecting prognosis, and influencing which therapeutic decision to make in initial phases.

  12. Disability and progression in Afro-descendant patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Calvet Kallenbach Aurenção

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS prevalence is higher in Caucasian (CA populations, narrowing the analysis of the impact of Afro-descendant (AD populations in disease outcomes. Even so, recent studies observed that AD patients have a more severe course. The main objective of this study is to confirm and discuss, through a systematic review, that being AD is a risk factor for disability accumulation and/or severe progression in patients with MS. A systematic review of published data in the last eleven years was performed, which evaluated clinical aspects and long term disability in patients with MS. Fourteen studies were included. Of these fourteen articles, thirteen observed a relationship between ancestry and poorer outcome of MS. African ancestry is a condition inherent in the patient and should be considered as an initial clinical characteristic affecting prognosis, and influencing which therapeutic decision to make in initial phases.

  13. Pregnant Students Of Secondary Schools As Descendants Of Unwed Mothers Some Lessons To Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenda M. Wamelda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study was designed to determine the experiences of pregnant secondary school students aged 12-19 students who were descendants of unwed mothers. In-depth-interview and focus group discussion were applied with 14 pregnant students who were utilized in selecting the participants of the study. The participants revealed that their experiences were on humiliation and disdain remorse fear and insecurity escape and remediation support and love financial constraints and acquiescence. Their coping mechanisms were being positive about the situation having the aid and support of the family faith and hope to the divine God and the wisdom of the family. Importantly the teenage mothers valued the lessons learned from the experience the values of resilience and elasticity resolution and repentance for what they have done and hopes and dreams for the future.

  14. Form factors of descendant operators: $A^{(1)}_{L-1}$ affine Toda theory

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the free field representation we obtain exact form factors of local operators in the two-dimensional affine Toda theories of the $A^{(1)}_{L-1}$ series. The construction generalizes Lukyanov's well-known construction to the case of descendant operators. Besides, we propose a free field representation with a countable number of generators for the `stripped' form factors, which generalizes the recent proposal for the sine/sinh-Gordon model. As a check of the construction we compare numbers of the operators defined by these form factors in level subspaces of the chiral sectors with the corresponding numbers in the Lagrangian formalism. We argue that the construction provides a correct counting for operators with both chiralities. At last we study the properties of the operators with respect to the Weyl group. We show that for generic values of parameters there exist Weyl invariant analytic families of the bases in the level subspaces.

  15. CSOS models descending from chiral Potts models: degeneracy of the eigenspace and loop algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au-Yang, Helen; Perk, Jacques H. H.

    2016-04-01

    Monodromy matrices of the {{\\boldsymbol{τ }}}2\\phantom{^{\\prime }} model are known to satisfy a Yang-Baxter equation with a six-vertex R-matrix as the intertwiner. The commutation relations of the elements of the monodromy matrices are completely determined by this R-matrix. We show the reason why in the superintegrable case the eigenspace is degenerate, but not in the general case. We then show that the eigenspaces of special CSOS models descending from the chiral Potts model are also degenerate. The existence of an L({{sl}}2) quantum loop algebra (or subalgebra) in these models is established by showing that the Serre relations hold for the generators. The highest weight polynomial (or the Drinfeld polynomial) of the representation is obtained by using the method of Baxter for the superintegrable case. As a byproduct, the eigenvalues of all such CSOS models are given explicitly.

  16. Y chromosomes of 40% Chinese descend from three Neolithic super-grandfathers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yan

    Full Text Available Demographic change of human populations is one of the central questions for delving into the past of human beings. To identify major population expansions related to male lineages, we sequenced 78 East Asian Y chromosomes at 3.9 Mbp of the non-recombining region, discovered >4,000 new SNPs, and identified many new clades. The relative divergence dates can be estimated much more precisely using a molecular clock. We found that all the Paleolithic divergences were binary; however, three strong star-like Neolithic expansions at ∼6 kya (thousand years ago (assuming a constant substitution rate of 1×10(-9/bp/year indicates that ∼40% of modern Chinese are patrilineal descendants of only three super-grandfathers at that time. This observation suggests that the main patrilineal expansion in China occurred in the Neolithic Era and might be related to the development of agriculture.

  17. [[Technology Surgical Intervention in Ulcerative Colitis Modeling Descending Part of the Colon in Rats Line "Wistar"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A D; Petuhova, S A; Chashkova, Ye Y U; Gol'dberg, O A; Shedoeva, L R

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune inflammatory condition of the colon with an unknown aetiology, leading to disability and reduced quality of life of patients. UC primarily affects young adults. In most cases, inflammatory bowel disease (iBD) debuts at reproductive age. The incidence of UC and severe clinical course has increased overall across the world. The study of the mechanisms of pathogenesis and aetiology of this disease contributes to the development of new effective methods of treatment. The aim of our study was to develop technology of the surgery directed to induction of reversible ischemic damage, the erosive-ulceration of gut mucosae (descending colon) at rats of the WISTAR line. Experimental research was done using male rats (n=40), their age was more than 6 months, weight of body is 280 - 350 grams. The animals were separated into 3 groups: 1 - (n=14) Sholimov's operative method, 2 group (n=16) - model using special technology, 3 group (n=10) - Coopr's H. S. induction ulcerative colitis. Observation was been done during 10 days. We offered special surgical technique: parietal ligation on every vasa recta of colon descendens of rats the length 3 cm along colon, on the apex vesicae and then vasa recta are cut. Then during 7 days 1% solution of dextran sulfate sodium (DSN) was given for experimental animals after postoperative period. By the histolog- ical biopsy of colon mucosa the results were estimated. we have created erosive-ulceration of gut mucosae (descending colon) of rat with productive inflam- mation, vasculitis and plasmatic impregnation of the vessel walls and intimal thickening. Our model of ulcerative colitis can be used for the development and testing of new methods for the study and treatment of this pathology.

  18. Quantification of progression and regression of descending thoracic aortic wall thickness by enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kenichi; Takasu, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Rie; Taguchi, Rie; Itani, Yasutaka; Ito, Yuichi; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify the usefulness of the quantification of aortic wall involvement by enhanced computed tomography (CT). One-hundred thirteen Japanese patients underwent two enhanced CT of the descending thoracic aorta at intervals. We sliced the descending thoracic aorta continuously from the level of the tracheal bifurcation with 1 cm intervals, and we defined aortic wall volume (AWV) (cm{sup 3}) as the sum of a 7-slice area of aortic wall involving calcification. The average of AWV increased from 7.95{+-}2.92 cm{sup 3} to 8.70{+-}2.98 cm{sup 3}. The developmental rate of AWV ({delta}AWV) was 0.270{+-}0.281 cm{sup 3}/year. {delta}AWV did not have a significant correlation with any risk factor at the baseline. {delta}AWV had significant correlation with total cholesterol, (LDL-C) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and LDL-C/(HDL-C) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio at the follow-up, and by multivariate analysis with only the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. {delta}AWV was not correlated with the intake status of hypoglycemic, antihypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs. The cut-off level of total cholesterol with the most significant odds ratio for progression of aortic wall was 190 mg/dl, and that of LDL-C was 130 mg/dl. This method proved to be useful for the non-invasive assessment of aortic wall thickness. (author)

  19. Babinski reflex by sural stimulation and dysfunction of descending motor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, H; Bahşi, Y Z; Yurdakul, M

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the study was to find out the relationship between the Babinski reflex and flexor polysynaptic reflexes which was evaluated by sural nerve stimulation, and to evaluate the descending motor pathway in involvement by cervical and transcortical cranial stimulation (TCCS) in a group of patients that were diagnosed as having the Babinski sign with either hemiparetic of hemiplegic, due to a cerebrovascular accident. In the normal population no significant responses were seen from the EHL by sural stimulation and these responses were recorded from the BF with a latency of 88 msec. In the patients who had Babinski reflex responses, signs could be easily recorded from EHL by sural stimulation with a latency of 166 msec. In this group, reflex responses from the BF were recorded with a latency of approximately 100 msec. Responses from the EHL were evaluated in 100% ratio by TCCS with a latency of 33.4 msec. in the normal group. The responses recorded from EHL by TCCS and latency was 47.5 msec. in 35.7% of the patients, who having Babinski sign. In 100% of the normal population, responses were evaluated with a latency of 28.8 msec. from EHL by cervical stimulation. In only 55% of the patients having the Babinski sign, responses were recorded in the same limb with a latency was 32.3 msec. These results support a different mechanism that control the EHL muscle in comparison to the BF muscle having dysfunction of descending motor tracts due to a pyramidal lesion.

  20. Nutritional profile in children under five years of Afro-descendant communities in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sánchez-Bernal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Paraguay, little is known about the Afro-descendant population. It is important to know about their nutritional status, mainly in childhood, to guide appropriate action. Objective: To determine the nutritional profile of children under five years from the African descendants’ communities in Paraguay and its associated factors. Material and methods: A cross-sectional and observational design with analytical component was developed. It involved healthy male and female children under five years old, with at least one African descendant as immediate family. Dietary habits and nutritional status (WHO criteria were assessed. WHO Anthro and SPSS 16.0 software were used. Results: 150 children were included. The median of age was 26.9 months (1.2-59.9 m, and 50.7% were males. The median maternal age was 28.3 years (16-49 years. Children with Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF, n=119 had a mean duration of 3.5±1.8 months (1-7m. 26.9% were exclusively breastfed during six months. The starting of complementary feeding was on average 5.2 months. The underweight prevalence (UW, zP/E 0.05. Children with UW had a lower average of age of onset of complementary feeding (1.7 vs 4.9 months, p˂0.0001 compare with their pairs without malnutrition. Conclusion: Chronic malnutrition was the most prevalent chronic disease affecting over 1 in 10 children. Early initiation of complementary feeding could be a risk factor for malnutrition.

  1. Infections of the neck leading to descending necrotizing mediastinitis: Role of multi-detector row computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Antonio [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: antopin1968@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano; Scuderi, Maria Giuseppina; Tortora, Giovanni; Daniele, Stefania; Romano, Luigia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is an acute, polymicrobial infection of the mediastinum, originating from odontogenic, oropharyngeal and cervical infections. Anatomical continuity of the fascial spaces between the neck and the mediastinum leads to an occasional mediastinal extension of deep neck infection as a serious sequela. An understanding of the anatomy of the deep spaces of the neck and familiarity with the imaging findings in descending necrotizing mediastinitis may allow rapid diagnosis and treatment of this rare and life-threatening complication of deep neck space infection. In this article, we discuss the current role of radiology in diagnosing descending necrotizing mediastinitis, in determining the level of infection and the pathways of spread of infections from the neck to the mediastinum and in planning a successful treatment.

  2. Effects of a low-center-of-gravity backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a backpack with a low center of gravity (LCG) and investigated the effects of the LCG backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males aged 20-32 years were recruited. The subjects ascended and descended a road with an inclination of 30 degrees wearing the standard or LCG backpack, and trunk acceleration was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. [Results] The anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) trunk acceleration while ascending and descending with the LCG backpack were significantly lower than those with the standard backpack. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the LCG backpack could prevent falling injuries during mountaineering and mountain-related activities.

  3. Effects of a low-center-of-gravity backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a backpack with a low center of gravity (LCG) and investigated the effects of the LCG backpack on the trunk stability of mountaineers while ascending and descending. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males aged 20–32 years were recruited. The subjects ascended and descended a road with an inclination of 30 degrees wearing the standard or LCG backpack, and trunk acceleration was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. [Results] The anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) trunk acceleration while ascending and descending with the LCG backpack were significantly lower than those with the standard backpack. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the LCG backpack could prevent falling injuries during mountaineering and mountain-related activities. PMID:26644687

  4. Renyi entanglement entropies of descendant states in critical systems with boundaries: conformal field theory and spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, Luca; Ortolani, Fabio; Pálmai, Tamás

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the Renyi entanglement entropies of descendant states in critical one-dimensional systems with boundaries, that map to boundary conformal field theories in the scaling limit. We unify the previous conformal-field-theory approaches to describe primary and descendant states in systems with both open and closed boundaries. We provide universal expressions for the first two descendants in the identity family. We apply our technique to critical systems belonging to different universality classes with non-trivial boundary conditions that preserve conformal invariance, and find excellent agreement with numerical results obtained for finite spin chains. We also demonstrate that entanglement entropies are a powerful tool to resolve degeneracy of higher excited states in critical lattice models.

  5. Application effects of nursing midwifery of modified low forceps delivery combined with unprotected perineum for primipara%改良式低位产钳术联合无保护会阴助产护理在初产妇中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅丽; 黄定根; 张海清; 黄月红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the application effects of nursing midwifery of modified low forceps delivery combined with unprotected perineum for primipara. Methods 214 primipara with single birth in our hospital from October 2012 to June 2014 were selected.They were assigned to two groups based on a random number table,107 patients in each group.Control group was given nursing midwifery of modified low forceps delivery,and observation group was given nursing midwifery of modified low forceps delivery combined with unprotected perineum.Nursing effects between two groups of primipara were compared. Results The second stage of labor,amount of bleeding during delivery,amount of bleeding after delivery and hospitalization time in observation group was significantly shorter or lower than that in con-trol group respectively.Apgar scores was significantly higher than that in control group,and the incidences of complica-tions(perineum abrasion,degreeⅠ laceration,degreeII laceration,urinary retention and infections) was significantly low-er than that in control group respectively,with statistical difference(P<0.05). Conclusion Nursing midwifery of modified low forceps delivery combined with unprotected perineum is able to improve the delivery quality,significantly shorter delivery time and recovery time,and has few injuries and less complications,which is worthy of clinical promotion and application.%目的:探讨改良式低位产钳术联合无保护会阴助产护理在初产妇中的应用效果。方法选取本院2012年10月~2014年6月单胎初产妇214例,采用随机数字表法分为两组,每组107例。对照组采用改良式低位产钳术助产护理,观察组采用改良式低位产钳术联合无保护会阴助产护理,比较两组产妇的护理效果。结果观察组产妇第二产程、住院时间均明显短于对照组,产时出血量、产后出血量均明显少于对照组,新生儿Apgar评分明显高于对照组,并发症(会阴黏

  6. Semi-automated segmentation of the sigmoid and descending colon for radiotherapy planning using the fast marching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegård, Are; Bolstad Hysing, Liv; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid

    2010-09-01

    A fast and accurate segmentation of organs at risk, such as the healthy colon, would be of benefit for planning of radiotherapy, in particular in an adaptive scenario. For the treatment of pelvic tumours, a great challenge is the segmentation of the most adjacent and sensitive parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the sigmoid and descending colon. We propose a semi-automated method to segment these bowel parts using the fast marching (FM) method. Standard 3D computed tomography (CT) image data obtained from routine radiotherapy planning were used. Our pre-processing steps distinguish the intestine, muscles and air from connective tissue. The core part of our method separates the sigmoid and descending colon from the muscles and other segments of the intestine. This is done by utilizing the ability of the FM method to compute a specified minimal energy functional integrated along a path, and thereby extracting the colon centre line between user-defined control points in the sigmoid and descending colon. Further, we reconstruct the tube-shaped geometry of the sigmoid and descending colon by fitting ellipsoids to points on the path and by adding adjacent voxels that are likely voxels belonging to these bowel parts. Our results were compared to manually outlined sigmoid and descending colon, and evaluated using the Dice coefficient (DC). Tests on 11 patients gave an average DC of 0.83 (±0.07) with little user interaction. We conclude that the proposed method makes it possible to fast and accurately segment the sigmoid and descending colon from routine CT image data.

  7. Semi-automated segmentation of the sigmoid and descending colon for radiotherapy planning using the fast marching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegård, Are; Hysing, Liv Bolstad; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid

    2010-09-21

    A fast and accurate segmentation of organs at risk, such as the healthy colon, would be of benefit for planning of radiotherapy, in particular in an adaptive scenario. For the treatment of pelvic tumours, a great challenge is the segmentation of the most adjacent and sensitive parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the sigmoid and descending colon. We propose a semi-automated method to segment these bowel parts using the fast marching (FM) method. Standard 3D computed tomography (CT) image data obtained from routine radiotherapy planning were used. Our pre-processing steps distinguish the intestine, muscles and air from connective tissue. The core part of our method separates the sigmoid and descending colon from the muscles and other segments of the intestine. This is done by utilizing the ability of the FM method to compute a specified minimal energy functional integrated along a path, and thereby extracting the colon centre line between user-defined control points in the sigmoid and descending colon. Further, we reconstruct the tube-shaped geometry of the sigmoid and descending colon by fitting ellipsoids to points on the path and by adding adjacent voxels that are likely voxels belonging to these bowel parts. Our results were compared to manually outlined sigmoid and descending colon, and evaluated using the Dice coefficient (DC). Tests on 11 patients gave an average DC of 0.83 (+/-0.07) with little user interaction. We conclude that the proposed method makes it possible to fast and accurately segment the sigmoid and descending colon from routine CT image data.

  8. PRESENT-DAY DESCENDANTS OF z = 3 Ly{alpha}-EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II HALO MERGER TREES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker-Soler, Jean P.; Gawiser, Eric [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bond, Nicholas A. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold, E-mail: jpwalker@physics.rutgers.edu [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-06-20

    Using the Millennium-II Simulation dark matter sub-halo merger histories, we created mock catalogs of Ly{alpha}-emitting (LAE) galaxies at z = 3.1 to study the properties of their descendants. Several models were created by selecting the sub-halos to match the number density and typical dark matter mass determined from observations of these galaxies. We used mass-based and age-based selection criteria to study their effects on descendant populations at z {approx_equal} 2, 1, and 0. For the models that best represent LAEs at z = 3.1, the z = 0 descendants have a median dark matter halo mass of 10{sup 12.7} M{sub Sun }, with a wide scatter in masses (50% between 10{sup 11.8} and 10{sup 13.7} M{sub Sun }). Our study differentiated between central and satellite sub-halos and found that {approx}55% of z = 0 descendants are central sub-halos with M{sub Median} {approx} 10{sup 12}. This confirms that central z = 0 descendants of z = 3.1 LAEs have halo masses typical of L*-type galaxies. The satellite sub-halos reside in group/cluster environments with dark matter masses around 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. The median descendant mass is robust to various methods of age determination, but it could vary by a factor of five due to current observational uncertainties in the clustering of LAEs used to determine their typical z = 3.1 dark matter mass.

  9. R\\'enyi entanglement entropies of descendant states in critical systems with boundaries: conformal field theory and spin chains

    CERN Document Server

    Taddia, Luca; Pálmai, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the R\\'enyi entanglement entropies of descendant states in critical one-dimensional systems with boundaries, that map to boundary conformal field theories (CFT) in the scaling limit. We unify the previous CFT approaches to describe primary and descendant states in systems with both open and closed boundaries. We apply the technique to critical systems belonging to different universality classes with non-trivial boundary conditions that preserve conformal invariance, and compare the results to numerical data obtained on finite spin chains.

  10. Dual Arterial Access for Stenting of Aortic Coarctation in Patients with Near-Total Descending Aortic Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Tahir; Jamallulail, Syed Ibrahim; Clarke, Bernard; Mahadevan, Vaikom S

    2015-12-01

    Endovascular stenting is a recognized treatment strategy for the treatment of coarctation of aorta (COA) in adults. The aortic coarctation is usually crossed retrogradely from the descending aorta via the femoral approach. We report three patients who had near-total descending aortic interruption and underwent successful stenting of severe COA using a combined radial/brachial and femoral approach due to difficulty in crossing the lesion retrogradely via a femoral approach. There were no procedural complications and no adverse events during 6 months of follow-up.

  11. Electrocardiographic Changes in Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mehdi Peighambari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background- Mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVP is most common valvular abnormality in young and is correlated with increased frequency of cardiac dysrhythmias and sudden death. The aim of this study was to compare frequency of "early repolarization" in electrocardiogram (ECG between MVP patients and healthy adults. Methods- In this cross-sectional study, we compared ECG presentations of early repolarization including notch in descending arm of QRS and J-point and/or ST segment changes in 100 patients with MVP with 100 healthy individuals. MVP patients were referred to cardiology clinic with symptoms of palpitation, chest pain or anxiety. Results-The mean age in patients with MVP was significantly less than healthy subjects (29.5 ± 9.3 years versus 31.0 ± 6.9 years in control group, p=0.1967. We detected an early repolarization as a prevalent sign in ECG of patients, which was a notch in descending arm of QRS and/or ST segment or J-point elevation seen in 74% of patients ( 51% in inferior leads and 23% in I and aVL leads , whilst the same findings was seen in 8 men (8% in control group (p=0.0001. Conclusion- Early repolarization in ECG presented as a notch in descending arm of QRS and/or ST segment or J-point elevation is more frequent in in young patients with MVP syndrome.

  12. Percutaneous coronary intervention with ABSORB biodegradable vascular scaffold in patients with left anterior descending artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. М. Ваккосов

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article evaluates 30-day results of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with ABSORB biodegradable vascular scaffold (BVS implanted in the case of stenosis of the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery in patients with stable angina.Methods. 64 patients with significant (≥ 70% LAD disease were included in the study. At 30 days, scaffold thrombosis and major adverse cardiovascular events (all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, target vessel revascularization were evaluated. The indicator of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (residual stenosis ≤20% in the presence of counterpulsation corresponding to TIMI 3rd Grade and in the absence of significant in-patient clinical complications and successful intervention assessed by clinical criteria (successful percutaneous coronary intervention alongside with a decrease in objective and subjective symptoms of myocardial ischemia, or their complete disappearance were also analyzed. Results. Mean age of patients was 61.6±8.5 years, with males accounting for 64%; 33% had earlier MI, 14% – diabetes mellitus. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 61.3±6.8%. Left anterior descending artery disease was presented in 89% of patients with SYNTAX Score 6.6±2.2. Mean number of implanted stents was 1.2±0.4, with mean length of the stented segment equal to18.7±1.8 mm and mean diameter 3.2±0.3 mm. At 30-day follow-up, the success of intervention assessed by clinical criteria amounted to 96.9% (n=62; that of myocardial infarction 3.1% (n=2; stent thrombosis 1.56% (n=1; repeated revascularization 1.56% (n=1; major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE 3.1%.Conclusion. The implantation of everolimus-eluting BVS for LAD stenosis demonstrates satisfactory results at 30-day follow-up.Received 16 January 2017. Accepted 21 March 2017.Financing: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  13. Norovirus diversity in diarrheic children from an African-descendant settlement in Belem, Northern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicélia Cruz Aragão

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV, sapovirus (SaV and human astrovirus (HAstV are viral pathogens that are associated with outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the occurrence of these pathogens in relatively isolated communities, such as the remnants of African-descendant villages ("Quilombola". The objective of this study was the frequency determination of these viruses in children under 10 years, with and without gastroenteritis, from a "Quilombola" Community, Northern Brazil. A total of 159 stool samples were obtained from April/2008 to July/2010 and tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to detect NoV, SaV and HAstV, and further molecular characterization was performed. These viruses were detected only in the diarrheic group. NoV was the most frequent viral agent detected (19.7%-16/81, followed by SaV (2.5%-2/81 and HAstV (1.2%-1/81. Of the 16 NoV-positive samples, 14 were sequenced with primers targeting the B region of the polymerase (ORF1 and the D region of the capsid (ORF2. The results showed a broad genetic diversity of NoV, with 12 strains being classified as GII-4 (5-41.7%, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-7 (2-16.7%, GII-17 (1-8.3% and GI-2 (1-8.3%, as based on the polymerase region; 12 samples were classified, based on the capsid region, as GII-4 (6-50%, being 3-2006b variant and 3-2010 variant, GII-6 (3-25%, GII-17 (2-16.7% and GII-20 (1-8.3%. One NoV-strain showed dual genotype specificity, based on the polymerase and capsid region (GII-7/GII-20. This study provides, for the first time, epidemiological and molecular information on the circulation of NoV, SaV and HAstV in African-descendant communities in Northern Brazil and identifies NoV genotypes that were different from those detected previously in studies conducted in the urban area of Belém. It remains to be determined why a broader NoV diversity was observed in such a semi-isolated community.

  14. On being Dutch and Muslim: descendants of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants speak out about identity and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.

    2009-01-01

    It's quite possible for descendants of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants (i.e.the Second Generation) to combine strong feelings of belonging to different social groups, such as feeling "Amsterdammer", "Rotterdammer", "Dutch" and Muslim.A fair percentage of the Second Generation does not practise their

  15. On being Dutch and Muslim: descendants of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants speak out about identity and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.

    2009-01-01

    It's quite possible for descendants of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants (i.e.the Second Generation) to combine strong feelings of belonging to different social groups, such as feeling "Amsterdammer", "Rotterdammer", "Dutch" and Muslim.A fair percentage of the Second Generation does not practise their

  16. Inter-observer variation in delineation of the heart and left anterior descending coronary artery in radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ebbe L.; Taylor, Carolyn W.; Maraldo, Maja;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine the extent of inter-observer variation in delineation of the heart and left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) and its impact on estimated doses. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nine observers from five centres delineated the heart and LADCA on fifteen patient...

  17. Collateralization of the pathways descending from the cerebral cortex to brain stem and spinal cord in cat and monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Keizer (Koos)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe present study deals with the collateralization of the descending pathways from the cerebral cortex to the brain stem and the spinal cord in cat and monkey. The distributions of the branching cortical neurons were studied using retrograde fluorescent tracers. In addition, a new retrog

  18. Marriage and divorce of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants and their second-generation descendants make up more than a quarter of the current Swedish population. Their nuptiality patterns can be viewed as crucial indicators of their integration into Swedish society. Objective: This study provides data on levels of and patterns in marriage formation, divorce, and re-marriage of people in Sweden, by country of origin. Methods: The study is based on analyses of longitudinal register data that cover all residents born in 1951 and later who ever lived in Sweden during 1983−2007. Kaplan-Meier survivor functions demonstrate levels in nuptiality; multivariate event-history analyses demonstrate relative risks of marriage formation and divorce, by country group of origin. Results: We find evidence of variation among immigrant groups and between migrants and Swedish-born people in marriage and divorce patterns. A few groups of migrants have relatively high churning rates in family dynamics, with high levels of marriage formation, divorce, and re-marriage. Conclusions: Many factors relate to the nuptiality behavior of immigrants in Sweden. Differences in family systems seem to have some influence on behavior in the contemporary Swedish context. Other factors relate to the migration process itself and to the selectivity of migrants to Sweden.

  19. Descending bulbospinal pathways and recovery of respiratory motor function following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinit, Stéphane; Kastner, Anne

    2009-11-30

    The rodent respiratory system is a relevant model for study of the intrinsic post-lesion mechanisms of neuronal plasticity and resulting recovery after high cervical spinal cord injury. An unilateral cervical injury (hemisection, lateral section or contusion) interrupts unilaterally bulbospinal respiratory pathways to phrenic motor neurons innervating the diaphragm and leads to important respiratory defects on the injured side. However, the ipsilateral phrenic nerve exhibits a spontaneous and progressive recovery with post-lesion time. Shortly after a lateral injury, this partial recovery depends on the activation of contralateral pathways that cross the spinal midline caudal to the injury. Activation of these crossed phrenic pathways after the injury depends on the integrity of phrenic sensory afferents. These pathways are located principally in the lateral part of the spinal cord and involve 30% of the medullary respiratory neurons. By contrast, in chronic post-lesion conditions, the medial part of the spinal cord becomes sufficient to trigger substantial ipsilateral respiratory drive. Thus, after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury, respiratory reactivation is associated with a time-dependent anatomo-functional reorganization of the bulbospinal respiratory descending pathways, which represents an adaptative strategy for functional compensation.

  20. Real-time gait event detection for transfemoral amputees during ramp ascending and descending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, H F; Husman, M A B; Awad, M I; Abouhossein, A; Dehghani-Sanij, A A

    2015-01-01

    Events and phases detection of the human gait are vital for controlling prosthesis, orthosis and functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems. Wearable sensors are inexpensive, portable and have fast processing capability. They are frequently used to assess spatio-temporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters of the human gait which in turn provide more details about the human voluntary control and ampute-eprosthesis interaction. This paper presents a reliable real-time gait event detection algorithm based on simple heuristics approach, applicable to signals from tri-axial gyroscope for lower limb amputees during ramp ascending and descending. Experimental validation is done by comparing the results of gyroscope signal with footswitches. For healthy subjects, the mean difference between events detected by gyroscope and footswitches is 14 ms and 10.5 ms for initial contact (IC) whereas for toe off (TO) it is -5 ms and -25 ms for ramp up and down respectively. For transfemoral amputee, the error is slightly higher either due to the placement of footswitches underneath the foot or the lack of proper knee flexion and ankle plantarflexion/dorsiflexion during ramp up and down. Finally, repeatability tests showed promising results.

  1. On the weighted enumeration of Alternating Sign Matrices and Descending Plane Partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Behrend, R E; Zinn-Justin, P

    2011-01-01

    We prove a conjecture of Mills, Robbins and Rumsey [J. Combin. Theory Ser. A 34, 340--359 (1983)] that, for any n, k, m and p, the number of nxn alternating sign matrices (ASMs) for which the 1 of the first row is in column k+1 and there are exactly m -1's and m+p inversions is equal to the number of descending plane partitions (DPPs) for which each part is at most n and there are exactly k parts equal to n, m special parts and p nonspecial parts. The proof involves expressing the associated generating functions for ASMs and DPPs with fixed n as determinants of nxn matrices, and using elementary transformations to show that these determinants are equal. The determinants themselves are obtained by standard methods: for ASMs this involves using the Izergin--Korepin formula for the partition function of the six-vertex model with domain-wall boundary conditions, together with a bijection between ASMs and configurations of this model, and for DPPs it involves using the Lindstrom--Gessel--Viennot theorem, together ...

  2. Central terminal sensitization of TRPV1 by descending serotonergic facilitation modulates chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Shin; Chu, Yuxia; Han, Liang; Li, Man; Li, Zhe; Lavinka, Pamela Colleen; Sun, Shuohao; Tang, Zongxiang; Park, Kyoungsook; Caterina, Michael J; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald; Wei, Feng; Dong, Xinzhong

    2014-02-19

    The peripheral terminals of primary nociceptive neurons play an essential role in pain detection mediated by membrane receptors like TRPV1, a molecular sensor of heat and capsaicin. However, the contribution of central terminal TRPV1 in the dorsal horn to chronic pain has not been investigated directly. Combining primary sensory neuron-specific GCaMP3 imaging with a trigeminal neuropathic pain model, we detected robust neuronal hyperactivity in injured and uninjured nerves in the skin, soma in trigeminal ganglion, and central terminals in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Extensive TRPV1 hyperactivity was observed in central terminals innervating all dorsal horn laminae. The central terminal TRPV1 sensitization was maintained by descending serotonergic (5-HT) input from the brainstem. Central blockade of TRPV1 or 5-HT/5-HT3A receptors attenuated central terminal sensitization, excitatory primary afferent inputs, and mechanical hyperalgesia in the territories of injured and uninjured nerves. Our results reveal central mechanisms facilitating central terminal sensitization underlying chronic pain.

  3. Adaptation of active tone in the mouse descending thoracic aorta under acute changes in loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtada, S-I; Lewin, S; Arner, A; Humphrey, J D

    2016-06-01

    Arteries can adapt to sustained changes in blood pressure and flow, and it is thought that these adaptive processes often begin with an altered smooth muscle cell activity that precedes any detectable changes in the passive wall components. Yet, due to the intrinsic coupling between the active and passive properties of the arterial wall, it has been difficult to delineate the adaptive contributions of active smooth muscle. To address this need, we used a novel experimental-computational approach to quantify adaptive functions of active smooth muscle in arterial rings excised from the proximal descending thoracic aorta of mice and subjected to short-term sustained circumferential stretches while stimulated with various agonists. A new mathematical model of the adaptive processes was derived and fit to data to describe and predict the effects of active tone adaptation. It was found that active tone was maintained when the artery was adapted close to the optimal stretch for maximal active force production, but it was reduced when adapted below the optimal stretch; there was no significant change in passive behavior in either case. Such active adaptations occurred only upon smooth muscle stimulation with phenylephrine, however, not stimulation with KCl or angiotensin II. Numerical simulations using the proposed model suggested further that active tone adaptation in vascular smooth muscle could play a stabilizing role for wall stress in large elastic arteries.

  4. Discovery of magnetic A supergiants: the descendants of magnetic main-sequence B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, Coralie; Oksala, Mary E.; Georgy, Cyril; Przybilla, Norbert; Mathis, Stéphane; Wade, Gregg; Kondrak, Matthias; Fossati, Luca; Blazère, Aurore; Buysschaert, Bram; Grunhut, Jason

    2017-10-01

    In the context of the high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio, high sensitivity, spectropolarimetric survey BritePol, which complements observations by the BRITE constellation of nanosatellites for asteroseismology, we are looking for and measuring the magnetic field of all stars brighter than V = 4. In this paper, we present circularly polarized spectra obtained with HarpsPol at ESO in La Silla (Chile) and ESPaDOnS at CFHT (Hawaii) for three hot evolved stars: ι Car, HR 3890 and ε CMa. We detected a magnetic field in all three stars. Each star has been observed several times to confirm the magnetic detections and check for variability. The stellar parameters of the three objects were determined and their evolutionary status was ascertained employing evolution models computed with the Geneva code. ε CMa was already known and is confirmed to be magnetic, but our modelling indicates that it is located near the end of the main sequence, i.e. it is still in a core hydrogen burning phase. ι Car and HR 3890 are the first discoveries of magnetic hot supergiants located well after the end of the main sequence on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. These stars are probably the descendants of main-sequence magnetic massive stars. Their current field strength (a few G) is compatible with magnetic flux conservation during stellar evolution. These results provide observational constraints for the development of future evolutionary models of hot stars including a fossil magnetic field.

  5. Dynamics of coronal rain and descending plasma blobs in solar prominences. I. Fully ionized case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khodachenko, M. L., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2014-03-20

    Observations of active regions and limb prominences often show cold, dense blobs descending with an acceleration smaller than that of free fall. The dynamics of these condensations falling in the solar corona is investigated in this paper using a simple fully ionized plasma model. We find that the presence of a heavy condensation gives rise to a dynamical rearrangement of the coronal pressure that results in the formation of a large pressure gradient that opposes gravity. Eventually this pressure gradient becomes so large that the blob acceleration vanishes or even points upward. Then, the blob descent is characterized by an initial acceleration phase followed by an essentially constant velocity phase. These two stages can be identified in published time-distance diagrams of coronal rain events. Both the duration of the first stage and the velocity attained by the blob increase for larger values of the ratio of blob to coronal density, for larger blob mass, and for smaller coronal temperature. Dense blobs are characterized by a detectable density growth (up to 60% in our calculations) and by a steepening of the density in their lower part, that could lead to the formation of a shock. They also emit sound waves that could be detected as small intensity changes with periods of the order of 100 s and lasting between a few and about 10 periods. Finally, the curvature of falling paths with large radii is only relevant when a very dense blob falls along inclined magnetic field lines.

  6. Optimal treatment of cervical necrotizing fasciitis associated with descending necrotizing mediastinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkas, A; Chahine, K; Schmerber, S; Brichon, P-Y; Righini, C A

    2010-04-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) associated with descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rapidly evolving and life-threatening condition. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe a treatment strategy for CNF with DNM and present a management algorithm for mediastinal extensions of CNF. Patients diagnosed and treated for CNF with DNM over 14 years in a tertiary referral centre were included. Seventeen adult patients were included. The origin of infection was mainly oropharyngeal. The diagnosis of CNF/DNM was based on clinical and computed tomography findings. All patients underwent cervicotomy for CNF. In ten patients, DNM was located above the carina and could be accessed by a cervical approach. In seven patients, DNM was below the carina, and necessitated sternotomy for anteroinferior mediastinal involvement and posterolateral thoracotomy for posteroinferior mediastinal involvement. All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics. One patient died 3 days after surgery. The median hospital stay was 30 days. There was no recurrence during long-term follow-up. Prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment are essential for reducing mortality in CNF/DNM. All patients should undergo extensive cervicotomy. The surgical approach to the mediastinum depends on the supracarinal or infracarinal location of the disease. Copyright (c) 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Identitarian Politics in the "Quilombo" Frechal: Live Histories in a Brazilian Community of Slave Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Malighetti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extended fieldwork, the paper discusses the construction of identity in a Brazilian quilombo - a term originally used by the Portuguese authorities to juridically define the flights of the Brazilian slaves. Appealing to a Constitutional Article granting the property of the land to the descendant of the fugitive slaves, the people of Frechal (Maranhão obtained - after complex events overshadowed by tension and violence - the expropriation of the land bought by an entrepreneur of São Paulo with the precise intent to forcibly expel the local population. Founding their right on an idea of cultural authenticity and mobilizing a symbolism capable of legitimating their claims and of giving them a legal weight, they transformed themselves from object of slavery, discrimination and racism to ethno-political subjects. Proceeding from the analysis of this paradigmatic case, the article shows how the term quilombo can be "re-semanticized" in order to be applicable to the contemporary situations of the Afro-Brazilian population. The actuality of the word, transferred from its original juridical meaning of colonial matrix, is founded on the idea that the quilombos are not isolated survivals of the past to honor in the memory of the heroes that fought against slavery. Rather they represent true projects of a new political order, nuclei of the contemporary resistance founded on the collective property of the land. As such the quilombos are considered as real counterpoints to the neoliberal expansion in the rural areas.

  8. Speeches and trajectories of brazilian afro-descendents in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ferreira da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, one has observed an increase in studies linking the debate over racial relations to specific questions, such as that of power relations, identity, culture, and so forth. This scenario, no matter how widespread, of researches and analyses is not repeated in the more specific field of the pedagogic relations evolved in the process of forming/instructing teachers. Some recent works have focused on this latter aspect, highlighting the histories and paths taken by these professionals who have already graduated from college. Two subjects, however, are lacking research: the first is that African-descendant students in this process of studying to become teacher are not taken in consideration in this context; the second is that the methodology of analysis of the oral interviews is incipient. In a quest to fill in this methodological gap, without excluding the problematic situation above mentioned, the authors built a theoretical model for interpreting the interviews. The goal was not only to work on a description, but to uncover the meaning of the text, by means of an analysis that required understanding how a phenomenon found itself in the context was it was.

  9. Dynamic Viscoelasticity and Surface Properties of Porcine Left Anterior Descending Coronary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Hanna E; Freij, Jenny M; Espino, Daniel M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was, for the first time, to measure and compare quantitatively the viscoelastic properties and surface roughness of coronary arteries. Porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries were dissected ex vivo. Viscoelastic properties were measured longitudinally using dynamic mechanical analysis, for a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 10 Hz. Surface roughness was calculated following three-dimensional reconstructed of surface images obtained using an optical microscope. Storage modulus ranged from 14.47 to 25.82 MPa, and was found to be frequency-dependent, decreasing as the frequency increased. Storage was greater than the loss modulus, with the latter found to be frequency-independent with a mean value of 2.10 ± 0.33 MPa. The circumferential surface roughness was significantly greater (p surface roughness, ranging from 0.73 to 2.83 and 0.35 to 0.92 µm, respectively. However, if surface roughness values were corrected for shrinkage during processing, circumferential and longitudinal surface roughness were not significantly different (1.04 ± 0.47, 0.89 ± 0.27 µm, respectively; p > 0.05). No correlation was found between the viscoelastic properties and surface roughness. It is feasible to quantitatively measure the viscoelastic properties of coronary arteries and the roughness of their endothelial surface.

  10. Liver cancer in Asian migrants to the United States and their descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, K A; Weiss, N S; Schwartz, S M

    1996-05-01

    The incidence of primary liver cancer in Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino migrants to the United States and their descendants is compared with that of United States-born Whites. Incident liver cancer cases were ascertained between 1973 and 1986 from population-based cancer registries serving the San Francisco/Oakland (CA) metropolitan area, 13 counties of western Washington, and Hawaii. The population of these three areas, with regard to age, race, and country of birth, was estimated from a special tabulation of the 1980 US census. Rates of primary liver cancer were higher for men born in Asia than Asian men born in the US, who, in turn, had higher rates than did US Whites (respective annual rates per 100,000: Chinese, 26.5 and 9.8; Japanese, 16.5 and 6.6; Filipinos, 11.4 and 6.5; US Whites, 3.4). Among Asian American women, the trends were not as consistent (respective annual rates per 100,000: Chinese, 2.2 and 3.7; Japanese, 1.9 and 1.4; Filipino, 2.6 and 0; US Whites, 1.1). In general, liver cancer incidence among Asian Americans was lower than among residents of Asia. These findings are compatible with substantial variation among Asians in the prevalence of one or more etiologic factors for liver cancer, such as hepatitis-B infection and aflatoxin consumption, in relation to residence and place of birth.

  11. Regeneration of descending projections to the spinal motor neurons after spinal hemisection in the goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akihito; Goris, Richard C; Funakoshi, Kengo

    2007-06-25

    Following spinal transection, descending spinal projections from goldfish brainstem neurons spontaneously regenerate beyond the lesion site. The nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nFLM), which has a critical role in swimming, also sends regenerated axons over a long distance to the ipsilateral spinal cord. To examine whether regenerated axons re-innervate the appropriate targets, we injected rhodamine dextran amine (RDA) into the nFLM of spinally transected goldfish and examined anterogradely labeled axons in the spinal cord. In intact controls, there were many RDA-labeled boutons or varicosities in the spinal cord in close apposition to both neurons positive for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and those negative for CGRP. This suggests that the nFLM neurons project axons directly to the motoneurons and interneurons in the spinal cord. Four days after hemisection 1 mm caudal to the rostral end of the spinal cord, the number of RDA-labeled boutons in close apposition to the spinal neurons was significantly decreased on the side ipsilateral to the injection. Six to twelve weeks after spinal hemisection, regenerated axons ran through the repaired lesion site, and the number of RDA-labeled boutons or varicosities in close apposition to the ipsilateral spinal neurons had returned to the control level. These findings suggest that the midbrain-spinal pathway, critical for locomotion in fish, spontaneously regenerates beyond the lesion site to re-innervate the appropriately innervated targets after spinal lesion.

  12. DYNAMICS OF CORONAL RAIN AND DESCENDING PLASMA BLOBS IN SOLAR PROMINENCES. II. PARTIALLY IONIZED CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Zaqarashvili, T. V., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [Institute of Physics, IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010, Graz (Austria)

    2016-02-20

    Coronal rain clumps and prominence knots are dense condensations with chromospheric to transition region temperatures that fall down in the much hotter corona. Their typical speeds are in the range 30–150 km s{sup −1} and of the order of 10–30 km s{sup −1}, respectively, i.e., they are considerably smaller than free-fall velocities. These cold blobs contain a mixture of ionized and neutral material that must be dynamically coupled in order to fall together, as observed. We investigate this coupling by means of hydrodynamic simulations in which the coupling arises from the friction between ions and neutrals. The numerical simulations presented here are an extension of those of Oliver et al. to the partially ionized case. We find that, although the relative drift speed between the two species is smaller than 1 m s{sup −1} at the blob center, it is sufficient to produce the forces required to strongly couple charged particles and neutrals. The ionization degree has no discernible effect on the main results of our previous work for a fully ionized plasma: the condensation has an initial acceleration phase followed by a period with roughly constant velocity, and, in addition, the maximum descending speed is clearly correlated with the ratio of initial blob to environment density.

  13. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance syndrome, low HDL cholesterol, Metabolic Syndrome, overweight, syndrome x, type 2 diabetes Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Women January 2005 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  14. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, ... fibrillin. A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, ...

  15. Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Beuren syndrome ... Williams syndrome is caused by not having a copy of several genes. Parents may not have any family history of the condition. However, people with Williams syndrome have a 50% chance of passing the ...

  16. Fahr's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Fahr's Syndrome Information Page Fahr's Syndrome Information Page What research is being done? ... and conducts research on neurogenetic disorders such as Fahr's Syndrome. The goals of this research are to ...

  17. Perimyocarditis and myocardial infarction: A rare manifestation of Churg-Strauss syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The present article reports a case involving a 58-year-old man without cardiovascular risk factors who was admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography revealed high-grade arteriosclerotic stenosis of the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery and 80% proximal intermediate branch stenosis, which were treated using three drug-eluting stents. Churg-Strauss syndrome was diagnosed based on the patient’s history of asthma, sinusitis, eosinophilia, nasal polyps, tra...

  18. Descendants of Hardship: Prevalence, Drivers and Scarring Effects of Social Exclusion in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cok Vrooman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The social exclusion of children is problematic for two reasons. Young people typically inherit their marginal position from their family, and therefore cannot be held responsible for their hardship themselves; and social exclusion in childhood may affect their wellbeing and subsequent development, possibly leading to a “scarring effect” in later life. In this contribution we develop an instrument for measuring social exclusion among children. Social exclusion is regarded as a theoretical construct with four sub-dimensions: material deprivation, limited social participation, inadequate access to social rights, and a lack of normative integration. First we analyse data from a survey of 2,200 Dutch children, which contains a large set of social exclusion items. We applied nonlinear principal components analysis in order to construct a multidimensional scale. Measured in this way, the prevalence of social exclusion among children is 4.5%. Boys and children living in large families are more likely to experience social exclusion than girls and children with few siblings. The parental level of education and dependency on social security benefits are also important driving factors of childhood social exclusion. Subsequently we investigate the scarring effect. Longitudinal administrative income and household data covering 25 years were combined with a new survey of just under 1,000 Dutch adults, a third of whom were poor as a child. The survey assessed their past and current degree of social exclusion, and their health and psychosocial development, educational career, past family circumstances, etc. In an absolute sense scarring turns out to have been limited during this period: a very large majority of those who were poor or excluded as a child are above the threshold values in adult life. However, the “descendants of hardship” are still more likely to be socially excluded as adults than people who grew up in more favourable conditions. A

  19. Anatomical and Molecular Properties of Long Descending Propriospinal Neurons in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jamie R; Conn, Victoria L; Boyle, Kieran A; Hughes, David I; Watanabe, Masahiko; Velasquez, Tomoko; Goulding, Martyn D; Callister, Robert J; Graham, Brett A

    2017-01-01

    Long descending propriospinal neurons (LDPNs) are interneurons that form direct connections between cervical and lumbar spinal circuits. LDPNs are involved in interlimb coordination and are important mediators of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Much of what we know about LDPNs comes from a range of species, however, the increased use of transgenic mouse lines to better define neuronal populations calls for a more complete characterisation of LDPNs in mice. In this study, we examined the cell body location, inhibitory neurotransmitter phenotype, developmental provenance, morphology and synaptic inputs of mouse LDPNs throughout the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord. LDPNs were retrogradely labelled from the lumbar spinal cord to map cell body locations throughout the cervical and upper thoracic segments. Ipsilateral LDPNs were distributed throughout the dorsal, intermediate and ventral grey matter as well as the lateral spinal nucleus and lateral cervical nucleus. In contrast, contralateral LDPNs were more densely concentrated in the ventromedial grey matter. Retrograde labelling in GlyT2(GFP) and GAD67(GFP) mice showed the majority of inhibitory LDPNs project either ipsilaterally or adjacent to the midline. Additionally, we used several transgenic mouse lines to define the developmental provenance of LDPNs and found that V2b positive neurons form a subset of ipsilaterally projecting LDPNs. Finally, a population of Neurobiotin (NB) labelled LDPNs were assessed in detail to examine morphology and plot the spatial distribution of contacts from a variety of neurochemically distinct axon terminals. These results provide important baseline data in mice for future work on their role in locomotion and recovery from SCI.

  20. An investigation on the motion and deformation of viscoelastic drops descending in another viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M.; Norouzi, M.

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, an investigation of the motion and shape deformation of drops is carried out in creeping flow to highlight the effect of viscoelastic properties on the problem. A perturbation method is employed to derive an analytical solution for the general case that both interior and exterior fluids are viscoelastic, both fluids obeying the Giesekus model. An experiment is also performed for the limiting case of an immiscible drop of a 0.03% (w/w) polyacrylamide in an 80:20 glycerol/water solution falling through a viscous Newtonian silicon oil (410 cP polydimethylsiloxane oil) in order to check the accuracy of the analytical solution. It is shown that the addition of elastic properties to the interior fluid may cause a decrease in the terminal velocity of the droplet while an increase in the elastic properties of the exterior fluid results in the opposite behavior and increases the terminal velocity. The well-known spherical shape of creeping drops for Newtonian fluids is modified by elasticity into either prolate or oblate shapes. Using the analytical solution, it is shown that normal stresses play a key role on the final steady-state shape of the drops. To keep the drops spherical in viscoelastic phases, it is shown that the effect of normal stresses on the interior and exterior media can cancel out under certain conditions. The results presented here may be of interest to industries dealing with petroleum and medicine processing, paint and power-plant related fields where knowledge of the shape and terminal velocity of descending droplets is of great importance.

  1. Differential action of (-)-baclofen on the primary afferent depolarization produced by segmental and descending inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, J; Eguibar, J R; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present series of experiments was to analyze, in anesthetized and paralyzed cats, the effects of (-)-baclofen and picrotoxin on the primary afferent depolarization (PAD) generated in single Ib afferent fibers by either intraspinal microstimulation or stimulation of the segmental and descending pathways. PAD was estimated by recording dorsal root potentials and by measuring the changes in the intraspinal activation threshold of single Ib muscle afferent fibers. The PAD elicited by stimulation of group I muscle or cutaneous afferents was readily depressed and often abolished 20-40 min after the intravenous injection of 1-2 mg/kg (-)-baclofen. In contrast, the same amounts of (-)-baclofen produced a relatively small depression of the PAD elicited by stimulation of the brainstem reticular formation (RF). The monosynaptic PAD produced in single Ib fibers by intraspinal microstimulation within the intermediate nucleus was depressed and sometimes abolished following the i.v. injections of 1-2 mg/kg (-)-baclofen. Twenty to forty minutes after the i.v. injection of picrotoxin (0.5-1 mg/kg), there was a strong depression of the PAD elicited by stimulation of muscle and cutaneous afferents as well as of the PAD produced by stimulation of the RF and the PAD produced by intraspinal microstimulation. The results obtained suggest that, in addition to its action on primary afferents, (-)-baclofen may depress impulse activity and/or transmitter release in a population of last-order GABAergic interneurons that mediate the PAD of Ib fibers. The existence of GABAb autoreceptors in last-order interneurons mediating the PAD may function as a self-limiting mechanism controlling the synaptic efficacy of these interneurons.

  2. Descendants of Hardship: Prevalence, Drivers and Scarring Effects of Social Exclusion in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cok Vrooman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The social exclusion of children is problematic for two reasons. Young people typically inherit their marginal position from their family, and therefore cannot be held responsible for their hardship themselves; and social exclusion in childhood may affect their wellbeing and subsequent development, possibly leading to a “scarring effect” in later life. In this contribution we develop an instrument for measuring social exclusion among children. Social exclusion is regarded as a theoretical construct with four sub-dimensions: material deprivation, limited social participation, inadequate access to social rights, and a lack of normative integration. First we analyse data from a survey of 2,200 Dutch children, which contains a large set of social exclusion items. We applied nonlinear principal components analysis in order to construct a multidimensional scale. Measured in this way, the prevalence of social exclusion among children is 4.5%. Boys and children living in large families are more likely to experience social exclusion than girls and children with few siblings. The parental level of education and dependency on social security benefits are also important driving factors of childhood social exclusion. Subsequently we investigate the scarring effect. Longitudinal administrative income and household data covering 25 years were combined with a new survey of just under 1,000 Dutch adults, a third of whom were poor as a child. The survey assessed their past and current degree of social exclusion, and their health and psychosocial development, educational career, past family circumstances, etc. In an absolute sense scarring turns out to have been limited during this period: a very large majority of those who were poor or excluded as a child are above the threshold values in adult life. However, the “descendants of hardship” are still more likely to be socially excluded as adults than people who grew up in more favourable conditions. A

  3. Particle motion within in vitro models of stenosed internal carotid and left anterior descending coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J; Rittgers, S E

    1998-01-01

    Asymmetric 75% and 95% area reduction, transparent Sylgard stenotic models were operated under internal carotid artery (ICA) [Womersley parameter, alpha=5.36, Re(mean) =213 and 180, respectively, and Re(peak)=734 and 410, respectively] and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow wave forms (alpha=2.65, Re(mean)=59 and 57, respectively, and Re(peak)= 137 and 94, respectively) to evaluate the effect of these conditions on particle residence times downstream of the stenoses. Amberlite particles (1.05 g/cm3, 400 microm) were added to the fluid to simulate platelets and their motion through the stenotic region and were traced using a laser light sheet flow visualization method with pseudo-color display. Two-dimensional (2D) particle motions were recorded and particle washout in the stenotic throat and downstream section were computed for all cases. All four model cases demonstrated jetting through the stenosis which followed an arching pattern around a large separation zone downstream. Considerable mixing was observed within these vortex regions during high flow phases. Particle washout profiles showed no clear trend between the degrees of stenosis although particles downstream of the stenoses tended to remain longer for LAD conditions. The critical washout cycle (1% of particles remaining downstream of the stenosis), however, was longer for the 95% stenoses cases under each flow condition due to the larger protected region immediately downstream and maximal for the LAD 95% case. Results of this study suggest that particle residence times downstream of 75% and 95% stenoses (approximately 3-6 s for ICA and approximately 8-10 s for LAD) exceed the minimum time for platelet adhesion (approximately 1 s) for at least 1% of cells and, thus, may be sufficient to initiate thrombus formation under resting conditions.

  4. Allelic lineages of the ficolin genes (FCNs are passed from ancestral to descendant primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hummelshøj

    Full Text Available The ficolins recognize carbohydrates and acetylated compounds on microorganisms and dying host cells and are able to activate the lectin pathway of the complement system. In humans, three ficolin genes have been identified: FCN1, FCN2 and FCN3, which encode ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3, respectively. Rodents have only two ficolins designated ficolin-A and ficolin-B that are closely related to human ficolin-1, while the rodent FCN3 orthologue is a pseudogene. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 have so far only been observed in humans. Thus, we performed a systematic investigation of the FCN genes in non-human primates. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of the FCN1-3 genes were sequenced in the following primate species: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, baboon and common marmoset. We found that the exon organisation of the FCN genes was very similar between all the non-human primates and the human FCN genes. Several variations in the FCN genes were found in more than one primate specie suggesting that they were carried from one species to another including humans. The amino acid diversity of the ficolins among human and non-human primate species was estimated by calculating the Shannon entropy revealing that all three proteins are generally highly conserved. Ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 showed the highest diversity, whereas ficolin-3 was more conserved. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 were present in non-human primate sera with the same characteristic oligomeric structures as seen in human serum. Taken together all the FCN genes show the same characteristics in lower and higher primates. The existence of trans-species polymorphisms suggests that different FCN allelic lineages may be passed from ancestral to descendant species.

  5. Italian citizenship and the descendants of Italian citizens emigrated in Colombia. Removing a social injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Castellari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Law is often the source of social discriminations, but, at the same time, it can be thekey to delete these social discriminations. The authors try to give an example of thisphenomenon, by analyzing the impact of the Italian citizenship’s rules over the descendantsof the Italian citizens emigrated abroad and, especially, in South America.Indeed, according to the former Italian law, only fathers could transmit iure sanguinisthe citizenship to their children: moreover, women automatically lost theItalian citizenship if they get a foreign citizenship by concluding a marriage witha foreign husband.These rules hardly discriminate the Italian women emigrated abroad and, especially,their descendants who were prevented to get the Italian’s citizenship.These discriminatory rules were finally deleted by the Italian Constitutional Courtin the Seventies and in the Eighties: however, the effects of those rules still persisted,since the decision of the Constitutional Court could not overcome the temporal limit of the entry into force of the Constitution (01.01.1948 and, therefore, could not“cover” the discriminatory facts occurred before that date.Finally in 2009, the Italian Supreme Court, by extending the effects ratione temporisof the decisions of the Constitutional Court, “reopened the doors” of the Italiancitizenship to a huge number of Italian citizenship born from Italian women beforethe 01.01.1948.Therefore, the authors focus on the social impact of this decision for all the potentialItalian citizens living in South America and try to assess its juridical effects overthe Italian law.

  6. Anatomical and Molecular Properties of Long Descending Propriospinal Neurons in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jamie R.; Conn, Victoria L.; Boyle, Kieran A.; Hughes, David I.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Velasquez, Tomoko; Goulding, Martyn D.; Callister, Robert J.; Graham, Brett A.

    2017-01-01

    Long descending propriospinal neurons (LDPNs) are interneurons that form direct connections between cervical and lumbar spinal circuits. LDPNs are involved in interlimb coordination and are important mediators of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Much of what we know about LDPNs comes from a range of species, however, the increased use of transgenic mouse lines to better define neuronal populations calls for a more complete characterisation of LDPNs in mice. In this study, we examined the cell body location, inhibitory neurotransmitter phenotype, developmental provenance, morphology and synaptic inputs of mouse LDPNs throughout the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord. LDPNs were retrogradely labelled from the lumbar spinal cord to map cell body locations throughout the cervical and upper thoracic segments. Ipsilateral LDPNs were distributed throughout the dorsal, intermediate and ventral grey matter as well as the lateral spinal nucleus and lateral cervical nucleus. In contrast, contralateral LDPNs were more densely concentrated in the ventromedial grey matter. Retrograde labelling in GlyT2GFP and GAD67GFP mice showed the majority of inhibitory LDPNs project either ipsilaterally or adjacent to the midline. Additionally, we used several transgenic mouse lines to define the developmental provenance of LDPNs and found that V2b positive neurons form a subset of ipsilaterally projecting LDPNs. Finally, a population of Neurobiotin (NB) labelled LDPNs were assessed in detail to examine morphology and plot the spatial distribution of contacts from a variety of neurochemically distinct axon terminals. These results provide important baseline data in mice for future work on their role in locomotion and recovery from SCI. PMID:28220062

  7. Descending projections of the hamster intergeniculate leaflet: relationship to the sleep/arousal and visuomotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.

    2005-01-01

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), homolog of the primate pregeniculate nucleus, modulates circadian rhythms. However, its extensive anatomical connections suggest that it may regulate other systems, particularly those for visuomotor function and sleep/arousal. Here, descending IGL-efferent pathways are identified with the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, with projections to over 50 brain stem nuclei. Projections of the ventral lateral geniculate are similar, but more limited. Many of the nuclei with IGL afferents contribute to circuitry governing visuomotor function. These include the oculomotor, trochlear, anterior pretectal, Edinger-Westphal, and the terminal nuclei; all layers of the superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the optic tract, the inferior olive, and raphe interpositus. Other target nuclei are known to be involved in the regulation of sleep, including the lateral dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmentum. The dorsal raphe also receives projections from the IGL and may contribute to both sleep/arousal and visuomotor function. However, the locus coeruleus and medial vestibular nucleus, which contribute to sleep and eye movement regulation and which send projections to the IGL, do not receive reciprocal projections from it. The potential involvement of the IGL with the sleep/arousal system is further buttressed by existing evidence showing IGL-efferent projections to the ventrolateral preoptic area, dorsomedial, and medial tuberal hypothalamus. In addition, the great majority of all regions receiving IGL projections also receive input from the orexin/hypocretin system, suggesting that this system contributes not only to the regulation of sleep, but to eye movement control as well.

  8. roposal on the Method of Regulating Ascending Kidney Water and Descending Heart Fire -through pharmacopuncture technique-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok, Kwon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is aimed at diagnosing and suggesting treatment plans for commonly seen clinical manifestation of heat symptom in the upper body and coldness in the lower body, also known as hot above, cold below syndrome. Methods : Various reasons attribute to the presence of hot above, cold below syndrome, but mainly contributed by blockage of normal Qi flow by abnormality of heart-kidney root, spleen-stomach axis, and liver-lung axis. Diagnosing these abnormalities and timely alleviation to the healthy state is presented in the study. Results : 1For heat in the upper body, Huang Lian Jie Du Tang(黃連解毒湯, CF, or JsD pharmacopuctures are injected on GB21, GB20. Qi stagnation in the thoracic area is treated with BUM injection on CV17. For impairment of transportation and transformation in the middle energizer, BUM pharmacopuncture is injected on CV12. Coldness in the lower energizer was relieved by bee venom or Sweet BV(Bee Venom free from enzymes on CV6. Conclusion : Above proposed methods of regulating water-fire were effective in treating hot above, cold below syndrome in clinical manifestations. But once the symptom subsides, treatment focused on eliminating innate cause should be rendered to achieve more successful results.

  9. DOWN SYNDROME WITH MOYAMOYA SYNDROME

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohan Makwana; R. K. Vishnoi; Jai Prakash Soni; Kapil Jetha; Suresh Kumar Verma; Pradeep Singh Rathore; Monika Choudhary

    2017-01-01

    ...,” in which the arterial changes are seen among patients with various syndromes or other disease processes- Down syndrome, sickle cell anaemia, neurofibromatosis type-1, congenital heart disease...

  10. Crohn’s Disease and the Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Ilnyckyj; Thomas AM Aldor; Richard Warrington; Bernstein, Charles N

    1999-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman with a 10-year history of recurrent bloody diarrhea and documented colitis of the descending colon, consistent with Crohn’s disease, presented with an exacerbation of her gastrointestinal disease and an 18-month history of recurrent facial and genital swelling. Her course evolved to include severe ear pain, dysphagia and colonic dysmotility. She was diagnosed with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome and treated with multiple agents. The neurological aspects of her presentation a...

  11. Assessment of transmission in specific descending pathways in relation to gait and balance following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundell, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Human bipedal gait requires supraspinal control and gait is consequently severely impaired in most persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Little is known of the contribution of lesion of specific descending pathways to the clinical manifestations of gait deficits. Here, we assessed transmission...... in descending pathways using imaging and electrophysiological techniques and correlated them with clinical measures of impaired gait in persons with SCI. Twenty-five persons with SCI participated in the study. Functional assessment of gait included the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI), the Timed......-Up and Go (TUG), the 6-Min Walking Test (6MWT), and the maximal treadmill gait speed. Balance was evaluated clinically by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The amplitude of tibialis anterior (TA) motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) at rest elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation as a measure of corticospinal...

  12. Endolaparoscopic left hemicolectomy and synchronous laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for obstructive carcinoma of the descending colon and renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Simon S M; Yiu, Raymond Y C; Li, Jimmy C M; Chan, Chi Kwok; Ng, Chi Fai; Lau, James Y W

    2006-06-01

    Colorectal self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) have been used successfully as preoperative bridges to surgery for obstructive left-sided colorectal carcinoma. Endoscopic relief of the obstruction allows for full bowel preparation and accurate preoperative staging. A laparoscopic approach, considered by many to be contraindicated in the presence of obstruction, becomes feasible after endoscopic decompression. We present a case of obstructive carcinoma of the descending colon successfully treated with endoscopic decompression with colorectal SEMS. Subsequent staging with computed tomography revealed a renal cell carcinoma in the left kidney. Synchronous laparoscopic resection of the two carcinomas was performed, with no morbidity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of endolaparoscopic left hemicolectomy and synchronous laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for obstructive carcinoma of the descending colon and renal cell carcinoma. The advantages of colorectal SEMS and the endolaparoscopic approach in managing obstructive colorectal carcinoma are discussed.

  13. 探讨在自然分娩过程中采取无保护会阴接生技术对分娩结局的影响%To Explore the Effects on Birth Outcomes Take Unprotected Perineum Midwives Technical of Natural Birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建芹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨在自然分娩过程中采取无保护会阴接生技术对分娩结局的影响,并进行分析,以供参考。方法选取2013年9月~2014年10月我院妇产科收治的足月产妇,共102例作为研究对象。比较2组产妇的会阴侧切率及其新生儿窒息率,并进行分析。结果实验组产妇的会阴侧切率及其新生儿窒息率均要低于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论在自然分娩过程中,对其产妇采取无保护会阴接生技术,可以有效降低产妇的会阴侧切率及其新生儿窒息率,在最大程度上保证了母婴安全。%Objective To explore the effects on birth outcomes take unprotected perineum midwives technical of natural birth and analyze. Methods Selected 102 cases of full-term birth of obstetrics and gynecology from 2013 September to 2014 October in our hospital. Compared the two groups of maternal episiotomy rates and neonatal asphyxiaResults Experimental group maternal and neonatal asphyxia rate of episiotomy rate was signiifcantly lower than the control group, and the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).Conclusion In natural childbirth, mothers take their unprotected perineum delivery techniques reduce the rate of maternal and neonatal asphyxia episiotomy rate effectively, it possible to the maximum ensure the safety of the mother and child.

  14. Reverse type IV dual left anterior descending coronary artery accompanying with anomalous origin of circumflex artery from right coronary sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Seyfeddin Gurbuz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dual left anterior descending (LAD artery is an infrequent coronary anomaly classified into six types. Short LAD arising from left main coronary artery (LMCA and long LAD sourcing from proximal right coronary artery comprise Type IV dual LAD. We reported anomalous origin of circumflex artery (Cx with reverse Type IV LAD including short LAD arising from right coronary sinus and long LAD originated form LMCA.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA in Basque descendants from the city of Trinidad, Uruguay: Uruguayan- or Basque-like population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, M; Figueiro, G; Ackermann, E; Barreto, I; Egaña, A; Bertoni, B; Poittevin-Gilmet, E; Maytia, D; Hidalgo, P C

    2011-02-01

    Like other countries in the Americas, during its colonization Uruguay was the recipient of immigrants from several ethnic groups from Europe, as well as of enslaved Africans. After its independence in 1830, Basques were the first group of Europeans to arrive in the country. In this paper, we aim to contribute to the understanding of the process of integration of these migratory waves into the Uruguayan society. For that purpose, individuals of Basque origin from the city of Trinidad, Uruguay, were chosen to participate in this study. Particularly, we wanted to determine if Basque descendants in Uruguay remained relatively isolated or if they mixed with other ethnic groups. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 60 self-identified Basque descendants, taken from a larger sample of subjects with Basque ancestors, was analyzed. The origin of mtDNA haplogroups was 77.8% European, 20.4% Amerindian, and 1.8% African, showing similar frequencies to other Uruguayan regions. Very few sequences showed a clear Basque origin, although other sources such as the Canary Islands are likely. Moreover, genetic distances clearly show that Basque descendants are genetically closer to other Uruguayan groups than to European populations, including Basques. It is possible to conclude that Basques and their descendants in the region of Trinidad did not remain isolated and that their marriage behavior was similar to that of other Uruguayan populations. However, to have a more accurate picture of the way Basques intermarried with other populations in Uruguay, new analyses are needed that take into account paternal lineages as well as biparental genetic markers.

  16. Kindler syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.

  17. Lineage tracing of the bivalve shell field with special interest in the descendants of the 2d blastomere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohri, Masakuni; Hashimoto, Naoki; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    By evolving bilaterally separated shell plates, bivalves acquired a unique body plan in which their soft tissues are completely protected by hard shell plates. In this unique body plan, mobility between the separated shell plates is provided by novel structures such as a ligament and adductor muscles. As a first step towards understanding how the bivalve body plan was established, we investigated the development of the separated shell plates and ligament. Over 100 years ago, it was hypothesized that the development of separated shell plates is tightly linked with the unique cell cleavage (division) pattern of bivalves during development, wherein each bilateral daughter cell of the 2d descendant 2d(1121) develops into one of the bilateral shell fields. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by tracing the cell lineages of the Japanese purple mussel Septifer virgatus. Although the shell fields were found to be exclusively derived from the bilateral descendant cells of 2d: 2d(11211) and 2d(11212), the descendants of these cells were not restricted to shell fields alone, nor were they confined to the left or right side of the shell field based on their lineage. Our study demonstrated that ligament cells are also derived from 2d(11211) and 2d(11212), indicating that the ligament cells emerged as a subpopulation of shell field cells. This also suggests that the establishment of the novel developmental system for the ligament cells was critical for the evolution of the unique body plan of bivalves.

  18. Uses of medicinal plants by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Godínez, Daimy; Beyra, Angela; Barreto, Adelaida

    2009-01-01

    Background Haitian migrants played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted to collect information on medicinal plant use by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba. Methods Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with Haitian immigrants and their descendants, direct observations, and by reviewing reports of traditional Haitian medicine in the literature. Results Informants reported using 123 plant species belonging to 112 genera in 63 families. Haitian immigrants and their descendants mainly decoct or infuse aerial parts and ingest them, but medicinal baths are also relevant. Some 22 herbal mixtures are reported, including formulas for a preparation obtained using the fruit of Crescentia cujete. Cultural aspects related to traditional plant posology are addressed, as well as changes and adaptation of Haitian medicinal knowledge with emigration and integration over time. Conclusion The rapid disappearance of Haitian migrants' traditional culture due to integration and urbanization suggests that unrecorded ethnomedicinal information may be lost forever. Given this, as well as the poor availability of ethnobotanical data relating to traditional Haitian medicine, there is an urgent need to record this knowledge. PMID:19450279

  19. Mid-term results of endovascular treatment with the Gore TAG device for degenerative descending thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Junji; Kuratani, Toru; Shirakawa, Yukitoshi; Torikai, Kei; Shimamura, Kazuo; Kin, Keiwa; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    To confirm the validity of using Gore TAG for degenerative descending thoracic aneurysm repair, we evaluated the mid-term clinical outcomes in our single-center experience. From May 2008 to April 2011, elective thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with Gore TAG without left subclavian artery (LSA) coverage for a degenerative descending thoracic aneurysm was performed in 36 consecutive cases. The procedural success rate was 100%, and no patient died within 30 days of the operation. We observed no cases of paraplegia or stroke. The mean follow-up was 33.2 ± 13.0 months (the maximum follow-up was 58.0 months). The actuarial survival rate was 100, 97.2 and 94.4% at 1, 2 and 3 years. There was no aorta-related death at 3 years. Two (5.6%) late distal Type I endoleaks were observed. Freedom form aortic events rate was 97.2, 97.2, and 97.2% at 1, 2, and 3 years respectively. In six cases with bird-beak configurations at the 2-year follow-up, the bird-beak length and angle had increased gradually. Elective TEVAR using the Gore TAG for degenerative descending thoracic aortic aneurysms without LSA coverage is effective and provides satisfactory early and mid-term outcomes. However, since the bird-beak configurations progressed, a conformable and flexible device for the next generation of procedures will be needed.

  20. [The value of area strain imaging diastolic index for predicting left anterior descending severe stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tuantuan; Zhou, Qing; Chen, Jinling; Song, Hongning; Guo, Juan; Guo, Ruiqiang

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the value of locating and defining severe stenosis of left anterior descending (LAD) with area strain imaging diastolic indexes (ASI-DI) derived from three dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI). A total of 92 suspected coronary heart disease patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥ 50% and without regional wall motion abnormality, who underwent echocardiography before coronary angiography in our department from July 2012 to April 2014, were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into three groups by the level of LAD stenosis: severe stenosis group (≥ 75%, n = 36), mild to moderate stenosis group (1%-74%, n = 22) and control group (without coronary artery stenosis, n = 34). Global peak systolic area strain (GPSAS), global ASI-DI (GASI-DI), and ASI-DI of the regional myocardial segments with blood supplied by LAD were measured. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were obtained between ASI-DI and stenosis level of LAD to locate and to find out the optimal segment and cutoff values. There was no significant difference of GPSAS among serious stenosis group, mild and moderate stenosis group and control group ((-25.2 ± 6.2) % vs. (-20.3 ± 6.6) % vs. (-21.3 ± 8.6) %, P = 0.159). GASI-DI was significantly lower in severe stenosis group than in mild to moderate stenosis group and control group ((-34.3 ± 14.7) vs. (-48.1 ± 13.3) % vs. (-59.4 ± 12.2) %, both P stenosis group and control group (P = 0.217). The optimal cutoff values of ASI-DI were 40.3% and area under the curve (AUC) were 0.829 in the base anterior segment for detecting proximal severe stenosis of LAD (sensitivity 0.967, specificity 0.651), 38.3% and 0.843 in the middle anteroseptum for detecting mid-distal sever stenosis of LAD (sensitivity 0.967, specificity 0.651). Patients with severe LAD stenosis can be screened by ASI-DI among patients with LVEF ≥ 50% and without regional wall motion abnormality. The ASI-DI of base anterior segment and

  1. Anesthetic management of descending thoracic aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Saiyed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complete obstruction of the abdominal aorta at the renal artery level is a difficult surgical problem. Aortic clamping and declamping can lead to profound haemodynamic changes, myocardial infarction, ventricular failure or even death may result. These complications are important challenges in anesthetic management of these patients. Methods :0 Between August, 2010 and April, 2012, descending thoracic aorta to femoral artery bypass grafting was used to revascularize lower limbs in 11 patients in our institute. The anesthetic management of these patients is described here. Epidural catheter placement was done in T 5-6 or T 6-7 space for post operative pain relief. Induction was done by, Inj. Glycopyrolate 0.2 mg, Inj. Fentanyl 5 μg/kg., Inj. Pentothal sodium 5 mg/kg, Inj. Rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg, IPPV done. Left sided double lumen tube was inserted, Maintenance of Anesthesia was done by O 2 + N 2 O (30:70. Increments of Vecuronium and Fentanyl were given Monitoring of Heart rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure were continuously displayed. The available pharmacological agents were used when there is deviation of more than 15% from base line. Results: In our study, inspite of measures taken to control rise in blood pressure during aortic cross clamping, a rise of 90 mm of Hg in one patient and 60-80 mm of Hg in four patients was observed, which was managed by sodium nitropruside infusion. At the end of surgery seven patients were extubated on the operation table. In remaining four patients DLT was replaced by single lumen endotracheal tube and were shifted to ICU on IPPV. They weaned off gradually in 3-5 hours. In our series blood loss was 400 ml to 1000 ml. There was no mortality in the first 24 hours. Postoperative bleeding was reported in one case which was re-explored and stood well. Conclusion: The anesthetic technique during aortic surgery is directed at minimizing the hemodynamic effects of cross clamping in order to

  2. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection among an afro-descendant community in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta-Castro Ana RC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Furnas dos Dionísios is an Afro-Brazilian black community whose descendants were mainly fugitive slaves that established themselves in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, Brazil. The population is comprised mainly of low socioeconomic individuals who are engaged in agricultural activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B (HB and its correlation with epidemiological data obtained from the community. The studied population totaled 260 individuals with ages varying from 1 to 79 years (median 20. One hundred thirty-three (51.2% were females and 127 (48.8% were males. A high prevalence for anti-HBc was observed (42.7%, with present infection detected in 9.2% of the subjects who were also HB surface antigens (HBs Ag positive; 27.3% were anti-HBc and anti-HBs reactive, and 6.2% had anti-HBc as only marker. The prevalence for anti-HBc was proportional to age, reaching its highest peak in age categories greater than 50. No serological marker was detected in children under the age of 2 years, however anti-HBc was present in 12 subjects with ages between 2 and 14 years, of these 8 (7.4% were HBsAg positive. Among individuals over the age of 15 years, 99 were anti-HBc reactive, of these 16 (10.5% were also HBsAg positive, thus suggesting an increased prevalence of HBV carriers among children and adolescents. The risk factors observed in this community that were significantly associated with anti-HBc positivity were age (over 20 years and having an anti-HBc positive mother. Both HBeAg and anti-HBe were detected in 44.4% of the samples tested. HBsAg subtypes found in the studied population were adw2 (77.7% and ayw2 (23.3%. While intrafamilial transmission was most likely responsible for HBV infection among children, other routes such as sexual contact might be considered for individuals with ages over 15 years.

  3. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection among an Afro-descendant community in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Castro, Ana R C; Yoshida, Clara F T; Lemos, Elba R S; Oliveira, Jaqueline M; Cunha, Rivaldo V; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia L; Cabello, Pedro H; Lima, Kátia M B; Martins, Regina M B

    2003-01-01

    Furnas dos Dionísios is an Afro-Brazilian black community whose descendants were mainly fugitive slaves that established themselves in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. The population is comprised mainly of low socioeconomic individuals who are engaged in agricultural activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B (HB) and its correlation with epidemiological data obtained from the community. The studied population totaled 260 individuals with ages varying from 1 to 79 years (median 20). One hundred thirty-three (51.2%) were females and 127 (48.8%) were males. A high prevalence for anti-HBc was observed (42.7%), with present infection detected in 9.2% of the subjects who were also HB surface antigens (HBs Ag) positive; 27.3% were anti-HBc and anti-HBs reactive, and 6.2% had anti-HBc as only marker. The prevalence for anti-HBc was proportional to age, reaching its highest peak in age categories greater than 50. No serological marker was detected in children under the age of 2 years, however anti-HBc was present in 12 subjects with ages between 2 and 14 years, of these 8 (7.4%) were HBsAg positive. Among individuals over the age of 15 years, 99 were anti-HBc reactive, of these 16 (10.5%) were also HBsAg positive, thus suggesting an increased prevalence of HBV carriers among children and adolescents. The risk factors observed in this community that were significantly associated with anti-HBc positivity were age (over 20 years) and having an anti-HBc positive mother. Both HBeAg and anti-HBe were detected in 44.4% of the samples tested. HBsAg subtypes found in the studied population were adw2 (77.7%) and ayw2 (23.3%). While intrafamilial transmission was most likely responsible for HBV infection among children, other routes such as sexual contact might be considered for individuals with ages over 15 years.

  4. Formation of the Kazan Khanate through the Eyes of Contemporaries and Descendants »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Aksanov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of the Kazan Khanate’s formation and its perception by contemporaries and descendants. The author reveals the factors that affected the perception of medieval writers and contemporary historians of the 17th–21st centuries. Based on the hermeneutical analysis of texts, the author makes conclusions about information value and reliability of some chronicle reports. The 15th century sources contain few data on the establishment of the Kazan Khanate. This topic became relevant only in the middle of the 16th century, when the Russian State began to implement an active policy with a view to joining of the Volga region. At this time, the Russian writers had already unambiguous concepts of the khanate’s formation. As a result, historians developed two basic approaches to the description of events. Supporters of the first approach claimed that the Kazan khanate was founded in 1437–1438 by the khan Ulu-Mahomed, other historians considered that Ulu-Mahomed’s son Mahmoud, who occupied Kazan in 1445, was the first Kazan khan. At the same time, none of the versions of the Kazan Khanate’s formation is supported by at least two independent sources. The first approach is based on the report of the «History of Kazan», the second view is based on the official reports of the Moscow chroniclers. The article reveals the allegorical nature of some reports of the «History of Kazan», which were perceived by historians literally and served as a source for the reconstruction of the historical reality. The idea of a violent accession of the Horde dynasty in Kazan widely circulated in official sources due to the fact that this idea justified military and diplomatic actions of Moscow, which were aimed in turn at subduing the khanate. The author points to the existence of additional information confirming the fact that the first khan was namely Mahmud and not Ulu-Muhammad. However, the author urges to refrain from categorical

  5. ABSENCE OF SEPTAL Q WAVES: An Important Predictor of Significant Coronary Artery Disease and Mainly Proximal Stenosis of the Left Anterior Descending Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Anthony; Kallab, Kamal; Kharma, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Data concerning the correlation between the absence of septal q waves and significant stenosis of proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery shows conflicting results. This retrospective study was conducted to show that absence of septal q waves in leads V5-V6 could be of value in predicting significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and mainly significant proximal LAD coronary artery stenosis. Our study included 500 consecutive patients who had coronary angiography, retrospectively chosen, excluding patients with acute coronary syndromes, and patients with abnormal ECGs (abnormal QRS duration, pathological q waves and hemiblocks). ECG and angiography films were reviewed. For the 2x2 tables analysis, a chi-square test was used. Of the 500 patients, 386 had significant CAD defined as 70% luminal stenosis, and 260 had no septal q wave. Of the 386 patients with significant CAD, 233 (60%) did not have septal q waves. Of 260 who did not have septal q wave, 192 (73%) had significant stenosis of proximal LAD. Statistical analysis shows that significant CAD correlates with the absence of septal q waves, with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 76%, and that stenosis of proximal LAD could be predicted by absence of septal q waves in leads V5-V6 with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 74%. The absence of septal q waves in leads V5-V6 on the ECG correlates with the presence of significant CAD and is of highly predictive value in those with significant stenosis of proximal LAD (p < 0.0001).

  6. Crohn’s Disease and the Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ilnyckyj

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman with a 10-year history of recurrent bloody diarrhea and documented colitis of the descending colon, consistent with Crohn’s disease, presented with an exacerbation of her gastrointestinal disease and an 18-month history of recurrent facial and genital swelling. Her course evolved to include severe ear pain, dysphagia and colonic dysmotility. She was diagnosed with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome and treated with multiple agents. The neurological aspects of her presentation are highlighted, and the Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is reviewed.

  7. Arterial Hypertension in a Child with Williams-Beuren Syndrome (7q11.23 Chromosomal Deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Sylos

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 7-year-old male child diagnosed with Williams-Beuren syndrome and arterial hypertension refractory to clinical treatment. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic study. Narrowing of the descending aorta and stenosis of the renal arteries were also diagnosed. Systemic vascular alterations caused by deletion of the elastin gene may occur early in individuals with Williams-Beuren syndrome, leading to the clinical manifestation of systemic arterial hypertension refractory to drug treatment.

  8. Ethnicity as a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea: comparison of Japanese descendants and white males in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Genta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Some studies showed that Asians with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are thinner than Caucasians. Because obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, it was concluded that Asians are predisposed to OSA. However, body fat composition varies for a same body mass index (BMI according to ethnicity. We firstly compared anthropometric characteristics, symptoms and associated disorders in all consecutive male Japanese descendants and white males with OSA referred for polysomnography. In a second analysis, all Japanese descendants were compared to a subgroup of white males, matched for apnea/hypopnea index and age. In the first analysis, age, symptoms, OSA severity and co-morbidities were similar among Japanese descendants (N = 54 and white patients (N = 466. However, Japanese descendants had a lower BMI than white patients: 27.1 (25.5-28.4 vs 29.4 (26.5-33.0 kg/m², respectively (P < 0.001. In the second analysis, Japanese descendants had a lower BMI than white patients (P < 0.001. Multiple linear regression considering the entire group revealed that age, BMI, neck circumference, Epworth sleepiness scale, ethnicity and %REM sleep were independent predictors for apnea/hypopnea index (P < 0.001. Ethnicity was no longer significantly associated with OSA severity when we adopted the World Health Organization criteria for obesity (≥25 and 30 kg/m² among Japanese descendants and white males, respectively. Japanese descendants with OSA have a lower BMI than white subjects of similar severity. However, ethnicity was not associated with OSA severity when an ethnical difference in obesity criteria was respected. Our data suggest that Japanese descendants are not predisposed to OSA.

  9. Spinal 5-HT3 receptors mediate descending facilitation and contribute to behavioral hypersensitivity via a reciprocal neuron-glial signaling cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wei; Miyoshi, Kan; Dubner, Ronald; Gu, Ming; Li, Man; Liu, Jian; Yang, Jiale; Zou, Shiping; Ren, Ke; Noguchi, Koichi; Wei, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been recently recognized that the descending serotonin (5-HT) system from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in the brainstem and the 5-HT3 receptor subtype in the spinal dorsal horn are involved in enhanced descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the 5-HT3 receptor and its contribution to facilitation of pain remain unclear. Results In the present study, activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors by intr...

  10. Syndromic autism: II. Genetic syndromes associated with autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Artigas-Pallarés, J; Gabau-Vila, E; Guitart-Feliubadaló, M

    2005-01-01

    ..., tuberous sclerosis, Duchenne's disease, Timothy syndrome, 10p terminal deletion, Cowden syndrome, 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, Myhre syndrome, Sotos syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Goldenhar syndrome, Joubert...

  11. Edwards' syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Doreen; Dearmun, Annette

    2016-12-08

    Edwards' syndrome is a serious genetic condition that affects fetal cellular functions, tissue development and organogenesis. Most infants with the syndrome are female, but there is no race predominance.

  12. Dravet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Craniosynostosis Information Page Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Information Page Cushing's Syndrome Information Page Dandy-Walker Syndrome Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Dementia Information ...

  13. Paraneoplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dementia, seizures, sensory loss in the limbs, and vertigo or dizziness. Paraneoplastic syndromes include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic ... dementia, seizures, sensory loss in the limbs, and vertigo or dizziness. Paraneoplastic syndromes include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic ...

  14. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  15. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone ... cause your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  16. Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colon cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Cancer screening for people with Lynch syndrome If you ... et al. Milestones of Lynch syndrome: 1895-2015. Nature Reviews Cancer. http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/vaop/ncurrent/ ...

  17. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  18. Meckel syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salonen, R; Paavola, P

    1998-01-01

    Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a lethal syndrome with a central nervous system malformation, usually occipital meningoencephalocele, bilaterally large multicystic kidneys with fibrotic changes of the liver, and polydactyly in most cases...

  19. Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this syndrome often display hyperactivity, small head size, sleep disorders, and movement and balance disorders that can cause ... this syndrome often display hyperactivity, small head size, sleep disorders, and movement and balance disorders that can cause ...

  20. Apert Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saikat; Saha, Sandip; Kar, Arnab; Mondal, Souvonik; Basu, Syamantak

    2014-09-01

    Apert syndrome is one of the craniosynostosis syndromes which, due to its association with other skeletal anomalies, is also known as acrocephalosyndactyly. It is a rare congenital anomaly which stands out from other craniosynostosis due to its characteristic skeletal presentations.

  1. Galanin-Mediated Behavioural Hyperalgesia from the Dorsomedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Involves Two Independent Descending Pronociceptive Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Amorim

    Full Text Available Activation of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH by galanin (GAL induces behavioural hyperalgesia. Since DMH neurones do not project directly to the spinal cord, we hypothesized that the medullary dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt, a pronociceptive region projecting to the spinal dorsal horn (SDH and/or the serotoninergic raphe-spinal pathway acting on the spinal 5-HT3 receptor (5HT3R could relay descending nociceptive facilitation induced by GAL in the DMH. Heat-evoked paw-withdrawal latency (PWL and activity of SDH neurones were assessed in monoarthritic (ARTH and control (SHAM animals after pharmacological manipulations of the DMH, DRt and spinal cord. The results showed that GAL in the DMH and glutamate in the DRt lead to behavioural hyperalgesia in both SHAM and ARTH animals, which is accompanied particularly by an increase in heat-evoked responses of wide-dynamic range neurons, a group of nociceptive SDH neurones. Facilitation of pain behaviour induced by GAL in the DMH was reversed by lidocaine in the DRt and by ondansetron, a 5HT3R antagonist, in the spinal cord. However, the hyperalgesia induced by glutamate in the DRt was not blocked by spinal ondansetron. In addition, in ARTH but not SHAM animals PWL was increased after lidocaine in the DRt and ondansetron in the spinal cord. Our data demonstrate that GAL in the DMH activates two independent descending facilitatory pathways: (i one relays in the DRt and (ii the other one involves 5-HT neurones acting on spinal 5HT3Rs. In experimental ARTH, the tonic pain-facilitatory action is increased in both of these descending pathways.

  2. Locality-dependent descending reflex motor activity in the anal canal-cholinergic and nitrergic contributions in the rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radomir RADOMIROV; Christina IVANCHEVA; Dimitar ITZEV; Polina PETKOVA-KIROVA

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Since the distal part of the intestine is targeted by a wide range of pathogens, the motility of the recto-anal region has been the object of many experimental and clinical observations. In this study, we investigated descending motor responses in the anal canal as a measure of the activation of autonomic reflex pathways underlying evacuatory recto-anal activity. Methods: The partitioned organ bath method was used to register motor responses of the anal canal as induced by balloon distension of the rectum in isolated rat recto-anal preparations. Results: Distension-induced descending responses of the anal canal comprised contractions (with distension at a distance of 15 mm), initial contractions and secondary relaxations (at 10 mm) and short contractions followed by deep relaxations (at 3-5 mm). Decreas-ing the distance between the distension stimulus and the anal canal resulted in a decreased contraction response and increased relaxation. Tetrodotoxin (0.1 μmol/L) inhibited these responses. Atropine (0.3 μmol/L) decreased contraction and did not change the relaxation response. N~G-nitro-L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) enhanced contraction in both the absence and presence of atropine. L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) inhibited contraction and extended relaxation in atropine-pretreated preparations. The actions of N~G-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine were more pronounced in the aboral direction. ChAT-positive nerve fibers were observed in myenteric ganglia of the rectum and the anal canal. The density of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons was higher in the anal canal region. Conclusion: Our results suggest that locality-dependent activation of the descending reflex neuromuscular communications underlie evacuatory activity in the recto-anal region. This activation response involves long excitatory cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways along the rectum and short inhibitory nitrergic pathways located predominantly in the anal canal region.

  3. The Pronociceptive Effect of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation in Rats: Evidence for a Role of Descending Pain Modulation Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomim, Dabna H; Pontarolla, Felipe M; Bertolini, Jessica F; Arase, Mauricio; Tobaldini, Glaucia; Lima, Marcelo M S; Fischer, Luana

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying the pronociceptive effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) are not known. In this study, we asked whether PSD increases tonic nociception in the formalin test, decreases the antinociceptive effect of morphine administered into the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), and disrupts endogenous descending pain modulation. PSD for either 24 or 48 h significantly increased formalin-induced nociception and decreased mechanical nociceptive paw withdrawal threshold. The maximal antinociceptive effect induced by morphine (0.9-9 nmol, intra-PAG) was significantly decreased by PSD. The administration of a low dose of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline (30-300 pmol, intra-PAG), decreased nociception in control rats, but not in paradoxical-sleep-deprived ones. Furthermore, the administration of the cholecystokinin (CCK) 2 receptor antagonist, YM022 (0.5-2 pmol) in the rostral ventral medulla (RVM), decreased nociception in paradoxical-sleep-deprived rats but not in control ones. While a dose of the CCK 2 receptor agonist, CCK-8 (8-24 pmol intra-RVM), increased nociception in control rats, but not in paradoxical-sleep-deprived ones. In addition, the injection of lidocaine (QX-314, 2%, intra-RVM) decreased nociception in sleep-deprived rats, but not in control rats, while the lesion of the dorsolateral funiculus prevented the pronociceptive effect of PSD. Finally, PSD significantly increased c-Fos expression in the RVM. Therefore, PSD increases pain independently of its duration or of the characteristic of the nociceptive stimulus and decreases morphine analgesia at the PAG. PSD appears to increase pain by decreasing descending pain inhibitory activity and by increasing descending pain facilitatory activity.

  4. Roles of the periaqueductal gray in descending facilitatory and inhibitory controls of intramuscular hypertonic saline induced muscle nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing; Sun, Tao; Lumb, Bridget M; You, Hao-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Despite the importance of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the modulation of nociception and pain, many aspects of the roles of the different columns of the PAG in descending controls: facilitation and inhibition, are not understood. Employing a tonic muscle pain model established by i.m. injection of 5.8% saline into the gastrocnemius muscle, we now report the results of investigations designed to explore any differences in Fos expression in the different functional columns of the PAG in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In a second series of experiments, effects of the PAG on descending control of spinally-organized nociception were assessed by measuring hind paw withdrawal reflexes to noxious mechanical and heat stimulation before and after electrolytic lesion of specific columns of the PAG. Our results show that Fos expression within different columns of the PAG increases significantly and differentially following i.m. injection of 5.8% saline. The mean number of Fos positive neurons in the dorsolateral (dl), lateral (l), dorsomedial (dm) PAG elicited by i.m. injection of 5.8% saline reached a peak at 4h with a gradual decrease over time, whereas the maximum number of Fos-positive neurons in the ventrolateral (vl) PAG was observed 8h after i.m. injection. Contralateral lesion of the dl PAG significantly depressed ipsilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia in intramuscularly induced (5.8% saline) nociception (P0.05). By contrast, contralateral lesion of the vl PAG completely blocked the occurrence of ipsilateral heat hypoalgesia (P0.05). In conclusion, functions of specific columns of the PAG in the control of spinal nociceptive activities are not homogeneous. It is suggested that, in this muscle pain model, the dl PAG and vl PAG participate in descending facilitation and inhibition of nociception, respectively.

  5. Inferring three-dimensional surface displacement field by combining SAR interferometric phase and amplitude information of ascending and descending orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Conventional Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar(InSAR) technology can only measure one-dimensional surface displacement(along the radar line-of-sight(LOS) direction).Here we presents a method to infer three-dimensional surface displacement field by combining SAR interferometric phase and amplitude information of ascending and descending orbits.The method is realized in three steps:(1) measuring surface displacements along the LOS directions of both ascending and descending orbits based on interferometric phases;(2) measuring surface displacements along the azimuth directions of both the ascending and descending orbits based on the SAR amplitude data;and(3) estimating the three-dimensional(3D) surface displacement field by combining the above four independent one-dimensional displacements using the method of least squares and Helmert variance component estimation.We apply the method to infer the 3D surface displacement field caused by the 2003 Bam,Iran,earthquake.The results reveal that in the northern part of Bam the ground surface experienced both subsidence and southwestward horizontal movement,while in the southern part uplift and southeastward horizontal movement occurred.The displacement field thus determined matches the location of the fault very well with the maximal displacements reaching 22,40,and 30 cm,respectively in the up,northing and easting directions.Finally,we compare the 3D displacement field with that simulated from the Okada model.The results demonstrate that the method presented here can be used to generate reliable and highly accurate 3D surface displacement fields.

  6. Learning about Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Down Syndrome What is Down syndrome? What are the symptoms ... syndrome Additional Resources for Down Syndrome What is Down syndrome? Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition related to ...

  7. 选择性肋间动脉灌注在降主动脉手术中的应用%Selective intercostal arterial perfusion during descending aortic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东进; 周庆; 李庆国; 武忠

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨选择性肋间动脉灌注在降主动脉手术中对脊髓的保护作用.方法 2007年8月至2009年3月,5例降主动脉夹层和2例降主动脉瘤病人行降主动脉置换术.术中保留置换降主动脉上所有肋间动脉,进行选择性肋间动脉灌注,以减少脊髓缺血时间及程度以达到脊髓保护的目的 .术后早期观察和中期随访是否有截瘫发生.结果 术中脊髓缺血23~27 min,平均(24.8±1.6) min.7例术后均未发生截瘫,治愈出院.随访1~19个月,全组无截瘫,生活质量良好.结论 选择性肋间动脉灌注可缩短脊髓缺血时间和程度,脊髓保护效果良好,并可大大降低手术操作难度.%Objective This clinical study evaluated the efficacy of selective intercostal arterial perfusion for protection of spinal cord during descending aortic surgery.Methods From August 2007 to March 2009,7 patients received descending aorta replacement for type B dissection (5 patients) or thoracic aortic aneurysm (2 patients).Descending aorta replacement was performed through a posterolateral incision and left femoral vein-artery bypass in 1 case and left atrial-left femoral artery (LA-FA) bypass in 6.The grafts extended from the distal arch at the root of subclavian artery to the descending aorta at the T10-11 vertebra.The posterior wall of the descending aorta with intercostal arteries was sutured to form an 15 mm tube in diameter and an end-to-side anastomosis was made to an 8 mm graft branch.Selective intercostal arterial perfusion was performed from the T1 intercostal artery to the T10-11 intercostal artery through the 8 mm graft branch to protect spinal cord from ischemia.Cerebrospinal fluid pressure was monitored and cerebrospinal fluid drainage was performed necessarily.Results The replaced grafts measured from 19 to 23 cm [mean (20.2±1.4) cm].The CPB duration ranged from73-84 min [mean (24.8 ± 1.6) min].The mean ischemic duration was 23 to 27min [mean(24.8 ± 1.6) min

  8. Shift control method for the local time at descending node based on sun-synchronous orbit satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yong'an; Feng Zuren; Sun Linyan; Tan Wei

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the shift factors of the descending node local time for sun-synchronous satellites and proposes a shift control method to keep the local time shift within an allowance range. It is found that the satellite orbit design and the orbit injection deviation are the causes for the initial shift velocity, whereas the atmospheric drag and the sun gravitational perturbation produce the shift acceleration. To deal with these shift factors, a shift control method is put forward, through such methods as orbit variation design, orbit altitude, and inclination keeping control. The simulation experiment and practical application have proved the effectiveness of this control method.

  9. Expectation values of descendent fields in the Bullough-Dodd model and related perturbed conformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baseilhac, P. E-mail: pb18@york.ac.uk; Stanishkov, M. E-mail: marian@mail.apctp.org

    2001-10-01

    The exact vacuum expectation values of the second level descendent fields <({partial_derivative}phi (cursive,open) Greek){sup 2}({partial_derivative}-bar{phi}{sup 2}e{sup a{phi}} in the Bullough-Dodd model are calculated. By performing quantum group restrictions, we obtain in the PHI{sub 12}, PHI{sub 21} and PHI{sub 15} perturbed minimal CFTs. In particular, the exact expectation value is found to be proportional to the square of the bulk free energy.

  10. Endovascular covered stent treatment for descending aorta pseudoaneurysm following coarctation of the aorta repair in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takawira, Farirai F; Sinyangwe, Greenwood; Mooloo, Rene

    2010-12-01

    The development of a pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication following repair of a coarctation of the aorta. Surgical management of pseudoaneurysms is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We describe the successful endovascular deployment of a covered stent in a sick infant with a descending aorta pseudoaneurysm, following the repair of an aortic coarctation. We highlight the challenges we encountered. Endovascular repair is a safe palliative alternative to re-do open surgery in unstable infants with large pseudoaneurysms following aortic coarctation repair. The role of endovascular stents as the final definitive therapy will remain limited by the deployable, small-size stents in small, growing children.

  11. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  12. Fraser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Kumari M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fraser syndrome or cryptophthalmos is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by major features such as cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and abnormal genitalia. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be made on clinical examination and perinatal autopsy. We present the autopsy findings of a rare case of Fraser syndrome in a male infant.

  13. Rowell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Y Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rowell syndrome is a rare disease consisting of erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lupus erythematosus. The syndrome occurs mostly in middle-aged women. The authors describe the syndrome in a 15-year-old boy who responded well to systemic steroids and hydroxychloroquine.

  14. Wallenberg's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Wallenberg's Syndrome Information Page Wallenberg's Syndrome Information Page What ... better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure disorders such as Wallenberg’s syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s ...

  15. Brugada syndrome: a case report of an unusual association with vasospastic angina and coronary myocardial bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazio, Massimo; Ghisio, Aldo; Coda, Luisella; Tidu, Massimo; Belli, Riccardo; Trinchero, Rita; Brusca, Antonio

    2002-04-01

    This report describes a case of an unusual association between vasospastic angina, coronary myocardial bridging, and Brugada syndrome. The patient complained of chest pain followed by rhythmic palpitation and syncope. Brugada syndrome ECG markers were documented with transient ST-segment elevation in lateral leads. A coronary angiogram showed a myocardial bridging in the left anterior descending artery and coronary vasospasm was reproduced after intracoronary ergonovine injection in the circumflex coronary artery. Ventricular fibrillation was induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The described association can be important because interaction between ischemia and Brugada syndrome electrophysiological substrate could modulate individual susceptibility to life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

  16. Refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández López, M T; López Otero, M J; Alvarez Vázquez, P; Arias Delgado, J; Varela Correa, J J

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a complex syndrome that occurs as a result of reintroducing nutrition (oral, enteral or parenteral) to patients who are starved or malnourished. Patients can develop fluid-balance abnormalities, electrolyte disorders (hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia), abnormal glucose metabolism and certain vitamin deficiencies. Refeeding syndrome encompasses abnormalities affecting multiple organ systems, including neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, neuromuscular and haematological functions. Pathogenic mechanisms involved in the refeeding syndrome and clinical manifestations have been reviewed. We provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of refeeding syndrome. The most important steps are to identify patients at risk, reintroduce nutrition cautiously and correct electrolyte and vitamin deficiencies properly.

  17. [Metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Masanori; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which is consisted of hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance, is one of the most significant lifestyle-related disorders that lead to cardiovascular diseases. Among many upstream factors that are related to metabolic syndrome, obesity, especially visceral obesity, plays an essential role in its pathogenesis. In recent studies, possible mechanisms which connect obesity to metabolic syndrome have been elucidated, such as inflammation, abnormal secretion of adipokines and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on the relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome; and illustrate how visceral obesity contributes to, and how the treatments for obesity act on metabolic syndrome.

  18. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Iranian Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Baradaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  19. Daytime descending intermediate layers observed over a sub-tropical Indian station Waltair during low-solar activity period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niranjan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Study on daytime descending intermediate layer over subtropical Indian station Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E geographic, 6.4° N, 10° E geomagnetic, 20° N dip located in the equatorial anomaly transition region, using an IPS 42 Digital Ionosonde during the low solar activity year 2004 showed that the layers occur in the altitude range of 140–160 km with maximum occurrence during winter solstice. The layers observed during daytime occur with a double peak variation throughout the year with less occurrence probability and shorter duration presence during forenoon hours. The morning layer descent was associated with a density increase where as during afternoon hours a decrease in density was observed. The downward drift velocity was about 8 km/h during morning hours and between 7–11 km/h during afternoon hours, with a low descent rate of around 4.5 km/h during summer morning hours. The results indicate the presence of a 6 h tide at this location as observed from the characteristics of the descending layers, unlike at majority of locations where a significant semi diurnal trend is observed. The study brings out the complex nature of the tidal interaction at different locations.

  20. [Distribution of three polymorphisms of the TSLP gen in African-descendent population from San Basilio de Palenque, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Luis; Martínez, Beatriz; Marrugo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been linked as a susceptibility gene for the development of allergic diseases. It is known that the population of Cartagena is a triethnic mix, in which the component of African ancestry was significantly associated with risk of asthma and high total serum IgE levels. This component comes from African slaves brought into the continent and settled in "palenques", one of them is San Basilio de Palenque, in the Colombian Caribbean Coast. To analyze the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs1837253, rs17551370 and rs2289276 located in TSLP gene, in the African-descendent population of San Basilio de Palenque. By real time-PCR and probes TaqMan SNP Genotyping™, we genotyped three polymorphisms in 80 individuals of African-descent aged 5 to 18 years of age. The frequency of the rs1837253 allele T was 41.9%, for the allele A, 14.3% for rs17551370, and 22.5% for the allele T of rs2289276. The rs17551370 and rs2289276 distribution remained in Hardy- Weinberg genetic equilibrium. The allele frequency of each SNP did not show statistically significant differences with those reported for other African and African-descendent populations. The three polymorphisms in the TSLP were present in the sample population of San Basilio de Palenque and its distribution is similar to that reported for African populations and African ancestry in America.

  1. Neural network based on adaptive chaotic gradient descending optimization algorithm and its application in matte converting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志坤; 彭小奇; 桂卫华

    2004-01-01

    An adaptive chaotic gradient descending optimization algorithm for single objective optimization was presented. A local minimum judged by two rules was obtained by an improved mutative-step gradient descending method. A new optimal minimum was obtained to replace the local minimum by mutative-scale chaotic search algorithm whose scales are magnified gradually from a small scale in order to escape local minima. The global optimal value was attained by repeatedly iterating. At last, a BP (back-propagation) neural network model for forecasting slag output in matte converting was established. The algorithm was used to train the weights of the BP neural network model. The simulation results with a training data set of 400 samples show that the training process can be finished within 300 steps to obtain the global optimal value, and escape local minima effectively. An optimization system for operation parameters, which includes the forecasting model, is achieved, in which the output of converter increases by 6.0%, and the amount of the treated cool materials rises by 7.8% in the matte converting process.

  2. Coronary endarterectomy in left anterior descending artery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting – midterm mortality and morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaradzki, Wojciech; Krauze, Jolanta; Kinasz, Leszek; Jankowska-Sanetra, Justyna; Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata; Paradowski, Krzysztof; Cisowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Completeness of myocardial revascularization is essential in surgical treatment of coronary artery disease. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of coronary endarterectomy as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the most difficult cases. Material and methods Among 1559 patients who had CABG in our department, the cases of 17 who underwent an adjunct left anterior descending endarterectomy were analyzed. All procedures were performed with median sternotomy, extracorporeal circulation and in mild hypothermia (34°C), by the same surgeon. No coronary artery endarterectomy was planned before surgery. Results There was no infarction or cardiac arrest during hospitalization. Only one patient required mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation). Each patient was contacted and investigation for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was performed. Eleven patients (65%) already underwent midterm clinical evaluation. There was no death, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular incident during the entire period (mean follow-up at 15.3 months). One patient required urgent coronarography due to chest pain. No other patient had chest pain or significant deterioration of ventricular function in echocardiography. Conclusions Outcomes and potential indications for performing left anterior descending coronary endarterectomy as an adjunct to CABG are discussed. PMID:26855644

  3. Mixed-source reintroductions lead to outbreeding depression in second-generation descendents of a native North American fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, D.D.; Miller, L.M.; Chizinski, C.J.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Reintroductions are commonly employed to preserve intraspecific biodiversity in fragmented landscapes. However, reintroduced populations are frequently smaller and more geographically isolated than native populations. Mixing genetically, divergent sources are often proposed to attenuate potentially low genetic diversity in reintroduced populations that may result from small effective population sizes. However, a possible negative tradeoff for mixing sources is outbreeding depression in hybrid offspring. We examined the consequences of mixed-source reintroductions on several fitness surrogates at nine slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) reintroduction sites in south-east Minnesota. We inferred the relative fitness of each crosstype in the reintroduced populations by comparing their growth rate, length, weight, body condition and persistence in reintroduced populations. Pure strain descendents from a single source population persisted in a greater proportion than expected in the reintroduced populations, whereas all other crosstypes occurred in a lesser proportion. Length, weight and growth rate were lower for second-generation intra-population hybrid descendents than for pure strain and first-generation hybrids. In the predominant pure strain, young-of the-year size was significantly greater than any other crosstype. Our results suggested that differences in fitness surrogates among crosstypes were consistent with disrupted co-adapted gene complexes associated with beneficial adaptations in these reintroduced populations. Future reintroductions may be improved by evaluating the potential for local adaptation in source populations or by avoiding the use of mixed sources by default when information on local adaptations or other genetic characteristics is lacking. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. [Autoinflammatory syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Hiroaki; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2009-03-01

    The autoinflammatory syndromes include a group of inherited diseases that are characterized by 1) seemingly unprovoked episodes of systemic inflammations, 2) absence of high titer of autoantibody or auto-reactive T cell, and 3) inborn error of innate immunity. In this article, we will focus on the clinical features, the pathogenesis related the genetic defects, and the therapeutic strategies in the representative disorders including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), hyper-IgD with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), syndrome of pyogenic arthritis with pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA), and Blau syndrome. Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology have proceeded our understanding of the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes.

  5. 探讨正常分娩会阴标准评分表的设计及在无保护会阴接生中的应用%Study on Design of Normal Labor Perineal Standard Scoring Table in the Unprotected Perineum Delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志华; 熊永芳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨正常分娩会阴标准评分表的设计及在无保护会阴接生中的应用。方法选取2014年1—10月在该院住院分娩的足月、单胎、头位、无并发症初产妇5600例为观察组,助产士应用会阴标准评分表进行会阴评分,其中>9分可以不做会阴切开。选取2013年1—10月在我院住院分娩的足月、单胎、头位、无并发症初产妇5100例为对照组,助产士依靠个人经验估计不做会阴切开,两者均采取无保护会阴接生法;比较两组产妇会阴侧切率及会阴裂伤程度。结果观察组有2850例未行会阴侧切(50.9%);会阴完整、Ⅰ、Ⅱ分别为810(28.4%)、1770(62%)、270(9.6%),对照组1800例未行会阴侧切(35.3%),会阴完整、Ⅰ、Ⅱ裂伤分别为498(27.7%)、965(53.6%)、337(18.7%),两组均无Ⅲ会阴裂伤。两组比较,观察组会阴侧切率、会阴Ⅱ裂伤率显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P9 marks need not giving episiotomy; 5 100 cases of full-term, singleton, heading and non-complication primiparas for delivery in our hospital from January 2013 to October 2013 were selected as the control group, and they need not giving episiotomy by estimation of the midwives according to their personal experience, both groups adopted the unprotected perineum delivery method, and the lateral episiotomy rate and perineal laceration degree were compared between the two groups. Results In the observation group, 2 850 cases were not given episiotomy (50.9%), perineal completion, Ⅰlaceration andⅡ laceration respectively oc-curred to 810 (28.4%), 1770 (62%) and 270 (9.6%), in the control group, 1 800 cases were not given episiotomy (35.3%), perineal completion,Ⅰlaceration and Ⅱ laceration respectively occurred to 498 (27.7%), 965 (53.6%) and 337 (18.7%), both groups had no Ⅲ perineal laceration, the lateral episiotomy rate and perineal Ⅱ laceration rate in the observation obviously decreased and the difference had

  6. Expression of aquaporin 8 in colonic epithelium with diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-ping; HOU Xiao-hua

    2007-01-01

    Background We analysed and compared the aquaporin 8 (AQP8) expression in ascending and descending colon mucosa between patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) and healthy volunteers, in order to study the relationship between the clinical feature of IBS, the expression of AQP8 and the pathological mechanism of D- IBS.Methods Specimens were taken from the proximal ascending colon or distal descending colon of D-IBS patients (n=26)and healthy volunteers (n=30), and AQP8 mRNA expression of each specimen was determined by fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (FQ-RT-PCR). In patients with D-IBS, the relationship was analysed between AQP8 expression in both ascending and descending colons and clinical features including gender,age of onset, duration of illness, frequency of defecation, and stool characteristics.Results Although AQP8 was present in the epithelium of the ascending and descending colons in healthy persons and D-IBS patients, the AQP8 level of the D-IBS patients was significantly lower than that of the healthy persons (P<0.01 in the ascending colon, P<0.05 in the descending colon). AQP8 expression was not correlated with the age of patients with D-IBS (P>0.05 both in the ascending and descending colons) or the age at the onset (P>0.05 both in the ascending and descending colons), but closely with the duration of illness (P<0.05 in the ascending colon, P<0.01 in the descending colon), frequency of defecation (P<0.01 in the ascending colon, P<0.05 in the descending colon) and stool characteristics (P<0.01 in the ascending colon, P>0.05 in the descending colon).Conclusions The decreased AQP8 expression in D-IBS patients indicates that dysfunction of colonic absorption may cause reduced water absorption, loose stool and diarrhoea. The expression of AQP8 may be related to D-IBS.

  7. The prune belly syndrome in a female foetus with urorectal septum malformation sequence: a case report on a rare entity with an unusual association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kusre, Giriraj; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Sarma, Adity

    2013-08-01

    The prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by the triad of an absent or a deficient development of the abdominal muscle, bilateral cryptorchidism and an anomalous urinary tract. In its full form, this condition occurs only in males. However, a similar condition occurs in females in the absence of cryptorchidism. On the other hand, the urorectal septum malformation sequence is a lethal congenital malformation which is characterized by the development of a phallus like structure, a smooth perineum and the absence of urethral, vaginal and anal openings. We are reporting a case of a female foetus with the prune belly syndrome, which was associated with a urorectal septum malformation sequence. A dead foetus with a protruded abdomen and ambiguous genitalia, was born at 32 weeks of pregnancy. On autopsy, it was found to have female internal genital organs. The left kidney, the urinary bladder and the rectum were absent. The sigmoid colon, the ureters and the fallopian tubes opened into a common cloacal sac. The histopathological examination of the ovary showed the presence of Leydig's cells. The occurrence of the female counterpart of the prune belly syndrome is extremely rare and only few of such cases were found to be discussed in the details in the indexed English literature so far. Hence, we hope that this case report will contribute to the existing knowledge on the prune belly syndrome.

  8. Chemokine signaling involving chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 plays a role in descending pain facilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Guo; Hu Wang; Shiping Zou; Ronald Dubner; Ke Ren

    2012-01-01

    Objective Despite accumulating evidence on a role of immune cells and their associated chemicals in mechanisms of pain,few studies have addressed the potential role of chemokines in the descending facilitation of persistent pain.The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) (commonly known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) signaling in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM),a pivotal structure in brainstem pain modulatory circuitry,is involved in descending pain facilitation in rats.Methods An L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) was produced in rats under pentobarbital anesthesia.Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression levels of CCL2 and CCL2 receptor (CCR2),and examine their distributions compared with the neuronal marker NeuN as well as glial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP,astroglial) and CD11b (microglial),respectively.Results SNL induced an increase in CCL2 expression in the RVM,and this returned to the control level at 4 weeks after injury.The induced CCL2 colocalized with NeuN,but not with GFAP and CD11b.CCR2 was also upregulated by SNL in the RVM,and this increase lasted for at least 4 weeks.CCR2 was colocalized with CD1 1b but not GFAP.Few RVM neurons also exhibited CCR2 staining.Neutralizing CCL2 with an anti-CCL2 antibody (0.2-20 ng) or injecting RS-102895 (0.1-10 pmol),a CCR2b chemokine receptor antagonist,into the RVM on day 1 after SNL,significantly attenuated the established thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity.In addition,injection of recombinant rat CCL2 (0.03-3pmol) into the RVM induced dose-dependent hyperalgesia,which was prevented by pretreatment with RS-102895 (10pmol).Interleukin-1β (IL-1β),a potent inducer of neuronal CCL2,was also selectively upregulated in RVM reactive astrocytes.Injection of IL-1β (120 fmol) into the RVM induced behavioral hyperalgesia,which was blocked by RS-102895(10 pmol).However,an IL-1 receptor antagonist (3

  9. The Mw6.7 October 12, 2013 western Hellenic Arc earthquake and seismotectonic implications for the descending slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2015-04-01

    The 2013 earthquake is the largest that occurred in the last four decades along the western part of the Hellenic subduction zone, causing light damage in western Crete. Since rupture dimensions and properties of subduction events are in general more difficult to estimate due to their position in relation with seismological networks geometry, its occurrence provides an opportunity to investigate its rupture characteristics as in detail as possible, and consequently to shed more light in the geometry of the descending slab. The western almost rectilinear part of the convergent front accommodated the great 365 AD Mw8.3 earthquake, the largest event ever reported in the Mediterranean region, generating a tsunami that affected almost its entire eastern part. The oceanic plate of eastern Mediterranean, the front part of the northward moving African lithospheric plate, is subducting northeasterly beneath the Aegean microplate, the southern portion of Eurasian lithospheric plate in this area, at a rate of 4.5 cm/yr, frequently accommodating large destructive earthquakes with magnitudes M>6.5 along the main thrust zone. Historical and instrumental information reveals that strong (M>6.0) earthquakes, both shallow and intermediate ones are frequent in the area, although there is not any reference to any other such strong event. Plate motion is far above the manifestation of seismicity, probably due to the fact that the seismic coupling coefficient at this plate boundary has been estimated at approximately 10% or less. The main shock is associated with a fault patch onto the coupled part of the overriding and descending plates, with the compression axis being oriented in the direction of plate convergence. The first 10-days relocated seismicity shows activation of the upper part of the descending slab, with most activity being concentrated between 10 and 30 km, with the main shock being located at the bottom of the activated segment. Cross sectional views of the relocated

  10. [Autoinflammatory syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, P; Gross, W L

    2009-06-01

    In its strict sense, the term "autoinflammatory syndromes" comprises the hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPF), which are caused by mutations of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) and perturbations of the cytokine balance. These include the crypyrinopathies, familial Mediterranean fever, TNF-receptor associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), hyper-IgD and periodic syndrome (HIDS), pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, NALP12-HPF, and the Blau syndrome. The diseases are characterized by spontaneous activation of cells of the innate immunity in the absence of ligands. Autoantibodies are usually not found. HPF clinically present with recurrent fever episodes and inflammation, especially of serosal and synovial interfaces and the skin. Intriguingly, PRR-mediated autoinflammtory mechanisms also play a role in a number of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  11. Urofacial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F Akl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is characterized by functional obstructive uropathy asso-ciated with an inverted smile. The importance of the subject is that it sheds light, not only on the muscles of facial expression, but also on the inheritance of voiding disorders and lower urinary tract malformations. We report a 10-year-old-male patient who had the urofacial syndrome. Early diagnosis of the urofacial syndrome is important to avoid upper urinary tract damage and renal failure.

  12. Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanti Devi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  13. Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  14. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  15. Revesz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revesz syndrome is a rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita and is characterized by bilateral exudative retinopathy, alterations in the anterior ocular segment, intrauterine growth retardation, fine sparse hair, reticulate skin pigmentation, bone marrow failure, cerebral calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and psychomotor retardation. Few patients with this syndrome have been reported, and significant clinical variations exist among patients. This report describes the first Brazilian case of Revesz syndrome and its ocular and clinical features.

  16. Water Grabbing in the Cauca Basin: The Capitalist Exploitation of Water and Dispossession of Afro-Descendant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vélez Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines water grabbing in the Alto Cauca in Colombia as a form of accumulation through ethnicised and racialised environmental dispossession in the capitalist system. Characterised by privatisation and historical trends of exclusion, this violent accumulation model has shaped a particular form of environmental racism leading to negative impacts experienced in historically marginalised Afro-descendant local communities. Analyzing two development projects in the upper watershed of the Cauca river – the Agua Blanca Irrigation District Project and a Project for Diverting the River Cauca – the article concludes that many actors are responsible for the negative effects of the regional development model. These include the state, national and foreign private companies, and powerful international economic stakeholders.

  17. The Shadow of the Italian Colonial Experience: The Impact of Collective Emotions on Intentions to Help the Victims’ Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Volpato

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recalling the Italian colonial experience elicits the collective emotions of guilt, shame, and ingroup-focused anger. We expected that these emotions would predict different reparation intentions in favor of the colonized populations' descendants. Students and non-students were recruited (N = 152 and asked to rate their emotions of collective guilt, shame, and anger for the violence that their ingroup had perpetrated against colonized people. Results showed that shame affected intentions to provide economic compensation to current inhabitants of the ex-colonies. This relationship was mediated by concerns of damage for the ingroup's image. Anger toward the ingroup predicted intentions to help immigrants from the ex-colonies now living in Italy. Interestingly, empathy toward the outgroup mediated the latter relation. Finally, collective guilt was not reliably associated with any reparation strategy. These findings have implications for theory and for the historical collective memory of Italian colonialism.

  18. Inter-observer variation in delineation of the heart and left anterior descending coronary artery in radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ebbe L.; Taylor, Carolyn W.; Maraldo, Maja

    2013-01-01

    of the heart. Common guidelines reduced the spatial variation for the heart and the length of the LAD, but increased the variation in the anterior-posterior/right-left plane. The coefficients of variation (CV) in the estimated doses to the heart were: mean dose 7.5% without and 3.6% with guidelines, maximum......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine the extent of inter-observer variation in delineation of the heart and left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) and its impact on estimated doses. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nine observers from five centres delineated the heart and LADCA on fifteen patients...... receiving left breast radiotherapy. The delineations were carried out twice, first without guidelines and then with a set of common guidelines. RESULTS: For the heart, most spatial variation in delineation was near the base of the heart whereas for the LADCA most variation was in its length at the apex...

  19. Fatal delayed cardiac tamponade due to rupture of micropseudoaneurysm of left anterior descending coronary artery following stab to the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jingjun; Li, Shangxun; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Duan, Yijie; Li, Wenhe; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic coronary pseudoaneurysm has been described to be mainly associated to iatrogenic lesion of the coronary arteries. However, chest-stab-wound-related coronary pseudoaneurysm caused by isolated partial incision of a coronary artery giving rise to fatal delayed cardiac tamponade is very rare. We describe an autopsy case in which this potentially fatal complication developed 8 days later after a thoracic stab wound. Unfortunately, the imaging examination failed to detect this defect during hospitalization. Postmortem examination revealed that the posterior wall of the left anterior descending coronary artery was intact but that the anterior wall was incised, forming a micropseudoaneurysm which had ruptured. This case highlights that isolated coronary artery injuries must be considered in any patient with a penetrating wound to the thorax, and coronary pseudoaneurysms should not be missed in these patients.

  20. The genetic diversity of three peculiar populations descending from the slave trade: Gm study of Noir Marron from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Tortevoye, Patricia; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Guitard, Evelyne; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Larrouy, Georges; Gessain, Antoine; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2009-10-01

    The Noir Marron communities are the direct descendants of African slaves brought to the Guianas during the four centuries (16th to 19th) of the Atlantic slave trade. Among them, three major ethnic groups have been studied: the Aluku, the Ndjuka and the Saramaka. Their history led them to share close relationships with Europeans and Amerindians, as largely documented in their cultural records. The study of Gm polymorphisms of immunoglobulins may help to estimate the amount of gene flow linked to these cultural exchanges. Surprisingly, very low levels of European contribution (2.6%) and Amerindian contribution (1.7%) are detected in the Noir Marron gene pool. On the other hand, an African contribution of 95.7% redraws their origin to West Africa (F(ST) < or = 0.15). This highly preserved African gene pool of the Noir Marron is unique in comparison to other African American populations of Latin America, who are notably more admixed.

  1. Septal myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201 in the diagnosis of proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichard, A.D.; Wiener, I.; Martinez, E.; Horowitz, S.; Patterson, R.; Meller, J.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Gorlin, R.; Herman, M.V.

    1981-07-01

    The use of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) to identify obstructive coronary disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery proximal to the first septal perforator (prox LAD) was studied in 60 patients. Perfusion of the septum and anteroapical areas with thallium-201 injected during exercise was compared to results of coronary arteriography. Septal MPI defect was found in 92.3% of patients with obstruction of the proximal LAD, 27.7% of patients with obstruction of LAD distal to first septal perforator, 0% in patients with obstructions involving right or circumflex arteries, and in 10.5% of patients without coronary disease. Anteroapical MPI defects were found with similar frequency in the three groups with obstructive coronary disease. Septal MPI defect had a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 85.4% in the diagnosis of proximal LAD disease. Normal septal perfusion with thallium-201 virtually excluded proximal LAD disease.

  2. A 3-dimensional digital atlas of the ascending sensory and the descending motor systems in the pigeon brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntürkün, Onur; Verhoye, Marleen; De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    Pigeons are classic animal models for learning, memory, and cognition. The majority of the current understanding about avian neurobiology outside of the domain of the song system has been established using pigeons. Since MRI represents an increasingly relevant tool for comparative neuroscience, a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the pigeon brain becomes essential. Using multiple imaging protocols, we delineated diverse ascending sensory and descending motor systems as well as the hippocampal formation. This pigeon brain atlas can easily be used to determine the stereotactic location of identified neural structures at any angle of the head. In addition, the atlas is useful to find the optimal angle of sectioning for slice experiments, stereotactic injections and electrophysiological recordings. This pigeon brain atlas is freely available for the scientific community.

  3. Eight pairs of descending visual neurons in the dragonfly give wing motor centers accurate population vector of prey direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bellido, Paloma T; Peng, Hanchuan; Yang, Jinzhu; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P; Olberg, Robert M

    2013-01-08

    Intercepting a moving object requires prediction of its future location. This complex task has been solved by dragonflies, who intercept their prey in midair with a 95% success rate. In this study, we show that a group of 16 neurons, called target-selective descending neurons (TSDNs), code a population vector that reflects the direction of the target with high accuracy and reliability across 360°. The TSDN spatial (receptive field) and temporal (latency) properties matched the area of the retina where the prey is focused and the reaction time, respectively, during predatory flights. The directional tuning curves and morphological traits (3D tracings) for each TSDN type were consistent among animals, but spike rates were not. Our results emphasize that a successful neural circuit for target tracking and interception can be achieved with few neurons and that in dragonflies this information is relayed from the brain to the wing motor centers in population vector form.

  4. Growth of AgGaS2 single crystal by descending crucible with rotation method and observation of properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This note reports a new procedure of polycrystalline synthesis and a new technique of single crystal growth on AgGaS2, i.e. two-zone temperature oscillation vapor transporting and descending crucible with rotation. A single phase dense AgGaS2 polycrystalline ingot was synthesized, and a crack-free AgGaS2 single crystal with 15 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length was grown by the techniques mentioned above. Structure integrity of the crystal was studied by the X-ray diffraction technique. Six order X-ray spectra from the {011} face of the crystal were obtained, and an anomalous phenomenon was observed for the first time that intensity of the higher order diffraction peak is much stronger than that of the lower order diffraction peak. Etch-pits of the crystal were observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Model investigations 3D of gas-powder two phase flow in descending bed with consideration radial distribution of flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Panic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental investigations concerning radial distribution of powder accumulation in bed and static pressure were presented in this paper. To realize this research physical model of gas-powder two phase flow with descending bed was projected and constructed. Amounts of “dynamic” and “static” powder accumulated in bed, in dependence on gas velocity and of bed particles were investigated. In 3D model “static” powder (with its radial distribution at the tuyere level and in the higher part of bed was measured. The influence of bed particles, powder and gas radial distribution on values of interaction forces between flow phases in investigated system was defined.

  6. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-04-12

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially.

  7. The effects of pressure on the water permeability of the descending limb of Henle's loops of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, L C; Roch-Ramel, F

    1979-10-01

    Descending limbs of Henle's loops from rabbits were perfused in vitro. Using techniques where the collecting pipets permitted cannulation of the tubule, we were able to maintain reasonable flow rates at lower perfusion reservoir heights than are required with a conventional "Sylgard seal" pipet. The bath was either isosmotic to the perfusate, or was made 300 mOsm hyperosmotic using urea. Net water reabsorption did not occur in tubules perfused at low pressure (average reservoir height = 26 cm H2O) even when the bath was hyperosmotic: delta Jv = -0.06 +/- 0.18 nl/min (n = 7). Observed increases in sodium concentration and osmolality of collected fluid, when the bath was made hyperosmotic, were 16 +/- 8 mM (n - 7) and 254 +/- 38 mOsm (n = 7), respectively. Presumably the large increase in osmolality of the collected fluid was due to entrance of urea. When the "Sylgard seal" collecting end was utilized higher perfusion reservoir heights had to be used to maintain flow (mean height 66 cm H2O). These tubules were highly permeable to water as reported by others for this tubule segment. In the presence of a hyperosmotic bath water extrusion resulted in a dramatic increase in the osmolality of the collected fluid (312 +/- 5 mOsm; 7 tubules) which was almost completely accounted for by an increase in sodium concentration (153 +/- 8 mmole/l; 6 tubules). The 14C urea permeability (measured lumen to bath) of descending limbs in a 300 mOsm bath was 0.64 x 10(-7) cm2 . s-1 +/- 0.23 x 10(-7) (11 tubules). When the bath was made hyperosmotic using urea or raffinose the 14C urea permeability increased significantly.

  8. Ly6Chi Monocytes and Their Macrophage Descendants Regulate Neutrophil Function and Clearance in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubardt, Nadine; Vugman, Milena; Mouhadeb, Odelia; Caliari, Gabriele; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Reuveni, Debby; Zigmond, Ehud; Brazowski, Eli; David, Eyal; Chappell-Maor, Lousie; Jung, Steffen; Varol, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMF) play a pivotal role in the resolution of acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). Timely termination of neutrophil activity and their clearance are essential for liver regeneration following injury. Here, we show that infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes, their macrophage descendants, and neutrophils spatially and temporally overlap in the centrilobular necrotic areas during the necroinflammatory and resolution phases of AILI. At the necroinflammatory phase, inducible ablation of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes resulted in reduced numbers and fractions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing neutrophils. In alignment with this, neutrophils sorted from monocyte-deficient livers exhibited reduced expression of NADPH oxidase 2. Moreover, human CD14+ monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or hepatocyte apoptotic bodies directly induced ROS production by cocultured neutrophils. RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling of neutrophils from Ly6Chi monocyte-deficient versus normal livers revealed 449 genes that were differentially expressed with at least twofold change (p ≤ 0.05). In the absence of Ly6Chi monocytes, neutrophils displayed gene expression alterations associated with decreased innate immune activity and increased cell survival. At the early resolution phase, Ly6Chi monocytes differentiated into ephemeral Ly6Clo MoMF and their absence resulted in significant accumulation of late apoptotic neutrophils. Further gene expression analysis revealed the induced expression of a specific repertoire of bridging molecules and receptors involved with apoptotic cell clearance during the transition from Ly6Chi monocytes to MoMF. Collectively, our findings establish a phase-dependent task division between liver-infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes and their MoMF descendants with the former regulating innate immune functions and cell survival of neutrophils and the later neutrophil clearance. PMID:28620383

  9. Metastatic Small Bowel Tumor from Descending Colon Cancer with Extensive Hematogenous or Lymphogenous Spread: Survey of the Japanese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kojima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 68-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with cancer of the descending colon in July 1994 and underwent partial resection of the colon (type 2, moderately to well differentiated adenocarcinoma, se, ly1, v1, n(–. In April 1996, she was admitted to a nearby hospital for symptoms of ileus, which improved at the hospital. However, she was referred to our hospital for melena. In blood test, Hb was 8.7 g/dl, showing anemia, and carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated to 50.7 ng/ml. Abdominal CT and small bowel series showed only mild expansion of the small bowel, suggesting no obvious occlusion. Abdominal surgery was performed in May 1995 for repeated development of ileus symptoms and suspicion of bleeding from the small bowel. Since the findings of the abdominal surgery showed a circular tumor in the lower ileum, partial resection of the small bowel was performed. Histopathological examination showed type 3, moderately to well differentiated adnocarcinoma, se, ly2, v0, n = 1/13. The principal tumor was located within the subserosa and grew up exclusively through the muscularis propria and the submucosa, into the mucous layer. The mucosa remained slightly on the surface layer. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with metastasis of descending colon cancer to the small bowel. Her prognosis was good, and neither metastasis nor redevelopment of the cancer have been confirmed to date, 11 years and 7 months since the surgery.

  10. Using The Descending Aortic Wall Thickness Measured In Transesophageal Echocardiography As A Risk Marker For Aortic Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Fanari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate whether aortic wall thickness is increased in patients with Aortic dissection (AD compared to low risk control group and can be used in addition to aortic diameter as a risk marker of AD. Background: AD occurs due to pathologies that may increase thickness of the aortic wall. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE has the ability to visualise both the thoracic aortic wall and lumen. Aortic diameter has been used to predict aortic dissection and timing of surgery, but it is not always predictive of that risk. Methods: In 48 patients with AD who underwent TEE were examined retrospectively and compared to 48 control patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO. We measured aortic diameter at different levels, intimal/medial thickness (IMT and complete wall thickness (CMT. Demographic data and cardiovascular risk factors were reviewed. The data was analysed using ANOVA and student t test. Results: (AD patients were older [mean age 66 AD vs. 51 PFO], had more hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and Coronary artery disease. Both IMT and CMT in the descending aorta were increased in AD group [(1.85 vs. 1.43 mm; P=0.03 and 2.93 vs. 2.46 mm; p=0.01. As expected the diameter of ascending aorta was also greater in AD (4.61 vs. 2.92 cm; P=0.004. Conclusions: CMT and IMT in the descending aorta detected by TEE is greater in patients with AD when compared to control and may add prognostic data to that of aortic diameter

  11. From “reversed quota” to “ invisible quota” in the recruitment of the descendants of immigrants for public service jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina Meziani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a qualitative comparison study of the hiring of the descendants of immigrants for public service jobs in France and in the Netherlands, this article highlights the selection mechanisms implemented by local human resources personnel in the local government in two small towns, one in the Netherlands and one in France. We observed how the respective recruitment politics were designed to improve the visibility and presence of the descendants of migrants in local public services. Our results demonstrate that these two localities use very different methods to recruit the descendants of immigrants: French local authorities used “invisible quotas”, and Dutch local authorities used “reversed quotas.” They followed two different accounting systems, which in turn had diverse effects on the redefinition of the desired skillset.

  12. Spasticity: the misunderstood part of the upper motor neuron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanhoe, Cindy B; Reistetter, Timothy A

    2004-10-01

    Spasticity is a sensorimotor phenomenon related to the integration of the nervous system motor responses to sensory input. Although most commonly considered a velocity-dependent increase to tonic stretch, it is related to hypersensitivity of the reflex arc and changes that occur within the central nervous system, most notably, the spinal cord. Injury to the central nervous system results in loss of descending inhibition, allowing for the clinical manifestation of abnormal impulses. Muscle activity becomes overactive. This is mediated at several areas of the stretch-reflex pathway. Although spasticity is part of the upper motor neuron syndrome, it is frequently tied to the other presentations of the said syndrome. Contracture, hypertonia, weakness, and movement disorders can all coexist as a result of the upper motor neuron syndrome. Although basic science descriptions of spasticity are being elucidated, clinically, confusion exists.

  13. The degree of acute descending control of spinal nociception in an area of primary hyperalgesia is dependent on the peripheral domain of afferent input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Robert A R; Hulse, Richard P; Lumb, Bridget M; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2014-08-15

    Descending controls of spinal nociceptive processing play a critical role in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Acute peripheral nociceptor sensitization drives spinal sensitization and activates spino-supraspinal-spinal loops leading to descending inhibitory and facilitatory controls of spinal neuronal activity that further modify the extent and degree of the pain state. The afferent inputs from hairy and glabrous skin are distinct with respect to both the profile of primary afferent classes and the degree of their peripheral sensitization. It is not known whether these differences in afferent input differentially engage descending control systems to different extents or in different ways. Injection of complete Freund's adjuvant resulted in inflammation and swelling of hairy hind foot skin in rats, a transient thermal hyperalgesia lasting hyperalgesia (≥7 days). Much longer lasting thermal hyperalgesia was apparent in glabrous skin (1 h to >72 h). In hairy skin, transient hyperalgesia was associated with sensitization of withdrawal reflexes to thermal activation of either A- or C-nociceptors. The transience of the hyperalgesia was attributable to a rapidly engaged descending inhibitory noradrenergic mechanism, which affected withdrawal responses to both A- and C-nociceptor activation and this could be reversed by intrathecal administration of yohimbine (α-2-adrenoceptor antagonist). In glabrous skin, yohimbine had no effect on an equivalent thermal inflammatory hyperalgesia. We conclude that acute inflammation and peripheral nociceptor sensitization in hind foot hairy skin, but not glabrous skin, rapidly activates a descending inhibitory noradrenergic system. This may result from differences in the engagement of descending control systems following sensitization of different primary afferent classes that innervate glabrous and hairy skin.

  14. The Analysis and Research of Graphplan and It's Descendants%图规划及其扩展的分析和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天际; 姜云飞

    2001-01-01

    AI Plannig and Scheduling are a classical problem of Artificial Intelligene. It is a highlight of AI for it' s significance in many application domains. Recenctly,dramatic advances have been made in this field. In this paper,we introduce our study on Graphplan which is one of the best methods and it's descendent technologys. First,we will analyse Graphplan's algorithm and it's key for success, then briefly introduce it's descendants,at the end of the paper,we suggest areas for future research.

  15. Internal hernia through the descending mesocolon following left radical nephrectomy--a rare complication: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Trehan, V; Ramakrishnan, T S; Maheshwari, V

    2012-02-01

    The causes for internal hernias can be broadly classified as congenital or acquired, the latter being caused by post surgical or traumatic defects. An internal hernia following nephrectomy is a relatively rare occurrence. A nephrectomy via the transperitoneal approach has complications which are common to any abdominal surgery, as well as some which are specific to it. However, an internal hernia through the descending mesocolon is rare, and, to the best of our knowledge, very few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of internal hernia through the descending mesocolon following left radical nephrectomy, review the available literature on this observation and discuss its pathogenesis and prevention.

  16. Successful surgical treatment of descending aorta interruption in a 29-year-old woman with acute paraplegia and subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shutang; Wang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Hongdu; Zhuang, Huanwei; Cao, Xianjun; Liang, Liming; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-06-06

    Interruption of the descending aorta is an extremely rare great vessel malformation. In this report, we describe a very unusual case of a 29-year-old female with a 13-year history of hypertension who was found to have an interruption of the descending aorta when she was hospitalized with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms of acute paraplegia. We successfully surgically corrected the defect using a Gore-Tex® graft to bypass the aortic interruption. The patient's blood pressure postoperatively returned to normal, and the patient recovered completely from her paraplegia by the time of her 5-month follow-up visit.

  17. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Ricard; Piette, Jean-Charles; Font, Josep

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression.......To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression....

  18. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine; Bødtger, Uffe; Heltberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an often un-diagnosed disease seen in previously healthy young subjects, presenting with symptoms of pharyngitis, fever and elevated markers of inflammation. The syndrome is characterised by infectious thrombosis of the jugular vein due to infection with Fusobacteria, causi...

  19. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder K. Gupta, Ritu Gupta, Sunil Dutt Sharma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Turner Syndrome is one of the important chromosomal disorders characterised by loss (total or part ofsex chromosome. The manifestations being peripheral edema, short stature, extra skin fold, webbing ofneck, renal and cardiovascular anomalies, sexual infantilism, learning disability etc. We present here aone month female baby who had classical features of Turner Syndrome. The karyotape analysis wasconsistent with the diagnosis.

  20. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy blood cells. ... anemia, or easy bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndromes often do ...

  1. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Renu

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of proteus syndrome in a 20 year old male is repoted. Hemihypertrophy, asymmetric megalodactyly, linear epidermal naevus, naevus flammeus, angiokeratoma, lymphangioma circumscriptum, thickening of the palms and soles, scoliosis and varicose veins were present. There are only few reports of these cases in adults. The syndrome has not been reported from India.

  2. Franceschetti syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Kasat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Franceschetti syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with variable expressivity. It is commonly known as Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS. It is named after E. Treacher Collins who described the essential components of the condition. It affects both genders equally. This article reports a case of TCS in an 18-year-old female.

  3. LEOPARD syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... L, Strano S, Carbone A, Calvieri C, Giustini S. LEOPARD syndrome. Dermatol Online J . 2008;14(3):7. PMID: 18627709 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18627709 . Sarkozy A, Digilio MC, Dallapiccola B. LEOPARD syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis . 2008;3:13. PMID: ...

  4. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcan AB.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is an important cause of short stature in girls and primer amenorrhea in young women that is usually caused by loss of part or all of an X chromosome. This topic will review the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of Turner syndrome.

  5. Poland syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Madhur Sharma; Shrawan Kumar; Meghwani, Manoj K.; Agrawal, Ravi P.

    2014-01-01

    Poland′s syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  6. Poland syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Madhur Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland′s syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  7. Trombosis de la vena yugular interna y mediastinitis aguda necrosante descendente debido a una faringoamigdalitis aguda Thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and descending necrotizing mediastinitis due to acute pharyngotonsilitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Sánchez Acedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Lemierre es una patología muy infrecuente en la época actual, pero muy grave, y siempre debe considerarse ante un cuadro de fiebre con antecedente de infección orofaríngea, tumefacción laterocervical a lo largo del músculo esternocleidomastoideo y signos de sepsis. El diagnóstico de este síndrome es fundamentalmente clínico, y las pruebas complementarias tan sólo ayudan a confirmar el cuadro. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 31 años que acudió a urgencias con clínica de faringoamigdalitis junto con tumefacción en la región submandibular izquierda e importante dolor cervical ipsilateral, que mostró un deterioro rápido y progresivo del estado general pese al tratamiento antibiótico intravenoso. Finalmente tuvo que ser intervenido debido al desarrollo de mediastinitis aguda necrosante descendente desde la región pretiroidea hasta el diafragma, con trombosis de la vena yugular interna izquierda. Se le realizó toracotomía urgente y cervicotomía izquierda con drenaje de abundante material purulento y ligadura de la vena yugular interna.Lemierre syndrome is a potentially fatal condition after an oropharyngeal infection. It is characterized by thrombophlebitis of head and neck veins with systemic dissemination of septic emboli. The diagnosis of this syndrome is mainly clinical and complementary test only serve as aid to confirm it. We report an unusual case of Lemierre syndrome in a 31-year-old man caused by Gemella spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes. It developed following a pharyngotonsillitis infection, which deteriorated rapidly and progressively despite intravenous antibiotic treatment. He finally had to be intervened due to developing acute descending necrotizing mediastinitis from the pre-thyroid region to the diaphragm, with thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. An urgent thoracotomy and left cervicotomy was performed, with drainage of abundant purulent material and ligature of the internal jugular vein

  8. CHARGE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  9. A theoretical, two-layer, reduced-gravity model for descending dense water flow on continental shelves/slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Ikeda, Moto; Saucier, Francois J.

    2003-05-01

    A theoretical, two-layer, reduced-gravity model for descending dense water flow on continental shelves/slopes has been developed to investigate the dynamics of bottom dense water plumes. The model is nonsteady state and includes vertical viscosity, the Coriolis force, and bottom friction. An integral solution rather than a perfect analytical expression is derived and, thus, the Simpson's 1/3 rule to approximate the integral is applied. At the very bottom, the dense water plume moves about 45° to the right (left) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere, looking downslope. From the bottom, the velocity vector rotates anticyclonically upward, indicating a bottom Ekman spiral that mimics the atmospheric Ekman boundary layer. The dense water within the bottom Ekman layer obeys a three-force balance, while the dense water above the bottom Ekman layer is governed by a two-force balance, which is a geostrophic flow with superimposed cycloidal inertial oscillations oriented from about 25° to 140° to the right (left) of the downslope direction in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. The transport within the bottom Ekman layer is directed about 60-70° to the right (left) of the downslope direction in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere, forming an offshore (cross-isobath) transport in the absence of eddy flux and wind-forcing. The ratio of offshore transport to alongshore transport within the bottom Ekman layer is about 0.19 (19%), while the ratio above the bottom Ekman layer (i.e., geostrophic layer of the dense water) is only 3% (negligible compared to its alongshore transport), which, however, is equivalent in magnitude to its counterpart in the bottom Ekman layer if O(DE/h) ˜ 0.1 (where DE is the bottom Ekman layer thickness and h is the dense water layer thickness). In other words, the bottom Ekman layer and the geostrophic (dense) layer contribute equivalent dense water offshore (each contributes 50%). The magnitude of the descending dense water velocity depends

  10. CLOVES syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Jacob; Upton, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    A cohort of patients with overgrowth syndromes has been identified with congenital lipomatous overgrowth, dysregulated fat deposits, and mixed vascular malformations. The acronym CLOVES was given on a heuristic basis to stand for congenital lipomatous overgrowth (CLO), vascular malformation (V), epidermal nevi (E), and scoliosis and spinal deformities (S). These patients have upper limb anomalies with variable phenotypes. Although hand anomalies alone cannot make the diagnosis, the foot, truncal, cutaneous and spinal anomalies are particularly diagnostic. CLOVES syndrome has emerged as a distinct clinical entity diagnosed by clinical and radiographic examinations. The overgrowth pattern is now easily distinguished from other overgrowth syndromes.

  11. Hubris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David

    2008-08-01

    Hubris syndrome is associated with power, more likely to manifest itself the longer the person exercises power and the greater the power they exercise. A syndrome not to be applied to anyone with existing mental illness or brain damage. Usually symptoms abate when the person no longer exercises power. It is less likely to develop in people who retain a personal modesty, remain open to criticism, have a degree of cynicism or well developed sense of humour. Four heads of government in the last 100 years are singled out as having developed hubris syndrome: David Lloyd George, Margaret Thatcher, George W Bush and Tony Blair.

  12. HYDROLETHALUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradhana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hydrolethalus Syndrome (HLS is a rare lethal genetic syndrome, recognized as a consequence of a study on Meckle syndrome in Finland .1 HLS is characterized by multiple developmental defects of fetus which include fetal hydrocephalus, agenesis of corpus callosum, absent midline structures of brain, Cleft lip and cleft palate, defective lobulation of lungs, micrognathia and very characteristic abnormality of polydactyly. About 80% of patients have polydactyly, in hands it is postaxial and preaxial in feet with duplicated big toe. A highly characteristic hallux duplex is seen in almost no other situation .2 Club feet is also common.

  13. Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Ruth H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroacanthocytosis (NA syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome which have a Huntington´s disease-like phenotype consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. In addition, cardiomyopathy may occur in McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are also found in a proportion of patients with autosomal dominant Huntington's disease-like 2, autosomal recessive pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and several inherited disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, namely abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome and hypobetalipoproteinemia leading to vitamin E malabsorption. The latter disorders are characterized by a peripheral neuropathy and sensory ataxia due to dorsal column degeneration, but movement disorders and cognitive impairment are not present. NA syndromes are caused by disease-specific genetic mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration is not known. The association of the acanthocytic membrane abnormality with selective degeneration of the basal ganglia, however, suggests a common pathogenetic pathway. Laboratory tests include blood smears to detect acanthocytosis and determination of serum creatine kinase. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging may demonstrate striatal atrophy. Kell and Kx blood group antigens are reduced or absent in McLeod syndrome. Western blot for chorein demonstrates absence of this protein in red blood cells of chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Specific genetic testing is possible in all NA syndromes

  14. Jerusalem syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-el, Y; Durst, R; Katz, G; Zislin, J; Strauss, Z; Knobler, H Y

    2000-01-01

    Jerusalem's psychiatrists expect to encounter, as the millennium approaches, an ever-increasing number of tourists who, upon arriving in Jerusalem, may suffer psychotic decompensation. To describe the Jerusalem syndrome as a unique acute psychotic state. This analysis is based on accumulated clinical experience and phenomenological data consisting of cultural and religious perspectives. Three main categories of the syndrome are identified and described, with special focus on the category pertaining to spontaneous manifestations, unconfounded by previous psychotic history or psychopathology. The discrete form of the Jerusalem syndrome is related to religious excitement induced by proximity to the holy places of Jerusalem, and is indicated by seven characteristic sequential stages.

  15. Processing of species-specific auditory patterns in the cricket brain by ascending, local, and descending neurons during standing and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorović, M; Hedwig, B

    2011-05-01

    The recognition of the male calling song is essential for phonotaxis in female crickets. We investigated the responses toward different models of song patterns by ascending, local, and descending neurons in the brain of standing and walking crickets. We describe results for two ascending, three local, and two descending interneurons. Characteristic dendritic and axonal arborizations of the local and descending neurons indicate a flow of auditory information from the ascending interneurons toward the lateral accessory lobes and point toward the relevance of this brain region for cricket phonotaxis. Two aspects of auditory processing were studied: the tuning of interneuron activity to pulse repetition rate and the precision of pattern copying. Whereas ascending neurons exhibited weak, low-pass properties, local neurons showed both low- and band-pass properties, and descending neurons represented clear band-pass filters. Accurate copying of single pulses was found at all three levels of the auditory pathway. Animals were walking on a trackball, which allowed an assessment of the effect that walking has on auditory processing. During walking, all neurons were additionally activated, and in most neurons, the spike rate was correlated to walking velocity. The number of spikes elicited by a chirp increased with walking only in ascending neurons, whereas the peak instantaneous spike rate of the auditory responses increased on all levels of the processing pathway. Extra spiking activity resulted in a somewhat degraded copying of the pulse pattern in most neurons.

  16. Morbidity, Self-Perceived Health and Mortality Among non-Western Immigrants and Their Descendants in Denmark in a Life Phase Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jervelund, Signe Smith; Malik, Sanam; Ahlmark, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    To enable preventive policies to address health inequity across ethnic groups, this review overviews the current knowledge on morbidity, self-perceived health and mortality among non-Western immigrants and their descendants in Denmark. A systematic search in PUBMED, SCOPUS, Embase and Cochrane...

  17. Enoch, the 'Watchers', Seth’s Descendants and Abraham as Astronomers : Jewish Applications of the Greek Motif of the First Inventor (300 BCE-CE 100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, George H. van

    1999-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “Enoch, the ‘Watchers’, Seth’s Descendants and Abraham as Astronomers: Jewish Applications of the Greek Motif of the First Inventor (300 BCE-CE 100),” in Recycling Biblical Figures: Papers Read at a NOSTER Colloquium in Amsterdam, 12-13 May 1997 (ed. Athalya Brenner and Jan Wil

  18. Pens and Ploughshares: The Historical Use of Art by African-Descended Women to Create Social Justice in the US Neo-Slavery Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    View, Jenice L.

    2013-01-01

    In the period after the 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision (Plessy v. Ferguson), "white" supremacy was codified and reinforced through law, custom, and mob violence. Despite this, African-descended women artists in the Western Hemisphere committed the revolutionary act of declaring, "I am; I am here; I am here remaking/reimagining the…

  19. Immunological Mechanisms Underlying Chronic Pelvic Pain and Prostate Inflammation in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Breser

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain.

  20. Cauda equina syndrome secondary to lumbar disc herniation: Surgical delay and its relationship with prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foruria, X; Ruiz de Gopegui, K; García-Sánchez, I; Moreta, J; Aguirre, U; Martínez-de Los Mozos, J L

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether surgical treatment delayed for more than 48 hours in patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) influenced the clinical outcome. A retrospective study of 18 patients treated in our hospital from March 2000 to January 2012, after presenting with CES. The pre- and post-operative clinical status was determined: existence of back pain and/or sciatica, sensory disturbance in the perineum, sensory and motor deficits in the lower extremities, and the degree of sphincter incontinence (complete or incomplete CES). A clinical assessment was performed using the Oswestry disability index. As regards the onset of symptoms, 44% (8 of 18) of patients were treated at an early stage (within 48 hours). None of the patients with complete CES operated in the early stage had urinary incontinence, and also had greater motor recovery. Of the 5 patients with complete CES who underwent delayed surgery, 3 showed residual urinary incontinence. A mean of 12.55 was obtained on the Oswestry disability index scale at the end of follow-up. Although no statistically significant difference was found in our study, we observed greater motor and sphincter recovery in patients who were operated on within 48 hours. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunological Mechanisms Underlying Chronic Pelvic Pain and Prostate Inflammation in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breser, María L.; Salazar, Florencia C.; Rivero, Viginia E.; Motrich, Rubén D.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain. PMID:28824626

  2. Victor Eisenmenger (1864-1932): The man behind the syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Although much has been written about the cardiovascular abnormalities present in Eisenmenger's syndrome, little has been recorded previously in the medical literature about Victor Eisenmenger, the Austrian doctor whose name is attached eponymously to this disorder. Archival material together with information provided by his descendants and relatives has been gathered to make available further details of his life, family, schooling, medical training and accomplishments. An examination of Eisenmenger's book about his observations and experiences while serving from 1895 to 1914 as personal physician to Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, also sheds light on Eisenmenger's personality, abilities and interests.

  3. [Autoinflammatory syndromes/fever syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedel, J; Bach, B; Kümmerle-Deschner, J B; Kötter, I

    2011-05-01

    Hereditary periodic (fever) syndromes, also called autoinflammatory syndromes, are characterized by relapsing fever and additional manifestations such as skin rashes, mucosal manifestations, or joint symptoms. Some of these disorders present with organ involvement and serological signs of inflammation without fever. There is a strong serological inflammatory response with an elevation of serum amyloid A (SAA), resulting in an increased risk of secondary amyloidosis. There are monogenic disorders (familial mediterranean fever (FMF), hyper-IgD-syndrome (HIDS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), "pyogenic arthritis, acne, pyoderma gangrenosum" (PAPA), and "pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) where mutations in genes have been described, which in part by influencing the function of the inflammasome, in part by other means, lead to the induction of the production of IL-1β. In "early-onset of enterocolitis (IBD)", a functional IL-10 receptor is lacking. Therapeutically, above all, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra is used. In case of TRAPS and PGA, TNF-antagonists (etanercept) may also be used; in FMF colchicine is first choice. As additional possible autoinflammatory syndromes, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis), Schnitzler syndrome, Still's disease of adult and pediatric onset, Behçet disease, gout, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and Crohn's disease also are mentioned.

  4. A dangerous twist of the ‘T’ wave: A case of Wellens’ Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Balasubramanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wellens’ syndrome is a condition in which electrocardiographic (ECG changes indicate critical proximal left anterior descending artery narrowing occurring during the chest pain-free period. Due to the severity of the obstruction, if such cases are managed by early invasive revascularisation therapy, a major threat in the form of a massive myocardial infarction or sudden death may be averted. We present the case of a patient with previous chest pain, whose ECG showing subtle ischemic changes was initially overlooked. A repeat ECG taken during the painless period showed a biphasic T wave, suggestive of Wellen’s’ syndrome. This was confirmed by an immediate coronary angiogram.

  5. Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least once every year. Alternative Names Aortic aneurysm - ... syndrome. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 702. ...

  6. Reye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Life After Diagnosis Support for Chronic Illness Corporate Partnerships Interview with Kristen Hanks Liver Lowdown July ... poor blood clotting and bleeding caused by liver failure. What are the symptoms of Reye syndrome? Reye ...

  7. [Refeeding syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševela, Stanislav; Novák, František; Kazda, Antonín; Brodská, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Despite being known more than 60 years, refeeding syndrome (RS) still bears many uncertainties. For example, its definition is not clear and definite, and the attitude to it varies from the complete neglect to over-prevention.The term "refeeding syndrome" refers to electrolyte and metabolic changes occurring in malnourished patients after the readministration of nutrition. These changes concern especially to phosphates and ions. Potassium, magnesium, naturism and fluids balance are involved. The changes lead to cell energetic metabolism and electric potential disturbances, with related clinical symptoms.Fully developed refeeding syndrome is quite rare; nevertheless it can be fatal for the patient. However, even its development can lead to many complications increasing the patient's morbidity and the length of stay in the hospital. Yet the refeeding syndrome is more or less predictable and if kept in mind also preventable.The aim of this article is to get the reader to know more about this metabolic phenomenon and possible attitudes towards it.

  8. Premenstrual syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwan, Irene; Onwude, Joseph Loze

    2015-01-01

    A woman has premenstrual syndrome (PMS) if she complains of recurrent psychological and/or physical symptoms occurring during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and often resolving by the end of menstruation...

  9. Zellweger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done? The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and other institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research exploring the molecular and genetic basis of Zellweger syndrome and the other PBDs, ...

  10. Autoinflammatory syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, M; Gasbarrini, G; Ghirardello, A; Grandemange, S; Hoffman, H M; Manna, R; Podswiadek, M; Punzi, L; Sebastiani, G D; Touitou, I; Doria, A

    2006-01-01

    The autoinflammatory disorders are a new and expanding classification of inflammatory diseases characterized by recurrent episodes of systemic inflammation in the absence of pathogens, autoantibodies or antigen specific T cells. These disorders are caused by primary dysfunction of the innate immune system, without evidence of adaptive immune dysregulation. Innate immune abnormalities include aberrant responses to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) like lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, prominent neutrophilia in blood and tissues, and dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) or their receptors. The autoinflammatory diseases comprise both hereditary (Familial Mediterranean Fever, FMF; Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency, MKD; TNF Receptor Associated Periodic Syndrome, TRAPS; Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndrome, CAPS; Blau syndrome; Pyogenic sterile Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum and Acne syndrome, PAPA; Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis, CRMO) and multifactorial (Crohn's and Behçet's diseases) disorders. Mutations responsible for FMF, TRAPS, CAPS, PAPA are in proteins involved in modulation of inflammation and apoptosis.

  11. Piriformis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of sitting for a long period of time, climbing stairs, walking, or running. × Definition Piriformis syndrome is a ... of sitting for a long period of time, climbing stairs, walking, or running. View Full Definition Treatment Generally, ...

  12. Barth Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saric, Ana; Andreau, Karine; Armand, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme tafazzin, TAZ, cause Barth syndrome (BTHS). Individuals with this X-linked multisystem disorder present cardiomyopathy (CM) (often dilated), skeletal muscle weakness, neutropenia, growth retardation, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Biopsies of the heart,...

  13. Bart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad Anil

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An infant presenting with extensive aplasia cutis on lower extremities later developed blisters on skin and mucous membrane. Clinical features and histopathological examination of skin favoured the diagnosis of Bart syndrome.

  14. Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect kids include: neurofibromatosis, types 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2) Sturge-Weber syndrome tuberous sclerosis (TS) ... forms of this disorder are neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and Schwannomatosis. NF1 is ...

  15. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... optic nerve (arrow) looks very pale, the vessels (stars) are very thin and there is characteristic pigment, ... syndrome gene have a child together, with each birth there is a: 1-in-4 chance of ...

  16. Cockayne syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karikkineth, Ajoy C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fivenson, Elayne;

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a disorder characterized by a variety of clinical features including cachectic dwarfism, severe neurological manifestations including microcephaly and cognitive deficits, pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, sensorineural deafness, and ambulatory and feeding difficulties...

  17. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arachnoldactyly (CCA), which refers to the joint contractures (shortening) that are key features of the syndrome. How ... remain contracted for long periods of time, the muscles can become tight and short, restricting movement. When ...

  18. Isaac's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page NINDS Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Information Page NINDS Whiplash Information Page NINDS Infantile Spasms Information Page NINDS ... Support Library Clinical Research Next Steps Pre-Funding: After Review Terms of Award Pre-Award Start-up ...

  19. Noonan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest shape (most often a sunken chest called pectus excavatum) Webbed and short-appearing neck Exams and Tests ... to consider genetic counseling before having children. Images Pectus excavatum References Ali O, Donohoue PA. Noonan syndrome. In: ...

  20. Dressler's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome can cause more-serious complications, including: Cardiac tamponade. Inflammation of the pericardium can cause fluids to ... including: Draining excess fluids. If you develop cardiac tamponade, your doctor will likely recommend a procedure (pericardiocentesis) ...

  1. [Mobius syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladuţiu, Cristina; Duma, Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Mobius syndrom, an anomaly in cranial nerve developement, presents with a remarkable clinical polymorphism. The rare occurence of this pathology and the questions raised by the diagnosis and treatment determined us to make this presentation.

  2. Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnostic tests that can identify Down syndrome include: Amniocentesis. A sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding the ... somewhat higher risk of miscarriage than second trimester amniocentesis. Cordocentesis. In this test, also known as percutaneous ...

  3. Metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obesity ). This body type may be described as "apple-shaped." Insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone produced ... Syndrome Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  4. Comparative analysis of the patency of the internal thoracic artery in the CABG of left anterior descending artery: 6-month postoperative coronary CT angiography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Maurilio Onofre; Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pinho; Dallan, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; Oliveira, Orlando Gomes de; Magalhães, Daniel Marcelo Silva; Coelho, José Reinaldo de Moura; Deininger, Eugênia di Giuseppe; Lopes, Norland de Souza; Queiroga, Ricardo Wanderley; Belmont, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    To assess the patency of the pedicled right internal thoracic artery with an anteroaortic course and compare it to the patency of the left internal thoracic artery , in anastomosis to the left anterior descending artery in coronary artery bypass grafting by using coronary CT angiography at 6 months postoperatively. Between December 2008 and December 2011, 100 patients were selected to undergo a prospective coronary artery bypass grafting procedure without cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided by a computer-generated list into Group-1 (G-1) and Group-2 (G-2), comprising 50 patients each, the technique used was known at the beginning of the surgery. In G-1, coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using the left internal thoracic artery for the left anterior descending and the free right internal thoracic artery for the circumflex, and in G-2, coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using the right internal thoracic artery pedicled to the left anterior descending and the left internal thoracic artery pedicled to the circumflex territory. The groups were similar with regard to the preoperative clinical data. A male predominance of 75.6% and 88% was observed in G-1 and G-2, respectively. Five patients migrated from G-1 to G-2 because of atheromatous disease in the ascending aorta. The average number of distal anastomoses was 3.48 (SD=0.72) in G-1 and 3.20 (SD=0.76) in G-2. Coronary CT angiography in 96 re-evaluated patients showed that all ITAs, right or left, used in situ for the left anterior descending were patent. There were no deaths in either group. Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery involving anastomosis of the anteroaortic right internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery has an outcome similar to that obtained using the left internal thoracic artery for the same coronary site.

  5. Serotonin receptors are involved in the spinal mediation of descending facilitation of surgical incision-induced increase of Fos-like immunoreactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Wiliam A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending pronociceptive pathways may be implicated in states of persistent pain. Paw skin incision is a well-established postoperative pain model that causes behavioral nociceptive responses and enhanced excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons. The number of spinal c-Fos positive neurons of rats treated intrathecally with serotonin, noradrenaline or acetylcholine antagonists where evaluated to study the descending pathways activated by a surgical paw incision. Results The number of c-Fos positive neurons in laminae I/II ipsilateral, lamina V bilateral to the incised paw, and in lamina X significantly increased after the incision. These changes: remained unchanged in phenoxybenzamine-treated rats; were increased in the contralateral lamina V of atropine-treated rats; were inhibited in the ipsilateral lamina I/II by 5-HT1/2B/2C (methysergide, 5-HT2A (ketanserin or 5-HT1/2A/2C/5/6/7 (methiothepin receptors antagonists, in the ipsilateral lamina V by methysergide or methiothepin, in the contralateral lamina V by all the serotonergic antagonists and in the lamina X by LY 278,584, ketanserin or methiothepin. Conclusions We conclude: (1 muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms reduce incision-induced response of spinal neurons inputs from the contralateral paw; (2 5-HT1/2A/2C/3 receptors-mediate mechanisms increase the activity of descending pathways that facilitates the response of spinal neurons to noxious inputs from the contralateral paw; (3 5-HT1/2A/2C and 5-HT1/2C receptors increases the descending facilitation mechanisms induced by incision in the ipsilateral paw; (4 5-HT2A/3 receptors contribute to descending pronociceptive pathways conveyed by lamina X spinal neurons; (5 α-adrenergic receptors are unlikely to participate in the incision-induced facilitation of the spinal neurons.

  6. Orexin-A and Endocannabinoid Activation of the Descending Antinociceptive Pathway Underlies Altered Pain Perception in Leptin Signaling Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristino, Luigia; Luongo, Livio; Imperatore, Roberta; Boccella, Serena; Becker, Thorsten; Morello, Giovanna; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Busetto, Giuseppe; Maione, Sabatino; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Pain perception can become altered in individuals with eating disorders and obesity for reasons that have not been fully elucidated. We show that leptin deficiency in ob/ob mice, or leptin insensitivity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, are accompanied by elevated orexin-A (OX-A) levels and orexin receptor-1 (OX1-R)-dependent elevation of the levels of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). In ob/ob mice, these alterations result in the following: (i) increased excitability of OX1-R-expressing vlPAG output neurons and subsequent increased OFF and decreased ON cell activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla, as assessed by patch clamp and in vivo electrophysiology; and (ii) analgesia, in both healthy and neuropathic mice. In HFD mice, instead, analgesia is only unmasked following leptin receptor antagonism. We propose that OX-A/endocannabinoid cross talk in the descending antinociceptive pathway might partly underlie increased pain thresholds in conditions associated with impaired leptin signaling.

  7. Descending control of electroreception. I. Properties of nucleus praeeminentialis neurons projecting indirectly to the electrosensory lateral line lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, J; Bratton, B

    1990-04-01

    The first-order CNS processing region within the electrosensory system, the electrosensory lateral line lobe, receives massive descending inputs from the nucleus praeeminentialis as well as the primary afferent projection. The n. praeeminentialis receives its input from the electrosensory lateral line lobe as well as from higher centers; hence this nucleus occupies an important position in a feedback loop within the electrosensory system. This report describes the physiological properties of a category of n. praeeminentialis neurons characterized by very high spontaneous firing frequency, but relatively poor sensitivity to electrolocation targets as compared to neurons in the electrosensory lateral line lobe. These neurons are specialized to encode long-term changes in electric organ discharge amplitude with high resolution. Intracellular recording and Lucifer yellow staining of these neurons show that they are the previously described multipolar neurons of the n. praeeminentialis, and they project bilaterally to the posterior eminentia granularis. Posterior eminentia granularis efferents project to the electrosensory lateral line lobe forming its dorsal molecular layer. Hence, these multipolar cells influence the electrosensory lateral line lobe circuitry indirectly. The information that the multipolar cells encode regarding the electric organ discharge amplitude may be needed for a gain control mechanism operative within the electrosensory lateral line lobe. Previous studies have shown that the indirect projection from the n. praeeminentialis to the electrosensory lateral line lobe must be intact for this gain control mechanism to operate.

  8. Aortic valve conduit implantation in the descending thoracic aorta in a sheep model: The outcomes of pre-seeded scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ahmadi Tafti, Seyed Hossein; Mokhber-Dezfooli, Mohammad-Reza; Khorramirouz, Reza; Sabetkish, Shabnam; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Rabbani, Shahram; Tavana, Hamid; Mohseni, Mohammad Javad

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the outcomes of implanting pre-seeded decellularized aortic valve conduit (AVC) with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a sheep model. Eight sheep AVCs were obtained under sterile conditions and decellularized by using detergent-based methods. Decellularized AVCs were seeded with autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs in a dynamic bioreactor system. Pre-seeded AVCs were implanted in the descending thoracic aorta in a sheep model. In all sheep, a decellularized pericardial patch was also anastomosed to the proximal part in order to reduce the incidence of rupture. Pathological evaluations, echocardiography, multislice computed tomography (CT), and CT angiography were performed for the evaluation of implanted AVCs. The longest survival period was 19 months in pre-seeded animals with complete recellularization at the long-term follow-up. Immunohistochemical staining for desmin, smooth muscle actin, and cytokeratin was significantly positive in the pre-seeded samples and reached near normal ranges. CT angiography revealed no intimal tearing after 18 months of follow-up. Pre-seeded AVCs with bone marrow-derived MSCs may have satisfactory results in postoperative cell seeding capabilities with promising functional potentiality. This modality may be beneficial and may provide a new era of biological grafts in cardiovascular surgery. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cortical and vestibular stimulation reveal preserved descending motor pathways in individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squair, Jordan W; Bjerkefors, Anna; Inglis, J Timothy; Lam, Tania; Carpenter, Mark G

    2016-07-18

    To use a combination of electrophysiological techniques to determine the extent of preserved muscle activity below the clinically-defined level of motor-complete spinal cord injury. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials were used to investigate whether there was any preserved muscle activity in trunk, hip and leg muscles of 16 individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury (C4-T12) and 16 able-bodied matched controls. Most individuals (14/16) with motor-complete spinal cord injury were found to have transcranial magnetic stimulation evoked, and/or voluntary evoked muscle activity in muscles innervated below the clinically classified lesion level. In most cases voluntary muscle activation was accompanied by a present transcranial magnetic stimulation response. Furthermore, motor-evoked potentials to transcranial magnetic stimulation could be observed in muscles that could not be voluntarily activated. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials responses were also observed in a small number of subjects, indicating the potential preservation of other descending pathways. These results highlight the importance of using multiple electrophysiological techniques to assist in determining the potential preservation of muscle activity below the clinically-defined level of injury in individuals with a motor-complete spinal cord injury. These techniques may provide clinicians with more accurate information about the state of various motor pathways, and could offer a method to more accurately target rehabilitation.

  10. Unusual Localization of Clostridium Difficile Infection in an Isolated Segment of the Descending Colon in a Critical Care Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeni Brotfain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unrecognized severe pseudomembranous colitis may become life threatening. A typical Clostridium difficile infection is associated with involvement of the colon; however, small bowel disease has also been described. Here, we present a case of a 48-year-old man with Clostridium difficile colitis of an isolated segment in the descending colon treated by a novel catheter intraluminal antibiotic irrigation. The intraluminal antibiotic irrigation was performed through a Foley catheter inserted into the isolated mucus fistula. The patient recovered after three weeks of intraluminal vancomycin (250 mg diluted in 150 ml of normal saline  x Q6 and metronidazole (500 mg  x Q8. Both antibiotics were given into the mucus fistula over 30 min. The patient was discharged from the unit four weeks after admission. This novel technique, in which the antibiotic was administered through an inserted intraluminal Foley urinary catheter, may be an efficient and safe alternative when conventional routes cannot be implemented.

  11. [Permanence of the piamontese culture on food practices in third generation descendants in Piamonte (Province of Santa Fe, Argentina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, María M; Muñoz, Sonia E; Navarro, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of the piemontese culture on food practices of students living in Piamonte, Santa Fe, Argentina. Food practices of 96 students with Piamontese ancestry (PA) (n = 57) and without Piamontese ancestry (No-PA) (n = 39) were studied along 2002 using a self-administered questionnare. Data were analysed by Chi square test, Fisher's exact test, multiple correspondance analysis and logistic regression. Consumption of bagna cauda (p < 0.05) and polenta (p < 0.1) were higher among PA. Differences on the elaboration of polenta and pasta were found: PA add them cheese (p < 0.05) and cream (p < 0.05) whereas no-PA make use of meat (p < 0.05) and tomato sauce (p < 0.05), respectively. The frequency of consumption of traditional Piamontese meals and the role of the mother in the purchase, the elaboration and the serving of the food were similar on both groups. In conclusion, food practices of Piamontese's descendants recall the food culture of their ancestry with some reasonable adaptations to the local context.

  12. ExpI and PhzI are descendants of the long lost cognate signal synthase for SdiA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anice Sabag-Daigle

    Full Text Available SdiA of E. coli and Salmonella is a LuxR homolog that detects N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs. Most LuxR homologs function together with a cognate AHL synthase (a LuxI homolog, but SdiA does not. Instead, SdiA detects AHLs produced by other bacterial species. In this report, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of SdiA. The results suggest that one branch of the Enterobacteriaceae obtained a rhlR/rhlI pair by horizontal transfer. The Erwinia and Pantoea branches still contain the complete pair where it is known as expR/expI and phzR/phzI, respectively. A deletion event removed the luxI homolog from the remainder of the group, leaving just the luxR homolog known as sdiA. Thus ExpR and PhzR are SdiA orthologs and ExpI and PhzI are descendants of the long lost cognate signal synthase of SdiA.

  13. Assessment of transfemoral amputees using C-Leg and Power Knee for ascending and descending inclines and steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Wolf, PhD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adding active power to a prosthetic knee unit may improve function and reduce the potential for overuse injuries in persons with transfemoral amputation (TFA. Servicemembers who have sustained a TFA are often young and motivated to perform at high functional levels. The goal of this article is to compare the biomechanics of ramp and stair descent and ascent for participants using the C-Leg and the Power Knee (PK. Subjects were asked to ascend and descend an instrumented staircase and 12 degree ramp at their comfortable pace while equipped with retroreflective markers. Temporal-spatial and kinetic data were collected. Knee power generated by the nondisabled limb during stair ascent for subjects wearing the C-Leg was significantly greater than for those wearing the PK. Knee power generated by prosthetic knee units was significantly greater for subjects while wearing the PK. Although the PK reduced the power required from the nondisabled knee during stair climbing, it does not appear to be superior to the C-Leg for other tasks. Adding power to a prosthetic knee may reduce wear on the nondisabled limb; however, there are still limitations that require improvement.

  14. Eagle's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares,Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira,Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo,Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is diffic...

  15. SAPHO syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli; Sampaio-Barros, Percival D

    2013-05-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a disorder characterized by Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, and Osteitis. As the osteoarticular and skin manifestations often do not occur simultaneously and there are no validated diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical and imaging investigation is necessary to establish the many differential diagnoses of SAPHO syndrome. The etiopathogenesis involves infectious (probably Propionibacterium acnes), immunologic, and genetic factors. Treatment is based on information gathered from case reports and small series, and is related to specific skin or articular symptoms.

  16. Carpenter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidestrand, Pip; Vasconez, Henry; Cottrill, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Carpenter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that belongs to a group of rare craniosynostosis syndromes (Bull Soc Med Paris 1906;23:1310). Carpenter syndrome is the rarest, with only occasional patients seen. There are 3 common features in all of these syndromes: craniosynostosis (skull base abnormalities, with early fusion in different sutures), midface hypoplasia, and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Clinical features of Carpenter syndrome include peculiar facies, asymmetry of the skull, polydactyly, brachymesophalangy, mild soft tissue syndactyly, obesity, hypogenitalism, congenital heart disease, and mental retardation (J Pediatr 1966;69:1; Am J Roentgenol 1969;106). The brachycephaly is caused by early fusion in the coronal, sagittal, and lambdoidal sutures (Proc R Soc Med Sect Study Dis Child 1909). Most of the affected patients have a surgical procedure between 3 to 9 months of age to open the cranial vault to make space for the brain to grow (Plast Reconstr Surg 1978;62:335). We present a patient with Carpenter syndrome who is unusual in that she is an adult who has never had surgical intervention.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome A A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  18. Down Syndrome (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Down Syndrome KidsHealth > For Kids > Down Syndrome Print A A ... skills. continue Do a Lot of People Have Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is not contagious , so you can' ...

  19. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  20. Cardiac Syndrome X

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kawasaki Disease Long Q-T Syndrome Marfan Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse Myocardial Bridge Myocarditis Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pericarditis Peripheral Vascular Disease Rheumatic Fever Sick Sinus Syndrome Silent Ischemia Stroke Sudden ...

  1. Exogenous Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing syndrome - corticosteroid induced; Corticosteroid-induced Cushing syndrome; Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the ...

  2. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Metabolic Syndrome? Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of ... that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome. Outlook Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common due to a ...

  3. Learning about WAGR Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used are: WAGR Complex Wilms' Tumor-Aniridia-Genitourinary Anomalies-Mental Retardation Syndrome Wilms' Tumor-Aniridia-Gonadoblastoma-Mental Retardation Syndrome Chromosome 11p deletion syndrome 11p deletion syndrome The cause ...

  4. Escobar syndrome mimicing congenital patellar syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezirmik, Naci; Yildiz, Kadri; Can, Cahit Emre

    2012-01-01

    ...) syndrome is a rare syndrome. Intrauterin growth reterdation, abnormal face, wide-spead pterygiums that resulted in joint contractures, ptosis, chryptoorchidism, patellar dysplasia and foot deformities are seen on this syndrome...

  5. A Review of Select Centralized Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Spiegel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective, neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system, or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system. The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed.

  6. Presentation of a case with Wellens syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Rodríguez López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This case report is about a 56-year-old male, farm worker with a history of being a smoker and suffering from high blood pressure, who was admitted at the Cardiology Care Department with the diagnosis of coronary artery disease –unstable angina–, because of chest pain related to physical effort and changes in the appearance threshold. Rest-electrocardiogram, painless, shows deep, symmetric negative T waves in anterior wall, without enzyme elevation; but during admission the patient evolves quickly, clinically and electrically, to an extensive anterior wall acute myocardial infarction, without responding to the fibrinolytic reperfusion therapy, and showing a ventricular tachycardia degenerating into ventricular fibrillation. There was no response to the maneuvers of cardiovascular resuscitation, thus, he dies. It is diagnosed postmortem as a Wellens syndrome, because necropsy showed severe atherosclerotic disease of the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery with extensive anterior transmural infarction.

  7. A Review of Select Centralized Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Spiegel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective, neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system, or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system. The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed.

  8. Multiple coagulation defects and the Cohen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichtemeier, T L; Tomlinson, G E; Kamen, B A; Waber, L J; Wilson, G N

    1994-04-01

    A 13-year-old male presented with new onset seizures, sagittal sinus thrombosis with cerebral hemorrhage, and extensive venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. Laboratory investigation demonstrated combined deficiency of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III. He and his 17-year-old sister had a mental retardation-multiple anomaly syndrome associated with microcephaly, unusual facies, and lax connective tissue. Their dysmorphology included elongated faces with narrow forehead, arched eyebrows, large mouth with down-turned corners, malformed teeth, and furrowed tongue. Both had Marfanoid habitus with lax joints, pectus excavatum, kyphoscoliosis, and flat narrow feet. The most likely diagnosis for these siblings is the autosomal recessive Cohen syndrome of mental retardation, congenital hypotonia with Marfanoid habitus, microcephaly, pleasant affect, micrognathia, and open mouth with prominent incisors. The sagittal sinus thrombosis, left frontal intracranial hemorrhage, carotid aneurysm, tortuous descending aorta, and deep venous thrombosis suffered by the male sibling adds the Cohen syndrome to genetic vasculopathies that may be associated with stroke.

  9. Long descending cervical propriospinal neurons differ from thoracic propriospinal neurons in response to low thoracic spinal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzner Dennis J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propriospinal neurons, with axonal projections intrinsic to the spinal cord, have shown a greater regenerative response than supraspinal neurons after axotomy due to spinal cord injury (SCI. Our previous work focused on the response of axotomized short thoracic propriospinal (TPS neurons following a low thoracic SCI (T9 spinal transection or moderate spinal contusion injury in the rat. The present investigation analyzes the intrinsic response of cervical propriospinal neurons having long descending axons which project into the lumbosacral enlargement, long descending propriospinal tract (LDPT axons. These neurons also were axotomized by T9 spinal injury in the same animals used in our previous study. Results Utilizing laser microdissection (LMD, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, we studied LDPT neurons (located in the C5-C6 spinal segments between 3-days, and 1-month following a low thoracic (T9 spinal cord injury. We examined the response of 89 genes related to growth factors, cell surface receptors, apoptosis, axonal regeneration, and neuroprotection/cell survival. We found a strong and significant down-regulation of ~25% of the genes analyzed early after injury (3-days post-injury with a sustained down-regulation in most instances. In the few genes that were up-regulated (Actb, Atf3, Frs2, Hspb1, Nrap, Stat1 post-axotomy, the expression for all but one was down-regulated by 2-weeks post-injury. We also compared the uninjured TPS control neurons to the uninjured LDPT neurons used in this experiment for phenotypic differences between these two subpopulations of propriospinal neurons. We found significant differences in expression in 37 of the 84 genes examined between these two subpopulations of propriospinal neurons with LDPT neurons exhibiting a significantly higher base line expression for all but 3 of these genes compared to TPS neurons. Conclusions Taken collectively these data indicate a broad overall down

  10. Nature and Nurture in the Early-Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Garcia-Contreras, Consolacion; Vazquez-Gomez, Marta

    The combination of genetic background together with food excess and lack of exercise has become the cornerstone of metabolic disorders associated to lifestyle. The scenario is furthermore reinforced by their interaction with other environmental factors (stress, sleeping patterns, education, culture, rural versus urban locations, and xenobiotics, among others) inducing epigenetic changes in the exposed individuals. The immediate consequence is the development of further alterations like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and other adverse health conditions (type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, reproductive, immune and neurological disorders). Thus, having in mind the impact of the metabolic syndrome on the worldwide public health, the present review affords the relative roles and the interrelationships of nature (genetic predisposition to metabolic syndrome) and nurture (lifestyle and environmental effects causing epigenetic changes), on the establishment of the metabolic disorders in women; disorders that may evolve to metabolic syndrome prior or during pregnancy and may be transmitted to their descendants.

  11. Pfeiffer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryns Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pfeiffer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that associates craniosynostosis, broad and deviated thumbs and big toes, and partial syndactyly on hands and feet. Hydrocephaly may be found occasionally, along with severe ocular proptosis, ankylosed elbows, abnormal viscera, and slow development. Based on the severity of the phenotype, Pfeiffer syndrome is divided into three clinical subtypes. Type 1 "classic" Pfeiffer syndrome involves individuals with mild manifestations including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia and finger and toe abnormalities; it is associated with normal intelligence and generally good outcome. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull, extreme proptosis, finger and toe abnormalities, elbow ankylosis or synostosis, developmental delay and neurological complications. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without a cloverleaf skull. Clinical overlap between the three types may occur. Pfeiffer syndrome affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. The disorder can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR-1 or FGFR-2. Pfeiffer syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography showing craniosynostosis, hypertelorism with proptosis, and broad thumb, or molecularly if it concerns a recurrence and the causative mutation was found. Molecular genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes multiple-staged surgery of craniosynostosis. Midfacial surgery is performed to reduce the exophthalmos and the midfacial hypoplasia.

  12. Guidewires used in first intentional single wiring strategy for chronic total occlusions of the left anterior descending coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser S Nassar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for chronic total occlusion (CTO of the left anterior descending (LAD specifically is associated with improved long-term 5 year survival as compared to PCI failure.The procedure is associated with usage of different types of dedicated guidewires by simple or complex techniques aiming to reopen the occluded artery. Aim: To describe types and outcome of guidewires used in LAD-CTO utilizing a first intentional single wiring simple strategy. Methods: A single center prospective registry for all consecutive patients with a PCI attempt to a native LAD CTO. The initial strategy for lesion crossing was Single wiring. Results: A total of 30 patients with LAD CTO lesions (100%, were recorded. Mean age was 71.6 + 15 years, 77% were Males, risk factors Hypertension in 63%, Diabetes 27%, Dyslipidemia 57%, smoking 40%, hereditary in 13% of patients. Isolated guidewire (GW success rate was very high 93%. Single wiring was the prevailing technique used in 97% of successfull lesions (83% of total cases while only 3% were by multiple wiring techniques. Successful single antegrade wiring represented 63% with a GW success rate of 92% of cases. Successful single retrograde wiring represented 13% with a GW success rate of 67%. Successful Crossing GW types in our patients were 44% Soft Tapered GWs; fielder XT (44%, 36% were Soft Non Tapered Pilot 50 (28%, whisper (8%, while 16% were Stiff Non tapered GWs; Miracle 12 (8%, Miracle 6 (4%, Miracle 3 (4%, and 4% were Stiff Tapered GWs; Progress 200 (4%. Conclusions: Single wiring as an initial strategy in PCI for LAD-CTO lesions has a high success rate and is associated with a 44% majority of Soft Tapered GWs, 36% Soft Non Tapered, 16% Stiff Non tapered GWs, and 4% Stiff Tapered GWs.

  13. Detection of severe left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis by transthoracic evaluation of resting coronary flow velocity dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Abinader

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of severe stenosis, coronary artery flow may be reduced at rest. Recent advances in echocardiography have made non-invasive sampling of velocities in the left an­terior descending coronary artery (LAD possible. The aim of our study was to evaluate feasi­bility and capability of transthoracic Doppler to detect severe stenosis of the LAD. The study population consisted of 42 subjects with suspected coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary angiography. All had complete transthoracic echocardiography and Doppler sampling of LAD velocities. Quantitative cor­onary angiography was performed within 24 hours of the echocardiogram. Correlations between LAD velocity profile, measurements and calculations, and the angiographic results were performed. Six subjects had LAD occlusion, 10 had severe (>80% diameter LAD stenosis, and 26 had normal or non-occlusive LAD disease. In all six subjects with LAD occlusion, distal LAD velocities were not detectable, while in the other 36 subjects, LAD velocities were recorded indicating the vessels were patent. In the 10 subjects with severe LAD stenosis, the diastolic/systolic velocity ratio was <1.5, while in those with non-signifi­cant LAD disease, the diastolic/systolic velocity ratio was >1.5 (P<0.005. Diastolic LAD flow was 21.8±13 mL/min in the presence of severe stenosis as compared to 48.5±20 mL/min in subjects without severe stenosis (P<0.0013. LAD velocities had high sensitiv­ity and specificity for the prediction of severe angiographic stenosis. Thus transthoracic Doppler measurement of LAD velocities is feas­ible and can predict the presence of severe LAD stenosis or occlusion.

  14. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting versus stenting for patients with proximal left anterior descending coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Kazuyuki; Lansky, Alexandra J; Mehran, Roxana; Dangas, George D; Costantini, Costantino O; Fahy, Martin; Slack, Steven; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W; Leon, Martin B

    2004-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of stenting and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) in patients with proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery disease. The Patency, Outcome, Economics of Minimally invasive direct coronary bypass (POEM) study demonstrated that MIDCAB had similar safety and long-term efficacy for LAD revascularization compared with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting. Although LAD stenting is superior to conventional balloon angioplasty, whether it is comparable to MIDCAB is not known. We identified a matched population of 429 consecutive patients with 1-vessel disease who underwent elective proximal LAD stenting and compared their clinical outcomes with those of the 152 patients in the MIDCAB group of the POEM study. The in-hospital event rate was similar in both groups, except for a shorter length of hospital stay with LAD stenting compared with MIDCAB (2.68 vs 4.07 days, p <0.0001). At 6-month follow-up, the incidence of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction or that of cerebrovascular accident was not significantly different between these 2 groups. However, target vessel revascularization was significantly higher with LAD stenting than MIDCAB (13.3% vs 6.6%, p = 0.045). In the subgroup of patients without diabetes, all clinical events were similar in both groups, and the benefit of a shorter hospital stay associated with stenting was maintained. Compared with MIDCAB, LAD stenting is associated with higher repeat revascularization rates but offers the advantage of shorter hospitalization. For nondiabetics with proximal LAD disease, stenting may be the revascularization strategy of choice.

  15. Neurofilament proteins are preferentially expressed in descending output neurons of the cat the superior colliculus: a study using SMI-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Santamaria, V; Stein, B E; McHaffie, J G

    2006-01-01

    Physiological studies indicate that the output neurons in the multisensory (i.e. intermediate and deep) laminae of the cat superior colliculus receive converging information from widespread regions of the neuraxis, integrate this information, and then relay the product to regions of the brainstem involved in the control of head and eye movements. Yet, an understanding of the neuroanatomy of these converging afferents has been hampered because many terminals contact distal dendrites that are difficult to label with the neurochemical markers generally used to visualize superior colliculus output neurons. Here we show that the SMI-32 antibody, directed at the non-phosphorylated epitopes of high molecular weight neurofilament proteins, is an effective marker for these superior colliculus output neurons. It is also one that can label their distal dendrites. Superior colliculus sections processed for SMI-32 revealed numerous labeled neurons with varying morphologies within the deep laminae. In contrast, few labeled neurons were observed in the superficial laminae. Neurons with large somata in the lateral aspects of the deep superior colliculus were particularly well labeled, and many of their secondary and tertiary dendrites were clearly visible. Injections of the fluorescent biotinylated dextran amine into the pontine reticular formation revealed that approximately 80% of the SMI-32 immunostained neurons also contained retrogradely transported biotinylated dextran amine, indicating that SMI-32 is a common cytoskeletal component expressed in descending output neurons. Superior colliculus output neurons also are known to express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, and many SMI-32 immunostained neurons also proved to be parvalbumin immunostained. These studies suggest that SMI-32 can serve as a useful immunohistochemical marker for detailing the somatic and dendritic morphology of superior colliculus output neurons and for facilitating evaluations of their input

  16. Driving performance on the descending limb of blood alcohol concentration (BAC in undergraduate students: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tremblay

    Full Text Available Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16 took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV. Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third assessment. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sensitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated.

  17. Cardiovascular risk in young apparently healthy descendents from Asian Indian migrants in the Netherlands: the SHIVA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, S S; Oemrawsingh, P V; Cannegieter, S C; Le Cessie, S; Schreur, J; Rosendaal, F R; Schalij, M J

    2009-04-01

    BACKGROUND.: Asian Indian migrants in the Western world are highly susceptible for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Until now, most IHD risk studies were performed in first and second generation Asian Indian expatriates. For optimal prevention, knowledge of the cardiovascular risk profile of younger generations is crucial. METHOD.: In a cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of conventional IHD risk factors and Framingham risk score in asymptomatic third to seventh generation Asian Indian descendants, compared with Europeans. Subjects were classified as asymptomatic if they did not have documented IHD, diabetes, hypertension or high cholesterol. RESULTS.: A total of 1790 Asian Indians (45% men, age 35.9+/-10.7 years) and 370 native Dutch hospital employees (23% men, age 40.8+/-10.1 years) were recruited. Asian Indians had higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein levels than the Dutch. Glucose intolerance was present in 7.1 vs. 0.5% men, and in 6.1 vs. 1.4% women (both p<0.001). Asian Indian women were more frequently obese (12 vs. 5%; p<0.001), and centrally obese (44 vs. 25%; p<0.001) as compared with the Dutch women. Prevalence of most of the conventional and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in each ten-year age group was higher in Asian Indians compared with controls, which reflected in higher Framingham risk scores. CONCLUSION.: This study demonstrates the persistence of an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile in young, third to seventh generation migrated Asian Indians and supports an aggressive screening and intervention strategy. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:155-61.).

  18. Driving Performance on the Descending Limb of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) in Undergraduate Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Dustin; Behm, David; Albert, Wayne J.

    2015-01-01

    Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration) curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16) took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD) drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV)). Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third asessement. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sentitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated. PMID:25723618

  19. Descending thin limb of the intermediate loop expresses both aquaporin 1 and urea transporter A2 in the mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan-Young; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Han, Ki-Hwan; Nam, Sun-Ah; Choi, Arum; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Kim, Jin

    2016-07-01

    A new intermediate type of Henle's loop has been reported that it extends into the inner medulla and turns within the first millimeter beyond the outer medulla. This study aimed to identify the descending thin limb (DTL) of the intermediate loop in the adult C57Bl/6 mouse kidney using aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and urea transporter A2 (UT-A2) antibodies. In the upper part of the inner stripe of the outer medulla (ISOM), AQP1 was expressed strongly in the DTL with type II epithelium of the long loop, but not in type I epithelium of the short loop. The DTL of the intermediate loop exhibited weak AQP1 immunoreactivity. UT-A2 immunoreactivity was not observed in the upper part of any DTL type. AQP1 expression was similar in the upper and middle parts of the ISOM. UT-A2 expression was variable, being expressed strongly in the DTL with type I epithelium of the short loop, but not in type II epithelium of the long loop. In the innermost part of the ISOM, AQP1 was expressed only in type III epithelium of the long loop. UT-A2-positive and UT-A2-negative cells were intermingled in type I epithelium of the intermediate loop, but were not observed in type III epithelium of the long loop. UT-A2-positive DTLs of the intermediate loop extended into the UT-A2/AQP1-negative type I epithelium in the initial part of the inner medulla. These results demonstrate that the DTL of the intermediate loop is composed of type I epithelium and expresses both AQP1 and UT-A2. The functional role of the DTL of the intermediate loop may be distinct from the short or long loops.

  20. Refeeding syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Swagata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a fifty-year-old male who was admitted with a three month history of increasing weakness, prostration, decreasing appetite and inability to swallow. The patient was a chronic alcoholic, unemployed, and of very poor socioeconomic background. The patient was initially investigated for upper GI malignancy, Addisons disease, bulbar palsy and other endocrinopathies. Concurrent management was started for severe electrolyte abnormalities and enteral nutritional supplementation was begun. By the fourth day of feeding patient developed severe hypophosphatemia and other life-threatening features suggesting refeeding syndrome. The patient was managed for the manifestations of refeeding syndrome. A final diagnosis of chronic alcoholic malnutrition with refeeding syndrome was made. Refeeding of previously starving patients may lead to a variety of complications including sudden death.

  1. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  2. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  3. Microcephaly syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Dianne

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this article is to review microcephaly from a genetics point of view, especially with regard to the process of identification of syndromes in which small head circumference occurs. Microcephaly can be due to either genetic or environmental causes. It can be the only positive finding or may be part of a syndrome of congenital anomalies. The genetic etiology can be caused by autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked genes or various types of chromosome anomalies. Some of the gene mutations have been identified recently. Syndromic microcephaly is associated with a large number of conditions. Some can be diagnosed, or at least suspected, based on their characteristic facial dysmorphism, and others can be searched for using databases of genetic disorders.

  4. Postconcussional Syndrome

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    Necla Keskin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Postconcussional syndrome is characterized by somatic, cognitive and psychiatric (emotional, behavioral symptoms that occurs after mild traumatic brain injury. It has been known that these symptoms recover fully within 3-6 months almost in 90% of patients. Although its etiology is still controversial, biological, psychological and social factors may account for the development and continuation of the symptoms. Diagnosis is based on the subjective complaints. To find out an objective method for definite diagnosis, trials searching for both neuroimaging and specific serum biomarkers stil continue. The treatment of the syndrome is mainly of palliative nature. Information, education, reassurance and multifaceted rehabilitation programmes can be beneficial. There are promising trials reporting the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of postconcussional syndrome. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 96-109

  5. Fraser syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network...... of birth defect registries. Between January 1990 and December 2008, we identified 26 cases of Fraser syndrome in the monitored population of 12,886,464 births (minimal estimated prevalence of 0.20 per 100,000 or 1:495,633 births). Most cases (18/26; 69%) were registered in the western part of Europe, where...... was particularly high (42%). Most cases of Fraser syndrome (85%) are suspected prenatally, often due to the presence of the association of renal agenesis and cryptophthalmos. In the European population, a high proportion (82%) of pregnancies is terminated, thus reducing the live birth prevalence to a third...

  6. [Serotonin syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lheureux, P; Penaloza, A; De Cottenier, V; Ullmann, U; Gris, M

    2002-10-01

    The serotonin syndrome is a hyperserotoninergic state resulting from an excess of intrasynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine, induced by multiple psychotropic agents, but also non psychiatric drugs. It is a potentially dangerous and sometimes lethal condition. The clinical manifestations usually include cognitive, neuromuscular and autonomic features and are mediated by the action of serotonin on various subtypes of receptors. The main differential diagnosis is the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Treatment is mainly supportive. No pharmacological agent has been definitely demonstrated really effective. However, reports of cases treated with the 5-HT2 blockers, including cyproheptadine or chlorpromazine have suggested that these agents could have some efficacy. Serotonin syndrome is a toxic condition which requires heightened clinical awareness among physicians in order to prevent, recognize, and treat the condition promptly.

  7. [Autoinflammatory syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, José Melo; Gomes, Sónia Melo; Conde, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Autoinflammatory syndromes (AIS) are a heterogeneous group of congenital diseases characterized by the presence of recurrent episodes of fever and local or generalized inflammation, in the absence of infectious agents, detectable auto-antibodies or antigen-specific autoreactive T-cells. These diseases have been much better understood during the past 15 years, mainly due to the marked advances of the Human Genoma Project and its implications in the identification and characterization of genetic mutations. In this paper we make a revision of the classification of AIS and focus our attention specially on the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), in particular the CINCA syndrome that shares many clinical characteristics with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  9. Eagle's Syndrome

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    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical.

  10. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects mostly females. Affected females have characteristic features such as short stature, premature ovarian failure, and several other features. Oral manifestations of this condition are not much discussed in the literature. But reported literature includes teeth, palate, periodontal and salivary changes. So the aim of this review is to illustrate the general manifestations, and especially the oral manifestations of Turner syndrome and evaluate their possible management. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(4.000: 246-252

  11. [PFAPA syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Suzete Costa Anjos; Vales, Fernando; Cardoso, Eduardo; Santos, Margarida

    2009-01-01

    PFAPA syndrome is characterized by periodic fever, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis and aphthous stomatitis. The bouts of fever can last for days or even weeks. Between crises, patients remain asymptomatic for variable periods. It appears before the age of five and has limited duration (4-8 years). Its aetiopathogeny is unknown. Corticoids are the treatment of choice. Tonsillectomy has been proposed as a solution but remains controversial. We present the case of a 4-year-old girl with PFAPA syndrome who underwent tonsillectomy in January, 2008, and we review the literature.

  12. Waardenburg syndrome

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    Tagra Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features of the syndrome, have been depicted in the pedigree.

  13. Eisenmengers syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Schophuus; Iversen, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels G;

    2009-01-01

    Congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunt can induce proliferation, vasoconstriction and thrombosis in the pulmonary vascular bed. Eventually, the patient may develop Eisenmenger syndrome defined as pulmonary arterial hypertension caused by high pulmonary vascular resistance with right......-to-left shunt and cyanosis. Patients with Eisenmenger syndrome suffer a high risk of complications in connection with acute medical conditions, extra-cardiac surgery and pregnancy. This article describes the precautions that should be taken to reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients. Udgivelsesdato...

  14. Lemierre's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, D N

    2012-02-01

    Lemierre\\'s syndrome is a rare disease that results in an oropharyngeal infection, which precipitates an internal jugular vein thrombosis and metastatic infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus and has been identified as the causative agent. We describe the case of a young girl whose presentation and diagnosis were confounded by a history of valvular heart disease. Infection of heart valves can produce many of the signs and symptoms associated with Lemierre\\'s syndrome. We describe the diagnosis, investigation and optimal management of this rare disorder.

  15. Olmsted syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Olmsted syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the combination of periorificial, keratotic plaques and bilateral palmoplantar keratoderma. New associated features are being reported. Olmsted syndrome is particularly rare in a female patient, and we report such a case in a six year-old Indian girl, who presented with keratoderma of her soles since birth and on her palms since the age of two years along with perioral and perinasal hyperkeratosis. She had sparse, light brown, thin hair. Although the psychomotor development of the child was normal until 18 months of age, the keratoderma plaques had restricted the child′s mobility after that stage.

  16. Gorlin Syndrome

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    Siroos Risbaf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome is a dominant autosomal familial disorder. The manifestations begin at an early age and a combination of phenotypic abnormalities such special facial appearance, jaw cysts and skeletal anomalies are seen in this disease. A 22-year-old woman referred to Zahedan Dental School complaining of pain on the left cheek. During the examination, several cutaneous lesions in the neck, pits in palm and sole and multiple jaw cysts were observed. According to the clinical symptoms, lesion biopsy and reports of Gorlin syndrome radiography were presented.

  17. [Wilkie's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognár, Gábor; Ledniczky, György; Palik, Eva; Zubek, László; Sugár, István; Ondrejka, Pál

    2008-10-01

    Loss of retroperitoneal fatty tissue as a result of a variety of debilitating conditions and noxa is believed to be the etiologic factor of superior mesenteric artery syndrome. A case of a 35 years old female patient with severe malnutrition and weight loss is presented, who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Various theories of etiology, clinical course and treatment options of this uncommon disease are discussed. In our case, conservative management was inefficient, while surgical treatment aiming to bypass the obstruction by an anastomosis between the jejunum and the proximal duodenum (duodenojejunostomy) was successful. An interdisciplinary teamwork provides the most beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic result in this often underestimated disease.

  18. Morbihan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, Stefano; Persico, Maria Chiara; Francia, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    We report a case of severe Morbihan syndrome (chronic erythematous edema of the upper portion of the face) in a 60-year-old man. The syndrome was characterized clinically by erythematous edema involving the forehead, glabella, and both eyelids, because of which the patient was not able to open completely his eyes. Furthermore, erythema and telangiectasiae were visible on the nose and cheeks. Laboratory and instrumental examinations were within normal ranges or negative. Histopathological examination showed dermal edema, perivascular and periadnexal lympho-histiocytic infiltrate, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Oral isotretinoin was ineffective despite the relatively long duration of the therapy (26 weeks).

  19. Morbihan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Veraldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of severe Morbihan syndrome (chronic erythematous edema of the upper portion of the face in a 60-year-old man. The syndrome was characterized clinically by erythematous edema involving the forehead, glabella, and both eyelids, because of which the patient was not able to open completely his eyes. Furthermore, erythema and telangiectasiae were visible on the nose and cheeks. Laboratory and instrumental examinations were within normal ranges or negative. Histopathological examination showed dermal edema, perivascular and periadnexal lympho-histiocytic infiltrate, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Oral isotretinoin was ineffective despite the relatively long duration of the therapy (26 weeks.

  20. Off-pump anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery through a left inferior J-hemisternotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrau, Ivy; Nielsen, Per Hostrup; Nielsen, Dorthe Viemose

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, a large body of literature has been published regarding minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting. Varying techniques, complexity of the procedures and the necessity of patient selection have led to its inconsistent application. We describe the standardized technique...... of left internal mammary artery grafting to the left anterior descending coronary artery, off-pump through a left inferior J-hemisternotomy (JOPCAB). This approach is straightforward, safe, effective, and replicable in virtually all patients. JOPCAB requires no patient selection or other prerequisite than...... experience in standard off-pump technique. The left internal mammary artery is harvested under direct vision through a left inferior J-hemisternotomy. The left anterior descending coronary artery is exposed with left-sided pericardial stitches. The off-pump anastomosis is performed with the aid of a suction...

  1. A case of ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysm into the right pleural cavity: importance of preoperative drainage of the right pleural cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, K; Takazawa, A; Hirota, J; Yamagishi, H; Akazawa, T

    1998-12-01

    We present an unusual case of a ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysm into the right pleural cavity of a patient with pectus carinatum. The presence of pectus carinatum played an important role in the development of the aneurysm at the atypical site and the rupture into the right pleural cavity. A small amount of right pleural bleeding on admission can increase and develop to massive hemothorax until emergency operation. Massive bleeding in the right pleural cavity where the dependent lung is located causes atelectasis and increased shunt fraction under one lung ventilation. Therefore, continuous drainage of the right pleural cavity is essential to prevent serious hypoxia during graft replacement in a case of ruptured descending thoracic aneurysm into the right hemithorax.

  2. Al otro lado del Atlántico. Los africanos y sus descencientes en Argentina /Across the Atlantic. Africans and their Descendants in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Buffa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es hacer un recorrido histórico, rastreando la presencia africana y afrodescendiente en el actual territorio argentino, desde el período colonial hasta la actualidad. Centraremos nuestro análisis en los momentos más significativos de su llegada, observando ciertos parámetros que las caracterizan y, al mismo tiempo, identificaremos patrones de marginación o exclusión social de los migrantes africanos y sus descendientes.The purpose of this work is to make a historical journey, tracing presence of Africans and Afro-descendants in the Argentinean territory, from the colonial period to the present. We focus our analysis on the most significant moments of their arrivals, observing certain parameters that characterize them and at the same time, identifying patterns of marginalization and social exclusion of African migrants and their descendants.

  3. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway are not involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold induced by plantar incision in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohtani N

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Norimasa Ohtani, Eiji Masaki Division of Dento-oral Anesthesiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan Background: Approximately half of all patients who undergo surgery develop postoperative pain, the mechanisms of which are not well understood by anesthesiologists. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway play an important role in regulation of pain transmission in the spinal cord. Impairment of inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord is suggested as part of the mechanism for neuropathic pain, which is one component of postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether impairment of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold in rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–300 g were anesthetized with sevoflurane and an intrathecal (IT catheter was implanted. Six days later, a plantar incision was made. On the following day, saline, a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole, or a D2-like receptor antagonist (sulpiride was administered intrathecally. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed by exposure to infrared radiant heat and the von Frey filament test before and after plantar incision.Results: Plantar incision decreased both thermal latency and the mechanical nociceptive threshold. IT administration of quinpirole inhibited the nociceptive responses induced by plantar incision, but sulpiride had no effect.Conclusion: A D2-like receptor agonist had antinociceptive effects on the hypersensitivity response triggered by a surgical incision, but a D2-like receptor antagonist had no effect on this response. These results suggest that impairment and/or modification of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is not involved in the postoperative decrease in nociceptive threshold. Keywords: postoperative pain, descending pathway

  4. Dysregulation of the descending pain system in temporomandibular disorders revealed by low-frequency sensory transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: a pupillometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Mesin, Luca; Ortu, Eleonora; Giannoni, Mario; Pietropaoli, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Using computerized pupillometry, our previous research established that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is dysregulated in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), suggesting a potential role for ANS dysfunction in pain modulation and the etiology of TMD. However, pain modulation hypotheses for TMD are still lacking. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is involved in the descending modulation of defensive behavior and pain through μ, κ, and δ opioid receptors. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been extensively used for pain relief, as low-frequency stimulation can activate µ receptors. Our aim was to use pupillometry to evaluate the effect of low-frequency TENS stimulation of μ receptors on opioid descending pathways in TMD patients. In accordance with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, 18 females with myogenous TMD and 18 matched-controls were enrolled. All subjects underwent subsequent pupillometric evaluations under dark and light conditions before, soon after (end of stimulation) and long after (recovery period) sensorial TENS. The overall statistics derived from the darkness condition revealed no significant differences in pupil size between cases and controls; indeed, TENS stimulation significantly reduced pupil size in both groups. Controls, but not TMD patients, displayed significant differences in pupil size before compared with after TENS. Under light conditions, TMD patients presented a smaller pupil size compared with controls; the pupil size was reduced only in the controls. Pupil size differences were found before and during TENS and before and after TENS in the controls only. Pupillometry revealed that stimulating the descending opioid pathway with low-frequency sensory TENS of the fifth and seventh pairs of cranial nerves affects the peripheral target. The TMD patients exhibited a different pattern of response to TENS stimulation compared with the controls, suggesting that impaired modulation of the

  5. Transmission to interneurons is via slow excitatory synaptic potentials mediated by P2Y(1 receptors during descending inhibition in guinea-pig ileum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D J Thornton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nature of synaptic transmission at functionally distinct synapses in intestinal reflex pathways has not been fully identified. In this study, we investigated whether transmission between interneurons in the descending inhibitory pathway is mediated by a purine acting at P2Y receptors to produce slow excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Myenteric neurons from guinea-pig ileum in vitro were impaled with intracellular microelectrodes. Responses to distension 15 mm oral to the recording site, in a separately perfused stimulation chamber and to electrical stimulation of local nerve trunks were recorded. A subset of neurons, previously identified as nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive descending interneurons, responded to both stimuli with slow EPSPs that were reversibly abolished by a high concentration of PPADS (30 μM, P2 receptor antagonist. When added to the central chamber of a three chambered organ bath, PPADS concentration-dependently depressed transmission through that chamber of descending inhibitory reflexes, measured as inhibitory junction potentials in the circular muscle of the anal chamber. Reflexes evoked by distension in the central chamber were unaffected. A similar depression of transmission was seen when the specific P2Y(1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 μM was in the central chamber. Blocking either nicotinic receptors (hexamethonium 200 μM or 5-HT(3 receptors (granisetron 1 μM together with P2 receptors had no greater effect than blocking P2 receptors alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Slow EPSPs mediated by P2Y(1 receptors, play a primary role in transmission between descending interneurons of the inhibitory reflexes in the guinea-pig ileum. This is the first demonstration for a primary role of excitatory metabotropic receptors in physiological transmission at a functionally identified synapse.

  6. Descending serotonergic controls regulate inflammation-induced mechanical sensitivity and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 phosphorylation in the rat superficial dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géranton Sandrine M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of pain states is, in part, dependent upon plastic changes in neurones within the superficial dorsal horn. There is also compelling evidence that pain states are under the control of descending projections from the brainstem. While a number of transcription factors including Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2, Zif268 and Fos have been implicated in the regulation of dorsal horn neurone sensitization following injury, modulation of their activity by descending controls has not been investigated. Results Here, we describe how descending controls regulate MeCP2 phosphorylation (P-MeCP2, known to relieve transcriptional repression by MeCP2, and Zif268 and Fos expression in the rat superficial dorsal horn, after CFA injection into the hind paw. First, we report that CFA significantly increased P-MeCP2 in Lamina I and II, from 30 min post injection, with a maximum reached after 1 h. The increase in P-MeCP2 paralleled that of Zif268 and Fos, and P-MeCP2 was expressed in large sub-populations of Zif268 and Fos expressing neurones. Serotonergic depletion of the lumbar spinal cord with 5,7 di-hydroxytryptamine creatinine sulphate (5,7-DHT reduced the inflammation evoked P-MeCP2 in the superficial dorsal horn by 57%, and that of Zif268 and Fos by 37.5% and 30% respectively. Although 5,7-DHT did not change primary thermal hyperalgesia, it significantly attenuated mechanical sensitivity seen in the first 24 h after CFA. Conclusion We conclude that descending serotonergic pathways play a crucial role in regulating gene expression in the dorsal horn and mechanical sensitivity associated with an inflammatory pain state.

  7. Dysregulation of the descending pain system in temporomandibular disorders revealed by low-frequency sensory transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: a pupillometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Monaco

    Full Text Available Using computerized pupillometry, our previous research established that the autonomic nervous system (ANS is dysregulated in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders (TMDs, suggesting a potential role for ANS dysfunction in pain modulation and the etiology of TMD. However, pain modulation hypotheses for TMD are still lacking. The periaqueductal gray (PAG is involved in the descending modulation of defensive behavior and pain through μ, κ, and δ opioid receptors. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS has been extensively used for pain relief, as low-frequency stimulation can activate µ receptors. Our aim was to use pupillometry to evaluate the effect of low-frequency TENS stimulation of μ receptors on opioid descending pathways in TMD patients. In accordance with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, 18 females with myogenous TMD and 18 matched-controls were enrolled. All subjects underwent subsequent pupillometric evaluations under dark and light conditions before, soon after (end of stimulation and long after (recovery period sensorial TENS. The overall statistics derived from the darkness condition revealed no significant differences in pupil size between cases and controls; indeed, TENS stimulation significantly reduced pupil size in both groups. Controls, but not TMD patients, displayed significant differences in pupil size before compared with after TENS. Under light conditions, TMD patients presented a smaller pupil size compared with controls; the pupil size was reduced only in the controls. Pupil size differences were found before and during TENS and before and after TENS in the controls only. Pupillometry revealed that stimulating the descending opioid pathway with low-frequency sensory TENS of the fifth and seventh pairs of cranial nerves affects the peripheral target. The TMD patients exhibited a different pattern of response to TENS stimulation compared with the controls, suggesting that impaired

  8. Pre-procedural combined coronary angiography and stress myocardial perfusion imaging using 320-detector CT in unprotected left main and ostial left anterior descending artery intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Brian S; Crossett, Marcus; Seneviratne, Sujith K

    2015-07-01

    Pre-procedural anatomic and functional coronary assessment plays a crucial role in selection of patients suitable for unprotected left main percutaneous coronary intervention. Combined coronary computed tomography angiography and adenosine stress computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging is a non-invasive technique which may provide this information. This is the first report describing its use to assist patient selection and procedural planning prior to elective left main and ostial left anterior descending artery coronary intervention.

  9. Coronary heart disease clinical manifestation and risk factors in Japanese immigrants and their descendents in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Reynaldo Vicente

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a difference exists in coronary heart disease clinical manifestations and the prevalence of risk factors between Japanese immigrants and their descendents in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of coronary artery disease clinical manifestations and the prevalence of risk factors, comparing 128 Japanese immigrants (Japanese group with 304 Japanese descendents (Nisei group. RESULTS: The initial manifestation of the disease was earlier in the Nisei group (mean = 53 years, a difference of 12 years when compared with that in the Japanese group (mean = 65 years (P<0.001. Myocardial infarction was the first manifestation in both groups (P = 0.83. The following parameters were independently associated with early coronary events: smoking (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.35-3.77; P<0.002; Nisei group (OR = 10.22; 95% CI = 5.64-18.5; P<0.001; and female sex (OR = 5.04; 95% CI = 2.66-9.52; P<0.001. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of coronary heart disease in the Japanese and their descendents in the city of São Paulo was similar, but coronary heart disease onset occurred approximately 12 years earlier in the Nisei group than in the Japanese group.

  10. Repeated 3-minute stair climbing-descending exercise after a meal over 2 weeks increases serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels in people with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroto; Igaki, Makoto; Hatanaka, Yuki; Komatsu, Motoaki; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro; Miki, Tetsuo; Matsuki, Yumika; Takaishi, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic effect of a postprandial exercise program using brief stair climbing-descending exercise in people with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven males with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes (age 68.0 ± 3.7 years) performed two sets of stair climbing-descending exercise 60 and 120 min after each meal for the first 2 weeks but not for the following 2 weeks. Each set of exercise comprised 3-min of continuous repetition of climbing briskly to the second floor followed by slow waking down to the first floor in their home. A rest period of 1–2 min was allowed between each set. [Results] Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol level was significantly higher by 11.5% at the end of the 2-week exercise period than at the baseline. By contrast, the 1,5-anhydroglucitol level at the end of the following 2-week period did not differ from the baseline value. Fasting blood glucose level and insulin resistance index at the end of the exercise period did not differ from the baseline value. [Conclusion] Repeated 3-min bouts of stair climbing-descending exercise after a meal may be a promising method for improving postprandial glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28210043

  11. A bypass case due to an acute inferior myocardial infarction caused by vascular occlusion of the left subclavian artery and left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altas Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yakup Altas, Ali Veysel Ulugg Department of Cardiology, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, Turkey Abstract: ST segment elevation is the most common electrocardiographic finding in acute myocardial infarction. ST elevation in chest leads generally represents left anterior descending artery occlusion, while elevation in DII and III, and aVF represents right coronary and circumflex artery occlusion. A female patient aged 66 years was admitted to our emergency service with ST elevation in leads DIII and aVF. A diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction was made. The patient’s history included coronary artery bypass graft involving the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta to the right coronary artery. The patient was taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a lesion in the left anterior descending artery was identified. Additionally, the left subclavian artery was totally occluded. Following intervention to the lesion, the patient was discharged on day 4 of admission. Keywords: electrocardiography, myocardial infarction, coronary circulation

  12. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.C.; Engelen, K. van; Timmermans, J.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Mulder, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome.

  13. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.C.; Engelen, K. van; Timmermans, J.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Mulder, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome. Althou

  14. Klinefelter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Peynirci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex chromosome disorder in males. Variation in clinical presentation and insufficient awareness of this syndrome among clinicians lead to fifty percent of patients remain undetected. Typical clinical features of Klinefelter syndrome are various degrees of hypogonadal symptoms, atrophic testes and gynaecomastia. However, these typical clinical symptoms may not be present in all patients. Even if serum testosterone levels are not markedly low, elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone is a considerable laboratory finding. Definitive diagnosis is made by karyotype analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. It must be kept in mind that this analysis may be normal in rare conditions. Early recognition of patients during puberty and handling them as soon as possible is important. Testosterone replacement therapy results in increased muscle mass, bone mineral density and libido. The patient’s mood and self-esteem improve significantly. In general, patients with Klinefelter syndrome are accepted as infertile, however, assisted reproductive techniques may provide fertilization. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 63-7

  15. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine M; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    /or swelling in the throat or neck, as well as respiratory symptoms. Laboratory findings show elevated infectious parameters and radiological findings show thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and emboli in the lungs or other organs. The syndrome is often associated with an infection with Fusobacterium...

  16. Dumping Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach move to your small intestine in an uncontrolled, abnormally fast manner. This is most often related to changes in your stomach associated with surgery. Dumping syndrome can occur after any stomach operation or removal of the esophagus (esophagectomy). Gastric bypass surgery for ...

  17. Brugada Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to look at your heart's electrical activity (electrophysiology study), you'll need to fast for eight to 12 hours before your test. Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to Brugada syndrome. Write down key personal information, especially any family ...

  18. Bloom syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Harleen; Chacon, Anna H; Choudhary, Sonal; McLeod, Michael P; Meshkov, Lauren; Nouri, Keyvan; Izakovic, Jan

    2014-07-01

    Bloom Syndrome (BS, MIM #210900) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the BLM gene, which codes for the DNA repair enzyme RecQL3 helicase. Without proper DNA repair mechanisms, abnormal DNA exchange takes place between sister chromatids and results in genetic instability that may lead to cancer, especially lymphoma and acute myelogenous leukemia, lower and upper gastrointestinal tract neoplasias, cutaneous tumors, and neoplasias in the genitalia and urinary tract. BS patients are usually of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and exhibit narrow facial features, elongated limbs, and several dermatologic complications including photosensitivity, poikiloderma, and telangiectatic erythema. The most concerning manifestation of BS is multiple malignancies, which require frequent screenings and strict vigilance by the physician. Therefore, distinguishing between BS and other dermatologic syndromes of similar presentation such as Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome, Erythropoietic Protoporphyria, and Cockayne Syndrome is paramount to disease management and to prolonging life. BS can be diagnosed through a variety of DNA sequencing methods, and genetic testing is available for high-risk populations. This review consolidates several sources on BS sequelae and aims to suggest the importance of differentiating BS from other dermatologic conditions. This paper also elucidates the recently discovered BRAFT and FANCM protein complexes that link BS and Fanconi anemia.

  19. Gitelman syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Levtchenko, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), also referred to as familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia, is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with significant hypomagnesemia and low urinary calcium excretion. The prevalence is estimated at approximately 1:40,000 and accordingly, the prevalence

  20. Chylomicronemia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood. The disorder is passed down through families. Causes Chylomicronemia syndrome can occur due to a rare genetic disorder in which a protein (enzyme) called lipoprotein lipase (LpL) is broken or missing. LpL is normally found in fat and muscle. ...

  1. Gitelman syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Levtchenko, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), also referred to as familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia, is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with significant hypomagnesemia and low urinary calcium excretion. The prevalence is estimated at approximately 1:40,000 and accordingly, the prevalence

  2. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debi Basanti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is a variable and complex disorder characterized by multifocal overgrowths affecting any tissue or structure of the body. We present a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with an epidermal nevus, port-wine stain, macrodactyly with gigantism of the feet, lymphohemagiomas and multiple lipomas.

  3. [Waardenburg's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimñenez, F; Carbonell, R; Pérez, F; Lozano, I

    1994-01-01

    Reporting one case of this condition type-2 with heterochromia iridis and cochlear deafness. The AA. review the syndrome's components and it nomenclature as well. They discuss about the convenience of including this deviation in the chapter of "diseases of the embryonic neural crest". The specific place of the gene responsibly in the chromosome-2 and the possibilities of genetic counselling are considered.

  4. Waardenburg's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudian, D P; Jayaraman, M; Janaki, V R; Yesudian, P

    1995-01-01

    Three children in a family of five presented with heterochromia iridis, lateral displacement of inner canthi and varying degrees of sensorineural deafness. All the 3 showed iris atrophy. The father of the children had only heterochromia iridis. A diagnosis of Waardenburg's syndrome Type I was made in the children with the father probably representing a forme fruste of the condition.

  5. Caplan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CT scan of the chest Joint x-rays Pulmonary function tests Rheumatoid factor test and other blood tests Treatment There is no specific treatment for Caplan syndrome, other than treating any lung and joint disease. ... MD, MHS, Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, ...

  6. Metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Shaeffer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The emergence of cardiac disease as the number one world-wide cause of death justifies efforts to identify individuals at higher risk for preventive therapy. The metabolic syndrome, originally described by Reaven, 1 has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. 2 Type Ⅱ diabetes is also a frequent sequela. 3

  7. Sotos Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 663-4637) Sotos Syndrome Support Association P.O. Box 4626 Wheaton IL Wheaton, IL 60189 info@sotossyndrome.org http://www.sotossyndrome.org/ Tel: 888-246-7772 The Arc of the United States 1825 K Street, NW ...

  8. Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.…

  9. Reifenstein syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androgens are most important during early development in the womb. People with Reifenstein syndrome can have a normal lifespan and be totally healthy, but they may have difficulty conceiving a child. In the most severe cases, boys with outer female genitals ...

  10. Nodding Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Scott Dowell, a CDC director, discusses the rare illness, nodding syndrome, in children in Africa.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/27/2014.

  11. [SAPHO syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, F; Kiltz, U; Baraliakos, X; Braun, J

    2014-10-01

    The SAPHO syndrome, an acronym for synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis, is a rare disease which affects bones, joints and the skin. The main osteoarticular features are hyperostosis and osteitis. Osteoarticular symptoms predominantly occur on the anterior chest wall but the spine and the peripheral skeleton can also be involved. The most important skin affections are palmoplantar pustulosis and severe acne. The etiology of this syndrome remains unclear but infectious, immunological and genetic factors are involved. The diagnostic features of SAPHO syndrome are clinical and radiological. The most important diagnostic procedure is Tc-99 m bone scintigraphy but conventional x-rays as well as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also contribute to the final diagnosis. Bone histology and positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) may help to differentiate SAPHO syndrome from malignancies and infectious osteomyelitis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the cornerstone of treatment. The results obtained using antibiotics and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as sulfasalazine and methotrexate are inconsistent. Bisphosphonates and anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs have shown promising results in small studies but further research is still necessary.

  12. Pre-Hospital 12-Lead Electrocardiogram within 60 Minutes Differentiates Proximal versus Nonproximal Left Anterior Descending Artery Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J McCarthy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute anterior myocardial infarctions caused by proximal left anterior descending (LAD artery occlusions are associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. Early identification of high-risk patients via the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG could assist physicians and emergency response teams in providing early and aggressive care for patients with anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI. Approximately 25% of US hospitals have primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI capability for the treatment of acute myocardial infarctions. Given the paucity of hospitals capable of PCI, early identification of more severe myocardial infarction may prompt emergency medical service routing of these patients to PCI-capable hospitals. We sought to determine if the 12 lead ECG is capable of predicting proximal LAD artery occlusions. Methods: In a retrospective, post-hoc analysis of the Pre-Hospital Administration of Thrombolytic Therapy with Urgent Culprit Artery Revascularization pilot trial, we compared the ECG findings of proximal and nonproximal LAD occlusions for patients who had undergone an ECG within 180 minutes of symptom onset. Results: In this study, 72 patients had anterior STEMIs, with ECGs performed within 180 minutes of symptom onset. In patients who had undergone ECGs within 60 minutes (n¼35, the mean sum of ST elevation (STE in leads V1 through V6 plus ST depression (STD in leads II, III, and aVF was 19.2 mm for proximal LAD occlusions and 11.7 mm for nonproximal LAD occlusions (P¼0.007. A sum STE in V1 through V6 plus STD in II, III, and aVF of at least 17.5 mm had a sensitivity of 52.3%, specificity of 92.9%, positive predictive value of 91.7%, and negative predictive value of 56.5% for proximal LAD occlusions. When the ECG was performed more than 60 minutes after symptom onset (n¼37, there was no significant difference in ST-segment deviation between the 2 groups. Conclusion: The sum STE (V1-V6 and STD (II

  13. Mechanisms involved in the depolarization of cutaneous afferents produced by segmental and descending inputs in the cat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P; Solodkin, M

    1987-01-01

    The relative contribution of specific and unspecific (potassium) components involved in the generation of primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of cutaneous fibres was analyzed in the spinal cord of the anesthetized cat. To this end we examined the correlation between the intraspinal threshold changes of single afferent fibres in the sural nerve produced by segmental and descending inputs and the negative DC potential shifts produced by these same stimuli at the site of excitability testing, the latter taken as indicators of the changes in extracellular concentration of potassium ions. Stimulation of the ipsilateral brain-stem reticular formation and of the contralateral red nucleus with 100-200 Hz trains reduced very effectively the intraspinal threshold of sural nerve fibres ending in the dorsal horn practically without producing any negative DC potential shifts at the site of excitability testing. However, negative DC potential shifts were produced more ventrally, in the intermediate nucleus and/or motor nucleus. Stimulation of the sural and superficial peroneus nerves with pulses at 2 Hz and strengths below 2 xT, also reduced the intraspinal threshold of single SU fibres without producing significant DC potential changes at the site of excitability testing. On the other hand, 100 Hz trains with strengths above 2 xT produced negative DC potential shifts and a proportional reduction of the intraspinal threshold of the SU fibres. The PAD of sural fibres produced by stimulation of rubro-spinal and reticulo-spinal fibres as well as by stimulation of sensory nerves with low frequency trains was unaffected or slightly increased, by i.v. injection of strychnine (0.2 mg/kg), but was readily abolished 5-10 min after the i.v. injection of picrotoxin (2 mg/kg). The results suggest that activation of reticulo-spinal and rubro-spinal fibres, as well as stimulation of cutaneous nerves with low frequencies and low strengths, produce PAD of cutaneous fibres involving activation

  14. Compartment syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aly Saber

    2014-01-01

    Body compartments bound by fascia and limited by bony backgrounds are found in the extremities, buttocks, abdomen and thoracic cavity; conditions that cause intracompartmental swelling and hypertension can lead to ischemia and limb loss.Although compartment syndromes are described in all body regions from head to toe, the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are best characterized for three key body regions: the first is extremity, the second is abdominal, and the third is thoracic compartment syndromes.Thoracic compartment syndrome usually occurs as a result of pathological accumulation of air, fluid or blood in the mediastinum and has traditionally been described in trauma.As the intracranial contents are confined within a rigid bony cage, any increase in volume within thiscompartment as a result of brain oedema or an expanding traumatic intracranial haematoma, leads to a reciprocal decrease in the volume of cerebrospinal fluid and intracranial venous blood volume.Limb compartment syndromes may present either in acute or chronic clinical forms.Intra-abdominal pressure can be measured by direct or indirect methods.While the direct methods are quite accurate, theyare impractical and not feasible for routine practice.Indirect measurement is done through inferior vena cava, gastric, rectal and urinary bladder.Indirect measurement through urinary bladder is the simplest and is considered the method of choice for intra-abdominal pressure measurement.The management of patients with intra-abdominal hypertension is based on four important principles: the first is related to the specific procedures aiming at lowering intra-abdominal pressure and the consequences of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome; the second is for general support and medical management of the critically ill patient; while the third is surgical decompression and the fourth is optimization after surgical decompression.

  15. Down Syndrome: Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leading human rights organization for all individuals with Down syndrome. National Down Syndrome Society 8 E 41st Street, 8th Floor New ... New York 10017 800-221-4602 [email protected] Down Syndrome What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome Facts Myths & ...

  16. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Read in Chinese What causes Down syndrome? Down syndrome is caused by a duplication of all ... Where can I find more information regarding Down Syndrome? National Down Syndrome Society VISIT SITE » Downs Syndrome Association VISIT ...

  17. Sexuality and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4602 [email protected] Down Syndrome What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome Facts Myths & Truths Preferred Language Guide Q& ... Shop NDSS Home » Resources » Wellness » Sexuality » Sexuality & Down Syndrome Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual's self-esteem, ...

  18. Otodental syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch-Zupan Agnès

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The otodental syndrome also named otodental dysplasia, is characterised by a striking dental phenotype known as globodontia, associated with sensorineural high frequency hearing loss and eye coloboma. Globodontia occurs in both primary and permanent dentition, affecting canine and molar teeth (i.e. enlarged bulbous malformed posterior teeth with almost no discernable cusps or grooves. The condition appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant mode, although sporadic cases have been reported. It is a rare disease, a few families have been described in the literature. In the British family, the locus for oculo-oto-dental syndrome was mapped to 20q13.1 within a 12-cM critical chromosomal region. Dental management is complex, interdisciplinary and will include regular follow up, scheduled teeth extraction and orthodontic treatment. Hearing checks and, if necessary, hearing aids are mandatory, as well as eye examination and ad hoc treatment if necessary.

  19. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine M; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and...... necrophorum. We found a total of 137 cases of LS, of which 47 were infected with F. necrophorum and others with Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Complications of this rare but severe disease included osteomyelitis, meningitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mortality was extremely high in the pre......-antibiotic era but has diminished with the advent of antibiotics. This review showed a mortality rate of only 2% of which none of the cases involved fusobacteria. Duration of treatment varied; a 4-6-week course of carbapenem or piperacillin/tazobactam in combination with metronidazole was optimum. Other...

  20. Dravet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incorpora Gemma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Dravet syndrome" (DS previously named severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI, or epilepsy with polymorphic seizures, is a rare disorder characterized by an early, severe, generalized, epileptic encephalopathy. DS is characterized by febrile and afebrile seizures beginning in the 1st year of life followed by different types of seizures (either focal or generalized, which are typically resistant to antiepileptic drugs. A developmental delay from the 2nd to 3rd year of life becomes evident, together with motor disturbances and personality disorders. Beside the classic syndrome, there are milder cases which have been called severe myoclonic epilepsy borderline (SMEB. DS is caused by a mutation in the neuronal sodium channel gene, SCN1A , that is also mutated in generalized epilepsy with FS+ (GEFS+.

  1. Antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Ricard

    2017-03-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by the development of venous and/or arterial thromboses, often multiple, and pregnancy morbidity (mainly, recurrent fetal losses), in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Some estimates indicate that the incidence of the APS is around 5 new cases per 100,000 persons per year and the prevalence around 40-50 cases per 100,000 persons. The aPL are positive in approximately 13% of patients with stroke, 11% with myocardial infarction, 9.5% of patients with deep vein thrombosis and 6% of patients with pregnancy morbidity. Currently, there is consensus in treating APS patients with thrombosis with long-term oral anticoagulation and to prevent obstetric manifestations with the use of aspirin and heparin. This review summarizes the main knowledge on the clinical and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parinaud's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, D; Ongerboer de Visser, B W; Stefanko, S Z

    1983-02-01

    Five cases of a tumour in the quadrigeminal area have been described, 4 of which could be verified by autopsy. In 2 cases with a metastasis in the tegmentum of the mesencephalon, a Parinaud syndrome was present. In 2 other cases, however, with extensive destruction of the quadrigeminal plate and of the posterior commissure this syndrome was not present. In the 5th case, with a big vascular tumour of the pineal area, disturbances of eye movements and pupils were also lacking. From these observations we may conclude that (1) destruction of the quadrigeminal plate has no influence upon vertical eye movements. (2) destruction of the posterior commissure, in combination with the quadrigeminal plate, is not always followed by disturbances of vertical eye movements. In man it is still not clear which structures are responsible for the performance of vertical eye movements.

  3. Apert syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premalatha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apert syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare developmental malformation characterized by craniosynostosis, mid-face hypoplasia, symmetrical syndactyly of hands and feet. The prodromal characteristics for the typical cranio-facial appearance are early craniosynostosis of the coronal suture, cranial base and agenesis of the sagittal suture. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of Apert syndrome with emphasis on craniofacial and oral features in an eighteen-month-old male child. The patient presented with several craniofacial deformities, including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia, flat face, hypertelorism, ocular proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures. Syndactylies with osseous fusion of the hands and feet were also observed. Intraoral findings included delayed eruption of teeth, high arched palate with pseudo cleft in the posterior one third.

  4. Paraneoplastic syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) comprise a diverse group of disorders that are associated with cancer but unrelated to the size, location, metastases, or physiologic activities of the mature tissue of origin. They are remote effects of tumors that may appear as signs, symptoms, or syndromes which can mimic other disease conditions encountered in veterinary medicine. Recognition of PNS is valuable for several reasons: the observed abnormalities may represent tumor cell markers and facilitate early diagnosis of the tumor; they may allow assessment of premalignant states; they may aid in the search metastases; they may help quantify and monitor response to therapy; and, they may provide insight into the study of malignant transformation and oncogene expression. This review will concentrate on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of some of the common PNS encountered in veterinary medicine.

  5. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of…

  6. Griscelli syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial albinism with immunodeficiency is a rare and fatal immunologic disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution and variable cellular immunodeficiency. It was initially described in 1978. Primary abnormalities included silvery grayish sheen to the hair, large pigment agglomerations in hair shafts and an abundance of mature melanosomes in melanocytes, with reduced pigmentation of adjacent keratinocytes. We describe a child with Griscelli syndrome who presented with hepatitis, pancytopenia and silvery hair. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic skin and hair examination.

  7. Hepatorenal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharon Turban; Paul J Thuluvath; Mohamed G Atta

    2007-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a "functional" and reversible form of renal failure that occurs in patients with advanced chronic liver disease. The distinctive hallmark feature of HRS is the intense renal vasoconstriction caused by interactions between systemic and portal hemodynamics. This results in activation of vasoconstrictors and suppression of vasodilators in the renal circulation. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, as well as current and emerging therapies of HRS are discussed in this review.

  8. Postconcussional Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Necla Keskin; Lut Tamam

    2013-01-01

    Postconcussional syndrome is characterized by somatic, cognitive and psychiatric (emotional, behavioral) symptoms that occurs after mild traumatic brain injury. It has been known that these symptoms recover fully within 3-6 months almost in 90% of patients. Although its etiology is still controversial, biological, psychological and social factors may account for the development and continuation of the symptoms. Diagnosis is based on the subjective complaints. To find out an objective method f...

  9. Fraser syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay A

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Fraser Syndrome is a rare disorder with only a few cases having been described in Indian literature. We report here a case of a patient aged 16 yr present with primary amenorrhea which is a very unusual mode of presentation. Multiple associated anomalies were present including those of eyelids, eyebrow, face, fingers and genitalia. Chromosome analysis revealed a normal female karyotype. Pituitary gonadotropins were within normal range.

  10. [Fibromyalgia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Hernández, A; Rodríguez Lozano, C; Ojeda Bruno, S

    1992-02-01

    The Fibromialgia Syndrome (FS) is a common clinical entity which may produce symtoms and signs related to multiple fields of Medicine. Typical clinical characteristics of FS include extensive pain, presence of sensitive points during exploration, morning stiffness, asthenia and non-refresing sleep. Frequently, associated rheumatologic diseases are observed, as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis and vertebral disorders. In FS, complementary tests are usually normal. The most widely accepted hypothesis suggests that this is a disorder affecting modulation of pain sensitivity.

  11. Gerstmann's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumar, S.; Ferguson, G C

    1996-01-01

    Although Gerstmann's syndrome has been well documented since it was characterised in the latter half of last century, there has not been much literature on it in the last few years. We present a classical case in a patient who was admitted into hospital for an unrelated problem. We conclude that clinical examination still has a valuable role in neurology, despite the availability of excellent imaging techniques.

  12. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is an autoimmune disease with recurrent thromboses and pregnancy complications (90% are female patients that can be primary and secondary (with concomitant autoimmune disease. Antiphospholipid antibodies are prothrombotic but also act directly with brain tissue. One clinical and one laboratory criterion is necessary for the diagnosis of APS. Positive serological tests have to be confirmed after at least 12 weeks. Clinical picture consists of thromboses in many organs and spontaneous miscarriages, sometimes thrombocytopaenia and haemolytic anaemia, but neurological cases are the most frequent: headaches, stroke, encephalopathy, seizures, visual disturbances, Sneddon syndrome, dementia, vertigo, chorea, balism, transitory global amnesia, psychosis, transversal myelopathy and Guillain-Barre syndrome. About 50% of strokes below 50 years of age are caused by APS. The first line of therapy in stroke is anticoagulation: intravenous heparin or low-weight heparins. In chronic treatment, oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy are used, warfarin and aspirin, mostly for life. In resistant cases, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis are necessary. Prognosis is good in most patients but some are treatment-resistant with recurrent thrombotic events and eventually death.

  13. Kartagener syndrome

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    Nedaa Skeik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nedaa Skeik1–3, Fadi I Jabr41Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Dartmouth Medical School, Hannover, NH, USA; 3New York Medical College, New York, NY, USA; 4Horizon Medical Center, Hospital Medicine, Dickson, TN, USAAbstract: Kartagener syndrome is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes a defect in the action of the cilia lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tube. Patients usually present with chronic recurrent rhinosinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, and bronchiectasis caused by pseudomonal infection. Situs inversus can be seen in about 50% of cases. Diagnosis can be made by tests to prove impaired cilia function, biopsy, and genetic studies. Treatment is supportive. In severe cases, the prognosis can be fatal if bilateral lung transplantation is delayed. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with chronic recurrent upper respiratory infections, pseudomonal pneumonia, and chronic bronchiectasis who presented with acute respiratory failure. She was diagnosed with Kartagener syndrome based on her clinical presentation and genetic studies. She expired on ventilator with refractory respiratory and multiorgan failure.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, immotile cilia syndrome, situs inversus

  14. Crush syndrome

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    Emily Lovallo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The first detailed cases of crush syndrome were described in 1941 in London after victims trapped beneath bombed buildings presented with swollen limbs, hypovolemic shock, dark urine, renal failure, and ultimately perished. The majority of the data and studies on this topic still draw from large databases of earthquake victims. However, in Africa, a continent with little seismic activity, the majority of crush syndrome cases are instead victims of severe beatings rather than earthquake casualties, and clinical suspicion by emergency personnel must be high in this patient group presenting with oliguria or pigmenturia. Damaged skeletal muscle fibres and cell membranes lead to an inflammatory cascade resulting in fluid sequestration in the injured extremity, hypotension, hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia and their complications, and renal injury from multiple sources. Elevations in the serum creatinine, creatine kinase (CK, and potassium levels are frequent findings in these patients, and can help guide critical steps in management. Fluid resuscitation should begin prior to extrication of trapped victims or as early as possible, as this basic intervention has been shown to in large part prevent progression of renal injury to requiring haemodialysis. Alkalinization of the urine and use of mannitol for forced diuresis are recommended therapies under specific circumstances and are supported by studies done in animal models, but have not been shown to change clinical outcomes in human crush victims. In the past 70 years the crush syndrome and its management have been studied more thoroughly, however clinical practice guidelines continue to evolve.

  15. Asperger Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Asperger Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Asperger Syndrome Print A ... the medical community still use the term. About Asperger Syndrome The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, ...

  16. Genetic obesity syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Beales, Philip L

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous reports of multi-system genetic disorders with obesity. Many have a characteristic presentation and several, an overlapping phenotype indicating the likelihood of a shared common underlying mechanism or pathway. By understanding the genetic causes and functional perturbations of such syndromes we stand to gain tremendous insight into obesogenic pathways. In this review we focus particularly on Bardet-Biedl syndrome, whose molecular genetics and cell biology has been elucidated recently, and Prader-Willi syndrome, the commonest obesity syndrome due to loss of imprinted genes on 15q11-13. We also discuss highlights of other genetic obesity syndromes including Alstrom syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (pseudohypoparathyroidism), Carpenter syndrome, MOMO syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, cases with deletions of 6q16, 1p36, 2q37 and 9q34, maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14, fragile X syndrome and Börjeson-Forssman-Lehman syndrome.

  17. Anesthesia & Down Syndrome

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    ... Health Care » Associated Conditions » Anesthesia & Down Syndrome Anesthesia & Down Syndrome Complications of anesthesia (sedation during surgery) occur in ... histories are complicated. Why Would an Individual With Down Syndrome Need A nesthesia? 40-60% of infants born ...

  18. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome

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    ... Associated Conditions » Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental care is important for everybody, but people ... is Different About the Teeth of People With Down Syndrome? Delayed Eruption The teeth of people with Down ...

  19. Heart and Down Syndrome

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    ... Associated Conditions » The Heart & Down Syndrome The Heart & Down Syndrome Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are common in ... the Most Common Heart Defects in Children With Down Syndrome? The most common defects are Atrioventricular Septal Defect ( ...

  20. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Care » Associated Conditions » ADHD & Down Syndrome ADHD & Down Syndrome Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is a ... age. How Common Is ADD in Children With Down Syndrome? The frequency of ADHD in children with Down ...