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Sample records for des medicaments radiopharmaceutiques

  1. Contrôle de qualité des produits radio-pharmaceutiques utilisés au Service de medecine nucléaire au CHU de Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    BENHADA, Henene; RACHEDI, Chafiqa

    2012-01-01

    Les médicaments radio-pharmaceutiques constituent l'un des outils essentiels des services de Médecine Nucléaire. Ces médicaments sont principalement réservés au diagnostic (95% des applications) mais également à la thérapie (< 5%). De par leur spécificité (administration unique lors d'une exploration fonctionnelle ; durée de vie du médicament courte, du fait du principe même de la radioactivité), les radiopharmaceutiques posent des problèmes quant à la réalisation des tests req...

  2. Radiopharmaceutical: options to marketing authorization; Le medicament radiopharmaceutique: les alternatives a l'AMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilloteau, D.; Valat, Ch. [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire, Service Medecine Nucleaire In Vitro, INSERM U 619, 37 - Tours (France); Verbruggen, A. [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Lab. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Leuven (Belgium)

    2005-04-15

    In France, since the law 92-1279 (December 1992) the tracer used in nuclear medicine are considered as medicines, and all the regulations applicable to general medicines have to be followed for radiopharmaceuticals. The best situation in order to use radiopharmaceutical in nuclear medicine center is to use a tracer with a marketing authorization. However due to the very high cost to obtain this authorization, many tracers validated by scientific community will never been sold by pharmaceutical companies. However in respect with legal rules, it is possible to prepare these tracers in the hospital radiopharmacy, under the responsibility of the radio-pharmacist. We discuss here these different possibilities (magistral preparation...) and the conditions for these preparations. (author)

  3. Use of Take-set system for radiopharmaceutical labelling: example of indium-111 labeled pentetreotide (Octreoscan) preparation; Utilisation du systeme Take-set pour le radiomarquage des medicaments radiopharmaceutiques: exemple de la preparation du pentetreotide marque a l'indium 111 (Octreoscan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Reguiga, M.; Sinegre, M. [Hopital Beaujon, Unite de Radiopharmacie, Service de Pharmacie-toxicologie, 92 - Clichy (France); Besse, H.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D. [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Medecine Nucleaire92 - Clichy (France)

    2009-09-15

    The quality of indium 111 radiolabelled pentetreotide preparation (Octreoscan, Covidien) depends on several factors among which the use of a special transfer needle (Sterican) especially conceived to avoid the metal impurities introduction into the reactional medium during labelling. This device, usually provided by the supplier, can exceptionally present defects (twisted needle, folded bevel...) preventing its use for the preparation. In order to manage this risk, we propose in the present technical note an alternative labelling method, based on an adaptation of the original one and using another transfer device, the Take-setSWAN system, which permits to obtain high quality Octreoscan preparations that meet the product approval specifications. (authors)

  4. High resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography. Potential applications in the field of drug or radiopharmaceuticals developments; Autoradiographie quantitative a l'aide des nouveaux systemes d'imagerie Beta a haute resolution: applications a l'evaluation de medicaments ou a la mise au point de radiopharmaceutiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthe, N

    2004-04-01

    Autoradiography, an imaging technique allowing to get the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance in a tissue, is generally obtained by means of films or photographic emulsions. This is a difficult methodology with several limitations: the major one being quantification which is not precise. We have contributed to the development of new high resolution beta imaging systems to replace the photographic emulsion by a direct counting of beta radioactivity. They have similar or improved performances compared to the film. The sensitivity of the detection is specially enhanced, multiplying by a factor of 100 to 500 the rapidity of image acquisition. Linearity of the detectors is improved giving a better dynamic range than the film. So quantification of radioactivity in the tissue sections is obtained with a good reliability. Multi-isotopes imaging is also achieved by using algorithms of separation based on the different characteristics of energies or decaying schemes of the isotopes. Many potential applications can be found in the development of drugs or radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals preparation following hygienic rule; Preparation des radiopharmaceutiques dans le respect des regles d'hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand-Barat, J.; Rogues, A.M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brunet-Desruet, M.D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 38 - Grenoble (France); Couret, I. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 34 - Montpellier (France). Hopital Lapeyronnie; Fraysse, M. [Hopital-CHG, 03 - Montlucon (France); Saurat, S.; Tafani, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France); Bounaud, M.P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Jean Bernard, 86 - Poitiers (France); Fialdes, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France). Hopital Salengro

    1999-03-01

    The rules of radiation protection are essential in a service of nuclear medicine. A sensitization to hygiene in hospital in front of the fresh outbreak of nosocomial infections is useful in order to optimize the quality approach. In this context, the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals in the structure of nuclear medicine deserves a specific reflection. (N.C.)

  6. [Melatonina: old molecule, new medicament].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Tresguerres Hernández, Jesús A

    2008-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone with indolaminic structure, produced in the pineal gland during darkness, with chronobiological activity that has been known for decades. It is a physiological inducer of sleep and for this indication has been developed as a drug since many years in many international pharmaceutical markets. It has also a relevant antinflammatory and antioxydant capacity that results in beneficial actions on the liver, on cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory processes, in osteoporosis and also in certain tumours. Its neuroprotective action gives founded expectancies of having potential positive effects in several neurodegenerative diseases like parkinson or Alzheimer. It has been recently approved as a drug in the European Medicament Agency (EMEA) and the Spanish Medicament Agency as well. Some of its more relevant pharmacological actions are reviewed.

  7. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed.

  8. [A accurate identification method for Chinese materia medica--systematic identification of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Yong; Liao, Cai-Li; Liu, Si-Qi; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Shao, Ai-Juan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-05-01

    This paper put forward a more accurate identification method for identification of Chinese materia medica (CMM), the systematic identification of Chinese materia medica (SICMM) , which might solve difficulties in CMM identification used the ordinary traditional ways. Concepts, mechanisms and methods of SICMM were systematically introduced and possibility was proved by experiments. The establishment of SICMM will solve problems in identification of Chinese materia medica not only in phenotypic characters like the mnorphous, microstructure, chemical constituents, but also further discovery evolution and classification of species, subspecies and population in medical plants. The establishment of SICMM will improve the development of identification of CMM and create a more extensive study space.

  9. LaMedica - Eine multimediale online Lehr- und Lernplattform [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stracke, Sylvia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] The project LaMedica ( has as its aim the development of a multimedia teaching and learning platform, the compilation of contents for medicine and the implementation of these in the teaching process. An on-line author environment was created which supports a variety of didactic approaches: systematic and networked communication of knowledge, case-based learning, the creation of lectures and learning sequence checks. The teaching contents can be edited and illustrated, and are aimed in particular at students, doctors in continuing education and specialists. An on-line media databank supports the re-use and the exchange of contents on the basis of a content management system through the use of the Learning Objects Metadata standards (LOM. Funding is provided by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (FKZ NM054A. [german] Das Projekt LaMedica ( hat zum Ziel, eine multimediale Lehr- und Lernplattform zu entwickeln, Inhalte für die Medizin zu erstellen und diese in die Lehre zu implementieren. Es wurde eine on-line Autorenumgebung geschaffen, die sehr unterschiedliche didaktische Ansätze unterstützt: systematische und vernetzte Wissensvermittlung, fallbasiertes Lernen, Erstellung von Vorlesungen und Lernerfolgskontrolle. Die Lehrinhalte können zielgruppenspezifisch aufbereitet und dargestellt werden und richten sich insbesondere an Studenten, Ärzte in der Weiterbildung und Fachärzte. Eine on-line Medien-Datenbank unterstützt die Wiederverwendung und den Austausch von Inhalten auf der Basis eines Content-Management-Systems durch Verwendung des Learning Objects Metadata Standards (LOM. Die Förderung erfolgt durch das BMBF (FKZ NM054A.

  10. Biochemia Medica's editorial policy on authorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak-Smolcic, Vesna; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings of authorship criteria violations in the manuscripts submitted to Biochemia Medica show that almost 40% of authors do not meet necessary criteria for authorship and thus indicate the need for better dissemination of editorial policy on authorship in our journal. We believe that such cases are mostly due to the authors' unawareness or the lack of understanding of the authorship criteria. With this article we therefore wish to declare our editorial policy on authorship and authorship criteria. Biochemia Medica endorses the authorship policy provided by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Information on authorship is assessed by self-reported authorship claims during on-line manuscript submission. Those who meet ICMJE criteria shall be listed as authors, and all listed authors shall fulfill ICMJE criteria. All authors should be responsible for content of the article and have to know other authors' contributions to the study. Biochemia Medica will follow recommendations provided by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) flowcharts for possible disputes. By adhering to this procedure we hope to raise awareness about the importance of compliance with ICMJE authorship recommendations.

  11. Effect of several intracanal medicaments on the push-out bond strength of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagas, E; Cehreli, Z C; Uyanik, M O; Vallittu, P K; Lassila, L V J

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of prior application of several intracanal medicaments on the push-out bond strength of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. Sixty freshly extracted maxillary anterior teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, and the root canals instrumented using rotary files. Thereafter, a parallel post drill was used to obtain a standardized root canal dimension. The roots were randomly assigned into one of the following groups with respect to the intracanal medicament applied: group 1: calcium hydroxide (CH) powder (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) mixed with distilled water; group 2: a mixture of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline (triple antibiotic paste); group 3: a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin; Champs Pharmacy, San Antonio, TX, USA); group 4: an antibiotic-corticoid compound paste (Ledermix; Riemser, Greifswald, Germany); and group 5: no medicament (control). Following removal of medicaments with instrumentation and irrigation, the roots were cut into 1-mm-thick parallel transverse sections in a coronal-to-apical direction (5 slices/tooth). Thereafter, the specimens were divided into two subgroups according to the calcium silicate cement applied (n = 30/group): (i) ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA) and (ii) Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France). A push-out test was performed, and the data were analysed statistically using two-way anova and Tukey's post hoc test. Regardless of the type of intracanal medicament used, Biodentine had significantly higher bond strength than MTA (P MTA and Biodentine groups, pairwise comparisons between other medicaments showed similar debonding values (P > 0.05). Biodentine had a higher bond strength to root canal dentine than ProRoot MTA. Prior CH in distilled water intracanal placement increased the dislodgment resistance of both calcium silicate cements. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-09-01

    The compound Chinese materia medica is the medication pattern of the traditional Chinese medicine for the disease prevention and treatment. The single Chinese materia medica (mostly in decoction pieces) is the prescription composition of the compound Chinese materia medica. The study of the effective substance basis of Chinese materia medica should be based on the chemical compositions of the compound Chinese materia medica as an entry point considering the different status of "Monarch, Minister, Assistant, and Guide" for a certain single Chinese materia medica in the different compound Chinese materia medica while substance basis research of a certain single Chinese materia medica should be a full component analysis as well as both stable and controllable quality. Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica.

  13. [Management of Chinese materia medica market based on information asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Liu, Jin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical market is a typical market with information asymmetry, and which can lead to "lemons" problem. In all developed countries, firms must receive regulatory approval to market a pharmaceutical product. Such administrative department including SFDA, EMA, FDA and so on. Chinese materia medica is a special part of pharmaceutical market in China. The management of Chinese materia medica is a special challenge in China.

  14. [Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chae-Kun

    2012-08-31

    In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in

  15. Filiation et consommation de medicaments psychotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Ducousso-Lacaze

    Full Text Available A partir de deux entretiens semi-directifs l’auteur présente certains aspects des résultats d’une recherche clinique réalisée avec des patients de l’hôpital général consommant des médicaments psychotropes. Il s’agit de mette en évidence comment, pour certains patients, la consommation et la prescription prennent un sens par rapport aux enjeux de la filiation narcissique. Les analyses cliniques portent essentiellement sur la fonction de support imaginaire de la transmission que peuvent revêtir les médicaments ainsi que leur rôle dans les conflits entre appartenance et différenciation à l’égard du groupe familial.

  16. [Probe into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Da-Ning; Guo, Lan-Ping; Lu, Jian-Wei; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-10-01

    Focusing on the problems of Chinese materia medica resources,and combining with the national Chinese materia medica resources survey, the paper probes into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources. The establishment of the monitoring mechanism needs one organization and management agencies to supervise and guide monitoring work, one network system to gather data information, a group of people to perform monitoring work, a system of technical methods to assure monitoring work scientific and practical, a series of achievements and products to figure out the methods for solving problems, a group of monitoring index system to accumulate basic data, and a plenty of funds to keep normal operation of monitoring work.

  17. [Consideration for understanding and developing Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhong

    2008-02-01

    To understand and develop Chinese materia medica is a matter not only dealing with progresses of science and technology but also with that of bio-science. In the area of life-science, the activity of human life-science is the most complicated one which is far away to be satisfactorily explained with existing knowledge of science. Therefore, it is much insufficient to explain and qualify the interreaction between Chinese materia medica and process of human-life with knowledge of general science and non-fully developed bioscience. To understand and develop Chinese materia medica is also matter dealing with many issues of social science. In terms of epistemology, it is necessary to consider how to make some social adjustment for scientific practice and drug registration of Chinese materia medica, under precondition of balance among science, life-science, technology, ethics and philosophy.

  18. Medicaments as the possible cause of urticaria in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Jagoda

    2002-09-01

    Medicaments are reported as the most common cause of urticaria. The objective of this study was to determine, by retrospective analysis of 132 pediatric patients treated at the Pulmonology and Allergology ward of the Department of Pediatrics, Banja Luka, over a 5-year period, the scope to which medicaments act as the possible cause of urticaria. Results of the study showed that the disease manifested mostly in male children (59.8), mainly of pre-school and school age rather than <1 year age group. Acute urticaria predominated, and it was recorded in 91.7% of cases. A medicament as the possible etiologic factor of acute urticaria was found in 29.8% of cases. Regarding chronic urticaria, in most cases the cause of disease remained unknown (63.6%), whereas a medicament and infection as the possible causal factors were found in 9.1% of cases. Before the occurrence of urticaria, 37 (28%) children took some medicament. Usually, these were antibiotics (45.9%), antipyretics (35.1%), or a combination of antibiotics and antipyretics (16.2%). Penicillin V, G or ampicillin were the most frequently used antibiotics (88.2%), whereas acetylsalicylic acid was the most frequently used antipyretic (53.8%). In 28% of the children suffering from acute urticaria, apart from taking some medicament, clinically manifested infection was also recorded, mostly of the respiratory system, so it could not be stated for sure whether the medicament or infection was the etiologic factor for the occurrence of disease. In only two cases it could be stated for sure that a medicament was the cause of urticaria, one acute and chronic urticaria each

  19. [The introduction of compendium of materia medica and praxis in the late Joseon dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chaekun; Kim, Yongjin

    2011-06-30

    Sakae Miki said Classified Emergency Materia Medica had been the dominant standard of herbology throughout Joseon Dynasty, and that Compendium of Materia Medica had only been accepted so lately that a few books used herbological result of it in the late Joseon Dynasty. But according to Visiting Old Beijing Diary written by Munjoong Seo in 1690, Compendium of Materia Medica was in fact introduced before the year 1712, the year Miki Sakae argued to be the year Compendium of Materia Medica was accepted to Joseon officially. Now, we can assume that the introducing year of Compendium of Materia Medica was faster than Miki Sakae's opinion by the following reasons; the effort of Joseon government and intellectuals to buy new books of Ming & Ching; the publishing year of the book for living in countryside regarded as the first citing literature of Compendium of Materia Medica. And the True Records of the Joseon Dynasty and many collections written by intellectuals in the 18th century show that the herbological knowledge from Compendium of Materia Medica had already spread to the corners of Joseon Dynasty. Thus we can make the following assumption: Classified Emergency Materia Medica and Compendium of Materia Medica had coexisted in the late Joseon Dynasty. Sakae Miki suggested 6 examples which used Compendium of Materia Medica in the late Joseon Dynasty. I reviewed two of them in this paper, Essentials of Materia Medica & Handbook of Prescriptions from Materia Medica. Essentials of Materia Medica quoted Compendium of Materia Medica briefly focusing clinical use, and Handbook of Prescriptions from Materia Medica also re-compiled Compendium of Materia Medica to practical use according to the form of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine. It means that the results of Compendium of Materia Medica have been used positively, based on the herbology of materia medica from countryside. From this point of view, the hyphothesis there weren't any herbological progress after accepting

  20. Chinese materia medica used in medicinal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fang; Chen, Yalin; Tan, Xiaolei; Ma, Yunyun; Peng, Yong

    2017-07-12

    Medicinal diets have a history of more than 2000 years. Locally referred to as yaoshan (Chinese: ), a medicinal diet is understood in China as a dietary product that combines herbs and food with the purpose of preventing and treating diseases or improving health under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Medicinal diets are used in Chinese people's daily life and in specialized restaurants. Hundreds of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are used in medicinal diets; however, a comprehensive evaluation of medicinal diets is lacking. This is an exploratory study that aims to identify the CMM that are most frequently used in medicinal diets and to provide an updated view of the current situation of medicinal diets in China. A field study of 1221 people in 32 Chinese provinces was conducted over a period of approximately 6 months and included various types of interviews as well as a written questionnaire. Two approaches were used to analyse the data collected in the survey: (1) estimating the frequency of CMM consumed in daily diets; and (2) collecting CMM used in medicinal diet restaurants. Complementary information on the selected CMM was obtained from relevant databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, and Web of Science. Ten CMM were reported as commonly used by more than 50% of the participants. Among these 10 species, most medicinally used parts were seeds and fruits. Pharmacological data from the literature revealed that these species are associated with a wide spectrum of biological properties, including antitumour (80%), antioxidant (50%), anti-diabetic (40%), antilipemic (40%), anti-aging (40%), antimicrobial (40%) and cardioprotective (40%) activities. Our survey shows that most medicinal diet restaurants are located in the eastern part of China, with the greatest numbers being found in Beijing and Guangzhou. Only Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Chrysanthemi Flos and Longan Arillus were frequently consumed both in daily

  1. The current global status of Chinese materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Zou, Jiangqiang; Sheng, Zhixiang; Su, Guangqiang; Chen, Shilin

    2009-10-01

    The Chinese government has recently established a national project to improve the standards of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) products, particularly regarding their quality control and safety evaluation, in order to promote modernization and increase international trade. In 2006, the global sales value of Chinese medicinal products increased to 20 billion US$, and the export value of CMM was up to more than 1 billion US$. However, the standard of these products still needs to be improved to meet the more stringent requirements of the international markets. Over the past decade we have witnessed the increasing growth in popularity of health foods and herbal medicinal products, especially Chinese Materia Medica products (CMM).

  2. Pulpotomy Medicaments used in Deciduous Dentition: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the history and the scientific literature published on pulpotomy medicaments and to present the findings of these studies. The review showed that pulpotomy of primary teeth has been treated with many different techniques and medicaments, that some of these approaches are controversial and that their results have presented variables of success rates in term of clinical, radiographic and histologic observation. It is important that all clinicians, particularly for pediatric dentists, be up to date with the recent trends in this area of dental treatment for children.

  3. Juliano Moreira e a Gazeta Medica da Bahia Juliano Moreira and the Gazeta Medica da Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Ribeiro Jacobina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes sobre Juliano Moreira enfatizam sua obra no Rio de Janeiro (1903-1933, mas o objetivo central deste artigo é descrever sua contribuição na Gazeta Medica da Bahia, em período anterior (1893-1903. Descreve a trajetória dessa revista que serviu de veículo para as pesquisas originais da Escola Tropicalista Bahiana. Apresenta a produção de Moreira na Gazeta, em que ele surge como estudioso nas áreas de dermatologia, sifilografia e parasitologia, tendo identificado, pela primeira vez no Brasil, a leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa. Nessa época ele também se afirma como professor em neuropsiquiatria, passando a realizar estudos clínicos na área, analisar modelos assistenciais e propor mudanças na assistência médica. Destaca a importância de Moreira não só como colaborador da Gazeta durante uma década, mas também como redator, bem como sua atuação como redator principal (1901-1902.Recent studies of Juliano Moreira have emphasized his work in Rio de Janeiro (1903-1933, but the main objective of this article is to describe his contribution to the Gazeta Medica da Bahia in the period before that (1893-1903. It describes the evolution of this magazine, which served as a vehicle for original research of the Bahian Tropicalist School It presents Moreira?s output in the Gazeta, in which he emerges as a student of dermatology, syphilology and parasitology, having identified cutaneous leishmaniasis for the first time in Brazil. At that time, he also consolidates his reputation as a professor in neuropsychiatry, conducting clinical studies in the field, analyzing treatment models and proposing changes in medical treatment. It highlights the importance of Moreira not only as a collaborator on the Gazeta during a decade, but also as an editor, as well as his role as chief editor (1901-1902.

  4. Technology evaluation: TroVax, Oxford BioMedica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinis, Milan

    2004-08-01

    TroVax, a gene-based tumor vaccine that uses a poxvirus vector to deliver the tumor antigen gene 5T4, is under development by Oxford BioMedica for the potential treatment of cancer. TroVax is undergoing phase II clinical trials.

  5. [Study on sociocultural history of therapeutic efficacy and processing of chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin-Sheng

    2006-10-01

    The historical evolving examples of the confirmation of therapeutic efficacy of some Chinese materia medica, the social fashion of using medicine, and the processing methods of Chinese materia medica indicate that the social trend of thoughts, customs and economic factors in different ages affected the various aspects of Chinese materia medica. So, Chinese materia medica possesses very outstanding social and cultural features. Not all the actions of Chinese materia medica recorded came from the experiences of doctors. The understanding level to the nature in different ages decides what kind of drugs they would accept. There are three kinds of drug processing in ancient times: effective medicinal processing, fantastic Taoist processing and invalid trading processing. Based on the study of sociocultural history of therapeutic efficacy and processing of Chinese materia medica. It is crucial that the history and medical literature research on Chinese materia medica and pharmacy should be raised to the position as important as clinical and experiment researches.

  6. [Construction of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wei, Li; Dong, Ling; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Tang, Ming-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Based on the characteristics of multicomponent of traditional Chinese medicine and drawing lessons from the concepts, methods and techniques of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) in chemical field, this study comes up with the science framework of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS). Using the different comparison method of multicomponent level and the CMMBCS method of overall traditional Chinese medicine, the study constructs the method process while setting forth academic thoughts and analyzing theory. The basic role of this system is clear to reveal the interaction and the related absorption mechanism of multicomponent in traditional Chinese medicine. It also provides new ideas and methods for improving the quality of Chinese materia medica and the development of new drug research.

  7. Discoloration of Roots Caused by Residual Endodontic Intracanal Medicaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Kuan-Jung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study examined the extent to which intervisit corticosteroid-based antibiotic pastes (CAP medicaments contribute to staining of tooth structure after attempted removal by irrigation techniques. Methods. A total of 140 roots were prepared and the canals were filled with Ledermix paste (demeclocycline, Odontopaste (clindamycin, and Doxypaste (doxycycline. The pastes were removed after 2 or 4 weeks of storage in the dark using EDTA and NaOCl with either a 27-gauge-slotted needle or an EndoActivator (Dentsply. The roots were then exposed to an intense light source for 30 minutes each week and photographed after a further 1, 3, or 6 months. Digital images were standardized and data for changes in luminosity were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA and a post hoc test. Results. Removal of the medicament did not prevent later discolouration. There was no significant difference between the paste removal methods. Ledermix paste caused the greatest darkening compared to the untreated controls, for both application periods and both methods of removal. Doxypaste and Odontopaste caused less darkening than Ledermix. Conclusion. Medicaments that stain teeth may continue to discolour teeth despite best attempts to remove them. This study stresses the importance of material selection and minimising contact of Ledermix within the coronal aspects of teeth.

  8. [Ecological agriculture: future of Good Agriculture Practice of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Zhou, Liang-yun; Mo, Ge; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the ecological and economic problems in Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) of Chinese material medica, we introduced the origin, concept, features and operative technology of eco-agriculture worldwide, emphasizing its modes on different biological levels of landscape, ecosystem, community, population, individual and gene in China. And on this basis, we analyzed the background and current situation of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and proposed its development ideas and key tasks, including: (1) Analysis and planning of the production pattern of Chinese material medica national wide. (2) Typical features extraction of regional agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (3) Investigation of the interaction and its mechanism between typical Chinese materia medica in each region and the micro-ecology of rhizosphere soil. (4) Study on technology of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (5) Extraction and solidification of eco-agriculture modes of Chinese materia medica. (6) Study on the theory of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. Also we pointed out that GAP and eco-agriculture of Chinese material medica are both different and relative, but they are not contradictory with their own features. It is an irresistible trend to promote eco-agriculture in the GAP of Chinese material medica and coordinate ecological and economic development.

  9. [Elementary exploration of the origin and development of marine Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hua-Shi; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wu, Qiang-Ming; Wang, Chang-Yun; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Deng-Zhao

    2009-05-01

    According to archaeological discoveries, humans began to make use of marine natural resources early in the Palaeolithic era. In the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, they began to use marine life as medicines and also had simple cognitions on their efficacy and processing. In the Qin and Han dynasties, people further deepened the understanding of the marine Chinese materia medica and created prescriptions making use of marine drugs. In the Tang and Song period, the number of marine Chinese materia medica species and corresponding prescriptions apparently increased. The cognitions of the property, flavor, efficacy as well as the compatible principle of marine Chinese materia medica was further deepened and the scope of their treatment also significantly expanded. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the cognition of the marine Chinese materia medica was mainly the conclusions of the previous experience. After the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with the development of science and technologies, the ability of exploiting and utilizing the marine Chinese materia medica by people dramatically increased, and the species of marine Chinese materia medica reached more than one thousand. However, the development of marine Chinese materia medica is confronted with new problems; although the number of species of marine Chinese materia medica increased, the understanding of their property and flavor is obviously lagging behind, which seriously affects the clinical application of marine Chinese materia medica.

  10. Juliano Moreira e a Gazeta Medica da Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobina, Ronaldo Ribeiro; Gelman,Ester Aida

    2008-01-01

    Estudos recentes sobre Juliano Moreira enfatizam sua obra no Rio de Janeiro (1903-1933), mas o objetivo central deste artigo é descrever sua contribuição na Gazeta Medica da Bahia, em período anterior (1893-1903). Descreve a trajetória dessa revista que serviu de veículo para as pesquisas originais da Escola Tropicalista Bahiana. Apresenta a produção de Moreira na Gazeta, em que ele surge como estudioso nas áreas de dermatologia, sifilografia e parasitologia, tendo identificado, pela primeira...

  11. [Analysis of complexity in Chinese meteria medica industrial chain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Qi; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2014-08-01

    Chinese meteria medica (CMM) chain is a long-span chain covering agriculture which mainly depends on the forces of nature as well as high-tech CMM industry, CMM expertise industry and fast developing CMM circulation industry. Imbalance among the development of these industries produces bottlenecks and hinders the operation of the entire production chain. After analyzing the structure of Chinese meteria medica industrial chain from the perspective of national economy industry, three industry classifications and differentiation of factor intensity, we conclude that the complex structure of CMM industry chain is attributable to these three aspects. And the complexity is mainly shown at complex industry, varied product types, different coordination of various industrial sections and different technical growth speed of varied industry. We propose that structural complexity is the natural property of the chain, which is the main reason of industry sector development imbalance and bottleneck. Results of this research could provide theoretical analysis for future research on the coordination of industrial chain and the efficiency of resource allocation.

  12. Review of adverse reactions to injections of Chinese materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhaoxiang; Shang, Hongcai; Cheng, Chungwah; Wu, Taixiang; Li, Youping; Zhang, Boli

    2010-05-01

    Using Chinese Materia Medica (CM) as injections is an innovation that is proving effective in extensive clinical use in Mainland China. However, recent reports have focused on adverse reactions, ignoring the considerable successes of these preparations. In order to achieve balance in the media and in the minds of the public, we suggest the first step is to clarify the concepts of and differences between adverse drug reactions (ADR) and adverse events (AE) for all concerned-the public, medical practitioners, government officials, and lawmakers. Second, the State Food and Drug Administration should raise the requirements for Chinese Materia Medica Injection (CMI) registration and license approval and emphasize the importance of evidence-based CMI development and evidence-based CMI license approval. Thirdly, drug companies and institutions should reinforce basic research about the quality control of herbs and CMI-drug interactions. Fourth, the Government should clarify the legal responsibilities for CMI approval agencies, CMI developers, medical doctors, and patients. Fifth, the medical association and Government should enhance training for health care professionals concerning the usage of CMIs. And finally sixth, State Food and Drug Administration should monitor the content and quality of the directions for use of CMI.

  13. [Application of zebrafish model organism in the research of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Yi; Liang, Sheng-Wang

    2012-04-01

    Zebrafish has become an important model organism in many fields of biomedical studies and been increasingly used in Chinese materia medica studies in recent years. This article summarized the achievements and prospect for zebrafish as a pharmacological and toxicological tool in the study and development of Chinese materia medica.

  14. [Application of synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are the material bases of Chinese materia medica resources. With successful applications of synthetic biology strategies to the researches and productions of taxol, artemisinin and tanshinone, etc, the potential ability of synthetic biology in the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources has been attracted by many researchers. This paper reviews the development of synthetic biology, the opportunities of sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources, and the progress of synthetic biology applied to the researches of bioactive natural products. Furthermore, this paper also analyzes how to apply synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources and what the crucial factors are. Production of bioactive natural products with synthetic biology strategies will become a significant approach for the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources.

  15. [Research on nature of Chinese materia medica in view of genetic relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Jun; Tang, Shi-Huan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, based on analyzing the status quo and key problem of research on nature of Chinese materia medica, we propose the thinking of research on nature of Chinese materia medica in view of genetic relationship. Namely, according to the cue of documents arrangement and data excavation, in certern scope of genetic relationship, difinite the common pharmaco-effect of the same nature of drug, and analyze the chemical composition correlated the nature of drug, further more, reveal the related regularity of nature of Chinese materia medica-pharmaco-effect- chemical composition. Linking the nature of Chinese materia medica, pharmaco-effect and chemical composition will provide original thinking and view angle to break through the key problem of research on nature of Chinese materia medica.

  16. Difficulties and aspects to take into account in the production, use and distribution of new radiopharmaceuticals PET; Difficultes et aspects a prendre en compte dans la production, l'utilisation et la distribution des nouveaux radiopharmaceutiques TEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Rayo, J.I.; Serrano, J.; Infante, J.; Luz Dominguez, M.; Garcia, L.; Duran, C. [Hospital Infanta Cristina, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This article seeks to describe the requirements, legal and technical, for the production, distribution and use of new radiopharmaceuticals PET (other than the {sup 18}F.D.G.), describing the legislative framework in which we find ourselves, the characteristics of a production and types of synthesis and existing modules. A list of susceptible radiopharmaceuticals is presented that are being currently used in nuclear medicine by specifying the real possibilities of their production and use and which are the difficulties we face.

  17. Testing the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals: application to {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO; Controle de la purete radiochimique des radiopharmaceutiques: application au {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Ben Ali, S.; Darsin, D.; Rizzo, N.; Lours, S.; De Beco, V.; Dumont, A.; Goudou-Sinha, C.; Izembart, M.; Jourdain, J.R.; Lemercier, V.; Linsker, S.; Moati, F.; Piketty, M.L.; Schlageter, M.H.; Moretti, J.L. [Groupe de travail `Radiopharmaceutique - Ile de France` (France)

    1997-12-31

    The low stability of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO imposes to carry out the quality testing within the 15 minutes following the preparation. This study has the aim of comparing different methods of radiochemical purity determination (RP) of this radiopharmaceutical in order to validate a fast, reproducible, feasible technique, capable of separating the primary lipophilic {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (I) of impurities: hydrophilic secondary complex (II), TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, reduced and halyards Tc. The reference technique associating two thin-layer chromatographies (TLC), `C1` and `C2`, has been compared with a TLC `W` technique and with liquid-liquid extraction `E` technique: C1 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, Butanone-2; C2 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, 0.9% NaCl; W - stationary phase, Papier Whatman n{sup o} 1/mobile phase, Ether; E - extraction with ethyls acetate /0.9% NaCl (1/1 v/v). The `C1` chromatography allows isolating the reduced Tc and the complex II, the `C2` chromatography does the same with TcO{sub 4}{sup -} but it requires too long techniques (20 min.). The `W` and `E` techniques are rapid, reproducible and allow to separate the complex I from the other impurities without discrimination. However, as their results depend upon the deposited quantity of sampling, an optimization and standardization of the techniques are necessary. A forth technique by chromatography on Sep-Pak column is to be evaluated

  18. Anàlisi de la utilització de medicaments en població pediàtrica i adulta. utilització de medicaments en condicions no aprovades

    OpenAIRE

    Danés Carreras, Immaculada

    2015-01-01

    Els estudis d'utilització de medicaments permeten identificar els patrons d'ús dels medicaments en diferents poblacions, ja siguin adults o nens. Un aspecte és l’anàlisi de l’ús de medicaments en condicions diferents a les autoritzades a la fitxa tècnica. Aquesta tesi és una anàlisi de diferents aspectes de l’ús de medicaments en condicions no aprovades després que es publiqués el Reial Decret 1015/2009 del 19 de juny pel qual es regula la disponibilitat de medicaments en diferents situacions...

  19. Anàlisi de la utilització de medicaments en població pediàtrica i adulta utilització de medicaments en condicions no aprovades /

    OpenAIRE

    Danés Carreras, Immaculada; Vallano Ferraz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Els estudis d'utilització de medicaments permeten identificar els patrons d'ús dels medicaments en diferents poblacions, ja siguin adults o nens. Un aspecte és l'anàlisi de l'ús de medicaments en condicions diferents a les autoritzades a la fitxa tècnica. Aquesta tesi és una anàlisi de diferents aspectes de l'ús de medicaments en condicions no aprovades després que es publiqués el Reial Decret 1015/2009 del 19 de juny pel qual es regula la disponibilitat de medicaments en diferents situacions...

  20. Nodule carbohydrate catabolism is enhanced in the Medicago truncatula A17-Sinorhizobium medicae WSM419 symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estibaliz eLarrainzar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic association between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti is a well-established model system in the legume-Rhizobium community. Despite its wide use, the symbiotic efficiency of this model has been recently questioned and an alternative microsymbiont, S. medicae, has been proposed. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms behind the higher symbiotic efficiency of S. medicae WSM419. In the present study, we inoculated M. truncatula Jemalong A17 with either S. medicae WSM419 or S. meliloti 2011 and compared plant growth, photosynthesis, N2-fixation rates, and plant nodule carbon and nitrogen metabolic activities in the two systems. M. truncatula plants in symbiosis with S. medicae showed increased biomass and photosynthesis rates per plant. Plants grown in symbiosis with S. medicae WSM419 also showed higher N2-fixation rates, which were correlated with a larger nodule biomass, while nodule number was similar in both systems. In terms of plant nodule metabolism, M. truncatula-S. medicae WSM419 nodules showed increased sucrose-catabolic activity, mostly associated with sucrose synthase, accompanied by a reduced starch content, whereas nitrogen-assimilation activities were comparable to those measured in nodules infected with S. meliloti 2011. Taken together, these results suggest that S. medicae WSM419 is able to enhance plant carbon catabolism in M. truncatula nodules, which allows for the maintaining of high symbiotic N2-fixation rates, better growth and improved general plant performance.

  1. A new class of medicament: radioactivity isotopes (1962); Une nouvelle classe de medicaments: les isotopes radioactifs (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Very many radioelement are used in medicine, either for diagnosis or as therapeutics. The development of medicine has entailed an increase in the number of application of radioactive isotopes. Firstly used in the form of simple inorganic molecules for diagnosis or as anticancer therapeutics, radioelements are now used for labelling organic molecules, allowing functional specific studies of any kind of nature. Their production is made difficult by their radio-active properties. Their pharmaceutical properties, determined by tests and controls, depend either from radiochemistry and from medicine. The author reminds, in this report, the methods for the preparation and analysis, and set out the medical application. (author) [French] De tres nombreux radioelements trouvent une application en medecine humaine, soit dans le diagnostic, soit en therapeutique. L'evolution de la medecine entraine un accroissement du champ d'application des isotopes radioactifs. D'abord utilises sous forme de molecules minerales simples, pour les diagnostics ou des therapeutiques anticancereuses, les radioelements sont maintenant introduits dans des molecules organiques qui permettent des etudes fonctionnelles specifiques de toute nature. Leur fabrication est compliquee par leurs proprietes radioactives. Leurs caracteristiques pharmaceutiques determinees par des essais et controles, sont liees d'une part a la radiochimie, d'autre part a la medecine. L'auteur rappelle, dans cet expose, les methodes de preparation et d'analyse et aborde les applications medicales. (auteur)

  2. [Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.

  3. Consumo de psicotropicos sin prescripcion medica en farmacodependientes en proceso de rehabilitacion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubio, Luz Adriana; Rodriguez-Bernal, Mileidy; Ramirez-Carrillo, Sandra Viviana; Medina-Perez, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Caracterizar el consumo de psicotropicos sin prescripcion medica en farmacodependientes atendidos por una fundacion dedicada a la rehabilitacion, en el departamento del Quindio, Colombia, entre los anos 2006 y 2009. Metodos...

  4. Determinantes sociales de la salud--contribuciones de la sociologia medica y de la salud europea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Uno de los principales temas de las investigaciones recientes de la sociologia medica o de la salud tiene que ver con los determinantes de la salud, o mas especificamente con las inequidades sociales en salud...

  5. Acta informatica medica is indexed in pubmed and archived in pubmed central.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2013-03-01

    Acta Informatica Medica journal has been accepted for archiving in PubMed Central from 2011 onward. The journal started in 1993 as the official journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. During the last 3 years, Acta Informatica Medica has een included in almost all prestigious online databases, including PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE. The 20th volume of the journal is fully international, with papers from 18 countries.

  6. Medicinal plants for the treatment of urogenital tract pathologies according to Dioscorides' De Materia Medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touwaide, A; Pollio, A; Aliotta, G; Piomelli, D; De Santo, N G

    1997-01-01

    The De Materia Medica of the Greek Dioscorides reports about 200 plants used for the treatment of pathologies of the urogenital tract during the 1st century AD. On the basis of explicit and implicit affirmations by Dioscorides, a theoretical system concerning the specific properties of these plants has been attempted. Comparison of the species reported by Dioscorides and Pliny the Elder for renal affections does not support the thesis of a close relationship between De Materia Medica and the Naturalis Historia.

  7. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-03-03

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development.

  8. The classification and application of toxic Chinese materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Qiong; Song, Guangqing; Zhang, Guangping; Ye, Zuguang; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2014-03-01

    Many important drugs in the Chinese materia medica (CMM) are known to be toxic, and it has long been recognized in classical Chinese medical theory that toxicity can arise directly from the components of a single CMM or may be induced by an interaction between combined CMM. Traditional Chinese Medicine presents a unique set of pharmaceutical theories that include particular methods for processing, combining and decocting, and these techniques contribute to reducing toxicity as well as enhancing efficacy. The current classification of toxic CMM drugs, traditional methods for processing toxic CMM and the prohibited use of certain combinations, is based on traditional experience and ancient texts and monographs, but accumulating evidence increasingly supports their use to eliminate or reduce toxicity. Modern methods are now being used to evaluate the safety of CMM; however, a new system for describing the toxicity of Chinese herbal medicines may need to be established to take into account those herbs whose toxicity is delayed or otherwise hidden, and which have not been incorporated into the traditional classification. This review explains the existing classification and justifies it where appropriate, using experimental results often originally published in Chinese and previously not available outside China.

  9. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Mei Fu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties, compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development.

  10. Effects of dentin on the antimicrobial properties of endodontic medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, Markus; Qian, Wei; Portenier, Isabelle; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2007-08-01

    Successful treatment of apical periodontitis is dependent on the elimination of the infective microflora from the necrotic root canal system. Antimicrobial irrigating solutions and other locally used disinfecting agents and medicaments have a key role in the eradication of the microbes. While most if not all presently used disinfecting agents rapidly kill even the resistant microbes when tested in vitro in a test tube, the effectiveness of the same agents is clearly weaker in the in vivo conditions. Recent studies have given valuable information about the interaction of endodontic disinfecting agents with dentin and other compounds present in the necrotic root canal. As a result of such interactions the antimicrobial effectiveness of several of our key disinfectants may be weakened, or even eliminated under certain circumstances. Different disinfectants show different sensitivity to the action by the various potential inactivators, such as dentin, serum proteins, hydroxyapatite, collagen derived from different sources, and microbial biomass. This review is a summary of our present knowledge of the mostly negative interactions between endodontic disinfecting agents and the various compounds present in the root canal environment.

  11. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque da Silva Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. Methods: cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. Results: half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. Conclusions: due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (she stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample, diabetic (44% and dyslipidemic patients (31%.

  12. Extraction, Modelling and Purification of Flavonoids from Citrus Medica Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parvathi Nandan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet extraction technique is widely employed for the extraction and separation of chemical constituents in the medicinal plants. Citrus medica L commonly called as Citron belongs to family Rutaceae, is a slow-growing shrub. It is mainly cultivated for the production of edible fruits which are sour in taste like lime and lemon and the main content of a citron fruit is the thick rind, which is very adherent to the segments. From the phytochemical analysis the peel extract is rich source of phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids. The objective of present work is to develop a modelling equation for quercetin, rutin and kaempferol and the crude extract obtained by soxhlet extraction was further purified by solvent-solvent extraction and Column chromatography. Extraction was carried out by 80% methanol as a solvent Soxhlet extractor. Soxhlet extraction with methanol was carried out with varying time intervals, to evaluate modelling equation. The proposed modelling equation was Es = 0.0849(t + 7.0286 for Quercetin and Es = 0.0912(t + 25.971 for rutin, and Es = 0.0267(t + 7.3714 for Kaempferol. High yield was obtained for 180min of Soxhlet extraction with 80% methanol. Yield of quercetin, rutin and kaempferol after solvent-solvent extraction and column chromatography was 22.6µg/ml, 43.7µg/ml and 10.8µg/ml respectively. The proposed model showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Des tuiles, des toits et des couleurs

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnot, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    La Bourgogne est une des régions françaises dont l’image de marque est le plus imprégnée par la notion de tradition. Elle est présentée comme un terroir où il fait bon vivre, où la gastronomie demeure à travers les siècles une valeur de base, où les paysages sont majestueux et où la gloire passée est sans cesse rappelée par de somptueux monuments. Parmi quelques emblèmes, l’hôtel-Dieu de Beaune et ses toitures de tuiles colorées sont très souvent mobilisés pour représenter ces valeurs « tradi...

  14. Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica decoction dregs, part 1: comparison of morphological and microscopic features of four Chinese Materia Medica before and after decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lailai; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2011-04-01

    Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) decoction dregs are the residues of medicinal materials after decoction. Accurate identification of CMM in decoction dregs will be helpful for exploring the causes of poisoning or other medical incidents arising after the ingestion of CMM decoctions. To determine how decoction affects the characteristics used to authenticate specific CMM, a systematic study was carried out. In this study, two pairs of Materia Medica that are commonly confused-namely, Baizhu (Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma) and Cangzhu (Atractylodis Rhizoma), Baishao (Paeoniae Alba Radix) and Chishao (Paeoniae Rubra Radix)-were chosen for investigation. Each pair of Materia Medica has similar morphology in appearance, but they have different functions in Chinese clinic. After decoction, with regard to gross morphological characters, the results showed that bark and wood could be easily distinguished. The striation of vessels and fibers became more prominent because of the contraction of parenchymatous cells, but the lignified cells did not. As for the microscopic characteristics, the cells with thickened walls, such as stone cells and fibers, were basically stable. Most of the parenchymatous cells were broken. Crystals of calcium oxalate showed no changes as they were insoluble in water. Starch granules were gelatinized and aggregated in parenchymatous cells. Inulins were substantially reduced in number as they dissolved in water during decoction. According to these changes in morphological and microscopic characteristics after decoction, the dregs of two pairs of Materia Medica could be distinguished.

  15. The effect of endodontic regeneration medicaments on mechanical properties of radicular dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassen, Ghaeth H.

    Endodontic regeneration treatment of necrotic immature teeth has gained popularity in recent years. The approach suggests a biological alternative to induce a continuous root development. In this project, three in vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three medicaments used in endodontic regeneration on mechanical properties and chemical structure of radicular dentin. In the first experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on the indentation properties of the root canal surface of immature teeth using a novel BioDent reference point indenter. A significant difference in the majority of indentation parameters between all groups was found after one-week and one-month application of medicaments (p double antibiotic paste (DAP) > control > calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. The four-week exposure of dentin to TAP and DAP caused 43% and 31% increase in total indentation distance outcome, respectively. In the second experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on the chemical structure of immature radicular dentin by measuring the phosphate/amide I ratios of dentin using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Phosphate/amide I ratios were significantly different between the four groups after one week, two weeks and four week application of medicaments (p untreated dentin > DAP-treated dentin > TAP-treated dentin. In the third experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on root fracture resistance and microhardness of radicular dentin. For the microhardness, the two-way interaction between group and time was significant (pintegrity of the superficial radicular dentin and significantly affected the indentation properties of the root canal surface. Furthermore, the three month intracanal application of medicaments significantly reduced the fracture resistance of roots.

  16. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.

  17. [The research on the edition of Daquanbencao (Complete Collection of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2009-07-01

    Zhengleibencao (Classified Materia Medica) had been formed into several kinds of edition systems during its dissemination, among which there was the edition system of Daquanbencao (Complete Collection of Materia Medica). Daquanbencao was originally carved in the Jin dynasty, thereafter it was re-carved in the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties so as to form a series of editions such as the edition of Zhenyou in the second year of the Jin dynasty; the edition of the Zongwenshuyuan college in Dade renyan year of the Yuan dynasty; the WANG Qiu's carved edition of Shangyitang hall in the Ming dynasty; the carved edition of Jishanshuyuan, the Jishang mountain college in the Ming dynasty, the reprinted edition of PENG Duan-wu in the Ming dynasty, the supplementary edition of YANG Bi-da in the Qing dynasty;, and the carved edition of KE Feng-shi in the Qing dynasty. Among all the editions, Chongkanjingshizhengleidaquanbencao (Reprinted Classified Daquan Materia Medica from Historical Classics) was the representative one. As a representative of the above editions, the carved edition of WANG took the edition of the Zongwenshuyuan college of the Yuan dynasty as the original edition, but the images picture of materia medica adopted from the edition of Zhenghebencao (Materia Medica of the Zhenghe era).

  18. [Hypothesis and application of bimolecular marking methods in Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qian, Dan; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current shortage of genuine/false authentication and quality evaluation in the molecular identification, and the weak functional gene research in the establishment of two-dimensional molecular markering methods for Chinese materia medica, the authors proposed a new method, the bimolecular marking methods (BIMM) for Chinese materia medica, combining DNA marker and metabolomics marker, that could simultaneously research the species and quality differences at the molecular level at the present stage. The authors introduced the concept, principle, methods, and technical process of BIMM, and summarized the technical advantages in this paper. Meanwhile, the application of BIMM in the identification of multiple sources of Chinese materia medica, years-identification, different locations, elite germplasm research, discovery of new drugs resources, protection of new varieties was also discussed. As a supplement of two-dimensional molecular markering method for Chinese materia medica, BIMM would not only expand connotation of identification of Chinese materia medica but also provide another effective way for quality evaluating.

  19. Study of contact dermatitis due to topical medicaments and cosmetics by patch testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vij Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contact dermatitis is the most common immunological disorder encountered by the dermatologist and it arises when a person develops delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction to a substance coming in contact with his skin. The patch test is at present a helpful test for demonstrating contact type of allergy that identifies the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Aim: To study the common topical medicaments and cosmetics capable of producing contact dermatitis and value of patch testing in these situations. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients suspected of having contact sensitivity to topical medicaments and common cosmetics were subjected to patch testing with the finished commercial product being used by the patient and the antigens of the Indian Standard Series and Cosmetic series kit. Results: Positivity with patch test of 96.65% was observed in patients with contact dermatitis to topical medicaments, whereas 85% of the patients with cosmetic dermatitis were tested positive. Among the cases with contact dermatitis to topical medicaments, Neomycin was tested positive in more number of patients and among the patients with cosmetic dermatitis; Kum-Kum powder and Fairness cream were tested positive in more number of patients. Conclusion: It is well known that topical medicaments are known to produce contact dermatitis; the cosmetics that are claimed to be very safe by their manufacturers do not stay much behind in doing so.

  20. [Exploration on eighteen incompatible medicaments of chest pain prescriptions based on association rules mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Hua, Haoming; Fan, Xinsheng; Wang, Chongjun; Duan, Jinao

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the laws of eighteen incompatible medicaments of the chest pain prescriptions based on association rules mining. The database of chest pain prescription was established and then the chest pain prescriptions composed of eighteen incompatible medicaments were screened. The dynasty, couplet medicines, the property and flavor of drugs and preparation form were analyzed with the frequent item sets and corresponding analysis methods. Eight hundred and fifty chest pain prescriptions were collected, and 88 of them contained eighteen incompatible medicaments, taking 10.3% of all; the applications of ancient and modern chest pain prescriptions containing eighteen incompatible medicaments are significant difference (P dynasty and tang dynasty, are more often used than the modern formulas. The most common anti-drugs is on the Fuzi-Pinellia, Chuanwu-Pinellia; the property and flavor of drugs is bitter cold most closely; the decoction of the formulas is mostly used. Eighteen incompatible medicaments account for about ten percent of the chest pain prescription, not an uncommon side. There are certain rules for application of anti-drug compatibility to treat chest pain.

  1. [Principles for molecular identification of traditional Chinese materia medica using DNA barcoding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Lin; Yao, Hui; Han, Jian-Ping; Xin, Tian-Yi; Pang, Xiao-Hui; Shi, Lin-Chun; Luo, Kun; Song, Jing-Yuan; Hou, Dian-Yun; Shi, Shang-Mei; Qian, Zhong-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Since the research of molecular identification of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) using DNA barcode is rapidly developing and popularizing, the principle of this method is approved to be listed in the Supplement of the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Based on the study on comprehensive samples, the DNA barcoding systems have been established to identify CMM, i.e. ITS2 as a core barcode and psbA-trnH as a complementary locus for identification of planta medica, and COI as a core barcode and ITS2 as a complementary locus for identification of animal medica. This article introduced the principle of molecular identification of CMM using DNA barcoding and its drafting instructions. Furthermore, its application perspective was discussed.

  2. The effect of carvacrol on Enterococcus faecalis as an intracanal medicament-Invitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Researches have shown that bacteria play the main role in development of pulpal and periapical diseases. Chemo-mechanical cleaning of infected root-canal system can not remove all of the microorganisms. Thus interappointment medicaments are necessary to aid this goal. Calcium hydroxide is one of the most useful medicaments in root canal therapy, but this medicament can not eliminated all of the bacteria in root canal system. Carvacrol is an edible plant extract that has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. If this extract is effective against endodontic bacteria, it can be used as an root canal medicament. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, Initially, MIC and MBC of carvacrol detected with Macro broth dilution method and determined as 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. After that, 30 single root and single canal extracted human teeth were used in this study. The number of specimens determined in a pilot study on 4 extracted teeth. After preparation to apical size # 30 with hand and rotary instruments, teeth were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups. After culturing Enterococcus faecalis in prepared canals, we used emulsion of 0.6% carvacrol and calcium hydroxide in two A and B experimental groups for 7 days as the intracanal medicament. Microbial samples obtained before and after experiment. Then, canals with negative culture selected to obtain dentinal shaving to culture. Data obtained from microbiological samples analyzed with kruskal-wallis and Bonferroni tests. "nResults: Results of this study showed that emulsion of 0.6% carvacrol has no significant difference with calcium hydroxide in elimination enterococcus faecalis after 7 days dressing (p>0.05. "nConclusion: Carvacrol can be used as an intrappointment intracanal medicament.

  3. [The application of metabonomics in modern studies of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Bin; Zhou, Hong-Guang; Yu, Xiao-Yi

    2012-06-01

    Metabonomics, a newly developing subject secondary to genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, is an important constituent part of systems biology. It is believed to be the final direction of the systems biology. It can be directly applied to understand the physiological and biochemical states by its "metabolome profile" as a whole. Therefore, it can provide a huge amount of information different from those originating from other "omics". In the modernization of Chinese materia medica research, the application of metabonomics methods and technologies has a broad potential for future development. Especially it is of important theoretical significance and application value in holistic efficacies evaluation, active ingredients studies, and safety research of Chinese materia medica.

  4. Variations of {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters in medicaments containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru; Novikov, E. G. [Ural Federal University (The former Ural State Technical University-UPI), Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Dubiel, S. M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science (Poland); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University (The former Ural State Technical University-UPI), Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    Several commercially available medicaments containing ferrous fumarate (FeC{sub 4}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO{sub 4}), as a source of ferrous iron, were studied using a high velocity resolution Moessbauer spectroscopy. A comparison of the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters revealed small variations for the main components in both medicaments indicating some differences in the ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates. It was also found that all spectra contained additional minor components probably related to ferrous and ferric impurities or to partially modified main components.

  5. Loin des sciences sociales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René-Éric Dagorn

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Plusieurs numéros de Livres Hebdo et du Monde des Livres des mois de janvier-février 2002 permettent de proposer un rapide survol des grandes ventes de l’année 2001 et de quelques tendances éditoriales de l’année 2002. Quelques points ressortent particulièrement de la lecture des articles de ces deux sources : l’intérêt de la nouvelle méthode d’estimation des ventes proposée par l’institut Ipsos et Livres Hebdo , le tableau des grandes ventes en 2001 (et ...

  6. La metamorphose des cypris femelles des Rhizocephales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillet, A.

    1964-01-01

    Depuis la découverte de la métamorphose des cypris de Sacculina carcini Thompson par Delage, peu de biologistes se sont intéressés au développement des Rhizocéphales. On admet aujourd'hui que tous les Cirripèdes parasites ont, comme Sacculina carcini, une forme kentrogone qui inocule le parasite au

  7. [Differences of bi-directional regulative effects between acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xin; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Bi-directional regulation is referred to a balancing effect of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions when the human body is experiencing a hyperactivity or hypoactivity due to abnormal intrinsic or external factors. In the present paper, the authors analyze their identical and different characteristics from: 1) definition; 2) characters of regulative effects of acu-moxibustion therapy: A) differentiation of meridian and zangfu-organs being the basis of treatment, B) four factors (acupoint-location, body's functional state, acupoint-formula and needle-manipulation techniques) dependant, C) entirety regulation, and D) centrotaxis modulation; 3) characters of Chinese materia medica intervention: including a) correspondence between the drug property and the syndrome being the basis of the regulative effect, b) multi-factors [components (antagonist and agonist), combination, dosages and processing quality of Chinese materia medica, and functional state of the human body] dependant, c) entirety regulation, and d) both centrotaxis and deviation adjustment. In one word, the bi-directional regulation effect is one of the basic characteristics of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica in clinical practice, but their basis and modes for inducing effects are different.

  8. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county.

  9. Antifungal effects of root canal irrigants and medicaments. An update review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan

    2014-01-01

    Fungi, especially Candida albicans, play an important role in persistent/secondary endodontic infections. There are several irrigants and medicaments in the field of endodontics. The purpose of this paper is to review the antifungal activity of sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, MTAD, Tetraclean, EDTA, calcium hydroxide and MTA.

  10. Effects of different intra canal medicaments on the push out bond strength of endodontic sealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouie, Sahar; Shahi, Shahriar; Samiei, Mohammad; Milani, Amin-Salem; Reyhani, Mohammad-Frough; Paksefat, Sara; Eskandarinekhad, Mahsa

    2017-01-01

    Background One of the essential properties of the root canal sealers is the adhesion to root canal dentin and their higher bond strength decreases the microleakage. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of Different Intracanal medicaments on the push out bond strength of AH26 and MTA Fillapex sealers. Material and Methods A total of 104 one-rooted extracted human teeth were divided into 4 (n=26) experimental groups. After the cleaning and shaping, the root canals were filled with Ca(OH)2, triantibiotic paste (TAP), Metapex or 2% chlorhexidine gel for two weeks. Then, intracanal medicaments were rinsed away and the samples in the sub-groups were obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 or MTA Fillapex sealers. After two weeks incubation, 2-mm-thick middle section of each root was then subjected to push-out testing. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results With all the intracanal medicaments, the overall mean of bond strength values were significantly higher with AH26 compared to MTA Fillapex (pendodontic sealers was not negative. Key words:AH26, medicament, MTA Fillapex, push-out bond. PMID:28298989

  11. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  12. Studies on De Materia Medica of Dioscorides in the Islamic era

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    Vedat Yildirim, Rifat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedanius Dioscorides was a Roman army surgeon in the first century A.D. His great work called De Materia Medica is widely accepted as the foremost pharmaceutical source of antiquity. Dioscorides was the originator of materia medica (pharmacology, and he took advantage of his extensive travels to study plants. Dioscorides was considered a major authority on simple drugs for sixteen centuries. De Materia Medica served as a corner stone for both western and eastern pharmaceutical and herbal writing, and was translated into Syriac, Arabic, and Persian, as well as Latin. The particular characteristic of medical therapy in the Medieval Period was the extensive employment of drugs of all kinds. For this reason, Dioscorides’ De Materia Medicawas not only studied closely, but it also became a text book that Turk-Islamic scientists frequently referred to in their writings.Pedanius Dioscórides fue médico cirujano en el ejército romano en el siglo I d.C. Su gran obra llamada De Materia Medica es conocida como la principal fuente de farmacopea de la antigüedad. Dioscórides fue el inventor de la materia medica, y aprovechó sus extensos viajes para dedicarse al estudio de las plantas. Dioscórides fue considerado una eminencia en el tema de las drogas de origen natural a lo largo de dieciséis siglos. De Materia Medica sirvió como piedra angular para los textos farmacéuticos y herbarios tanto en occidente como en oriente y fue traducida al siríaco, árabe y persa, además de al latín. La particular característica de la terapia médica en la época medieval fue el uso extensivo de todo tipo de drogas. Por esta razón, además de estudiarse minuciosamente, De Materia Medica de Dioscórides se convirtió también en un libro de texto al que frecuentemente hacían referencia los científicos turco-islámicos en sus escrituras.

  13. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-04-01

    Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). To evaluate journal "Acta Informatica Medica" in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by "Publish or Perish" software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine.

  14. The effect of different root canal medicaments on the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammaschke, Till; Jung, Nina; Harks, Inga; Schafer, Edgar

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine gel (CHX-G) 2%, chlorhexidine powder (CHX-P) 1%, povidone-iodine (PVP-I), polyhexanide and camphorated-and-mentholated chlorophenol (ChKM) ex vivo. For every medicament group 10 root segments (15 mm long) of extracted human teeth were prepared to ISO-size 45 and sterilized (n = 50). The root segments were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and aerobically incubated at 37°C. After 1 week, ten root canals were filled with one of the medicaments, respectively and aerobically incubated at 37°C for another week. Ten teeth served as positive controls and were filled with sterile saline solution. After 7 days, the medicaments were inactivated and all root canals were instrumented to ISO-size 50. The obtained dentin samples were dispersed in Ringer solution followed by the preparation of serial dilutions. 10 μl per sample were applied to an agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The colony forming units were counted and the reduction factors (RFs) were calculated and statistically analyzed. Compared with the positive controls all medicaments exhibited an antibacterial effect against E. faecalis. The RFs for CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were significantly higher compared to PVP-I and polyhexanide (P polyhexanide, CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were able to eliminate E. faecalis from all dentin samples. Within the limitations of this ex vivo investigation, 2% CHX-G and CHX-P were as effective as ChKM against E. faecalis. Thus, when choosing a root canal medicament the better biocompatibility of CHX compared with ChKM should be taken in consideration.

  15. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  16. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research.

  17. ANALYSE DES MODES DE GESTION DES ENTREPRISES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    L'étude de l'art et des biens culturels en général est longtemps restée en ... en économie et management), Université d'Angers / Chef de projet chez Arterial Network. ... culturelles publiques sont apparues à partir de la fin des années 1990.

  18. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of

  19. [Application of bioassay in quality control of Chinese materia medica-taking Radix Isatidis as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Ren, Yongshen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Li, Hanbing; Feng, Xue; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay, which construct the characteristics consistents with Chinese medical science, is the core mode and methods for the quality control of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Radix Isatidis as an example, the contribution, status and application of bioassay in the quality control of Chinese materia medica were introduced in this article, and two key issue (the selection of reference and measurement methods) in the process of establishing bioassay were also explained. This article expects to provide a reference for the development and improvement of the bioassay of Chinese materia medica in a practical manipulation level.

  20. [Important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of active ingredients of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolin; Du, Qiu; Di, Liuqing

    2010-02-01

    Oral drug bioavailability depends on gastrointestinal absorption, intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes are the important factors in drug gastrointestinal absorption and they can also be induced or inhibited by the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica. This article presents important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica, and points out the importance of research on transport and metabolism of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica in Chinese extract and Chinese medicinal formulae.

  1. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. ‘Liscia’ and C. medica cv. ‘Rugosa’ Cultivated in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Aliberti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus medica cv. ‘liscia’ and C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. ‘liscia’, accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’, accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. ‘liscia’ (79.1% and C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ (80.2%. In both oils, limonene (67.2%–62.8% and camphene (8.5%–10.9% are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313, Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384, Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071, and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579. Low concentrations of C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384 and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1 was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  2. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. 'Liscia' and C. medica cv. 'Rugosa' Cultivated in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucéia Fátima

    2016-09-18

    Citrus medica cv. 'liscia' and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. 'liscia', accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. 'rugosa', accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. 'liscia' (79.1%) and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' (80.2%). In both oils, limonene (67.2%-62.8%) and camphene (8.5%-10.9%) are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071), and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579). Low concentrations of C. medica cv. 'rugosa' EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384) and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  3. Aspectos eticos de la informatica medica: principios de uso y usuario apropiado de sistemas computacionales en la atencion clinica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suarez-Obando, Fernando; Ordonez Vasquez, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    La Informatica Medica (IM) estudia la interseccion entre la tecnologia computacional, la medicina y la influencia del uso de la historia clinica electronica y los sistemas inteligentes de apoyo diagnostico en la toma de decisiones clinicas...

  4. [Data validation methods and discussion on Chinese materia medica resource survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Ma, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Xing-Xing

    2013-07-01

    From the beginning of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources, there were 22 provinces have conducted pilots. The survey teams have reported immense data, it put forward the very high request to the database system construction. In order to ensure the quality, it is necessary to check and validate the data in database system. Data validation is important methods to ensure the validity, integrity and accuracy of census data. This paper comprehensively introduce the data validation system of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources database system, and further improve the design idea and programs of data validation. The purpose of this study is to promote the survey work smoothly.

  5. [Study on early-warning of Chinese materia medica price base on ARMA model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng; Mao, Yang-Dui

    2014-05-01

    This study sets up an early-warning system framework of Chinese materia medica price, using price index as early warning indicator to establish black early-warning model, with indicator of price index volatility and limit line of "price principal". The research divides warning degree into 5 parts named negative heavy warning, negative light warning, no warning, positive light warning and positive heavy warning, with 5 corresponding lights to describe the change level of the medicine price. Then make an early-warning empirical research based on Chengdu Chinese materia medica price index from December in 2010 to October in 2013. ARMA model is applied to forecast index and the result of early-warning is analyzed, and finally farmer households, companies, customers and the government are recommended respectively.

  6. Endodontic 'solutions' part 1: a literature review on the use of endodontic lubricants, irrigants and medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Melissa; El, Karim Ikhlas A; Hussey, David L

    2012-05-01

    Endodontic lubricants, irrigants and medicaments help prepare and disinfect root canal systems (RCS) but primary and secondary cases involve different microbes and therefore it is unlikely that one protocol will be effective for both case types. Each individual 'solution' or sequence of'solutions' could play a significant role in each case type, but there are no detailed published guidelines in existence. To help inform clinical practice it was decided to undertake a literature review followed by a UK and Republic of Ireland wide audit on current endodontic'solution' usage within dental schools. The literature review was undertaken under the following headings: pre-op oral rinse; file lubricants; root canal irrigants and intracanal medicaments and provides an evidence base for protocol development for both primary and retreatment cases.The audit project and the protocols developed from the findings of both the literature review and audit will be presented in Part 2.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Endodontic Medicaments and Vehicles using Agar Well Diffusion Method on Facultative and Obligate Anaerobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Kishore G; Sogi, Suma

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to determine the relative antimicrobial effectiveness of these endodontic medicaments and various vehicles using an agar well diffusion assay. Materials and methods Double Antibiotic Paste(DAP), modified DAP, 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate and their combination with four vehicles namely Polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG), Propylene glycol (PG), combinations of PG with PEG and lastly Glycerine were tested using agar well diffusion assay. The minimum bactericidal concentration was noted against four standard strains of organisms ie Streptococcus mutans ATCC( American Type Culture Collection) 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35550 and Eschericia coli ATCC 25922. Successful endodontic therapy depends upon thorough disinfection of root canals. In some refractory cases, routine endodontic therapy is not sufficient, so intracanal medicaments are used for proper disinfection of canals. Issues of resistance, limited spectrum of activity and lack of antifungal properties, the hunt for the ideal intracanal medicament continues. In this regard, the vehicles used to form the pastes play a supportive role by forming the appropriate consistency for placement and may dramatically influence their chemical characteristics like their solubility and diffusion. Thus, inorder to use safer and equally effective intracanal medicaments, Chlorhexidine gluconate is being unveiled in this study. Results The difference between the four vehicles when combined with the same endodontic medicament studied above is nonsignificant (NS) except against Porphyromonas gingivalis. Propylene glycol is significantly effective than Glycerine when used with DAP ie C+M medicament combination. (p = 0.029) Conclusion 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and modified DAP can definitely replace DAP and triple antibiotic paste as end-odontic medicaments with chlorhexidine having an added advantage of bactericidal action, substantivity, biocompatibility, low toxicity

  8. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of intracanal medicaments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars-an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial efficacy of formocresol, 2% gluteraldehyde and iodine-potassium iodide was assessed by obtaining cultures at consecutive appointments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars. Formocresol and 2% gluteraldehyde were more effective as intracanal medicaments and caused significant reduction in the counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, thereby supporting the need for placing intracanal medicaments with antibacterial properties, in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars.

  9. Antimicrobial effectiveness of intracanal medicaments on Enterococcus faecalis: chlorhexidine versus octenidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucena, J M V M; Decker, E M; Walter, C; Boeira, L S; Löst, C; Weiger, R

    2013-01-01

    To determine the viability of Enterococcus faecalis in infected human root dentine in vitro after exposure to root canal medicaments based on chlorhexidine and octenidine. Human root segments (n = 40) were infected with E. faecalis for 8 weeks. Root dentine samples (rd) collected at week 4 served as individual baseline values. At week 8, the root segments were randomly divided into four test groups (n = 10 each) for the placement of one of the following medicaments in the root canals: calcium hydroxide paste (CH), chlorhexidine gel (CHX-gel) (5.0%), chlorhexidine/gutta-percha points (CHX-GP) (active points(®) ; Roeko, Langenau, Germany) and octenidine gel (OCT-gel) (5.0%) followed by incubation for 4 weeks. The effect on E. faecalis viability was assessed by two fluorescent dyes (syto 9/propidium iodide) to determine the 'proportion of viable bacteria' (PVB%) and number of 'colony-forming units' (CFU). Mean values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for PVB% and log CFU, and the difference between groups was established. Viable and dead bacterial cells were detected in all 'rd' samples at weeks 4 and 8. The treatment with CHX-gel, CHX-GP and OCT-gel resulted in significantly lower PVB% values with 15.4%, 3.5% and 0%, respectively. No growth (CFU) was recorded for these samples at week 12. When medicated by CH, the PVB% was increased without a corresponding change in CFUs. In contrast to calcium hydroxide, both CHX - and octenidine-based intracanal medicaments were effective in decreasing the viability of E. faecalis. OCT showed the most favourable results and may have potential as an endodontic medicament. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  10. Materia Socio Medica is Indexed in Pubmed and Archived in PubMed Central.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Materia Socio Medica Journal has been accepted for archiving in PubMed Central from 2011. The journal started in 1993 as offi cial journal of Social Medicine Association of B&H. During last 3 years Mat Soc Med has included in almost all femous on-line databases (except WoS). All issues of Mat Soc Med published in 2012 are now visible on PubMed/PubMed Central.

  11. Physicochemical Properties and Fungitoxicity of the Essential Oil of Citrus medica L. against Groundnut Storage Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal effect of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. on storage fungi of Arachis hypogea L. stored for 6 months was evaluated using the disc diffusion agar method. The oil exhibited a wide spectrum of fungitoxicity, inhibiting all 14 fungus species tested. Thus, the oil can be exploited as a fumigant against storage fungi for the preservation of stored legume seeds due to its wide range of activity, non-phytotoxicity, and long-term persistence of fungitoxicity.

  12. Culture Technology of Citrus medica var.sarcodactylis%佛手丰产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文武; 朱雯

    2014-01-01

    文章介绍了佛手的生物学特性、种苗繁育、栽植技术和主要病虫害防治等,为佛手栽培种植提供技术指导。%Cultrue technology of Citrus medica var.sarcodactylis was introduced in this article,which in-cluding technology in seedling breeding,planting and method of main disease and pest control.

  13. Effect of intracanal medicaments used in endodontic regeneration procedures on microhardness and chemical structure of dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaeth Hamdon Yassen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study was performed to investigate the effects of different intracanal medicaments on chemical structure and microhardness of dentin. Materials and Methods Fifty human dentin discs were obtained from intact third molars and randomly assigned into two control groups and three treatment groups. The first control group received no treatment. The second control group (no medicament group was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, stored in humid environment for four weeks and then irrigated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. The three treatment groups were irrigated with NaOCl, treated for four weeks with either 1 g/mL triple antibiotic paste (TAP, 1 mg/mL methylcellulose-based triple antibiotic paste (DTAP, or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] and finally irrigated with EDTA. After treatment, one half of each dentin disc was subjected to Vickers microhardness (n = 10 per group and the other half was used to evaluate the chemical structure (phosphate/amide I ratio of treated dentin utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (n = 5 per group. One-way ANOVA followed by Fisher's least significant difference were used for statistical analyses. Results Dentin discs treated with different intracanal medicaments and those treated with NaOCl + EDTA showed significant reduction in microhardness (p < 0.0001 and phosphate/amide I ratio (p < 0.05 compared to no treatment control dentin. Furthermore, dentin discs treated with TAP had significantly lower microhardness (p < 0.0001 and phosphate/amide I ratio (p < 0.0001 compared to all other groups. Conclusions The use of DTAP or Ca(OH2 medicaments during endodontic regeneration may cause significantly less microhardness reduction and superficial demineralization of dentin compared to the use of TAP.

  14. From Materia Medica to the Pharmacopoeia: Challenges of Writing the History of Drugs in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Historians of indigenous medicine in colonial India have looked more closely at the changes, reinventions and reformulations of institutions of Ayurveda and Unani than at the cognitive content of the drugs themselves. The few historians who have examined the changing content of indigenous medicines have conceptualised the creation of materia medica of Indian drugs through two tropes: one of circulation (of specific drugs) through epistemological and geographic boundaries and the seco...

  15. Industry Development and Health of Chinese Materia Medica and Natural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    2010-01-01

    @@ In order to push forward the research and development of innovative drugs, to re-exploit large species, and to invent healthy product, Tianjin Pharmaceutical Association, Tianjin Plant Association, and Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines sponsored the meeting “Circum-Bohai Industry Development and Health of Chinese Materia Medica and Natural Products”. It will be held during May 28-30, 2010. Some famous experts will be invited to make speeches and to communicate with participants.

  16. Use of digital applications in the medicament calculation education for nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gilberto Fernandes Pereira

    Full Text Available Objective.To evaluate the influence of the use of digital applications in medicament calculation education for nursing students. Methods. An experimental study was developed with a sample of 100 nursing students, who were divided randomly into two groups (use of the Calculation Medicines - CalcMed application - available free on the Internet, n=50 and control (conventional method of the calculator use and pre-math skills, n=50. Both groups were assessed before and after the application of the teaching strategy through a test with ten specific questions of medicament calculations. Results. The study group showed a mean score of 8.14 versus an average of 5.02 in the control group. The average time of test execution was faster in the study group compared to the control group (15.7 versus 38.9 minutes. Conclusion. The strategy of using this application positively influences learning and enables greater security in the implementation of medicament calculations.

  17. Yeast α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1, quercetin (2, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4, rutin (5, chlorogenic acid (6 and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7. All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively.

  18. L’alun des oasis occidentales d’Égypte

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Parmi les régions productrices d’alun, l’Egypte est citée plusieurs fois dans les textes de l’Antiquité, notamment au Ier siècle de notre ère par Pline (Naturalis Historia XXXV, 184) et par Dioscoride (De Materia Medica V, 106). On connaît aussi l’épisode plus ancien, rapporté par Hérodote (Histoires II, 180), des mille talents d’alun offerts par le pharaon Amasis pour la reconstruction du temple de Delphes détruit par un incendie en 548. La documentation écrite rassemblée par Guy Wagner pour...

  19. Liste des intrants 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Speiser, Bernhard; Tamm, Lucius; Maurer, Veronika; Berner, Alfred; Schneider, Claudia; Chevillat, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    La liste des intrants contient tous les produits phytosanitaires, les engrais, les substrats du commerce, les produits de lutte contre les mouches des étables, les agents d'ensilage, les aliments minéraux et complémentaires, les produits pour la désinfection des stabulations et les produits contre les maladies des abeilles autorisés pour l'agriculture biologique. Cette liste est contraignante pour les producteurs de Bio Suisse. Sur les fermes Bio Suisse, seuls les produits mentionnés sont aut...

  20. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  1. Le dialogisme intertextuel des contes des Grimm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    « Le caractère le plus important de l’énoncé, ou en tous cas le plus ignoré, est son dialogisme, c’est-à-dire sa dimension intertextuelle », constate Todorov en référence à la conception dialogique du langage proposée par Bakthine. Cet article introductif postule que ce constat s’applique aussi aux contes des Grimm. En partant des recherches déjà menées sur Apulée, Straporola, Basile, Perrault, La Fontaine et Lhéritier, il présente des concepts (réponse intertextuelle, reconfiguration génériq...

  2. Identification of Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) medicae based on a specific genomic sequence unveiled by M13-PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Ana Catarina; Alves, Paula I L; Tenreiro, Tania; Ferreira, Eugénio M; Tenreiro, Rogério; Fareleira, Paula; Crespo, M Teresa Barreto

    2009-12-01

    A collection of nodule isolates from Medicago polymorpha obtained from southern and central Portugal was evaluated by M13-PCR fingerprinting and hierarchical cluster analysis. Several genomic clusters were obtained which, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected representatives, were shown to be associated with particular taxonomic groups of rhizobia and other soil bacteria. The method provided a clear separation between rhizobia and co-isolated non-symbiotic soil contaminants. Ten M13-PCR groups were assigned to Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) medicae and included all isolates responsible for the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules upon re-inoculation of M. polymorpha test-plants. In addition, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprinting indicated a high genomic heterogeneity within the major M13- PCR clusters of S. medicae isolates. Based on nucleotide sequence data of an M13-PCR amplicon of ca. 1500 bp, observed only in S. medicae isolates and spanning locus Smed_3707 to Smed_3709 from the pSMED01 plasmid sequence of S. medicae WSM419 genome's sequence, a pair of PCR primers was designed and used for direct PCR amplification of a 1399-bp sequence within this fragment. Additional in silico and in vitro experiments, as well as phylogenetic analysis, confirmed the specificity of this primer combination and therefore the reliability of this approach in the prompt identification of S. medicae isolates and their distinction from other soil bacteria.

  3. Clonal diversity in biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis in response to environmental stress associated with endodontic irrigants and medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C E; Cathro, P C; Rogers, A H; Briggs, N; Zilm, P S

    2015-03-01

    To determine whether clonal diversity within E. faecalis affects biofilm formation when exposed to antimicrobial compounds found in endodontic medicaments and irrigants. Five human isolates of E. faecalis were compared; biofilms were grown in microtitre trays in the presence of sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine, tetracycline or clindamycin. Biofilms were quantified by staining with crystal violet and optical density determined with a microplate reader. Slime production (an amorphous extracellular matrix comprising polysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycolipids loosely attached to the cell surface) was determined qualitatively by growth on Congo red agar plates. Linear mixed models were used to examine whether medicaments affected biofilm growth of the isolates in the presence of the medicaments or irrigants. Overall, different endodontic antimicrobials significantly altered biofilm growth in E. faecalis isolates. Two E. faecalis isolates significantly (P endodontic medicaments, E. faecalis isolates demonstrated significant clonal variation in their capacity to form biofilms. Interestingly, there was a correlation between slime production and the ability of isolates to form a biofilm in the presence of antimicrobials. The results indicate that isolates of E. faecalis that form biofilms in response to endodontic medicaments may be more likely to survive endodontic treatment. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Preliminary investigation on the materia medica of the Zhuang ethnic group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Gui

    2013-09-01

    By Zhuang materia medica, it refers to application of medicines under the instructions of medical theory of Zhuang ethnic group. By studying the pronunciation of the Zhuang language for the terms "zhu yu", "bai jiu", and "mi gu" included in the shan hai jing nan shan jing (The Classic of Southern Mountain in Classic of Seas and Mountains) carried out by the Zhuang scholar Qin Bao-lin, it was concluded that the Zhuang minority already applied medicines early in the pre-Qin period. Through extensive cultural communication in different regions in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties, the medicinal experiences of the Zhuang ethnic group appeared in ancient literature. The antidotes in Zhou hou fang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency), for instance, were mostly coming from the Southern Ridge area. Since the Sui-Tang Dynasties, many materia medica recorded in the herbal works and regional gazetteers, and Annals such as the Guangxi Annals, Gazetteer of Nanning County, and Gazetteer of Liuzhou County, Gazetteer of Binzhou County etc., also carry medicines such as Cinnamom twigs and bark, and mangosteen etc., which are similar to those of the Zhuang medicines. In the Republican period, many manuscripts of Zhuang medicines appeared. After 1949, many institutions of Zhuang medicine were set up successively, including The Nanning Medical Institute, The Medical Institute of Wuzhou, The Medical Institute of Guilin. Systematic researches were also done, with publication of a series of works on Zhuang materia medica. Reformation of part of the prescription forms of Zhuang medicine were also accomplished.

  5. [Current situation of toxicity classification of Chinese materia medica and its research thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Hou, Xiujuan; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Yuelan; Zhang, Shuofeng; Chang, Hongsheng; Sun, Jianning

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important part of Chinese herbal nature theory. In clinical application, the dosage, time limitation and compatibility of CMM is mainly determined by toxicity. At present, there is no uniform toxicity classification standard for the evaluation of Chinese herbal toxicity. Therefore, it is significant to research toxicity classification of CMM. The current situation of toxicity classification of CMM is reviewed in this paper, and proposed research thoughts are as follows: the measurement of toxicity parameters, the confirmation of poisoning target organs, the investigation on toxic mechanism by serum pharmacology and toxicokinetics, the comprehensive evaluation on toxicity based on quantitative theory.

  6. [Study on words about taboos in ancient literature on materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Tao, Jing

    2011-07-01

    Words about drug taboos are often used in ancient literature on materia medica. It has been found by analysis of their application that taboo words have their own scope of application. For example, 'fan' and 'wu' are used most in drug incompatibility; 'jin', 'ji' and 'jie' are used in taboos on drugs and food for patients; words such as 'should not be eaten with…', 'wu, wuyu (wufan)…' and 'buyu…and buyi' are primarily used in taboos for food. Adverse incidents could be found in situations described by those words, especially in sections about drug and food taboos.

  7. Medical Business Ethics in the XXI century; Deontologia medica del siglo XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya Pueyo, V.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times the medical professional practice included moral rules in order to assure a correct approach of capital problems. These rules evolve and are now gathered in the Deontological Codes watching the Constitution and other higher Laws. There has been an increase of interest for none strictly clinical matter since the appearance of the term Bioethics. The book Deontologia medica en el siglo XXI tackles problems of first interest in the present times, thru statistics and analysis, trying to help the medical doctors that have to take ethic decisions. (Author)

  8. Status and Trends of GAP Base Construction of Chinese Materia Medica in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ping; LAI Xiao-ping; XU Hong-hua; DU Qin; WANG Jian-gang; YING Ge; LIAO Hui-jun; DAI Lei; SHAO Yan-hua

    2012-01-01

    It is one of the key points for modernization and internationalization of traditional Chinese medicines to construct the Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) base of Chinese materia medica (CMM).GAP helps to minimize contamination and improve the quality of CMM during the plantation and the production of Chinese crude drugs.In this article,the status and development of CMM production bases of GAP in Guangdong Province,China,are presented.The suggestions upon the problems during the development of GAP for Chinese crude drugs are also provided.

  9. [The translation and its meanings of Materia Medica Part. I in the Jejungwon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhyoung; Park, Hyoungwoo

    2011-12-31

    For more systematic medical education, Dr. O. R. Avison translated medical textbooks into Korean since he took charge of Jejungwon in 1893. The first book he chose was Anatomy of the Human Body. He, however, failed to see it published after losing its manuscript twice. Instead, Materia Medica Part. I was brought into the world first in 1905, for which he translated Materia Medica and Therapeutics written by John Mitchell Bruce from the U. K. At that time, this book was in widespread use in the English-speaking world as a textbook for pharmacology. It is also assumed that Avison used it as a textbook for his classes in Canada before coming to Korea. For the publication of Materia Medica Part. I, Avison did not translate Bruce's original text in full, but translated only the selected passages. He followed a principle of using Korean alphabets (Hangeul) only, but in combination with Chinese characters, if necessary. He put pharmacological terms into existing Korean equivalents or newly coined words, but also borrowed many from Japanese terms. That's because Japan moved faster to introduce Western medicine than Korea did, so that many pharmacological terms could be defined and arranged more systematically in Japanese. Moreover, Japan took such a favorable stance in the state of international affairs that many of Japanese-style terms could be introduced into Korea in most fields including medicine. By translating Materia Medica Part. I in cooperation with his disciple KIM Pilsoon after Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body, Avison tried to lay groundwork for providing medical education in Korea based on the British-American medicine. It is assumed that he took an independent stance in selecting and translating Western medical textbooks on his own rather than simply accepting the existing Chinese translation of Western medical textbooks. Despite all his efforts, he might find it difficult to translate all the Western medical terms into Korean within a short period of time

  10. Feature Extraction of Chinese Materia Medica Fingerprint Based on Star Plot Representation of Multivariate Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jian-xin; HONG Wen-xue; ZHOU Rong-juan; GAO Hai-bo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study a novel feature extraction method of Chinese materia medica (CMM) fingerprint. Methods On the basis of the radar graphical presentation theory of multivariate, the radar map was used to figure the non-map parameters of the CMM fingerprint, then to extract the map features and to propose the feature fusion. Results Better performance was achieved when using this method to test data. Conclusion This shows that the feature extraction based on radar chart presentation can mine the valuable features that facilitate the identification of Chinese medicine.

  11. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  12. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  13. Identification of species and materia medica within Angelica L. (Umbelliferae) based on phylogeny inferred from DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing-Jun; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Dan; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Lin, Tsai-Yun; Wang, Nian-He; Chiou, Shu-Jiau; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2015-03-01

    DNA barcodes have been increasingly used in authentication of medicinal plants, while their wide application in materia medica is limited in their accuracy due to incomplete sampling of species and absence of identification for materia medica. In this study, 95 leaf accessions of 23 species (including one variety) and materia medica of three Pharmacopoeia-recorded species of Angelica in China were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of four DNA barcodes (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA and ITS). Our results showed that ITS provided the best discriminatory power by resolving 17 species as monophyletic lineages without shared alleles and exhibited the largest barcoding gap among the four single barcodes. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS showed that Levisticum officinale and Angelica sinensis were sister taxa, which indicates that L. officinale should be considered as a species of Angelica. The combination of ITS + rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA performed slight better discriminatory power than ITS, recovering 23 species without shared alleles and 19 species as monophyletic clades in ML tree. Authentication of materia medica using ITS revealed that the decoction pieces of A. sinensis and A. biserrata were partially adulterated with those of L. officinale, and the temperature around 80 °C processing A. dahurica decoction pieces obviously reduced the efficiency of PCR and sequencing. The examination of two cultivated varieties of A. dahurica from different localities indicated that the four DNA barcodes are inefficient for discriminating geographical authenticity of conspecific materia medica. This study provides an empirical paradigm in identification of medicinal plants and their materia medica using DNA barcodes.

  14. Growth inhibition of Struvite crystals in the presence of juice of Citrus medica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, C K; Joshi, M J

    2008-10-01

    Struvite, one of the components of urinary stone grows rapidly forming "staghorn-calculi", is a painful urological disorder. It is necessary to study the growth-inhibition of Struvite crystals. This in vitro study has been carried out in the presence of the juice of Citrus medica Linn. by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and an aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.5 M concentration were mixed so that the pH value 7.0 could be set. After the gelation, supernatant solutions comprising of pure 1.0 M Magnesium acetate (control solution) as well as mixed with the different concentrations of the juice were gently poured on the set gels. From the study of growth-inhibition behavior of Struvite crystals, it was found that Citrus medica Linn. inhibits the growth of the crystals. This study may be used for formulating the strategy for prevention or dissolution of Struvite.

  15. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn. and its use in food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojanakorn, T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD. Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the mathematics models, the condition of pH 2, 100ºC and 105 min was found to be the optimum conditions for pectin extraction from Citrus medica Linn. Mathematical and experimental results were verified. The use of extracted pectin as a gelling agent in pineapple jam revealed no significant difference in gel consistency compared to that of commercial pectin grade 150 (p>0.05. However, the commercial pectin had a higher liking score on the spreadability, texture and overall liking. As a stabilizer in chocolate pasteurised milk, 0.2% of the extracted pectin was required to prevent precipitation of chocolate powder with the similar viscosity obtained from 0.06% κ-carageenan

  16. [Research practices of conversion efficiency of resources utilization model of castoff from Chinese material medica industrialization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shu-Lan; Guo, Sheng; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-Wei; Jiang, Shu; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Wu, Qi-Nan

    2013-12-01

    The industrialization chains and their products, which were formed from the process of the production of medicinal materials-prepared drug in pieces and deep processed product of Chinese material medica (CMM) resources, have generated large benefits of social and economic. However, The large of herb-medicine castoff of "non-medicinal parts" and "rejected materials" produced inevitably during the process of Chinese medicinal resources produce and process, and the residues, waste water and waste gas were produced during the manufactured and deep processed product of CMM. These lead to the waste of resources and environmental pollution. Our previous researches had proposed the "three utilization strategies" and "three types of resources models" of herb-medicine castoff according to the different physicochemical property of resources constitutes, resources potential and utility value of herb-medicine castoff. This article focus on the conversion efficiency of resources model and analysis the ways, technologies, practices, and application in herb-medicine cast off of the conversion efficiency of resources model based on the recycling economy theory of resources and thoughts of resources chemistry of CMM. These data may be promote and resolve the key problems limited the industrialization of Chinese material medica for long time and promote the realization of herb-medicine castoff resources utilization.

  17. Bacteriological evaluation of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the pulp tissue of the pulpotomized teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children were selected for this study. All children had a pair of non-vital primary molars. A sterile paper point was dipped in the root canals prior to the mortal pulpotomy. These paper points were collected in transfer media and immediately transported to the microbiological lab to be investigated microbiologically (for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Then the procedure of mortal pulpotomy was performed. After 2 weeks, the cotton pellets were removed and sterile paper points were dipped in the root canals for microbiological examination. Then comparison between the count of bacteria before and after treatment was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: After application of both medicaments, there was a marked decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts. The difference between the mean of log values of the count before and after the application was highly significant for both medicaments (P formocresol on the bacteria of the infected root canals. PMID:25992338

  18. In vitro effect of intracanal medicaments on strict anaerobes by means of the broth dilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA Odila Pereira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of bacterial susceptibility to intracanal medicaments is a necessity. Nevertheless, few studies utilize the proper methodology to carry out that evaluation with anaerobes. In this study, the steps of a broth dilution method, carried out in microplates (microdilution and tubes (macrodilution, to test the effect of traditional intracanal medicaments on anaerobic bacteria are described. The results are presented as values of minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC. Standardized inocula of the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (ATCC 33563, Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 25586 and Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 13124, in reinforced Clostridium medium (RCM and supplemented Brucella broth, were submitted to different concentrations of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine digluconate, camphorated paramonochlorophenol and formocresol solutions. The drugs were diluted in the same culture broths, in microplates and tubes, and were then incubated in anaerobiosis jars at 37ºC for 48 or 96 hours. The determination of MICs was carried out through visual and spectrophotometric readings, and the determination of MBCs, through the plating of aliquots on RCM-blood agar. For that kind of study, the macromethod with spectrophotometric reading should be the natural choice. MICs and MBCs obtained with the macromethod were compatible with the known clinical performance of the studied medications, and the values varied according to the bacteria and culture media employed. RCM was the most effective medium and C. perfringens, the most resistant microorganism.

  19. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  20. Table des illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tableaux Dates d’inauguration des grands hôtels japonais entre 1860 et 1945… 19 Histoire, tourisme et hôtellerie en Corée depuis les années 1870… 59-60 Dates d’inauguration des grands hôtels chinois depuis 1863… 84 Les hôtels de luxe et leurs capacités d’hébergement en Corée en 2000… 103 Les flux de personnes suscités par les hôtels « super luxe » de Séoul en 2000… 105 L’activité des grands hôtels à Séoul en 1999 (en wons)… 106 Propriété et gestion des grands hôtels à Séoul en 1999…. 110 La c...

  1. Chimie des processus biologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Fontecave, Marc

    2010-01-01

    La chimie du vivant : enzymes et métalloenzymes, des biocatalyseurs fascinants La catalyse enzymatique, ce pouvoir que possèdent certaines protéines d’accélérer de façon extraordinaire et d’orienter avec une précision fascinante les réactions chimiques de la cellule, reste, encore aujourd’hui, l’un des grands mystères des systèmes vivants. Les réactions dont il est question vont de la simple hydrolyse de liaisons peptidiques à des processus poly-électroniques d’une très grande complexité, com...

  2. Vom Ort des Philosophierens

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Barbaric

    2002-01-01

    Im Aufsatz wird versucht, den ursprünglichen Sinn der Platonischen Bestimmung vom Staunen als Anfang der Philosophie zu ermitteln, und zwar durch eine kritischen Abhebung von ihrer Umdeutung bei Aristoteles, und dann insbesondere in der Stoa wie auch bei Spinoza und Hegel. Dabei wird auf die frühgriechische Erfahrung vom Staunen als _______ aufmerksam gemacht, wo es vor allem die Grundstimmung des Dabeiseins des Göttlichen und der menschlichen Teilnahme am Göttlichen bedeutet. Dem entspricht ...

  3. Liste des auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fariba Adelkhah est chargée de recherche à la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, Centre d’études et de recherches internationales (CERI) [] Jean-Marie Bouissou est chargé de recherche à la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, Centre d’études et de recherches internationales (CERI) [] Jean-Louis Briquet est chargé de recherche au CNRS, Centre d’études et de recherches internationales (CERI) [...

  4. Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica decoction dregs. Part II: comparison before and after decoction of four Chinese Materia Medica that mainly comprise storage tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lailai; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2012-02-01

    Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) decoction dregs is important for ensuring the efficacy and safety of CMM when they are used in decoction. If someone got worse or poisoned after taking a decoction while the formula is appropriate, the authentication of CMM dregs is the effective method to explore the reasons. Therefore, a systematic study on the authentication of CMM dregs was carried out. In this study, two pairs of easily confused CMM dregs, Fenge (Puerariae Thomsonii Radix) and Shanyao (Dioscoreae Rhizoma), Dihuang (Rehmanniae Radix) and Huangjing (Polygonati Rhizoma), which mostly comprise storage tissues, were investigated by comparing the morphological and microscopic characteristics. Fenge and Shanyao contain abundant starch granules. After decoction their dregs were hard, nonstarchy and horn-like. Fully gelatinized starch granules were found in the powder of Fenge dregs while incompletely gelatinized starch granules were occasionally found in the Shanyao dregs. In contrast, Dihuang and Huangjing contain water-soluble sugars. After decoction, their dregs were hard and brittle. Their parenchymatous cells were shrunken and unknown crystals were found under microscope. Hence, the morphological and microscopic characteristics of CMM before and after decoction were different, and different changes in the CMM dregs can be illustrated by the different nature of their ergastic substance. These differences could be used to authenticate CMM dregs.

  5. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  6. Le dialogisme intertextuel des contes des Grimm

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Loin d'être « purement allemands », nombre de contes des Grimm réécrivent les contes français largement diffusés en Allemagne au XVIIIe siècle en les « reconfigurant » selon leurs propres paradigmes esthétiques et idéologiques. L'étude introductive de la comparatiste Ute Heidmann montre que ce dialogisme européen est resté peu exploré en raison d’une « scénographie en trompe-l’œil » qui les présente comme issus du « terroir » hessois. Toutefois, les notes des Grimm (constituées en volume auto...

  7. Comparison of Endodontic Medicaments on Bond Strength of Fiber Post to Root Dentin Using Resin Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zare Jahromi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Endodontic irrigants and medicaments may affect the bond strength of intracanal posts to root dentin. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX on bond strength of fiber post cemented with resin cement to root dentin. Materials and Method: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 36 mandibular premolars. Canals were prepared using the step back technique. After root canal irrigation, the teeth were divided into three groups of 12. Ca(OH2 paste and CHX gel were used as intracanal medicaments in the first and second groups respectively. No intracanal medicament was used in the third group (control group. Access cavities were then sealed and the teeth were incubated for one week. The root canals were then filled using gutta percha and AH26 sealer and the teeth were incubated for 72 hours. Tooth crowns were then cut at the level of the cementoenamel junction and intracanal posts were placed. The teeth were mounted in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin, and incubated for one week .They were then sectioned into 1.5mm thick slices from their coronal surface using a fully automated cutting machine, and subjected to push-out test until failure. The load at debonding was recorded and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, post-hoc test and t-test. The coronal margin of the root was at the level of the surface of acrylic resin in the mold. Results: The mean bond strength was 4.45 MPa in the Ca(OH2, 2.45 MPa in the CHX and 2.48 MPa in the control group. The difference in this regard was statistically significant among groups (p= 0.04. The Ca(OH2 group had significant differences with the CHX and control groups (p= 0.03 and p= 0.02, respectively. The difference between the CHX and control groups was not significant (p= 0.974. Conclusion: Based on the results, Ca(OH2 increased the bond strength of fiber post to root dentin but 2% CHX had no effect on

  8. Comparison of Endodontic Medicaments on Bond Strength of Fiber Post to Root Dentin Using Resin Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Barekatain, Mehrdad; Ravanbod, Shirin; Ranjbarian, Parisa; Kousehlar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Endodontic irrigants and medicaments may affect the bond strength of intracanal posts to root dentin. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX) on bond strength of fiber post cemented with resin cement to root dentin. Materials and Method: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 36 mandibular premolars. Canals were prepared using the step back technique. After root canal irrigation, the teeth were divided into three groups of 12. Ca(OH)2 paste and CHX gel were used as intracanal medicaments in the first and second groups respectively. No intracanal medicament was used in the third group (control group). Access cavities were then sealed and the teeth were incubated for one week. The root canals were then filled using gutta percha and AH26 sealer and the teeth were incubated for 72 hours. Tooth crowns were then cut at the level of the cementoenamel junction and intracanal posts were placed. The teeth were mounted in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin, and incubated for one week .They were then sectioned into 1.5mm thick slices from their coronal surface using a fully automated cutting machine, and subjected to push-out test until failure. The load at debonding was recorded and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, post-hoc test and t-test. The coronal margin of the root was at the level of the surface of acrylic resin in the mold. Results: The mean bond strength was 4.45 MPa in the Ca(OH)2, 2.45 MPa in the CHX and 2.48 MPa in the control group. The difference in this regard was statistically significant among groups (p= 0.04). The Ca(OH)2 group had significant differences with the CHX and control groups (p= 0.03 and p= 0.02, respectively). The difference between the CHX and control groups was not significant (p= 0.974). Conclusion: Based on the results, Ca(OH)2 increased the bond strength of fiber post to root dentin but 2% CHX had no effect on bond

  9. Maladie des vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, les symptômes, le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la maladie des vibrations, une maladie professionnelle importante et courante au Canada. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur MEDLINE afin de relever les recherches et comptes rendus portant sur la maladie des vibrations. Une recherche a été effectuée sur Google dans le but d’obtenir la littérature grise qui convient au contexte canadien. D’autres références ont été tirées des articles relevés. Message principal La maladie des vibrations est une maladie professionnelle répandue touchant les travailleurs de diverses industries qui utilisent des outils vibrants. La maladie est cependant sous-diagnostiquée au Canada. Elle compte 3 éléments : vasculaire, sous la forme d’un phénomène de Raynaud secondaire; neurosensoriel; et musculosquelettique. Aux stades les plus avancés, la maladie des vibrations entraîne une invalidité importante et une piètre qualité de vie. Son diagnostic exige une anamnèse minutieuse, en particulier des antécédents professionnels, un examen physique, des analyses de laboratoire afin d’éliminer les autres diagnostics, et la recommandation en médecine du travail aux fins d’investigations plus poussées. La prise en charge consiste à réduire l’exposition aux vibrations, éviter les températures froides, abandonner le tabac et administrer des médicaments. Conclusion Pour assurer un diagnostic rapide de la maladie des vibrations et améliorer le pronostic et la qualité de vie, les médecins de famille devraient connaître cette maladie professionnelle courante, et pouvoir obtenir les détails pertinents durant l’anamnèse, recommander les patients aux cliniques de médecine du travail et débuter les demandes d’indemnisation de manière appropriée. PMID:28292812

  10. Experimental studies on radioprotection of the bladder wall by means of medicaments (experiments on 17 female domestic cats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pust, R.; Weidner, W.; Rothauge, C.F.; Ernst, H.

    1982-11-01

    The radioprotective effect of Cortisone, Bepanthen and Actihaemyl during a telecobalt irradiation of the bladder with a focal dose of 60 Gy was investigated in 17 female domestic cats. Different clinical and radiological and especially focally shaped modifications were caused by the administration of these medicaments. The modifications are discussed in detail.

  11. Enhanced nodulation and nodule development by nolR mutants of Sinorhizobium medicae on specific Medicago host genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Masayuki; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The nolR gene encodes a negatively acting, transcriptional regulatory protein of core Nod-factor biosynthetic genes in the sinorhizobia. Although previous reports showed that nolR modulates Nod-factor production and enhances nodulation speed of Sinorhizobium meliloti on alfalfa, there have been no reports for the symbiotic function of this gene in the S. medicae-Medicago truncatula symbiosis. Here, we constructed an nolR mutant of S. medicae WSM419 and evaluated mutant and wild-type strains for their nodulation ability, competitiveness, host specificity, and density-dependent nodulation phenotypes. When the mutant was inoculated at low and medium population densities, it showed enhanced nodule formation during the initial stages of nodulation. Results of quantitative competitive nodulation assays indicated that an nolR mutant had 2.3-fold greater competitiveness for nodulation on M. truncatula 'A17' than did the wild-type strain. Moreover, the nodulation phenotype of the nolR mutant differed among Medicago genotypes and showed significantly enhanced nodule development on M. tricycla. Taken together, these results indicated that mutation of nolR in S. medicae positively influenced nodule initiation, competitive nodulation, and nodule development at later nodulation stages. This may allow nolR mutants of S. medicae to have a selective advantage under field conditions.

  12. Evaluation and comparison of white mineral trioxide aggregate and formocresol medicaments in primary tooth pulpotomy: Clinical and radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheranjeevi Jayam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The primary aim of the following study is to evaluate and secondary aim is to compare clinically and radiographically the success of using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA versus formocresol (FC medicament for primary tooth pulpotomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 teeth were selected for pulpotomy; of which 50 teeth underwent FC pulpotomy and 50 teeth underwent pulpotomy with white MTA. Out of 100 treated teeth, 82 teeth (42 FC and 40 MTA teeth were available at the end of 24 months for evaluation. 4 failures were found in FC group at 1 st month evaluation and no failures were found in white MTA group. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the overall success rate of study and individual success rates of medicaments. Overall success rate of the study was 95%, success rate of FC group was 90.48% and success rate of MTA group was 100%. Results: MTA produced better results as pulpotomy medicament in comparison to FC. The superior success obtained in the present study was matching other studies mentioned in the literature. Conclusion: MTA seems to be a promising pulpotomy medicament for future use.

  13. Evaluation and comparison of white mineral trioxide aggregate and formocresol medicaments in primary tooth pulpotomy: clinical and radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Mitra, Malay; Mishra, Jiban; Bhattacharya, Bhaswar; Jana, Biswanath

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the following study is to evaluate and secondary aim is to compare clinically and radiographically the success of using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) versus formocresol (FC) medicament for primary tooth pulpotomy. A total of 100 teeth were selected for pulpotomy; of which 50 teeth underwent FC pulpotomy and 50 teeth underwent pulpotomy with white MTA. Out of 100 treated teeth, 82 teeth (42 FC and 40 MTA teeth) were available at the end of 24 months for evaluation. 4 failures were found in FC group at 1 st month evaluation and no failures were found in white MTA group. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the overall success rate of study and individual success rates of medicaments. Overall success rate of the study was 95%, success rate of FC group was 90.48% and success rate of MTA group was 100%. MTA produced better results as pulpotomy medicament in comparison to FC. The superior success obtained in the present study was matching other studies mentioned in the literature. MTA seems to be a promising pulpotomy medicament for future use.

  14. La convergence des rôles respectifs des relationnistes et des journalistes influence-t-elle la perception qu'ils ont les uns des autres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    la convergence des rôles respectifs des praticiens des relations publiques et des journalistes a un effet favorable sur la perception qu’ils ont les uns des autres. L’effet est plus marqué chez les praticiens des relations publiques, car leur vision de la profession en journalisme correspond à celle...

  15. À propos des occasionnalismes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Georgette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Les occasionnalismes (nonce formations ou contextual formations dans la terminologie anglo-saxonne, qu’on définira provisoirement comme de “new complex word[s] created by a speaker/writer on the spur of the moment to cover some immediate need” (Bauer, 1983 : 45 ont, à notre connaissance, peu retenu l’attention des morphologues du domaine francophone. Pourtant, toutes les conditions sont désormais réunies pour que cet objet, invisible lorsqu’il s’agissait de décrire le système morphologique du français (ou d’autres langues à partir de ressources dictionnairiques, émerge en tant qu’observable dans une morphologie puisant ses données dans le réel langagier des locuteurs. Par définition en effet, on s’attend à ce qu’un occasionalisme soit absent des dictionnaires (nous verrons que, dans les faits, la situation est plus complexe que cela, et que ces contextual formations ne puissent pas être étudiées en dehors du contexte dans lequel elles ont été produites. À cet égard, la Toile et les produits qui en dérivent constituent des ressources de choix. C’est particulièrement vrai des forums, dans lesquels les internautes s’expriment librement, laissant libre cours à leur potentiel créatif (ou ce qu’ils pensent tel. Dans la présente communication, après avoir défini la notion d’occasionalisme, nous utiliserons un corpus constitué au fil d’autres recherches pour dégager des motifs récurrents propices à leur apparition, autrement dit pour établir une grammaire des occasionnalismes.

  16. A unique issue in the standardization of Chinese materia medica: processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongzhen; Liang, Zhitao; Chan, Kelvin; Lu, Guanghua; Lee, Eko Lai Mei; Chen, Hubiao; Li, Lin

    2010-12-01

    Processing of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) is a pharmaceutical technique to fulfill the different requirements of therapy, dispensing and making preparations according to traditional Chinese medicine theory. The aims of processing are to enhance the efficacy and/or reduce the toxicity of crude drugs. Those processed products are named as decoction pieces, which are used in clinics. Therefore, there is a close relationship between processing, safety, and efficacy of Chinese medicines. Some toxicity or side effects are caused by improper processing methods and some are due to improper combination of herbal mixtures. Standardization of processing methods for Chinese herbs is as important as authentication to maintain their quality and ensure their safe use. The objective of this paper is to review the literature covering the current situation and problems of CMM processing as well as recent progress in research in this area. A summary of the most urgent work needed is proposed.

  17. [Key content and formulation of national Chinese materia medica resources survey at county level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hai-Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-08-01

    According to National Census for Water, National Population Census, National Land and Resources Survey, and work experience of experimental measures for national Chinese materia medica resources(CMMR) survey,the national CMMR survey at the county level is the key point of whole survey, that includes organization and management, field survey, sorting data three key links. Organization and management works of national CMMR survey needs to finish four key contents, there are definite goals and tasks, practicable crew, preparation directory, and security assurance. Field survey works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish five key contents, there are preparation works for field survey, the choice of the key survey area (samples), fill in the questionnaire, video data collection, specimen and other physical collection. Sorting data works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish tree key contents, there are data, specimen and census results.

  18. [Academic heritage of Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huiling; Xiao, Yongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) was the first monograph on famines herbal in the history of China, which creates a new research field of edible plants. Around the middle and late 17th century, Jiu huang ben cao was spread to Japan and aroused great attention of famous Japanese herbalists. Thus, all versions of different edition systems were circulated in Japan. Later, some famous Japanese scholar ssuccessively quoted texts of Jiu huang ben cao from the Nong zheng quan shu (Whole book on Agricultural Administration) spread in Japan, and block-printed it as an independent work. As a result, Jiu huang ben cao virtually circulated widely in Japan.

  19. PAT: From Western solid dosage forms to Chinese materia medica preparations using NIR-CI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luwei; Xu, Manfei; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging technology that combines traditional near-infrared spectroscopy with chemical imaging. Therefore, NIR-CI can extract spectral information from pharmaceutical products and simultaneously visualize the spatial distribution of chemical components. The rapid and non-destructive features of NIR-CI make it an attractive process analytical technology (PAT) for identifying and monitoring critical control parameters during the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. This review mainly focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of NIR-CI in each unit operation during the manufacturing processes, from the Western solid dosage forms to the Chinese materia medica preparations. Finally, future applications of chemical imaging in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed.

  20. From Materia Medica to the Pharmacopoeia: Challenges of Writing the History of Drugs in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2016-04-01

    Historians of indigenous medicine in colonial India have looked more closely at the changes, reinventions and reformulations of institutions of Ayurveda and Unani than at the cognitive content of the drugs themselves. The few historians who have examined the changing content of indigenous medicines have conceptualised the creation of materia medica of Indian drugs through two tropes: one of circulation (of specific drugs) through epistemological and geographic boundaries and the second, of marginalisation of certain other drugs either through a lack of textual legitimacy or the lack of the newly discovered 'active principles' within each drug. While these approaches have been useful, there is a case to be made for understanding the creation of formularies of Indian drugs in 19th and 20th centuries through the prism of medical praxis in India.

  1. [Impacts of multicomponent environment on solubility of puerarin in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Guo-Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Wen-Ning; Lv, Bei-Ran; Wei, Li; Dong, Ling

    2014-12-01

    To illustrate the solubility involved in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) , the influences of artificial multicomponent environment on solubility were investigated in this study. Mathematical model was built to describe the variation trend of their influence on the solubility of puerarin. Carried out with progressive levels, single component environment: baicalin, berberine and glycyrrhizic acid; double-component environment: baicalin and glycyrrhizic acid, baicalin and berberine and glycyrrhizic acid and berberine; and treble-component environment: baicalin, berberin, glycyrrhizic acid were used to describe the variation tendency of their influences on the solubility of puerarin, respectively. And then, the mathematical regression equation model was established to characterize the solubility of puerarin under multicomponent environment.

  2. [Formulation of technical specification for national survey of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-04-01

    According to the process of the technical specification (TS) design for the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources (CMMR), we analyzed the assignment and objectives of the national survey and pointed out that the differences about CMMR management around China, the distribution of CMMR and their habitat, the economic and technological level, and even enthusiasm and initiative of the staff, etc. are the most difficult points for TS design. And we adopt the principle of combination of the mandatory and flexibility in TS design. We fixed the key points which would affect the quality of national survey first, then proposed the framework of TS which including 3 parts of organization and 11 parts of technique itself. The framework will serve and lead the TS preparation, which will not only provide an action standard to the national survey but will also have a profound influence to the popularization and application of the survey technology of CMMR. [Key words

  3. [Real-time detection of quality of Chinese materia medica: strategy of NIR model evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-sheng; Shi, Xin-yuan; Xu, Bing; Dai, Xing-xing; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-07-01

    The definition of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica ( CMM) was put forward based on the top-level design concept. Nowadays, coupled with the development of rapid analytical science, rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of CMM was firstly carried out, which was the secondary discipline branch of CMM. Taking near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an example, which is a rapid analytical technology in pharmaceutical process over the past decade, systematic review is the chemometric parameters in NIR model evaluation. According to the characteristics of complexity of CMM and trace components analysis, a multi-source information fusion strategy of NIR model was developed for assessment of critical quality attributes of CMM. The strategy has provided guideline for NIR reliable analysis in critical quality attributes of CMM.

  4. An update on the management of endodontic biofilms using root canal irrigants and medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biofilm is defined as a sessile multicellular microbial community characterized by cells that are firmly attached to a surface and enmeshed in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilms play a very important role in pulp and periradicular pathosis. The aim of this article was to review the role of endodontic biofilms and the effects of root canal irrigants, medicaments as well as lasers on biofilms A Medline search was performed on the English articles published from 1982 to 2013 and was limited to papers published in English. The searched keywords were "Biofilms AND endodontics", "Biofilms AND sodium hypochlorite", "Biofilms AND chlorhexidine", "Biofilms AND MTAD", "Biofilms AND calcium hydroxide", "Biofilms AND ozone", "Biofilms AND lasers" and "Biofilms AND nanoparticles". The reference list of each article was manually searched to find other suitable sources of information.

  5. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  6. Population genomics of the facultatively mutualistic bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Brendan; Branca, Antoine; Mudge, Joann; Bharti, Arvind K; Briskine, Roman; Farmer, Andrew D; Sugawara, Masayuki; Young, Nevin D; Sadowsky, Michael J; Tiffin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The symbiosis between rhizobial bacteria and legume plants has served as a model for investigating the genetics of nitrogen fixation and the evolution of facultative mutualism. We used deep sequence coverage (>100×) to characterize genomic diversity at the nucleotide level among 12 Sinorhizobium medicae and 32 S. meliloti strains. Although these species are closely related and share host plants, based on the ratio of shared polymorphisms to fixed differences we found that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between these species was confined almost exclusively to plasmid genes. Three multi-genic regions that show the strongest evidence of HGT harbor genes directly involved in establishing or maintaining the mutualism with host plants. In both species, nucleotide diversity is 1.5-2.5 times greater on the plasmids than chromosomes. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity in S. meliloti but not S. medicae is highly structured along the chromosome - with mean diversity (θ(π)) on one half of the chromosome five times greater than mean diversity on the other half. Based on the ratio of plasmid to chromosome diversity, this appears to be due to severely reduced diversity on the chromosome half with less diversity, which is consistent with extensive hitchhiking along with a selective sweep. Frequency-spectrum based tests identified 82 genes with a signature of adaptive evolution in one species or another but none of the genes were identified in both species. Based upon available functional information, several genes identified as targets of selection are likely to alter the symbiosis with the host plant, making them attractive targets for further functional characterization.

  7. Studies of beneficial interactions between active medicaments and excipients in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkova, G N

    1999-09-30

    A review of "up to date" research findings leading to new concepts of the pharmaceutical formulations and their interactions has been presented. The rational approaches to the excipients choice as well as to their interactions with medicaments have been shown as a basis for modern modelling of pharmaceutical formulations. The importance of complexation, hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole, dipole-dipole and van der Waals attractions as the tools which can modify the physicochemical, pharmacological or pharmacokinetical behaviour of the medicaments has been emphasised. In vivo studies (carried out in healthy human subjects-volunteers, in beagle dogs, in rats etc.) and in vitro studies (on excised human skin, hairless mouse skin etc.) as well as studies of chemical stability and bioavailability serve also as a proof of these interactions. Therefore, excipients are important components of pharmaceutical formulations and they can take an active part in the improvement of the characteristics of formulations (but they may also reduce the effectiveness of some preparations). In this context, the so called active and inactive ingredients in pharmaceutical formulations are inexact, old and "out-of date". Their further use is only conventional. In conclusion, among the various modern techniques applied the combination of infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction has been estimated as the most successful in proving the interactions between drugs and excipients. Finally, pharmaceutical formulations and their interactions have constituted a diverse and rapidly expanding field of Pharmacy (Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmaceutical Industry and Pharmaceutical Sciences) which covers a wide range of numerical topics within an unified framework.

  8. Alshamel fi Sana’at Tebbi’at: A Comprehensive Book on the Materia Medica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaffa-Jahromi, Maryam; Kiani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi, known as Ibn al-Nafis (1210-1288 AD), was a Muslim Syrian physician primarily famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. The most voluminous of his books is Alshamel fi Sana’at tebbi’at, which is a comprehensive medical encyclopedia. It comprised 300 volumes of notes, from which only 80 volumes are published. His writings are cataloged in many libraries around the world. The aim of this review article, as a tribute to Ibn al-Nafis, was to introduce his valuable but neglected encyclopedia of Materia Medica. Methods: Ibn al-Nafis’ traditional approach in his “Alshamel fi Sana’at tebbi’at” book is studied in the present article. Results: Alshamel fi Sana’at tebbi’at covers three branches of knowledge. The first category is devoted to theoretical traditional medicine. The second is in four sections where much of it is not available yet. The third category is on Materia Medica covering the aspect of Unani medicine, from which only 28 volumes of the comprehensive book on the traditional medicine have been found so far. The latter, introduces mono-ingredient medications in alphabetical order. Each chapter, in several parts, is dedicated to the botanical characteristics and nature of each mono-ingredient medication. In addition, this book explains traditional pharmacokinetic of every single medication for each human body organs. Conclusion: Based on pharmaco-mechanistic perspective on Alshamel fi Sana’at tebbi’at, it could be considered as the main reference book on traditional medicine and pharmacy, worthy of revival. PMID:27516653

  9. Table des illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Intégrer les Tsiganes Hongrie, 1970 (photo DR) 34 Discuter entretient la fraternité. (photo M. Stewart) 35 La veille du mariage (photo M. Stewart) 36 Le « salon » (photo M. Stewart) 37 Les activités économiques des Tsiganes sont conçues comme des jeux. (photo M. Stewart) 39 Lev cheval (photo I. Nemeth) 41 Le cortège d’un mariage (photo M. Stewart) 43 Avant le mariage (photo M. Stewart) 43 C’est par le chant (photo M. Stewart) 45 Des « frères » boivent en harmonie (photo M. Stewart) 46 Les che...

  10. Geschichte des SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Dieses Buch erzählt die Geschichte des Schweizerischen Instituts für Nuklearforschung (SIN). Das Institut wurde 1968 gegründet und ging 1988 ins Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) über. Die Gründung des SIN erfolgte in einer Zeit, als die Physik weitherum als Schlüsseldisziplin für die technologische und gesellschaftliche Entwicklung galt. Der Schritt war für ein kleines Land wie die Schweiz ungewöhnliche und zeugte von Mut und Weitsicht. Ungewöhnlich waren der Folge die Leistungen des SIN im weltweiten Vergleich sowie sein Einfluss auf die schweizerische, teils auf die internationale Wissenschaftspolitik.

  11. Les lueurs des sables

    CERN Multimedia

    Les lueurs des sables

    2013-01-01

    Two CERN ladies are getting ready for the “Trophée Roses des Sables” rally adventure: Julie and Laetitia are finalizing the last details before setting off on Monday 7th October 2013. Julie from EN-MEF group and Laetitia from DGS-SEE group, met at the CERN Rugby club. This year, they are participating in the 100 % female rally which will take place in Morocco from 10 to 20 October. They will be carrying along 100 kg of humanitarian donation for children such as some clothes, books and medical material. Do not hesitate to show your support at their farewell party to be held on Monday 7 October, from 4 to 6 pm in front of the St Genis-Pouilly Mairie (city Hall). Follow their exciting adventure on the blog leslueursdessables.trophee-roses-des-sables.org and on their association’s Facebook page Les Lueurs des Sables.

  12. [Investigation on pattern of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on famous-region drug and bioassay--the work reference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-05-01

    Selection and standardization of the work reference are the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis. as an example, the manufacture process of the famous-region drugs extraction was explained from the aspects of original identification, routine examination, component analysis and bioassay. The common technologies were extracted, and the selection and standardization procedures of the work reference for the bioassay of Chinese materia medica were drawn up, so as to provide technical support for constructing a new mode and method of the quality control of Chinese materia medica based on the famous-region drugs and bioassay.

  13. Des Groupes et des Œuvres

    OpenAIRE

    Grojnowski, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    À la fin du xixe siècle, les groupes de bohèmes se multiplient et se diversifient, des salons privés aux tavernes ou cabarets. Une étude aussi attentive que possible de trois d’entre eux (les Zutiques, les Hydropathes, les Incohérents) montre la diversité de leurs configurations, ainsi que l’importance déterminante que leurs productions revêt au regard de la postérité.

  14. Differentialdiagnose des Ulcus cruris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binder B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Ulcus cruris ist eine Erkrankung vor allem des höheren Lebensalters. Ungefähr 1 % der Bevölkerung leidet an einer chronischen Wunde. An die 90 % der Ulzera sind vaskulärer Genese, doch gibt es vielfältige weitere Ursachen. Die Kenntnis der relevanten Differentialdiagnosen ist insbesondere bei therapierefraktären Verläufen von Bedeutung. Dazu gehören Neuropathien, myeloproliferative Erkrankungen, Infektionen, Medikamente oder Hauttumore. Für eine erfolgreiche Behandlung des Ulcus cruris ist die Identifikation der Genese von entscheidender Bedeutung, um eine kausale, interdisziplinäre Therapie zu ermöglichen.

  15. Liste des Auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amor Hakima, Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté des sciences Semlalia, Département de biologie, Laboratoire d’écologie humaine, Marrakech, Maroc. Angeli Aurora, Universita degli studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di scienze statiche “Paolo Fortunati”, Bologne, Italie. Baali Abdellatif, Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté des sciences Semlalia, Département de biologie, Laboratoire d’écologie humaine, Marrakech, Maroc. Bachtarzi T., Hôpital Ibn Sina, CHU Annaba, Algérie. Baudot Patrick, Université de Proven...

  16. Liste des Auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amor Hakima, Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté des sciences Semlalia, Département de biologie, Laboratoire d’écologie humaine, Marrakech, Maroc. Angeli Aurora, Universita degli studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di scienze statiche “Paolo Fortunati”, Bologne, Italie. Baali Abdellatif, Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté des sciences Semlalia, Département de biologie, Laboratoire d’écologie humaine, Marrakech, Maroc. Bachtarzi T., Hôpital Ibn Sina, CHU Annaba, Algérie. Baudot Patrick, Université de Proven...

  17. Die lebensvision des semonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoj Sironić

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Autor analysiert die Weibersatire des Semonides und andere seiner kurzen Fragmente. Dabei kommt er zu der Schlussfolgerung, dass sich die Verse der Satire durch eine gute Technik auszeich­ nen, dass aber auch eine unnötige Weitschweifigkeit nicht zu Ubersehen ist. Trotzdem kann man jedoch dem Dichter nicht die künstlerische Überzeugungskraft absprechen, wie auch die Ten­ denz nach Detailschilderungen und die Feinheit geistreicher Charakterisierungen. Die Aussage beinhaltet manchmal eine be­ stimmte innere Ironie in der Einfachheit der Wörter.In kurzen Fragmenten wird die Fähigkeit des Semonides sichtbar, sich sehr präzise auszudrücken. Seine ironisch-epische Sprache ist sehr reich  und verdient vom linguistischen Standpunkt aus Auf­ merksamkeit wegen ihres reichhaltigen lexischen und termino­ logischen Materials, insbesondere was die Bereiche der Tier­ welt und des Essens anbelangt.Die Weltanschauung des Dichters ist in dem ersten Fragment recht deutlich erkennbar. Da sieht man, dass er düster und pessimistisch auf das Leben blickt. Das Fehlen jeglicher positiven Einstellung hat dann den Sar­ kasmus zur Folge, mit dem der Dichter die Darstellung der Weiber einkleidet, ihn aber auch auf die Menschen schlechthin ausweitet.

  18. La physique des infinis

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardeau, Francis; Laplace, Sandrine; Spiro, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Écrire l'histoire de l'Univers, tel est l'objectif commun des physiciens des particules et des astrophysiciens. Pour y parvenir, deux approches s'épaulent : la voie de l'infiniment petit, que l'on emprunte via de gigantesques accélérateurs de particules, et celle de l'infiniment grand, dont le laboratoire est l'Univers. Un Univers qui est bien loin d'avoir livré tous ses secrets. On connaît à peine 4,8 % de la matière qui le constitue, le reste étant composé de matière noire (25,8 %) et d'énergie noire (69,4 %), toutes deux de nature inconnue. Et si la récente découverte du boson de Higgs valide le Modèle standard de la physique des particules, celui-ci est toujours incomplet et doit être étendu à ou dépassé. Est-on arrivé au bout du jeu de poupées russes de la matière ? Quelles sont les particules manquantes ? Faut-il revoir les lois fondamentales ? Quels instruments faut-il mettre en œuvre pour accéder à cette « nouvelle physique » ? Comment parler de Super Big Science aux citoye...

  19. CHAINE DES ROTISSEUR @ HILTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The annual gala dinner of Chaine des Rotisseurs was hosted by Hilton Beijing. The “Ballet Dinner” - a great creation for both art and fine dining lovers was taken place in varies places within the hotel, including hotel lobby, 3rd floor and lobby lounge.

  20. REPRISE DES COURS - Yoga

    CERN Multimedia

    Club de Yoga

    2015-01-01

    REPRISE DES COURS – Venez nombreux ! Yoga, Sophrologie, Tai Chi La liste des cours pour le semestre allant du 1er septembre 2015 au 31 janvier 2016 est disponible sur notre site web : http://club-yoga.web.cern.ch Lieu Les cours ont lieu dans la salle des clubs, à l’entresol du restaurant No 2, Bât. 504 (dans la salle no 3 pour la Sophrologie). Prix des cours Le prix pour le semestre (environ 18 leçons) est fixé à 220 CHF plus 10 CHF d’adhésion annuelle au Club. Couple : 200 CHF par personne. 2 cours par semaine : 400 CHF. Inscriptions Les inscriptions aux cours seront prises directement auprès du professeur, lors de la 1ère séance. Avant de s’inscrire pour le semestre, il est possible d’essayer une séance gratuitement. Informations : http://club-yoga.web.cern.ch ----------------------------------------- cern.ch/club-yoga/

  1. Potenziale des Mobile Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Turowski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Potenziale des Mobile Commerce / B. Bazijanec, K. Turowski. - In: Mobile economy : 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / Key Pousttchi ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - S. 7-11. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  2. Vom Ort des Philosophierens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Barbaric

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Im Aufsatz wird versucht, den ursprünglichen Sinn der Platonischen Bestimmung vom Staunen als Anfang der Philosophie zu ermitteln, und zwar durch eine kritischen Abhebung von ihrer Umdeutung bei Aristoteles, und dann insbesondere in der Stoa wie auch bei Spinoza und Hegel. Dabei wird auf die frühgriechische Erfahrung vom Staunen als _______ aufmerksam gemacht, wo es vor allem die Grundstimmung des Dabeiseins des Göttlichen und der menschlichen Teilnahme am Göttlichen bedeutet. Dem entspricht die bei Platon stark hervorgehobene Rolle des “Pathetischen” am Staunen, das in der nachkommenden Tradition grundsätzlich verlorengegangen ist. Für Platon entspringt das Staunen einem nie zu überwindenden Zustand der wesentlichen philosophischen “Weglosigkeit” (_____, welche schon bei Aristoteles nur noch im Sinne eines unbedingt zu verlassenden Ausgangspunkts der methodisch sicher fortfahrenden philosophischen Wissenschaft verstanden wird. Durch ein Zurückgreifen auf die Diotimas Lehre im Dialog Symposion wird dementgegen die Sokratisch-Platonische “Weglosigkeit” als der einzig angemessene “Ort” des echten Philosophierens bestimmt, welchen es, als das “Zwischen” für das Weltspiel der Unsterblichen und Sterblichen, um jeden Preis zu bewahren und offen zu halten gilt.

  3. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  4. Research and Development of New Chinese Materia Medica for Treatment of Refractory Hematopathy by Establishment and Application of Multiple Technique Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Rui-lan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Research Objective andOverview It is necessary to find effective Chinese materia medica (CMM)for the treatment of refractory hematopathy as commonly used prednisone, androgen and immune suppression agents often demonstrate poor efficacy and serious side effects.

  5. Use of a compound of formula (I) to manufacture a medicament for treating gaucher's disease, pharmaceutical composition, a compound of formula (IB) and method for obtaining said compound

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Palacin, Pilar; Moya García, Aurelio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Pocovi Mieras, Miguel; Giraldo, Pilar; Ortiz-Mellet, Carmen; García Fernández, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Use of a compound of formula (I) to manufacture a medicament for treating Gaucher's disease in a human subject, a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (I), compounds of formula (Ib) and method for obtaining said compounds.

  6. Evaluation of technetium 99m-HMPAO leukocyte scanning in the assessment of disease extent and activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Interet de la scintigraphie aux leucocytes marques par le radiopharmaceutique HMPAO [sup 99m]Tc dans le bilan d'activite et d'extension des enterocolites cryptogenetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelec, I.; Bracquemart, P.; Beades, E.; Bouvard, G.; Fellous, F.; Piquet, M.A.; Dao, T.; Verwaerde, J.C. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 14 - Caen (France)); Coste, J. (Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France))

    1993-01-01

    We have studied prospectively the usefulness of HMPAO [sup 99m]Tc leucocytes scan in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Abdominal scans were performed 1 h and 2 h 30 after injection of an autologous leukocyte preparation containing 100-200 MBq of Technetium 99m. The extent of bowel involvement, evaluated on the 2 h 30 scan, was compared to X-rays and endoscopic findings. The disease activity was quantified by the intensity of intestinal radionuclide uptake on the 2 h 30 scan and compared with the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) sedimentation rate. Forty-five examinations were performed in 40 patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The correlation of the number of locations between leukocyte scan and other diagnosis procedures was good in 40 cases. CDAI was significantly correlated with radionuclide index. Two fistulae and one abscess and small bowel involvement were correctly visualized. This technique provides images of excellent quality, superior to those obtained with indium 111. Therefore, we believe that this test can be useful in the follow-up of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  7. Use of HPLC in testing the radiochemical purity of tiatide: comparison with procedure of National Commission for Radiopharmaceuticals; Apport de l`HPLC dans le control de la purete radiochimique du tiatide: comparaison a la procedure de la Commission Nationale des Radiopharmaceutiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, L.; Baulieu, F.; Bugeon, S.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D. [CHU Tour (France)

    1997-12-31

    The tiatide (mercapto-acetyl-tri-glycine or MAG-3) is a Tc-labelled radiopharmaceutical currently used in renal functional exploration. However, its labelling does not reach always a pure radiochemical product. The different types of radioactive impurities (hydrophile, lipophile, colloids, reduced pertechnetate) have not all the same renal kinetics and can falsify the scintigraphic quantification of renal clearance, among others by a hepato-biliary fixation. Hence, it is useful for the nuclear physicians to know the radiochemical purity of the labeller injected in order to interpret better the values of renal clearance. We have compared the different available techniques allowing to make evident qualitatively and/or quantitatively the labelling impurities in tiatide. Our aim is to validate, in our working conditions the procedure utilising micro-columns described by National Commission of Radiopharmaceuticals. The thin-layer chromatography (TLC) (plates Merck RP18), currently used, allows separating the tiatide from reduced or hydrolyzed technetium and from free pertechnetate. The hydrophilic or lipophilic impurities are not distinguished among them. Different revealing techniques are available: quantification by the radiochromatography reader (Bioscan, autoradiography on sensible film or by grating plates) and counting by a gamma counter. Secondly, we made use of fractioned elution on chromatographic micro-columns (Sep Pack C18) followed by a gamma counting which allows to distinguish the tiatide and the lipophilic and hydrophilic impurities (without discriminating the reduced pertechnetate and the colloids). Finally, by HPLC (column RP18, isocratic or with gradient elution) allows quantifying the tiatide and the different present impurities: reduced pertechnetate, lipophilic and hydrophilic impurities. In conclusion, the most suited technique of routine analysis of radiochemical purity of tiatide is the fractional elution on micro-column. The TLC seems to be inadequate for such a study. The HPLC remains the reference technique, indispensable in validating any other method

  8. [Textual research on Costus root (Aucklandia lappa Decne) in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyan; Wang, Dequn; Fang, Shiying; Xu, Maohong

    2014-05-01

    Aucklandia lappa Decne was first recorded in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica). Through the textual research of herbal literature, it was found that the costus root in the Sheng nong ben cao jing perhaps was not the plant of Aucklandia lappa Decne of Compositae, but the eaglewood or Lignum Aquilasria Resinatum based on the comprehensive judgment of shape, taste, nature, and function etc. In the Sheng nong ben cao jing, it only includes costus root without the title of eaglewood, and Tao Hongjing recorded both herbs together in his Ming yi bie lu (Supplementary Records of Celebrated Physicians), which became a foreshadow of misunderstanding of the later generations. Beginning from the Tang ben cao (Materia Medica of the Tang Dynasty), the costus root was considered as the plant of Auckiandia lappa Decne from the Compostae with its profound influence until now.

  9. [Research on Zhang's collated edition of Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li

    2010-05-01

    Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica) collated by Zhang Ji, and printed by Zhang's Yisheng Tang in Chengdu in 1932 was the first collated edition. Its original edition was not Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) of the Song Dynasty, but was Xiu shi zhi nan (Instruction for Drug Processing) and Lei gong pao zhi yao xing jie (Explanation on Master Lei's Properties of Drugs Processing) of the Qing Dynasty. The contents of this collated edition was far from Lei gong pao zhi lun with many mistakes, and was not the best edition to study Lei gong pao zhi lun.

  10. Informática Medica: Sistemas de Información y Estándares en Salud

    OpenAIRE

    González Salamea, Carlos G

    2003-01-01

    La informática médica hace relación a la lógica de la atención en salud, aunque la primera imagen que nos viene a la mente es la de un ordenador con sus programas de agenda medica, historia clínica, consulta de bibliografía mediante textos o de guías de práctica clínica, en esta ocasión el interés se centra en el manejo de la información como insumo fundamental en la practica medica. El término informática esta vinculado fuertemente a la tecnología de la computación, pero ante el acelerado gr...

  11. Genome sequence of Ensifer medicae strain WSM1369; an effective microsymbiont of the annual legume Medicago sphaerocarpos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpolilli, Jason; Garau, Giovanni; Hill, Yvette; Tian, Rui; Howieson, John; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2013-12-20

    Ensifer medicae WSM1369 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Medicago. WSM1369 was isolated in 1993 from a nodule recovered from the roots of Medicago sphaerocarpos growing at San Pietro di Rudas, near Aggius in Sardinia (Italy). WSM1369 is an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes M. polymorpha and M. sphaerocarpos. Here we describe the features of E. medicae WSM1369, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,402,557 bp standard draft genome is arranged into 307 scaffolds of 307 contigs containing 6,656 protein-coding genes and 79 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  12. Biochemia Medica has started using the CrossCheck plagiarism detection software powered by iThenticate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak-Smolcić, Vesna; Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2013, Biodhemia Medica has joined CrossRef, which enabled us to implement CrossCheck plagiarism detection service. Therefore, all manuscript submitted to Biodchemia Medica are now first assigned to Research integrity editor (RIE), before sending the manuscript for peer-review. RIE submits the text to CrossCheck analysis and is responsible for reviewing the results of the text similarity analysis. Based on the CrossCheck analysis results, RIE subsequently provides a recommendation to the Editor-in-chief (EIC) on whether the manuscript should be forwarded to peer-review, corrected for suspected parts prior to peer-review or immediately rejected. Final decision on the manuscript is, however, with the EIC. We hope that our new policy and manuscript processing algorithm will help us to further increase the overall quality of our Journal.

  13. Volatile and Flavonoid Composition of the Peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican Fruit for Quality Assessment of Its Liqueur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Nicolas; Barboni, Toussaint; Curk, Franck; Costa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Summary The volatile and flavonoid compositions of the peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican fruits cultivated in Corsica were studied according to the maturity of the citron fruits measured using growing degree-days. Quantitative variation with the stage of development of the fruit was observed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Thirty volatile compounds were identified in the peel essential oil. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major compounds. The volatile compositions of commercial citron liqueurs were also characterized by high amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons with the same two major components. The main flavonoid components of citron fruits and derived liqueurs were rutin and neohesperidin. This chemical characterization can be used for quality assessment of food products from C. medica var. Corsican. PMID:27904313

  14. [Applications and approved projectsof general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developedregion of national natural science funds in discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Qing; Han, Li-Wei; Wu, Xiu-Hong; Bi, Ming-Gang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Liu, Yun-Fang; He, Wei-Ming; Li, Dan-Dan; Dong, Yan; Wang, Chang-En

    2013-01-01

    The applications accepted and approved by general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in the discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2012 have been introduced. The research contents of the funded projects in the popular research areas have been summarized and the problems in the applications have been analyzed to give a reference to the scientists in the field of Chinese materia medica.

  15. Determinación de metabolitos y extracción de pectina del albedo de Citrus medica L. (cidra)

    OpenAIRE

    López Z., Stela; Laboratorio de Bromatología de la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Terapéuticos de la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Arias A., Gladys; Laboratorio de Bromatología de la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Terapéuticos de la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Lozano R., Nancy; Laboratorio de Bromatología de la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Terapéuticos de la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical bromatological determination of albedo, Citrus medica L. (Citron) demostrated high caloric and ascorbic acid values and low fat contents. The pectin, as calcium pectate was high. When carrying out the pectin's characterization, high percentage of methoxyle (8,55%) was found and therefore a high degree of esterification (69,49). In aquous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of albedo citron the presence of flavonoid, coumarin , amino acid and phenolic compounds was deter mine. L...

  16. Evaluation and comparison of white mineral trioxide aggregate and formocresol medicaments in primary tooth pulpotomy: Clinical and radiographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheranjeevi Jayam; Malay Mitra; Jiban Mishra; Bhaswar Bhattacharya; Biswanath Jana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The primary aim of the following study is to evaluate and secondary aim is to compare clinically and radiographically the success of using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) versus formocresol (FC) medicament for primary tooth pulpotomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 teeth were selected for pulpotomy; of which 50 teeth underwent FC pulpotomy and 50 teeth underwent pulpotomy with white MTA. Out of 100 treated teeth, 82 teeth (42 FC and 40 MTA teeth) were available at the end o...

  17. Clinical and radiographic comparison of various medicaments used for pulpotomy in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of ferric sulfate, glutaraldehyde, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as pulpotomy medicaments in primary molars. Materials and Methods: This was a perspective randomized clinical trial. A total of 90 molars from 42 children aged 4–8 years were selected for pulpotomy procedure. Teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups of 30 teeth each. Teeth in Group I were intended to be treated with ferric sulfate, Group II were intended to be tre...

  18. Dopage et protection des jeunes sportifs : Loin des affaires

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    National audience; Loin des affaires et des révélations polémiques de la presse, les jeunes plébiscitent massivement les activités sportives. Sport compétition, sport participation, sport détente... Pourtant, quand la pratique devient intense, que les entraînements et les compétitions s'enchaînent à un rythme soutenu, l'ombre des conduites dopantes vient déchirer la quiétude des uns et des autres. Or, que savons-nous réellement de la pratique des jeunes sportifs ? Comment préparent-ils les co...

  19. [Rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (II): strategy of NIR assignment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yan-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    The present paper firstly reviewed the research progress and main methods of NIR spectral assignment coupled with our research results. Principal component analysis was focused on characteristic signal extraction to reflect spectral differences. Partial least squares method was concerned with variable selection to discover characteristic absorption band. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was mainly adopted for spectral assignment. Autocorrelation peaks were obtained from spectral changes, which were disturbed by external factors, such as concentration, temperature and pressure. Density functional theory was used to calculate energy from substance structure to establish the relationship between molecular energy and spectra change. Based on the above reviewed method, taking a NIR spectral assignment of chlorogenic acid as example, a reliable spectral assignment for critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (CMM) was established using deuterium technology and spectral variable selection. The result demonstrated the assignment consistency according to spectral features of different concentrations of chlorogenic acid and variable selection region of online NIR model in extract process. Although spectral assignment was initial using an active pharmaceutical ingredient, it is meaningful to look forward to the futurity of the complex components in CMM. Therefore, it provided methodology for NIR spectral assignment of critical quality attributes in CMM.

  20. Effects of Chinese Materia Medica-Fubao Danggui Jiao on experimental endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing; Chen, Lijue; Zeng, Fanbo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of a Chinese Materia Medica variant -Fubao Danggui Jiao (FDJ)-on experimental endometriosis. An endometriosis model was created by virtue of auto-transplantation of endometrial tissue onto rats' abdominal walls. The implants were allowed to grow for 30 days until the successful completion of the model. After that, forty endometriotic rats were randomly divided into four study groups and given different treatments: (1) negative control group (water, 2ml/kg, per os); (2) FDJ-A group (FDJ, 2ml/kg, per os); (3) FDJ-B group (FDJ, 4ml/kg, per os); (4) Danazol group (70mg/kg, per os). After 30 days with treatments, the volumes of endometriotic implants in each rat were measured. The implants and normal uterine horns were removed for routine histological examination. FDJ caused significant decreases in volumes of the surviving endometriotic implants, with two different doses having statistically equivalent effects. Upon histological examination, FDJ was observed to cause regression of epithelium and stroma of endometriotic implants. FDJ had revealed promising therapeutic effects on endometriosis.

  1. Advances and challenges in screening traditional Chinese anti-aging materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Sheng; Deng, Hong-Bin; Li, Dian-Dong; Li, Zhao-He

    2013-04-01

    To provide a better service for senior health care, we summarized screening studies of traditional Chinese anti-aging materia medica (TCAM). We collected and analyzed literature of TCAM screening studies using the lifespan test and animal models of aging from 1984 to 2012. We found 26 screening methods for TCAM, and 153 single herbs or active ingredients of TCAM that have been screened out during the past 28 years. The cell lifespan test, the fruit fly lifespan test, and D-galactose aging model were the most widely used and intensively studied screening methods. However, the method for establishing the D-galactose aging model needs to be standardized, and the D-galactose aging model cannot completely be a substitute for the normal aging mouse model. Great success has been achieved in screening studies in TCAM. To further improve screening studies in TCAM, we suggest that the D-galactose aging model be incorporated into the lifespan test in the New Drugs of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Guide.

  2. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  3. Complete genome sequence of the Medicago microsymbiont Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae strain WSM419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Wayne [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); O' Hara, Graham [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Ardley, Julie [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Nandesena, Kemanthi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Brau, Lambert [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Tiwari, Ravi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Kiss, Hajnalka [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gollagher, Margaret [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Yates, Ron [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Dilworth, Michael [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Howieson, John [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia

    2010-01-01

    Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae is an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual Medicago (medic) species. Strain WSM419 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod isolated from a M. murex root nodule collected in Sardinia, Italy in 1981. WSM419 was manufactured commercially in Australia as an inoculant for annual medics during 1985 to 1993 due to its nitrogen fixation, saprophytic competence and acid tolerance properties. Here we describe the basic features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first report of a complete genome sequence for a microsymbiont of the group of annual medic species adapted to acid soils. We reveal that its genome size is 6,817,576 bp encoding 6,518 protein-coding genes and 81 RNA only encoding genes. The genome contains a chromosome of size 3,781,904 bp and 3 plasmids of size 1,570,951 bp, 1,245,408 bp and 219,313 bp. The smallest plasmid is a feature unique to this medic microsymbiont.

  4. A acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar no tratamento da paralisia cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Salete Pinheiro Chagas Ribeiro

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte crianças, com diagnóstico de paralisia cerebral (PC e sob tratamento clássico, fisioterápico e pedagógico, receberam piracetam (acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar. O objetivo foi melhorar os problemas de espasticidade, apredizagem, neurolabilidade, visando a um rendimento melhor do tratamento global da PC. O grupo medicado foi comparado com um grupo controle de 20 crianças que só eram objeto do tratamento habitual. A comparação mostrou resultados favoráveis no grupo medicado. A droga foi administrada na dose de 80 mg/kg/dia durante 10 semanas. Os critérios de avaliação dos resultados foram psicológicos, clínico, fisioterápico e pedagógico. A droga foi administrada em nova forma de apresentação: solução, para uso oral, a 6%.

  5. Extraction Optimization, Purification and Physicochemical Properties of Polysaccharides from Gynura medica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengwei Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of polysaccharides from Gynura medica (GMPs was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. A central composition design including three parameters, namely extraction temperature (X1, ratio of water to raw material (X2 and extraction time (X3, was used. The best conditions were extraction temperature of 91.7 °C, extraction time of 4.06 h and ratio of water to raw material of 29.1 mL/g. Under the optimized conditions, the yield of GMPs was 5.56%, which was similar to the predicted polysaccharides yield of 5.66%. A fraction named GMP-1 was obtained after isolation and purification by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 gel chromatography, respectively. GMP-1, with a molecular weight of 401 kDa, mainly consisted of galacturonic acid (GalA, xylose (Xyl, glucose (Glu. Infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the major functional groups of GMP-1 and the results indicated that it was an acidic polysaccharide. The antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of GMPs and GMP-1 were determined in vitro. The results indicated that GMPs and GMP-1 show potential for use in functional foods or medicines.

  6. European Materia Medica in Historical Texts: Longevity of a Tradition and Implications for Future Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in the area of new drug discovery has shown the continued promise of looking to natural products for bioactive compounds. Researchers have thus turned to traditional medicine, which is still used widely throughout the world and increasingly in industrialized countries as well, to provide clues as to which products to investigate. The oral traditions on which much of this medical knowledge rests, however, are unstable, prompting researchers to turn to textual sources for potential drugs. This study uses Mediterranean/European medical texts from the 5th century BC to the 19th century A.D. to compile a list of the most commonly used “simples” – or single action drug substances – used in therapeutics in traditional European medicine. It finds that traditional European materia medica was based on a Dioscordean tradition that lasted through the 19th century with remarkably little variation, but is significantly different from the present-day herbal pharmacopoeia as represented by the National Institutes of Health. The most prominent simples of that tradition can thus provide clues to further bioactive compounds that have not as of yet been fully exploited for their potential, but were clearly of great use in the past. PMID:20561577

  7. Sodium hypochlorite vs formocresol as pulpotomy medicaments in primary molars: 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabzendedar, Mahboobeh; Mazhari, Fatemeh; Alami, Maliheh; Talebi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of 3 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and formocresol (FC) as pulp dressing agents in pulpotomized primary molars. One hundred children between three and six years each with at least one primary mandibular second molar requiring pulpotomy were randomly allocated to two groups (of 50 each). All the teeth received stainless steel crown after conventional pulpotomy procedure with either NaOCI (applied for 15 second) or FC (applied for one minute). Clinical and radiographic signs/symptoms were blindly recorded at zero, six. and 12 months. The differences were statistically analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. At six months, 100 percent clinical success was found with both NaOCl, and FC. Radiographic success rates for NaOCl were 98 percent and 92 percent at 6- and 12-month recalls respectively. FC group showed 94 percent and 93 percent radiographic success rates at the same periods respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. NaOCl can be suggested as a pulpotomy agent for primary teeth pulpotomies. However further clinical studies with long-term follow-ups are needed to test the efficacy of NaOCl as a pulpotomy medicament in primary teeth.

  8. Comparison of mineral trioxide aggregate and formocresol as pulp medicaments for pulpotomies in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorollahian, H

    2008-06-14

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to that of formocresol (FC) as pulp dressing agents in pulpotomised primary molars. In this clinical trial study, 60 lower second primary molars of 46 children were treated by a conventional pulpotomy technique. The teeth were randomly assigned to the MTA (experimental) and FC (control) groups by random numbered table. Following removal of the coronal pulp and haemostasis, the pulp stumps were covered with an MTA paste in the experimental group. In the control group, FC was placed with a cotton pellet over the pulp stumps. The teeth of both groups were restored with stainless steel crowns. Children arrived for clinical and radiographic follow-up evaluation after 6, 12 and 24 months. The treated teeth in FC group (n = 18) were clinically and radiographically successful after 24 months. The radiographic follow-up evaluation revealed one failure (furcation involvement) in 18 molars treated with MTA after 24 months. The treated teeth in MTA group were clinically successful 24 months postoperatively. Pulp canal obliteration was observed in one of the teeth treated with MTA and four of the teeth treated with FC. MTA could be used as a safe medicament for pulpotomy in cariously exposed primary molars and could be a substitute for FC.

  9. Histological Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Pulp Treatment of Permanent Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histo pathology effects of two medicaments Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the remaining pulp tissue of the permanent teething children. A total of 18 premolars were included in this study. Two sound premolars were extracted and subjected to histological examination to show the normal pulp tissue. Pulpo tomy procedure was performed in the rest of the remaining 16 premolars; half of them using Allium sativum oil and the rest of the tested premolars were medicated using formocresol and all were sealed with suitable restoration. Then, premolars extracted at variable intervals (48 hours, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months), stained using hemotoxylin and eosin etain (H&E) and prepared for histopathology examination. Histological evaluation seemed far more promising for Allium sativum oil than formocresol. Histological evaluation revealed that teeth treated with Allium sativa oil showed infammatory changes that had been resolved in the end of the study. On the contrary, the severe chronic infammation of pulp tissue accompanied with formocresol eventually produced pulp necrosis with or without fibrosis. In addition, pulp calcification was evidenced in certain cases. Allium sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  10. Le corps des anges

    OpenAIRE

    Margel,Serge

    2017-01-01

    Ce séminaire fait suite à un cycle de conférences données en 2014 sur la notion de corps de chair dans le premier christianisme. Cette année la recherche a porté sur le corps spécifique des anges dans la patristique grecque et latine. Sur la base d’un corpus de textes délimité, j’ai essayé de montrer deux choses principales : d’un côté, on ne peut pas comprendre la spécificité du corps des anges sans l’inscrire dans le champ de l’angélologie chrétienne, qui assimile l’ange et l’âme, et d’un a...

  11. Typologie des Accidents Cyclistes

    OpenAIRE

    Amoros, Emmanuelle; BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Hours, Martine

    2015-01-01

    L'usage du vélo est en hausse en ville ; cette pratique est encouragée dans le cadre du développement durable et de la lutte contre la sédentarité. Pour accompagner cela, il faut réduire les risques d'accident, et pour ce faire, mieux les connaître. Nous utilisons le Registre des victimes de la circulation routière du Rhône, basé sur les services hospitaliers (dont les urgences) ; il est quasi-exhaustif : env. 1100 blessés à vélo/an versus 120 dans les données officielles. L'ensemble des cycl...

  12. Table des tableaux

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Présentation schématique de la production et de la transformation de l’acier 16 Chronologie des nationalisations en France 33 Importations de coke de la France 48 Comparaison entre les prix de l’acier en Allemagne et en France, août 1949 99 Prix du marché intérieur et du marché mondial pour les laminés marchands (qualité Thomas) 101 Évolution de la production allemande et française d’acier brut 119 Comparaison des coûts de l’extraction de charbon en Allemagne et en France, 1949 138 Évolution ...

  13. Table des illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Illustration de couverture : Dolmen n° 2 des Géandes avec le Mont Ventoux en arrière-plan, octobre 2006 (cliché Wolfgang Pape). Illustration de la quatrième de couverture : René Gilles sur le dolmen n° 5 des Géandes en mars 1989 (cliché Wolfgang Pape). Fig. 1 - Gorges de l’Ardèche au niveau de la grotte de Saint-Marcel (cliché Bernard Gély) 21 Fig. 2 - Doline de Bidon (cliché Wolfgang Pape) 21 Fig. 3 - Paysage de garrigue (cliché Wolfgang Pape) 22 Fig. 4 - Données radio-chronométriques de l’A...

  14. Phenotypic and genetic diversity in Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae from drought and salt affected regions of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udupa Sripada M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae are symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria in root nodules of forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. In Morocco, alfalfa is usually grown in marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions frequently affected by drought, extremes of temperature and soil pH, soil salinity and heavy metals, which affect biological nitrogen fixing ability of rhizobia and productivity of the host. This study examines phenotypic diversity for tolerance to the above stresses and genotypic diversity at Repetitive Extragenic Pallindromic DNA regions of Sinorhizobium nodulating alfalfa, sampled from marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco. Results RsaI digestion of PCR amplified 16S rDNA of the 157 sampled isolates, assigned 136 isolates as S. meliloti and the rest as S. medicae. Further phenotyping of these alfalfa rhizobia for tolerance to the environmental stresses revealed a large degree of variation: 55.41%, 82.16%, 57.96% and 3.18% of the total isolates were tolerant to NaCl (>513 mM, water stress (-1.5 MPa, high temperature (40°C and low pH (3.5, respectively. Sixty-seven isolates of S. meliloti and thirteen isolates of S. medicae that were tolerant to salinity were also tolerant to water stress. Most of the isolates of the two species showed tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Mn and Zn and antibiotics (chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin and tetracycline. The phenotypic clusters observed by the cluster analysis clearly showed adaptations of the S. meliloti and S. medicae strains to the multiple stresses. Genotyping with rep-PCR revealed higher genetic diversity within these phenotypic clusters and classified all the 157 isolates into 148 genotypes. No relationship between genotypic profiles and the phenotypes was observed. The Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that largest proportion of significant (P Conclusion High degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity is present in S

  15. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    accroissement des pressions sur les écosystèmes et les espèces qu‟ils renferment. La pollution de ... Exacerbée par le changement climatique, cette anthropisation .... majeure partie de son aire de répartition. .... de cette région. .... savoir les impacts à plus grande échelle et ..... habitats et la totalité de l'aire géographique.

  16. Le vernis des apparences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Nicosia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est de comprendre l’incidence sémiotique du nettoyage d’un tableau ainsi que la résultante cognitive induite sur l’observateur. Cette étude confronte l’analyse des phénomènes visuels engendrés par le jaunissement du vernis et son retrait, à des entretiens réalisés à dessein. Le retrait d’un vernis jauni change considérablement l’image. L’heure, le climat, la saison et l’activité même des personnages s’en trouvent ainsi modifié. La patine peut être perçue, soit comme un obstacle à l’exploration, soit pour ceux qui l’apprécient, comme le medium d’une relation plus intime entre l’œuvre et l’observateur.The purpose of this article is to understand the semiotic impact of the cleaning of a painting and the cognitive effects induced on the observer. This study analyses conjointly the visual phenomenon generated by yellowing varnish and its removal and controlled interviews of observers.The removal of yellowing varnish modifies considerably the perception of the picture. Daytime, climate, season and characters activities are modified. The patina may be perceived either as an obstacle to the painting exploration, or, for those who appreciate it, as a medium for a closer relationship between the painting and the observer.

  17. Dictionnaire des risques psychosociaux

    CERN Document Server

    Zawieja, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Stress, suicide, harcèlement, épuisement professionnel, workaholism... Au-delà de la souffrance qu'elles désignent, ces notions souvent récentes constituent une approche inédite, et demandent à mieux être comprises, dans leur ensemble et isolément. C'est tout l'enjeu de ce dictionnaire, pionnier en son genre. Le lecteur y trouvera représentés, avec les 314 entrées (rédigées par 251 contributeurs) qui le composent, tous les champs disciplinaires s'intéressant à la souffrance au travail : psychologie du travail et des organisations, psychologie sociale et psychosociologie, psychanalyse, psychopathologie et psychiatrie, ergonomie, sociologie du travail et des organisations, médecine du travail, droit du travail et de la sécurité sociale, sciences de gestion, philosophie... Y sont détaillés les principaux concepts, notions, approches, méthodes, théories, outils, études, etc., ayant cours dans l'étude des risques psychosociaux, mais aussi certaines professions emblématiques (infirmières,...

  18. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  19. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  20. Etude des cas: Gestion alternatîves des conflits

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, H.

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record Pour mieux consolider les acquis consensuels pour la gestion alternative des conflits, il nous paraît essentiel de maîtriser un certain nombre de facteurs ayant trait au "partage" des gommeraies entre autres: Available in SANREM office, FS

  1. Erros de medicação: quem foi? Medication errors: who is responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Borges Rosa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Novas tecnologias diagnósticas e terapêuticas são cada vez mais utilizadas, melhorando a qualidade assistencial e aumentando a expectativa de vida; entretanto, a atenção à saúde vem se tornando mais cara e complexa. Os eventos adversos relacionados à assistência, especialmente os erros, são cada vez mais conhecidos, discutidos e julgados em tribunais. Os profissionais de saúde, devido à sua formação, não estão preparados para lidar com os erros, pois estes estão associados à vergonha, ao medo e às punições. A abordagem dos erros no sistema de saúde é, geralmente, feita de forma individualista, considerando os erros como atos inseguros cometidos por pessoas desatentas, desmotivadas e com treinamento deficiente. Quando o erro ocorre, a tendência é escondê-lo, perdendo-se oportunidade importante de aprendizado. Existe outro modo de lidar com erros, a visão sistêmica, que na sua aplicação apresenta bons resultados em setores como aviação, anestesia e sistemas de distribuição de medicamentos por dose unitária. Os sistemas possuem graus variados de segurança e devem levar em conta, na sua construção e funcionamento, as limitações humanas. Em relação ao uso dos medicamentos, uma mudança de paradigma é necessária, pois não basta um medicamento ter qualidade garantida, mas o seu processo de utilização também deve ser seguro. Os erros de medicação, que são por definição evitáveis, são atualmente um sério problema de saúde pública, levando a perdas de vidas e desperdício importante de recursos financeiros. A abordagem sistêmica dos erros de medicação poderá revelar as falhas do processo, sendo possível implementar melhorias, diminuindo, assim, a ocorrência desses eventos.New diagnostic and therapeutic technologies are used with growing frequency, improving the quality of medical assistance and increasing life expectancy. Health care, however, is becoming progressively more expensive and

  2. Effect of intracanal medicaments on push-out bond strength of Smart-Seal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Hegde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effects of calcium hydroxide (CH, triple and double antibiotic pastes (DAPs on the bond strength of Smart-Seal obturation, C-points with Endosequence Bio-ceramic (BC sealer to the root canal dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four freshly extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were de-coronated and prepared using rotary Pro-taper system with full sequence till F3. The specimens were randomly divided into a control group (without intracanal dressing and 3 experimental groups that received an intracanal dressing with either CH, DAP, or triple antibiotic paste (TAP (n = 16. The intracanal dressing was removed after 3 weeks by rinsing with 10 mL 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, followed by 10 mL 3% sodium hypochlorite. The root canals were then obturated with C-points and Endosequence BC sealer. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the root canal dentin and the obturating system. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: The push-out bond strength values were significantly affected by the intracanal medicaments (P 0.05. In the middle and apical third, the bond strength of the TAP group was higher than those of the CH and DAP groups (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The DAP and CH did not affect the bond strength of the novel hydrophilic obutrating system. TAP improved the bond strength of Smart-Seal system in the middle and apical thirds.

  3. What has been overlooked on study of Chinese materia medica in the West?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Willow J H

    2015-07-01

    Chinese materia medica (CMM), including Chinese herbal, animal, and mineral medicine, has been widely researched in the past century for their biological and pharmacological activities. However, their mechanism and clinical efficacy studies did not always give expected results. For example, the most commonly used Chinese herb for menstrual disorders, Radix Angelicae sinensis, showed neither estrogenic nor progesteronic activity in laboratory and clinical studies. Its efficacy should not be denied simply based on such results, because it is mostly used together with other herbs in formulae. Moreover, its regulation on menstruation may take effect through other mechanisms, such as regulation of blood circulation. The key difference of Chinese medicine (CM) from conventional medicine is its unique holistic view on human body and diseases. CMM is mostly applied in clinic in the form of formulae. Study on individual CMM, simply using methods for development of conventional drugs, is unable to thoroughly reveal the power of CMM formulae. The reason may partly result from improper design due to the lack understanding about application principle of CMMs in CM, and/or to current lack of knowledge about the causes of some symptoms and diseases. This paper will introduce the importance of qi and blood in CM etiology and pathology, Zheng differentiation, formulation of CMMs, and explain why one formula can treat different diseases and one disease can be treated with different formulae. Examples in the paper will demonstrate that proper studies on Zheng and its corresponding clinically proven formulae could help scientists find new direction to explain and treat symptoms and diseases that so far modern medicine has been unable to, provided that the designer properly understands CM theories, etiology and pathology of CM, as well as modern medicine. Strategy suggestions about research methods for CMM and its formulae will be given at the end.

  4. Missile Aerodynamics (Aerodynamique des Missiles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    guerre froide la production des missiles a baisse’, avec pour consequence une diminution des budgets de d6veloppement. Les nouveaux types de conflits ...Roma) Directeur - Gestion de l’information LUXEMBOURG (Recherche et developpement) - DRDGI 3 Voir Belgique Ministbre de la Difense nationale NORVEGE

  5. Therapie des Status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinka E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Status epilepticus (SE ist nach dem Schlaganfall der häufigste neurologische Notfall. Er stellt als generaliserter konvulsiver SE (GKSE die schwerste Ausprägung eines epileptischen Anfalls dar, der mit einer signifikanten Morbidität und einer ca. 20%igen Letalität verbunden ist. Nur bei der Hälfte der Patienten mit SE besteht zuvor eine Epilepsie; die meisten Fälle sind symptomatisch, wobei Schädel- Hirn-Traumata, zerebrovaskuläre Erkrankungen, ZNS-Infektionen und metabolische Ursachen führend sind. Bei Patienten mit vorbestehender Epilepsie lässt sich eine frühe Phase des GKSE erkennen, in der die Anfälle crescendoartig zunehmen, bis sie in kontinuierliche Anfallsaktivität münden (etablierte Phase. Das Management eines GKSE verlangt rasches und beherztes Vorgehen. Neben der sofort einzuleitenden Therapie muss gleichzeitig die artdiagnostische Zuordnung des SE und die Ursache erkannt und behandelt werden. Als Therapie der ersten Wahl sind Benzodiazepine etabliert, wobei intravenösem (i.v. Lorazepam gegenüber Diazepam der Vorzug zu geben ist. Versagt die Therapie mit Benzodiazepinen, muss rasch und konsequent nach einem Stufenschema vorgegangen werden. Phenytoin/Fosphenytoin, Valproinsäure, Levetiracetam und Lacosamid sind als i.v. Formulierung erhältliche Antiepileptika. Obwohl Vergleichsstudien hier fehlen, wird Phenytoin bevorzugt. Valproat und Levetiracetam sind nicht sedierend und kardiovaskulär gut verträglich, sodass hier Alternativen zu Phenytoin vorhanden sind. Lacosamid ist eine neue Therapieoption, deren Stellenwert erst bestimmt werden muss. Versagt auch die zweite Therapiestufe, so muss der Patient intubiert und in Allgemeinanästhesie intensivmedizinisch behandelt werden. Dafür stehen Thiopental, Propofol oder hoch dosiertes Midazolam zu Verfügung. Durch den eklatanten Mangel an randomisierten Studien bleibt die Therapie des GKSE empirisch und durch den Off-label-Einsatz gekennzeichnet.

  6. Mécanique des fluides

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Y A

    2017-01-01

    La mécanique des fluides est un outil performant qui permet d'expliquer les phénomènes qui nous entourent de l'échelle microscopique à l'échelle macroscopique. Elle est aussi à la base du développement de nombreuses technologies. Cet ouvrage à destination des étudiants donne une vision complète de la mécanique des fluides. Bien que la mécanique des fluides puisse souvent paraître rébarbative aux yeux des étudiants, cet ouvrage valorise ce domaine d'enseignement en l'illustrant de nombreux exemples issus de l'ingénierie navale, l'aéronautique, la météorologie, etc.

  7. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils.

  8. Molekulare Formen des PSA in der Diagnostik des Prostatakarzinoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lein M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Das prostataspezifische Antigen ist die wichtigste Kenngröße in der Diagnostik und Therapieüberwachung des Prostatakarzinoms. Zur besseren Abgrenzung zwischen Männern mit und ohne Prostatakarzinom, aber auch zur Früherkennung, haben sich die molekularen Formen des PSA als wertvolle Entscheidungshilfen erwiesen. Es wird eine Übersicht über bisher vorliegende Informationen zur Aussagekraft des freien PSA, des an alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin gebundenen PSA und des komplexierten PSA (cPSA zusammen mit eigenen Resultaten gegeben. Der Quotient aus freiem und Gesamt-PSA hat sich als eine wichtige Entscheidungsgröße in der urologischen Praxis etabliert, mit der Sensitivität und Spezifität der Prostatakarzinomdiagnostik verbessert werden. Die Zahl von Prostatastanzbiopsien im Gesamt-PSA-Bereich von 4–10 ng/ml kann damit reduziert werden. Ein diagnostischer Vorteil der alleinigen Bestimmung des komplexierten PSA bzw. der entsprechenden Quotienten im Vergleich zum Gesamt-PSA und des Quotienten freies PSA zu Gesamt-PSA konnte bisher nicht sicher nachgewiesen werden.

  9. Time-dependent effectiveness of the intracanal medicaments used for pulp revascularization on the dislocation resistance of MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tugba; Ozisik, Beyza; Aydin, Berdan

    2015-10-23

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the time-dependent effectiveness of the intracanal medicaments used in pulp revascularization on the dislocation resistance of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). One hundred ninety-two extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were sectioned apically 12 mm below and coronally 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction. Roots were enlarged to size 40 (Protaper F4). Next, Peeso reamers from #1 to #5 were used sequentially. Sodium hypochlorite (2.5 %), EDTA (17 %), and distilled water were used in final irrigation. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 48): Group 1, in which triple antibiotic paste (TAP) (ciprofloxacin + metronidazole + minocycline) was prepared and delivered into the canals using a lentulo spiral; Group 2, in which double antibiotic paste (DAP) (ciprofloxacin + metronidazole) was placed into the canals; Group 3, in which calcium hydroxide paste (CH) (calcium hydroxide + distilled water) was introduced into the roots; and Group 4 (control), in which no medicament was applied into the root canals. Then, the samples were kept in saline solution for 2, 4, and 12 weeks, after which time 16 roots were selected randomly from each group, representing the samples of each time point. After removal of the medicaments, MTA was placed into the coronal third of the roots, and the samples were incubated for 7 days. A push-out test was used to measure the dislocation resistance (DR) of MTA. The data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's pairwise comparisons (p = 0.05). The time factor displayed a significant effect on the DR of MTA (p MTA. No significant differences were found between the time points in the control group (p > 0.05). The type and the intracanal duration of medicaments used for pulp revascularization should be chosen carefully to provide maximum antimicrobial effect while creating a favorable environment both for stem cell attachment and MTA

  10. [Analysis of projects funded by NSFC in field of processing Chinese materia medica in recent five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Xia, Xing; He, Bo-sai; Hah, Li-wei

    2015-05-01

    The general situation of the approved and concluded projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China in the field of processing Chinese Materia Medica in recent five years has been reviewed. The progresses and achievements of some projects have been summarized in accordance with research area such as the processing principle, the processing technology, quality evaluation, toxicity and safety evaluation, etc. The researchers and project support units of the funded projects have been analyzed, and the problems of the applications have been also summarized.

  11. De materia medica versus codex alimentarius for the reinforcement of the gynecologic immune system: the case of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Since the first Pharmacopoeia under the title "De Materia Medica," the importance of the utilization of plants and herbs has been an invaluable medicinal tool successfully employed for strengthening the immune system for combating a number of diseases in general, or assisting fertility and reproductive issues in particular. The beneficial use of herbal extracts, constituting the basis of modern medicines, is lately under the shadow of Codex Alimentarius that threatens, if not properly applied, serious immunity features rendering the host defenseless for intercepting harmful invaders, one of which is the mesenchymal endometriotic stem cell causing endometriosis.

  12. [Study on processing adjuvant medicines in Lei Gong's treatise on preparation and broiling of materia medica (Leigong Paozhi Lun)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruixian

    2010-09-01

    There were 268 kinds of medicines recorded in the book of Lei Gong's Treatise on preparation and broiling of materia medica (Leigong Paozhi Lun). Among these medicines, 178 medicines were prepared with adjuvant medicines, including general and special compatible adjuvant medicines. These adjuvant medicines used in this book can be explained by the theory of "seven-relation compatibility". The author tried to explain the usage and their compatibility of these adjuvant medicines and put forward that attention should be paid to the changes in functions of medicines and the influences of society should be paid attention.

  13. Mécanique des sols et des roches

    CERN Document Server

    Vullier, Laurent; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    La mécanique des sols et la mécanique des roches sont des disciplines généralement traitées séparément dans la littérature. Pour la première fois, un traité réunit ces deux spécialités, en intégrant également les connaissances en lien avec les écoulements souterrains et les transferts thermiques. A la fois théorique et pratique, cet ouvrage propose tout d'abord une description détaillée de la nature et de la composition des sols et des roches, puis s'attache à la modélisation de problèmes aux conditions limites et présente les essais permettant de caractériser les sols et les roches, tant d'un point de vue mécanique qu'hydraulique et thermique. La problématique des sols non saturés et des écoulements multiphasiques est également abordée. Une attention particulière est portée aux lois de comportement mécanique et à la détermination de leurs paramètres par des essais in situ et en laboratoire, et l'ouvrage offre également une présentation détaillée des systèmes de classi...

  14. Le silence des agneaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARD ROY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte est avant tout une réflexion sur la notion d'obéissance, initiée à partir de deux évènements impliquant étroitement des membres de la profession infirmière. L'auteur se réjouit de la prise de parole et de l'implication directe d'infirmières dans le contexte du printemps érable. Il estime que la posture de ces infirmières s'inscrit dans ce que l'éthicien Guy Durand, appelle une obéissance autonome qui peut, du coup, mener à la désobéissance civile, à l'objection de conscience. En prenant exemple sur le silence des infirmières dans le contexte de la fermeture de postes d'infirmières en Minganie, l'auteur estime que cette posture est marginale chez les infirmières qui, majoritairement, adoptent une position de soumission et d'obéissance hétéronome.

  15. La médicalisation des humeurs des enfants

    OpenAIRE

    Monzée, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Les enfants qui ont des comportements dérangeants ou qui souffrent de problèmes neurologiques, comme le trouble déficitaire de l’attention avec ou sans hyperactivité (TDAH), remettent en question nos moyens d’intervention pour les aider. Alors que le contexte européen tend à privilégier une intervention psychoéducative, les milieux nord-américains recourent davantage aux psychostimulants pour réduire les effets des problèmes comportementaux des enfants. Cet article aborde quelques problématiq...

  16. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  17. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  18. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  19. Habilitations à diriger des recherches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Corbin, Avec des dictionnaires pour compagnons.Habilitation à diriger des recherches soutenue le 24 novembre 2006.Composition du juryHenri Béjoint (Lyon 2Franz Josef Hausmann (Erlangen-NürnbergBenoît Habert (Paris 10Pierre Rézeau (CNRSMichel Roché (Toulouse 2Danièle Van de Velde (Lille 3, UMR STL, Directrice d'habilitation.Philippe Sabot, La philosophie, entre pratiques de lecture et pratiques d'écritureHabilitation à diriger des recherches soutenue le 24 novembre 2006.Compositio...

  20. Des cartes dans la classe…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gimeno

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available La majorité des enseignants qui veulent faire des cartes — et les faire réaliser aux élèves — pour répondre aux exigences des instructions officielles, doivent surmonter leur manque de compétences en cartographie et en didactique ainsi que les difficultés propres aux logiciels de cartographie encore peu performants. Ces compétences et la réflexion qui les accompagne sont pourtant accessibles aux enfants de l’école élémentaire…

  1. Manual. Communication strategies for increasing the environmental awareness dealing with medicaments; Handbuch. Kommunikationsstrategien zur Schaerfung des Umweltbewusstseins im Umgang mit Arzneimitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Konrad; Benzing, Corinne; Deffner, Jutta; Keil, Florian

    2011-07-01

    In Germany and almost in all industrialized countries, active drugs ingredients are found in almost all waters and occasionally in drinking water. First signs of effects on aquatic organisms are detected. Among the main players in the health care system, this issue largely is unknown. Only on the basis of a sensibilization, strategies can be implemented in order to raise awareness and ultimately to achieve enlightenment and behavioural changes. This includes issues of prescribing, compliance, non-pharmacological disease prevention through to the doctor-patient relationship.

  2. Medication for Military Aircrew: Current Use, Issues, and Strategies for Expanded Options (les medicaments pour les equipaes militaires: Consommation actuelle, questions et strategies pour des options elargies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    have produced no suspicious signs of cancer . PHARMACOLOGICAL INTEREST FOR HEALTHY SUBJECTS Experiments involving healthy human subjects are...drugs which affect vascular tone usually affect the pulmonic as well as the systemic vasculature, which could in turn affect hypoxic pulmonary

  3. Effect of Calcium Hydroxide Based Intracanal Medicaments on the Apical Sealing Ability of Resin Based Sealer and Guttapercha Obturated Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanthini, MV; Shenoy, Vanitha U; Bodhwani, Mohit A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Calcium Hydroxide (CH) is one of the most commonly used intracanal medicaments which can be used with various vehicles. Aim The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of three CH based intracanal medicaments on the apical sealing ability of AH Plus – guttapercha obturation. Materials and Methods Crowns of 100 extracted single rooted human teeth were sectioned at the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) to a standardized length. The root canals were instrumented upto ISO size 40 using step back technique and the specimens were randomly divided into two control and four experimental groups. The control groups were not medicated. Specimens in positive control group (Group I) were obturated with guttapercha without placing sealer and in negative control group (Group II) were obturated with guttapercha and AH Plus sealer. Among the experimental groups, specimens of Group III were not medicated while groups IV, V and VI were medicated with CH-saline, CH-2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Vitapex respectively for a period of 14 days. The medicaments were removed from the specimens and the teeth were obturated with AH Plus sealer and guttapercha using lateral compaction technique. The specimens were immersed in India ink dye, demineralized and diphanized. The extent of dye penetration was assessed using a 10X stereomicroscope. Data obtained was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA (p<0.05) followed by Post-hoc Tukey test. Results Amongst the three CH medicaments, CH-2% CHX when used as an intracanal medicament showed a significantly higher microleakage as compared to the other groups with p<0.001. The microleakage values between the remaining groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion Under the conditions of this study it was concluded that all groups with or without intracanal medicament showed apical leakage. The vehicle used to carry CH may significantly influence the apical sealing ability of guttapercha – AH Plus obturated canals. PMID

  4. [Effect of multicomponent environment on intestinal permeability of puerarin in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Gang; Dong, Ling; Tang, Ming-Min; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Dong, Hong-Huant; Hou, Cheng-Bo

    2014-12-01

    The evaluation of permeability in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) requires multicomponent as a whole in order to conduct research, even in the study of a specific component, should also be put in the multicomponent environment. Based on this principle, the high content components in Gegen Qinlian decoction were used as multicomponent environmental impact factors in the experiment, and the relevant parameters of intestinal permeability about puerarin were measured with using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model, to investigate and evaluate the intestinal permeability of puerarin with other high content components. The experimental results showed that different proportions of baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid and berberine had certain influence on intestinal permeability of puerarin, and glycyrrhizic acid could significantly inhibit the intestinal absorption of puerarin, moreover, high concentration of berberine could promote the absorption of puerarin. The research results indicated that the important research ideas of permeability evaluation in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica with fully considering the effects of other ingredients in multicomponent environment.

  5. Clinical and radiographical evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate, biodentine and propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kusum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, Biodentine and Propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary dentition, both clinically and radiographically. Materials and Methods A total of 75 healthy 3 to 10 yr old children each having at least one carious primary molar tooth were selected. Random assignment of the pulpotomy medicaments was done as follows: Group I, MTA; Group II, Biodentine; Group III, Propolis. All the pulpotomized teeth were evaluated at 3, 6, and 9 mon clinically and radiographically, based on the scoring criteria system. Results The clinical success rates were found to be similar among the three groups at 3 and 6 mon where as a significant decrease in success rate was observed in Group III (84% compared to both Group I (100% and Group II (100% at 9 mon. Radiographic success rates over a period of 9 mon in Groups I, II, and III were 92, 80, and 72%, respectively. Conclusions Teeth treated with MTA and Biodentine showed more favorable clinical and radiographic success as compared to Propolis at 9 mon follow-up.

  6. Genome sequence of Ensifer medicae Di28; an effective N2-fixing microsymbiont of Medicago murex and M. polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Giovanni; Terpolilli, Jason; Hill, Yvette; Tian, Rui; Howieson, John; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Ensifer medicae Di28 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Medicago spp. Di28 was isolated in 1998 from a nodule recovered from the roots of M. polymorpha growing in the south east of Sardinia (Italy). Di28 is an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes M. polymorpha and M. murex and is capable of establishing a partially effective symbiotic association with the perennial M. sativa. Here we describe the features of E. medicae Di28, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,553,624 bp standard draft genome is arranged into 104 scaffolds of 104 contigs containing 6,394 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  7. Genome sequence of Ensifer medicae strain WSM1115; an acid-tolerant Medicago-nodulating microsymbiont from Samothraki, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Ballard, Ross; Howieson, John; Drew, Elizabeth; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Munk, Christine; Davenport, Karen; Chain, Patrick; Goodwin, Lynne; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Pati, Amrita; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer medicae strain WSM1115 forms effective nitrogen fixing symbioses with a range of annual Medicago species and is used in commercial inoculants in Australia. WSM1115 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod. It was isolated from a nodule recovered from the root of burr medic (Medicago polymorpha) collected on the Greek Island of Samothraki. WSM1115 has a broad host range for nodulation and N2 fixation capacity within the genus Medicago, although this does not extend to all medic species. WSM1115 is considered saprophytically competent in moderately acid soils (pH(CaCl2) 5.0), but it has failed to persist at field sites where soil salinity exceeded 10 ECe (dS/m). Here we describe the features of E. medicae strain WSM1115, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,861,065 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 28 contigs, contains 6,789 protein-coding genes and 83 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  8. Clinical and radiographical evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate, biodentine and propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, Kumar; Richa, Khanna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine and Propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary dentition, both clinically and radiographically. Materials and Methods A total of 75 healthy 3 to 10 yr old children each having at least one carious primary molar tooth were selected. Random assignment of the pulpotomy medicaments was done as follows: Group I, MTA; Group II, Biodentine; Group III, Propolis. All the pulpotomized teeth were evaluated at 3, 6, and 9 mon clinically and radiographically, based on the scoring criteria system. Results The clinical success rates were found to be similar among the three groups at 3 and 6 mon where as a significant decrease in success rate was observed in Group III (84%) compared to both Group I (100%) and Group II (100%) at 9 mon. Radiographic success rates over a period of 9 mon in Groups I, II, and III were 92, 80, and 72%, respectively. Conclusions Teeth treated with MTA and Biodentine showed more favorable clinical and radiographic success as compared to Propolis at 9 mon follow-up. PMID:26587413

  9. Wider die Verherrlichung des Weiblichen : Kritik des Ökofeminismus

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Iman

    1991-01-01

    Die Studie ist eine Kritik am Frauen- und Gesellschaftsbild des Ökofeminismus. Nach der Darstellung wesentlicher theoretischer Kategorien des Ökofeminismus, die sich zentrieren im Ideal der Hausarbeit als wichtigste Form von Subsistenzarbeit, stellt die Autorin zusammenfassend fest, daß der Ökofeminismus die gesellschaftlichen Unterschiede und historischen Veränderungen ignoriert, indem er den Weiblichkeitsbegriff aus der Gebärfähigkeit ableitet. Jede Ausbeutungsform wird reduziert auf biolog...

  10. [Classes of crude drugs and its distribution of producing area in the attached illustrations in Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Peng, H S

    2016-03-01

    Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica) is the earliest extant atlas book of materia medica in China, with 933 attached drawings. Among them, the largest portion, amounting to 670, are herbaceous plants, mostly commonly used, with definite marks of the origin producing areas, distributed across 149 administrative divisions(prefectures and counties) of the Song Dynasty, most of them in Northern area which were distributed denser than those in Southern area. The densest ones were located in Southern Shanxi, Eastern Sichuan and Eastern Anhui. In the attached drawings, the frequency of highest occurrence appeared in this Classic are three prefectures, Chuzhou, Shizhou and Guangzhou.

  11. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay.

  12. 中药DNA条形码鉴定体系及研究方向%Identification System and Perspective for DNA Barcoding Traditional Chinese Materia Medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士林; 庞晓慧; 姚辉; 韩建萍; 罗焜

    2011-01-01

    近年来,中药DNA条形码分子鉴定得到快速发展,加快了中药鉴定标准化的进程.通过中药DNA条形码鉴定研究,我国首次提出将ITS2序列作为药用植物鉴定的通用条形码序列,并建立以ITS2为核心、psbA -trnH为补充序列的植物类药材DNA条形码鉴定体系和以COI序列为核心、ITS2为辅助序列的动物类药材DNA条形码鉴定体系,为中药DNA条形码鉴定的发展奠定了坚实基础.本文结合课题组研究工作就构建中药DNA条形码鉴定体系进行了综述,包括中药DNA条形码序列的筛选确定、中药DNA条形码鉴定流程和中药DNA条形码鉴定数据库系统构建,并介绍了中药DNA条形码鉴定的研究方向.%DNA barcoding in Traditional Chinese Materia Medica has developed rapidly in recent years, which accelerates the progress of standardization in identifying Traditional Chinese Materia Medica. Chen et al. First proposed that ITS2 locus can be used as the standard barcode for identifying medicinal plant species based on an extensive study on DNA barcoding in Traditional Chinese Materia Medica. Meanwhile, the systems for barcoding medicinal plants based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH and for authenticating medicinal animals based on COI+ITS2 have been established, providing a basis for the development of DNA barcoding in Traditional Chinese Materia Medica. In this review, we summarize the establishment of the system for barcoding Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, including the selection and determination of DNA barcodes, the identification process of DNA barcoding in Traditional Chinese Materia Medica and building the database system of DNA barcoding in Traditional Chinese Materia Medica. Moreover, we describe the perspective for further research on DNA barcoding in Traditional Chinese Materia Medica.

  13. [Applications and spproved projects of general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liwei; Wang, Yueyun; He, Wenbin; Zhang, Junjie; Bi, Minggang; Shang, Hongcai; Shang, Deyang; Wang, Chang'en

    2012-03-01

    The applications accepted and approved by general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in the discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2011 have been introduced. The character and problems in these applications have been analyzed to give a reference to the scientists in the field of Chinese material medica.

  14. La fabrique des extraterrestres

    OpenAIRE

    Poulain, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Grâce à différentes stratégies discursives et médiatiques, Radio Ici et Maintenant joue un rôle dans la fabrication de la rumeur de l’existence des extraterrestres. Cette rumeur, teintée de complot, doit servir à légitimer l’utopie messianique et millénariste de cette radio New Age qui dispose de 5 000 auditeurs au quotidien. Cette radio prophétique et thérapeutique participe donc, jusqu’à un certain degré, au renouvellement de l’espace du politico-religieux. Thanks to various media and di...

  15. Therapie des Harnwegsinfekts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiser B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Harnwegsinfektionen gehören zu den häufigsten entzündlichen Erkrankungen im niedergelassenen Bereich. Eine intelligente Therapiestrategie stellt damit nicht nur eine klinische Herausforderung dar, sondern ermöglicht rasche Heilung, Vermeidung von Resistenzbildungen sowie oft unnötiger, teurer diagnostischer Schritte. Der erste entscheidende Schritt ist die genaue Klassifizierung des Harnweginfektes – asymptomatische Bakteriurie bis zur komplizierten Pyelonephritis. Hier entscheiden sich bereits Aggressivität der Behandlung sowie diagnostischer Aufwand. Für die Entwicklung einer empirischen antimikrobiellen Therapie ist die Kenntnis der häufigsten Erreger sowie lokaler Resistenzmuster wichtig. Bei gezieltem Vorgehen können die meisten Harnwegsinfekte ohne erhöhten diagnostischen Aufwand therapiert werden.

  16. LA TRADUCTION DES PREPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira MOUTAKIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available L’idée de cet article nous est venue d’un cours qu’on assure pour les futurs guides touristiques en Jordanie. En traduisant des textes - français-arabe ou arabe-français, les étudiants se heurtent à certains problèmes pour rendre le texte vers la langue cible et qui soit convenable syntaxiquement et sémantiquement. On a remarqué donc que la traduction des prépositions vers l’une ou l’autre langue présente un dilemme pour les apprenants. On a décidé de composer un corpus de phrases contenant les propositions en français, « à » avec toutes ses formes, « dans et sur » et de l'arabe "على", "في" . Dans un premier temps, on a constitué le corpus avec 25 phrases dans les deux langues et on les a soumises aux étudiants, la liste en français aux étudiants du niveau A2 et la liste ne arabe aux étudiants du niveau A1. Par la suite, on a dégagé ce qui ressort de leurs traductions ce qui nous a permis de faire une analyse sémantico-syntaxique assez détaillée. En conclusion de cet article, on présente les résultats de cette expérience très intéressante.

  17. Marais Des Cygnes Wildlife Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brochure is for the Marais des Cygnes Wildlife Area, managed by Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism, and located in the floodplain of the Marais...

  18. Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes (Europas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Gruber, M. R. (2011, 13 December). Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes (Europas). Guest lecture at the IPMZ - Institute of Mass Communication and Media Research, Devision Media Change & Innovation, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...

  20. Screening phytochimique et identification spectroscopique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Origin

    PlantaMedica., 66, (2000) 279-281. ... falcarindiolfuranocoumarin ethers from the root of Angelica japonica, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 47(1),. (1999) 96-100. [35] - D. Egan, R. O'kennedy, E. Moran, D. Cox, E. Prosser et D. Thornes, Drug. Metabolism ...

  1. Terre des hommes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    Transformez votre téléphone portable en geste de solidarité ! Collecte du 12 au 23 novembre 2012   Faites un geste simple et utile en déposant vos téléphones portables inutilisés dans les urnes installées dans les trois restaurants du CERN. En Suisse, une personne change tous les 12 à 18 mois de téléphone portable. La plupart de nos vieux appareils sont simplement laissés à l’abandon avec comme seule fonction de parer une éventuelle panne à venir. On  estime ainsi que 8 millions de portables sont inutilisés, alors qu'entre 30 et 50% peuvent être réutilisés. L'action Solidarcomm leur offre une deuxième vie ! Terre des Hommes Suisse, dans le cadre de la campagne Solidarcomm, collecte et valorise vos téléphones inutilis&...

  2. Onlinespieler abseits des Mainstreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Baumgartlinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MMO(RPGs „Massively Multiplayer Online (Role-Playing Games“ nehmen einen Sonderstatus unter den Onlinespielen ein, welcher durch den wachsenden wirtschaftlichen Erfolg, insbesondere durch den „breakthrough hit“ (Duchenaut et al. 2006: 407 World of Warcraft (WoW, auch an Bedeutung für die Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaft gewinnt (vgl. Inderst 2009: 15; vgl. Seifert/Jöckel 2008: 297. Der Primus des Genres, WoW, repräsentiert gemeinsam mit einigen nahezu identen Titeln insgesamt 85 Prozent der gespielten MMOGs (vgl. Williams et al. 2008: 999. Daher befasst sich auch die Mehrheit der vorliegenden Studien mit eben diesen Spielen. Neue Formen von MMO(Gs können jedoch zu ebenso neuartigen Spielerfahrungen führen und damit unterschiedliche Nutzungsmotive befriedigen (vgl. Seifert/Jöckel 2008: 309 und folglich zu einem gänzlich anderen Spielerleben führen. Während im Mainstream die kooperativen Spielerbeziehungen überwiegen, dominiert in Darkfall Online der soziale Wettbewerb. Der von Williams et al. 2008 verwendete Fragebogen diente als Rohling für die Kreation eines für die speziellen Anforderungen adaptierten Erhebungstools zur Erforschung der Spielertypologie und der Motive der Darkfall-Online-SpielerInnen. Die in der Onlinebefragung (N = 506 gesammelten Daten belegen, dass sich sowohl die Spielerdemographie, als auch die Motive der Spieler von den Mainstream MMOs unterscheiden. Zudem konnten realweltliche Eigenschaften der Spieler als signifikante Einflussfaktoren für die Spielzuwendung identifiziert werden.

  3. Peste des petits ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Twenty years of society of medical informatics of b&h and the journal acta informatica medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-03-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Acta Informatica Medica"; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina.

  5. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time.

  6. La rilevanza del concetto medico-legale di «complicanze» nei giudizi di responsabilità medica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Faccioli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la pronuncia n. 13328 del 30 giugno 2015, la Corte di Cassazione si è occupata della rilevanza che nei giudizi di responsabilità civile medica deve attribuirsi al concetto di «complicanza», espressione con la quale – secondo la Suprema Corte – «la medicina clinica e la medicina legale designano solitamente un evento dannoso, insorto nel corso dell’iter terapeutico, che pur essendo astrattamente prevedibile, non sarebbe evitabile» e che, come tale, esclude la sussistenza della responsabilità in discorso. Affermando principi che, come meglio vedremo, sembrano porsi in distonia con il consolidato orientamento giurisprudenziale in materia, la pronuncia in esame ha sostenuto che «tale concetto è inutile nel campo giuridico.

  7. [Study on supply and demand relation based on two stages division of market of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Nuo; Zeng, Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    The complex production processes and long industrial chain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) market result in difficulty in Chinese market microstructure research. Based on the defining the logical relationships among different concepts. This paper divides TCM market into two stages as Chinese materia medica resource market and traditional Chinese Patent Medicines market. Under this foundation, we investigated the supply capacity, approaching rules and motivation system of suppliers in TCM market, analyzed the demand situation in the perspective of demand side, and evaluated the purchasing power in terms of population profile, income, and insurance. Furthermore we also analyzed the price formation mechanism in two stages of TCM market. We hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on TCM market related research.

  8. An automated method for the determination of deoxyribonuclease activity as exemplified by fractionation of the components of the medicament Varidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, I C; Ramsey, M P; Hill, S S; Carpenter, B G

    1993-01-01

    The activity of most deoxyribonuclease enzymes can be monitored by measuring the change in absorbance at 260 nm which accompanies the breakdown of the double-stranded structure of native DNA. An automated method for determining deoxyribonuclease activity, based on such an absorbance change, which can overcome problems of inhibition arising from the presence of inorganic cations, is described. Variations in inorganic cation concentration is a particular problem when measuring the activity of chromatographic fractions eluted via a salt gradient. A comparison is made between the automated and a manual method for the assay of deoxyribonuclease active constituents, of the medicament 'Varidase', eluted from a Cellex-D (Bio-Rad Laboratories Ltd) anionic exchange resin using a 0.05-1.0 M sodium chloride gradient.

  9. Effect of medicaments used in endodontic regeneration technique on push-out bond strength of MTA and Biodentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Turk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the intracanal medicaments used in regenerative endodontic treatment on push-out bond strength (PBS of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and Biodentine (BD. The root canals of 102 maxillary incisors were enlarged to simulate immature roots and were randomly divided into three groups (n = 34: a control group (no intracanal medicament and two test groups, subjected to calcium hydroxide (CH or triple antibiotic paste (TAP medication for two weeks. After the medication removal, each group was divided in two subgroups and the coronal portion of each canal was filled with MTA or BD. After one week of storage, the coronal region of each root was horizontally sectioned and push-out test was performed. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test (P = 0.05. PBS values were significantly affected by the type of material (P < 0.001 and the type of medication used (P = 0.049, but no interaction was found (P = 0.97. The BD group showed significantly higher push-out resistance values than those of the MTA group (P < 0.001. TAP showed the lowest PBS values, which were significantly lower than those of the control group (P = 0.043 but not than those of CH (P = 0.229. After a two-week application period, TAP seemed to decrease the PBS of both cements, while CH did not. BD appeared to have higher PBS compared to MTA, regardless of medication.

  10. A novel approach to evaluate the effect of medicaments used in endodontic regeneration on root canal surface indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassen, Ghaeth H; Chu, Tien-Min G; Gallant, Maxime A; Allen, Matthew R; Vail, Mychel M; Murray, Peter E; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of a novel reference point indentation apparatus to test the indentation properties of root canal surface dentine treated with three intracanal medicaments used in endodontic regeneration. Immature human premolars were selected (n = 22). Four specimens were obtained from each root and randomly assigned to three treatment groups and a control group. Each specimen was exposed to one of the three treatment pastes (triple antibiotic (TAP), double antibiotic (DAP), or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)) or neutral deionized water (control) for 1 or 4 weeks. After each time interval, the indentation properties of the root canal dentine surfaces were measured using a BioDent reference point indenter. Two-way ANOVA and Fisher's protected least significant differences were used for statistical analyses. Significant differences in indentation parameters and estimated hardness between all groups at both time points were found. TAP-treated dentine had the highest significant indentation parameters, followed by DAP-treated dentine, untreated control dentine, and Ca(OH)2-treated dentine, respectively. Furthermore, TAP-treated dentine had the lowest significant estimated hardness, followed by DAP-treated dentine, untreated control dentine, and Ca(OH)2-treated dentine, respectively. BioDent reference point indenter was able to detect significant differences in indentation properties of root canal dentine treated with various medicaments. The use of a reference point indenter is a promising approach to characterize the indentation properties of root canal surfaces without any surface modification. This might provide an in vitro mechanical measurement that is more representative of the actual clinical situation.

  11. CCC/WPA study : Des Lacs NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camp at Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge from July 1935-May 1942 to carry on restoration and development of Des...

  12. Current algebra; Algebre des courants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( {delta}I = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [French] La premiere partie de ce cours (trois premiers chapitres), traite des generalites concernant l'algebre de courants. Apres une definition rapide des courants faibles et un rappel de leurs proprietes (hypothese V-A, conservation du courant vecteur, regles de selection, courant axial partiellement conserve,...), l'on introduit l'algebre de Gell-Mann SU (3) x SU (3), et discute les proprietes generales de l'Hamiltonien faible non leptonique. Les chapitres IV a IX sont consacres a des applications importantes de l'algebre des courants. En premier lieu l'on demontre la formule de Adler et Weisberger, par deux methodes differentes, celle dite du repere de moment infini et celle des singularites proches. Cette derniere est seule utilisee dans la suite. Puis, l'on traite successivement les problemes suivants: desintegrations semi-leptoniques des mesons K et des hyperons, theoreme de Kroll

  13. La théorie des industries culturelles (et informationnelles, composante des SIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Miège

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inaugurer le Cahier central de la Revue des SIC est certes une forme de reconnaissance, mais cela comporte des obligations, au premier rang desquelles la nécessité d’intéresser des lecteurs a priori pas immédiatement concernés par la thématique.Si la théorie des industries culturelles est devenue progressivement une approche marquante des SIC, en France, en Europe et plus largement encore (avec des dénominations variables et des modalités spécifiques, ce n’est en effet ni en le proclamant ha...

  14. Neologismen des Lettischen anhand des schriftstellerischen Werkes von Zigmunds Skujins

    OpenAIRE

    Javojss, Skaidrite

    2010-01-01

    Untersuchung: Aus acht Werken des zeitgenössischen Schriftstellers Zigmunds Skujins wurden 500 lettische Wörter untersucht, die in den drei umfangreichsten lettischen Wörterbüchern nicht verzeichnet und somit möglicherweise Neologismen des Autors sind. Analysiert werden die Wortarten, die Komposita, die Herkunft der assimilierten Lehnwörter, orthographische und andere Varianten bereits lexikalisierter Wörter, die Arten der Diminutivbildung und der Präfigierung. Außerdem werden Aussagen über d...

  15. Evaluer des études de gestion des entreprises : combiner des éléments principales avec des éléments pratiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennink, B.J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluer la recherche de gestion demande une combinaison des critères classiques et des critères pratiques. Par cette combinaison il est possible de trouver une réponse cerrecte concernant la validité et l'effet de la recherche. Dans cet article nous allons décrire comment une combinaison des

  16. Alimentation des tortues terrestres herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Chez les tortues, la plupart des affections rencontrées sont directement ou indirectement liées à un défaut dans les conditions d’entretien et notamment à une alimentation inadéquate. Les ouvrages de référence ne proposent généralement que des rations qualitatives déterminées empiriquement. Ce travail se veut une synthèse bibliographique des différents travaux qui ont été menés sur les tortues terrestres herbivores, dont le but est de dégager les paramètres physiologiques sous-jacents au ...

  17. LES APPROCHES PSYCHOSOCIOLOGIQUES DES ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconu Alecxandrina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Les préoccupations pour bien comprendre la complexité des organisations sont bien connues dans la théorie et la pratique du management. La motivation la plus fréquente pour toutes les recherches et les investigationes faites a été fondée sur le besoin de savoir gérer les situations diverses en vue de maximiser la performance organisationnelle. En ce qui nous concerne, pour enrichir les informations disponibles, nous voulons élargir, dans notre communication, les approches traditionelles, focaliser l’attention sur la dimension psychologiques des organisations et présenter les mécanismes qui favorisent l’implication des salariés.

  18. L’Internet des objets

    OpenAIRE

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    L’ « internet des objets » est une dimension majeure de l’internet du futur. Mais tout le monde ne s’accorde pas encore sur sa définition, ni sur la mesure de son importance économique ou des risques qu’il induit. L’étude de nombreux rapports prospectifs et l’observation des innovations d’ores et déjà engagées a permis de mettre en relief les incertitudes techniques, économiques et socio-politiques qui pèsent sur cette véritable mutation programmée de l’internet et de proposer une approche eu...

  19. L’Internet des objets

    OpenAIRE

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    L’ « internet des objets » est une dimension majeure de l’internet du futur. Mais tout le monde ne s’accorde pas encore sur sa définition, ni sur la mesure de son importance économique ou des risques qu’il induit. L’étude de nombreux rapports prospectifs et l’observation des innovations d’ores et déjà engagées a permis de mettre en relief les incertitudes techniques, économiques et socio-politiques qui pèsent sur cette véritable mutation programmée de l’internet et de proposer une approche eu...

  20. Proposta per a la governança de risc de la falsificació de medicaments amb una eina de diagnosi basada en lògica difusa

    OpenAIRE

    Bargalló, Manel,

    2016-01-01

    La falsificació de medicaments és un problema inherent a la mateixa existència dels medicaments. Existeixen estudis de l'OMS que indiquen que en alguns països en vies de desenvolupament, entre el deu i el trenta per cent de les medicines que es venen poden ser falses, mentre que no arriba a l'u per cent en els països occidentals. Però darrerament s'ha detectat un augment significatiu d'incidents de falsificació de medicaments en els països desenvolupats, la qual indica que el model clàssic re...

  1. Géographie des cryptarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Fumey

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Si toute la surface du globe est appropriée, certains territoires sont encore revendiqués par des personnes ou petits groupes usurpateurs, conquérants ou aventuriers. Leur «conquête» porte sur des espaces physiques ou virtuels (internet. Elle traduit avec constance dans l'histoire le rôle considérable de l'ancrage territorial qui reste, pour l'homme, un antidote à toutes les formes d'organisation qui le dépassent.

  2. Cardiotoxicité des psychotropes

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIRI, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Même à dose thérapeutique, les médicaments psychotropes sont susceptibles d'engendrer des troubles du rythme cardiaque graves avec risque létal concourant à expliquer la pré valence de la mort subite dans la population psychiatrique. Les situations cliniques à risque telles que poly médication (des psychotropes entre eux ou d'un psychotrope avec un non psychotrope allongeur de QTc), interactions médicamenteuses aussi bien pharmacodynamiques que pharmacocinétiques, traitement pa...

  3. Physique statistique des Fluides Classiques

    OpenAIRE

    Aslangul, Claude

    2006-01-01

    0 - Préambule.Préambule, table des matières1 - Rappels sur la description d'un système à l'équilibre thermodynamiqueQuelques propriétés des systèmes macroscopiques. Nature statistique de l'entropie. Grandeurs internes et grandeurs externes. Relations thermodynamiques fondamentales. Potentiels thermodynamiques. Ensembles microcanonique, canonique, grand-canonique et isotherme - isobare. Exemple: fonction de partition d'un fluide classique. Principe variationnel pour l'énergie libre.2 - Stabili...

  4. La maison des mathématiques

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric; Moncorgé, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Comment travaillent les mathématiciens ? C'est peut-être en se promenant dans les couloirs de la première des " maisons des mathématiques " de France, l'institut Henri Poincaré, que l'on trouvera quelques réponses. Le mathématicien Cédric Villani et le physicien Jean-Philippe Uzan nous invitent à découvrir cette discipline et ses acteurs. Au fil des pages on suit, à travers de superbes images signées du photographe Vincent Moncorgé, la façon dont se fabrique cette science qui reste souvent mystérieuse. Toutes les dimensions, scientifique, esthétique et poétique, des mathématiques sont convoquées grâce à des regards croisés : la diversité des inspirations des chercheurs, la source de leur créativité, l'imaginaire littéraire et artistique des mathématiques, la drôle de tribu des mathématiciens. Un voyage au cœur de cette " auberge espagnole " des mathématiques, campus " à la française " accueillant des centaines de chercheurs du monde entier, devenu un lieu d'émulation et d'éc...

  5. La compaction des sols forestiers en Wallonie

    OpenAIRE

    Destain, Marie-France

    2014-01-01

    Dans nos pays industrialisés, l’exploitation forestière fait appel à des machines de plus en plus lourdes pour assurer la vidange des coupes et le débardage des grumes. Lorsque des charges élevées sont appliquées sur des sols sensibles, une compaction du sol peut se produire entraînant une réduction de porosité, avec des conséquences néfastes sur la vitalité des peuplements. Au niveau environnemental, du fait de la compaction, l’infiltration de l’eau dans le sol est réduite, principalement...

  6. Etude des erreurs d'estimation des populations par la méthode des captures successives (DeLURY, 2 captures et des captures-recaptures (PETERSEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURENT M.

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available L'estimation des populations naturelles par capture-recapture et par captures successives est souvent entachée d'erreur car, dans de nombreux cas, l'hypothèse fondamentale d'égalité des probabilités de captures pour tous les individus dans le temps et dans l'espace n'est pas respectée. Dans le cas des populations de poissons envisagés ici, les captures ont lieu par la pêche électrique. On a pu chiffrer l'ordre de grandeur des erreurs systématiques faites sur l'estimation des peuplements, en fonction des conditions particulières, biotiques et abiotiques, des différents milieux inventoriés.

  7. Recherche des oscillations de Neutrinos $\

    CERN Document Server

    Gangler, E

    1997-01-01

    Le detecteur nomad, place sur le faisceau de neutrinos wide-band-beam du sps, de contamination en neutrino tau marginale, permet de rechercher des oscillations neutrino muon - tau dans la region de pertinence cosmologique et de distinguer statistiquement les courants charges des neutrinos tau essentiellement par leur mesure cinematique. Une large part du travail de these a donc ete consacree a la reconstruction des evenements dans les chambres a derive, cible instrumentee et cur de l'experience, dont la physique de detection est decrite. Une methode de recherche de traces fut developpee, utilisant certaines informations d'un autre sous-detecteur de nomad, le trd. Pour combler une perte d'efficacite de reconstruction, une methode de recherche de traces courtes s'appuyant sur des vertex deja constitues fut developpee en exploitant les potentialites du filtre de kalman, algorithme iteratif d'ajustement de traces. Ces methodes sont utilisees en production par la collaboration. Cette these porte sur la recherche d...

  8. Reduction des effectifs ou licenciements

    CERN Multimedia

    Maiani, Luciano

    2002-01-01

    "Vous faites un amalgame entre la reduction en cours des effectifs du CERN (organisation europeenne pour la recherche nucleaire) et les economies que le laboratoire doit realiser dans les cinq ans a venir pour financer le projet de grand collisionneur de hadrons (Le Monde du 4 septembre)" (1/2 page).

  9. Bangalore, ville des nouvelles technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Didelon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangalore est devenue la Silicon Valley de l’Inde. Une partie de ses habitants y vit à l’occidentale mais le reste de la population souffre de la croissance spectaculaire de la ville. Face à l’insuffisance des infrastructures, Bangalore devient de moins en moins attractive pour les entreprises internationales.

  10. Osteoporose und Genetik des Knochenstoffwechsels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermayer-Pietsch B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporose ist in hohem Maß genetisch determiniert. Neue Wege der molekularbiologischen Forschung haben sich in den letzten Jahren auf diesem Gebiet etabliert. "Gene mapping" mit polymorphen genetischen Markern auf der Suche nach Phänotyp-assoziierten Genen ist ein aufwendiges, aber vielversprechendes Verfahren und wird durch die Erkenntnisse des Human Genome Projects beschleunigt. So wurde jüngst u. a. das Low-density Lipoprotein 5-Gen als wichtig für den Knochenstoffwechsel identifiziert. Kandidaten-gene wie Hormonrezeptor-, Cytokin- oder Kollagen-Gene werden hinsichtlich ihrer Gen-Gen- und Gen-Umwelt- Interaktionen untersucht und erlauben neue funktionelle Einsichten in Erkrankungen des Knochenstoffwechsels. Mutationen der Kollagen-Gene sind bei einigen seltenen Erkrankungen, wie dem Osteoporose-Pseudogliom-Syndrom oder der Osteogenesis imperfecta gefunden worden, könnten aber auch für häufige Varianten von Bindegewebsstörungen wie der congenitalen Hüftdysplasie verantwortlich sein, die etwa 10 % der weiblichen kaukasischen Bevölkerung in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß betrifft. Osteoporose am Schenkelhals und erhöhte Gelenkslaxizität sowie andere generalisierte Veränderungen des Knochen- und Kollagenstoffwechsels können hier möglicherweise ebenfalls durch Störungen des Kollagen I alpha 1-Gens erklärt werden. In Summe können wir zahlreiche neue Einsichten in die Pathophysiologie des Skelettsystems erwarten, die uns auch neue Zugangswege für Diagnostik und Therapie unserer Patienten ermöglichen werden.

  11. L'astronomie des Anciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  12. Tambov. Le camp des Malgré Nous alsaciens et mosellans prisonniers des Russes

    OpenAIRE

    Claerr-Stamm, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    « La faim, le froid, l’injustice. Et puis le silence… Tambov égale silence. Silence de la grande majorité de ceux qui en sont revenus, silence dans les familles, silence des historiens, silence des archives, silence des écrivains et des artistes, silence de l’opinion publique ». « Il a fallu l’opiniâtre courage de poignées d’individus – anciens prisonniers, responsables d’associations, quelques élus, des historiens et des journalistes – pour que la parole et la reconnaissance trouvent progres...

  13. Vers une typologie des formes spatiales des limites de l’Europe

    OpenAIRE

    de Ruffray, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Penser l’Europe et ses limites consiste souvent à rechercher une identité européenne, un projet ou des comportements communs dans l’espace. L’approche par les représentations mentales permet de compléter par des perspectives plus subjectives, la perception des frontières. Cet article, réalisé à partir des résultats de l’enquête du projet de recherches Eurobroadmap sur la vision de l’Europe dans le monde permet de mettre en évidence une typologie des formes spatiales des limites de l’Europe. D...

  14. [Experience of treatment and understanding of impediment disease in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shen-ntonz's Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hongchang; Wang, Zhenrui

    2015-01-01

    As a book with significant historical materials for the research of impediment disease not to be ignored, Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) contains, among its 365 kinds of materia medica, 75 kinds of medicines related to impediment disease. Among the latter ones, 51 are related to "damp impediment", "cold-damp impediment", "wind-cold-damp impediment", "wind impediment", "wind-damp impediment", and "cold impediment"; 16 are related to "laryngeal impediment", "general impediment", and "blood impediment"; 8 are related to "muscular impediment", "stomach impediment", "hernia-conglomeration impediment", "internal consumptive-thirst impediment", "wilting impediment", and "hemiplegic impediment". To systematically analyze the properties, tastes, and effects of these medicines and its related knowledge, and then further explore the overall recognition and their treating experience of the physicians at that period would not only enrich the historical research on impediment disease, but also offer much help and reference to the understanding and treatment of impediment for contemporary clinicians.

  15. 疼痛的中药药理研究概况%Reviews of Pharmacological Studies on Chinese Materia Medica of Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔; 王丹巧

    2013-01-01

      目的整理与总结有关疼痛的中药药理研究概况与进展。方法查阅中医古典医籍及近二十年来有关疼痛的中药药理研究文献,进行整理和总结。结果通过对相关文献的查阅与总结,认识中药药理研究在疼痛领域所取得的进展及其中存在的问题。结论对疼痛的认识与治疗水平随着中药药理研究的深入不断提高,但受科学发展水平和研究者认知水平的局限,仍存在一些问题亟待解决。%Objective To summarize the pharmacological studies and advances on Chinese materia medica of pain. Method Check and summarize traditional Chinese medical classics and literatures of pharmacological studies on Chinese materia medica of pain during the last twenty years. Result Both progress and problems exist in the field of pharmacological studies on Chinese materia medica of pain. Conclusion With the progress of pharmacological studies on Chinese materia medica of pain, the understanding and the treatment of pain is improving, while because of the limit of scientific development level at that time or the understanding level of researchers, some problems still remain to be solved.

  16. Određivanje sastava hlapljivih tvari i flavonoida u kori citrona (Citrus medica L. var. Corsican), za procjenu kakvoće likera

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    U radu je ispitan sastav hlapljivih tvari i flavonoida u kori citrona (Citrus medica L. var. Corsican) uzgojenog na Korzici, različitog stupnja zrelosti izračunatog pomoću sume aktivnih temperatura. Razlike u stupnju razvoja plodova kvantitativno su određene plinskom kromatografijom, plinskom kromatografijom u kombinaciji s masenom spektrometrijom, te tekućinskom kromatografijom praćenom tandemskom masenom spektrometrijom. Identificirano je 30 hlapljivih komponenata eteričnog ulja dobivenog i...

  17. Administration et gestion des contrats XL

    CERN Document Server

    Senouf, J

    2000-01-01

    Les grands contrats de travaux génèrent un grand nombre de commandes (OSVC) passées par un grand nombre de responsables techniques. Ils sont généralement basés sur des bordereaux de prix associés à un éventail de conditions économiques adaptées aux besoins complexes et variés des multiples utilisateurs du CERN nécessitant des calculs sophistiqués. L'administration des commandes, le suivi des travaux et de la facturation doivent répondre aux besoins de tous les acteurs. Les responsables techniques doivent jouir de la plus large indépendance administrative dans le respect des règlements CERN et des conditions contractuelles. Le contrôle des métrés et décomptes doit être rigoureux et d'une traçabilité complète. L'utilisation des bases de données Oracle a déjà permis l'intégration des données administratives et techniques. Le Web nous invite à une communication totale et transparente entre les utilisateurs, les services techniques et les contractants. De nouveaux types de contrat so...

  18. Enquête de satisfaction des restaurants

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Comité de surveillance des restaurants L’Association du personnel est représentée dans plusieurs comités dont le Comité de surveillance des restaurants (CSR) qui a pour mandat : de donner son avis sur toute question relative à la politique générale de l’Organisation en matière de restauration sur le site, y compris en ce qui concerne les termes et l’attribution des contrats d’exploitation des restaurants ; de définir dans le cadre des contrats d’exploitation des restaurants, les prestations correspondant aux besoins et, dans la mesure du possible, aux désirs du personnel ; de surveiller les prestations des restaurants, y compris en ce qui concerne la qualité et la préparation des produits ; de négocier avec les concessionnaires des restaurants au sujet des tarifs et de surveill...

  19. La territorialisation des politiques environnementales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amédée Mollard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Le point de départ de cet article est la grande variabilité de la pollution nitrique diffuse de l’eau due à l’agriculture. Celle-ci dépend en particulier du climat, des types de sol et des systèmes de production agricole. Nos recherches réalisées de façon interdisciplinaire à partir de deux sites différents en France, montrent que cette hétérogénéité spatio-temporelle conditionne les pratiques agricoles mises en œuvre pour réduire la pollution au niveau de la norme admise. De ce fait, les pratiques les plus « coût-efficaces » diffèrent d’un territoire à l’autre, en fonction des caractéristiques locales. Ces résultats mettent donc en évidence une efficacité potentielle d’une territorialisation des politiques publiques. En théorie, de telles politiques sont considérées comme optimales par les économistes, car elles incitent les agents à moduler leurs efforts en fonction de la sensibilité du milieu. Mais, selon les études empiriques, cet avantage serait annulé par un coût élevé de mise en œuvre, de contrôle et de surveillance. Pour maintenir leur avantage sur des politiques uniformes, les politiques territorialisées devraient être mises en œuvre à un niveau spatial optimal. Un tel niveau devrait au minimum atteindre un compromis entre l’économie réalisée grâce à une modulation adaptée aux conditions locales et les sur-coûts dus à la décentralisation des solutions mises en œuvre. Cet article analyse la pertinence d’une prise en compte de ces spécificités par des politiques territorialisées. L’efficacité d’une régulation différenciée de la pollution nitrique est étudiée ici en évaluant l’importance de la variabilité spatiale des paramètres physiques et des coûts de la territorialisation.The paper starts with the wide variability of nonpoint water nitrogenous pollution generated by agriculture. This variability depends especially on climate, soil types and farming

  20. Evaluation des systèmes existants pour le suivi à long terme des déformations des ponts

    OpenAIRE

    BURDET, Olivier; Muttoni, Aurelio

    2006-01-01

    Le projet de recherche Evaluation des systèmes existants pour le suivi à long terme des déformations des ponts a été initié dans le but de préparer sous forme condensée une présentation et une évaluation des systèmes de mesure existants pour le suivi à long terme des déformations de ponts ainsi que des recommandations en vue d’applications particulières. Ce sujet est d’actualité car d’une part il importe de gérer au mieux les ouvrages et les ressources et d’autre part parce que plusieurs cas ...

  1. Géographie des interfaces. Une nouvelle vision des territoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Redon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Littéralement, une interface est une surface de séparation entre deux états distincts de la matière. Le terme, ayant cheminé de la physique à la biologie, et aussi désormais d’usage répandu en informatique. En géographie, l’usage du mot s’est développé dans les années 1980 et peut être défini comme un espace permettant la mise en relation de deux espaces/territoires différents, influencé par des échanges entre l’un et l’autre, et se distinguant par là-même des deux espaces contigus. Intégrant...

  2. Evaluation des performances des protocoles de routage Ad hoc

    OpenAIRE

    Boushaba, Abdelali; Oumsis, Mohammed; Benabbou, Rachid

    2010-01-01

    International audience; L'objectif de ce travail est d'une part, de confronter par la simulation, à l'aide de NS-2, les performances de quatre protocoles de routage Ad hoc: DSR, AODV, OLSR et DSDV et d'autre part, d'examiner l'impact de la charge du trafic, de la mobilité et de la densité des nœuds sur le comportement de ces protocoles. Les résultats montrent qu'il n'y a pas un protocole qui est favori pour tous les critères d'évaluation. En effet, chaque protocole a des comportements différe...

  3. [A glance at the property of acupoints--analysis on functions of acupoints in view of actions of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Ji-ping

    2008-08-01

    The acupoint is one of the basic elements of the acupuncture prescription. Just as thinking over different properties of every Chinese materia medica in a prescription, we should also sufficiently consider the characteristics of each acupoint in a prescription of acupuncture or moxibustion. Chinese materia medica have their own action-tendencies of lifting, lowering, floating and sinking, properties of cold, hot, warm and cool, five flavors of sour, bitter, sweet, acrid and salty, target-meridian distribution, different toxicity and actions, etc. What are the properties of acupoints? The authors of the present paper summarize them by simulating the characters of Chinese materia medica. It is found that acupoints also have functions in regulating lifting, lowering, floating and sinking of Qi, inducing cold and heat effects, producing different needling sensations; and pertain to different meridians (meridian distribution). And acupoint stimulation may produce adverse effects under certain specific conditions, etc. Full understanding of the properties of acupoints is definitely helpful in improving clinical therapeutic effects and shortening therapeutic courses by reasonably selecting and combining related acupoints.

  4. A medicação prescrita na internação hospitalar: o conhecimento do cliente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Guidorizzi Zanetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Erros no processo de administração de medicamentos são preocupações de enfermeiros e a sua ocorrência pode ser minimizada com a orientação do cliente quanto à terapia medicamentosa. Este estudo descritivo, teve como objetivo identificar o grau de informação de clientes hospitalizados, acerca dos medicamentos que lhes são prescritos. A metodologia utilizada foi a exploratória-descritiva. Foram entrevistados 76 clientes adultos, hospitalizados, entre 18 a 60 anos, sendo 69,7% do sexo feminino. Destacou-se dentre outros, que 28% não apresentavam conhecimento acerca do nome do primeiro medicamento prescrito e 55% não souberam referir a dosagem. Detectou-se um número razoável de clientes que desconheciam a medicação prescrita ou tinham conhecimento incorreto. Faz-se necessário a conscientização dos profissionais de enfermagem quanto à importância da orientação ao cliente acerca dos medicamentos durante a internação.

  5. Contact sensitization in venous eczema: Preliminary results of patch testing with Indian standard series and topical medicaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindal Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Elimination of allergens/topical medications causing contact dermatitis in venous eczema, which poses a significant problem in its chronicity and treatment, provides the basis for better therapeutic outcome. Our objective was to determine the pattern of contact sensitization in venous eczema patients in Himachal Pradesh (India. Methods: Thirty-four patients (M:F, 31:3 and 10 controls (M:F, 6:4 were patch tested with Indian standard series and 10 commonly used topical medicaments. Results: Positive patch test results were seen in 50% (M:F, 16:1 of the patients. Common allergens were Fragrance mix (15%, p-phenylendiamine (15%, nickel (9%, wool alcohol (9%, chinoform (9%, balsum of Peru (5%, cobalt chloride (5%, potassium dichromate (3%, epoxy resin (3%, thiuram mix (3% and formaldehyde (3%. Only sisomycin and miconazole among the topical medications elicited a positive patch test reaction in 3 and 5% patients, respectively. Neomycin contact sensitivity was not seen in any of the patients. One patient who had exacerbation of venous eczema following accidental application of topical diclofenac showed a positive patch test reaction to it. Conclusions: Patch test should be used to identify the topical agents that may be responsible for perpetuation or aggravation of eczema, especially in patients who do not improve despite adequate treatment of other underlying cause(s.

  6. Distinguishing the Chinese materia medica Tiepishihu from similar Dendrobium species of the same genus using histological and microscopic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Zi; Yan, Hua; Tai, Hai-Chuan; Zhang, Nan-Ping; Cheng, Xian-Long; Guo, Zeng-Xi; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Wei, Feng

    2017-07-01

    The Chinese Materia Medica, Tiepishihu, used as a tonic for over one thousand years, is a well-known precious medicine in China. According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, its source is the species Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, which is distinguished from other species in Dendrobium genus. However, these species from the same genus are similar with Tiepishihu and caused confusion in the market. To find a quick and simple method to distinguish Tiepishihu from other similar species, histologic and microscopic methods were combined together to investigate the transverse section of stem of Tiepishihu and other similar species. Phloroglucinol test solution with hydrochloric acid was used to reveal the lignified tissue by staining the transverse section of Tiepishihu and similar species. Results revealed the unique identification characteristics to distinguish Tiepishihu from similar species, which were difficult to distinguish by other methods. The identification characteristics of Tiepishihu include the cells of vascular bundle sheath were stained red, parenchyma cells were not stained red. What's more, other species can be distinguished from each other with microscopic and histological characteristics. These characteristics proved stable and can be easily observed by normal light microscopic examination. This method is rapid, accurate, stable, and inexpensive. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Applications and prospects of on-line near infrared spectroscopy technology in manufacturing of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Pan, Xiao-Ning; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Guo, Ming-Ye; Xu, Bing; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The quality of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is affected by every process in CMM manufacturing. According to multi-unit complex features in the production of CMM, on-line near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is used as an evaluating technology with its rapid, non-destructive and non-pollution etc. advantages. With the research in institutions, the on-line NIR applied in process analysis and control of CMM was described systematically, and the on-line NIR platform building was used as an example to clarify the feasibility of on-line NIR technology in CMM manufacturing process. Then, from the point of application by pharmaceutical companies, the current on-line NIR research on CMM and its production in pharmaceutical companies was relatively comprehensively summarized. Meanwhile, the types of CMM productions were classified in accordance with two formulations (liquid and solid dosage formulations). The different production processes (extraction, concentration and alcohol precipitation, etc. ) were used as liquid formulation diacritical points; the different types (tablets, capsules and plasters, etc.) were used as solid dosage formulation diacritical points, and the reliability of on-line NIR used in the whole process in CMM production was proved in according to the summary of literatures in recent 10 years, which could support the modernization of CMM production.

  8. A comparative evaluation of ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement as a pulpotomy medicament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Bhagat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, some studies have compared mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA with portland cement (PC, concluding that the principle ingredients of PC are similar to those of MTA. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of PC as a pulpotomy medicament. Materials and Methods: Thirty premolars that scheduled for extraction for therapeutic reasons were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: ProRoot MTA (PMTA and PC. After isolation and pulp exposure, pulpotomy was carried out and pulps were dressed with PMTA and PC. After 6 months, the teeth were extracted and prepared for histological analysis based on Cox et al. criteria. The data were analyzed by Z-test of proportion with 1% of allowed error. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to inflammatory response, soft tissue organization, and dentine bridge formation (P > 0.05. Conclusions: PC was associated with similar favorable biological response to pulpotomy treatment as PMTA. The findings of this study support the idea that PC can be considered a cheaper substitute to MTA.

  9. Assessment of the potential of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for non-vital pulpotomy of primary teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol in nonvital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, pulpotomy was indicated for the primary molars. Pulpotomy procedure was performed and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar was capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet while the other molar was capped with formocresol. The teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months using standard clinical and radiographic criteria. Statistically, these results revealed significant difference between the radiographic findings of nonvital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: A. sativum oil has potent antibacterial properties that enable it to combat intracanal microbes in the infected pulp of primary molars. Better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. Conclusion: A. sativum oil had more powerful effects than formocresol on the infected pulp of primary nonvital molars. PMID:26312232

  10. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas the other molar capped with formocresol, the teeth evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months, using standard clinical and radiographical criteria. Statistically, these results revealed no significant difference between the radiographic findings of vital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments was found. Results: A. sativum oil offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. Vital pulpotomy with allium sativa oil was given raise 90% success rate while that with formocresol was 85%. Conclusion: A. sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. PMID:25628480

  11. Marie-Pierre Lassus, Gaston Bachelard musicien. Une philosophie des silences et des timbres

    OpenAIRE

    Marida Rizzuti

    2012-01-01

    Marie-Pierre Lassus, Gaston Bachelard musicien. Une philosophie des silences et des timbres (Villeneuve d’Ascq, Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, 2010, 268 pp. ISBN: 978-275-740-1613) di     Marida Rizzuti

  12. Étude des impacts écologiques du dynamisme spatio-temporel des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4 nov. 2013 ... du changement des habitats naturels sur les espèces menacées de sa faune. ... le contexte des changements climatiques. La situation de la .... naturels des espèces de la faune menacée dans la région évo- luent au cours du ... distribution des espèces cibles a ensuite été cartographiée sur la couche ...

  13. Beeinflussung des Essentiellen Tremors und des Tremors beim Morbus Parkinson durch transkranielle Gleichstromstimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hellriegel, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit war es die Rolle des primärmotorischen Kortex bei der Entstehung und Weiterleitung des Essentiellen Tremors und des Tremors beim Morbus Parkinson zu untersuchen. Hierzu wurde eine transkranielle Gleichstromstimulation über dem primärmotorischen Kortex bei Patienten mit oben genannten Tremorsyndromen durchgeführt und die klinischen sowie elektrophysiologisch messbaren Änderungen des Tremors beurteilt.

  14. Contribution à la Gestion des Cercosporioses du bananier dues à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mai 2017 ... the state of disease progression after each treatment. Results and applications ..... 2007, des logiciels SPSS (Statistical Package for Social. Sciences) version ... un facteur suivies d'un test de comparaison des moyennes des ...

  15. La gestion des adoptions internationales

    OpenAIRE

    Boéchat, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Après les rumeurs nées lors du tsunami et le désastre avéré de L’Arche de Zoé, l’adoption – et plus généralement le sort des enfants – est devenue une préoccupation majeure en cas de catastrophe naturelle ou de conflit. Haïti, pays depuis longtemps ouvert à l’adoption internationale, n’a pas échappé à la polémique. Hervé Boéchat nous livre l’appréciation de son institution sur cet épisode qui n’a sans doute pas contribué à apaiser le ressentiment des Haïtiens contre la « communauté internati...

  16. 药用植物灵菊七的染色体核型研究%Study on Chromosomal Karyotypes of Medicinal Plant Gynura medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范三微; 董丽辉; 凌庆枝; 屠晓玮; 林芝; 高莉莉; 魏兆军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究药用植物灵菊七(Gynura medica)的细胞染色体特点,并对其染色体核型进行分析.[方法]以灵菊七幼苗茎尖为材料,从上午6:30~10:30,每隔20 min取材一次,采用常规制片技术制片,显微镜观察中期分裂相细胞,对染色体完全分散开的细胞进行染色体计数及核型分析.[结果]在染色体分散良好的102个中期分裂相细胞中,有96.08%含20条染色体,3.92%含40条染色体;同时结果表明上午7:50~9:30取材较佳.[结论]G.medica为二倍体植物,体细胞含有10对染色体,核型公式为2n=2x=20 m,染色体核型属于1A型.该研究结果为国内首次报道.%[Objective] To study the chromosomal characteristics and karyotypes of G. medica[Method] Stem tip of G. medica seedlings were collected every 20 rain from 6:30 to 10:30 am, and all materials were treated and squashed for investigating chromcsouud number and karyotypcs analysis. [Result] In tote/102 stem tip cells in metaphase, 96.08% of cells are with 20 chromosomes, and 3.92% of cells are with 40 chromosomes. The optimal time for sampling was from 7:50 to 9:30 am. [Conclusion] G. medica is the diploid plant with 20 chromo-somcs. Karyotype analysis gets formula 2n = 2x = 20 re,and all 10 pairs of chromosomes belong to type IA. The article reported the chromo- somes characteristics of G. medica for the first time in China.

  17. Catalogue ostéologique des oiseaux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1907-01-01

    Je le crois utile de faire précéder le présent Catalogue par quelques remarques. J’ai énuméré autant que possible les parties, qui font défaut aux squelettes. L’absence de plusieurs osselets, comme des doigts, des vertèbres caudales, des côtes etc. au même échantillon, est indiqué par „incomplet” ou

  18. Le piratage des biens d'information

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Belleflamme

    2003-01-01

    Où se situe le juste milieu entre les propos alarmistes des uns (“le piratage tue la production musicale!”) et les appels libertaires des autres (“l'accès à toute information doit être libre!”) ? Une analyse économique simple nous permet de mieux comprendre les enjeux et de dégager des pistes de réflexion pour l'avenir.

  19. 79 Influences des rejets des eaux usées domestiques dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    L'usage agricole d'effluents liquides peut être considéré comme une ... Rares sont celles qui sont alimentées par une eau de source [8]. ... nutriments, des Eléments Traces Métalliques (ETM) [9], des micro- ... essentiels pour la croissance des plantes ; ils provoquent cependant une prolifération excessive d' algues. La.

  20. Présentation des textes

    OpenAIRE

    Freitag, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Les textes choisis n’ont pas pour but la reconstitution ou le survol d’une carrière, mais la mise en valeur des étapes saillantes d’une double éclosion, celle d’Elizabeth Cady Stanton comme féministe et avec elle celle du mouvement de défense des droits des femmes aux États-Unis. Un tel objectif implique donc des limites temporelles en amont et en aval de l’événement fondateur que fut la Convention de Seneca Falls en 1848, origine du texte non moins fondateur de la Déclaration de sentiments r...

  1. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  2. Vivre et survivre au bord des villes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Péraldi

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available De quels revenus vivent, ou plutôt survivent, les populations des quartiers dits défavorisés ? Telle est, malgré son apparente banalité, la question qui initie aujourd'hui une partie de nos recherches. Question banale en effet puisque les médias et le débat politique nous donnent une réponse sans appel, statistiquement fiable : dans ces univers sociaux où se croisent des communautés issues des plus récentes migrations et les fractions les plus fragiles économiquement des classes populaires fr...

  3. La compaction des sols agricoles en Wallonie

    OpenAIRE

    Destain, Marie-France

    2014-01-01

    Dans nos pays industrialisés, l’agriculture fait appel à des machines de plus en plus lourdes. Lorsque des charges élevées sont appliquées sur des sols sensibles, une compaction du sol peut se produire conduisant à des diminutions de rendements suite aux difficultés que rencontrent les racines pour prélever l’eau et les nutriments et à la perturbation de l’activité de la pédofaune. Au niveau environnemental, du fait de la compaction, l’infiltration de l’eau dans le sol est réduite, princip...

  4. EFFET DES TRAITEMENTS THERMIQUES SUR LA REACTION ENTRE DES COUCHES MINCES DE TITANE ET DES SUBSTRATS EN ACIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Slimani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Des couches minces du titane pur ont été déposées avec la méthode de pulvérisation cathodique sur des substrats en acier, type FF80 K-1 contenants ~1% mass. en carbone. La réaction entre les deux parties du système substrat-couche mince est activée avec des traitements thermiques sous vide dans l’intervalle de températures de 400 à900°Cpendant 30 minutes. Les Spectres de diffraction de rayons x confirment l’inter- diffusion des éléments  chimiques du système résultants la formation et la croissance des nouvelles phases en particulier le carbure binaire TiC ayant des caractéristiques thermomécaniques importantes. L’analyse morphologique des échantillons traités  avec le microscope électronique à balayage (MEB montre l’augmentation du flux de diffusion atomique avec la température de recuit, notamment la diffusion du manganèse et du fer vers la surface libre des échantillons aux températures élevées provoquant la dégradation des propriétés mécaniques des revêtements contrairement au premiers stades d’interaction où on a obtenu des bonnes valeurs de la microdureté.

  5. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  6. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  7. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lyttleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  8. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  9. 临床导向的创新中药研究%Clinically-oriented Innovation of Chinese Materia Medica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红斌; 刘丹; 刘艳秋; 张良晓

    2013-01-01

    It is a key task in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) modernization and internationalization to develop Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) with the clear component, interaction mechanism and controllable quality based on the inheritance of TCM theories and characteristics of systematic regulation & individual treatment according to TCM syndrome. With the upsurge of translational medicine, the novel methods of metabonomics and other-omics will be married with the plentiful TCM clinical experiences according to the regulation of translational medicine, i. e., from the clinical trial to laboratory research and back to clinical therapies for patients. Undoubtedly, this research mode of translational medicine will provide fresh inspiration for inheritance and development of traditional Chinese medicine.%继承传统中医药理论和中药整体调理、辨证施治治疗特色,发展成分明确、机理清楚、质量可控的创新中药是中药现代化的主要任务.在当前转化医学提出的国际化背景下,发挥传统中药丰富临床经验的优势,结合现代“组学”等整体研究的思路,探寻临床观察-实验验证-临床检验的转化医学研究模式,将为传统中药的继承和发展提供新思路,为创新中药的开发提供新方法.

  10. APPRENTISSAGE DES LANGUES AUTOUR DES MéDIATIONS ARTISTIQUES (ART-THéRAPIE DE COLORIAGE)

    OpenAIRE

    KONEVA (HAAN) MARINA GENNADIEVNA

    2014-01-01

    L’article est consacré aux problématiques liées à l’acquisition des compétences lexicales à partir des textes littéraires et des œuvres de coloriage de l’art-thérapie. En s’appuyant sur l’analyse psycholinguistique du fonctionnement des émotions dans la production des images mentales des mots, on propose une méthode pédagogique, basée sur la synergie des émotions, sensations et cognition. La méthode peut être utilisée dans le cadre institutionnel (collège, lycée, université), ainsi que pour l...

  11. Vers une meilleure comprehension des savoirs disciplinaires et curriculaires des enseignants ou Ie paradigme retrouve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Martineau

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available eet article se veut essentieUement un travail de synthese sous la forme d 'une breve revue de litterature au sujet des savoirs disciplinaires et curriculaires en enseignement. Plus specifiquement, il vise a determiner queUes sont les principales conclusions qui se degagent de la lecture des recherches empiriques sur les savoirs disciplinaires et curriculaires des enseignants des ordres d'enseignement primaire et secondaire. Il propose donc une classification des differentes dimensions constitutives du rapport entre les savoirs disciplinaires et curriculaires et la pratique enseignante. Les resultats mis au jour permettent d 'une part, d'identifier les facteurs qui entrainent des differences dans les connaissances disciplinaires et curriculaires des enseignants et d'autre part, de mieux saisir comment ces connaissances de l'enseignant peuvent influencer en retour sa pratique.

  12. GENOMIQUE ET LIPIDES Génomique et métabolisme des lipides des plantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delseny Michel

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Il existe dans les bases de données publiques une énorme quantité de séquences d’ADN dérivées de plantes, et notamment la séquence complète du génome d’Arabidopsis thaliana, une plante modèle pour les oléagineux, proche parente du colza. Ces données constituent une ressource importante non seulement pour la compréhension de métabolisme lipidique et de sa régulation, mais aussi pour la sélection et le développement de variétés nouvelles d’oléagineux produisant davantage d’huiles ou des huiles de composition nouvelle. Cette abondance de séquences peut être exploitée, en utilisant les recherches d’homologies, pour identifier les gènes, pour obtenir des informations sur leur fonction, comme pour repérer des gènes candidats codant des fonctions nouvelles. L’analyse de ces bases de données a révélé que la majeure partie des gènes codant des enzymes impliquées dans le métabolisme lipidique appartient à des petites familles multigéniques, reflétant la diversification des fonctions des isoformes. Une analyse du catalogue des ADNc séquencés en aveugle reflète les niveaux d’expression des différents gènes et fournit un aperçu des régulations des flux au travers des voies métaboliques conduisant à la biosynthèse des lipides de réserve. La disponibilité de mutants et de lignées transgéniques d’Arabidopsis et le développement de puces à ADN qui permettent l’analyse simultanée de plusieurs milliers de gènes conduiront à une meilleure compréhension des facteurs qui régulent le métabolisme des huiles dans les graines. Une telle connaissance facilitera la manipulation de la composition des huiles et des quantités produites dans les graines.

  13. Catégorisation aspectuelle des concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolak Stanisław

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Le contenu de l'article est le problème connu en aspectologie comme celui de la dépendance entre le sens lexical des verbes et l'aspect. Les contraintes qu'imposent les langues à la distribution des grammèmes d'aspect ont fait supposer qu'il existe des règles de leur co-occurrence avec les sémantèmes. Le problème est posé ici dans une perspective conceptuelle. Dans cette perspective, les verbes dont les sémantèmes ont tel ou tel aspect n'exigent pas la co-occurrence avec des grammèmes qui véhiculent le même aspect. En revanche, ils peuvent se combiner avec des grammèmes de sens aspectuel opposé pour dériver des catégories de verbes secondaires à partir des catégories primaires. On postule l'existence d'un mécanisme dérivationnel qui engendre des verbes polyaspectuels.

  14. Supply Chain et Gestion des ressources humaines

    OpenAIRE

    Nondonfaz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Rappels de quelques exigences de la Supply Chain en matière de gestion des ressources humaines; spécificités de certains métiers : chauffeur, magasinier, acheteur, gestionnaire de stock, gestion des imprévus

  15. internationalisation et nouvelles implantations des firmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    de disparités culturelles ou dans les pratiques des affaires ou encore dans le .... plus pertinents afin d'expliquer l'évolution du modèle (cas de la distance psychique par ..... Elles constituent plutôt une lecture globale et intégrée des processus.

  16. La tuberculose des amygdales palatines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oudidi Abdelatif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:La localisation tuberculeuse des amygdales palatines est très rare même dans un pays d’endémie tuberculeuse. Le diagnostic peut être suspecté cliniquement dans un contexte évocateur, mais il ne peut être certifié qu’au stade histologique. PATIENTS ET METHODES:Cinq cas de tuberculose des amygdales palatine ont été diagnostiqués sur une période de 5 ans et inclus dans une étude rétrospective. Nous avons recensé trois hommes et deux femmes (âge moyen de 28 ans. La dysphagie haute était le maître symptôme. L’examen a objectivé une hypertrophie amygdalienne chez tous les patients avec des ulcérations chez trois d’entre eux. Une biopsie a été effectuée chez trois patients et une amygdalectomie a été réalisée chez les deux autres. L’étude anatomopathologique a posé le diagnostic chez tous les patients. Un traitement médical antituberculeux selon un régime court allant de 6 à 9 mois a été instauré. Dans tous les cas, l’évolution à long terme a été favorable avec un recul moyen de 13 mois. CONCLUSION: La tuberculose amygdalienne est rare. Son diagnostic repose essentiellement sur le résultat anatomopathologique de la biopsie où de l’amygdalectomie. L’évolution sous traitement anti-bacillaire est souvent favorable, la récidive est exceptionnelle.

  17. Schopenhauer und die Paradoxien des Erhabenen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Arnaud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11nesp1p145Die Hauptunterscheidung zwischen den Schopenhauerschen und Kantschen Auffassungen des Erhabenen liegt nach diesem Artikel darin, dass der Zuschauer im letzten Fall zu einer nur möglichen Gefahr muss unterworfen werden, während er im Ersten wirklich erschreckt sein muss. Die Haupttriebfeder des Gefühls des Erhabenen ist nämlich bei Schopenhauer der Einsatz des Willens, der also wirklich bedroht werden muss. Daraus folgen einige Paradoxien und Originalitäten der Schopenhauerschen Lehre des Erhabenen, hauptsächlich aus dem ethischen Aussichtspunkt, deren Spuren ich zu folgen versuche.

  18. Improved Mask Protected DES using RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Latha S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The data encryption standard is a pioneering and farsighted standard which helped to set a new paradigm for encryption standards. But now DES is considered to be insecure for some application. Asymmetric mask protected DES is an advanced encryption method for effectively protecting the advanced DES. There are still probabilities to improve its security. This paper propose a method, which introduce a RSA key generation scheme in mask protected DES instead of plain key, which result in enhancement in the security of present asymmetric mask protected DES. We further propose a Vedic mathematical method of RSA implementation which reduce the complexity of computation in RSA block thereby resulting in reduced delay (four timesthat improves the performance of overall system. The software implementation was performed using Xilinx 13.2 and Model-Sim was used for the simulation environment.

  19. Des fantômes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjef Houppermans

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La première pièce de théâtre de Laurent Mauvignier, Tout mon amour, est créée en 2012 par la compagnie Les Possédés. La thématique habituelle de Mauvignier (secrets des familles, solitude, violence sociale s’y retrouve, mais tout en utilisant pleinement les moyens de la scène (distanciation, présence physique, espace théâtral, discours rythmés.

  20. Des pauvres de la politique à la politique des pauvres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratiba Hadj-Moussa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available S’attachant aux nouvelles modalités de production du politique issues des études subalternes, l’article situe dans un premier temps ces travaux et, dans un deuxième temps, en fait une présentation en s’appuyant sur les éléments qui y sont privilégiés et qui font le lien entre « les pauvres et la production du politique ». Cette présentation s’appuie essentiellement sur les travaux portant sur les pays du Sud, en particulier l’Inde et quelques pays du Moyen Orient (l’Égypte et l’Iran. Elle réfère aussi au Maghreb qui est le terrain principal de l’analyse. La présentation tient compte en particulier des travaux qui s’appuient sur des recherches empiriques substantielles mais dont la portée théorique est très peu discutée. Enfin, si le renvoi aux études subalternes ou postcoloniales est dans ce texte non négligeable, il est aussi fait recours à des travaux produits dans des contextes pluralistes, comme la France.Poor Policy to the Policy of the PoorThis article has its origins in the new methods of production of policy based on subaltern studies. Firstly, it will locate these studies and then it will present its main arguments as well as the relationship between “the poor and policy production”. This presentation is based essentially on the works on countries of the south, particularly India, and few other countries from the Middle East (Egypt and Iran. It also refers to North Africa, which is the major fieldwork of this analysis. This presentation takes into account the works that rely upon substantial empirical research but for which the theoretical range is very little. Finally, if the referral to subaltern or postcolonial studies is significant in this article, it also refers to works produced in pluralistic contexts such as France.De los pobres de la política a la política de los pobresBasándose en estudios subalternos, el artículo se sitúa dentro del marco de los nuevos modos de producci

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine, Calcium Hydroxide and Curcuma Longa Extract as Intracanal Medicament Against E.faecalis– An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rashmi; Asrani, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The increase of potential side effects and safety concerns of conventional medicaments have led to the recent popularity of herbal alternative medications. The herbal products are known for its high antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine gel, Curcuma Longa and Calcium Hydroxide for elimination of E.faecalis bacteria in extracted teeth samples. Materials and Methods Ninety extracted single rooted intact teeth were taken for the study. Decoronation, removal of apices and chemomechanical preparation was done for all samples. These sterilized samples were then contaminated with pure culture of E.faecalis under laminar flow. The samples were incubated for a period of 21 days. The infected samples were assigned to 5 groups: Group I- Propolis; Group II- Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine gel; Group III- Calcium hydroxide; Group IV- Curcuma Longa; and control group- Saline. Efficacy of newer intracanal medicaments against E.faecalis were carried out in the samples at the end of 1, 2 & 5 days for each group with the help of colorimeter. Student paired t-test, ANOVA and multiple tukey test were used for statistical analysis. Results The value of optical density was statistically significant in all groups when compared to that of control group. Group I (Propolis) produced better antimicrobial efficacy followed by Chlorhexidine Metronidazole combination, Curcuma Longa and Calcium hydroxide. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Propolis showed better antimicrobial properties against E.faecalis than other medicaments. PMID:26673857

  2. An in vitro Comparison of Endodontic Medicaments Propolis and Calcium Hydroxide alone and in Combination with Ciprofloxacin and Moxifloxacin against Enterococcus Faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Rai, Vivek Kumar; Kumar, Aina; Sinha, Sonal; Tripathi, Prerna; Gupta, Khushboo; Sabharwal, Sumit

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial properties of propolis and calcium hydroxide alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin against Enterococcus faecalis (E. Faecalis). The laboratory study was carried out to test the effectiveness of propolis and calcium hydroxidealone as well as in combination with the established endodontic medicaments (moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin). The various combinations were-group 1: propolis, group 2: calcium hydroxide, group 3: moxifloxacin, group 4: ciprofoxacin, group 5: propolis + moxifloxacin, group 6: propolis + Ciprofloxacin, group 7: calcium hydroxide + ciprofloxacin, group 8: calcium hydroxide + moxifloxacin. The efficacy of these medicaments was tested by checking for the zone of inhibition for the specific strain (ATCC 29212) of E. faecalis at different time intervals, i.e. 24, 48 and 72 hours. Mean zone of inhibition was maximum in group V (21.94 ± 4.26) followed by group VI (18.80 ± 1.93), group I (18.71 ± 4.26), group VIII (15.88 ± 2.59), group III (14.91 ± 1.00), group VII (14.57 ± 2.17), group IV (13.91 ± 1.00) and minimum in group II (12.89 ± 2.14). Mean zone of inhibition was found to be maximum at 72 hours and minimum at 24 hours. At all time intervals, the combination of Propalis with Moxifocacin showed the maximum antimicrobial efficacy. On the basis of the results of the present study, it can be concluded that propolis and calcium hydroxide show synergistic effect with moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin against E. Faecalis. Propolis in combination with antibiotics and alone is more effective than calcium hydroxide. Since propolis alone and in combination with antibiotics was observed to be more effective than calcium hydroxide, propolis can be considered as an intracanal medicament when compared to traditional calcium hydroxide.

  3. Circulation and production of knowledge and scientific practices in southern America in the eighteenth century: an analysis of Materia medica misionera, a manuscript by Pedro Montenegro (1710).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Eliane Cristina Deckmann; Poletto, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    The article analyzes a 1790 manuscript copy of Materia medica misionera, a book written in 1710 by a Jesuit, Pedro Montenegro. Alongside knowledge of a magical or religious nature, and exotic ingredients for the recipes, this work also contains the unmistakable presence of Hippocratic and Galenic conceptions and a growing empiricism, characteristic of the scientific transformations seen in the eighteenth century. The analysis of this work also prompts reflections about the diffusion, circulation and production of pharmacological and medical knowledge in the first half of the eighteenth century within the missions and colleges installed in the area that was the Jesuit Province of Paraguay, southern America.

  4. Sentimentos de profissionais de enfermagem após a ocorrência de erros de medicação

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Jânia Oliveira; Silva,Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo; Munari,Denize Bouttelet; Miasso,Adriana Inocenti

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Conhecer os sentimentos dos profissionais de enfermagem que cometeram erro de medicação. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, qualitativo, realizado com 15 profissionais de enfermagem de um hospital universitário de Goiânia. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, gravadas e analisadas segundo os pressupostos de Bardin. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que os sentimentos mais comuns são pânico, desespero, medo, culpa, vergonha, entre outros. Adotam, como estraté...

  5. Évaluation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre des filières de traitement et de valorisation des boues issues du traitement des eaux usées

    OpenAIRE

    Reverdy, A.L.; Pradel, M.

    2011-01-01

    / Ce rapport présente l'inventaire des différentes consommations énergétiques, en consommables et des GES pour chaque poste de traitement et de valorisation des boues issues du traitement des eaux usées.

  6. Distribution spatiale intra-urbaine des particules fines : monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2014 ... Intra-urban spatial distribution of particulate matter: monitoring by leaf Saturation Isothermal Remanent ... les changements microclimatiques au sein des villes ... déterminer l'impact des saisons sur la teneur des ... Ce District jouit d'un climat de type ... Sélection et description des espèces : Un inventaire.

  7. Performances de production des cobayes (Cavia porcellus L.) en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Cameroun, l'élevage des cobayes se pratique encore dans les cuisines et à même le sol et leur ..... Figure 1 : Evolution des poids des mères allaitantes de la naissance au sevrage des petits. .... lecture critique du manuscrit ; EM a participé.

  8. Isomers chart; Table des isomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Gautier, P.; Chantelot, S.; Moisson, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The nuclear isomers are nuclides offering the same mass number and the same atomic number, but different energy levels. In the following chart the zero energy ground states are omitted and the metastable isomers, i.e. of non-zero energy, known and of measurable lifetime, are listed. The lower limit of this lifetime was set here to 0.1 x 10{sup -6} s. The various isomers were classified in increasing lifetimes. (authors) [French] Les isomeres nucleaires sont des nucleides presentant le meme nombre de masse et le meme numero atomique, mais des niveaux energetiques differents. Dans la table suivante, on a neglige les etats fondamentaux d'energie nulle et on a recense les isomeres metastables, c'est-a-dire d'energie non nulle, connus et de periode mesurable. La limite inferieure de cette periode a ete fixee ici a 0,1 x 10{sup -6} s. Les differents isomeres ont ete classes par periodes croissantes. (auteurs)

  9. Isomers chart; Table des isomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Gautier, P.; Chantelot, S.; Moisson, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The nuclear isomers are nuclides offering the same mass number and the same atomic number, but different energy levels. In the following chart the zero energy ground states are omitted and the metastable isomers, i.e. of non-zero energy, known and of measurable lifetime, are listed. The lower limit of this lifetime was set here to 0.1 x 10{sup -6} s. The various isomers were classified in increasing lifetimes. (authors) [French] Les isomeres nucleaires sont des nucleides presentant le meme nombre de masse et le meme numero atomique, mais des niveaux energetiques differents. Dans la table suivante, on a neglige les etats fondamentaux d'energie nulle et on a recense les isomeres metastables, c'est-a-dire d'energie non nulle, connus et de periode mesurable. La limite inferieure de cette periode a ete fixee ici a 0,1 x 10{sup -6} s. Les differents isomeres ont ete classes par periodes croissantes. (auteurs)

  10. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  11. UHPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics for the characterization of cold and hot properties of Chinese materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Shujun; Wang, Meng; Liu, Shuying; Hu, Yuanjia; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-02-17

    The cold/hot property of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and the application of its corresponding knowledge in the diagnosis, differentiation and treatment of diseases have been considered to be the extremely important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As highly abstracted TCM theory, the cold/hot property of CMMs is still not fully understood and remains to be elucidated by systems biology approach. The cold and hot properties of CMM are mainly defined by the response of the body to a given CMM. Metabolomics is a promising systems biology method to profile entire endogenous metabolites and monitor their fluctuations related to an exogenous stimulus. Thus, a metabolomics approach was applied to characterize the cold and hot properties of CMMs. Mice were intragastrically administered three selected cold property CMMs (i.e., Rheum palmatum L., radix et rhizoma; Coptis chinensis Franch, rhizome and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, radix) and three hot property CMMs (i.e., Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, cortex; Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizoma and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth., fructus) once daily for one week. The comprehensive metabolome changes in the plasma of mice after treatment with cold or hot property CMMs were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS), and the potential biomarkers related to cold and hot properties of CMM were explored. Metabolites perturbation in plasma occurs after treatment with cold CMMs and hot CMMs in mice, and 15 and 16 differential biomarkers were identified to be associated with the cold and hot properties of CMMs, respectively. Among them, LPC (18:0), LPC (18:1), LPC (20:4) and LPC (20:5) showed decreased trends in the cold property CMM treated groups, but increased in the hot property CMM treated groups. There is a strong connection between the cold/hot property of CMMs and lysophosphatidylcholines metabolism. This study offers new insight

  12. À l’aube des dieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Semonsut

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available De l’avis même des préhistoriens, la Préhistoire assiste à la naissance du sentiment religieux. Cette religion des origines, quelle image en ont les Français ? Telle est la question que cet article aborde à partir de l’étude des manuels scolaires et des œuvres de fiction (littérature, cinéma et bande dessinée de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle. Si l’enseignement et la fiction n’accordent pas la même place à ce thème, en revanche tous deux font des préhistoriques des polythéistes adorant le soleil, construisant des mégalithes et prenant le plus grand soin de leurs morts. Ce mélange d’obscurantisme et de vraie spiritualité n’a qu’un but : montrer que notre espèce ne pouvait être que victorieuse dans ce combat qu’est l’humanisation.

  13. 75 caracteristiques et evolution des operations de fusions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous décrivons dans un premier temps l'évolution de l'économie tunisienne et ..... grossistes, a réalisé en 2004 près de 88 % du chiffre d'affaires des transactions .... d'actions reste une opération soumise au droit commun des contrats et au droit des ..... tairement des opérations horizontales mettant en relation des entrepri-.

  14. L'espace mondial des grandes manifestations sportives internationales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel MATHIEU

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available La carte des grandes manifestations sportives mondiales montre une forte concentration des épreuves dans un petit nombre de pays développés, en particulier l'Europe occidentale. L'examen des nations concernées par les tournois majeurs du tennis et par le cyclisme professionnel soulignent, avec les nuances propres à chacun des sports, l'étroitesse des espaces intéressés.

  15. De la manipulation des images 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Pinçon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Si les technologies 3D livrent un enregistrement précis et pertinent des graphismes pariétaux, elles offrent également des applications particulièrement intéressantes pour leur analyse. À travers des traitements sur nuage de points et des simulations, elles autorisent un large éventail de manipulations touchant autant à l’observation qu’à l’étude des œuvres pariétales. Elles permettent notamment une perception affinée de leur volumétrie, et deviennent des outils de comparaison de formes très utiles dans la reconstruction des chronologies pariétales et dans l’appréhension des analogies entre différents sites. Ces outils analytiques sont ici illustrés par les travaux originaux menés sur les sculptures pariétales des abris du Roc-aux-Sorciers (Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Vienne et de la Chaire-à-Calvin (Mouthiers-sur-Boëme, Charente.If 3D technologies allow an accurate and relevant recording of rock art, they also offer several interesting applications for its analysis. Through spots clouds treatments and simulations, they permit a wide range of manipulations concerning figurations observation and study. Especially, they allow a fine perception of their volumetry. They become efficient tools for forms comparisons, very useful in the reconstruction of graphic ensemble chronologies and for inter-sites analogies. These analytical tools are illustrated by the original works done on the sculptures of Roc-aux-Sorciers (Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Vienne and Chaire-à-Calvin (Mouthiers-sur-Boëme, Charente rock-shelters.

  16. Mécanique des fluides fondamentale

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour K

    1991-01-01

    Ce cours de mecanique des fluides est avant tout un cours theorique qui repond aux questions fondamentales de ce sujet de recherche. Les quatre premiers chapitres presentent les equations propres a determiner l'ecoulement de fluide considere et diverses solutions. Les chapitres 5 et 6sont consacres aux problemes lies la stabilite, aux bifurcations et aux comportements chaotiques. Le livre donne un vision globale des questions traitees en mecanique des fluides qui sont a la base de toute la recherche, de la modelisation et de toutes les applications dans ce domaine.

  17. Écriture scientifique et évolution des croyances, des connaissances ou des conceptions des enseignants en reprise d’étude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delarue-Breton Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Si l’on s’accorde assez unanimement – c’est à dire aux plans simultanément scientifique et institutionnel – à reconnaitre que l’initiation à la recherche est devenue nécessaire dans la formation des enseignants, les modalités de cette initiation, ses visées et ses effets font cependant peu l’objet, encore, d’un consensus, et dans certains cas, divisent. Nous avons pu étudier à diverses reprises, à partir de différentes versions des mémoires, le rôle de l’écriture scientifique dans l’appropriation des concepts théoriques par les étudiants de master MEEF (Métiers de l’Enseignement, de l’Éducation, de la Formation en formation initiale, autrement dit par les étudiants issus de licence, se destinant au métier de professeur des écoles. Nous avons ainsi pu mettre au jour d’une part la diversité de ces modes d’appropriation conceptuelle, et, en corrélation avec celle-ci, la diversité des modes d’analyse des situations scolaires, et d’autre part des formes d’évolution ou de stagnation des croyances, connaissances, conceptions de ces futurs enseignants sur le métier, sur les élèves, sur les disciplines, sur l’apprentissage. Notre propos est ici de nous poser des questions comparables, concernant le rapport entre appropriation théorique et évolution des conceptions non pas d’enseignants en formation initiale, mais d’enseignants titulaires en reprise d’étude, parfois eux-mêmes formateurs, inscrits en master MEEF avec validation des acquis. Nous questionnons ainsi le rôle de la recherche et de l’écriture scientifique dans la formation continue des enseignants.

  18. MESURE DE LA PERFORMANCE GLOBALE DES ENTREPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud, Angèle; Berland, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    International audience; L'engagement des entreprises dans le développement durable consiste à conjuguer performance et responsabilité. La performance financière ne suffit plus à apprécier la performance d'une entreprise. Dès lors, les entreprises doivent mesurer leurs progrès à partir d'une performance plus globale incluant, en dehors de la dimension économique, des dimensions sociale et environnementale. A présent, comment mesurer cette performance globale ? Existe-il des outils de mesure gl...

  19. A l'écoute des professionnels

    CERN Document Server

    Lebre-Peytard, Monique

    1994-01-01

    Cet ouvrage s'adresse aux étudiants de niveau moyen ou avancé en français. Il propose un travail d'écoute, de réflexion et d'expression autour d'interview authentiques. Des professionnels parlent de leur métier, des entreprises où ils travaillent, des fonctions qu'ils occupent... Ils appartiennent à divers secteurs de l'économie : banque, mode, tourisme, agriculture, télécommunications, etc.

  20. 中药“十八反”基层医院应用现状调查%Research on Application Status of Eighteen Incompatible Medicaments in Primary Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于大猛; 瞿融; 范欣生; 杨杰

    2012-01-01

    To investigate application status of eighteen incompatible medicaments in primary hospital. We searched 78 ,238 recipes originated from a county hospital of traditional Chinese medicine and 9 health clinics in towns and townships between 2008 and 2011. All recipes containing eighteen incompatible medicaments were statistically analyzed. Two handred and fifty-five recipes containing eighteen incompatible medicaments were found. There were 198 recipes in aconite group and 57 recipes in radix glycyrrhizae group. No recipe in veratrinigri group was found. Radix Aooniti Lateralis preparata in combination with Rhizoma Pinelliae was the most common formula of all eighteen incompatible medicaments. Most clinicians hold a negative attitude to application of eighteen incompatible medicaments. Application of eighteen incompatible medicaments in primary hospital is objectively existent, and it is not absolutely contraindicated.%调查基层医院应用中药十八反的现状.检索某县级中医院及9所乡镇卫生院2008-2011年的处方78 238首,对其中含十八反药对的处方进行统计分析.结果表明共发现含十八反药对的处方255首,其中乌头组198首,甘草组57首,藜芦组0首,以附子半夏应用最多,并出现多组反药同用的情况,临床医生对十八反问题多持回避态度.中药十八反在基层医院的应用是客观存在的,并非绝对的禁总.

  1. 植物药对他克莫司血药浓度的影响%Influence of planta medica on the blood concentration of tacrolimus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逄晓云; 沈金芳

    2009-01-01

    他克莫司是一种器官移植患者广泛使用的免疫抑制剂,大大提高了患者的生活质量和生存率.目前,越来越多的学者关注到西药和他克莫司的相互作用,然而,关于植物药与其相互作用的系统研究很少.本文就植物药与他克莫司的相互作用进行探讨.%Tacrolimus is an widely used immuno-suppressant in organ transplant patients for anti-rejection , and the quality of life and survival rate are greatly enhanced. At present, a growing number of scholars concerned with drug interactions of Western medicine and tacrolimus. However, the impact of planta medica on it was rarely systematically overviewed. This article explored the interaction of planta medica and tacrolimus.

  2. Sequential cloud-point extraction for toxicological screening analysis of medicaments in human plasma by high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Katarzyna; Persona, Karolina; Wandas, Monika; Gomółka, Ewa

    2013-10-18

    A complex extraction system with the use of cloud-point extraction technique (CPE) was developed for sequential isolation of basic and acidic/neutral medicaments from human plasma/serum, screened by HPLC/DAD method. Eight model drugs (paracetamol, promazine, chlorpromazine, amitriptyline, salicyclic acid, opipramol, alprazolam and carbamazepine) were chosen for the study of optimal CPE conditions. The CPE technique consists in partition of an aqueous sample with addition of a surfactant into two phases: micelle-rich phase with the isolated compounds and water phase containing a surfactant below the critical micellar concentration, mainly under influence of temperature change. The proposed extraction system consists of two chief steps: isolation of basic compounds (from pH 12) and then isolation of acidic/neutral compounds (from pH 6) using surfactant Triton X-114 as the extraction medium. Extraction recovery varied from 25.2 to 107.9% with intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD %) ranged 0.88-1087 and 5.32-17.96, respectively. The limits of detection for the studied medicaments at λ 254nm corresponded to therapeutic or low toxic plasma concentration levels. Usefulness of the proposed CPE-HPLC/DAD method for toxicological drug screening was tested via its application to analysis of two serum samples taken from patients suspected of drug overdosing.

  3. Contrôle des Circuits Auxiliaires des PFW (arrêt machines 2002/2003)

    CERN Document Server

    Ottaviani, J

    2003-01-01

    Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installées sur les pôles des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unité d aimant et constituées d un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant désiré selon le cycle magnétique utilisé) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (boucles de tour et pick-up brasés sur les enroulements). Pendant la variation du champ magnétique de l aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux courants de Foucault dans la chambre à vide. Chaque année, pendant l arrêt machine, on vérifie si les caractéristiques des circuits auxiliaires correspondent aux normes (mesures des résistances des boucles de tours, résistances entre pick-up et isolation des circuits) afin de faire un suivi. Les 404 PFW sont ainsi vérifiées. Dans cette note, on ne relèvera que les PFW ayant des défauts (valeurs hors tolérances, boucles ouvertes ou en court-circuit, déf...

  4. Exploitation des connaissances issues des processus de retour d'expérience industriels

    OpenAIRE

    Jabrouni, Hicham

    2012-01-01

    Depuis plusieurs années, dans le secteur industriel, l’amélioration continue constitue un aspect important de la famille de normes ISO 9000 maintenue par l’organisation ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Elle se concentre sur l’amélioration de la satisfaction du client en passant par des améliorations continues et incrémentales des produits, des services et des processus. Afin de répondre à ces exigences, un point clé consiste à optimiser le processus de résolution de probl...

  5. Des changements concevables pour le secteur des transports dans l'objectif "Facteur 4"

    OpenAIRE

    Raux, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Au niveau mondial, les transports consomment 20% de l'énergie, dont 80% dans les transports routiers et 10% dans les transports aériens, et 95% de cette énergie est à base de pétrole. Le secteur des transports est l'un des principaux émetteurs de gaz à effet de serre dans la plupart des pays, et notamment du CO2 issu de la combustion des carburants fossiles. Pour que les transports contribuent significativement à l'objectif du « Facteur 4 » en 2050, trois pistes différentes mais complémentair...

  6. Typologie des investisseurs institutionnels et performance des firmes dans le contexte français

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Michel SAHUT; Othmani Gharbi, Hidaya

    2011-01-01

    L’objet de cet article est d’analyser la relation entre les investisseurs institutionnels et la performance financière des firmes. Dans ce contexte, nous proposons une nouvelle typologie fondée sur la variété des comportements des institutionnels (passifs ou engagés (actifs)) vis-à-vis de la gestion et du gouvernement des firmes qu’ils détiennent en portefeuille, et identifions les principaux facteurs pouvant influencer ces comportements. Nos résultats corroborent, en général, un impact posit...

  7. Etude structurale des sites de nodulation et induction des nodules caulinaires chez Sesbania pubescens

    OpenAIRE

    TOMEKPE, Kodjo; Traore, A S; Ndiaye, S.; Spencer-Barreto, M.M.; Détrez, C.

    1992-01-01

    #Sesbania pubescens$ est une légumineuse annuelle voisine de #Sesbania rostrata$ qui se rencontre généralement sur les sols temporairement inondés de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Des sites de nodulation préformes ont été mis en évidence sur sa tige et ses branches. Ces sites prennent naissance à l'aisselle des cotylédons et des feuilles. Comme chez la plupart des légumineuses à nodules de tige, les sites de nodulation caulinaire de #S. pubescens$ se développent en racines lorsque les tiges sont imme...

  8. Molekularbiologische Untersuchungen des Leitgewebes und der Stressphysiologie des Breitwegerichs (Plantago major L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pommerrenig, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Die Leitbündel Höherer Pflanzen stellen die wesentlichen Gewebe zur Verteilung von Assimilaten, zum Transport von Wasser und zur Übermittlung von Informationen innerhalb und zwischen den einzelnen pflanzlichen Organen dar. Die Zellen des vaskulären Gewebes unterscheiden sich von denen des Mesophylls nicht nur in ihrer Gestalt und Funktion, sondern vor allem in ihrer Genexpression. In dieser Arbeit wurde zur Untersuchung des vaskulären Transkriptoms des Breitwege-richs (Plantago major) eine cD...

  9. Les lexiques des jeunes dans les discours écrits des blogs : pour une approche descriptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Paulina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available S’il ne faut pas confondre ce qui est appelé communément « langage SMS » et « langage des jeunes », nous avancerons toutefois que les pratiques langagières écrites des jeunes sur les supports modernes de communication, et notamment dans les blogs, présentent des particularités encore peu étudiées. Les traits observables les plus saillants sont ceux de la morphologie graphique, mais il n’en reste pas moins que certains jeunes utilisent des lexiques particuliers dans les blogs qui méritent une attention particulière. Nous nous proposons donc d’étudier les différents lexiques utilisés par des jeunes de 12 à 22 ans dans les blogs de la plateforme skyrock.com aux niveaux de sa diversité, de ses usages sémantiques variable d’un scripteur à l’autre pour un même mot, et de ses particularités morphosyntaxiques. En effet, nous observerons des lexiques divers allant des lexiques perçus comme relevant des cités à des lexiques perçus comme étant « branchés-jeunes », ou encore à des lexiques propres aux supports modernes de communication. Ainsi, nous analyserons des lexiques variés dans leurs usages écrits tels que bolos, bédave, gérer, ouf, tigen, ou encore des lexiques empruntés tels que mouv, full, etc., ainsi que des emplois particuliers de séquences autonomes comme lol. Quelques questions périphériques complèteront notre analyse telle que celles qui concerne l’influence des usages lexicaux entre pairs et le savoir partagé, la distinction de différentes communautés en fonction des lexiques utilisés, ou encore la variabilité des représentations graphiques d’un même mot.

  10. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilisation des mousses et des pâtes syntactiques pour combler les lacunes des poteries archéologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Bechoux

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Filling potteries missing parts with plaster raises now complex problems during the de-restoration treatments. Ceramics restorers have recurrently questions on the use of plaster in the field of archaeological ceramics restoration. Some researches point to the choice of other filling materials. At the present time other methods can be devised by proposing plaster replacement by a lightened composite material: syntactic foams and pastes.Le comblement des lacunes des poteries à partir du plâtre pose actuellement des problèmes complexes lors des traitements de dérestauration. Les restaurateurs de céramiques s'interrogent de manière récurrente sur l'utilisation du plâtre dans le domaine de la restauration des céramiques archéologiques. Des recherches s'orientent vers le choix d'autres matériaux d'obturation. Actuellement, d'autres méthodes peuvent être mises en place en proposant le remplacement du plâtre par un matériau composite allégé, les mousses et les pâtes syntactiques.

  12. Des Balkans About the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Matvejević

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les Balkans témoignent de contradictions géographiques et politiques, perceptibles dans le changement d’appellation des lieux au cours de l’Histoire : de la péninsule illyrienne, grecque, byzantine à la « Turquie d’Europe » plus récente. Il est resté une dénomination venue des Turcs, les « Balkans ». Cette presqu’île n’offre pas de frontières naturelles difficiles à franchir. Les délimitations des géographes et historiens sont relatives et souvent arbitraires, et donc contestées. Sa définition est difficile, car, étant associée à la progression des troupes ottomanes, cette « zone de turbulences » garde aux yeux de certains un caractère négatif. Marqués par les bouleversements telluriques et historiques, les Balkans témoignent d’une pluralité et d’une variété démographiques, ce qui pose un grand nombre de questions en termes de rapports ethniques, de constructions identitaires et territoriales. Les revendications s’appuient aussi bien sur le mythe que sur l’Histoire. L’apparition de l’État-nation a constitué dans ces régions de multiples fractures à l’image du schisme chrétien de 1054, divisant Églises et croyances, empires et pouvoirs, styles et écritures. L’islam a engendré de nouvelles oppositions ou intolérances. Les puissances étrangères sont intervenues dans ce jeu pour tenter de le stabiliser tout en déterminant leurs sphères d’influence, figeant par le jeu des traités une multitude de questions irrésolues ou conflictuelles, sans apporter de réponse durable. Cet inachevé, dans une histoire faite de partages, suscite des frustrations, et nécessite une réécriture qui tarde à se faire jour, faute d’apaisement entre les différentes sensibilités. La littérature se fait l’écho de ces situations par l’évocation de la cruauté, sous l’occupation ottomane (cf. Ivo Andrić notamment, mais aussi dans l’actualité récente. « Cet espace qui produit

  13. La reputation scientifique contestee des freres Bogdanov

    CERN Multimedia

    Morin, H

    2002-01-01

    "Les celebres jumeaux sont revenus a la television apres avoir obtenu des theses en mathematiques et physique theorique. Depuis, ils sont la cible de virulentes critiques portant sur la qualite reelle de leurs travaux" (1 page).

  14. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  15. GROSSESSE GEMELLA IRE ET EVOLUTION DES JUMEAUX

    OpenAIRE

    SALAH, HANANE; ALLAOUI, AMINA

    2012-01-01

    Cette étude prospective succincte nous a permis de réunir les informations suivantes - La grande fréquence des grossesses gémellaires dans le mois de septembre. - L'âge jeune des mamans. - La plupart des jumeaux occupent la première ou la deuxième place dans la fratrie. - Le bon état de santé des mamans avant la grossesse par l'absence d'antécédents pathologiques chez elles. - Un très faible tôt d'antécédent personnel de grossesse gémellaire antérieure contre une...

  16. Pyrotechnie : une évaluation des risques

    OpenAIRE

    Aufauvre, Lionel; Marlair, Guy; Michot, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Depuis une dizaine d'années, la pyrotechnie tend à se démocratiser, comme en témoigne le développement du marché des artifices de divertissement pour le grand public en France. Elle touche de même l'ensemble de la population dans des applications comme les équipements de sécurité des véhicules automobiles de type airbags ou prétensionneurs de ceinture de sécurité. En effet, ces équipements mettent en oeuvre des matériaux énergétiques adaptés au temps de réaction, extrêmement court, nécessaire...

  17. Wood duck studies : Des Lacs NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum summarizes wood duck studies on Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge and provides a brief history on the status of wood ducks on the edge of their...

  18. Table des abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A Textes juridiques al. : alinéa art. : article A.u.-Com. : Acte uniforme portant droit commercial général A.u.-Compt. : Acte uniforme portant harmonisation des comptabilités des entreprises A.u.-Proc.coll. : Acte uniforme portant organisation des procédures collectives d’apurement du passif A.u.-Soc. : Acte uniforme relatif aux sociétés commerciales et au groupement d’intérêt économique C.ass. : Code des assurances C.civ. : Code civil C.com. : Code de commerce C.E.S.D.H. : Convention europée...

  19. L 'Analyse des Organisations en Afrique:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    croissance économique, développement des techniques industrielles, nécessité d'une plus ... légale se caractérise par la consécration des règles de droit et d'un certain nombre ..... mais un système ouvert qui entretient avec son environnement une relation .... C'est l'affaire de tous, que l'on soit supérieur ou subordonné.

  20. Tabanidae (Diptera) des pays-bas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, M.

    1967-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cette mise au point des Tabanides des Pays-Bas a été rendue possible grâce à la collaboration de M. V. S. van der Goot, département d'Entomologie, Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, que nous remercions pour son amabilité. Nous avons pu étudier aussi les collections du Rijksmuseum van Natuurl

  1. Probleme des elektiven Mutismus bei Jugendlichen

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Nach einem Exkurs zur Terminologie des Begriffs elektiver Mutismus und zur Symptomatologie dieser Erkrankung wird anhand einer Krankengeschichte die Hauptproblematik der Psychotherapie mit einem jugendlichen Mutisten erörtert. Besondere Erwähnung finden dabei 1. der äußerst schwierige Abschnitt von der Kontaktaufnahme bis zur "regelrechten" Gesprächspsychotherapie und 2. der Konflikt, der in diesem speziellen Fall der Entstehung des Mutismus zugrunde liegt. Hinweise zur Arbeit mit de...

  2. Der Machtmensch: zur Dramatologie des Politikers

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzler, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Der Beitrag erörtert das Anforderungsprofil des modernen Politikers, wobei unter anderem folgende Aspekte beleuchtet werden: (1) Die Darstellungskompetenz, (2) Machiavellismus, (3) die typische Persönlichkeit des Politikers (Harold D. Laswell), (4) Politik als Beruf (M. Weber), (5) die wichtigsten Bedingungen für eine erfolgreiche Politikerkarriere, (6) politisches Handeln verstanden als Inszenierungsarbeit, (7) Politik als Ritual (Murray Edelman), (8) die Dramatologie der Politik sowie (9) d...

  3. Analyse de la mobilité des paysages et des systèmes sociaux en Thessalie : l’apport des images Landsat TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Helly

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Une équipe pluridisciplinaire tente d’identifier la répartition des sites observables ou enfouis dans la plaine de Larissa. L’analyse d’image Landsat TM a permis d’identifier l’extension réelle des épandages, des systèmes de failles mais aussi des trames anthropiques qu’aucun autre document n’illustre.

  4. Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salissou, Yacoubou

    L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance. En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques. Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes. Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe. Enfin, le

  5. TENDANCES ACTUELLES EN MARKETING DES SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George NICULESCU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Les activités de services sont difficiles à gérer dans le cadre du marketing-mix traditionnel car, contrairement aux biens tangibles produits la qualité des services est très dépendante de facteurs personnels. De même, la nature intangible des services n’est pas prise en compte dans la plupart des analyses du marketing-mix. Par exemple, la distribution physique ne coïncide pas avec la distribution d’éléments invisibles et la politique de communication de l’approche traditionnelle du marketingmix (4P’s ne reconnaît pas la communication des services établie sur le lieu de rencontre entre le personnel de contact de la firme et les clients. Même si les opinions sont partagées et que le débat n’est pas clos, on peut considérer que des éléments supplémentaires s’imposent pour élaborer un marketing qui permette de satisfaire les attentes des parties contractantes de la façon la plus satisfaisante possible

  6. Wiktor Stoczkowski, Des hommes, des dieux et des extraterrestres. Ethnologie d’une croyance moderne

    OpenAIRE

    Lepoutre, David

    2006-01-01

    Voici un ouvrage qui nous fait entrer de plain-pied dans une subculture contemporaine généralement perçue comme marginale et qui s’avère pourtant être d’une importance sociale considérable. Il s’agit de l’univers, exotique s’il en est, des parasciences et de la pensée occultiste. Le lecteur curieux y trouvera un ensemble de développements remarquablement bien documentés et ordonnés sur un certain nombre de sujets et de thèmes liés à cette pensée contemporaine dont les ramifications tentaculai...

  7. 127 Impact des rejets urbains et industriels sur la qualité des eaux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    rejets industriels et urbains sur l'évolution de la qualité des eaux de surface et ... 1,0205= 11820, sa principale activité est l'agriculture, visible surtout dans la partie Sud là .... Ils sont également indicateurs d'une pollution par des eaux usées.

  8. Marine Traffic Project, un outil d’observation des routes et des ports maritimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Le site Marine Traffic fournit, gratuitement et en temps réel, des informations sur les mouvements des navires dans le monde entier. Il fait partie d’un projet universitaire qui a pour but la collecte et la diffusion de ces données en vue de leur exploitation dans divers domaines…

  9. Services de transfert des savoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Simard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article décrit un modèle visant à faciliter la compréhension du processus de transfert du contenu depuis sa source jusqu’à son utilisation. Un groupe de travail de Ressources naturelles Canada a étudié la nature du transfert des savoirs à l’aide d’un modèle de services, afin de découvrir et comprendre les modèles et processus sous-jacents. Les services de savoir sont des programmes qui créent et fournissent des produits organisationnels basés sur un contenu et ayant une valeur intégrée. Ces programmes sont destinés à être utilisés en interne ou transférés pour répondre aux souhaits et besoins d’un utilisateur externe. Les critères de conception du modèle sont les suivants : indépendance par rapport au contenu, concentration sur l’organisation, évolutivité, deux pilotes et deux niveaux de résolution. Le modèle est basé sur une chaîne de valeur dans laquelle la valeur est intégrée, déplacée ou extraite. Un système de services de savoir se divise en neuf étapes : générer, transformer, gérer, utiliser en interne, transférer, ajouter de la valeur, utiliser professionnellement, utiliser personnellement et évaluer. Les services de savoir sont fournis par l’intermédiaire d’un spectre de distribution allant de complexe à accessible. À chaque région du spectre de distribution correspond une série d’attributs qui influencent la manière dont les services sont fournis.This paper describes a model intended to increase understanding of how content is transferred from its source to its use. A Natural Resources Canada task group explored the nature of knowledge transfer with a services paradigm to discover and understand underlying patterns and processes. Knowledge Services are programs that produce and pro-vide content-based organizational outputs with embedded value that are intended to be used internally or transferred to meet external user wants or needs. Model design criteria

  10. [The Seongho () School's Study of the Ancient Learning () and Its Influence on the Debate about Materia Medica in the Late Joseon Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-San

    2015-08-01

    This study will determine the ways in which the ancient learning (gu xue, ) scholarship of the Seongho School, and its interest in the materia medica (ben cao xue, ) were related during the late Joseon period. The Seongho School centered its studies mainly on classical Chinese texts of the Han (206 BC-AD 220) and pre-Han (?-221 BC) (xian-qin lianghan, ) periods rather than those of the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). gu xue scholarship emerged during the Ming dynasty era (1368 -1644) as an alternative to the scholarly trends of the Song dynasty, which were dependent on Zhu Xi's (, 1130-1200) Neo-Confucianism and its interpretation of Han and pre-Han classical Chinese texts. This scholarly trend influenced Korean and Japanese literature, philosophy, and even medicine from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Focusing on Korean scholarship, we find a great deal of research regarding the influence of gu xue on Korean classical Chinese literature and Confucian philosophy in the late Joseon period; however, no study has examined how this style of scholarship influenced the field of medicine during the same period. This study will investigate how the intellectuals of the Seongho School, who did the most to develop gu xue among Joseon intellectuals, were influenced by this style of scholarship in their study of the materia medica. Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), the representative intellectual of the Seongho School, did not focus on complicated metaphysical medical theories, such as the Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory (yin yang wu xing shui, ) or the Five Movements and Six Atmospheres theory (wu yun liu qi shui, ). Instead, his interests lay in the exact diagnoses of diseases and meticulous herbal prescriptions which formed an essential part of the Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease (Shang han lun, ) written by Zhang Zhungjing (, 150-219) in the Han dynasty. The Treatise was compatible with the scholarly purpose of gu xue in that they both

  11. Practice and thought of MOOC for Chinese materia medica%中药学MOOC课程的制作实践与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘四军; 刘步平; 吴庆光

    2015-01-01

    目的:大规模开放在线课程(Massive Open Online Course,MOOC)近年来受到国际教育界的高度关注,对高等教育正在产生着广泛而深远的影响。以传统医学的基础学科中药学作为切入点,对中药学MOOC制作进行实践与探索。方法通过中药学授课老师团队的研讨,在对整个中药学知识点进行梳理、模块化、单元化的基础上,组建MOOC拍摄团队,对课程进行视频制作、发表、互动以及管理,并总结了制作过程中遇到的问题。结果在团队合作的基础上,开发了中药学MOOC课程,从而改进互动方式和课程,使教学更有效。结论MOOC可能是未来教育资源建设的聚焦点,制作优质的MOOC资源是首当其冲的问题。%Objective Massive open online course (MOOC) has received close attention in the international educational world in recent years, and has brought about wide and far-reaching influence on higher education. This paper explored and practiced production of MOOC by taking Chinese materia medica as an entry point. Methods Research was conducted by Chinese materia medica teaching team to find out knowledge points for teaching in different modules and units. Shooting team was also organized for video producing, issuing, interaction and management. Problems in the course of production were summarized. Results Online course of Chinese materia medica might contribute to interactive mode of teaching and result in more effective teaching. Conclusion MOOC can be the focus of the future construction of educational resources. Production of high-quality MOOC resources is the most important issue to be considered.

  12. Effets perturbateurs endocriniens des pesticides organochlores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, C; Plomteux, G

    2002-01-01

    Xenoestrogens such organochlorine pesticides are known to induce changes in reproductive development, function or behaviour in wildlife. Because these compounds are able to modify the estrogens metabolism, or to compete with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor, it may be possible that these products affect the risk of developing impaired fertility, precocious puberty or some kinds of cancer in man. Le plus ancien récit de lutte contre la pollution remonte à une légende indienne racontant que la divinité Sing-bonga était incommodée par les émanations des fours dans lesquels les Asuras fondaient leurs métaux (1). Evidemment depuis, la problématique n-a cessé de s-accroître et la contamination de la Terre par de nombreux polluants est devenue aujourd-hui un problème majeur de notre Société. La protection de notre environnement est une question capitale qui doit être respectée malgré la pression économique actuelle et qui ne cessera de croître au cours des prochaines années même si l-identification objective et indiscutable de ce qui est essentiel - donc devant être prioritairement garanti sur la planète - est difficile à cerner (2). « Un oiseau en mauvais état ne pond pas de bons oeufs » disait un proverbe grec. Mais ce n-est qu-à partir de la seconde moitié du XXème siècle que les toxicologues ont commencé à identifier les effets qu-avaient entraînés à l-échelle mondiale les pollutions émises aux XIXème siècle sur la faune sauvage et sur le cheptel (3). L-histoire contemporaine des pesticides industriels commence vers 1874 (synthèse des organochlorés) et se poursuit tout au long de ces 2 siècles en passant par la synthèse des organophosphorés (1950), des carbamates (1970) et des pyréthroïdes (1975) (4). Le dichlorodiphényltrichloroéthane (DDT) a été synthétisé pour la première fois par un étudiant en cours de préparation de sa thèse de doctorat : Othmer Zeidler. La production, reprise par les

  13. Micro Blog:un monde des rumeurs%Micro Blog : un monde des rumeurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洁

    2012-01-01

    Quel est le divertissement le plus populaire sur Internet depuis ao(u)t 2009 en Chine ? Ce serait le Micro Blog du site web Sina.Avec 100 millions d'utilisateurs,ce Micro Blog est une plate-forme où l'on peut partager,diffuser et obtenir des informations immédiatement.En comparaison d'autres micro blogs tels que twitter et facebook,celui de Sina nous offre plus de services.Avec 140 mots,nous pouvons bien exprimer au moins une idée en chinois.De plus,en diffusant des critiques,des photos,des vidéos et des chansons,chacun devient jourr(n)aliste en observant et enregistrant les nouvelles de la vie.

  14. Vom Bürger zum Kunden. Der Strukturwandel des Bildungssystems und der demokratischen Kultur in Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Zymek, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    Der Artikel analysiert aus einer bildungs- und sozialhistorischen Perspektive die Ursachen und Konsequenzen des auffälligen Begriffswandels und Strategiewechsels in den bildungspolitischen Debatten Deutschlands. die aktuelle Konjunktur ökonomischer Begriffe und betriebswirtschaftlicher Strategien wird im Zusammenhang des langfristigen Strukturwandels des deutschen Bildungssystems, des Funktionsverlusts des Berechtigungswesens und der Expansion kommerzieller Bildungsangebote im Umfeld des staa...

  15. Disinfection of dentinal tubules with two different formulations of calcium hydroxide as compared to 2% chlorhexidine: As intracanal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshita Joy Vaghela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the disinfection of dentinal tubules using calcium hydroxide with propylene glycol and calcium hydroxide with iodoform in silicone oil, as compared to 2% chlorhexidine gel. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial efficacy of the medicaments against E.faecalis and C.albicans were assessed in vitro, using a dentinal tubule model at depths of 200 μm and 400 μm in extracted single rooted teeth. Saline was taken as the negative control (Group I Results: All three medicaments used in this study exerted antibacterial and antifungal activity. Group II (calcium hydroxide with propylene glycol and Group IV (2% chlorhexidine gel had the highest antimicrobial activity and the differences between their antibacterial activities were not statistically significant. Group III (calcium hydroxide with iodoform in silicone oil and Group IV had the highest antifungal activity and the differences between their antifungal activities were not statistically significant. The inhibition of growth at 200 μm and 400 ΅m was uniform, with no statistical difference. Conclusions: Two percent chlorhexidine gel was effective against both E.faecalis and C.albicans. Calcium hydroxide with propylene glycol was the most effective intracanal medicament along with 2% chlorhexidine against E.faecalis, whereas, calcium hydroxide with iodoform in silicone oil was the most effective intracanal medicament along with 2% chlorhexidine against C.albicans.

  16. La gestion des eaux souterraines et des steppes en Syrie : une ouverture internationale sous contrôle

    OpenAIRE

    Saadé-Sbeih, Myriam; Jaubert, Ronald; Al-Dbiyat, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    À partir de la fin des années 1990, dans un contexte d’ouverture à l’international, les autorités syriennes adoptèrent une posture conforme au discours des organisations internationales de développement en redéfinissant les politiques d’exploitation des eaux souterraines et des parcours steppiques. Si les programmes mis en œuvre semblent dans un premier temps correspondre à l’adoption des principes et instruments de régulation et de gestion des ressources naturelles promus par les organisatio...

  17. Multistatic Surveillance and Reconnaissance: Sensor, Signals and Data Fusion (Surveillance et Reconnaissance Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs, des signaux et des donnees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    capteurs , des signaux et des données) Research and Technology Organisation (NATO) BP 25, F-92201 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex, France RTO-EN-SET-133...this new paradigm, each radar/sonar can receive and process its own signal and/or the signal of other local sources. The application of bi-/multistatic...Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs , des signaux et des données) The material in this publication was assembled to support a Lecture Series under the

  18. Fatores preditores e conseqüências clínicas do uso de múltiplas medicações entre idosos atendidos em um serviço ambulatorial de saúde mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Osvaldo P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o padrão de uso de medicamentos, polifarmácia e uso impróprio de medicações entre indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais atendidos no serviço ambulatorial de saúde mental da Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Cento e oitenta e quatro pacientes atendidos de forma consecutiva foram avaliados sistematicamente quanto à dosagem e tempo de utilização de medicamentos na semana que antecedeu a consulta médica. A presença de sintomas físicos e psicológicos foi avaliada com a escala Saftee-Up simplificada. O uso impróprio de medicamentos foi avaliado através dos critérios de Stuck modificado. RESULTADOS: O número médio de medicações consumidas por paciente foi de 2,46 - 41,3% dos entrevistados utilizavam três ou mais medicamentos e 10,9% utilizavam cinco ou mais medicações por dia. Antidepressivos (42,4%, drogas anti-hipertensivas (32,6% e benzodiazepínicos (21,2% eram as medicações mais freqüentemente utilizadas. Pacientes utilizando três ou mais medicações apresentavam escores mais elevados na escala Saftee-Up (p=0,007. Análise de regressão logística indicou que os escores da Saftee-Up eram influenciados de forma significativa pelo número de diagnósticos clínicos (OR=1,85, p=0,030, mas não pela idade (OR=0,99, p=0,732, sexo (OR=0,67, p=0,317, número de diagnósticos psiquiátricos (OR=0,77, p=0,533 ou de medicações (OR=1,18, p=0,258. Trinta e quatro idosos (18,5% vinham utilizando pelo menos uma medicação considerada imprópria. CONCLUSÕES: É importante que os psiquiatras estejam cientes das diretrizes internacionais para prescrição de drogas e participem ativamente para reduzir os riscos associados à polifarmácia e uso impróprio de medicamentos em idosos.

  19. Aimant PS: controle de l'etat des sertissages internes des PFW mesures effectues surl'ensemble des aimants du PS pendant le grand arret 2004/2006

    CERN Document Server

    Ottaviani, J

    2005-01-01

    Les sertissages (douilles), utilisés pour raccorder les méplats du circuit principal des PFW à leurs câbles d’alimentation, présentent parfois des défauts de réalisation qui entraînent une résistance électrique anormale. Pour mettre en évidence ces défauts, la résistance des 4 sertissages des nappes polaires est mesurée. Les nappes sont alimentées avec un courant efficace nominal de 80A.Les mesures sont effectuées entre le bornier de connexions des 4 câbles d’alimentation des PFW et les circuits auxiliaires correspondants (Pick-ups brasés sur les enroulements). De ces mesures (câble d’alimentation et une courte partie du circuit principal) est déduite la valeur de la résistance du sertissage qui en assure la liaison. A la mesure des résistances des sertissages des nappes polaires supérieures s’ajoute la résistance des câbles qui assurent la liaison entre borniers. Dans le cadre de la rénovation des aimants du PS, les 100 unités on été mesurées.

  20. Dans le tourbillon des particules

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Accélérateurs géants, détecteurs complexes, particules énigmatiques... La physique subatomique peut sembler bien intimidante pour le novice. Et pourtant, qui n a jamais entendu parler du boson de Higgs et du CERN, le laboratoire européen où il a été découvert en 2012 ? Nul besoin d être un spécialiste pour comprendre de quoi il s agit. Aujourd hui, une théorie extraordinairement élégante, le Modèle Standard, décrit tous les résultats des expériences dans le domaine. Trente-sept particules élémentaires et quatre forces fondamentales : c est tout ce dont nous avons besoin pour expliquer la matière et l Univers ! Ce livre, destiné à un large public, raconte sans équations le long parcours qui a abouti au Modèle Standard. Ce parcours, parfois sinueux, a été entamé lorsque les Grecs anciens, et peut-être d autres avant eux, ont imaginé que la matière est composée de petites « billes ». Il faudra attendre plusieurs siècles pour qu on réalise que la matière, à l échelle micros...

  1. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  2. Recovery e medicação: Perspectivas e percepções de indivíduos com experiência de doença mental

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Carla Sofia Almeida e

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Psicologia Comunitária Sendo notória a pertinência das questões relacionadas com a saúde mental dada a sua elevada incidência à escala mundial, surgem novos debates em torno do conceito emergente de recovery. A relação entre a medicação psiquiátrica e o recovery é um tema complexo e controverso, estando a área da saúde mental repleta de relatos que salientam o valor dos medicamentos no recovery e, em simultâneo, de opiniões que testemunham uma posição contrária à...

  3. [Preliminary textual research on Zhijintang Sanctum re-revised version of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2014-03-01

    The Zhijintang Sanctum version of the re-revised edition of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)collected by Zhao Huiyuan of Baihe, Henan Province in 2008 was opted as one of the third batch of the National Directory of Rare Ancient Worksin 2010. On the second cover page (patent page), it is recorded as"Original Jiangxi version". However, it is investigated to find that most of its paper sheets were reprinted after the original Jinling version, only scores of paper sheets were supplemented block-printed, including the additional block-printed second preface and Li Jianyuan's submitted report of the Jiangxi version, the re-revised time of which should be after the Jiangxi edition, or 1603. The exact time can be determined only by checking it carefully against another Jinling re-revised version (the Sheyuantang Sanctum edition).

  4. An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research.

  5. Citrus medica L. cv Diamante (Rutaceae) peel extract improves glycaemic status of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and protects against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; D'Angelo, Danila; Lombardi, Pietro; Mastellone, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic, antilipidaemic and antioxidant activities of Citrus medica cv Diamante (Rutaceae) hydroalcoholic (CD) peel extract in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The ability of CD to protect against oxidative stress was investigated by using different in vitro assays and in vivo by using the reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) test and the biological antioxidant potential test (BAP). Two different doses of CD extract (300 and 600 mg/kg/die) were administered at ZDF rats for 4 weeks. CD reduced cholesterol and triglycerides levels. A dose-dependent effect on body weight and serum glucose levels was observed. A decrease of d-ROMs and an increase of BAP were recorded by using the dose of 600 mg/kg. The extract inhibited lipid peroxidation (IC50 value of 0.23 mg/ml). These findings suggest as an efficient phytotherapeutic approach in combating hyperlipidaemic and hyperglycaemic disorders.

  6. Les gloses botaniques andalouses sur le manuscrit de Paris de la traduction arabe de la Materia Medica de Dioscorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mrad, Ibrahim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The following study focusses on a precious manuscript from the National Library in Paris, namely n.º 2849 of the Arabic manuscript collection. This is a manuscript of Andalusian origin of the Arabic translation of Materia Medica by Dioscorides, written in Syria at the beginning of the 13th century. Its margins are filled with glosses of synonymic nature, relating to the Greek terms of the plants described by the Greek pharmacologist and physician. These glosses, of Andalusian origin, offer a great terminological richness which is part of a large Arabic — mainly Andalusian — movement of revision and commentary of Materia Medica in Arabic. In the first part a general introduction to the manuscript is provided showing its significant value for a critical edition of the book, the glosses contained and, especially, of the Andalusian botanical glosses, insisting on their synonymic value and their terminological contribution. In a second part, a critical annotated edition of 44 glosses from the first maqāla of the book is proposed.

    Se aborda en este trabajo el estudio de un precioso manuscrito de la Biblioteca Nacional de París, el n.º 2849 de los fondos árabes. Se trata de un manuscrito de origen andalusí que contiene la traducción al árabe de la Materia Medica de Dioscórides, escrito en Siria a principios del siglo XIII, cuyos márgenes están repletos de glosas de naturaleza sinonímica, relativas a los nombres griegos que reciben las plantas descritas por la farmacología griega. Estas glosas son de orígen andalusí, y ofrecen una gran riqueza terminológica que se inscribe en un amplio movimiento árabe, y más concretamente andalusí, de revisión y comentario de la traducción árabe de la Materia Medica. En la primera parte de este estudio se ofrece una presentación general del manuscrito, mostrando su valor para una reedición crítica de la obra, de las glosas que contiene y

  7. Dictionnaire d'analyse et de gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Desroches, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Ce dictionnaire présente les principaux termes utilisés en analyse et gestion des risques, pour tous les secteurs d'activité industrielle ou de service. Il permet de clarifier des terminologies existantes présentant des variations plus ou moins importantes et parfois des contradictions de sens. Il propose : premièrement, la définition des auteurs, définition correspondant à l'usage le plus courant du terme , deuxièmement, les différences avec les terminologies existantes (essentiellement des normes) , troisièmement, des compléments à la définition, lorsque cela semble nécessaire et notamment lorsqu'il est important de préciser le contexte d'utilisation du terme , en dernier lieu, des exemples pratiques d'application, lorsque cela peut apporter un éclairage complémentaire pertinent.

  8. Refuge development report : Des Lacs Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on the development of Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge. This report introduces the physical and biological characteristics of the Des Lacs area. This report...

  9. [Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge habitat improvement to combat botulism

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This documents discusses the possibilities of ditching the Upper Des Lacs lake as a means of combating botulism on the Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge.

  10. A pré-medicação com midazolam antes de secção cesariana não tem efeitos adversos no neonato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Can Senel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Como todos os pacientes cirúrgicos, pacientes obstétricas também sentem estresse e ansieda de operatórios. Isso pode ser prevenido se forem passadas à paciente informações detalhadas sobre sua operação e se forem administrados medicamentos farmacológicos pré-operatórios. Devido aos efeitos depressivos dos sedativos nos neonatos, os medicamentos farmacológicos são omitidos, especialmente em pacientes obstétricas. A literatura contém poucos estudos concernentes ao uso de midazolam no pré-operatório em pacientes de secção cesariana (C/S. Nosso objetivo nesse estudo foi ajudar nossas pacientes passando por cirurgia C/S. Um grupo agendado para C/S eletiva recebeu midazolam 0,025 mg kg−1 por via intraveno sa; o outro grupo recebeu salina. A ansiedade materna foi avaliada com o uso dos escores da Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS (Escala de Ansiedade e Informação Pré-operatória de Amsterdam, e os neonatos foram avaliados por Apgar e pelo instrumento Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS (Escore Neurológico e de Capacidade Adaptativa do Neonato. Em conclusão, os pacientes pré-medicados com midazolam 0,025 mg kg−1 medicação tiveram escores de ansiedade significativamente baixos, sem qualquer efeito adverso nos neonatos. Portanto, midazolam pode, com segurança, ser utilizado como agente de pré-medicação na cirurgia C/S.

  11. Stabilisation de la formule des traces tordue

    CERN Document Server

    Moeglin, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Ce travail en deux volumes donne la preuve de la stabilisation de la formule des trace tordue. Stabiliser la formule des traces tordue est la méthode la plus puissante connue actuellement pour comprendre l'action naturelle du groupe des points adéliques d'un groupe réductif, tordue par un automorphisme, sur les formes automorphes de carré intégrable de ce groupe. Cette compréhension se fait en réduisant le problème, suivant les idées de Langlands, à des groupes plus petits munis d'un certain nombre de données auxiliaires; c'est ce que l'on appelle les données endoscopiques. L'analogue non tordu a été résolu par J. Arthur et dans ce livre on suit la stratégie de celui-ci. Publier ce travail sous forme de livre permet de le rendre le plus complet possible. Les auteurs ont repris la théorie de l'endoscopie tordue développée par R. Kottwitz et D. Shelstad et par J.-P. Labesse. Ils donnent tous les arguments des démonstrations même si nombre d'entre eux se trouvent déjà dans les travaux d'Ar...

  12. Positionsbestimmung des Unternehmens: Interne und externe Analyse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Lars; Crespo, Isabel; Portmann, Stefan

    Die Initiierung und Lenkung von Maßnahmen zur integrierten Modernisierung zielen auf die Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens ab. Damit diese Maßnahmen zielgerichtet die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit verbessern können, ist Wissen über die bestehende Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sowie über die bestehenden Fähigkeiten eine zentrale Voraussetzung. Eine zielgerichtete Auswahl problemadäquater Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit bedarf daher im Vorfeld einer Bewertung der aktuellen Situation des Unternehmens im Sinne einer Positionsbestimmung. Erst wenn die internen Stärken und Schwächen sowie die externen Chancen und Risiken identifiziert sind, kann ein ganzheitliches Bild von der Position eines Unternehmens in seiner Umwelt gewonnen werden. Auf Basis der Kenntnisse über die Position des Unternehmens können anschließend zielgerichtet Maßnahmen ausgewählt werden, die einen Beitrag zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Unternehmens haben. Damit kommt der Positionsbestimmung als initialer Schritt des Prozesses der strategischen Unternehmensplanung eine zentrale Bedeutung im Rahmen der integrierten Modernisierung zu. Erfolgt die Auswahl von Maßnahmen ohne eine vorherige Positionsbestimmung, also lediglich auf Basis drängender Probleme, so besteht die Gefahr einer unbedachten und nur auf das "hier und heute“ bezogenen Schwerpunktbildung ohne Berücksichtigung der mittel- und langfristigen Ziele des Unternehmens.

  13. LA CONTRIBUTION DES SAVOIRS DANS LPERFORMANCE D’ENTREPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Lachachi, Abdelhaq

    2014-01-01

    Cette étude traite la problématique de la contribution des savoirs dans la performance d’entreprise. En d’autres termes, quel est l’impact des pratiques du management des connaissances (catalyseurs et processus) dans la performance organisationnelle ? Plusieurs études ont montré que les catalyseurs du management des connaissances (Culture organisationnelle, structure organisationnelle, leadership, stratégie et vision et les technologies de l’information et de la communication) ...

  14. L’impact de la participation bancaire dans le capital des entreprises sur la politique de distribution des dividendes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoel Mezgani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de ce papier est de tester l’incidence de la participation bancaire dans le capital des entreprises non financières sur la politique de distribution des dividendes. En utilisant des données de panel des trente entreprises tunisiennes durant la période de 1999 à 2004, nous vérifions si en détenant le capital et la dette, la banque a la possibilité de contraindre la distribution des dividendes pour garantir le remboursement de ses fonds prêtés. Les résultats empiriques obtenus ne confirment pas l’impact significatif des banques actionnaires majoritaires et principaux créditeurs sur la distribution des dividendes dans les entreprises tunisiennes. Ces dernières soutiennent surtout la stabilité du niveau des dividendes payés d’une année à une autre.

  15. ordination et classification de la vegetation des zones humides du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Ivoire appartiennent à la ... géographiques (Gauch, 1982 ; Kent et Coker, ... Le climat de la région est du type sub-équatorial, .... L'influence des ..... efficaces pour la partition des groupes de relevés ... les changements induits par des facteurs.

  16. Inhibition de Phytophthora palmivora, agent de pourriture brune des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    les pratiques culturales, la sélection des variétés résistances et l'utilisation des antagonistes ... will assess for efficacy biocontrol candidates from cacao agrosystems on the evolution of disease. ..... °C. Après 7 jours d'incubation, la lecture des.

  17. Statutes of limitations: the special problem of DES suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, C A

    1981-01-01

    In 1971, medical studies determined that DES causes a rare type of vaginal cancer in a small number of daughters of mothers who took DES during pregnancy. Subsequently, medical studies determined that exposure to DES can cause other vaginal abnormalities in the daughters, some of which may be precancerous. As a result of these discoveries, many lawsuits have been filed by these daughters against DES manufacturers. Many DES suits may be barred by statutes of limitations, both because the number of years between the daughters' exposure to DES in utero and the discovery that DES can cause injuries exceeds the statutory period, and because the cancer or other injuries caused by DES may not develop for many additional years. This Note discusses two methods that DES plaintiffs may be able to use to overcome the potential statutes of limitations bar: the discovery rule, and state provisions which toll the statute of limitations for minors. The Note contends that courts should apply an expanded discovery rule to DES suits to avoid the unfair result of barring a claim before the plaintiff could have known that she had a cause of action. In addition, the Note argues that the injury which causes the statute of limitations to begin to run in DES suits should not be rigidly defined. Finally, the Note urges that courts allow eligible DES plaintiffs to take advantage of applicable state provisions that toll the statute of limitations for minors.

  18. Les risques industriels et le prix des logements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grislain-Letrémy, Céline; Katossky, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Le prix des logements peut diminuer du fait de la proximité d’installations industrielles. Cet effet dépend de la perception du risque par les riverains et est donc potentiellement modifié par des événements changeant la perception du risque, tels que les plans de prévention des risques technolog...

  19. TEDx Place Des Nations | 11 December

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    On 11 December, Geneva will host the TEDxPlaceDesNations event.   TEDxPlaceDesNations, in the spirit of TED’s “Ideas Worth Spreading” principle, will involve innovators, humanitarians, entrepreneurs, scientists and peacemakers. The eleven speakers will share how their work can help find solutions to today’s challenges. Among the speakers will be Javier Serrano, a CERN physicist and electronics engineer. He is the co-author of the CERN Open Hardware License and the creator of the Open Hardware Repository, a web platform where companies, institutes and individuals can share their hardware designs for free. Additional information is available at the TEDxPlaceDesNations site. The detailed programme will be posted on 28 November. Seats are limited, so registration is essential. The event can be followed by live webcast here.

  20. Le festin des trois dames de Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre-Bidon, Danièle

    2008-01-01

    Les Parisiennes du XIIIe siècle ont mauvaise réputation. Non contentes de mal se tenir à table, elles se gavent et s'enivrent, parlent des vins en professionnelles de l'œnologie, suggérant une longue expérience de beuveries, et, surtout, se passent des hommes pour festoyer. Exclus de la convivialité féminine, ceux-ci se vengent en vers : c'est l'objet d'un poème comique, un fabliau, qui leur promet un sort funeste : le coma éthylique des trois dames de Paris les fait enterrer vives au ...

  1. Le mot des présidents

    OpenAIRE

    Jarraud, Pierre; Rauzy, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    La Fédération Interuniversitaire de l’Enseignement à Distance (FIED) est heureuse et fière d’être associée à ce numéro dont le sujet est au cœur de ses préoccupations. Publier des articles sur la distance dans une revue de qualité et dans l’une des rares revues francophones du domaine est pour la fédération un motif de satisfaction : la FIED regroupe les universités (et bientôt d’autres établissements d’enseignement supérieur) françaises (ou francophones) offrant des formations à distance en ...

  2. Analyse technique des SIGB Koha et PMB

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier, Benoit

    2005-01-01

    L’objectif du présent rapport est de présenter l’évaluation de Koha du point de vue informatique et de déterminer si il est approprié ou non pour la gestion des bibliothèques universitaires des pays partenaires de la CUD. Ce rapport se présente de la manière suivante : – L’évaluation, à travers une grille, de différents aspects techniques tels que la facilité d’installation, la stabilité, les performances, la sécurité, l’efficacité réelle des fonctions, l’interopérabi...

  3. La Tragédie des communaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Le Prestre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Si, depuis les années 1980, de nombreux travaux ont montré que la tragédie des communaux n’était pas dominante au niveau local, pourvu que certaines règles de gestion collectives soient mises en place et respectées, c’est sans doute au niveau international que la surexploitation rationnelle des ressources que décrit ce modèle est la plus évidente et les solutions les plus élusives. Après avoir rappelé le modèle analytique initial dont le pouvoir heuristique demeure, cet article présente les avantages et les limites des solutions existantes afin de surmonter cette dynamique et souligne la place centrale du politique dans toute réflexion sur cette question.

  4. Esquisse d’une philosophie des normes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ruby

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La demande vient de l’éditeur et il a eu raison de solliciter la remise en public des cinq articles rédigés, par Pierre Macherey, ce vieux dinosaure de la philosophie (cf. Macherey, 1998, sur Georges Canguilhem et Michel Foucault. Car la question brassée autant par ces auteurs que par les textes de Macherey ici présentés demeure actuelle 1  : qu’est-ce que vivre et vivre en société, sous des normes ? Pourquoi l’existence humaine est-elle confrontée à des normes ? D’où ...

  5. Das Konzept des 'Medialen Habitus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kommer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sven Kommer fragt in seinem Beitrag, inwieweit das Habitus-Konzept als Erklärungsmuster für die beobachtbare Zementierung sozialer Ungleichheit im Schulsystem greift. Dabei konstatiert der Beitrag, dass alle an der Weiterschreibung des Habitus-Konzepts beteiligten AutorInnen sich darin einig sind, dass es wichtige Beiträge für die Selbst-Aufklärung einer weitestgehend mediatisierten Gesellschaft leistet. Der Artikel geht dabei – auch angesichts der PISA-Studien – von dem empirischen Befund aus, dass die individuelle Ausprägung der Medienkompetenz aufs engste mit den Ressourcen des Elternhauses verbunden ist und sich dabei die elterlichen Formen der Medienerziehung unübersehbar mit den aktuellen medialen Handlungspraxen verbinden. Dieser Befund deckt sich auf weite Strecken auch mit den Ergebnissen der Bildungssoziologie Pierre Bourdieus, weshalb die Diskussionen zum medialen Habitus im Rahmen dieser Ausführungen auch mit empirischen Argumenten unterfüttert werden. Ganz in diesem Sinne arbeitet der Artikel auch heraus, dass die aus dem Kontext der Cultural Studies stammenden Thesen zur Nivellierung kultureller Milieu-Unterschiede wenig empirisch fundiert sind. Der Artikel betont dahingehend, dass hier eine unreflektierte Infiltration durch genuin neoliberales Gedankengut vorliegt, da mit ihr auch die Annahme einer "freien Wahl" von Lebensweg, Milieuzugehörigkeit oder Gender verbunden werden kann. Dabei wir auch eingehend der "Clash of Habitus" diskutiert, der zwischen Lehrenden und Lernenden stattfindet und das Augenmerk ein Mal mehr auf die Tatsache lenkt, das unser Bildungssystem auf dieser pädagogisch relevanten Ebene durch soziale Ungleichheiten gekennzeichnet ist. In his essay, Sven Kommer questions whether the notion of habitus is suitable to support the understanding of the obvious consolidation of inequality in the school system. He shows that all authors active in the continued use of the notion of habitus agree that it

  6. L’ACTION PUBLIQUE Contaminants chimiques des aliments : évaluation et gestion des risques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbonne Jean-François

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La sécurité des aliments s’appuie sur l’évaluation des risques, la traçabilité (de la fourche à la fourchette et la veille sanitaire. Suite aux crises récentes, ce domaine connaît aujourd’hui une profonde transformation des liens entre citoyens, opérateurs privés, pouvoirs publics, médias, éducateurs, corps médical et recherche, le consommateur étant désormais placé au centre du système.

  7. Des saints pour la fiction, des saints face à l’Histoire

    OpenAIRE

    Bonord, Aude

    2008-01-01

    Pourquoi des écrivains non confessionnels (Joseph Delteil, Blaise Cendrars, Christian Bobin, Sylvie Germain, Claude Louis-Combet) ont-ils choisi de réécrire des vies de saints au XXe siècle ? Le parti pris est surprenant à plusieurs titres. L’hagiographie est un genre historique et religieux, terrain a priori réservé aux historiens, aux ecclésiastiques ou aux écrivains catholiques. De plus, à la fin du siècle, l’hagiographie est sortie du champ littéraire avec la disparition du groupe des écr...

  8. Adaptation des Temps de Retournement et Silence des Agents (MICROFIP) sur ceux du MANAGER (FULLFIP)

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, R

    2005-01-01

    Suite a des defauts de lecture entre le module FIPDIAG (MICROFIP) et le MANAGER (FULLFIP) lors de la qualification des reseaux du LHC, l'equipe du WorldFIP Support, avec l'aide d'Alstom, s'est rendu compte que le Temps de Retournement (Tr) des Agents MICROFIP ne devait pas etre minimal mais ajuste sur le mode operationnel du MANAGER (FULLFIP) qui est variable suivant la configuration du BA. Pour le Temps de silence (Ts) les precautions a prendre sont les memes.

  9. La régulation locale des "incivilités" : des partenariats en action

    OpenAIRE

    Faget, Jacques-Guy; De Maillard, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    National audience; La régulation des conflits sociaux traverse une phase d'incertitude du fait de l'incapacité des groupes sociaux à en assurer la charge et du repli d'institutions incapables de répondre à une demande sociale pléthorique. Face à cette demande de protection dont l'ampleur est de nature à produire des désordres sociaux, les pouvoirs publics, au premier chefs desquels on trouve les municipalités, développent de nouvelles stratégies de proximité, se rapprochant de la population e...

  10. De la circulation des nourritures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Lestage

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Tout en provoquant une rupture avec le réseau social d’origine et un isolement plus ou moins conséquent et plus ou moins temporaire, la migration produit une intense activité sociale compensatoire(i.e. les échanges de services et de biens. Dans ce texte, je m’intéresse à l’échange de nourritures entre les migrants mixtèques originaires de l’État de Oaxaca, dans le sud du Mexique, qui vivent et/ou se déplacent en Basse Californie (Mexique et en Californie (États-Unis. Je me propose d’interroger les modalités de maintien et d’extension des réseaux sociaux à travers les dons et le commerce alimentaire, avec pour objectif l’analyse de la reproduction sociale et identitaire dans un contexte de migration.The circulation of food. How Mexican migrants perpetuate and extend social links through the acquisition of food productsOn the one hand, migration tears apart the original social network, creating a somewhat effective and temporary isolation. On the other hand, migration produces an intense social activity (e.g. exchanges of services and goods which makes up for the loneliness of isolation. This text shows how Mixtec migrants from the state of Oaxaca in the South of Mexico, who live in and/or move between Baja California (Mexico and California (United States, perpetuate and extend their social networks through food gifts and trade. Basically, social reproduction in a context of migration is analyzed here.

  11. GESTION DES RISQUES ET DES INCERTITUDES L'EMERGENCE D'UN CONTRÔLE DE GESTION " PAR EXCEPTION "

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, Grégory

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Le thème de la gestion des risques a été peu abordé en contrôle de gestion et le fonctionnement des outils traditionnels comme les budgets postulent une maîtrise des risques et des incertitudes. L'émergence de nouvelles approches en contrôle de gestion montre une évolution sur ce point.

  12. L'histoire des congrès internationaux des études byzantines - Première Partie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie NYSTAZOPOULOU-PÉLÉKIDOU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Suivant le voeu exprimé par l'Association Internationale des Études Byzantines, je me suis chargée d'étudier l'histoire des congrès internationaux des études byzantines. Dans cette première partie je me borne à présenter l'histoire des cinq premiers congrès organisés avant la IIe Guerre Mondiale.  

  13. GESTION DES RISQUES ET DES INCERTITUDES L'EMERGENCE D'UN CONTRÔLE DE GESTION " PAR EXCEPTION "

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, Grégory

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Le thème de la gestion des risques a été peu abordé en contrôle de gestion et le fonctionnement des outils traditionnels comme les budgets postulent une maîtrise des risques et des incertitudes. L'émergence de nouvelles approches en contrôle de gestion montre une évolution sur ce point.

  14. Metrologie des experiences defis et resultats

    CERN Document Server

    Lasseur, C; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    La physique des particules a toujours exigé une connaissance précise de la géométrie des équipements expérimentaux et la métrologie des détecteurs a été de concert avec celle des accélérateurs. Les premiers systèmes de détection, de dimensions modestes, demandaient déjà un positionnement le plus prés du 'théorique', les premières mesures tridimensionnelles ont été pratiquées pour la construction de BEBC, constituant les premiers défis géométriques. Les expériences LHC ne peuvent être comparées à aucune autre précédente au CERN et leurs exigences ont amené les concepteurs et constructeurs à considérer le 'survey' bien plus tôt que jamais auparavant : ce sont des dizaines de milliers de kilomètres qui ont été parcourus, théodolites et caméras digitales en guise de bagages, afin d'assurer les contrôles systématiques en usine ou en laboratoire. La métrologie des expériences occupe une place importante dans les procédures d'installation et exige toujours un degré élev...

  15. Funcionamento intelectual em pacientes pediátricos com epilepsia: comparação de crianças controladas com medicação, não controladas com medicação e controladas com cirurgia Intellectual functioning in pediatric patients with epilepsy: a comparison of medically controlled, medically uncontrolled and surgically controlled children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Souza-Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o quociente intelectual (QI em três grupos de crianças com epilepsia: 1 controlados com medicação, 2 não controlados com medicação e 3 controlados com cirurgia. MÉTODOS: Noventa e oito pacientes pediátricos, com idades entre 6 e 12 anos, foram selecionados de dezembro de 2007 a julho de 2008. A Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Crianças - terceira edição (WISC-III foi utilizada para a avaliação neuropsicológica dos pacientes. Os resultados foram relacionados com a síndrome epiléptica, a etiologia da epilepsia, o tratamento medicamentoso, a idade do paciente no início da epilepsia e a duração da epilepsia. RESULTADOS: Os escores da WISC foram significativamente melhores no grupo controlado com medicação quando comparados aos do grupo não controlado com medicação. O grupo controlado com medicação obteve um desempenho significativamente melhor na maioria dos subtestes da WISC quando comparado ao grupo não controlado com medicação: vocabulário, aritmética, compreensão, memória de dígitos, completar figuras, arranjo de figuras e cubos. Um número significativamente maior de pacientes com epilepsia idiopática e uso de monoterapia foi observado no grupo controlado com medicação quando comparado ao grupo não controlado. O grupo controlado com cirurgia não apresentou diferença significativa no desempenho do QI quando comparado ao grupo controlado com medicação. CONCLUSÕES: As crianças com um bom controle de crises tiveram um melhor desempenho no QI geral, verbal e de execução quando comparadas às crianças com epilepsia refratária. Esses resultados podem ser influenciados por fatores clínicos como o uso de monoterapia, o tipo de droga antiepiléptica utilizada, a síndrome epiléptica e a etiologia da epilepsia. A cirurgia de epilepsia pode causar um impacto positivo no desempenho cognitivo das crianças que ficaram livres de crises após o procedimento cirúrgico.OBJECTIVE: To

  16. Dehnung des Diskurses – Therese Hubers Beziehungsmodell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gribnitz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In der Dissertation aus dem Umfeld der Osnabrücker „Arbeitsstelle Therese Huber“ wird am Beispiel des Briefwechsels Therese Hubers mit Emil von Herder nach dem „kreativen Potential des Subjekts“ (S. 5 im Umgang mit dem Geschlechterdiskurs gefragt. Wulbusch analysiert Therese Hubers Beziehungsmodell, dessen Ziel es war, ‚weibliche‘ Freiräume, die jedoch die Geschlechterhierarchie nicht verletzen, zu schaffen. Eine interessante Studie, der eine klarere begrifflich-methodische Durchdringung zu wünschen gewesen wäre.

  17. Droit des données personnelles

    OpenAIRE

    Vétois, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Comme le droit de l’informatique, celui des données personnelles reste flou dans l’esprit de nos concitoyens. Et pourtant, il nous concerne tous directement. La loi Hadopi vient, par exemple, d’instituer la « riposte graduée » pour lutter contre le piratage des films ou de la musique. En neuf mois, 18 millions d’infractions ont été constatées et quelques internautes au bout du compte seront passibles d’une amende. Si vous utilisez les réseaux sociaux, peut-être vous interrogez-vous sur ce qui...

  18. Gebrauch des Genitivattributs in der Deutschen Fachsprache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Banionytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel wird dem in der deutschen Fachsprache häufig vorkommenden attributiven Genitiv gewidmet. Im theoretischen Teil wird die Charakteristik des Genitivattributs gegeben; es werden manche Termini erläutert, wodurch die klassische Deutung von Genitivattribut erweitert wird. Im praktischen Teil wird die direkte Beziehung des Genitivs zum Gliedkern, seine Abhängigkeit von anderen genitivischen Beifügungen, auch Substantivhäufungen, in denen nicht nur Genitive, sondern auch die auf eine Präposition folgende Substantive (Präpositionalattribute festzustellen sind, analysiert. Hier werden auch alternative Fügungen für Genitivattribut besprochen.

  19. Untersuchungen zur Molekularpathologie des Hodgkin-Lymphoms

    OpenAIRE

    Theurich, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Hodgkin und Reed-Sternberg (H/RS) Zellen sind die Tumorzellen des klassischen Hodgkin-Lymphoms (cHL) und stammen in den meisten Fällen von Keimzentrums B-Zellen, sehr selten von T-Zellen ab. Als einen zentralen Mechanismus für die zelluläre maligne Transformation und Apoptoseresistenz von H/RS Zellen konnte eine deregulierte, konstitutive Aktivität des Transkriptionsfaktors NF-kappaB (NF-kB) in H/RS Zellkernen nachgewiesen werden. Die transkriptionelle Aktivität von NF-kB wird durch spezifisc...

  20. Impact des néo-facteurs de pollution sur la qualité des eaux de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous remarquons alors, un changement significatif. Pour matérialiser cette ... négatifs sur la faune et la flore [10]. Le stockage des .... climatiques des stations inventoriées dans la zone d'étude. ..... Mécanismes et vulnérabilité des eaux de la ...

  1. Etude numerique et experimentale de la reponse vibro-acoustique des structures raidies a des excitations aeriennes et solidiennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejdi, Abderrazak

    Les fuselages des avions sont generalement en aluminium ou en composite renforces par des raidisseurs longitudinaux (lisses) et transversaux (cadres). Les raidisseurs peuvent etre metalliques ou en composite. Durant leurs differentes phases de vol, les structures d'avions sont soumises a des excitations aeriennes (couche limite turbulente : TBL, champs diffus : DAF) sur la peau exterieure dont l'energie acoustique produite se transmet a l'interieur de la cabine. Les moteurs, montes sur la structure, produisent une excitation solidienne significative. Ce projet a pour objectifs de developper et de mettre en place des strategies de modelisations des fuselages d'avions soumises a des excitations aeriennes et solidiennes. Tous d'abord, une mise a jour des modeles existants de la TBL apparait dans le deuxieme chapitre afin de mieux les classer. Les proprietes de la reponse vibro-acoustique des structures planes finies et infinies sont analysees. Dans le troisieme chapitre, les hypotheses sur lesquelles sont bases les modeles existants concernant les structures metalliques orthogonalement raidies soumises a des excitations mecaniques, DAF et TBL sont reexamines en premier lieu. Ensuite, une modelisation fine et fiable de ces structures est developpee. Le modele est valide numeriquement a l'aide des methodes des elements finis (FEM) et de frontiere (BEM). Des tests de validations experimentales sont realises sur des panneaux d'avions fournis par des societes aeronautiques. Au quatrieme chapitre, une extension vers les structures composites renforcees par des raidisseurs aussi en composites et de formes complexes est etablie. Un modele analytique simple est egalement implemente et valide numeriquement. Au cinquieme chapitre, la modelisation des structures raidies periodiques en composites est beaucoup plus raffinee par la prise en compte des effets de couplage des deplacements planes et transversaux. L'effet de taille des structures finies periodiques est egalement pris en

  2. Facteurs de variation de la composition lipidique des membranes plasmiques des hépatocytes chez les palmipèdes : relation avec le rendement technologique des foies gras.

    OpenAIRE

    Molee, Wittawat

    2006-01-01

    L'objet de ce travail est de déterminer si des variations de la composition lipidique de la membrane plasmique des hépatocytes participent à expliquer la relation causale entre les facteurs zootechniques et le rendement technologique des foies gras de palmipèdes. Nous étudions successivement l'incidence du gavage du canard mulard (Cairina moschata x Anas platyrhynchos) sur l'évolution de la composition lipidique des membranes hépatocytaires, la variabilité de cette dernière et sa relation ave...

  3. Des broussailles dans les prairies alpines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Camacho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape closing due to the decline in agricultural activity is considered to be a major problem in the Alps. Abondance Valley provides a good example of this phenomenon and is also representative of a paradox commonly found in the Northern French Alps: the mountainsides and alpine pastures are still used, whereas they are becoming increasingly afforested. Environmental conditions play a major role in the localisation of agricultural land uses, but they are not sufficient to explain why pastures still in use are being invaded by shrub. Even if cutting makes it possible to effectively control the encroachment by woody species, this is not true for uncut pastures where grazing is not able to keep up with grass production. This situation is repeated every year and is the likely cause of the colonisation by woody species. To ensure their forage system and to simplify their work, farmers tend to establish grazing units that are oversized in relation to the needs of their animals. They implement compensatory practices that consist of mechanical maintenance as a complement to grazing to limit the dynamics of woody species. These labour-intensive practices are not used on all of the pastures. The analysis of farmers’ practices by agronomists is therefore a useful complement to studies of physical and socio-economic environments, at the level of the grazed field as well as at that of the valley as a whole.La dégradation des paysages par suite du recul de l’activité agricole est considérée comme un enjeu majeur dans les Alpes. La vallée d’Abondance illustre bien ce phénomène de fermeture de l’espace mais elle est en outre représentative d’un paradoxe assez répandu dans les Alpes du nord françaises : les versants et les alpages sont encore exploités et pourtant ils se boisent progressivement. Les conditions de milieux jouent un rôle majeur sur la localisation des usages agricoles de l'espace, mais elles ne peuvent pas suffire pour

  4. Evaluation multicritère des techniques de gestion à la source des eaux pluviales urbaines

    OpenAIRE

    Legret, M.; Martin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Le contrôle à la source des eaux pluviales est apparu depuis plusieurs années comme une solution alternative à l'évacuation des eaux par les réseaux d'assainissement. Le développement de ces techniques dites "alternatives" mettant en oeuvre des processus de rétention et/ou infiltration des eaux de pluie a permis de lutter contre les problèmes d'inondations et de pollution en milieu urbain. Considérant la diversité de ces techniques et les différents critères influençant le choix d'une techniq...

  5. Observation des pratiques et des critères de recrutement. Le recrutement : un objet flou ?

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Daniel; Conrairie, Christophe; Verdale, Nathalie

    2007-01-01

    Alors qu’il est un des principaux opérateurs de mobilisation de la main d’œuvre pour les entreprises ainsi qu’un des facteurs déterminants des parcours professionnels et personnels, le processus de recrutement reste un objet relativement méconnu.Si une abondante littérature propose de « bonnes » méthodes, les investigations scientifiques sont plus rares. Dans le cadre d’un travail préparatoire à l’enquête Offre d’emploi et recrutement, Hélène Garner en conclusion de la survey des é...

  6. Etude comparative des consommables pour le dosage des endotoxines bactériennes chez deux fournisseurs

    OpenAIRE

    Tall, Mamadou-Lamine; Guilli, Taoufik; Renaud, J.; Ducarre, B; Koog, N.; Bador, M.; Diouf, E; Pirot, Fabrice; Pivot, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Les endotoxines bactériennes (EB) sont des pyrogènes, leur recherche est obligatoire pour certains produits pharmaceutiques. La Pharmacie à Usage Intérieur (PUI) réalise en moyenne 3600 dosages des EB par an selon la méthode colorimétrique cinétique. Le temps de réaction enzymatique pour cette méthode cinétique est fortement impacté par la qualité de ces consommables. L'objectif est de comparer l'effet des réactifs sur le dosage des EB chez 2 fournisseurs (A et B) et l'impact financier relati...

  7. Les applications des faisceaux d'ions dans la physique des polymères

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratier, B.; Moliton, A.; Lucas, B.; Guille, B.; Clamadieu, M.

    1998-06-01

    Experimental configurations of ions beams are illustrated by diagrams in the case of low energy implantation, Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE), Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) of molecular layers (or oligomers). Nous présentons les configurations expérimentales (illustrées par des schémas) de trois applications des faisceaux d'ions au traitement physique des polymères : dopage par implantation (cité pour mémoire), gravure par faisceaux d'ions réactifs (RIBE), dépôt des couches moléculaires (ou oligomères) assistés par faisceau (IBAD).

  8. Perancangan Enkripsi Pada Citra Bitmap Dengan Algoritma Des, Triple Des, dan Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinna Yosanny

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of Information Technology causes information can access easier without space boundaries. Image is a form of information, which contains many information. Some image contains confidential information that cannot distribute to unauthorized persons. Therefore, image encryption application is create to encrypt part of image that has confidential information. The image encryption application is encrypt image by applying DES, Triple DES, and IDEA algorithms. The research was applying analysis and design methodology. The analysis methodology was undertaken through literature study and algorithm research and testing. The design methodology was undertaken through database, features, system, and screen layout design. Results of the research are image encryption application that can encrypt part of image and or all of image by applying three algorithms such as DES, Triple DES, and IDEA. This application is show comparation of these algorithms. In conclusion, method of encryption can apply to image, so that confidential information of the image can protect from unauthorized person. 

  9. Morphologie contrastive au travers des domaines de spécialité et des registres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielik Jolanta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Avec la démocratisation des savoirs, dont l'évolution s'accentue grâce à l'utilisation de la Toile, un nombre croissant de documents spécialisés peut être trouvé en ligne. Cette situation est typique de différents domaines de spécialité (biomédical, juridique, énergétique, télécommunication .... Si de très nombreux documents peuvent ainsi être trouvés, leur contenu n'est pas pour autant accessible à tous les utilisateurs. En effet, les documents vulgarisés et spécialisés co-existent et, dans ce dernier cas, contiennent des informations très techniques et difficiles à comprendre par les non experts. Dès alors, l'indication sur le degré de spécialisation de ces documents est une information importante, car elle permet justement de guider les utilisateurs vers des contenus qui leur sont plus appropriés. Dans ce travail, nous montrons qu'il est possible d'exploiter les informations morphologiques des documents de santé afin d'effectuer une distinction automatique efficace (avec des performances souvent supérieures à 90 % de la spécialisation de ces documents. Nous effectuons une analyse quantitative et qualitative du matériel morphologique. Nous effectuons également une comparaison entre l'exploitation du matériel morphologiques et le matériel lexical. Nous exploitons plusieurs outils du Traitement Automatique des Langues qui nous permettent ainsi d'accéder au niveau morphologique des mots des documents et de nous concentrer de cette manière sur leur structure morphologique et sémantique.

  10. Perceptions locales des déterminants de la fragmentation des îlots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2013 ... écosystèmes forestiers dans la région des Monts des Kouffé en vue d'une planification ... équilibres climatiques, dans la satisfaction de ... paysage générant ainsi un impact sur les fonctions ... tenant compte de leur répartition spatiale dans le secteur ... fragmentation sur les espèces exploitées dans la forêt.

  11. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  12. REGARDS L’agriculture entre artificialisation des milieux et artificialisation des échanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermersch Dominique

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available L’économie agricole se trouve écartelée aujourd’hui entre une artificialisation des milieux et une artificialisation des échanges marchands. Tel est le défi que cherchent à relever les nouveaux modes de soutien public à l’agriculture. Tel est aussi l’enjeu d’une réflexion éthique renouvelée sur le rapport de l’homme à la nature.

  13. Des dynamiques de proximité innovantes : le cas des SYAL en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Fourcade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Proximité, territoire, coopération, organisation, dynamique, innovation.

    L’objet de recherche constitué par les SYAL s’inscrit dans le vaste champ de réflexion qui vise à estimer la complexité des relations entre dimension industrielle et dimension spatiale des systèmes productifs.

  14. De la recherche des principes des mixtes naturels chez Du Clos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Franckowiak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Samuel Cottereau Du Clos (1598–1685 paraît être le premier Français à marier dans une chimie, pour lui science des substances, physique des qualités, une démonstration légale – suivant les lois du mouvement – et une démonstration causale – suivant les interprétations principielles –, en ramenant les phénomènes naturels à deux ordres de raisons différents et complémentaires. Les considérations mécanistes représentent pour lui une première approche, une étape vers la connaissance de la « vérité des choses » en chimie. Cette proposition originale qui vise à introduire en chimie des considérations mécanistes tout en conservant les explications principielles est développée au sein de l’ancienne Académie des Sciences, en particulier à travers sa critique de 1668/1669 des Certain Physiological Essays de Boyle.Samuel Cottereau Du Clos (1598–1685 appears as the first French chemist to combine in chemistry (for him, the science of substances, the physics of qualities demonstrations using the laws of motion with demonstrations using the qualities of chemical principles. In this way, he brought to bear two different and complementary orders of explanation. According to Du Clos, the mechanical considerations represent a first approach, a stage towards the knowledge of “the truth of things” (la vérité des choses in natural philosophy. He set out his chemistry at the Académie royale des sciences de Paris, especially through his criticism of Boyle’s Certain Physiological Essays in 1668–1669.

  15. Analyse statistique des profils et de l’activité des participants d’un MOOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Bar-Hen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’acronyme MooC (Massive online open Course est utilisé pour désigner les plateformes d’enseignement en ligne qui proposent des cours ouverts et qui peuvent s’adresser à des centaines, des milliers, voire des dizaines de milliers d’étudiants simultanément. Le but du présent article n’est pas de proposer une analyse du phénomène MooC dans sa généralité, mais d’offrir une vision originale d’un MooC, au travers de ses étudiants, de leur profil et de leur activité lors du cours. Pour ce faire, nous analysons les données collectées lors d’un des premiers cours lancés sur la plateforme française FUN, le cours « Fondamentaux en statistique ». Nous y décrivons la communauté des étudiants, leur profil socioéconomique, leurs motivations, leur activité sur le forum du cours. Nous étudierons comment les échanges sur le forum se structurent lors du cours.

  16. L’impact de la participation bancaire dans le capital des entreprises sur la politique de distribution des dividendes

    OpenAIRE

    Naoel Mezgani; Habib Affes

    2013-01-01

    L’objectif de ce papier est de tester l’incidence de la participation bancaire dans le capital des entreprises non financières sur la politique de distribution des dividendes. En utilisant des données de panel des trente entreprises tunisiennes durant la période de 1999 à 2004, nous vérifions si en détenant le capital et la dette, la banque a la possibilité de contraindre la distribution des dividendes pour garantir le remboursement de ses fonds prêtés. Les résultats empiriques obtenus ne con...

  17. Aménagement des fins de carrière : entre reconfiguration des temps sociaux et transformations normatives

    OpenAIRE

    Burnay, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    L’objectif de cet article est de comprendre les transformations des temporalités actuelles, à travers le prisme des fins de carrière. Il s’agira de montrer combien le développement de dispositifs spécifiques de réduction du temps de travail en Belgique transforment les vécus dans et hors travail des seniors, dans une recomposition des temps sociaux et des parcours de vie. Cet article repose sur l’analyse de 491 questionnaires récoltés dans deux secteurs d’activité contrastés et de 42 entretie...

  18. Impacts of Gender Differences on Conducting Operational Activities (Impact des diffrenes homme/femme sur la conduite des activites oprationnelles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    MP-HFM-158 Impacts of Gender Differences on Conducting Operational Activities (Impact des différences homme/ femme sur la conduite des activités...harassment should also be dealt with on a multicultural basis. ES - 2 RTO-MP-HFM-158 Impact des différences homme/ femme sur la...conduite des activités opérationnelles (RTO-MP-HFM-158) Synthèse L’intégration des femmes dans les armées, se fait à un rythme variable dans les

  19. Die Bedeutung der Chemokinrezeptoren CCR7 und CXCR4 sowie des CCR7-Liganden CCL21 für die Ausbreitung des duktalen Adenokarzinoms des Pankreas

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Sunna

    2010-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurde ein Kollektiv von duktalen Adenokarzinomen des Pankreas hinsichtlich einer Expression der Chemokinrezeptoren CCR7 und CXCR4 sowie des CCR7-Liganden CCL21 untersucht. Es konnte ein Zusammenhang zwischen der lymphatischen Ausbreitung des Karzinoms und der CCR7-Expression sowie ein Zusammenhang zwischen der CXCR4-Expression und hohen klinischen Tumorstadien dargestellt werden. Weiterhin wird die Expression CCL21 in intra- und peritumoralen Lymphgefäßen sowie in entzündeten...

  20. Sibelius: Integrale des poemes symphoniques / Pierre Gervasoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gervasoni, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Integrale des poemes symphoniques. Les 4 Legendes de Lemminkäinen. Finlandia. Luonnotar. Le Barde. En saga. La fille de Pohjola. La Dryade. La Chanson du printemps. Les Oceanides. Tapiola. Chevauchee nocturne et lever de soleil. Mare Jõgeva (soprano), Orchestre Philharmonique de Moscou, Vassili Sinaiski. Le Chant du Monde "Saison Russe"" LDC 288 015/17. 1991

  1. 2011 "Cour des Contes" storytelling festival

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The "Cour des Contes" storytelling festival will take place in Plan-les-Ouates (Geneva) from 6 to 15 May 2011. This year, for the first time, stories will be told in English at 11 a.m. on Sunday, 15 May, at the "La Julienne" arts and culture centre.   More information  

  2. Gestaltungsdomänen des Kostenmanagements

    OpenAIRE

    Reiß, Michael; Corsten, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Kostenmanagement bezeichnet eine Gestaltung der Programme, Potentiale und Prozesse in einer Unternehmung nach Kostenkriterien. Mit anderen Worten werden im Rahmen eines Kostenmanagements so unterschiedliche Entscheidungen wie die über den Diversifikationsgrad (Breite) und die Differenziertheit (Sorten- bzw. Variantenvielfalt) des Produktprogramms, über die Fertigungstiefe (Eigenerstellung oder Fremdbezug), über alternative Produktionsverfahren und logistische Prozesse sowie über die Anpassung...

  3. Sibelius: Integrale des poemes symphoniques / Pierre Gervasoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gervasoni, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Integrale des poemes symphoniques. Les 4 Legendes de Lemminkäinen. Finlandia. Luonnotar. Le Barde. En saga. La fille de Pohjola. La Dryade. La Chanson du printemps. Les Oceanides. Tapiola. Chevauchee nocturne et lever de soleil. Mare Jõgeva (soprano), Orchestre Philharmonique de Moscou, Vassili Sinaiski. Le Chant du Monde "Saison Russe"" LDC 288 015/17. 1991

  4. Selbstreinigungseigenschaften der Haut des Pilotwales Globicephala melas

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Christof

    2003-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden mit optischen, chemischen und physikalischen Methoden ermittelte Ergebnisse über die Struktur-Funktions-Beziehungen der Hautoberfläche des Pilotwales beschrieben. Folgende Verfahren wurden angewendet: Histochemie in Verbindung mit Lichtmikroskopie (LM), Kryo-Rasterelektronenmikroskopie (Kryo-REM), Rasterelektronenmikroskopie (REM), Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie (TEM), Vielwinkel-Laser-Streulicht-Photometrie (engl., multi-angle laserlight scattering, MALL...

  5. The DES-Model and Its Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    This report describes the use of the Danish Energy System (DES) Model, which has been used for several years as the most comprehensive model for the energy planning. The structure of the Danish energy system is described, and a number of energy system parameters are explained, in particular the e...

  6. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Zahur, Aamir Bin; Afzal, Muhammad; Ali, Qurban; Gonzales Rojas, Jose

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to obtain baseline information about the presence and distribution of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Pakistan by quantifying the sero-prevalence of this infection in all provinces/regions in the country. There are ongoing activities towards the progressive control and

  7. Etude Sedimentologique et Esquisse Paleoenvironnementale des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude Sedimentologique et Esquisse Paleoenvironnementale des ... Les analyses sédimentologiques réalisées dans ce travail, sont un prélude d'un projet d'études pluridisciplinaires ... (Crétacé inférieur) à l'océanisation complète (fin.

  8. Videobasierte Unterrichtsbeobachtung: die Quadratur des Zirkels?

    OpenAIRE

    Fankhauser, Regula

    2012-01-01

    Seit einigen Jahren wird Unterrichtsforschung vermehrt videobasiert angegangen. Die methodologische Diskussion, die die Weiterentwicklung des Instrumentariums begleitet, kreist dabei zentral um die Frage der Invasivität der Aufzeichnungstechnik und möglicher Kameraeffekte. Je nach methodologischer Ausrichtung wird diesem Problem anders begegnet: So versucht die abbildtheoretische Unterrichtsvideografie, die Invasivität zu kontrollieren. Qualitative Methoden wie die Kameraethnografie dagegen m...

  9. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    augmentation est due, entre autres, à l'évolution positive des tonnages vendus ... exploitation work and to assist the mining managers to make suitable decisions. ..... Le traitement de l'image scannée a été fait par le logiciel «Photoshop » pour ...

  10. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  11. DES Science Portal: Computing Photometric Redshifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, Julia [LIneA, Rio de Janeiro

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge facing photometric surveys for cosmological purposes, such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is the need to produce reliable photometric redshifts (photo-z). The choice of adequate algorithms and configurations and the maintenance of an up-to-date spectroscopic database to build training sets, for example, are challenging tasks when dealing with large amounts of data that are regularly updated and constantly growing. In this paper, we present the first of a series of tools developed by DES, provided as part of the DES Science Portal, an integrated web-based data portal developed to facilitate the scientific analysis of the data, while ensuring the reproducibility of the analysis. We present the DES Science Portal photometric redshift tools, starting from the creation of a spectroscopic sample to training the neural network photo-z codes, to the final estimation of photo-zs for a large photometric catalog. We illustrate this operation by calculating well calibrated photo-zs for a galaxy sample extracted from the DES first year (Y1A1) data. The series of processes mentioned above is run entirely within the Portal environment, which automatically produces validation metrics, and maintains the provenance between the different steps. This system allows us to fine tune the many steps involved in the process of calculating photo-zs, making sure that we do not lose the information on the configurations and inputs of the previous processes. By matching the DES Y1A1 photometry to a spectroscopic sample, we define different training sets that we use to feed the photo-z algorithms already installed at the Portal. Finally, we validate the results under several conditions, including the case of a sample limited to i<22.5 with the color properties close to the full DES Y1A1 photometric data. This way we compare the performance of multiple methods and training configurations. The infrastructure presented here is an effcient way to test several methods of

  12. Des loyautés incompatibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bizeul

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Faire l’expérience directe des phénomènes, en participant aux activités des milieux concernés, représente un des moyens les plus naturels et les plus sûrs pour atteindre la complexité du monde social. C’est aussi un des moyens les plus perturbants pour le chercheur, souvent confronté aux interdits de contact entre des groupes dont les intérêts ou les principes de vie sont antagonistes. Établir des relations étroites avec des militants du Front national, certains d’entre eux « néo-nazis », certains vivant à quelques rues de chez soi, tout en étant « homo », avec pour proches amis des hommes de couleur, de plus entouré de personnes hostiles à ce parti, oblige ainsi à gérer des liens inconciliables. Un risque possible pour le chercheur est alors d’être soumis à des sentiments contradictoires et de mettre du temps pour aboutir à une analyse exempte de toute influence indue.Incompatible loyalties. Moral aspects of an immersion into the French National Front Party.Experiencing directly phenomenon while participating to activities of the concerned circles, represents one of the most natural and safer way to reach the complexity of the society. It is also one of the most disturbing means for the researcher, often confronted to interdicts of contacts between groups which interests or principles of life are antagonists. Creating close relationships with French National Front party activists, some of them “neo-nazis”, some of them living a few streets from your house, while being gay, with colored men as closed friends, surrounded by persons hostile to this party, thus forces to make opposed connections. A possible risk for the researcher can be to be divided between contradictory feelings and spending time finishing an analysis free of unwarranted influence.Lealtades incompatibles. Problemas morales derivados de los contactos con el « Frente nacional »Establecer un contacto directo con fenómenos de diferente

  13. Preliminary investigation on the materia medica of the Zhuang ethnic group%关于壮药的初步考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    容小翔; 李珪

    2013-01-01

    “壮药”是指在壮医理论指导下运用的药物.根据考古发现以及壮医学者覃保霖对《山海经·南山经》中“祝馀”、“白咎”、“迷谷”壮语发音的分析,可知在先秦时期,壮药即已存在.秦汉魏晋时期,随着区域间文化的广泛交流,壮族聚居地人民用药经验,在文献中不断体现,如《肘后方》中有关解毒药的记载,大多出自岭南.隋唐已降,本草文献和地方志中有不少记载与现今公认的壮药相似,如《广西通志》、《南宁府志》、《柳州府志》、《宾州志》等地方志中关于桂枝、肉桂、罗汉果等.民国时期,出现了不少有关壮药的手抄本.1949年之后,在党和政府的重视下,南宁医药研究所、梧州医药研究所、桂林医药研究所等机构相继成立,对壮医药进行系统的发掘整理,出版了一系列著作,还进行了部分壮药剂型的改革.%By Zhuang materia medica,it refers to application of medicines under the instructions of medical theory of Zhuang ethnic group.By studying the pronunciation of the Zhuang language for the terms "zhu yu"," bai jiu",and "mi gu" included in the shah hai jing nan shan jing (The Classic of Southern Mountain in Classic of Seas and Mountains) carried out by the Zhuang scholar Qin Bao-lin,it was concluded that the Zhuang minority already applied medicines early in the pre-Qin period.Through extensive cultural communication in different regions in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties,the medicinal experiences of the Zhuang ethnic group appeared in ancient literature.The antidotes in Zhou hou fang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency),for instance,were mostly coming from the Southern Ridge area.Since the Sui-Tang Dynasties,many materia medica recorded in the herbal works and regional gazetteers,and Annals such as the Guangxi Annals,Gazetteer of Nanning County,and Gazetteer of Liuzhou County,Gazetteer of Binzhou County etc.,also carry medicines such as

  14. Biogéochimie structurale du zinc et du plomb par spectroscopie EXAFS : interactions avec des acides humiques, des parois cellulaires de champignon, et des lichens

    OpenAIRE

    Sarret, Géraldine

    1998-01-01

    Le risque écotoxicologique des métaux présents dans le milieu naturel dépend beaucoup plus de leur statut physico-chimique que de leur concentration totale. Afin de déterminer ce statut, nous avons étudié par spectroscopie EXAFS les interactions au niveau moléculaire du zinc et du plomb avec différents systèmes naturels organiques: des acides humiques (AH), constituants de la matière organique des sols; des parois cellulaires de champignons filamenteux , utilisés comme biosorbants pour le tra...

  15. Des différences entre les plans des transports publics en France, en Allemagne et en Espagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair MORRISON

    Full Text Available Les plans des transports publics en France présentent un style commun parce qu'ils attribuent une couleur différente à chaque ligne d'autobus. Selon les villes, des solutions diverses ont été apportées au problème inévitablement posé par la représentation de multiples lignes de bus et du schéma spatial des différentes lignes. Au contraire, les plans allemands et espagnols des réseaux de transports publics adoptent des représentations beaucoup plus variées. Les raisons en sont les différences entre les modes de transport utilisés, le niveau des subventions accordées aux transports publics et le degré de centralisation politique des trois pays respectifs.

  16. AMELIORATION DES PLANTES Biotechnologies et arachide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel Danièle

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches sur les biotechnologies de l’arachide sont principalement conduites aux États-Unis mais également à travers des programmes collaboratifs internationaux où interviennent l’Icrisat et le Cirad. Malgré une forte variation phénotypique, l’arachide cultivée montre peu de variabilité moléculaire. L’arachide étant une culture alimentaire et de rente très importante dans les régions sahéliennes, la sécheresse et la contamination des graines par l’aflatoxine en cours de culture constituent des contraintes majeures. La seule application connue en sélection assistée par marqueurs d’ADN fait intervenir des gènes provenant d’une espèce sauvage compatible en croisement avec l’espèce cultivée. Les principaux résultats publiés jusqu’à présent concernent la mise au point de techniques de régénération et de transfert de gènes. Le marquage moléculaire s’avérant inefficace, les recherches s’orientent aujourd’hui sur la génomique fonctionnelle du fait de la disponibilité des techniques de transformation génétique. L’objectif est de développer de nouveaux outils moléculaires capables d’assister les programmes de sélection pour la résistance à ces deux traits complexes.

  17. Neue Therapieoptionen bei Neuroendokrinen Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltraktes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipp RW

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendokrine Tumoren (NET des Gastrointestinaltraktes und des Pankreas (GEP-NET werden zu den seltenen Tumoren gezählt. Auch wenn die jährliche Inzidenz dieser Erkrankung gering erscheint, weist diese Tumorentität die zweithöchste Prävalenz des Gastrointestinaltraktes auf. In den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten bewährten sich Somatostatinanaloga zur Behandlung symptomatischer NET-Patienten mit niedrigen Proliferationsindex Ki67 ≤ 10 % und zeigten zuletzt auch einen antiproliferativen Effekt unabhängig von der Hormonsynthese. In den letzten Jahren konnte das antiproliferative Potential von Everolimus (Afinitor® – ein m-Tor-Inhibitor – und Suntinib (Sutent® – ein Multikinase-Inhibitor – in der Behandlung von symptomatischen und asymptomatischen pankreatischen NET-Patienten gezeigt werden.br Im letzten Jahr wurden zwei Phase-III-Studien veröffentlicht bzw. präsentiert. Die Radiant- 4-Studie zeigte eine Verbesserung des progressionsfreien Überlebens bei asymptomatischen Patienten mit NETs des Gastrointestinaltraktes, der Lunge und bei NET-Patien ten mit „cancer of unknown primary“ (CUP, mit radiologisch gesicherter Tumorprogression zum Studien eintritt. Die NETTER-1-Studie ist die erste randomisierte kontrollierte Multicenter-Studie, die den Effekt der Radioligandentherapie auf das progressionsfreie Überleben bei Patienten mit progredientem Dünndarm-NET untersucht. Diese Übersicht fasst nun die Ergebnisse beider Studien zusammen und gibt einen möglichen Ausblick für die tägliche Praxis.

  18. La résilience des Turkana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Cantoni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse les stratégies d’adaptation de pasteurs turkana du district d’Isiolo (Nord Kenya, face aux chocs, politiques comme climatiques, subis. Cette analyse passe par un détour historique, la société turkana s’étant de longue date organisée autour de sa capacité à affronter de tels aléas. Elle passe aussi par une réflexion, plus conceptuelle sur la portée de la notion de résilience, perçue tant dans sa dimension collective qu’au niveau des familles de pasteurs elles-mêmes. Elle passe enfin par la mise en évidence des limites des stratégies mises en œuvre, conduisant à la disparition du pastoralisme tant comme moyen de production (ou l'inverse (décapitalisation que comme mode de vie (dilution des liens sociaux, et tenant à la non durabilité des activités alternatives, tels le charbonnage et le maraîchage.This article focuses on the adaptive strategies of Turkana pastoralists in Isiolo District (Kenya, coping with political and climate shocks. This analysis involves a historical detour, Turkana society having long been organized around its ability to deal with such risks. It also leads to the concept of resilience, either in its collective dimension or at the level of pastoralist families themselves. It finally brings out the limits of those strategies, leading to the regression of pastoralism as a livelihood (decapitalization and as a lifestyle (dilution of social ties, and to the non sustainability of alternative activities, such as charcoal burning and market gardening.

  19. Application of zebrafish model organism in the research of Chinese materia medica%模式生物斑马鱼在中药研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 刘怡; 梁生旺

    2012-01-01

    Zebra fish has become an important model organism in many fields of biomedical studies and been increasingly used in Chinese materia medica studies in recent years. This article summarized the achievements and prospect for zebrafish as a pharmacological and toxicological tool in the study and development of Chinese materia medica.%斑马鱼作为一种新的模式动物,已经在生物医学的诸多研究领域得到了广泛的应用.近年来,基于斑马鱼的中药相关研究越来越多.本文重点综述了斑马鱼应用于中药药理、毒理研究方面的成果和前景.

  20. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  1. Interações farmacológicas entre medicações clínicas e psiquiátricas Drug interactions among clinical and psychiatric drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Marcolin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO/JUSTIFICATIVA: Estudos apontam as reações adversas graves (ADR como uma das seis causas de morte em pacientes hospitalizados nos EUA, sendo que das ADR, a mais freqüente inclui as Interações Medicamentosas (IM. MÉTODOS: foram cruzadas 20 medicações mais utilizadas em andares clínicos do Hospital Universitário São Lucas da PUCRS com 14 medicações mais utilizadas no Ambulatório de Depressão do HSL-PUCRS; pesquisou-se no Medline e Lilacs a partir de 1990. RESULTADOS: foram encontradas diversas IM com muitas das medicações estudadas, envolvendo freqüentemente o Sistema Citocromo P450. CONCLUSÕES: conclui-se que a atualização sobre as medicações utilizadas em nossa prática clínica vai muito além dos efeitos esperados e efeitos colaterais mais freqüentes.BACKGROUND/JUSTIFICATION: Studies point up the serious adverse reactions (ADR as one of the six main causes of death of hospitalized patients in the United States. The most frequent ADR include the drug interaction. METHODS: twenty most used medications were compared, in a certain period of time, at the clinical sector of São Lucas Universitary Hospital of PUC-RS, to the fourteen most used ones at the Ambulatório de Depressão (ADe of the same hospital. The research gathered information published since 1990 in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: several drug interactions were found among many of the studied medications, often involving the Cytochrome P450 System. CONCLUSION: the update of the medication on clinic use goes further than the expected results or the most frequent collateral effects.

  2. Pour une approche discursive des politiques publiques environnementales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Baillat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la montée des préoccupations environnementales au début des années 1970, relatives notamment à la gestion des territoires et des ressources naturelles, et plus récemment aux impacts du changement climatique sur les sociétés humaines, l’environnement n’a cessé de faire l’objet de nombreux débats politiques et scientifiques. Les questions environnementales ont ainsi engendré des réseaux d’influence et des interactions entre acteurs de nature et d’échelles différentes, porteurs d’intérêts divergents et parfois même contradictoires. Combinée à l’extrême technicité des questions en jeu, cette multiplicité d’échelles et d’acteurs tend à brouiller les cartes des débats environnementaux. Le changement climatique, la protection de la biodiversité ou la désertification constituent autant d’exemples pour lesquels l’identification des causes et des solutions présente une grande complexité scientifique et technique...

  3. Gestion des déchets dangereux et responsabilité sociale des firmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Bensebaa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenant les déchets électriques et électroniques comme terrain d’observation, cette recherche étudie les fondements du commerce illégal de déchets dangereux des pays développés vers les PED. En effet, malgré la multiplication des législations, le problème des déchets dans les pays développés, loin d’être traité en amont, l’est en grande partie en aval par leur délocalisation dans les PED. Les deux lectures proposées, économique et institutionnelle, permettent de montrer comment les contraintes de coût de gestion des déchets dans les pays développés conjuguées à l’imperfection et à la non-application des législations conduisent à des comportements socialement irresponsables. À partir de là, l’implication des parties prenantes est suggérée comme solution pour éliminer ce type de comportements.Based on the analysis of the waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE, the research investigates the motivations for the illegal cross-border trade in hazardous wastes from developed countries to developing countries. Although many developed countries have implemented waste shipment regulations, they are passing the risks and costs of E-waste to developing countries. Indeed, E-waste is often sent for recycling and refurbishing in developing countries. The two-side proposed approach (i.e. economical and institutional suggests that both the cost for firms to comply with increasing regulations and the imperfect implementation of regulatory restrictions lead to socially irresponsible behaviours. An increasing and better involvement of stakeholders may be put forward as a solution.

  4. Analyse des cadres juridiques des aires marines protégées des pays ouest africains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cuq

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En analysant de manière transversale les droits nationaux relatifs aux aires protégées de sept pays d'Afrique de l'Ouest (le Cap Vert, la Gambie, la Guinée, la Guinée-Bissau, la Mauritanie, le Sénégal et la Sierra Leone, cette étude tend à apporter des éléments de connaissances de ces droits nationaux, tant sur le plan normatif qu'institutionnel, et à s'interroger sur le contenu, la mise en oeuvre et l'adaptabilité de ceux-ci à la lumière des enjeux environnementaux, sociaux et économiques de la sous-région ouest-africaine.

  5. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  6. Perspectives de production et de commercialisation des prunes et des pruneaux au Maroc à l’horizon 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Eddine Sellika

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La filière de production de prunes et pruneaux au Maroc a connu un développement important du fait de coûts de production relativement faibles comparativement à d’autres rosacées. Cet article propose une réflexion globale sur la situation actuelle de la production et commercialisation des prunes et pruneaux au niveau des exploitations agricoles, et leur possible évolution future. Il présente les principales caractéristiques actuelles de la filière, les principaux facteurs d’évolution et deux scénarios à l’horizon 2025. La filière connait déjà des tensions fortes sur les prix au champ, avec des différences importantes liées à la qualité des productions. Trois facteurs de changement ont été identifiés : 1 l’augmentation des coûts de production ; 2 l’augmentation des surfaces plantées induite par le Plan Maroc Vert ; 3 la baisse des prix de vente. Un premier scénario tendanciel prévoit une faible augmentation des superficies, mais une différenciation forte entre les exploitations en fonction de leurs capacités à maitriser les coûts de production, à produire des prunes de qualité, et à prendre des marges en aval en investissant dans la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Cette filière restera ainsi rentable pour certaines exploitations tandis que d’autres opteront pour l’arrachage. Un second scénario prévoit des actions publiques pour promouvoir l’export et améliorer la rentabilité sur le marché intérieur, par une baisse des coûts de production, une augmentation de la qualité des prunes et une organisation collective de la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Ces activités, menées dans le cadre de coopératives pour les exploitations de petite taille, permettraient à ces exploitations de maintenir voire d’améliorer la rentabilité de cette production.

  7. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way.

  8. Stability and accuracy assessment of identification of traditional Chinese materia medica using DNA barcoding: a case study on Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dianyun; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Ma, Xiaochong; Xin, Tianyi; Han, Jianping; Xiao, Wei; Sun, Zhiying; Cheng, Ruiyang; Yao, Hui

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a novel molecular identification method that aids in identifying traditional Chinese materia medica using traditional identification techniques. However, further study is needed to assess the stability and accuracy of DNA barcoding. Flos Lonicerae Japonicae, a typical medicinal flower, is widely used in China, Korea, and other Southeast Asian countries. However, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and its closely related species have been misused and traded at varying for a wide range of prices. Therefore, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae must be accurately identified. In this study, the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence assembly was performed using CodonCode Aligner V 3.5.4. The intra- versus inter-specific variations were assessed using six metrics and "barcoding gaps." Species identification was conducted using BLAST1 and neighbor-joining (NJ) trees. Results reveal that ITS2 and psbA-trnH exhibited an average intraspecific divergence of 0.001 and 0, respectively, as well as an average inter-specific divergence of 0.0331 and 0.0161. The identification efficiency of ITS2 and psbA-trnH evaluated using BLAST1 was 100%. Flos Lonicerae Japonicae was formed into one clade through the NJ trees. Therefore, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae can be stably and accurately identified through the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions, respectively.

  9. 回药少尼子的本草考证%Research on Materia Medica of Hui Herbal Medicine ShaoNiZi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟; 何婷; 高如宏

    2016-01-01

    According to the record in YanXingLu, prophet Mohammed said Hui medicine can cure many of disease. So we made a research on materia medica of Hui Herbal Medicine ShaoNiZi in Huihui prescriptions from several aspects, including Species research, historical records, origin, chemical composition, pharmacological ef-fects, traditional and modern medicine usage, and security as well, and found that it is the dry mature seed of the Ra-nunculaceae Nigella sativa L. Because of its wide therapeutic range, safety and non-toxic, it values to research.%《言行录》记载回药少尼子能够治疗许多疾病。因此本研究从品种考证、历史记载、产地、化学成分、药理作用、传统及现代医学用法、安全性等方面对《回回药方》中少尼子进行本草考证研究,确定其为毛茛科植物家黑种草 Nigella sativa L.的干燥成熟种子,其治疗范围极其广泛,且安全无毒,具有很大的研究价值。

  10. Insights into the history of a bacterial group II intron remnant from the genomes of the nitrogen-fixing symbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, N; Martínez-Rodríguez, L; Martínez-Abarca, F

    2014-10-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs that act as mobile retroelements. In bacteria, they are thought to be tolerated to some extent because they self-splice and home preferentially to sites outside of functional genes, generally within intergenic regions or in other mobile genetic elements, by mechanisms including the divergence of DNA target specificity to prevent target site saturation. RmInt1 is a mobile group II intron that is widespread in natural populations of Sinorhizobium meliloti and was first described in the GR4 strain. Like other bacterial group II introns, RmInt1 tends to evolve toward an inactive form by fragmentation, with loss of the 3' terminus. We identified genomic evidence of a fragmented intron closely related to RmInt1 buried in the genome of the extant S. meliloti/S. medicae species. By studying this intron, we obtained evidence for the occurrence of intron insertion before the divergence of ancient rhizobial species. This fragmented group II intron has thus existed for a long time and has provided sequence variation, on which selection can act, contributing to diverse genetic rearrangements, and to generate pan-genome divergence after strain differentiation. The data presented here suggest that fragmented group II introns within intergenic regions closed to functionally important neighboring genes may have been microevolutionary forces driving adaptive evolution of these rhizobial species.

  11. Stability and Accuracy Assessment of Identification of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica Using DNA Barcoding: A Case Study on Flos Lonicerae Japonicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianyun Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a novel molecular identification method that aids in identifying traditional Chinese materia medica using traditional identification techniques. However, further study is needed to assess the stability and accuracy of DNA barcoding. Flos Lonicerae Japonicae, a typical medicinal flower, is widely used in China, Korea, and other Southeast Asian countries. However, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and its closely related species have been misused and traded at varying for a wide range of prices. Therefore, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae must be accurately identified. In this study, the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sequence assembly was performed using CodonCode Aligner V 3.5.4. The intra- versus inter-specific variations were assessed using six metrics and “barcoding gaps.” Species identification was conducted using BLAST1 and neighbor-joining (NJ trees. Results reveal that ITS2 and psbA-trnH exhibited an average intraspecific divergence of 0.001 and 0, respectively, as well as an average inter-specific divergence of 0.0331 and 0.0161. The identification efficiency of ITS2 and psbA-trnH evaluated using BLAST1 was 100%. Flos Lonicerae Japonicae was formed into one clade through the NJ trees. Therefore, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae can be stably and accurately identified through the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions, respectively.

  12. Erros de medicação: estudo descritivo das classes dos medicamentos e medicamentos de alta vigilância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bohomol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou apresentar as classes dos medicamentos envolvidos nos erros de medicação ocorridos em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e identificar aqueles que são classificados como medicamentos de alta vigilância. Métodos: A população foi composta pelas fichas de ocorrências de erros que constavam em um banco de dados de uma investigação prévia. Foi realizada uma análise secundária das informações disponíveis Resultados: Foram identificados 305 eventos, obtendo-se média de 6,9 ocorrências por paciente. Verificaram-se 73 medicamentos distribuídos em 33 classes de acordo com sua ação predominante, sendo os mais frequentes: antibióticos (25,2%, redutores de acidez gástrica (19,0% e anti-hipertensivos (9,2%. Foram identificadas 37 (12,1% ocorrências com medicamentos de alta vigilância, que corresponderam às cinco classes, e a dos anestésicos venosos foi predominante (43,3%. Conclusão: Estes tipos de medicamentos são usados frequentemente nas unidades intensivas e devem ter um monitoramento acurado, uma vez que podem causar danos maiores se o seu uso for incorreto.

  13. [Plasma metabonomic studies on the stable phase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients of Fei-qi deficiency syndrome and the Chinese materia medica intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-gang; Li, Ze-geng; Peng, Bo

    2011-12-01

    By using the metabonomics method, to study the plasma metabonomics of the stable phase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients of Fei-qi deficiency syndrome (FQDS), and of Chinese materia medica (CMM) intervention, thus exploring possibly existent biomarkers. Forty stable phase COPD patients of FQDS were recruited as Group A. Liuwei Buqi Capsule (LWBQC) was given to them as intervention. A healthy control group (Group B, 37 cases) was set up. The pulmonary function test was performed on patients in Group B and Group A before and after intervention. The plasma metabolites were detected using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Statistical data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). The original spectrum and data of plasma metabonomics were compared between the two groups. The whole spectrum amino acid metabonomics tests were performed in the two groups. Compared with Group B, the pulmonary function significantly decreased before intervention in Group A (P plasma metabonomics, and potential markers could be detected. The intervention of the stable phase COPD patients of FQDS by Chinese medicine could brought positive changes in the metabolic profiling and amino acid metabolism.

  14. Chemical composition and bioactivity of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; de Cindio, Bruno; Loizzo, Monica R; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menabeni, Roberta; Bettini, Ruggero; Menichini, Francesco

    2011-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante peel obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction techniques was determined by GC/MS analysis. Forty-six components were fully characterised. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major components of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and cold-pressing (CP), while citropten was the major constituent in the oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were evaluated. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted the highest inhibitory activity against BChE (IC₅₀ value of 154.6 µg mL⁻¹) and AChE (IC₅₀ value of 171.3 µg mL⁻¹. Interestingly, the oil obtained by cold-pressing exhibited a selective inhibitory activity against AChE. The essential oils have also been evaluated for the inhibition of NO production in LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The oil obtained by hydrodistillation exerted a significant inhibition of NO production with an IC₅₀ value of 17 µg mL⁻¹ (IC₅₀ of positive control 53 µg mL⁻¹).

  15. Alternativas de medicação intracanal em casos de necrose pulpar com lesão periapical = Intracanal medication indicated for pulpal necrosis with apical osteites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachin, Elaine Vianna Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo in vivo em pacientes portadores de dentes monorradiculares apresentando necrose pulpar com lesão periapical. O objetivo foi avaliar radiograficamente a efetividade de 4 diferentes curativos de demora (PMCC, gel de clorexidina 2%, pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e hipoclorito de sódio1%. O tratamento endodôntico foi padronizado em todos os elementos através da técnica escalonada e irrigação com hipoclorito de sódio 1%. Para a medicação intracanal, os pacientes foram separados aleatoriamente em 4 grupos que receberam um dos medicamentos listados. Após 7 dias, os canais foram obturados e submetidos a controle radiográfico aos 3, 6 e 9 meses em que se mediu com precisão a diminuição do diâmetro radiolúcido apical. Os resultados mais satisfatórios ocorreram após o uso do PMCC, seguido pelo hidróxido de cálcio, clorexidina 2% e, por último, hipoclorito de sódio 1%

  16. Secretory Cavity Development and Its Relationship with the Accumulation of Essential Oil in Fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She-Jian Liang; Hong Wu; Xuan Lun; Dong-Wen Lu

    2006-01-01

    The developmental types of secretory cavities in Citrus remain controversial. The relationship between secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil in fruits of Citrus species is also unknown. In order to develop better insights into these problems, histological, histochemical, and cytochemical methods were used to investigate secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil at different developmental stages of fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle.The results indicate that the secretory cavity of the variety seemed to originate from an epidermal cell and a subepidermal cell. These two cells underwent successive divisions, resulting in the formation of two parts: (i) a conical cap; and (ii) a globular gland. The formation of the lumen was schizolysigenous. Regular changes in the size of vacuoles and the accumulation of essential oil were revealed during the process of secretory cavity development. In addition, when fruits were a light yellow or golden color, the structure of secretory cavities was well developed and the content of essential oil in a single fruit reached a maximum. It would be most appropriate to collect the fruit as a medicinal material at this time.

  17. Elaboration de nouvelles approches micromecaniques pour l'optimisation des performances mecaniques des materiaux heterogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutajeddine, Ahmed

    Les modeles micromecaniques de transition d'echelles qui permettent de determiner les proprietes effectives des materiaux heterogenes a partir de la microstructure sont consideres dans ce travail. L'objectif est la prise en compte de la presence d'une interphase entre la matrice et le renforcement dans les modeles micromecaniques classiques, de meme que la reconsideration des approximations de base de ces modeles, afin de traiter les materiaux multiphasiques. Un nouveau modele micromecanique est alors propose pour tenir compte de la presence d'une interphase elastique mince lors de la determination des proprietes effectives. Ce modele a ete construit grace a l'apport de l'equation integrale, des operateurs interfaciaux de Hill et de la methode de Mori-Tanaka. Les expressions obtenues pour les modules globaux et les champs dans l'enrobage sont de nature analytique. L'approximation de base de ce modele est amelioree par la suite dans un nouveau modele qui s'interesse aux inclusions enrobees avec un enrobage mince ou epais. La resolution utilisee s'appuie sur une double homogeneisation realisee au niveau de l'inclusion enrobee et du materiau. Cette nouvelle demarche, permettra d'apprehender completement les implications des approximations de la modelisation. Les resultats obtenus sont exploites par la suite dans la solution de l'assemblage de Hashin. Ainsi, plusieurs modeles micromecaniques classiques d'origines differentes se voient unifier et rattacher, dans ce travail, a la representation geometrique de Hashin. En plus de pouvoir apprecier completement la pertinence de l'approximation de chaque modele dans cette vision unique, l'extension correcte de ces modeles aux materiaux multiphasiques est rendue possible. Plusieurs modeles analytiques et explicites sont alors proposee suivant des solutions de differents ordres de l'assemblage de Hashin. L'un des modeles explicite apparait comme une correction directe du modele de Mori-Tanaka, dans les cas ou celui ci echoue a

  18. Problèmes entomologiques en replantation des palmeraies et des cocoteraies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariau Dominique

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available C’est aux alentours de la vingt-cinquième année que l’on envisage de replanter une palmeraie. C’est en effet vers cet âge que commencent à se poser des problèmes de récolte en raison de la taille des palmiers. En un quart de siècle, l’amélioration génétique aura suffisamment fait de progrès pour escompter un gain de production de l’ordre de 20%. Enfin, dans certaines situations, plusieurs maladies ont pu affecter les vieilles palmeraies. Avec de 15 à 25% d’arbres manquants, principalement lorsque ceux-ci se présentent sous la forme de taches, une diminution de la production se fait nettement sentir. Cela peut, par exemple, être le cas avec les maladies de la fusariose en Afrique de l’Ouest, lorsque la palmeraie n’a pas été plantée avec du matériel végétal tolérant, ou du ganoderma en Malaisie. Le renouvellement des cocoteraies se fait avec un espace de temps beaucoup plus long. En effet, la récolte des noix peut se faire au sol et la hauteur des cocotiers n’est donc pas un facteur limitant. Par ailleurs, la majorité des cocoteraies étant sous la forme de petites plantations villageoises, les agriculteurs rechignent toujours à abattre leurs cocotiers, même si des semences potentiellement plus productives leurs sont proposées. Ce sont les raisons pour lesquelles les cocoteraies de 50 ans et plus représentent la règle. L’abattage d’une plantation de palmiers à huile ou de cocotiers constitue naturellement un changement brutal de l’environnement, ce qui a des conséquences importantes notamment sur l’entomofaune, parmi laquelle des ravageurs majeurs ainsi que leurs ennemis naturels.

  19. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  20. Gestion des risques : histoire, définition et critique

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Dionne

    2013-01-01

    L’étude de la gestion des risques a débuté après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale. La gestion des risques a pendant longtemps été associée à l’utilisation de l’assurance de marché pour protéger les individus et les entreprises contre différentes pertes associées à des accidents. Des formes de gestion des risques purs, alternatives à l’assurance de marché, ont pris forme durant les années 1950 lorsque l’assurance de marché a été perçue très coûteuse et incomplète. L’utilisation des produits dérivés...

  1. Digitale Medien im Blickwinkel des Symbolischen Interaktionismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Dopplinger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Artikel zeigt anhand von Beispielen auf, dass die Theorien des Symbolischen Interaktionismus an Aktualität nichts eingebüßt haben, obwohl es aufgrund von digitalen Medien einen einschneidenden gesellschaftlichen Wandel vor allem in der Art und Weise, wie Kommunikation und soziale Interaktionen betrieben werden, gegeben hat. Es wird versucht die Theorien des Symbolischen Interaktionismus in Verbindung mit dem Gebrauch von digitalen Medien, insbesondere dem Smartphone darzustellen. Obwohl es in den letzten 80 Jahren maßgebliche Veränderungen in der Gesellschaftsordnung und im Bildungswesen gegeben hat, kann nachvollzogen werden, dass diese Theorien auf die Interaktionen im täglichen Leben nach wie vor angewendet werden können. So aktuell die Theorien sind, können sie aber nicht die Frage beantworten, wie schnell sich eine konkrete Unterrichtspraxis auf die sich rasch ändernden Funktionen der digitalen Medien einstellen soll.

  2. Des cafés aux dancings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vrydaghs

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comme la plupart des collectifs dont les membres sont unis par un objectif commun, le groupe surréaliste français a régulé son activité de plusieurs façons. Ses efforts en ce sens furent notamment d’ordre organisationnel, avec par exemple la création d’un Bureau de recherches surréalistes ou la tenue de réunions régulières au café ; ils eurent également lieu dans le domaine esthétique, avec notamment la défense du merveilleux et de la poésie ; ils portèrent enfin sur les comportements des uns...

  3. Comparaison des comptabilités agricoles

    OpenAIRE

    Minaud, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Traditionnellement, la comptabilité est divisée en deux spécialités, l’une retrace l’histoire des faits comptables d’une organisation et l’autre analyse ses coûts. En France, le Plan comptable de 1947 leur consacra respectivement les appellations de comptabilité générale et de comptabilité analytique d’exploitation. En résumé, la comptabilité générale recense, mesure et enregistre toutes les modifications qui touchent le patrimoine d’une entité. Elle établit à son sujet des informations norma...

  4. Pour une Écologie des Somatiques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte traite de la parenté conceptuelle et théorique entre Somatiques et Écologie scientifique. Après une définition de la notion scientifique d’écologie, il s’attache à définir trois notions clés de l’écologie: celle de potentiel, qui permet de décrire de façon innovante le modèle de relation entre sujet et environnement au sein des Somatiques, et celles de diversité et de réciprocité, à partir desquelles l’article se veut une invitation et un programme à penser l’intégration des Somatiques au paradigme écologique scientifique, et en appelle aux acteurs somatiques pour transformer leurs pratiques selon une éthique environnementale.

  5. Protection des données

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    L’accélération de la diffusion d’Internet et de ses applications oblige les législateurs à re­voir sans cesse la réglementation de la protection des données, qu’il s’agisse des don­nées privées, du secret médical ou encore de la lutte contre le piratage économique. Voici un précis actualisé de l’état du droit allemand en la matière (GOLA/KLUG). Ces évolutions créent toutefois un conflit d’intérêt en matière de droit de l’information, que re­trace, exemples à l’appui, le rapport annuel 2004 qu...

  6. Panorama européen des biolubrifiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poitrat Étienne

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Des perspectives de développement importantes peuvent être envisagées, lorsque le bénéfice environnemental et sanitaire est immédiat, dans les utilisations à huiles perdues ou à risque de pertes accidentelles dans l’environnement, en milieu de travail confiné et pour les applications dans les industries agroalimentaires. En outre, les lubrifiants d’origine végétale présentent des performances techniques au moins égales aux huiles synthétiques. Les critères d’éco-compatibilité suivants sont reconnus et fréquemment utilisés : biodégradabilité, toxicité humaine, écotoxicité (aquatique ou terrestre, bioaccumulation.

  7. Chimie des interactions moléculaires

    OpenAIRE

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Le cours de l’année 2008-2009 a porté sur « Autoorganisation et dynamique moléculaires ». Des cours ont été donnés à l’Université de Strasbourg (3 h), à l’Université Charles de Prague (3 h) et à la City University de Hong Kong (3 h). Cours au Collège de France : Autoorganisation et dynamique moléculaires Introduction Le cours a porté sur l’évolution de la chimie supramoléculaire vers la chimie dynamique constitutionnelle (CDC) et la chimie adaptative. Du fait de la labilité des interactions n...

  8. L'éthique des auditeurs

    OpenAIRE

    Charpateau, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    l'audit est devenu, au cours des vingt dernières années, un outil de pilotage interne ou externe largement diffusé dans les organisations, privées, publiques, marchandes ou non. Au delà des techniques et méthodes d'audit, la question du comportement de l'auditeur a émergé. Il est apparu opportun de se demander comment l'éthique de l'auditeur interagit sur la qualité de l'audit mais aussi comment elle s'articule avec l'organisation qui emploie l'auditeur. Les auditeurs ne peuvent en effet isol...

  9. TRANSPLANTATION EN MASSE DES ORGANES ABDOMINAUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    STARZL, T.

    2010-01-01

    Les transplantations multi-organes, comprenant les blocs foie-duodénum-pancréas, foie-estomac-duodénum-pancréas, et foie-intestin sont réalisées avec un succés croissant Ces techniques et leurs combinaisons variées de transplantation monobloc ne sont pas de pratique courante. Les techniques de prélévement, de conservation et de soins post-opératoires sont décrites pour la transplantation multi-organes compléte ainsi que pour les variantes incomplétes. Le probléme particulier à ce type de transplantation est celui de la transplantation intestinale, c’est-à-dire la transplantation d’un organe à composante lymphoréticulaire complexe ce qui peut provoquer un syndrome greffon contre hôte. Par erreur de conception, et un peu par esprit de systéme, les efforts par le passé étaient dirigés sur la modification et la destruction des systémes lymphoréticulaires grâce au traitement préalable du donneur ou des organes transplantés, par médicaments, radiation ou autres moyens. Actuellement, I’idée directrice est de garder intacte les systémes lymphoréticulaires qui deviennent alors le site d’une circulation à double sens aprés transplantation. Avec la puissante immunodépression que fournit le FK 506, les cellules lymphoréticulaires du donneur peuvent circuler chez le receveur sans créer de syndrome du greffon contre hôte clinique et les cellules de la greffe s’assimilent à celles du receveur (chimérisme local) sans provoquer de rejet. Même si I’on évite le rejet ou le syndrome greffon contre hôte, il existe, à côté de ces entités, des relations métaboliques entre les organes greffés ainsi qu’entre les organes greffés et les viscéres du receveur laissés en place, qui peuvent influencer I’avenir soit des organes greffés, soit des organes laissés en place. Parmi les échanges métaboliques les mieux connus actuellement, il y a les facteurs splanchniques hépatotrophes endogénes, dont I’insuline est la mieux

  10. Kultur des Alterns. Gestern. Heute. Morgen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Haller

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Sammelband eröffnet verschiedene Perspektiven auf Die Kultur des Alterns von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. In drei Sektionen (I. Die historische Perspektive, II. Die medizinische Sicht, III. Alter und Altern als Herausforderung für Individuum und Gesellschaft in Gegenwart und Zukunft wird die Sozialgeschichte des Alter(ns und die Geriatrie betrachtet. Dabei wird jede Verengung der Problematik einer alternden Gesellschaft auf renten- und finanzpolitische Aspekte vermieden. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden im letzten Teil aus Sicht von Sozialstatistik, Philosophie und Soziologie Zukunftsperspektiven in den Blick genommen. Geschlechtsspezifische Differenzierungen von Alter und Altern in Geschichte und Gegenwart werden in den meisten Beiträgen vernachlässigt.

  11. Dark energy physics expectations at DES

    CERN Document Server

    Soares-Santos, Marcelle

    2012-01-01

    Giving rise to a new and exciting research field, observations of the last 13 years established the accelerated expansion of the Universe. This is a strong indication of new physics, either in the form of a new energy component of the Universe -- dark energy -- or of theories of gravity beyond general relativity. A powerful approach to this problem is the study of complementary cosmological probes in large optical galaxy surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We present the expectations for dark energy physics based on the combination of four fundamental probes: galaxy clusters, weak lensing, large scale structure and supernovae. We show that DES data have constraining power to improve current measurements of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter by a factor of 3--5 and to distinguish between general relativity and modified gravity scenarios.

  12. Chimie des matériaux hybrides

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Clément

    2014-01-01

    Cours : chimie des matériaux hybrides Depuis plus d’une vingtaine d’années, les méthodes d’élaboration de nanomatériaux inorganiques ou hybrides reposant sur la « chimie douce » suscitent un très fort intérêt, aussi bien dans le monde universitaire qu’industriel. Ces méthodes de synthèse mettent en jeu des réactions de « polymérisation » au sens large s’effectuant à température ambiante, en solvant aqueux ou organique, à partir de précurseurs moléculaires ou nanoparticulaires. Ces conditions ...

  13. La réforme du Fonds des Communes

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Conférence pour des décideurs publics et privés intéressés par le développement de la région namuroise portant sur la réforme du Fonds des communes (dispositif de transfert destiné aux financement général des communes wallonnes) et ses conséquences.

  14. Concours annuels Academie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-mer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yearly competitions Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences. L'Organisation des Nations Unies, face aux inégalités croissantes a initié le processus des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement (OMD qui doivent être réalisés d'ici 2015. L'atteinte des huit OMD devrait permettre de réduire la pauvreté et d'améliorer les conditions de vie des populations. L'élevage est pratiqué par une grande partie de la population mondiale surtout les plus pauvres. Il est pourvoyeur d'emplois et contribue à l'émancipation des femmes grâce aux revenus générés par la vente des produits animaux. Les animaux d'élevage sont également utilisés pour le transport et la culture attelée. La forte densité en nutriments des produits animaux en fait des aliments de choix pour améliorer l'état nutritionnel des enfants. La domestication des espèces animales sauvages et le développement de l'aquaculture contribuent à réduire les prélèvements dans la nature et à protéger la biodiversité. Le développement d'un élevage durable et raisonné peut donc positivement impacter plusieurs secteurs et doper la croissance économique des pays. Ce qui peut aider les pays en développement à se rapprocher des OMD d'ici 2015. La note présente également les pré-requis pour rendre effective la contribution de l'élevage aux.

  15. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2006-03-15

    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  16. Aktualität und Geschichtlichkeit der Querelle des Femmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Zimmermann

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Was ist der aktuelle Stand der Diskussion um den großen Geschlechterstreit der Frühen Neuzeit in den verschiedenen Disziplinen? Gibt es Bezüge der Querelle des Femmes zur Gegenwart des 21. Jahrhunderts? Diese und andere Fragen stehen im Zentrum des vorliegenden Sammelbands, der auf die erste transdisziplinäre Tagung zu diesen Themen im deutschsprachigen Raum zurückgeht.

  17. Antwortverhalten des Luftrettungsdienstes bei zeitsensitiven Einsätzen

    OpenAIRE

    Grashey, Rupert

    2004-01-01

    Ziel der Arbeit war eine Erhebung des Status quo der Notarztversorgung in einer Region in Nordostbayern, wobei die Bedeutung der Luftrettung analysiert und der Bedarf für eine Ausweitung der Einsatzbereitschaft festgestellt wurde. Untersucht wurde eine Region von 257 Gemeinden im Einsatzgebiet des Rettungshubschraubers (RTH) Christoph 20 mit Standort in Bayreuth. Als Datengrundlage dienten die von den beteiligten Rettungsleitstellen erhobenen Einsatzdaten des Jahres 2000. Das Untersuchu...

  18. Screening, Diagnostik und Therapie des Gestationsdiabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Der Gestationsdiabetes ist eine der häufigsten Erkrankungen in der Schwangerschaft. Obwohl der Zusammenhang zwischen den Blutzuckerwerten und der Morbidität der Schwangeren und des Kindes hinreichend belegt ist, gibt es bemerkenswert viele klinisch relevante Fragen, die bisher nur unzureichend untersucht wurden. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit einigen Fragestellungen aus diesem Themenbereich, unter Einbeziehung einer neuen Methode der Glukosemessung, der kontinuierlichen Glukoseme...

  19. Tobias, Rudolf: Des Jona Sendung / Olivier Opdebeeck

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Opdebeeck, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tobias, Rudolf: Des Jona Sendung. Pille Lill (soprano), Urve Tauts (mezzo-soprano), Peter Svensson (tenor), Raimo Laukka (baryton), Mati Palm (basse); Choeur d'Oratorio, Choeur de chambre Philharmonique d'Estonie, Choeur de garcons de Tallinn, Orchestre Symphonique d'Etat d'Estonie, Neeme Järvi" BIS CD-731/732, distribution Arcade 8000 716 (2 CD: 290F). TT: 1h 54'13"

  20. Fragmente des Logistikkonzeptes "super just in time"

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Darstellung von Elementen für die Entwicklung eines neuen Logistikkonzeptes unter Berücksichtigung des Logistikdilemmas, der Arbeitsteilungsfalle, dem Gesetz der Massenproduktion, dem Dilemma der Ablaufplanung und einem Managementkonzept. Demonstration of elements for the construction of a new concept of logistics by regarding the dilemma of logistics, the trap of division of labor, the law of mass production, the dilemma of process organization and a concept of management.