WorldWideScience

Sample records for des energies renouvelables

  1. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 11th EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. 11e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civel, Y B [ed.

    2012-02-15

    For over ten years now, eurobserv'eR has been collecting data on european Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its thematic barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2011. It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energies. Their performances are compared against the european Commission White Paper and Biomass Action plan targets. The eurobserv'eR consortium members will publish their end-of-year estimates of the renewable energy share of overall final energy consumption for each European Union country from this edition onwards. These figures will thus provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and will ascertain whether their individual trends point to success in achieving their objectives [Dutch] Depuis plus de dix ans, eurobserv'er collecte des donnees sur les sources d'energies renouvelables de l'union europeenne afin de decrire, dans des barometres thematiques, l'etat et la dynamique des filieres. La premiere partie de cet ouvrage constitue une synthese des travaux publies en 2011, actualisee et completee. Elle offre un tour d'horizon complet des dix filieres renouvelables, completee par deux notes de synthese sur l'heliothermodynamique et l'energie marine. Ces filieres sont analysees a l'aide de differents indicateurs de types energetiques. leurs performances sont comparees aux objectifs du livre blanc de la Commission europeenne et de son plan d'action biomasse. a partir de cette edition, les membres du consortium eurobserv'er publieront chaque fin d'annee leurs estimations de la part des energies renouvelables dans la consommation brute d'energie finale pour chaque pays de l'union europeenne. Ces estimations permettront de donner une premiere indication sur la trajectoire energie

  2. Centrales au gaz et Energies renouvelables: comparer des pommes avec des pommes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-10-20

    The fundamental conclusion that we draw from this analysis is that one should not to base itself blindly on forecasts prices of natural gas when one compare contracts at price fixes with producers of renewable energy with contracts at variable prices with promoters power stations with gas. Indeed, forecasts of the prices of gas do not succeed not to enter the associated costs with the covering of the risk, that they are connected to the negative pressure against the cover, with the CAPM, with costs of transaction or with unspecified combination of three. Thus, insofar as price stability to length term is developed, better way of comparing the two choices would be to have recourse to the data on the prices in the long term natural gas, and not with forecasts of the prices. During three last years at least, the use of these prices in the long term would have besides license to correct a methodological error who, obviously, seem to have supported unduly, and of relatively important way, power stations with natural gas compared to their competitors of renewable energies.

  3. The European market of renewable energies; Le marche europeen des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-09-15

    This market study on renewable energies presents: 1 - the different renewable energy industries for power generation: the field of renewable energies (hydropower, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and biomass power plants) and their common points, their characteristics, advantages and constraints; 2 - the political and regulatory context with its ambitious goals: main steps of worldwide negotiations, Europe and the management of CO{sub 2} emissions, stiffening of the environmental regulation, the energy/climate package and the efforts to be borne by the different member states; 3 - Economy of the sector and the necessary public support: investment and production costs by industry, wholesale prices and competitiveness of the different power generation means, government's incentives for projects profitability; 4 - dynamics of the European market of renewable energies: energy-mix and evolution of the renewable energies contribution in the world and in the European Union, key-figures by country and by industry (installed capacity, production, turnover, employment); 5 - medium-term development perspectives: 2020 prospect scenarios, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives of development for each industry; 6 - the strengths in presence in the domain of facilities: main manufacturers, market shares, innovations, vertical integration, external growth; 7 - the strengths in presence in the domain of power facilities operation: main European operators, position and ranking, installed capacities, projects portfolio; 8 - medium-term perspectives of reconfiguration: best-positioned operators in a developing market, future of European manufacturers with respect to Asian ones, inevitable concentration in the operation sector. (J.S.)

  4. The renewable energies panorama in Aquitaine; Panorama des energies renouvelables en Aquitaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. This panorama takes stock on the renewable energies development in Aquitaine: photovoltaic, geothermal energy, thermal solar, hydroelectricity and cogeneration. (A.L.B.)

  5. Clean energy, renewable energies; Energie propre, energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This document is the compilation of the 4 issues of the 'energie propre - energie renouvelables' newsletter published by the regional energy agency of Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region (ARENE). Each issue is a technical file presenting a particular facility or installation: the pico-hydraulic power plant of the Allos lake (Mercantour, French Alps), the 'Chute de la Guerche' and 'Chute de Chastillon' hydraulic power plant exploited by the Isola town; the pico-hydraulic power plant of the drinkable water network of Hameau des Agnielles village, the direct solar thermal floor. (J.S.)

  6. Energy and durable development: the place of the renewable energies; Energie et developpement durable: la place des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The 29 may 2000, took place at the UNESCO, a colloquium on the place of the renewable energies facing the economic development. This document presents the opening presentation of A. Antolini and L. Jospin and the colloquium papers and debates in the following four domains: the energy challenges of the durable development, the renewable energies sources facing the european directive, the thermal renewable energies (solar, geothermics and biomass) and the greenhouse effect, the world market of the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  7. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 10th EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. 10e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civel, Y.B. (ed.)

    2011-01-15

    For over ten years now, eurobserv'eR has been collecting data on european Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its thematic barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2010. It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energies. Their performances are compared against the european Commission White Paper and Biomass Action plan targets. The eurobserv'eR consortium members will publish their end-of-year estimates of the renewable energy share of overall final energy consumption for each European Union country from this edition onwards. These figures will thus provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and will ascertain whether their individual trends point to success in achieving their objectives. [Dutch] Depuis plus de dix ans, eurobserv'er collecte des donnees sur les sources d'energies renouvelables de l'union europeenne afin de decrire, dans des barometres thematiques, l'etat et la dynamique des filieres. La premiere partie de cet ouvrage constitue une synthese des travaux publies en 2010, actualisee et completee. Elle offre un tour d'horizon complet des dix filieres renouvelables, completee par deux notes de synthese sur l'heliothermodynamique et l'energie marine. Ces filieres sont analysees a l'aide de differents indicateurs de types energetiques. leurs performances sont comparees aux objectifs du livre blanc de la Commission europeenne et de son plan d'action biomasse. a partir de cette edition, les membres du consortium eurobserv'er publieront chaque fin d'annee leurs estimations de la part des energies renouvelables dans la consommation brute d'energie finale pour chaque pays de l'union europeenne. Ces estimations

  8. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 11th EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. 11e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civel, Y.B. (ed.)

    2012-02-15

    For over ten years now, eurobserv'eR has been collecting data on european Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its thematic barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2011. It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energies. Their performances are compared against the european Commission White Paper and Biomass Action plan targets. The eurobserv'eR consortium members will publish their end-of-year estimates of the renewable energy share of overall final energy consumption for each European Union country from this edition onwards. These figures will thus provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and will ascertain whether their individual trends point to success in achieving their objectives [Dutch] Depuis plus de dix ans, eurobserv'er collecte des donnees sur les sources d'energies renouvelables de l'union europeenne afin de decrire, dans des barometres thematiques, l'etat et la dynamique des filieres. La premiere partie de cet ouvrage constitue une synthese des travaux publies en 2011, actualisee et completee. Elle offre un tour d'horizon complet des dix filieres renouvelables, completee par deux notes de synthese sur l'heliothermodynamique et l'energie marine. Ces filieres sont analysees a l'aide de differents indicateurs de types energetiques. leurs performances sont comparees aux objectifs du livre blanc de la Commission europeenne et de son plan d'action biomasse. a partir de cette edition, les membres du consortium eurobserv'er publieront chaque fin d'annee leurs estimations de la part des energies renouvelables dans la consommation brute d'energie finale pour chaque pays de l'union europeenne. Ces estimations

  9. The renewable energies: major tools for our development; Les energies renouvelables: des outils essentiels pour notre developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolini, A.

    2004-06-15

    Even if the fossil fuels use is always possible for the few ten years, the renewable energies will answer the new challenges of the society. In this framework the author takes stock on the greenhouse effect, the energy demand, the nuclear energy and on different renewable energies sources: the solar energy, the wind power, the biomass, the hydroelectricity, the cogeneration and the biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  10. Renewable energies: reality of the facts, data and stakes; Energies renouvelables: realite des faits, chiffres et enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolini, A.

    2002-12-15

    Facing the public hostile declarations, this analysis takes stock on the renewable energies situation in France. It offers information and discusses the following topics: the french objectives, the real cost of the renewable energies, the french opinion, the market and the needed efforts, the contribution of the renewable energies to the greenhouse effect and the renewable energies as an employment source. (A.L.B.)

  11. European conferences. Integration of renewable energies in buildings; Conferences europeennes. Integration des energies renouvelables dans le batiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L. [ADEME, Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Letz, T. [Asder, 73 - Saint Alban Leysse (France); Tuille, F. [Observ' er, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document comprises 2 parts. First part is a detailed program of the exhibition with a press dossier which presents the different topics discussed during conferences and round tables, the market of renewable energies, and a list of agencies and companies involved in renewable energies development and products. The second part is the abstracts of the lectures presented during the European conferences on the integration of renewable energies in buildings (solar-thermal and photovoltaic systems, wood fuel and biomass). (J.S.)

  12. The renewable energies; Les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The renewable energies are everywhere but also irregular. Thus they need savings in our energy consumptions. This document provides information, such as economics, capacity and implementation, on the following renewable energies: the wind power, the solar energy, the photovoltaic energy, the biogas, the geothermal energy, the hydroelectricity, the wood. It also presents a state of the art and examples of bio-climatic architecture. (A.L.B.)

  13. About the renewable and the seas energies in the United States; Apercus sur les energies renouvelables et l'energie des mers aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamet, Ph

    2006-07-01

    This report aims to bring some information on the regulations and the technologies in the United States in the domain of the seas energies. After a presentation of the different seas and renewable energies and the corresponding regulations in the United States, the author concludes of an energy in its infancy except for the offshore wind power where some big projects are implemented. (A.L.B.)

  14. White paper on renewable energies. Choices to found our future. The contribution of renewable energy syndicate to the debate related to the energy policy; Le livre blanc des energies renouvelables. Des choix qui fondent notre avenir. la contribution du syndicat des energies renouvelables au debat relatif a la politique energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L.

    2012-02-15

    In this document the Renewable Energy Syndicate proposes a road map to boost the French industrial dynamics and meet the challenges of world energy transition. The authors outline the strong growth of the renewable energy market despite the crisis context, and that France can be in the pace. They propose a road map for the 2020-2030 period, and highlight the need to build up a strategy. In a second part, twelve propositions are made to boost the ground-based wind energy, to develop offshore wind and marine energy, to rebuild the photovoltaic sector, to take advantage of hydroelectricity assets, to extent the development of renewable heat (biomass, geothermal, thermal solar energy), to place renewable energies at the heart of the building and struggle against fuel poverty, to create new industrial sectors, to exploit all biomass energy potentials, to facilitate the input of renewable energies on electric grids, to reach energy autonomy in ultramarine areas, to consolidate the renewable energy industry, and to aim at an international development

  15. Environment project: 50 measures for a development of the high environmental quality renewable energies; Grenelle Environnement: 50 mesures pour un developpement des energies renouvelables a haute qualite environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    This document presents the 50 measures decided by the government to develop the renewable energies in France and reach the 20% of participation to the energy production in 2020. Some measures concern all the renewable energies, they deal with the regulation, the administrative procedures of the building, others are specific to each energy. (A.L.B.)

  16. The renewable energies state of the art and perspectives in Italy; Les energies renouvelables etat des lieux et perspectives en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaouen, M; Racault, C

    2005-06-15

    Renewable energies are inexhaustible energies, meanwhile not enough exploited. This document presents the technical description of the different renewable energies sources and their repartition in the european union. A special part is devoted to the italian situation to show the poor utilization of the renewable energies and the gap between the situation and the objectives of the White Book. (A.L.B.)

  17. Development of renewable energies in the building industry and in the industry in general; Developpement des energies renouvelable dans le batiment et l'industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This third issue of the international DERBI conference has permitted to decipher the international actuality of renewable energies, to position the French national projects in this thriving context, and to discover the recent technological innovations. Californian companies were invited to this conference for a comparison of the policies in favor of renewable energy sources on both sides of the Atlantic ocean. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this conference and dealing with technologies, products, projects and realization in the following domains: solar cooling, biomass power plants, photovoltaic power plants and advances in photovoltaic engineering, solar thermal energy, thermodynamic solar power plants, architecture, renewable energies and the Eco-Building European project, biofuels, wood fuels, wind power and small wind power, geothermal energy. Presentations deal also with the financing of renewable energy projects, the competencies, employment and training, the numerical dimension, and the automation in the renewable energies domain. (J.S.)

  18. Development of renewable energies in the building industry and in the industry in general; Developpement des energies renouvelable dans le batiment et l'industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This third issue of the international DERBI conference has permitted to decipher the international actuality of renewable energies, to position the French national projects in this thriving context, and to discover the recent technological innovations. Californian companies were invited to this conference for a comparison of the policies in favor of renewable energy sources on both sides of the Atlantic ocean. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this conference and dealing with technologies, products, projects and realization in the following domains: solar cooling, biomass power plants, photovoltaic power plants and advances in photovoltaic engineering, solar thermal energy, thermodynamic solar power plants, architecture, renewable energies and the Eco-Building European project, biofuels, wood fuels, wind power and small wind power, geothermal energy. Presentations deal also with the financing of renewable energy projects, the competencies, employment and training, the numerical dimension, and the automation in the renewable energies domain. (J.S.)

  19. Report on the present day situation and technical perspectives of renewable energies; Rapport sur l'etat actuel et les perspectives techniques des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C; Le Deaut, J Y

    2001-11-01

    This work, carried out by the parliamentary office for the evaluation of scientific and technological choices on request of the French National Assembly and Senate, takes stock of the present day situation and technical perspectives of development of renewable energy sources and of research needs of the French industry in this domain: 1 - renewable energies: key-technologies for the energy supply of developing countries and for a rational consumption in transportation systems and accommodations of developed countries (energies technically different from fossil or nuclear energies; fundamental energy sources for a developing world; different national goals in Europe depending on the available natural resources and on the political realities; a minor interest in France for the domestic power generation but a major interest for transports, residential and tertiary sectors and export); 2 - priority choices given to the French renewable energy resources: renewable electricity (photovoltaic, wind, biomass), thermal technologies (solar, geothermal, biomass); 3 - future policy: sustain of renewable electricity production with the revival of research, industry and technical cooperation. (J.S.)

  20. Report on the present day situation and technical perspectives of renewable energies; Rapport sur l'etat actuel et les perspectives techniques des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C.; Le Deaut, J.Y.

    2001-11-01

    This work, carried out by the parliamentary office for the evaluation of scientific and technological choices on request of the French National Assembly and Senate, takes stock of the present day situation and technical perspectives of development of renewable energy sources and of research needs of the French industry in this domain: 1 - renewable energies: key-technologies for the energy supply of developing countries and for a rational consumption in transportation systems and accommodations of developed countries (energies technically different from fossil or nuclear energies; fundamental energy sources for a developing world; different national goals in Europe depending on the available natural resources and on the political realities; a minor interest in France for the domestic power generation but a major interest for transports, residential and tertiary sectors and export); 2 - priority choices given to the French renewable energy resources: renewable electricity (photovoltaic, wind, biomass), thermal technologies (solar, geothermal, biomass); 3 - future policy: sustain of renewable electricity production with the revival of research, industry and technical cooperation. (J.S.)

  1. NEDO's white paper on renewable energy technologies; Livre blanc de la NEDO sur les technologies des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of a 'white paper' published by the Japanese institution NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) on the development of technologies in the field of renewable energies. For the various considered energies, this report gives indications of the world market recent evolutions, of Japanese productions and objectives in terms of productions and costs. The different energies treated in this report are: solar photovoltaic, wind, biomass, solar thermal, waves, seas, hydraulic, geothermal, hot springs, snow and ice, sea currents, electricity production by thermo-electrical effect or by piezoelectric modules, reuse of heat produced by factories, use of the thermal gradient between air and water, intelligent communities and networks

  2. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 10. EurObserv'ER; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe 2010. 10. bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This EurObserv'ER publication, which is supported by the Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) programme, provides a concise overview of the latest renewable energy market statistics even before official data are available. These have proven to be broadly consistent with the Eurostat figures. It also gives valuable insights into each of the main renewable energy markets, showing how well each sector is progressing, and reviewing relevant legislation, policy frameworks, and market structures. Currently, the EurObserv'ER methodology is being adapted to reflect the requirements of the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. This will permit future EurObserv'ER barometers to be used to track the trajectory of each Member State towards its binding 2020 target, and the corresponding progress of each technology. The IEE programme supports public and private organisations across the European Union which are working together to accelerate the growth of renewable energy markets, and to remove market barriers. 2010 was a milestone in the success story of modern renewable energies. The energy revolution began, new binding targets came into force, and European Union Member States submitted their first National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs). Each NREAP defines a trajectory towards its binding national target and presents its planned policy measures. As we go into 2011, the European Commission is assessing these NREAPs, and in the coming years will work with the Member States to deliver their targets. Despite continuing progress, the renewable energy share of European Union gross inland energy consumption is only 9.4%; therefore the 12% targeted by the White Paper will not be achieved. The main reason for this failure is that the efforts to reduce consumption have not matched the efforts to develop renewable energies. Thus, while major investments have indeed been made, they amount to a smaller-than-anticipated share of energy consumption, given the later continued

  3. The environmental policies which favour the renewable energies development; Les politiques environnementales d'incitation au developpement des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L.

    2001-05-01

    Facing the climatic changes and the Europe policy of the renewable energies development, the authors wonder on the compared efficiency of the incentive tools. The study is theoretical with the presentation of the price and the quantity approaches, but also practical with concrete examples. It reveals the theoretical qualities of the green certificate approach. (A.L.B.)

  4. The state of renewable energies in Europe. 11. EurObserv'ER report; Etat des energies renouvelables en Europe. Edition 2011. 11e bilan EurObserv'ER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, William; Schwarz, Virginie; Liebard, Alain; Civel, Yves-Bruno; Augereau, Laurence; Marandet, Laure; Szita Toth, Klara; Roncz, Judit; Decombe, Annabelle; Baratte, Lucie

    2011-12-15

    For over ten years now, EurObserv'ER has been collecting data on European Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its focus studies or barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2011 in 'Systemes Solaires' (Journal des energies Renouvelables No. 203, 204, 205 and 206), 'Journal de l'eolien' no. 8 and 'Journal du Photovoltaique' no.5). It provides a complete overview of the ten renewable sectors, supplemented by two summary notes on concentrated solar power and ocean energy. Their performances are compared against the stated goals set out by each country in its National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). Additionally, for the second year running, the EurObserv'ER consortium members have published their annual renewable energy share estimates of overall final energy consumption for each Member State of the European Union. These figures provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and whether their individual trends point to successful achievement of the targets set by European Directive 2009/28/EC. 2010 was momentous for the evolution of the renewable energy market in Europe; were adopted by Member States to implement the Renewable Energy Directive and the first results can now be seen, despite the difficult economic climate. As revealed in this report, renewable energy production in the EU grew by +11.3% between 2009 and 2010. Even though factors such as a cold winter and a high level of rainfall have surely helped, this figure highlights the positive impacts of support policies and additional investments by market players. As the renewable energy sector shows promising signs of growth, we acknowledge the growing accuracy of EurObserv'ER's estimates. According to the official data published in November 2011 by Eurostat, the share of

  5. Calcul numérique des structures pour les Energies Marines Renouvelables: défis et structuration de la recherche autour du WeAMECenter

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOEFS , Franck

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Les structures offshore ont toujours constitué pour l'homme un défi logistique pour leur installation mais aussi en amont lors de leur conception. Apparues peu après la seconde guerre mondiale pour l'exploitation des hydrocarbures à quelques centaines de mètres des côtes, elles ont connues un essor important dans les années 70 et 80 suite aux deux chocs pétroliers. Le challenge depuis 15 ans est une exploitation à plusieurs milliers de mètres de profondeur. La recherch...

  6. Report on the actions fostering renewable energy sources; Bilan des actions conduites par Christian Pierret, Secretaire d'Etat a l'Industrie en faveur du developpement des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Christian [State Secretary for Industry, French Government, Paris (France)

    1999-06-15

    The principal renewable energy source of France is, after hydro-power, the wood fuels, the 9.1 Mtep production rate of which exceeds the cumulated coal, gas and oil national productions. The plan 'Wood-energy and Local Development', launched in 1994, resulting in the installation of 168 boilers at a 150 MW total power and consuming 36,000 tep/y, was followed by the plan 'Wood-Wastes', announced by Christian Pierret on February 1998, aiming at boosting the energetic use of wood wastes. In the wind power sector a program EOLE 2005 was launched having as goal installing in France up to 2005 a wind power capacity of 250 to 500 MW. 20 projects with a total capacity of 77.5 MW were selected. Under EOLE 2005 provisions there is a 125.3 MW wind power capacity to be installed up to the end of year 2000. A new call for propositions aiming at up to 100 MW wind power capacity was asked from EDF by the secretary of state Mr Christian Pierret. In the field of thermal solar energy a program titled '20,000 solar boilers in the overseas territories (DOM)' has as objective the installation in 5 years of 20,000 solar boilers in the Antilles, Guiana and Reunion. These means of generating sanitary hot water are actually well-fitted to the climate of these regions where the cost of competing electricity is rather high. By January 1999 almost 15,000 solar boilers were installed in the frame of this program. The large scale production of these units resulted already in a 30% decrease in their price. A new 30 MF/yr program HELIOS 2006 was initiated to boost the development of the solar boilers. Since 1995, under the frame of 'Fonds d'Amortissement des charges d'Electrification' (FACE), a 100 MF project was launched to finance actions of energy management and promote decentralized installations for electricity production from renewable energy sources. These efforts are aimed at fulfilling the electricity needs of isolated sites. By the end

  7. Seminar on the news energy utilization in rural area of April 3 to March 24 , 1980 in Reo, Upper Volta[Energie renouvelable ; Zone rurale ; Gaz biologique ; Energie solaire ; Sechoir solaire]; Seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies nouvelles en zone rurale du 24 mars au3 avril 1980 a Reo, Haute Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-04-15

    volume of transport much more reduced. Mastering these new technologies will help fight efficiently against desertification, and fruits and vegetables rotting. [French] L'acces a l'energie par toutes les populations reste une des preoccupations du Gouvernement de Haute Volta (Burkina Faso). C'est ainsi que sous l'egide de la Communaute Economique de l Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO), de l'Agence Canadienne de Developpement International et du Mouvement Scout, un seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies renouvelables en zone rurale y a ete organise. Il s'agit pour les participants venus de plusieurs pays, d'apprendre a mettre en pratique, l'utilisation des energies nouvelles telles la cuisiniere a feu ferme, le gaz biologique, le chauffe- eau solaire et le sechoir solaire. L'adoption de ces nouvelles sources d'energie par les populations permettrait de pallier les problemes de desertification lies au deboisement intensif dans le pays. Tous les participants a cette rencontre sont donc sensibilises pour qu'ils apportent leur contribution et celle des populations de leurs terroirs respectifs pour une meilleure conservation des ressources naturelles disponibles. Cela passe aussi par la construction de cuisinieres a feu ferme qui permettent d'avoir deux sources d'energie. Ce type de foyer est d'une construction facile et utilisable seulement trois jours apres. Il permet d'eviter la perte d'energie qui caracterisait le foyer traditionnel (pres de 95% de perte d'energie) ; ce qui revient a consommer moins de bois tout en assurant un rendement de l'ordre de 60 a 70%. Il s'est agi pour les participants aux travaux de s'initier a l'installation de gaz suivant des modeles chinois et indien . Ils ont donc ete inities a la realisation des technologies de production de gaz biologique a travers la maitrise du schema de principe du procede de fermentation discontinue. De meme, ils ont acquis le savoir- faire sur les techniques de mise en place du chauffe- eau solaire par insolateur et du

  8. Proceedings of the business and investment forum for renewable energy in the Arab Regions; Recueil des interventions du forum d'affaires pour le developpement des energies renouvelables dans la region Arabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This event on renewable energies comes within the framework of the World Solar Programme. Indeed, following the World Solar Summit in Harare in 1997, UNESCO, the European Commission, ADEME and ICAEN have taken the initiative to organize a series of Business Forums devoted to renewable energies. The first two were held in Quito in 1998 and in Harare in 1999. The Harare forum was especially devoted to the use of renewable energies in decentralized rural electrification. Promoters wish to focus debates and thinking on themes with a particular bearing on surrounding countries. This is why the main subject for this Forum is how renewable energies can be used for a sustainable development in the Arab region, supplying energy and water. The growing demand for water is a crucial issue in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean countries. The relatively limited resources, the high population growth and the regular improvement in the standard of living can, in the medium term, only confirm the attention that should be given to the problem. Firstly, it is a question of identifying the most efficient and best-adapted technologies, and enabling their dissemination, all the while developing the know-how of local operators. It is also a matter of focusing on the problems connected with the financing of the projects. Indeed, public aid for development can be sought on both sides, and international financing can be mobilized at the World Bank, within the Global Environmental Facility, or through development banks, although access to them still seems difficult. How can we simplify these procedures and at the same time meet the necessary guarantees, and what are the most efficient financing mechanisms? Lastly, to implement these projects it is vital that we increase commercial opportunities and favour the bringing together of all the players present here today - the users, and the public and private sectors. The participation of industrialists will therefore play a fundamental role here. To

  9. Proceedings of the business and investment forum for renewable energy in the Arab Regions; Recueil des interventions du forum d'affaires pour le developpement des energies renouvelables dans la region Arabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This event on renewable energies comes within the framework of the World Solar Programme. Indeed, following the World Solar Summit in Harare in 1997, UNESCO, the European Commission, ADEME and ICAEN have taken the initiative to organize a series of Business Forums devoted to renewable energies. The first two were held in Quito in 1998 and in Harare in 1999. The Harare forum was especially devoted to the use of renewable energies in decentralized rural electrification. Promoters wish to focus debates and thinking on themes with a particular bearing on surrounding countries. This is why the main subject for this Forum is how renewable energies can be used for a sustainable development in the Arab region, supplying energy and water. The growing demand for water is a crucial issue in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean countries. The relatively limited resources, the high population growth and the regular improvement in the standard of living can, in the medium term, only confirm the attention that should be given to the problem. Firstly, it is a question of identifying the most efficient and best-adapted technologies, and enabling their dissemination, all the while developing the know-how of local operators. It is also a matter of focusing on the problems connected with the financing of the projects. Indeed, public aid for development can be sought on both sides, and international financing can be mobilized at the World Bank, within the Global Environmental Facility, or through development banks, although access to them still seems difficult. How can we simplify these procedures and at the same time meet the necessary guarantees, and what are the most efficient financing mechanisms? Lastly, to implement these projects it is vital that we increase commercial opportunities and favour the bringing together of all the players present here today - the users, and the public and private sectors. The participation of industrialists will therefore play a fundamental role here. To

  10. Comments made by the Syndicate of renewable energies on the draft of orientation law about energies; Observations du Syndicat des energies renouvelables a l'avant-projet de loi d'orientation sur les energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    This document presents the proposals of modifications and the comments made by the French syndicate of renewable energies (SER) about the draft of energy law proposed by the government in November 2003. The document is presented as 3 columns with the original text of the law, the modifications proposed by the SER and their observations. The comments of the SER concern only the promotion of development and use of renewable energy sources, the energy saving certificates and the development of bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  11. The wood, renewable energy; Le bois, energie renouvelable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2006-12-15

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  12. Renewable energies, alternative or complement?; Energie renouvelables, alternative ou complement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    This meeting deals with the place of the renewable energies in the future. Many subjects were discussed during this meeting: the renewable energies part in in the heating systems and in the bio-fuels, the development of the solar and the wind power energies, the choice of a sector to assist, the renewable energies and the economic development. The full texts of the presentations are provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Renewable energies and public policies; Energies renouvelables et politiques publiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report presents the full texts of the allocution delivered during the colloquium on the renewable energies and the public policies. It takes stock on the strategical environment and the political will of the renewable energies, the tracks of development in France and the necessity of a law on the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  14. Study 4: the renewable energies; Etude 4: les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Roc, G. [Total Fina, 92 - Paris La Defense (France)

    2000-07-01

    In 1986 the Brundtlandt Commission formalized the durable development concept and defined in these terms: satisfy the today needs without mortgage the future generation capacity to satisfy their own needs. This concept leads to give an interest in the development of new energies sources and in the abatement of the environmental pollution. For each following energies sources, the author takes stock of the state of the art, the technological and political stakes at an international scale: the bio-fuels, the wood energy, the photovoltaic, the solar energy and the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  15. Strategy and development means of the energy efficiency and renewable energies sources in France; Strategie et moyens de developpement de l'efficacite energetique et des sources d'energies renouvelables en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, Y.

    2000-09-01

    In the framework of the renewable energies development policy and the energy mastership wanted by the Government, a document has been asked by the Prime Minister. It evaluates the development prospects at long and medium dated, of the main chains of renewable energies production taking into account the national developable deposits size, the technologies assessment, the environmental impacts and the competition facing the traditional energies. It evaluates the measures leading to an increasing efficiency. Measures concerning the regulations, the budget, and the fiscality are also discussed. From these analysis, a national strategy for actions in favor the renewable energies, are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  16. Renewable energies and public policies; Energies renouvelables et politiques publiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, Y. [Ministere de l' Amenagement du Territoire et de l' Environnement, 75 - Paris (France); Pierret, Ch. [Ministere de l' Industrie, 75 - Paris (France); Lienemann, M.N. [Ministere de l' Urbanisme, du Logement et des Transports, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    This document presents the interventions of political personalities on the topic of the renewable energies development policies and the necessity of financial incentives which have been discussed during the colloquium of thursday 4 april 2002 at Paris. (A.L.B.)

  17. La gestion des ressources renouvelables: vers un gestion patrimoniale des écosystèmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse et critique les approches de gestion biologique et économique des ressources naturelles traditionnellement appliquées. Sont présentées des alternatives à ces modèles, basées sur l’institutionnalisme et l’approche de gestion patrimoniale. Ce cadre théorique devrait favoriser la mise en œuvre d’une gestion viable des écosystèmes. Este artículo analiza y critica los modelos de gestión biológica y económica de recursos naturales tradicionalmente aplicados. Se presentan alternativas a estos modelos, basados en el institucionalismo y el manejo patrimonial, los que constituirían un marco teórico que viabilice la gestión de recursos naturales en los ecosistemas. This paper analyses and criticizes traditional approaches to biological and economic management of natural resources. Alternative approaches are presented based on institutionalism and heritage management these constitute a theoretical framework for the implementation of appropriate natural resource use in ecosystems.

  18. Proceedings of the business and investment forum 'renewable energy in Africa'. A Thermie and UNESCO action; Recueil des interventions du forum d'affaires 'energies renouvelables en Afrique'. Une action du programme Thermie et de l'Unesco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    One of the objectives of THERMIE (which is the demonstration component of the Research and Technological Development JOULE-THERMIE programme of the European community in non-nuclear energy technologies) is to promote co-operation in the field of renewable energy technologies between the European Union and African countries. The World Solar Programme 1996-2005 adopted during the Harare summit (September 96) organised by UNESCO in co-operation with the European Commission, recommends a wider use of renewable energy sources, through the implementation of national high priority projects. This Business and investment Forum is an integral part of the follow-up to the World Solar Summit. Following QUITO in September 98 and HARARE in March 99, similar events will be organised in other Regions, with an ADEME co-ordination. The Forum was specifically targeted at decision and policy-makers, local authorities, investors and international co-operation agencies, industrialists, institutional representatives and programme managers working in the field of Renewable Energy. One of the main goals of this Forum is to promote investments and financing opportunities for projects using efficient renewable energy technologies, for a sustainable development in Africa. (author)

  19. Climate change: what perspectives for the development of renewable energies in France and in Europe?; Changement climatique: quelles perspectives pour le developpement des energies renouvelables en France et en Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousel, M. [Ministere de l' Amenagement du Territoire et de l' Environnement, MIES, 75 - Paris (France); Kandel, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique, CNRS, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Connor, H. [HELIO International (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The greatest challenge facing the world at the beginning of the century, according to hundreds of business and government leaders is climate change. Different propositions can help fighting against a global warming. The development of renewable energy sources, ( wind power, geothermal power) the market of carbon dioxide, the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, path by path, the building and the heat network are so possibilities that are studied. (N.C.)

  20. Hydrogen production by renewable energies. Final report of the integrated research program 4.1; Production d'hydrogene par des energies renouvelables. Rapport final du programme de recherche integree 4.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this PRI is to study and to develop methods of hydrogen production based on the renewable energies, without greenhouse gases emission in order to implement clean processes in the framework of a sustainable development. Two approaches are proposed. The first one uses microorganisms in condition of hydrogen production (micro-algae). The second one is based on the bio-mimetism approaches aiming to reproduce artificially the biological mechanisms of the photosynthesis leading to water decomposition. (A.L.B.)

  1. La Consommation énergétique des ménages à La Réunion : vers un retour à l’autonomie par le biais des énergies renouvelables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Garde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie l’évolution de la Consommation énergétique des ménages à La Réunion entre 1980 et 2005, en mettant l’accent sur le domaine de la consommation domestique d’électricité. Il montre que cet espace, autonome sur un plan énergétique au début des années 1980, a connu une dépendance de plus en plus forte vis-à-vis des approvisionnements en ressources fossiles durant les deux dernières décennies, sous la pression des mutations démographiques, économiques et sociologiques engagées. Depuis le début des années 2000, sous l’impulsion des politiques publiques, essentiellement fiscales, La Réunion s’engage dans le développement des énergies renouvelables, essentiellement le photovoltaïque, en s’affichant en tête des régions françaises et européennes dans la maîtrise de cette production énergétique.This article aims at studying the evolution of the domestic consumption of energy in Reunion island between 1980 and 2005 (electricity consumption. It shows that this area which reached its energetic autonomy at the beginning of the 80’s has known a strong dependency from fossil resources for the last two decades, due to the increasing pressures of demographic, economic and sociological factors. Since the beginning of the 2000’s, as a result of public policies impulsion (mainly fiscal policies, Reunion island has developed the use of renewable resources (essentially photovoltaic. It tends to be now one of the first French and European regions mastering this energy production process.

  2. L’apport des théories institutionnalistes au renouvellement de l’approche d’économie politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Le présent texte s’inscrit dans la perspective d’un renouvellement des approches théoriques en économie politique, et plus particulièrement en réponse à un appel du comité de rédaction de la revue Interventions économiques, qui souhaite lancer un débat sur les positions des chercheurs et intervenants en matière d’économie à l’heure actuelle. Pour commencer ce texte sur la vision institutionnaliste de l’économie, je propose d’interroger d’abord l’attitude actuelle des économistes, en particulier celle de ceux qui soutiennent la vision dominante actuellement en science économique, ainsi que les thèses qui nous mènent à la révision du rôle - pour ne pas dire au retrait - de l’État, ce qui se traduit notamment par le développement de la précarité d’emploi, la hausse du chômage et l’exclusion que nous constatons tous depuis quelques décennies. Je commence donc par présenter ma vision des thèses dominantes en regard de la redéfinition du rôle de l’État et de l’entreprise privée dans le contexte économique actuel, avant de présenter quelques aspects de la vision non orthodoxe, mais tout à fait pertinente à mes yeux, à savoir celle des économistes institutionnalistes, qui suscite nombre de questions par rapport à la vision dominante.

  3. Energies renouvelables et territoires : les défis de la transition énergétique en Allemagne

    OpenAIRE

    Deshaies, Michel

    2015-01-01

    En décidant la sortie du nucléaire dès 2022 et à terme le remplacement de l’ensemble des énergies fossiles par des énergies renouvelables, l’Allemagne s’est lancée à elle-même un défi extraordinaire dans la mesure où la réalisation de cet objectif ne doit pas compromettre sa place de quatrième puissance industrielle du monde (Buchan, 2012). C’est précisément cette mutation du système énergétique qui est qualifiée de transition énergétique, Energiewende en allemand, un terme popularisé depuis ...

  4. The Renewable Energy Directive: biofuels, biomass and sustainable development criteria. How to check in France the compliance of marketed biofuels with sustainability criteria defined by the Directive on renewable energies? (Phase 1: biofuels and bio-liquids); Directive Energies Renouvelables: Biocarburants, biomasse et criteres de developpement durable. Comment verifier, en France, la conformite des biocarburants mis sur le marche aux criteres de durabilite prevus par la Directive sur les energies renouvelables? (Phase 1: biocarburants et bioliquides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    After having recalled and commented the main principles of the European directive which sets objectives in terms of renewable energy promotion and consumption, this report analyses the quantitative and qualitative sustainability criteria which must be applied particularly to biofuels and bio-liquids produced from agricultural activities, and their application perspectives. It gives recommendations to assess these criteria. It also comments the modalities used to control the compliance of biofuels with these criteria

  5. Exploratory analysis of green certificates devices for the promotion of the renewable energies (PROMER-PE- 5-10). Synthesis report; Analyse exploratoire des dispositifs de certificats verts pour la promotion des energies renouvelables (PROMER-PE 5-10). Rapport de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, P. [Grenoble-1 Univ., Lab. d' Economie de la Production et de l' Integration Internationale (LEPII-EPE CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    The PROMER project aims to study the efficiency of assistance devices for the renewable energies in a context of electric market liberalization. This synthesis report presents the main results and the economic interest of a green certificates market in the European Union. It shows also that the device efficiency is uncertain concerning the capacities increase and the costs decrease process, because of new risks for the investments. (A.L.B.)

  6. The renewable energies in France 1970-2003; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    This report aims to present series of energy production by renewable energies (hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy, biomass and domestic wastes) and thermal energy production by renewable energies (wood, domestic wastes, heat pumps, geothermal energy, biogas, solar energy, biofuels) in order to estimate the evolution of the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  7. Renewable energies it is time to go; Energies renouvelables a vous d'agir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    After the presentation of the allocutions, offered by ministries and specialists, the questions and answers of the conference are detailed. It concerns the political aspects of the renewable energies part in the energy policy, the energy consumption and the energy efficiency, the local policies and the renewable energies in the life, architecture and urban areas. (A.L.B.)

  8. Nuclear and energies nr 57. Japan, another glance. The environmental and radiological impact. The international impact. The illusion of renewable energies in Japan; Nucleaire et energies no. 57. Le Japon, un autre regard. L'impact environnemental et radiologique. L'impact international. L'illusion des energies renouvelables au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenail, B.

    2011-07-15

    The contributions of this publication first address the Japanese local context (organization, mentality, cultural background, thinking and action modes), and secondly the environmental and radiological impact of the Fukushima accident, notably in comparison with Chernobyl (contamination is much more localized, sometimes higher; a larger concerned population but quicker and more efficient protection measures; more severe consequences due to population displacement). The third article discusses the international impact of the accident: known or foreseen consequences on nuclear programs, discussion on safety strengthening and on governance, evolution of public opinion, possible consequences on climate negotiations. The last article proposes an overview of the current situation of Japan which must mobilize all the available energy resources to face the difficulties in electricity supply

  9. Renewable energies in France 1970-2002; Energies renouvelables en France 1970-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy observatory presents in this 2004 edition today data concerning the thermal renewable energies and the new energetic accounting method for the electric renewable energies. The following energy sources are concerned: hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy, biomass, wood fuels, domestic wastes, heat pumps, biogas, the thermal solar and biofuels. The energy production by renewable sources from 1970 to 2002, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. The renewable energies in France 1970-2005; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This document provides statistical data on the renewable energies situation in France (metropolitan and overseas department) from 1970 to 2005. It concerns 1- the electric power production from renewable energies as the hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy and biomass and 2- the thermal power production from renewable energies as the wood energy, domestic wastes, heat pumps, geothermal energy, crops residues, biogas, thermal solar and biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  11. 2005: risks and opportunities for the renewable energies; 2005: risques et opportunites pour les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This press conference takes stock on the renewable energies in the world at the date of the first of february 2005. A first part presents the renewable energies activities in the world, and then more specially in France, the 2001 directive on the development of the electric power from renewable sources, the controversy around the public service charges due to the renewable energies and the fiscal advantages proposed. The second part details each renewable energies sources situation, cost, capacity: photovoltaic, wind energy, hydroelectricity, thermal solar energy, wood energy, biofuels and heat pumps. (A.L.B.)

  12. The renewable energies: a topical issue; Les energies renouvelables: un sujet d'actualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This document analyzes the situation of the renewable energies in the french energy sector. The first part presents the part of the renewable energies in the energy production and consumption, their interest in the fight against the climatic change and in the employment creation. The second part details for each renewable energy source the government policy in favor their development and the legislative framework. The third part provides data on cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, life cycle and employments to illustrate the analysis. The last part presents the government objectives of the renewable energies development for 2010. (A.L.B.)

  13. Nuclear energy and its synergies with renewable energies; Le nucleaire dans ses synergies avec les renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mermilliod, N. [CEA Grenoble, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique, 38 (France); Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Institut de tecchnico-economie des systemes energetiques I-tese, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Durand, S. [CEA Grenoble, European Institute of Technology -KIC InnoEnergy, 38 (France)

    2011-05-15

    France has the ambition to become a world leader in both nuclear industry and in renewable energies. 3 types of synergies between nuclear power and renewable energies are highlighted. First, nuclear power can be used as a low-carbon energy to produce the equipment required to renewable energy production for instance photovoltaic cells. Secondly, to benefit from the complementary features of both energies: continuous/intermittency of the production, centralized/local production. The future development of smart grids will help to do that. Thirdly, to use nuclear energy to produce massively hydrogen from water and synthetic fuels from biomass. (A.C.)

  14. The renewable energies have the wind aft; Les energies renouvelables ont le vent en poupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-20

    This document brings together four papers on the future of the renewable energies. It shows the market development hopeful the enterprises demand and the enjoy of the economy for these green energies, way of greenhouse gases control. A special interest is given to the solar and wind energies and to the fuel cells. (A.L.B.)

  15. Renewable energy from vegetation; Les energies renouvelables d'origine vegetale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, C. [Centre francais de cooperation international en recherche agronomique pour le developpement (France)

    2009-07-15

    Currently, vegetation accounts for 3 major types of energy sources, notably woody biomass, starches and vegetable oils. Bio-ethanol and biodiesel is produced from the fermentation of starches, such as sugar cane, beet sugar, sorghum, corn and potatoes. Biofuels can be produced from palm tree oil, coconut oil , soya oil, sunflower oil or any type of vegetable based oil. This article discussed energy efficiency issues and the environmental impact of developing these energies. In general, the lower energy efficiency of the starches can be attributed to the enzymes responsible for the catalysis. The article also reviewed the thermochemistry and energy efficiency regarding second generation fuels. It also discussed the burning of biomass, including woody biomass, forest waste and agricultural waste. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  16. Renewable energies and national development; Energies renouvelables et amenagement du territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document brings together the communications presented at this colloquium on renewable energy sources and the debates that took place during the round-tables. The aim of the colloquium was to take stock of the present day situation of the development of renewable energies in France, to share experiences and to discuss the conditions of implementation and development of renewable energies in particular in accommodations and tertiary buildings (solar thermal and photovoltaic) and in collective services (wood-fuel, cogeneration units, bio-automotive fuels, geothermal energy and biogas). One round table was devoted to the electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hydro- and wind power, cogeneration units, photovoltaic) and to the problem of connection of decentralized power generation units to the national grid (tariffs, legal aspects, administrative procedures) in the new context of deregulation of electricity markets. (J.S.)

  17. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  18. Project of european directive on the renewable energies; Projet de directive europeenne sur les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P

    2008-01-15

    The project of directive is a legislative adaptation of the ''road map of the renewable energies'' presented by the Ministers Council Commission the 10 January 2007. Meanwhile, this approach does not take into account the final objectives, the reduction of the CO{sub 2} and the fuels importation. The author aims to discuss the project. He shows how the text is exclusively centered on the renewable energies, the lack of guarantee that the objectives will be reach, the lack of criteria to determine the % of renewable energies by country and the lack of an approach cost-benefit. (A.L.B.)

  19. Local investment in renewable energies; Investissement local dans les energies renouvelables - depliant d'information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  20. Dossier: renewable energies for heat production; Dossier: energies renouvelables pour la production de chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-09-01

    This dossier makes a state-of-the-art of today's applications of renewable energy sources in the residential, collective and tertiary sectors for the space heating and the hot water production. In France, three energy sources profit by a particularly favorable evolution: the solar thermal, the wood fuel and the geothermal energies. In these sectors, the offer of reliable and technically achieved appliances has been considerably widen thanks to the impulse of some French and German manufacturers. Part 1 - solar thermal: individual solar water heaters (monobloc, thermosyphon with separate tank, forced circulation systems, auxiliary heating systems); combined solar systems (direct heating floor, system with storage); collective solar systems for hot water production (receivers, efficiency, heat storage and transfer, auxiliary heating, decentralized systems); heating of open-air swimming pools; some attempts in air-conditioning; the warranty of results. Part 2 - wood fuels: domestic space heating (log boilers, installation rules, hydro-accumulation, automatic boilers); collective and tertiary wood-fueled heating plants (design of boiler plants, fuel supply, combustion chamber, smoke purification systems, ash removal, regulation system), fuels for automatic collective plants, design and installation rules. Part 3 - geothermal energy: different types (water-source and ground-source heat pumps, financial incentive). (J.S.)

  1. Questions answers renewable energies (02/08/99); Questions reponses energies renouvelables (02/08/99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document collected some questions about the use of renewable energies sources in the domain of the financial and technical assistance of the customer by EDF (photovoltaic cells or wind turbines for residential houses) and for electrification of independent sites which are not connected to EDF power grid. (A.L.B.)

  2. Local investment in renewable energies; Investissement local dans les Energies Renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grepmeier, K; Larsen, J; Manolakaki, E; Quantin, J; Twele, J

    2003-07-01

    This document presents european examples on the interest of the local investment, illustrated by cases studies in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland. Two main points were discussed: the financial tools and the french strategy. The colloquium provided many discussions and analyzes on the possibility of significant contribution to the collective efforts in favor of the public involvement in the renewable energies development in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  3. The local investment in renewable energies; L'investissement local dans les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussard, E.; Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Twele, J

    2003-07-01

    These proceedings present some European testimonies about the advantage of local investment, illustrated with concrete cases taken in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland. They demonstrate that local investment in renewable energy sources is a reality and that this practice has indisputably contributed to their significant development in some countries of the European Union. The sustain of foreign banks to the financing of renewable energy sources is at the evidence an example to follow up in countries like France, Greece or Spain. Important efforts have to be made to simplify and encourage the implementation of projects, in particular from the administrative point of view. Beyond the financial aspects, the colloquium has shown that these practices of citizenship involvement represent an important factor of social adaptation and acceptation. The projects, gathering local actors but also the overall citizens through common investment funds, ensure a better territorial anchoring and a sustain to local and sustainable development. This document has been published with the support of the European Commission and ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management). (J.S.)

  4. Nuclear and energy. Special issue on the Fukushima power plant; Nucleaire et energies numero special consacre a la centrale de Fukushima n. 57 juillet 2011 le Japon, un autre regard; l'impact environnemental et radiologique; l'impact international; l'illusion des energies renouvelables au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This issue analyses the first consequences of the Fukushima accident at the world level, i.e. impacts which are either already noticeable or predictable. A first article proposes a portrait of Japan (its historical relationship with nature, the cultural education, the role of its bureaucracy, the Japanese business and political worlds) and evokes the nuclear safety organization at the institutional level. It also evokes the different companies involved in nuclear energy production. The second article discusses and comments the environmental and radiological impact of the accident (protection of the inhabitants, environment monitoring, comparison with Chernobyl, main steps of degradation of the reactors, releases in the sea, total release assessment, soil contamination, food contamination, radiation protection). A third article discusses the international impact, notably for the existing or projected power plants in different countries, in terms of public opinion, and with respect to negotiations on climate. The fourth article discusses the reactions of different countries possessing nuclear reactors. The last article questions the replacement of the lost production (that of Fukushima and maybe another power plant) by renewable energies

  5. Building a better energy future for the remote communities: sustainable energy supply strategy for the village of Inukjuak; Batir un meilleur avenir energetique pour les communautes eloignees: Strategie d'approvisionnement en energie renouvelable pour le village d'Inukjuak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Pierre, Stephane; Bui-Quang, Hung; Atagotaaluk, Eric; Benedetti, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Remote regions of Canada, notwithstanding their natural resources, suffer from a development lag because of a lack of affordable energy. The production in an isolated network comes from thermal sources, highly responsible for global warming. To replace thermal production by renewable energy necessitate the implementation of electricity prices by the public utility who favors the investment. The tariff is actually applied in order to reflect the high production cost. This article shows the actual rate situation, some possible solutions to encourage investment and the hydro electrical development in Inukjuak, where the sale of electricity at the cost of not using fossil fuels would allow to make the investments profitable. [French] Les regions eloignees du Canada, malgre leurs richesses naturelles, accusent un retard dans leur developpement vu le manque d'energie abordable. La production en reseau isole provient de sources thermiques, grandement responsables du rechauffement climatique. Remplacer la production thermique par des energies renouvelables requiert d'implanter des prix d'achat d'electricite par l'utilite publique favorisant l'investissement. Le tarif est presentement applique afin de refleter le cout eleve de production. Ce papier presente la situation tarifaire actuelle, des pistes de solution pour encourager l'investissement, et le developpement hydroelectrique Inukjuak, ou la vente d'electricite au cout d'evitement des combustibles fossiles permettrait de rentabiliser les investissements.

  6. Energy in the Dominican Republic. A few historical considerations of the problems and integration of renewable energies; L’énergie en République Dominicaine. Quelques considérations historiques du problème et de l’impulsion des énergies renouvelables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priam, Judith

    2015-01-15

    Energy production on islands is based, as on continents, on fossil fuels. In the Dominican Republic, the production has been insufficient, a recognized fact since 1897. In 1998, the opening to privatization of energy services was impelled by the Comisión para la Reforma de la Empresa Pública (CREP). Then the promulgation of the Ley General de Electricidad in July 2001 by decree #125 is a first step for renewable energy integration in the electric system. We present a historical approach to the energy problem using documents of 1897, 1946, 1989 and 2001(point 1). Then we present the components of energy production in the Dominican Republic by 2000 (point 2). The demand reached for that year 2000 MW, with only 1600 MW installed capacity. Some elements of the first institutional and legislative impulses to integrate renewable energy in the system are included (point 3). Finally, we underline the last 2013 crisis and show how only fossil energy allows to respond rapidly (point 4). In fact, renewable energies require a long term for planning and execution.

  7. Proceedings of the business and investment forum 'renewable energy in Africa'. A Thermie and UNESCO action; Recueil des interventions du forum d'affaires 'energies renouvelables en Afrique'. Une action du programme Thermie et de l'Unesco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    One of the objectives of THERMIE (which is the demonstration component of the Research and Technological Development JOULE-THERMIE programme of the European community in non-nuclear energy technologies) is to promote co-operation in the field of renewable energy technologies between the European Union and African countries. The World Solar Programme 1996-2005 adopted during the Harare summit (September 96) organised by UNESCO in co-operation with the European Commission, recommends a wider use of renewable energy sources, through the implementation of national high priority projects. This Business and investment Forum is an integral part of the follow-up to the World Solar Summit. Following QUITO in September 98 and HARARE in March 99, similar events will be organised in other Regions, with an ADEME co-ordination. The Forum was specifically targeted at decision and policy-makers, local authorities, investors and international co-operation agencies, industrialists, institutional representatives and programme managers working in the field of Renewable Energy. One of the main goals of this Forum is to promote investments and financing opportunities for projects using efficient renewable energy technologies, for a sustainable development in Africa. (author)

  8. Report of the working group on the rationalization and simplification of the procedures applicable to power producers that use renewable energy sources; Rapport du groupe de travail sur la rationalisation et la simplification des procedures applicables aux producteurs d'electricite a partir de sources d'energie renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    After a recall of the general context of development of renewable energy sources in France, this report draws up an inventory of the procedures which concern the facilities that use renewable energy sources. Then, it examines the different criticisms that have been expressed about these procedures and about their modalities of enforcement. This analysis leads to a set of proposals which aims at restoring the expected legibility of the procedures with respect the operators of these facilities and at ensuring the necessary transparency and exemplariness with respect to the environment. (J.S.)

  9. The wind energy, a clean and renewable energy; L'energie eolienne, une energie propre et renouvelable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Facing the context of greenhouse gases reduction, the France began a national program of fight against the climatic change, in which the development of the renewable energies plays a major part. Among the renewable energy sources, the wind energy is the only one which is cheap and easily used. After a presentation of the leader of the wind energy in Europe (Germany, Spain and Denmark) and the position of the France, the document details the economical and environmental advantages of the wind energy, as the public opinion concerning this energy source. (A.L.B.)

  10. The renewable energies in the heart of the energy diversification; Les energies renouvelables au coeur de la diversification energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolini, A.; Chartier, Ph.; Saglio, A

    2002-06-01

    The renewable energies constitute a primordial part of the energy accounting of the future, taking into account the energy supply safety, the environmental quality and the local economic development. In this framework the authors present the stakes and the today data concerning the french and european situations of the renewable energies production, the development of the wind power and the solar energy and show the necessity of rapidly complete the today legislation of the french legal framework. (A.L.B.)

  11. Renewable energies and energy choices. Summary of the colloquium; Energies renouvelables et choix energetiques. Compte rendu du colloque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    This document is an executive summary of the colloquium organized by the French syndicate of renewable energies (SER) which took place at the Maison de l'UNESCO in Paris during the national debate on energies organized by the French government in spring 2003. The colloquium was organized around 6 round tables dealing with: the world perspectives and the environmental context of the contribution of renewable energies to the sustainable development (respect of Kyoto protocol commitments, contribution to the security of energy supplies, lack of large scale program of development of decentralized power generation in developing countries, lack of market tools linked with CO{sub 2} emissions, improvement of competitiveness); development of renewable energies in Europe (promotion and sustain in all European countries, obligation of supply and purchase, pricing regulation, European harmonization of practices); renewable electricity and its place in the new orientation law about energies (tariff/pluri-annual investment planing, administrative authorizations, connections to the grid, calls for offer, costs of the photovoltaic solar energy); contribution of renewable energies in the transportation sector (bio-fuels, low taxes, ethanol fuel cells, vegetal chemistry); renewable heat and integration of renewable energy sources in buildings (intelligent architecture, promotion, quality labels and standards, lack of CO{sub 2} penalties linked with fossil fuels, tax reduction for solar and wood fuel appliances, acknowledgment of geothermal heat pumps as renewable energy source); and the presentation of the first proposals for the future orientation law (balance between nuclear and renewable energy sources, integration in the local environment, competitiveness, use of market mechanisms, R and D etc.). (J.S.)

  12. Renewable energies and energy choices. Summary of the colloquium; Energies renouvelables et choix energetiques. Compte rendu du colloque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    This document is an executive summary of the colloquium organized by the French syndicate of renewable energies (SER) which took place at the Maison de l'UNESCO in Paris during the national debate on energies organized by the French government in spring 2003. The colloquium was organized around 6 round tables dealing with: the world perspectives and the environmental context of the contribution of renewable energies to the sustainable development (respect of Kyoto protocol commitments, contribution to the security of energy supplies, lack of large scale program of development of decentralized power generation in developing countries, lack of market tools linked with CO{sub 2} emissions, improvement of competitiveness); development of renewable energies in Europe (promotion and sustain in all European countries, obligation of supply and purchase, pricing regulation, European harmonization of practices); renewable electricity and its place in the new orientation law about energies (tariff/pluri-annual investment planing, administrative authorizations, connections to the grid, calls for offer, costs of the photovoltaic solar energy); contribution of renewable energies in the transportation sector (bio-fuels, low taxes, ethanol fuel cells, vegetal chemistry); renewable heat and integration of renewable energy sources in buildings (intelligent architecture, promotion, quality labels and standards, lack of CO{sub 2} penalties linked with fossil fuels, tax reduction for solar and wood fuel appliances, acknowledgment of geothermal heat pumps as renewable energy source); and the presentation of the first proposals for the future orientation law (balance between nuclear and renewable energy sources, integration in the local environment, competitiveness, use of market mechanisms, R and D etc.). (J.S.)

  13. Tidal energy, a renewable energy within hand reach; Les marees, une energie renouvelable a portee de lune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielo, O.

    2011-06-15

    Tide energy and oceanic current energy represent a strong potentiality for a few countries in the world including France. In the domain of tidal energy there are 2 strategies. The first one is based on the search for the lowest power production cost in order to contribute efficiently to the country's energy mix. Generally this strategy leads to the construction of tidal dams. The second strategy is based on the search for the lowest environmental impact. This strategy is economically competitive only in places where electrical power is expensive like isolated islands. This strategy is illustrated by the tidal power station of the Alderney island. In fact the amount of energy delivered by a tidal power station depends on the rise of the tide and on the surface of the dam. It appears that tidal dams require less surface that hydroelectric power plants. The energy of oceanic currents like Gulf Stream or the thermal energy of oceans or wave power are very little exploited now but represent a potentiality higher by several orders of magnitude than tidal energy. (A.C.)

  14. Energy, institutions and development: rightfulness and institutional conditions of a spreading of renewable energies in developing countries. The example of power generation for networks; Rapport de stage et memoire de DESS. Energie, institutions et developpement: legitimite et conditions institutionnelles d'une diffusion des energies renouvelables dans les pays en voie de developpement. L'exemple de l'electricite en reseau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, M

    2004-07-01

    This study treats of the rightfulness of the promotion of renewable energy sources in a developing country like Brazil. It examines the economical and financial barriers to get over and the mechanisms necessary to be implemented to sustain the investment in renewable energy sources: institutional security, regulatory and administrative stability, long-term warranty, consistency between actions, transparency, credibility etc. (J.S.)

  15. The renewable energies in France: the main results in 2006; Les energies renouvelables en France: les principaux resultats en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The main results presented in the renewable energies annual evaluation are discussed: the production of electricity from renewable energy sources, the thermal production from renewable energy sources, the consumption of thermal renewable energies and statistical data from 2004 to 2006 on the total primary energy, the hydroelectricity, the solar energy, the geothermal energy, the heat pump, the wood energy, the cogeneration, the biogas the wind energy and the biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  16. The renewable energies in France: the 2005 main results; Les energies renouvelables en France: les principaux resultats en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This specific evaluation proposes a synthesis of the electric and thermal productions from renewable energies, makes a list of the primary or secondary renewable energies productions when they are transformed and details the uses (electricity or heat) of each renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  17. Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences; Investissement local dans les energies renouvelables - recueil d'experiences europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quantin, J; Grepmeier, K; Larsen, J; Manolakaki, E; Smith, M

    2004-01-01

    This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

  18. Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences; Investissement local dans les energies renouvelables - recueil d'experiences europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Smith, M

    2004-01-01

    This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

  19. Renewable energies in France: the main results in 2007; Les energies renouvelables en France: les principaux resultats en 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document is a status for the year 2007 of the production and consumption of renewable energies in France. This status allows to follow and measure the advance the programs sustained by the public authorities for the use and valorization of renewable energy sources. The production includes the power generation (hydraulic, wind, solar and biofuel power plants) and the heat generation (heat pumps, biofuels and refuse fuels). The consumption concerns only the heat generation and is analyzed by sector of use. Statistical production data are summarized in tables. (J.S.)

  20. Awareness of households to the development of wind energy sites - Reporting on a survey; Receptivite des menages au developpement des sites eoliens. Rapport d'enquete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisard, M.

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents in tables and diagrams the results of a survey involving 421 households in Switzerland, about their awareness to energy issues and, in particular, to all what regards wind energy and wind power plants. Globally, 80% of the persons asked for their opinion believe that electric power demand will continue to increase. 66% of them are in favour of increased use of renewable energy sources and would consequently agree with a 10% more expensive end-user energy price. 89% of the persons taking part to the survey approve the installation of wind energy farms in Switzerland. Moreover, statistics indicates that the households living in regions already equipped with wind farms are significantly more favorable to the creation of new wind energy sites than those not living in these regions. By the end of the day, it turns out that the main reasons for accepting wind energy are environmental concerns as well as the fear of being obliged to use nuclear power. [French] Ce rapport presente par des graphiques et des tableaux le resultat d'un sondage d'opinion aupres de 421 menages en Suisse, sur la sensibilite du public aux problemes de l'energie et plus particulierement sur sa perception de tout ce qui concerne l'energie du vent et son exploitation par l'implantation d'eoliennes. Globalement, 80% des menages pensent que la demande d'energie electrique va poursuivre sa croissance. 66% d'entre eux sont favorables au developpement des energies renouvelables et prets a accepter en consequence une augmentation du prix de l'energie allant jusqu'a 10%. 89% des personnes interrogees sont favorables au developpement des eoliennes en Suisse. De plus, la statistique montre de maniere significative que les menages des regions dans lesquelles sont deja implantes des sites eoliens sont plus favorables au developpement des eoliennes que les autres. Finalement, le respect de l

  1. Awareness of households to the development of wind energy sites - Reporting on a survey; Receptivite des menages au developpement des sites eoliens. Rapport d'enquete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisard, M

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents in tables and diagrams the results of a survey involving 421 households in Switzerland, about their awareness to energy issues and, in particular, to all what regards wind energy and wind power plants. Globally, 80% of the persons asked for their opinion believe that electric power demand will continue to increase. 66% of them are in favour of increased use of renewable energy sources and would consequently agree with a 10% more expensive end-user energy price. 89% of the persons taking part to the survey approve the installation of wind energy farms in Switzerland. Moreover, statistics indicates that the households living in regions already equipped with wind farms are significantly more favorable to the creation of new wind energy sites than those not living in these regions. By the end of the day, it turns out that the main reasons for accepting wind energy are environmental concerns as well as the fear of being obliged to use nuclear power. [French] Ce rapport presente par des graphiques et des tableaux le resultat d'un sondage d'opinion aupres de 421 menages en Suisse, sur la sensibilite du public aux problemes de l'energie et plus particulierement sur sa perception de tout ce qui concerne l'energie du vent et son exploitation par l'implantation d'eoliennes. Globalement, 80% des menages pensent que la demande d'energie electrique va poursuivre sa croissance. 66% d'entre eux sont favorables au developpement des energies renouvelables et prets a accepter en consequence une augmentation du prix de l'energie allant jusqu'a 10%. 89% des personnes interrogees sont favorables au developpement des eoliennes en Suisse. De plus, la statistique montre de maniere significative que les menages des regions dans lesquelles sont deja implantes des sites eoliens sont plus favorables au developpement des eoliennes que les autres. Finalement, le respect de l'environnement et la crainte d'avoir a recourir a l'energie

  2. Le renouvellement des pratiques territoriales a travers la fonction alimentaire. Leçons a partir du cas « Saveurs du Coin » et du projet Confluent 1

    OpenAIRE

    Buclet , Nicolas; Debuisson , Marion

    2015-01-01

    National audience; Les politiques alimentaires représentent un enjeu politique fondamental pour les sociétés, dictant parfois des orientations d'aménagement urbain dans le but de garantir la sécurité alimentaire pour un territoire donné. Les politiques d'aménagement se sont longtemps détournées du système alimentaire, laissant la définition de sa stratégie et de son organisation aux acteurs privés. Ajouté à cette évolution des échelles de décision, un changement de périmètre d'action s'est op...

  3. A sustainable local energy policy. Into a renewable millennium; Politique energetique locale durable: vers un millenaire renouvelable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Renewable energy sources only contribute to a marginal extent to the energy balance of most European towns and cities. Many of them, however, have set ambitious targets for 2010 and have developed programmes to this end. During the seminar organised by Energie-Cites in Verona, around 200 people representing towns and cities from over 20 countries were able to present and exchange experience in all areas related to renewable energy: on practical projects and on their impact on local development, urban planning and employment. It is in towns and cities that energy consumption is the highest and that heat networks working on biomass and buildings equipped with thermal and photovoltaic solar collectors are to be found. Renewable energy has been increasingly gaining ground in urban areas over the last few years for the following reasons: cities are responsible for 80% of total energy consumption and therefore concentrate most of energy needs; the existence of heat networks in densely-populated areas is an incentive to use resources such as biomass or geothermal energy for producing heat or in CHP units; biogas from sewage plants or resulting from the biological treatment of waste is also an urban product; thermal solar systems can often be installed on roof tops to satisfy part of the needs in terms of hot water or space heating and the same applies to photovoltaic solar energy; even wind energy can be promoted, either directly or through green buying procedures. Sustainable urban development depends on the implementation of a sustainable local energy policy based on the involvement of local authorities in improving energy efficiency and developing the use of renewable energy sources in municipal energy supplies. Local development, employment, social integration, the quality of the air - all being major sources of concern for local decision-makers - are stimulated by the promotion of renewable energy sources. Cities are, on account of their size, capable of defining

  4. Aspects et mesure de la qualité de vie : évolution et renouvellement des tableaux de bord métropolitains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre J. Hamel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La mesure de la qualité de vie à l’intérieur des espaces urbains préoccupe les administrations publiques depuis nombre d’années. Cet article passe en revue les modèles de mesure de la qualité de vie développés par les métropoles canadiennes. Il s’interroge sur l’évolution de ces modèles de mesure et sur leur capacité à rendre compte des différentes problématiques désormais associées à la notion de qualité de vie comme le développement social, l’environnement, la société du risque, les ambiances urbaines ou la compétitivité urbaine.For a number of years now, government bodies at all levels have been concerned with measuring quality of life within urban areas. This paper reviews the models used by Canada’s metropolises to measure quality of life. It examines how the models have evolved and their capacity to consider various issues which have become associated with the notion of quality of life, such as social development, environment, risk society, urban surroundings, or urban competitiveness.

  5. Réflexions sur le renouvellement des réserves pétrolières Reflections on the Renewal of World Oil Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacour J. J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude se propose d'analyser différentes méthodes d'estimation du taux de découverte de pétrole, d'en souligner les avantages et insuffisances respectifs et d'examiner comment les découvertes des trois dernières décennies doivent être appréciées. Un développement particulier, basé sur les travaux d'Arrigton, a d'autre part été apporté quant aux problèmes posés par les réévaluations des réserves de champs déjà mis à jour. The present study proposes to analyse the different approaches used in assessing the rate of oil discovery, to highlight the respective advantages and shortcomings and to see how the discoveries made in the last three decades should be evaluated. A specific development, based on Arrigton's studies, has also been made concerning problems raised by the reassessment of the reserves in fields that have already been discovered.

  6. Renewable energies: an initiation guidebook to the energies of the future; Les energies renouvelables: un guide d'initiation sur les energies du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walisiewicz, M.

    2003-07-01

    This book reveals the economical, political and environmental dimensions of the present day energy situation and makes a status of the available technical solutions and of the future prospects. Content: energy addiction; reserves distribution; growth limits; technical problems; nuclear energy: a false promise?; the renewable resources; hydraulic energy; wind power; sun light for lighting; green generators; ground energy; alternative realities; glossary, index. (J.S.)

  7. Renouvellement ou crise de l’imaginaire capitaliste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfe, Harald

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution met en question l’imaginaire capitaliste : son noyau chez Castoriadis – maîtrise (pseudo- rationnelle, organisation bureaucratique – et ses métamorphoses contemporaines. On a parlé d’un "nouvel esprit du capitalisme" (Boltanski/Chiapello: organisation en réseau, des projets, autonomie relative du travail. Ces mutations de l’idéologie managériale et le développement correspondant de l’institution de l’organisation et du travail signifient-ils un véritable renouvellement de l’imaginaire capitaliste? Ou bien ces changements, avec leurs contradictions et leurs limites, sont-ils, au contraire, l’indice d’une crise profonde de la capacité d’innovation et de mobilisation des significations imaginaires sociales centrales du capitalisme?

  8. Renouvellement des modes de gouvernance : industries extractives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  9. Renewable energies: it is time to choose for the France; Energie renouvelables: la France a l'heure du choix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This colloquium takes stock on the renewable energies situation in France. What is the renewable energies place in the today french energy policy and in the developing countries? It presents also the renewable energies possibilities facing of the climatic change, their economical and environmental impact, the french people opinion and demand and the legal aspects of the renewable energies implementation. (A.L.B.)

  10. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Unité de Recherche des Matériaux et des Energies Renouvelables (U.R.M.E.R). Université Abou –Baker Belkaid B.p : 119 Tlemcen 13000 Algerie. 2. Unité de Développement de la Technologie Du Silicium. UDTS, BP 399, Alger, Algérie. Accepté le : 08/06/2011. صخلم. داوﻣﻟا نﻣ ﻲﺗﻟا ﺔﺻﺎﺧو ،ﺔﻋﺎﻧﺻ يأ رﯾوطﺗ ﻲﻓ ﺎﯾﺳﯾﺋر ﻼﻣﺎﻋ ةرﯾﺧﻷا تاوﻧﺳﻟا ...

  11. 2005: risks and opportunities for the renewable energies. Press document; 2005: risques et opportunites pour les energies renouvelables. Dossier de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    In this document the Syndicate of the Renewable Energies presents the economic situation of the renewable energies from foreign parts and from France. It takes stock also on the 2001 directive on the development of the electric power and shows how the renewable energies are wrongly said to generate taxes on the electric utilities. Each renewable energies sources are then detailed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Renewable energy in urban areas. The future has already begun; Energies renouvelables en milieu urbain. Le futur, c'est deja maintenant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, G.

    1999-10-01

    Renewable energy is still often presented as the energy of tomorrow or the day after tomorrow. It is true: 6% of the European energy total is still too little. But, 6% is not something to be sneezed at either. The White Paper fixed the ambitious objective of 12% in 2010 and initiatives are flourishing. These initiatives are far from coming exclusively from the countryside, where local resources (biomass, small-scale hydro power, etc.) or space (wind energy) are to be found. Urban areas, which have to meet higher energy requirements, often have district heating working on biomass and geothermal energy, biogas produced from sewage treatment plants and used as bus fuel, building roofs fitted for thermal and photovoltaic solar collectors or rivers running through the city. Encouraging examples will be find in this special issue dedicated to ''renewable''. (author)

  13. Offshore renewable energies, offshore wind power marine currents and waves; Energies renouvelables en mer eolien en mer courants marins et vagues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillard, M [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France); Peirano, E [Agence de Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie (ADEME), 06 - Valbonne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This colloquium aims to take stock on the development of ocean energies, mainly exploitation of offshore wind energy, but also exploitation of marine currents and waves for energy conversion by discussing their perspectives, their constraints, and their environmental and socio-economic impacts. It proposes also a review the recent methodological and technological advances. The different subjects introduced are: state of the art and prospects; resource assessments, forecasting and short-term prediction, site conditions; technical assessments, installation,decommissioning, certification; environmental impacts, social aspects and acceptability; policies, market perspectives and constraints; project developments and feedback. (A.L.B.)

  14. The 'renewable' stakes of the national debate on energies; Les enjeux ''renouvelables'' du debat national sur les energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Renewable energies do not produce any additional greenhouse gas emissions and do not leed to the production of dangerous wastes. The facilities used for their valorization are easily dismantled at the end of their life, and they offer many advantages in terms of employment, local economy, decentralization and national development. Their main drawbacks concern the required land surfaces and the intermittency of their availability. This paper analyzes the feasibility and the medium- and long-term perspectives of development of renewable energies in France and in Europe: costs and conditions (decentralized production, public acceptability, competitiveness, investments, operating costs, international cooperation). (J.S.)

  15. The commercialization of decentralized energy systems (DES) in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, J.Y.; Navarro, L.B.; Abito, G.; Lim, B.P.

    1992-01-01

    PNOC-ERDC is implementing the project ''Commercialization of Decentralized Energy Systems or DES'' with assistance from the European Community. The project hopes to promote the utilization of DES technologies by providing financial and technical assistance to enterpreneurs engaged in the manufacture and/or distribution of DES technologies. At present, the DES project has provided loans totalling P17.9 million to 6 entrepreneurs. Technologies supported include photovoltaics, biogas and agricultural waste-fired dryers. (auth.). 2 tabs

  16. CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Renewables in a changing climate - Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems; CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Energies renouvelables et climat - Enveloppes et systemes environnementaux innovatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J L [ed.

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings include the contributions presented at the 2005 CISBAT conference, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. Hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne and jointly organised by the Solar Energy and Buildings Physics Laboratory at the EPFL, Cambridge University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), this international conference looked at 'Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems'. Along with three keynote presentations on climate change, the use of renewables in the European Union and Swiss policies on solar energy, these 632-page conference proceedings include the conference's 106 presentations grouped in 10 sections. These cover the following topics: Design and renovation of building envelopes (33 contributions); solar collectors (16 contributions); active and passive cooling (9 contributions); indoor environment quality and health (10 contributions); optimisation of daylighting and electric lighting (5 contributions); advanced building control systems (2 contributions); environmental impacts of construction (4 contributions); networks and decentralised energy production (1 contribution); sustainable urban development (12 contributions) and software and new information technologies (14 contributions). Organised each second year, the two-day CISBAT international conference 2005 attracted more than 200 participants from all over the world.

  17. CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Renewables in a changing climate - Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems; CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Energies renouvelables et climat - Enveloppes et systemes environnementaux innovatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J. L. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings include the contributions presented at the 2005 CISBAT conference, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. Hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne and jointly organised by the Solar Energy and Buildings Physics Laboratory at the EPFL, Cambridge University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), this international conference looked at 'Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems'. Along with three keynote presentations on climate change, the use of renewables in the European Union and Swiss policies on solar energy, these 632-page conference proceedings include the conference's 106 presentations grouped in 10 sections. These cover the following topics: Design and renovation of building envelopes (33 contributions); solar collectors (16 contributions); active and passive cooling (9 contributions); indoor environment quality and health (10 contributions); optimisation of daylighting and electric lighting (5 contributions); advanced building control systems (2 contributions); environmental impacts of construction (4 contributions); networks and decentralised energy production (1 contribution); sustainable urban development (12 contributions) and software and new information technologies (14 contributions). Organised each second year, the two-day CISBAT international conference 2005 attracted more than 200 participants from all over the world.

  18. Traits morphologiques des graines et vigueur des jeunes plants de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    écologique du Sénégal afin de pouvoir sélectionner une meilleure semence qui sera destinée aux programmes de développement des énergies renouvelables. Morphological traits of seeds and seedling vigor of two sources of Jatropha curcas L. in ...

  19. Traits morphologiques des graines et vigueur des jeunes plants de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    écologique du Sénégal afin de pouvoir sélectionner une meilleure semence qui sera destinée aux programmes de développement des énergies renouvelables. Journal of Applied Biosciences 88:8249– 8255. ISSN 1997–5902 ...

  20. Contenu énergétique des alcools d'origine fossile ou biomasse Energy Content of Alcohols of Fossil Or Biomass Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En utilisant une méthode basée sur le contenu énergétique, défini comme étant la quantité d'énergie mise en oeuvre dans le processus de fabrication depuis la matière première jsuqu'au produit considéré, on compare les filières de production basées sur des matières premières soit d'origine fossile, soit d'origine biomasse. Ces filières peuvent être utilisées pour produire les divers alcools que sont le méthanol, l'éthanol et le butanol. II est montré, qu'en l'état actuel des technologies de fabrication, la comparaison énergétique est très en faveur de la filière matière première renouvelable qui fait apparaître un gain énergétique qui varie suivant les cas étudiés entre 0,1 et 1,5 tep par tonne de produit. Production routes based on raw materials from either fossil or biomass origin are compared using a method based on the energy content, which is defined as being the amount of energy implemented in the manufacturing process starting with the raw material and going to the product being considered. These routes can be used to produce different alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. Given the current state of manufacturing technologies, this article shows that an energy comparison is highly in favor of the renewable raw-material route which shows an energy gain that varies, according to the cases examined, between 0. 1 and 1. 5 tOE per ton of product.

  1. The taxes allocation devoted to the sustainable development (energy conservation, renewable energies); Le credit d'impot dedie au developpement durable (economies d'energie, energies renouvelables)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document aims to bring a better knowledge of the sustainable energy equipment which benefit of tax allocation. It presents the expenditure concerned by this law, the buildings where the expenditure are allowed, the expenditure amount and the administrative procedure to benefit of this decree. (A.L.B.)

  2. Estimation of the energy needs; Estimation des besoins energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailleret, [Electricite de France (EDF), Dir. General des Etudes de Recherches, 75 - Paris (France)

    1955-07-01

    The present report draws up the balance on the present and estimable energy consumption for the next twenty years. The present energy comes mainly of the consumption of coal, oil products and essentially hydraulic electric energy. the market development comes essentially of the development the industrial activity and of new applications tributary of the cost and the distribution of the electric energy. To this effect, the atomic energy offers good industrial perspectives in complement of the energy present resources in order to answer the new needs. (M.B.) [French] Le present rapport dresse le bilan sur la consommation energetique actuelle et previsionnelle pour les vingt prochaines annees. L'energie actuelle provient principalement consommation de charbon, de produits petroliers et d'energie electrique essentiellement hydraulique. l'evolution du marche provient essentielement du developpement l'activite industriel et de nouvelles applications tributaire du cout et de la distribution de l'energie electrique. A cet effet, l'energie atomique offre de bonne perspectives industrielles en complement des sources actuelles energetiques afin de repondre aux nouveaux besoins. (M.B.)

  3. Energy: the redistribution of cards; Energie: la redistribution des cartes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, E.

    2003-06-01

    This colloquium, organized by the French inter-army college of defense (CID) at the military school of Paris was devoted to energy geopolitics. The aim was to examine the influence of energy problems on the international relations and to bring out the constants and changes controlling this problem: new supply/demand equilibria, traditional energy sources and future resources, strategic petroleum stocks, the role of the USA and China. (J.S.)

  4. Syndicate of renewable energies - Highlights 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication first proposes a presentation of the SER (Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables, Syndicate of Renewable Energies), a professional body: missions, scope of action, members. It outlines its commitment in the French policy for energy transition as a major actor of the sector of renewable energies. It addresses the legal and regulatory framework as well as the economic framework and markets. It proposes brief presentations of transverse actions regarding power grids, overseas territories, the building sector and the international export. Some highlights related to ground-based wind power, renewable marine energies and offshore wind energy, solar photovoltaic energy, bio-energies (wood-fueled power plants for collective, tertiary and industrial sectors, biogas, biofuels and municipal wastes), domestic wood space heating, geothermal energy and hydroelectricity are mentioned. Actions in the field of communication are summarized, and projects for 2017 are briefly indicated

  5. Renewable energies dossier. The early beginnings of a change in the building trade. Outstanding evolutions presented at ISH 2001. A development still bounded by the economic sustain of the government. Something new under the sun. Looking for alternate solutions for air-conditioning. A photovoltaic project for developing countries. The solar absorption improves the Banyuls wine. A thermal solar collector for the production of sanitary hot water in Ile-de-France; Dossier energies renouvelables. Les premices d'un mouvement dans le batiment. Des evolutions marquantes presentees a ISH 2001. Un developpemnt encore lie au soutien economique de l'etat. Du nouveau sous le soleil. A la recherche de solutions alternatives pour la climatisation. Un projet photovoltaique pour les pays en voie de developpement. L'absorption solaire bonifie le banyuls. Un capteur solaire thermique pour l'ECS en Ile-de-France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappa, F.; Grumel, N.; Haentjens, H.

    2001-07-01

    The fight against greenhouse gas emissions implies to favor the development and use of renewable energies and to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. The professionals of the building trade are of course concerned by such actions but unfortunately only few space heating/cooling or air-conditioning installations use renewable energies. In France, only one solar absorption air-conditioning installation exists (at Banyuls, Pyrenees Orientales) and the Bordeaux airport is one of the only buildings supplied with a tri-generation unit. This dossier makes a prospective analysis of the existing techniques that would be used in tomorrow's air-conditioning. It comprises 8 articles dealing with: the early beginnings of the use of renewable energies in the building trade and the inventory of existing techniques: solar thermal, cogeneration, tri-generation (electricity, heat and coldness), fuel cells (electrochemical reaction); the outstanding products presented at Frankfurt during the 2001 edition of the ISH exhibition (absorption heat pumps, heat pump with zeolite and water as refrigerant, solar heaters, hybrid systems, condensation boilers, fuel cells..); the bad competitiveness of renewable energies and the necessary financial sustain of the government; the start-up of the 'sun plan' program by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) for the development of solar thermal energy in the residential sector; the 'know-how technical notes' edited by the scientific and technical committee of environment industries (Costic) for the development of low energy consumption air-conditioning processes (dry cooling, evaporation cooling, recovery of heat losses etc..); the project of development of photovoltaic cooling systems for developing countries (evaporative cooling or buried pipes); the unique French solar wine ageing cellar of Banyuls (3500 m{sup 2}, 15000 m{sup 3}, 3 levels); the thermal solar collector of the Quality Hotel of Rosny

  6. Energy storage. Possibilities of superconductors for high power discharges; Stockage d'energie. Possibilites des supraconducteurs en vue des decharges de grandes puissances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After briefly examining the various processes for energy storage and fast liberation, the author stresses the new possibilities of superconductors in this field. (author) [French] Apres un bref examen des differents procedes de stockage et de liberation rapide d'energie, l'auteur souligne les perspectives nouvelles qu'apportent les supraconducteurs dans ce domaine. (auteur)

  7. The inelastic scattering of medium energy {alpha} particles; Sur la diffusion inelastique des particules {alpha} a moyenne energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crut, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The aim of this work is to find out what are the properties of the so-called 'anomalous states' in medium weight nuclei. These states preferentially excited in the inelastic scattering of medium energy charged particles have an excitation energy at about 4 MeV for nuclei with Z {<=} 29 and in the range 2-3 MeV for high Z nuclei. From a combination of angular distribution data in the elastic and inelastic scattering of 30 MeV {alpha} particles, and correlation data between inelastic {alpha} particles and deexcitation {gamma} rays, we show that for even-even nuclei, we can attribute spin 3 and parity minus to these 'anomalous states'. This is quite in agreement with the interpretation of these levels suggested by Lane as due to collective octupole oscillations. We give a resume of the theories used in the analysis of the data and a description of the experimental set-up. (author) [French] Le but de cette etude est de determiner les proprietes des niveaux dits 'anormalement excites' lors de la diffusion inelastique des particules chargees de moyenne energie sur des noyaux de masse moyenne et lourde. L'energie de ces niveaux est de l'ordre de 4 MeV pour les noyaux avec Z {<=} 29 et de 2 a 3 MeV pour les noyaux de Z plus eleve. De l'examen des courbes de distribution angulaire des particules {alpha} de 30 MeV diffusees elastiquement et inelastiquement, et de la correlation angulaire entre {alpha} excitant ces niveaux 'anormaux' et {gamma} de desexcitation, on deduit que, dans le cas des pair-pair, on peut attribuer a ces niveaux spin 3 et parite moins. Ceci renforce l'hypothese emise par Lane qui attribue ces niveaux a des oscillations octupolaires de la surface du noyau. On donne un apercu des theories utilisees dans l'analyse des resultats et une description des dispositifs experimentaux. (auteur)

  8. Special document: which energies for tomorrow? Fossil, renewable, nuclear, hydrogen energies; the CEA of Saclay at the heart of the research; energy, greenhouse effect, climate; Dossier special: quelles energies pour demain? Energies fossiles, renouvelables, nucleaires, hydrogene; le Centre CEA de Saclay au coeur de la recherche; energie, effet de serre, climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-04-01

    The Cea devotes many research programs in the energy domain and especially in the development of new energetic solutions: hydrogen program, photovoltaic program, energy conservation domain and improvement of energy production systems. In this framework, this document presents synthetical information on the France situation in the world energy space and on the Cea Saclay researches. The energy policy and the electric power in France, the fossil energies, the nuclear energy, the renewable energies, the hydrogen and the fuel cell, the greenhouse effect and the climatology are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Photovoltaic industry in France in 2013. French version of the report written for the photovoltaic program of the International Energy Agency. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick

    2014-06-01

    This document is the French National Survey Report on photovoltaic energy for the year 2013. This report provides a comprehensive review of photovoltaic activities in France in 2013. It describes the current state of the PV market, including French authorities' support measures and economic aspects. It gives an account of PV industry with key manufacturers and operators as well as R and D programmes. The data contained in the report concern the year 2013. The main sources of information used for the report are the following: data produced by the French Observation and statistics office (SOeS, Service de l'observation et des statistiques), ADEME's reports and studies, reports and studies produced by the Syndicat des energies renouvelables (SER) and by ENERPLAN union, publications Systemes solaires, reports by Observatoire des energies renouvelables (Observer), Plein Soleil magazine, web sites (institutional, photovoltaic.info, L'echo du solaire, etc.), data from equipment suppliers, company publications and press releases, corporate strategy flyers and contacts with professionals in the sector

  10. Vers une plus grande autonomie énergétique des stations d’épuration ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEDUIT, Alain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Différentes solutions techniques peuvent être mises en œuvre pour optimiser l’efficacité énergétique des stations d’épuration et valoriser l’énergie renouvelable issue du traitement des eaux usées. Cette note fait un point sur leurs avantages et leurs limites et nous présente l’exemple de la station d’épuration de Seine Aval.

  11. Energy of solution of rare gases in metals; Energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In order to calculate the energy of solution of rare gases in metals, a method which has given good results in the case of solid solutions in metals has been applied. Nevertheless, it was necessary for this, to know the compressibility of gases under conditions which are not feasible in a laboratory. H. Jensen has studied this compressibility in a precise way for the rare gases Ar, Kr, Xe. It has thus been possible to calculate the energy of solution of these gases in different metals. These calculations have been carried out most thoroughly for the case of uranium. (author) [French] Nous avons applique au calcul de l'energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux, une methode qui a donne de bons resultats dans le cas des solutions solides metalliques. Il fallait pour cela connaitre la compressibilite des gaz rares dans des conditions impossibles a realiser en laboratoire. Cette compressibilite a ete etudiee par H. Jensen de facon precise pour les gaz rares A, Kr, Xe. Nous avons pu, de ce fait, calculer les energies de dissolution de ces gaz dans les differents metaux. Les calculs ont ete faits plus completement dans le cas de l'uranium. (auteur)

  12. Energy of solution of rare gases in metals; Energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In order to calculate the energy of solution of rare gases in metals, a method which has given good results in the case of solid solutions in metals has been applied. Nevertheless, it was necessary for this, to know the compressibility of gases under conditions which are not feasible in a laboratory. H. Jensen has studied this compressibility in a precise way for the rare gases Ar, Kr, Xe. It has thus been possible to calculate the energy of solution of these gases in different metals. These calculations have been carried out most thoroughly for the case of uranium. (author) [French] Nous avons applique au calcul de l'energie de dissolution des gaz rares dans les metaux, une methode qui a donne de bons resultats dans le cas des solutions solides metalliques. Il fallait pour cela connaitre la compressibilite des gaz rares dans des conditions impossibles a realiser en laboratoire. Cette compressibilite a ete etudiee par H. Jensen de facon precise pour les gaz rares A, Kr, Xe. Nous avons pu, de ce fait, calculer les energies de dissolution de ces gaz dans les differents metaux. Les calculs ont ete faits plus completement dans le cas de l'uranium. (auteur)

  13. OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: first-year operation and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Fang; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Childress, M.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carollo, D.; Castander, F. J.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Diehl, H. T.; Cunha, C. E.; Foley, R. J.; Frieman, J.; Glazebrook, K.; Gschwend, J.; Hinton, S.; Jouvel, S.; Kessler, R.; Kim, A. G.; King, A. L.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lewis, G. F.; Lin, H.; Martini, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Mould, J.; Nichol, R. C.; Norris, R. P.; O' Neill, C. R.; Ostrovski, F.; Papadopoulos, A.; Parkinson, D.; Reed, S.; Romer, A. K.; Rooney, P. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Scalzo, R.; Schmidt, B. P.; Scolnic, D.; Seymour, N.; Sharp, R.; Sobreira, F.; Sullivan, M.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wester, W.; Wilcox, H.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T.; Allam, S.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-L?vy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Covarrubias, R.; Crocce, M.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Walker, A. R.

    2015-07-29

    We present results for the first three years of OzDES, a six-year program to obtain redshifts for objects in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields using the 2dF fibre positioner and AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. OzDES is a multi-object spectroscopic survey targeting multiple types of targets at multiple epochs over a multi-year baseline, and is one of the first multi-object spectroscopic surveys to dynamically include transients into the target list soon after their discovery. At the end of three years, OzDES has spectroscopically confirmed almost 100 supernovae, and has measured redshifts for 17,000 objects, including the redshifts of 2,566 supernova hosts. We examine how our ability to measure redshifts for targets of various types depends on signal-to-noise, magnitude, and exposure time, finding that our redshift success rate increases significantly at a signal-to-noise of 2 to 3 per 1-A° ngstrom bin. We also find that the change in signal-to-noise with exposure time closely matches the Poisson limit for stacked exposures as long as 10 hours.We use these results to predict the redshift yield of the full OzDES survey, as well as the potential yields of future surveys on other facilities such as 4MOST, PFS, and MSE. This work marks the first OzDES data release, comprising 15,327 redshifts. OzDES is on target to obtain over 30,000 redshifts over the six-year duration of the survey, including a yield of approximately 5,700 supernova host-galaxy redshifts.

  14. Code des baux 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Vial-Pedroletti, Béatrice; Kendérian, Fabien; Chavance, Emmanuelle; Coutan-Lapalus, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Le code des baux 2018 vous offre un contenu extrêmement pratique, fiable et à jour au 1er août 2017. Cette 16e édition intègre notamment : le décret du 27 juillet 2017 relatif à l’évolution de certains loyers dans le cadre d’une nouvelle location ou d’un renouvellement de bail, pris en application de l’article 18 de la loi n° 89-462 du 6 juillet 1989 ; la loi du 27 janvier 2017 relative à l’égalité et à la citoyenneté ; la loi du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique ; la loi du 18 novembre 2016 de modernisation de la justice du xxie siècle

  15. Distribution effects of the renewable energies act; Verteilungswirkungen des EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardt, Hubertus; Niehues, Judith [Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Koeln, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    The Renewal Energies Act has so far been one of the cornerstones of the energy revolution. As a result of the Act the production of electricity from renewable sources has been considerably increased. As the most expensive forms of renewable energies have grown fastest, average costs have not shrunk but have risen significantly. The ongoing growth led to increasing subsidies for renewable energies and growing costs for electricity consumers in business and private households. It would be insufficient to look at absolute cost developments only, as distribution effects may be critical. As electricity consumption only slightly depends on household income, higher income leads to lower significance of electricity costs. Therefore, low income households bear a relatively higher burden of costs for renewable energies. Furthermore, wealthy households could benefit from the subsidies as they can invest in renewable energy systems.

  16. Amendment of the Energy Economy Act. Novellierung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The Federal Association of German Industry deliberates on the reform of the Energy Economy Act, arriving at the following intermediate result that is to be discussed by the member associations. The following might be essential points for the attitude of the industry regarding the reform of the energy economy act: deregulation, qualitative modernization, concentration on electric power and gas, differentiated regulations for power and gas, limitation of municipal influence (outside the scope of the energy economy act: reform of the municipal right of way), secure power and gas supply at internationally competitive prices. This is followed by considerations regarding the individual provisions of the energy economy act and their discussion. (orig./HSCH).

  17. Evolution of energy structures; Evolution des structures energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    Because of the big inertia and long time constants of energy systems, their long-time behaviour is mainly determined by their present day state and by the trends of their recent evolution. For this reason, it is of prime importance to foresee the evolution of the different energy production sources which may play an important role in the future. A status of the world energy consumption and production is made first using the energy statistics of the IEA. Then, using the trends observed since 1973, the consequences of a simple extrapolation of these trends is examined. Finally, the scenarios of forecasting of energy structures, like those supplied by the International institute for applied systems analysis (IIASA) are discussed. (J.S.)

  18. Increasing the energy performance of cement works; Des solutions pour ameliorer la performance energetique des cimenteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolliger, M.; Gallestey, E.; Crosiey, G.; Kiener, M.

    2009-07-01

    Cement works are consuming much thermal and electric energy and this affects the production cost. In the past years, much effort has been put on how to reduce this consumption and cost. Alternative fuels and raw materials have been introduced. As a result the optimization of the production process has become more sophisticated. This article describes a series of computerized tools developed by the company ABB Ltd., which were designed to improve quality assurance and productivity. They apply to the whole production process, including the rotary kiln, the pollutants' emissions in exhaust gases, the numerous ventilators and the crushers. Variable speed drives for ventilators and temperature control in the kiln are amongst the key factors. The optimizers also consider the different cement qualities to be produced in successive batches and the time-dependent electricity prices.

  19. Power Analysis of Energy Efficient DES Algorithm and Implementation on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thind, Vandana; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have done power analysis ofData Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm using Xilinx ISE software development kit. We have analyzed the amount of power utilized by selective components on board i.e., FPGA Artix-7, where DES algorithm is implemented. The components taken into consider......In this work, we have done power analysis ofData Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm using Xilinx ISE software development kit. We have analyzed the amount of power utilized by selective components on board i.e., FPGA Artix-7, where DES algorithm is implemented. The components taken...... into consideration areclock power, logic power, signals power, IOs power, leakage powerand supply power (dynamic and quiescent). We have used four different WLAN frequencies (2.4 GHz, 3.6 GHz, 4.9GHz, and 5.9 GHz) and four different IO standards like HSTL-I, HSTL-II, HSTL-II-18, HSTL-I-18 for power analysis. We have...... achieved13-47% saving in power at different frequencies and withdifferent energy efficient HSTL IO standard. We calculated the percentage change in the IO power with respect to the mean values of IO power at four different frequencies. We notified that there is minimum of -37.5% and maximum of +35...

  20. Study of the low energy gamma transitions of molybdenum 99; Etude des transitions gamma de basse energie du molybdene 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravier, J.

    1959-07-01

    The study of the decay scheme of Mo{sup 99} has been performed on the magnetic iron-less and double focalization spectrograph of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lyon. Methods of internal and external conversion have been used. The intensities of the Mo{sup 99} sources used were not strong enough to determine the characteristics of the internal conversion accurately but were sufficient to precise the decay scheme at low energy. We have determined the internal conversion ratio for the transition of 180 KeV, we have got: 0.13 ± 0.03 which is not in agreement with the value given by a previous experiment based on γ-γ coincidence. Our method seems to be more reliable. We confirm the E2 feature of this transition and its 5/2+ spin. We have determined another important parameter for the 180 KeV de-excitation: the percentage of transitions that do not pass by the isomeric level but by the 140 KeV level is (6 ± 2)%, the isomeric level being at 142 KeV. The gamma spectra at low energy has been studied through the photoelectric effect in a lead converter [French] L'etude du schema de desintegration du Mo{sup 99} deja faite par differents auteurs a ete reprise par des methodes de conversion interne et externe, an moyen du spectrographe magnetique sans fer et a double focalisation de l'Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon. Apres avoir cherche les possibilites d'obtention de sources de haute activite specifique par separation isotopique Szilard-Chalmers sur des molybdates alcalins, le spectre de conversion interne a basse energie a ete mesure. Ainsi se trouverent etre determines les coefficients partiaux de conversion interne. Le spectre γ a basse energie a ete etudier au moyen de l'effet photoelectrique sur un convertisseur de plomb. Les coefficients de conversion interne et les intensites relatives des differentes transitions ont ete calcules moyennant certaines hypotheses. La comparaison entre les valeurs donnees par la theorie et l'experience des differentes

  1. Syndicate of renewable energies - Highlights 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication first proposes a presentation of the SER (Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables, Syndicate of Renewable Energies), a professional body: missions, scope of action, members. It outlines its commitment in the French policy for energy transition as a major actor of the sector of renewable energies. It addresses the legal and regulatory framework by indicating evolutions introduced by the French law for energy transition and for a green growth for the different renewable energies (hydroelectricity, wind energy, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, biofuels and bio-energies, biogas), by the new regimes of authorisations for onshore wind energy, methanization and hydroelectricity, and by the law for growth, activity and equality of economic opportunities. It proposes brief presentations of transverse actions (agreements, meetings, partnership in exhibitions, commitment in the COP21), and of actions regarding power grids, overseas territories, or the building sector. Some highlights related bio-energy sectors, geothermal energy, onshore wind energy, renewable marine energies and offshore wind energy, solar photovoltaic energy, hydroelectricity, or solar thermodynamic energy are mentioned. These highlights may concern legal, organisational, political or financial frameworks. Actions in the field of communication are indicated, and projects for 2016 are briefly indicated

  2. La participation des personnes utilisatrices aux exercices de planification et d'organisation des services de santé mentale au Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Clément

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article documente la manière dont s'est renouvelé et s'est transformé au fil du temps le projet de faire participer les usagers aux exercices de planification et d'organisation des services de santé mentale au Québec (Canada. Pour ce faire, les auteurs reviennent sur l'ensemble des documents ministériels qui ont traité de cette question et dégage, pour les principaux moment-clés, les principales modalités de participation des usagers.

  3. DES13S2cmm: the first superluminous supernova from the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Sullivan, M.; Nichol, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Biswas, R.; Brown, P. J.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Finley, D. A.; Fischer, J. A.; Foley, R. J.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R. R.; Kessler, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Lidman, C.; March, M.; Nugent, P. E.; Sako, M.; Smith, R. C.; Spinka, H.; Wester, W.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F.; Allam, S. S.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Carnero, A.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Merritt, K. W.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roe, N. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rykoff, E.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, L. D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-20

    We present DES13S2cmm, the first spectroscopically-confirmed superluminous supernova (SLSN) from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We briefly discuss the data and search algorithm used to find this event in the first year of DES operations, and outline the spectroscopic data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope to confirm its redshift (z = 0.663 +/- 0.001 based on the host-galaxy emission lines) and likely spectral type (Type I). Using this redshift, we find M-U(peak) = -21.05(-0.09)(+0.10) for the peak, rest-frame U-band absolute magnitude, and find DES13S2cmm to be located in a faint, low-metallicity (subsolar), low stellar-mass host galaxy (log (M/M-circle dot) = 9.3 +/- 0.3), consistent with what is seen for other SLSNe-I. We compare the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm to 14 similarly well-observed SLSNe-I in the literature and find that it possesses one of the slowest declining tails (beyond +30 d rest-frame past peak), and is the faintest at peak. Moreover, we find the bolometric light curves of all SLSNe-I studied herein possess a dispersion of only 0.2-0.3 mag between +25 and +30 d after peak (rest frame) depending on redshift range studied; this could be important for 'standardizing' such supernovae, as is done with the more common Type Ia. We fit the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm with two competing models for SLSNe-I-the radioactive decay of Ni-56, and a magnetar - and find that while the magnetar is formally a better fit, neither model provides a compelling match to the data. Although we are unable to conclusively differentiate between these two physical models for this particular SLSN-I, further DES observations of more SLSNe-I should break this degeneracy, especially if the light curves of SLSNe-I can be observed beyond 100 d in the rest frame of the supernova.

  4. Building envelope design for renewal of air by natural ventilation in moderate climates. Proposition of a designing methodology; Conception des enveloppes de batiments pour le renouvellement d'air par ventilation naturelle en climats temperes. Proposition d'une methodologie de conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The subject of this research is to produce methods and methodological tools for the architects to support the integration of natural ventilation systems in the building envelope design. Our research is situated to the interface between the architectural practice and the physical research on natural ventilation. We are interested in phenomena that can influence or force the strategy of ventilation. A morphological analysis of naturally ventilated buildings concerning the integration modes of natural ventilation systems is done permitting US to propose a typology and a topology of ventilation systems. We define criteria in relation to the thermal comfort, to the quality of air and the economy of energy to assess air renewal techniques. In complement of the sizing tool, we elaborate a methodology of conception for the integration of passives ventilation systems. Design guidelines permit US to conclude on an effective natural ventilation system which is well adapted to collective habitat. (author)

  5. Revision of the law governing the energy industry; Neuregelung des Energierechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1993-11-03

    In its report on measures for safeguarding the competitiveness of the German industry, the Federal Government announced a number of reforms covering among others a revision of the regulatory framework governing the electricity and gas industry. Major goals in this context are deregulation and an enhancement of competition. The Federal Ministry of Economics prepared a draft plan for action addressing the need for an amendment of the Energy Management Act and the Act Against Restraints on Competition. Implementation of the measures given in the draft plan would create completely new conditions for the pipeline energy supply industry. (orig./HSCH) [Deutsch] Die Bundesregierung hat in ihrem Bericht zur Zukunftssicherung des Wirtschaftsstandorts Deutschland auch die Reform des Ordnungsrahmens fuer Strom und Gas angekuendigt. Ziel dieser Reform sollen Wettbewerb und Deregulierung sein. Das Bundeswirtschaftsministerium hat dazu auf Fachebene ein Konzept erarbeitet, das ein neues Energiewirtschaftsgesetz sowie eine Aenderung des Gesetzes gegen Wettbewerbsbeschraenkungen umfasst. Das Konzept wuerde die leitungsgebundene Versorgungswirtschaft auf eine voellig neue Grundlage stellen. (orig./HSCH)

  6. Reconversion écologique et socialisation des retraites : pour une politique industrielle du XXIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles L. Bourque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une analyse des scénarios possibles au Québec pour assurer la reconversion écologique du secteur des transports collectifs. La réflexion sur l'avenir des politiques industrielles doit en effet intégrer l'impact des changements climatiques et de la réduction de la disponibilité des énergies fossiles. Au Québec, le modèle de développement a toujours intégré la question de l'indépendance énergétique, et plus récemment des énergies renouvelables, à la réflexion sur le modèle de développement. L'apport de la recherche consiste à évaluer, dans une perspective globale pour l'ensemble du secteur et pour le Québec dans son ensemble, les enjeux de l'électrification du transport collectif, autant à l'intérieur des agglomérations que pour le transport entre les pôles régionaux. L'analyse des enjeux de l'électrification du transport collectif porte également sur les modes de financement possibles à l'intérieur du système de retraite au Québec, que ce soit dans le cadre actuel des politiques de placement des régimes de retraite ou encore à travers la création d'outils financiers particuliers comme cela a été fait dans d'autres pays.This article presents a coherent scenario to provide ecological transition of public transport in order to escape from the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. This transition is an important matter for industrial economics and public policy because sectoral level analysis is usually the most effective one. In Québec, the model of development has taken into account for a long time the issue of energetic independence through renewable energy and its impact on industries. This article offers a global evaluation of the costs and financing process for the transition towards electric public transport in large cities and between them. It also shows that it is possible to secure the funds through pension funds investment policy and the creation of green bonds that are

  7. Development of wind energy in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzili, M.

    2008-01-01

    Morocco's national energy policy includes the use of renewable energy sources to lessen its reliance on fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Legislation was recently passed to increase the threshold of electrical power from 10 MW to 50 MW. Solar and wind energy are the most abundant renewable energy resources in the country and are recommended for exploitation on a large scale. Feasibility studies conducted by the Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables have shown that Morocco has enough wind energy to produce electricity on a large scale and interconnect it with the national power grid. Wind energy in the country could also be used for on-site power generation in remote villages or for desalination of seawater, particularly in the southern regions of Morocco which are most affected by drought. Essaouira, Tangier, Tetouan, Tarfaya, Dakhla, Laayoune and Taza were among the regions identified with significant wind resources. The total wind energy potential for Morocco is estimated to be 2,650 GW, while the technical wind energy potential is estimated to be 1,600 GW. Several projects have been realized in the areas of electricity production, interconnection to the national power grid, decentralized rural electrification and eventually the introduction of water pumping. It was concluded that exporting green energy to Europe, via the Morocco-Spain route after the restructuring of Morocco's electricity sector will create a viable market for the medium and long-term. 3 figs

  8. Word of mouth, word of mouse : la campagne des Travaillistes à l'heure des « premières élections numériques » en Grande-Bretagne

    OpenAIRE

    Avril , Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Les élections de 2010 ont été décrites comme « les premières élections numériques en Grande-Bretagne ». L’évolution des nouvelles technologies et de leur usage par les partis politiques depuis les élections de 2005 est frappante. Il est donc très important de se demander quel a été le poids véritable des nouveaux médias dans la campagne et dans quelle mesure les nouvelles technologies ont pu susciter un renouvellement des pratiques de campagne. Le parti travailliste, c...

  9. Development of wind energy in Morocco; Developpement de l'energie eolienne au Maroc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzili, M. [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables de Maroc, Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-04-15

    Morocco's national energy policy includes the use of renewable energy sources to lessen its reliance on fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Legislation was recently passed to increase the threshold of electrical power from 10 MW to 50 MW. Solar and wind energy are the most abundant renewable energy resources in the country and are recommended for exploitation on a large scale. Feasibility studies conducted by the Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables have shown that Morocco has enough wind energy to produce electricity on a large scale and interconnect it with the national power grid. Wind energy in the country could also be used for on-site power generation in remote villages or for desalination of seawater, particularly in the southern regions of Morocco which are most affected by drought. Essaouira, Tangier, Tetouan, Tarfaya, Dakhla, Laayoune and Taza were among the regions identified with significant wind resources. The total wind energy potential for Morocco is estimated to be 2,650 GW, while the technical wind energy potential is estimated to be 1,600 GW. Several projects have been realized in the areas of electricity production, interconnection to the national power grid, decentralized rural electrification and eventually the introduction of water pumping. It was concluded that exporting green energy to Europe, via the Morocco-Spain route after the restructuring of Morocco's electricity sector will create a viable market for the medium and long-term. 3 figs.

  10. Sun - the energy of the 21. century. Strategies for cost reduction in solar cells; Sonne - Die Energie des 21. Jahrhunderts. Strategien zur Kostensenkung von Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The document comprises 2 sections with 20 contributions each. Subjects: 1. Solar energy, power for the 21st century,; 2. Strategies for cost reduction in solar cells. [German] Das Document behandelt in zwei Bloeken und mit 20 Betraegen die folgenden Themen: 1. Die ''Sonne'' als die Energie des 21. Jahrhunderts und 2. Strategien zur Kostensenkung von Solarzellen. (orig.)

  11. Radiosensitivity of chlorella after medium energy accelerated electron irradiation; Radiosensibilite des chlorelles aux electrons acceleres de moyenne energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, J C [commissariat a L' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The survival curves (capability of multiplication) of chlorella pyrenoidosa after irradiations can be used for soft electrons (0.65 and 1 MeV), hence penetrating into only 2 to 4 millimeters of water: the algae are laying on porous membranes and the doses are calculated from the power of the electron beam measured by the electric current on a metallic target or by Fricke's dosimetry. With these techniques, it is showed and discussed the part of anoxia in the radioprotection (magnitude or reduction of the dose calculated from the slope of survival curves: 2.5 ) that is more important than the restoration studied by the fractionation of the dose. The 0.65 and 1 MeV electrons have a biologic effect lesser than 180 keV X-rays (RBE - relative biological efficiency - calculated on the slope of survival curves is 0.92 in aerated irradiation, 0.56 in the deoxygenated irradiation). (author) [French] Les courbes de survie clonale (capacite de multiplication) de chlorella pyrenoidosa apres irradiation sont realisables meme avec des electrons peu energetiques (0.65 et 1 MeV), donc peu penetrants, par l'irradiation d'algues deposees sur membrane filtrante et grace au calcul de la dose a partir de l'energie du faisceau mesure par le courant que celui-ci cree dans une cible metallique ou par dosimetrie de Fricke. Par ces techniques, on a montre et discute le role de l'anoxie dans la radioprotection des chlorelles (facteur de reduction de la dose calcule sur la pente des courbes de survie de 2.5) qui est plus important que le pouvoir de restauration etudie par le fractionnement de la dose. Les electrons utilises ont un effet biologique moins grand que les rayons X de 180 keV (l'efficacite biologique relative - EBR - calculee sur la pente des courbes de survie est de 0.9 en presence d'air, 0.6 en presence d'azote)

  12. Energie des particules émises après explosion coulombienne de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ةﺪﯾﺪﺷ ﺔﯿﻧﺎﺛﻮﺘﻤﻓ تارﺰﯿﻟ . Résumé. L'étude des clusters métalliques de Sodium (Na), contenant 5.103 atomes par agrégat, soumis à des champs laser femtosecondes intenses a conduit à une forte énergie d'excitation qui peut être l'origine des électrons de fortes énergies, des ions énergétiques de hautes charges ou des ...

  13. The energy markets deregulation; L'ouverture des marches de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document is devoted to the opening of the energy markets and the associated production forms. The deregulation is going to change the technology with the need of a global answer to the the energy demands of the manufacturers and the local governments. In this context, the nuclear pole in the world facing the other forms of energy is discussed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Report on the french objectives of electricity consumption, produced from renewable energies sources and on the analysis of their realization; Rapport sur les objectifs francais de consommation d'electricite produite a partir de sources d'energie renouvelable et sur l'analyse de leur realisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the french objectives of electricity, from renewable energies sources, internal consumption for the next ten years, as the analysis of their realization taking into account the climatic factors likely to change the realization of these objectives. It also discusses the adequacy of the actions to the national engagement in matter of climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  15. The renewable energies and raw materials in France. Situation and perspectives of development within the framework of the fight against the climatic change; Les energies et matieres premieres renouvelable en France. Situation et perspectives de developpement dans le cadre de la lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ADEME proposes to evaluate the situation of the renewable energies utilization in France. The three types of utilizations are analyzed: heat, electric power and fuels. The renewable products in substitution to the petrochemistry are also considered. Two chapters are devoted to the perspectives development and the international context is discussed. (A.L.B.)

  16. Role of LPG as an energy substitute in Algeria; Role des G.P.L. comme energie de substitution en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukadoum, Abdelhamid; Houghlaouene, Samir

    2010-09-15

    Algeria is a leader country in LPG industry. The availability of resources and the upstream production development efforts have oriented the large energy choices in terms of domestic market need satisfaction. LPG (propane and butane) plays a massive role in the change towards clean energy (case of LPG versus gas) and towards more practical energy (i.e. the case of bulk propane versus the packed butane, or versus natural gas). [French] L'Algerie est un pays leader dans l'industrie des GPL. La disponibilite des ressources et les efforts de developpement de la production en amont ont oriente les grands choix energetiques en matiere de satisfaction des besoins du marche domestique. En effet, les GPL (propane et butane) jouent un role majeur dans la substitution vers les sources d'energie propres (cas du GPL/C par rapport aux essences) et vers des energies plus commodes (par exemple le cas du propane vrac par rapport au butane conditionne, voire par rapport au gaz naturel).

  17. Tables of energy consumptions in France; Tableaux des consommations d`energie en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This work presents in a detailed way important data about the evolution of energy in France during the last twenty years. for the totality of economic sectors, then for each of them ( industry, residential, transports and agriculture sector), this analysis brings to light the part that each form of energy takes to the supply of the French market, the importance of equipment parks and the energy economies that have been realized. (N.C.)

  18. The energy outlook in China-Minutes from the seminar organised by the Centre Geopolitique de l'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Meritet, S.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the seminars that are organised on a regular basis, the Centre de Geopolitique de l'Energie et des Matieres Premieres has devoted, on the 2. of June, a day to China, its energetics outlook and the resulting economic and geopolitical challenges. (authors)

  19. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  20. To live in 21. century: energy of depth; Vivre au 21. siecle: energie des profondeurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the potential resources of the geothermal energy in the world, its performance, advantages and cost. More particularly the authors detail the advantages of the geothermal heating for residential buildings. (A.L.B.)

  1. Bio-fuels: energies between decline and revival; Les biocombustibles: des energies entre declin et renouveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, A.

    1999-12-01

    The development of bio-fuels is highly dependent of the variations of the prices of major energies, of the agriculture prices and of the situation of the environmental concerns. Thus at the crossroad of various sectors of activity one can question the relevance of the use of bio-fuels, today marginalized. Their development is always taken into consideration during crisis periods (agriculture, energy and pollution). However, once the crisis is gone, it remains the question of the economical viability and sustainability of the infatuation for these non-conventional energies. This paper presents some modalities of valorization of bio-fuels in France and in foreign countries: 1 - the renewable energy sources in France and in the European Union; 2 - the development of bio-fuels at the service of foresters and agriculturists: present day situation and perspectives of wood fuel in France (individual and collective uses), perspectives of biomass energy after the common agricultural policy reform, the objectives of the European Union; 3 - the energy valorization of biomass at the service of environment: forestry exploitation (land planning, pollution abatement), management of public dumps and water processing plants (incineration of household wastes, biogas generation); 4 - the bio-fuels competitiveness. (J.S.)

  2. Integration of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions into the DES Tool with Lean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nujoom, Reda; Wang, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Products are often made by accomplishing a number of manufacturing processes on a sequential flow line which is also known as manufacturing systems. In a traditional way, design or evaluation of a manufacturing system involves a determination or an analysis of the system performance by adjusting system parameters relating to such as system capacity, material processing time, material-handling and transportation and shop-floor layout. Environment related parameters, however, are not considered or considered as separate issues. In the past decade, there has been a growing concern about the environmental protection and governments almost in all over the world enforced certain rules and regulation to promote energy saving and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in manufacturing industry. To date, development of a sustainable manufacturing system requires designers who need not merely to apply traditional methods of improving system efficiency and productivity but also examine the environmental issues in production of the developed manufacturing system. Most researchers, however, focused on operational systems, which do not incorporate the effect of environmental factors that may also affect the system performance. This paper presents a research work aiming to addresses these issues in design and evaluation of sustainable manufacturing systems incorporating parameters of energy consumption and CO2 emissions into a DES (discrete event simulation) tool.

  3. The consumption of electric power produced from renewable energy sources in France. Report about the national indicative goals at the 2010 vista; La consommation d'electricite produite a partir de sources d'energie renouvelable en France. Rapport sur les objectifs indicatifs nationaux a l'horizon 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The European directive 2001/77/CE relative to the promotion of the electric power produced from renewable energy sources and devoted to the domestic power market was enforced on September 27, 2001. It fixes indicative goals for each country and aims at increasing from 14% to 22% the share of electric power of renewable origin in the European power consumption. For France, the goal is to change from 15% in 1997 to 21% by 2010. The directive foresees that each member state makes a presentation of its annual objectives of power consumption of renewable origin and of the measures implemented or foreseen to reach these objectives in October 2002. The transcription of the directive must be achieved by October 2003. This report presents the French indicative goals elaborated in the framework of a power consumption and power production investment planing made at the 2010 vista. These goals are ambitious and require the rational exploitation of all French renewable resources. France must increase its hydroelectric power resources and develop new sources, in particular the wind power and biomass ones. The legal and regulatory measures that have been, or that will be, implemented, should allow to increase the power production of renewable origin with a sustained rate. In parallel, actions of power demand mastery are necessary to ensure a mastered evolution of the overall power demand. (J.S.)

  4. The France and the stars energy; La France et l'energie des etoiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balibar, S.; Pomeau, Y.; Treiner, J

    2004-10-15

    This paper discusses the project ITER International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. It shows that the nuclear fusion is not the solution to energy supply problems and the ITER project do not solve two main problems of the nuclear fusion, for an industrial application: the material behavior under high irradiation and the massive production of tritium. (A.L.B.)

  5. The energies all over the world; Le tour du monde des energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine, B.; Renaud, E

    2008-07-01

    From january to August 2007, the authors travel around the world to discover implemented solutions to think the energy in a different way. They presents many different realizations: the rural electrification in Morocco, fuel cells in Japan, giant dams controversy or plastic solar cells. They describes the technological, economical and environmental impacts of these solutions. (A.L.B.)

  6. La digestion anaérobie des boues de stations d'épuration urbaines :état des lieux - état de l'art

    OpenAIRE

    Reverdy, A.L; Baudez, J.C.; Dieudé-Fauvel, E.

    2011-01-01

    / Avec le protocole de Kyoto et le Grenelle de l'environnement, les politiques actuelles prônent le développement des énergies renouvelables. La digestion anaérobie des boues de stations d'épuration urbaines est un procédé permettant de répondre à cette exigence. L'étude présentée dans ce rapport offre dans un premier temps un descriptif du procédé de méthanisation. Dans une deuxième partie, un état des lieux de la digestion anaérobie des boues d'épuration urbaines est réalisé en France...

  7. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.; Nord, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Gaitsch, S.; Lin, H.; Allam, S.; Collett, T. E.; Furlanetto, C.; Gill, M. S. S.; More, A.; Nightingale, J.; Odden, C.; Pellico, A.; Tucker, D. L.; Costa, L. N. da; Neto, A. Fausti; Kuropatkin, N.; Soares-Santos, M.; Welch, B.; Zhang, Y.; Frieman, J. A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of our searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verication and Year 1 observations. The Science Verication data spans approximately 250 sq. deg. with median i

  8. Assessment of the potential of the Mainfranken region, northern Bavaria, for underground storage of geothermal energy; Erkundung des regionalen Potentials fuer die Untergrundspeicherung thermischer Energie in Mainfranken (UTEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, R; Heinrichs, G; Udluft, P [Lehr- und Forschungsbereich Hydrogeologie und Umwelt, Inst. fuer Geologie, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany); Ebert, H P; Fricke, J [Abt. Waermedaemmung/Waermetransport, Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V., Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The following paper presents a research project that is planned as a cooperation of the Geological Institute, University of Wuerzburg and the Bavarian Center of Applied Energy Research. In this project the potentials for underground thermal energy storage will be investigated in the region of Mainfranken, Northern Bavaria (Main = the river `Main`, Franken = Franconia). All aspects of underground storage will be studied with respect to the specific geographical and geological situation of the area. The study will provide a detailed map of possible storage sites, from which several case studies and at least one demonstration projects will result. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird ein Forschungsprojekt vorgestellt, das gemeinsam vom Institut fuer Geologie der Universitaet Wuerzburg und dem Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung in Bayern geplant wird. Ziel des Projekts ist die Erkundung des Potentials fuer die Untergrundspeicherung thermischer Energie in Mainfranken (Nordbayern). Alle Aspekte der Untergrundspeicherung werden regionalspezifisch betrachtet. Neben der Erstellung differenzierter Karten geeigneter Standorte sind Fallstudien und Demonstrationsprojekte in Planung. (orig.)

  9. Eawag Forum Chriesbach - Detailed energy balance - Final report; Energie-Detailbilanz des Eawag Forum Chriesbach - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettinger, H.; Lichtensteiger, T.; Mauz, M. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz, EAWAG, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Velsen, S. van [3-Plan Haustechnik AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Lehmann, B.; Frank, T.; Dorer, V.; Beerle, D. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    In June 2006 Eawag moved into its new headquarters, Forum Chriesbach. The building's external appearance is striking owing to the 1232 blue glass panels which clad the compact 6-storey rectangular structure. Eawag Forum Chriesbach houses 150 workplaces, a staff cafeteria, meeting and seminar rooms as well as the library of Eawag and Empa. It is an exemplary illustration of 'sustainable' construction design and is one of the best known buildings in Switzerland. It has been awarded several prizes and described in numerous national and international publications. The building is modern, functional, aesthetic, and uses a unique array of sources for heating, including the sun as well as waste heat from light sources, electric appliances and people. Cooling requirements are very low. Only electricity requirements and the embedded energy of construction materials are of significance. Approximately one third of the electricity required, namely 70 MWh/a, is produced by photovoltaic panels on the roof, and the rest is purchased as renewable electricity from the utilities under the label 'nature-made star'. During a two-year optimization period the building's control system was adjusted and know-how was transferred from planners and builders to owners and facility managers. From autumn 2007 Eawag, Empa and 3-Plan Haustechnik AG carried out temperature and energy measurements to determine the extent to which original planning assumptions and simulation forecasts corresponded to actual experience. Computer simulations with TRNSYS have revealed the relative contribution of individual building components to the overall energy balance and their sensitivity to external parameters. Temperatures during hot summer days have remained in comfortable ranges below 26 {sup o}C and have usually ranged between 20 and 23 {sup o}C in winter. Although heating and electricity requirements have exceeded predicted levels, at 5.7 kWh/m{sup 2} weighted energy reference

  10. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d

  11. Sylvie Craipeau, La société en jeu(x). Le laboratoire social des jeux en ligne

    OpenAIRE

    Barnabé, Fanny

    2011-01-01

    Dans La société en jeu(x). Le laboratoire social des jeux en ligne, Sylvie Craipeau, sociologue du travail, s’interroge sur la part que prennent les jeux en ligne massivement multijoueurs dans le renouvellement des modes de sociabilité, ou, plus largement, sur les rapports entre jeux et société. En prenant pour point de départ les similitudes frappantes qui existent entre le monde vidéoludique et le monde du travail, l’auteure cherche à démontrer que le jeu en ligne constitue une véritable si...

  12. Theory of low energy collisions; Theorie des collisions a basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparenberg, J.M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The basic notions of low-energy quantum scattering theory are introduced (cross sections, phase shifts, resonances,... ), in particular for positively-charged particles, in view of nuclear physics applications. An introduction to the reaction-matrix (or R-matrix) method is then proposed, as a tool to both solve the Schroedinger equation describing collisions and fit experimental data phenomenologically. Most results are established without proof but with a particular emphasis on their intuitive understanding and their possible analogs in classical mechanics. Several choices are made consequently: (i) the text starts with a detailed reminder of classical scattering theory, (ii) the concepts are first introduced in ideal theoretical cases before going to the more complicated formalism allowing the description of realistic experimental situations, (iii) a single example is used throughout nearly the whole text, (iv) all concepts are established for the elastic scattering of spinless particles, with only a brief mention of their multichannel generalization at the end of the text. (author)

  13. Exergetic balances and analysis in a Process Simulator: A way to enhance Process Energy Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Ghannadzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Dans un contexte de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) et de forte volatilité du prix des énergies, les investissements en efficacité énergétique des sites industriels résultent souvent d'un processus de décision complexe. L'industriel doit pouvoir disposer d'outils lui permettant d'élaborer les solutions d'efficacité énergétique envisageables sur son site. Outre la recherche des sources d'énergie alternatives, que sont les énergies renouvelables, qui n'atteindront leur mat...

  14. Use of superconductors for storage and discharge of electrical energy; L'utilisation des supraconducteurs pour le stockage et la decharge de l'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    After recalling the elementary properties which led to superconductors being used for generating very strong magnetic fields, as well as the methods used to attain the required very low temperatures in practice, the author presents in its elementary form the principle of storage and liberation of energy. A more detailed analysis of the successive charging, trapping, storage and discharge operations shows up the different aspects of the problem and is followed by a review of the very small amount of research published up to now and also by a presentation of the original work which has been carried out in this field. It is already possible to use superconducting materials as they are (i.e. although their characteristics have been adjusted with a view only to obtain very strong magnetic fields). Much more will be obtained from superconductors when they have been correctly adapted to this new very promising application to the storage and discharge of electrical energy. (authors) [French] Rappelant les proprietes elementaires qui avaient conduit a utiliser les supraconducteurs pour engendrer des champs mangetiques intenses, ainsi que les moyens utilises pour atteindre pratiquement les tres basses temperatures necessaires, l'auteur presente sous sa forme elementaire le principe du stockage et de la liberation de l'energie. Une analyse plus detaillee des operations successives de charge, piegeage, stockage et decharge de l'energie, faisant apparaitre differents aspects du probleme, permet de faire le point sur les rares travaux connus a ce jour et de presenter le travail original qui a ete effectue dans ce domaine. On peut deja exploiter les materiaux supraconducteurs tels qu'ils sont (c'est-a-dire malgre que leurs caracteristiques n'aient ete ajustees qu'en vue de realiser des champs magnetiques intenses). On obtiendra encore bien davantage des supraconducteurs lorsqu'ils auront ete correctement adaptes a cette nouvelle application pleine de promesses que representent le

  15. Modélisation informatique de la production d’énergie renouvelable à partir de biogaz par transformation anaérobique dumélange de résidus d’agrumes et defumier de bovins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Dario Cendales L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article nous avons simulé par ordinateur le processus de digestion anaérobique d’un mélange homogénéisé de fumier bétail et de résidus d’agrumes afin d’évaluer la viabilité des énergies renouvelables à partir de la transformation des déchets. Sur la base des résultats obtenus et grâce au développement de la phase expérimentale lors de laquelle étaient mesurées de façon périodiques les variables de contrôle du processus de biodégradation anaérobique tels que le pH, l’alcalinité, la demande chimique en oxygène (total et soluble, nous avons établi les performances des paramètres du processus et déterminé des valeurs pour la comparaison entre résultats expérimentaux et résultats informatiques. Nous avons en outre réalisé une simulation du processus de digestion anaérobique dans des conditions similaires à celles précédemment établis par d’autres essais expérimentaux à travers la mise en oeuvre du modèle ADM-1. Grâce aux résultats obtenus par le biais de simulations et mesures expérimentales, nous avons évalué la précision du modèle concernant les valeurs des mesures expérimentales. Un modèle simplifié pour l’évaluation de l’énergie produite par une installation à échelle réduite qui effectue le traitement anaérobique des résidus organiques a finalement été mis en place. Le modèle a montré qu’il existe au départ un déficit énergétique pour que le processus se réalise, mais une fois la production de biogaz enclenchée, le processus devient autonome et le système fournit une quantité croissante d’énergie disponible.

  16. Detection of high energy gamma radiations with liquid rare gases as scintillators; Detection des rayonnements Gamma de grande energie avec les gaz rares liquides comme scintillateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Phan Xuan

    1965-11-25

    This research thesis reports the study of a sensor based on a liquid scintillator for the detection of high energy (10 to 30 MeV) gamma radiations. The scintillator is a liquefied argon or xenon rare gas. The author first studies the process of energy transfer from the particle to the sensing medium. He addresses the different involved elements and phenomena: electromagnetic radiations (Compton Effect, photoelectric effect, pair production, and total gamma absorption), charged particles (braking radiation, collisions) and application to gamma spectrometry. He describes and discusses the scintillation mechanisms (scintillation of organic and inorganic materials), the general characteristics of scintillators (impurities, converters), and then reports the practical realisation of the sensor. Results are presented and discussed [French] Dans ce travail, nous nous proposons d'etudier une technique. Il s'agit d'un detecteur a scintillateur liquide pour la detection des rayonnements gamma energiques (10 a 30 MeV). Le scintillateur utilise est un gaz rare liquefie argon ou xenon. Nous examinerons d'abord les processus de transfert de l'energie de la particule au milieu detecteur puis les mecanismes de scintillation en general pour pouvoir exploiter au mieux les phenomenes favorables. Nous presenterons ensuite la realisation pratique du detecteur. Ses qualites (et defauts) trouveront leur place dans la fin de ce memoire. Bien qu'a l'heure actuelle, par la methode de Kyropoulos, on puisse faire pousser des gros cristaux d'iodure de sodium, l'utilisation des 'gaz rares' liquefies comme scintillateurs est, grace a la brievete de la scintillation, tres utile lorsqu'on recherche un fort taux de comptage (jusqu'a 10 impulsions par seconde) ou lorsqu'on veut resoudre certains problemes de coincidence. Les cristaux NaI(Tl) de grandes dimensions sont d'un montage facile mais leur manipulation requiert beaucoup de precautions du fait qu'ils supportent tres mal les chocs thermiques

  17. Influence des conditions d'engorgement du sol sur l'évolution de l'état hydrique de jeunes plants d'Epicéa (Picea abies L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Granier, André; Levy, G.

    1981-01-01

    De jeunes plants d’Epicéa ont été soumis à différents types d’engorgement : nappe en surface ou à différentes profondeurs, > (barbotage d’air ou renouvellement quotidien de l’eau) ou non. L’état hydrique des plants a été évalué au moyen de la pression de sève, soit en conditions de transpiration nulle (pression de base), soit lorsqu’il y a transpiration. Les principaux résultats sont les suivants : - la pression de base des plants (mesures nocturnes) diminue au cours des premiers jours ...

  18. Effets des rayonnements de haute energie sur le cristallin de la souris

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paola, M; Bianchi, M; Bianchi, M no 1; Baarli, J no 1; Di Paola, M no 1

    1973-01-01

    L'opacification du cristallin après irradiation par des neutrons et d'autres rayonnements ionisants a été largement étudiée, vu l'importance de telles recherches en radioprotection et la possibilité offerte par ce système d'analyser les effets produits par de petites doses de rayonnement. Les neutrons de haute énergie sont d'un intéret particulier pour la radioprotection près des accélérateurs et dans l'espace, mais jusqu'à présent les études ont été limitées aux neutrons d'énergie inférieur à 14 MeV. L'opacification du cristallin chez la souris, après irradiation par des neutrons de 400 MeV produits par le Synchro-Cyclotron du CERN, a été étudiée. Le valeurs d'E.B.R. ont été déterminées par comparaison avec des rayons X de 250 kV. Une breve discussion des résultats obtenus est inclue dans la présentation.

  19. Focus - Les établissements publics fonciers, des outils pour la biodiversité des zones humides : le cas de l’EPF Nord-Pas de Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEMOINE, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Les établissements publics fonciers (EPF ont pour mission recycler le foncier dégradé pour favoriser, dans le cadre du développement durable, le renouvellement urbain, notamment pour aider la construction de logements tout en luttant contre l’étalement urbain. Devenus propriétaires de nombreux terrains, dont des zones humides, ils sont également concernés par la protection et la valorisation de ces espaces naturels. À travers l'exemple des actions menées par l’EPF Nord-Pas de Calais pour préserver ces zones humides, ce focus s'intéresse au rôle que peuvent jouer les EPF dans la préservation des espaces agricoles et naturels.

  20. Energy consumption and management in metal heat treatment implementation; Consommation et gestion d`energie dans la mise en oeuvre des traitements thermiques des metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, C. [Vide et Traitements Services, 92 - Gennevilliers (France)

    1996-12-31

    Energy management in the metal heat treatment sector, where thermal efficiency is generally poor, is based on an adequate power supply contract with utilities, a thorough evaluation of energy consumption from the various equipment, and systems for the limitation of energy consumption: warning signals when the contracted power is to be reached, power cut-off systems or intelligent cut-off/restart systems and global load management. For gas appliances, heat recovery combustors may be a solution

  1. Proposal of law about the recovery and valorization of the gas coming from the anaerobic fermentation of organic wastes, renewable energy with a high potentiality; Proposition de Loi portant sur la recuperation et la valorisation du gaz issu de la fermentation anaerobie des dechets organiques, energie renouvelable a forte potentialite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    The goal of this proposal of law is the systematic and mandatory capture and valorization of the methane coming from the anaerobic fermentation of municipal and agricultural wastes, and more generally coming from any activity generating gases with at least 25% of methane. (J.S.)

  2. Energy Research 2006 - Overview; Recherche energetique/Energie-Forschung 2006. Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme/Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2006 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and fundamentals of energy economics. Under the topic of efficient energy use, new planning tools and a building component catalogue are mentioned along with new developments in building technology. In the traffic area, energy-optimisation of components and drive systems are mentioned as are electric bikes and a taxi system running on tracks. High-temperature superconductors, permanent magnet motors along with alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. New electricity grid systems and energy hubs are reported on. In the heat pump area, hot-water preparation, quality assurance and magnetic heat pumps are listed. Combustion topics reviewed include large diesel engines and catalytic oxidation in gas turbines. The new 'Power Station 2020' program is introduced with combined heat and power stations and efficient gas turbines. Fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage are looked at, as are process integration topics in the industrial area. Renewable energy topics described include design software and testing systems for solar heating systems, thin-film photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy and solar production of hydrogen. Biomass and wood-fuel topics are covered, including the gasification of biomass. Cost reduction in small-scale hydro schemes is reported on as are hydropower schemes using drinking water and waste water. Geothermal energy and deep-heat mining are reported on, as is the use of geothermal probes for heating and cooling. Research and field testing done in the wind-energy area and the social acceptance of such installations are presented. In the nuclear energy area, safety and waste disposal issues are covered, as are a future reactor generation, safety research and

  3. Energy Research 2006 - Overview; Recherche energetique/Energie-Forschung 2006. Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme/Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2006 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and fundamentals of energy economics. Under the topic of efficient energy use, new planning tools and a building component catalogue are mentioned along with new developments in building technology. In the traffic area, energy-optimisation of components and drive systems are mentioned as are electric bikes and a taxi system running on tracks. High-temperature superconductors, permanent magnet motors along with alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. New electricity grid systems and energy hubs are reported on. In the heat pump area, hot-water preparation, quality assurance and magnetic heat pumps are listed. Combustion topics reviewed include large diesel engines and catalytic oxidation in gas turbines. The new 'Power Station 2020' program is introduced with combined heat and power stations and efficient gas turbines. Fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage are looked at, as are process integration topics in the industrial area. Renewable energy topics described include design software and testing systems for solar heating systems, thin-film photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy and solar production of hydrogen. Biomass and wood-fuel topics are covered, including the gasification of biomass. Cost reduction in small-scale hydro schemes is reported on as are hydropower schemes using drinking water and waste water. Geothermal energy and deep-heat mining are reported on, as is the use of geothermal probes for heating and cooling. Research and field testing done in the wind-energy area and the social acceptance of such installations are presented. In the nuclear energy area, safety and waste disposal issues are covered, as are a future reactor generation, safety

  4. The state of renewable energies in Europe. Edition 2015 - 15. EurObserv'ER Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrutto, Vincent; ); Chabrillat, Remi; Seigneur, Vincent Jacques le; Decombe, Annabelle; David, Romain

    2016-01-01

    For sixteen years now, EurObserv'ER has been collecting data on European Union renewable energy sources to describe the state and thrust of the various sectors in its focus studies or barometers. The first part of this assessment is an updated and completed summary of the work published in 2015 in 'Systemes Solaires' ('Journal de l'Eolien' no. 16, 'Journal du Photovoltaique' no. 13 and 'Journal des Energies Renouvelables' no. 227, 228 and 229). This publication provides a complete overview of the twelve renewable sectors. Their performances are compared against the sta-ted goals set out by each country in its National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). Additionally, for the sixth year running, the EurObserv'ER consortium members have published their annual renewable energy share estimates of overall final energy consumption for each Member State of the European Union. These figures provide preliminary indication of how the various countries are faring along their renewable energy paths and whether their individual trends point to successful achievement of the targets set by European Directive 2009/28/EC

  5. Energy transition: future of the planet or expensive utopia? The truths of the Cour des Comptes report of 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giansily, Jean-Antoine

    2013-01-01

    While providing in appendix an article published by four politicians concerned by the evolution of the relationship between the French society and sciences and techniques, an article on the difficult situation of a Danish leader company of the wind energy sector (Vestas), and the general conclusions of a report by the French Cour des Comptes (Court of Audit) on the French policy of development of renewable energies, the author first highlight some elements published in this last report regarding energy consumption sources, CO 2 emissions, electricity prices for households and for industries in France and in other European countries, and French and European objectives of renewable energy production. The author more particularly discusses these last objectives which he considers as being unrealistic and expensive, notably because of a lack of economic growth which may last long. He therefore considers nuclear energy as a good solution as it does not emit any CO 2 , and is far less expensive than renewable energies which he calls random energies

  6. L’impact des biocarburants sur l’effet de serre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poitrat Etienne

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Selon les statistiques de l’Observatoire de l’Énergie [1], la France a consommé 267 Mtep (tonnes équivalent pétrole d’énergie primaire en 2001, ou 269 Mtep avec correction climatique. Cette consommation comprend 145,6 Mtep sous forme d’énergie fossile (tableau 1. Les émissions corrigées du seul CO2 correspondant à l’énergie primaire consommée ont été entre août 2001 et juillet 2002, de 109 Mt de carbone par an [2]. Les énergies renouvelables (EnR totales utilisées en France sont d’environ 28 Mtep/an, dont 16,1 tep sont produits par les grands barrages hydro-électriques. Les autres EnR sont les bioénergies (11,9 Mtep/an et les énergies restantes, sont la géothermie, le solaire, l’éolien et la petite hydraulique [3]. En Europe, la France occupe la 5e place avec 11,5 % d’énergie renouvelable consommée après la Suède (26,7 %, l’Autriche (23,3 %, la Finlande (20,9 % et le Portugal (16,9 % [4]. D’autre part, la réserve mondiale prouvée des énergies fossiles représente au rythme actuel de consommation, qui est de 77 % de l’énergie totale consommée (tableau 2, environ 45 ans pour le pétrole, 60 ans pour le gaz et 220 à 250 ans pour le charbon. Afin de réduire les émissions de carbone fossile issues de la combustion des 77 % des énergies fossiles utilisées, il est nécessaire de réduire les consommations d’énergie par des économies et l’amélioration des rendements, de développer les énergies renouvelables et les technologies de séquestration du carbone. En France, les transports dépendent à plus de 95 % des hydrocarbures, non renouvelables, dont l’utilisation a une part déterminante (24 % dans l’émission des gaz à effet de serre. Le transport routier représente 81 % de la consommation énergétique du secteur. L’effet de serre se manifeste par un réchauffement de la température de l’air (+ 0,5 °C/100 ans et des océans (+ 0,3 °C/30 ans, avec une augmentation de la

  7. Renouvellement du carbone profond des sols cultivés : une estimation par compilation de données isotopiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balesdent, J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnover of deep organic carbon in cultivated soils: an estimate from a review of isotope data. Description of the subject. This study is an estimate of medium-term renewal (decades of deep carbon in cultivated soils. Objectives. Sequestration of organic carbon in soils is a way to mitigate the global rise in CO2 and warming. Deep horizons (> 30 cm contain about half of the soil organic carbon but, in agriculture, deep organic carbon and nitrogen are often neglected when the balance of these elements is calculated. Our goal in this study was to propose a quantification of deep C turnover. Method. We collected data from 41 profiles, where C turnover was studied using the natural 13C labeling technique. The studied cropping systems were basically tropical and temperate C4 plant monocultures. Results. Deep carbon (30 – 100 cm turnover was on average four times slower than in topsoil (0 – 30 cm, but renewal was significant. The average depth-distribution of the carbon flux to organic matter build-up was 81% in the layer at the 0 – 30 cm level and 19% in the layer at 30 – 100 cm, with a standard error of ± 4%. Over the longer term (20 years, subsoil at 30 – 100 cm contained on average 23% of the recent soil carbon accumulated in the first meter. Conclusions. Deep organic matter should not be overlooked when considering the balance of C and N and we therefore propose a simple method for an initial first assessment. In the future, further estimates of the temporal evolution of the deep carbon stock and its factors of variation should be based on long-term agronomic experiments or modeling parameterized on heavily instrumented sites, and should be accompanied by detailed pedological descriptions.

  8. Report on the renewal of the hydro-electric concessions; Rapport sur le renouvellement des concessions hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    The administrative procedures of the renewable of the hydro-electric concessions in France is a real problem, leading to too long time of the case files examination. This mission aimed to identify the technical and financial criteria on which the decision maker will base his choice to give the concessions renewal. This report exposes the evaluation and the recommendations of the mission. The first part establishes an evaluation of the situation of the hydro-electric concessions and the today renewal procedures. The second part presents a analysis of this situation and the recommendations. The last part brings the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

  9. Essais de decontamination des huitres Crassostrea gigas en bassin par renouvellement et circulation de l''eau

    OpenAIRE

    Faury, Nicole; Masson, Daniel; Ratiskol, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    The germs decreasing of artificially contaminated oysters Crassostrea gigas has been studied in experimental tanks similar to a shellfish depuration plant, without any chemical or physical water treatment. The oyster were treated by three different water management pattern, compared to a control tank and the germs decreasing studied by MPN method of fecal Coliforms and Streptococus. As a result: 1) it appaears somewhat difficult to conclude in this first attempt about the most efficient treat...

  10. Determination of the cosmological parameters and the nature of dark energy; Extraction des parametres cosmologiques et des proprietes de l'energie noire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, S.

    2010-04-15

    The measured properties of the dark energy component being consistent with a Cosmological Constant, {Lambda}, this cosmological standard model is referred to as the {Lambda}-Cold-Dark-Matter ({Lambda}CDM) model. Despite its overall success, this model suffers from various problems. The existence of a Cosmological Constant raises fundamental questions. Attempts to describe it as the energy contribution from the vacuum as following from Quantum Field Theory failed quantitatively. In consequence, a large number of alternative models have been developed to describe the dark energy component: modified gravity, additional dimensions, Quintessence models. Also, astrophysical effects have been considered to mimic an accelerated expansion. The basics of the {Lambda}CDM model and the various attempts of explaining dark energy are outlined in this thesis. Another major problem of the model comes from the dependencies of the fit results on a number of a priori assumptions and parameterization effects. Today, combined analyses of the various cosmological probes are performed to extract the parameters of the model. Due to a wrong model assumption or a bad parameterization of the real physics, one might end up measuring with high precision something which is not there. We show, that indeed due to the high precision of modern cosmological measurements, purely kinematic approaches to distance measurements no longer yield valid fit results except for accidental special cases, and that a fit of the exact (integral) redshift-distance relation is necessary. The main results of this work concern the use of the CPL parameterization of dark energy when coping with the dynamics of tracker solutions of Quintessence models, and the risk of introducing biases on the parameters due to the possibly prohibited extrapolation to arbitrary high redshifts of the SN type Ia magnitude calibration relation, which is obtained in the low-redshift regime. Whereas the risks of applying CPL shows up to be

  11. Research for the energy transition. The organization of the energy systems; Forschung fuer die Energiewende. Die Gestaltung des Energiesystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    The volume on research for the energy transition includes contributions to the FVEE annual meeting 2016 concerning the following issues: status and perspectives of the energy transition, key technologies for the energy transition, political boundary conditions, development trends in photovoltaics, components for the energy supply (wind energy, hydrogen technologies, smart bioenergy concept, contribution of the geosphere), grids and storage systems for the energy transition, research network renewable energies.

  12. Study of identification of AIJ/RPTES sites and the prospects for vulgarization of the solar energy systems in the Boucle du Mouhoun; Etude d'identification de sites AIJ/ RPTES et des perspectives de diffusion des systemes d'energie solaire dans la Boucle du Mouhoun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zougouri, Aboubacar; Ouedraogo, Mariam; Sawadogo, Xavier

    2000-04-15

    The energy needs of the populations in Burkina Faso are enormous and it is difficult to satisfy. The main source of energy is the heating wood. The demand for wood of heating is increasingly strong involves the environment degradation. Thus the Regional Program in the Traditional energy sector (RPTES) takes place to fight against deforestation and to promote the use of other energy sources such as photovoltaic solar systems and petroleum. The aim of this study is to determine the needs of the households, of the groupings and associations and of the institutions in energy. It is a question of determining the adequate strategy to promote the photovoltaic solar systems in rural environment in order to meet the requirements in Community lighting, lighting and conservation of the drugs in the health centres and in leisure. [French] Les besoins energetiques des populations au Burkina Faso sont enormes et difficile a satisfaire. La principale source d'energie demeure le bois de chauffe. La demande en bois de chauffe est de plus en plus forte entraine la degradation de la nature. C'est ainsi que le Programme Regional dans le secteur des Energies Traditionnelles (RPTES) intervient pour lutter contre la deforestation et promouvoir l'utilisation d'autres sources d'energie telles les systemes solaires photovoltaiques et le petrole. Cette etude vise a determiner la demande des menages, des groupements et associations ainsi que celle des institutions en matiere d'energie. Il s'agit de determiner la strategie adequate pour promouvoir les systemes solaires photovoltaiques en milieu rural afin de repondre aux besoins en eclairage communautaire, en eclairage et conservation des medicaments dans les centres de sante et en loisirs.

  13. Some considerations of the energy spectrum of odd-odd deformed nuclei; Quelqes considerations sur le spectre d'energie des noyaux impair-impair deformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alceanu-G, Pinho de; Picard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The odd-odd deformed nuclei are described as a rotator plus two odd nucleons moving in orbitals {omega}{sub p} and {omega}{sub n} of the deformed potential. We investigate the energies and wave functions of the various states of the ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) configurations by calculating and numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix (with R.P.C. and residual interactions). The Gallagher-Mosskowski coupling rules ana the abnormal K equals 0 rotational bands are discussed. (authors) [French] Les noyaux impair-impairs deformes sont decrits comme un rotateur plus deux nucleons non apparies dans les orbites {omega}{sub p} et {omega}{sub n} du potentiel deforme. Nous etudions le spectre d'energie et les fonctions d'onde des configurations ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) en tenant compte de l'interaction particule-rotation et de la force residuelle entre les deux nucleons celibataires.

  14. Diagrams of the variations in the free energy of formation of metallic compounds (1960); Diagrammes de variations d'energie libre de formation des composes metalliques (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R; Loriers, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The variations in the standard free energy {delta}G produced during the formation of the principal simple metallic compounds have been calculated as a function of the temperature from recently published data, and are presented in convenient diagram form. Their usefulness in metallurgy is illustrated by some possible applications. (author) [French] Les variations d'energie libre standard {delta}G intervenant lors de la formation des principaux composes metalliques simples ont ete calculees, en fonction de la temperature, d'apres les donnees recentes de la litterature et rassemblees sous forme de diagrammes d'utilisation commode. Leur interet certain en metallurgie est concretise par quelques exemples d'applications possibles. (auteur)

  15. Approches pour la reduction de l'impact de defaut dans le transport d'energie du parc eolien offshore via VSC-HVDC =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benadja, Mounir

    Dans ce travail est presente un systeme de generation d'energie d'un parc eolien offshore et un systeme de transport utilisant les stations VSC-HVDC connectees au reseau principal AC onshore. Trois configurations ont ete etudiees, modelisees et validees par simulation. Dans chacune des configurations, des contributions ameliorant les cotes techniques et economiques sont decrites ci-dessous : La premiere contribution concerne un nouvel algorithme MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) utilise pour l'extraction de la puissance maximale disponible dans les eoliennes des parcs offshores. Cette technique d'extraction du MPPT ameliore le rendement energetique de la chaine de conversion des energies renouvelables notamment l'energie eolienne a petite et a grande echelles (parc eolien offshore) qui constitue un probleme pour les constructeurs qui se trouvent confrontes a developper des dispositifs MPPT simples, moins couteux, robustes, fiables et capable d'obtenir un rendement energetique maximal. La deuxieme contribution concerne la reduction de la taille, du cout et de l'impact des defauts electriques (AC et DC) dans le systeme construit pour transporter l'energie d'un parc eolien offshore (OWF) vers le reseau principal AC onshore via deux stations 3L-NPC VSCHVDC. La solution developpee utilise des observateurs non-lineaires bases sur le filtre de Kalman etendu (EKF). Ce filtre permet d'estimer la vitesse de rotation et la position du rotor de chacune des generatrices du parc eolien offshore et de la tension du bus DC de l'onduleur DC-AC offshore et des deux stations 3L-NPC-VSC-HVDC (offshore et onshore). De plus, ce developpement du filtre de Kalman etendu a permis de reduire l'impact des defauts AC et DC. Deux commandes ont ete utilisees, l'une (commande indirect dans le plan abc) avec EKF integre destinee pour controler le convertisseur DC-AC offshore et l'autre (commande d-q) avec EKF integre pour controler les convertisseurs des deux stations AC-DC et DC-AC tout en

  16. Decarbonization of the German energy system due to falling or rising power consumption?; Dekarbonisierung des deutschen Energiesystems durch sinkenden oder steigenden Stromverbrauch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guminski, Andrej; Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Since the publication of the draft ''Climate Protection Plan 2050'' and the ''Green Paper on Energy Efficiency'', it is clear that the Federal Government is focusing on the electrification of the heat and transport sector in order to increase the share of renewable energies in these sectors. This step is not uncontroversial, and represents a paradigm shift in science and politics, because the reduction of the cross electricity consumption move into the background. It is now necessary to clearly distinguish between the conventional power consumption, which must continue to be tested for energy savings and efficiency potential, and the new power consumption, here referred to as the coupling current, which is accepted in order to achieve the objectives of the energy transition. Since the consideration of the energy transition as a purely national project is too short, possible positive and negative effects of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) deserve particular attention with regard to this reorientation. [German] Spaetestens seit der Veroeffentlichung des Entwurfs zum ''Klimaschutzplan 2050'' und des ''Gruenbuch Energieeffizienz'' ist klar, dass die Bundesregierung auf die Elektrifizierung des Waerme- und Verkehrssektors setzt, um den Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien in diesen Sektoren zu steigern. Dieser Schritt ist nicht unumstritten und stellt einen Paradigmenwechsel in Wissenschaft und Politik dar, denn auf einmal rueckt die Senkung des Bruttostromverbrauchs in den Hintergrund. Es gilt jetzt, klar zu trennen zwischen dem herkoemmlichen Stromverbrauch, der weiterhin auf Energieeinspar- und -effizienzpotenziale hin untersucht werden muss, und dem neuen, hier Koppelstrom genannten Stromverbrauch, welcher in Kauf genommen wird, um die Ziele der Energiewende zu erreichen. Da die Betrachtung der Energiewende als rein nationales Projekt zu kurz greift, verdienen moegliche

  17. Energy research 2004 - Overview; Recherche energetique / Energie-Forschung 2004. Rapport de synthese des chefs de programme / Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2004. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energies, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, combustion, fuel cells and in the process engineering areas. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning solar heating and cooling, energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small-scale hydro, geothermal energy and wind energy are presented. Work being done on nuclear safety and disposal regulations as well as controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  18. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2008 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at.

  19. Development potential of wind energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Akova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L’énergie en Turquie est aujourd’hui fournie par l’énergie fossile. De plus, la Turquie est dépendante de l’extérieur en matière d’énergie pour son économie et les secteurs divers qui en ont besoin. En Turquie, parallèlement aux informations ci-dessus, 83% de l’électricité de l’an 2008 provient des sources d’énergie fossile. Les perspectives d'avenir prévoient que la demande d’énergie de la Turquie augmentera et l’effet naturel de cette croissance sera l’augmentation du taux de dépendance énergétique à l'égard des autres pays. Les travaux effectués démontrent que, parmi les sources d’énergies renouvelables de la Turquie, le pouvoir hydraulique et le potentiel d’énergie éolienne sont les plus importants et que chacune de ces deux sources ont des potentiels techniques pour la production de l’électricité. La multiplication des centrales éoliennes au cours de ces dernières années est à relier à des facteurs comme la préparation de l’Atlas d’Energie Eolienne Turc, la disposition des lois afin d’aider les entrepreneurs du secteur privé et l’augmentation des prix du pétrole. Les centrales éoliennes fonctionneront dans la région de Marmara, la région d’Egée et dans la partie de méditerranée orientale de la Turquie où se manifestent plus souvent les vents violents. Il est probable que quelques autres centrales seront construites dans d'autres régions que celles citées précédemment.Covering its energy requirement from fossil energy sources for the most part, Turkey relies on outside sources to procure energy required for its economy and different sectors. Similarly, Turkey had produced 83 pct of the overall electricity in 2008 out of fossil energy sources. Future projectors indicate that the energy requirement of our country would augment and foreign-dependency in energy would thus increase accordingly.  The on-going studies state that especially hydraulic power and wind

  20. Energy recovery from waste processing; La recuperation de l'energie issue du traitement des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, H.

    2000-07-15

    This report discusses the feasibility of energy production by waste reprocessing. After an analysis of the situation, the different steps of the methane and gas production, are detailed. Many scenari of energy efficiency are compared. The report proposes also solutions to enhance the treatment units of energy production. Propositions are discussed around five main axis: the energy improvement and the product improvement, the safety and the public health, the compensation by economical tools of the greenhouse effect impacts, the competition equilibrium between energy produced by the wastes and other energy forms and the decrease of the processing cost of wastes producing energy. (A.L.B.)

  1. Study, with the help of nuclear indicators (HTO, Urea {sup 14}C and {sup 24}Na), of the renewal of water, urea and sodium in different parts of the rat kidney in aqueous diuresis and of the gerbil kidney in osmotic diuresis or in oliguria; Etude, a l'aide d'indicateurs nucleaires (HTO, UREE {sup 14}C et {sup 24}Na), du renouvellement de l'eau, de l'uree et du sodium dans les differentes regions du rein de rat en diurese aqueuse et de merion en diurese osmotique ou en oligurie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechene, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    In the kidney of the gerbil in oliguria there exists a cortico-papillary gradient in the concentration of the sodium and of the urea; this gradient disappears in the gerbil kidney in osmotic diuresis or in the rat kidney in aqueous diuresis; in these three states of diuresis there is no significant difference in the potassium concentration between the surface and interior regions of the kidneys. Kinetic studies using tritiated water, urea {sup 14}C and {sup 24}Na show that water and urea in the interior regions of the kidney are only renewed very slowly (1 h) whereas the sodium is rapidly changed (1 mn). These results can be explained using WIRZ's theory concerning the mechanism of the counter-current concentration of urine. Furthermore, the evolution of the specific radioactivity of urea {sup 14}C is favorable for a cortical synthesis of urea. (author) [French] II existe dans le rein de Merions en oligurie un gradient cortico papillaire de la concentration du sodium et de l'uree; ce gradient est aboli dans le rein de Merions en diurese osmotique ou de rats en diurese aqueuse; dans ces 3 etats de diurese il n'y a pas de difference significative de la concentration du potassium entre les regions superficielles et profondes des reins. Des etudes cinetiques a l'aide d'eau tritiee, d'uree {sup 14}C et de {sup 24}Na montrent que l'eau et l'uree des regions profondes des reins ne sont renouveles que tres lentement (1 h), alors que le sodium est tres vite renouvele (1 mn). Ces resultats s'expliquent par la theorie de WIRZ sur le mecanisme de la concentration de l'urine par contre-courant. En outre, l'evolution renale de la radioactivite specifique de l'uree {sup 14}C est en faveur d'une synthese corticale de l'uree. (auteur)

  2. Evaluation of the PV energy production after 12-years of operating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchakour, Salim; Arab, Amar Hadj; Abdeladim, Kamel; Boulahchiche, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Razagui, Abdelhak

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a simple way to approximately evaluate the photovoltaic (PV) array performance degradation, the studied PV arrays are connected to the local electric grid at the Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER) in Algiers, Algeria, since June 2004. The used PV module model takes in consideration the module temperature and the effective solar radiance, the electrical characteristics provided by the manufacturer data sheet and the evaluation of the performance coefficient. For the dynamic behavior we use the Linear Reoriented Coordinates Method (LRCM) to estimate the maximum power point (MPP). The performance coefficient is evaluated on the one hand under STC conditions to estimate the dc energy according to the manufacturer data. On the other hand, under real conditions using both the monitored data and the LM optimization algorithm, allowing a good degree of accuracy of estimated dc energy. The application of the developed modeling procedure to the analysis of the monitored data is expected to improve understanding and assessment of the PV performance degradation of the PV arrays after 12 years of operation.

  3. Contribution to the phenomenological study of two-body reactions at high energy; Contribution a l'etude phenomenologique des reactions a deux corps a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A phenomenological model suited for the description of arbitrary two-body reactions at high energies is presented and applied to the analysis of {pi} - nucleon, K - nucleon, et K-bar - nucleon scattering.The idea is that the Regge-pole model does not take into account the whole content of the unitarity relation and has to be modified, as is currently done in one-particle exchange models, so that it may include absorptive corrections.In terms of a rather economical set of free parameters,we obtain a satisfactory agreement with all available data, including the recent evidence for a nonvanishing polarization in {pi}{sup -} p {pi}{sup 0} n reaction. We then reinterpret our parametrization of the amplitudes in terms of poles and branch points in the complex angular-momentum plane for the crossed channel. (author) [French] Un modele phenomenologique adapte a la description des reactions a deux corps a haute energie est presente et applique a l'analyse des diffusions {pi} - nucleon, K - nucleon, et K-bar - nucleon. L'idee essentielle est que le modele d'echange de poles de Regge ne tient pas compte du contenu total de la relation d'unitarite et doit etre modifie, comme cela a ete propose dans le cas de l'echange de particules, de facon a tenir compte de corrections de type absortif. Au moyen d'un ensemble relativement economique de parametres libres nous obtenons un accord satisfaisant avec tous les resultats disponibles, y compris l'existence recemment mise en evidence d'une polarisation non nulle dans la reaction {pi}{sup -} p {pi}{sup 0} n. Nous interpretons notre fa n d'ecrire les amplitudes au moyen de poles et de points de branchement dans le plan complexe du moment angulaire pour la voie croisee. (auteur)

  4. Modélisation du régime annuel des petites rivières en vue d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'exploitation de l'Energie Nouvelle et Renouvelable est une priorité pour la mise en oeuvre de la politique d'Electrification Rurale Décentralisée (ERD) de Madagascar. Le haut plateau et le versant est de l'île regorgent de potentialité pour l'installation de Micro et Pico Centrale hydroélectrique (MCH). Malheureusement le ...

  5. Vers une sociologie économique des singularités littéraires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Glinoer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Passé relativement inaperçu en sociologie de l’art et en sociologie de la littérature mais amplement discuté par des sociologues et des économistes, voici un livre qui pourrait grandement contribuer à un renouvellement de la pensée sociologique sur le littéraire, voire à un salutaire changement de perspective.  La sociologie de la littérature ― et tout particulièrement les travaux inspirés par la théorie du champ littéraire de Pierre Bourdieu ― s’est en effet largement consacrée à la question...

  6. Problèmes entomologiques en replantation des palmeraies et des cocoteraies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariau Dominique

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available C’est aux alentours de la vingt-cinquième année que l’on envisage de replanter une palmeraie. C’est en effet vers cet âge que commencent à se poser des problèmes de récolte en raison de la taille des palmiers. En un quart de siècle, l’amélioration génétique aura suffisamment fait de progrès pour escompter un gain de production de l’ordre de 20%. Enfin, dans certaines situations, plusieurs maladies ont pu affecter les vieilles palmeraies. Avec de 15 à 25% d’arbres manquants, principalement lorsque ceux-ci se présentent sous la forme de taches, une diminution de la production se fait nettement sentir. Cela peut, par exemple, être le cas avec les maladies de la fusariose en Afrique de l’Ouest, lorsque la palmeraie n’a pas été plantée avec du matériel végétal tolérant, ou du ganoderma en Malaisie. Le renouvellement des cocoteraies se fait avec un espace de temps beaucoup plus long. En effet, la récolte des noix peut se faire au sol et la hauteur des cocotiers n’est donc pas un facteur limitant. Par ailleurs, la majorité des cocoteraies étant sous la forme de petites plantations villageoises, les agriculteurs rechignent toujours à abattre leurs cocotiers, même si des semences potentiellement plus productives leurs sont proposées. Ce sont les raisons pour lesquelles les cocoteraies de 50 ans et plus représentent la règle. L’abattage d’une plantation de palmiers à huile ou de cocotiers constitue naturellement un changement brutal de l’environnement, ce qui a des conséquences importantes notamment sur l’entomofaune, parmi laquelle des ravageurs majeurs ainsi que leurs ennemis naturels.

  7. Factors and uncertainties in the profitability of using nuclear energy in desalination of water; Facteurs et incertitudes de la rentabilite du recours a l'energie nucleaire dans le dessalement des eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Lievre, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    One of the economic advantages of nuclear energy consists of the small proportional element in its cost structure. Economies of scale favour the nuclear station as compared with the conventional thermal one, and when the demand for electricity and heat, in particular for desalination, are sufficient, nuclear energy may, subject to certain conditions, prove advantageous. The object of this paper is to discuss the validity of the conclusions reached according to the hypotheses adopted. In the first part, the different kind of uncertainties connected with technical, economic and financial data (the various transmission coefficients, the life of equipment according to the choice of materials, changes in prices, the form of price functions and interest rates), and with the various constraints, are examined and discussed. In the second part the uncertainties connected with the method of optimisation used and the criterion of selection adopted are examined and discussed. It is shown thereby that it is usually extremely difficult to assume absolutely the competitiveness, or conversely the non-competitiveness, of using nuclear energy in the desalination of water, and that a large number of aspects have to be carefully examined. (author) [French] On sait que l'un des avantages economiques de l'energie nucleaire reside dans la faible part proportionnelle dans la structure de son cout. Les economies d'echelle favorisent le nucleaire par rapport au thermique classique, et lorsque les demandes d'electricite et de chaleur, notamment pour le dessalement, sont suffisantes on peut envisager favorablement, sous certaines hypotheses, le recours a l'energie nucleaire. L'objet de cette communication est de discuter la validite des conclusions auxquelles on parvient selon les hypotheses envisagees. Dans une premiere partie, on etudie et on discute les differentes sortes d'incertitudes, liees aux donnees techniques, economiques et financieres (les divers coefficients de transmission, les

  8. Heat management in motor cars VIII. Energy management; Waermemanagement des Kraftfahrzeugs VIII. Energiemanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Peter (ed.) [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Fahrzeugtechnik

    2012-11-01

    The heat management and energy management play a key role in the intelligent organization of the growing energy demand while simultaneously energy supply in the vehicle decreases. In the book under consideration, experts from industry and research report on new methods and current developments. The book guarantees an interesting insight into solutions of heat management. Improved and novel components as well as optimization strategies are presented. Finally, the book reports on calculation methods and calculation applications.

  9. Municipalities and opening up of energy markets; Les municipalites et l'ouverture des marches energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The opening of energy markets in Europe is modifying deeply the general framework of economic activity, modes of organisation and ways of thinking. The energy future in Europe is being determined under the influence of Community directives relating to electricity and to gas. It is also being moulded by national legislation, which is being progressively put into place in different countries of the European Union and in other European countries such as those of central Europe. These will affect the conditions under which policies for energy efficiency, for the development of renewable energy and for combating climate change are to be implemented. The liberalization of energy markets is a new and highly significant element in the European energy scene and municipalities are making a constructive contribution to this process. About 160 representatives of municipalities from 19 different European countries met at the Energie-Cites Seminar in Barcelona in order to become better informed, to exchange opinions and to debate the consequences at their level of the opening of energy markets. As a consequence they have asked themselves questions and exchanged ideas in relation with their respective situations regarding energy planning, production, distribution, and the role of population motivative. The seminar is organized around one round table about the threats and the opportunities of the opening up of energy markets, and three sessions about: what is going to change for the municipality as energy consumer, what is going to change for the municipality as energy producer, distributor and regulator-developer, and what is going to change for the municipality as motivative. (J.S.)

  10. The new protection level of the atomic energy law; Das neue Schutzniveau des Atomgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehm, Cornelia [Deutsche Umwelthilfe e.V. (DUH), Berlin (Germany). Klimaschutz und Energiewende

    2011-07-01

    The atomic energy law is determining the normative basis for best possible danger prevention and hazard control in accordance with the actual state-of-the art of science and technology. This is not only essential for the legal licensing procedures but also for atomic energy authorities. With the introduction of paragraph 7d into the German atomic energy law in the frame of revision 12 essential protection requirements and retrofitting measures will be withdrawn from the danger prevention in the sense of the atomic energy law and thus the third party protection.

  11. Law of times. Reflections on the energy problem. Das Gesetz des Geschehens. Gedanken zur Energiefrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knizia, K

    1986-01-01

    The implicit confidence in technology of former decades has long since given way to an equally doubtful hostility towards technology. Criticism is focusing on energy economy and the 'hard technologies' it advocates. The publication for the first time gives public access to a number of papers and essays discussing this criticism in a most detailed and competent way. Based on different aspects and theories maintained by natural science, philosophy, ethics and world economy the author concludes that it is not cuts but a consistent technological extension leading to long-term living conditions worthy of a human being and to the benefit of the major part of the population. The publication deals with the following subjects: pros and cons of a nuclear phaseout; technology as a prior condition of modern humanity, energy for our world; energy - order - humanity; responsibility and technology; engineers - mediators between energy technology and society, future energy supply and technological changes; innovation and the interaction between technology and science; energy supply and pollution abatement; nuclear technology and long-term energy supplies; from mechanics to energy technology - 200 years of German steam engineering; the implications of the second law of thermodynamics for human life; arguments in favour of a general energy system.

  12. Global energy outlooks. State of the art; Perspectives energetiques globales. Etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, J.L.; Nifenecker, H.; Stephan, C

    1999-07-01

    Since two year, the SFP (French Society of Physics) began a debate on the Energy of the 21 century, by the way of regional conferences. This debate allowed the publication of synthesis documents about elements discussed during these conference. This document presents the foreseeable evolution of the energy demand, taking into account the reserves; the selected production forms consequences in terms of nuisances; the part of the nuclear energy and the renewable energies. The costs are also discussed and many statistical data are provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Contribution to the study of low-energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei; Contribution a l'etude des reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    This work is carried out with a view to analysing low energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei measured at Grenoble or Algiers and suggesting a direct mechanism. The distorted wave approximation has been applied; this requires the development of programmes for the IBM 7044 computer at the 'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees' in Grenoble. The (d,p) reactions on {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne and {sup 16}O are dealt with. A calculation of the interference of the direct interaction and of resonating effects has been applied to {sup 16}O. (author) [French] Ce travail a pour but d'analyser les reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers, mesurees a Grenoble ou a Alger et qui suggerent un mecanisme direct. L'approximation des ondes distordues a ete appliquee, necessitant la mise au point de programmes sur l'ordinateur IBM 7044 de l'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees de Grenoble. Des reactions (d,p) sur {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne et {sup 16}O sont traitees. Un calcul de l'interference de l'interaction directe et des effets resonnants a ete applique a {sup 16}O. (auteur)

  14. Contribution to the study of low-energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei; Contribution a l'etude des reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    This work is carried out with a view to analysing low energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei measured at Grenoble or Algiers and suggesting a direct mechanism. The distorted wave approximation has been applied; this requires the development of programmes for the IBM 7044 computer at the 'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees' in Grenoble. The (d,p) reactions on {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne and {sup 16}O are dealt with. A calculation of the interference of the direct interaction and of resonating effects has been applied to {sup 16}O. (author) [French] Ce travail a pour but d'analyser les reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers, mesurees a Grenoble ou a Alger et qui suggerent un mecanisme direct. L'approximation des ondes distordues a ete appliquee, necessitant la mise au point de programmes sur l'ordinateur IBM 7044 de l'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees de Grenoble. Des reactions (d,p) sur {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne et {sup 16}O sont traitees. Un calcul de l'interference de l'interaction directe et des effets resonnants a ete applique a {sup 16}O. (auteur)

  15. Letter of professional groups. Energies and fuel cells; La lettre des Groupe Professionnels, energies et piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, M. [Supelec, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Serre Combe, P. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Sartorelli, G. [Maxwell Technologie, San Diego, CA (United States); Lafont, G. [PILLER France S.A., 92 - Nanterre (France); Green, A. [SAFT, 93170 Bagnolet (France); Perrin, M. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Fregere, J.P.

    2004-07-01

    These proceedings of the 'Arts et Metiers' professional groups treats of energy storage solutions for delocalized power generation units. Four types of energy storage systems are presented with their operation principle, advantages and drawbacks: fuel cells and hydrogen, super-capacitors, flywheels, conventional batteries (lithium-ion, lead, redox, nickel-cadmium, zinc-air), and comparison between the different energy storage solutions including compressed air. (J.S.)

  16. Journal of the two worlds. Energies of the future; Revue des deux mondes. Les energies du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Confusion and irrationality are the two master-words of today's debates about energies and their impact on safety, environment, ethic and society. On the other hand, reports about urgent decisions to be taken are piling up (wastes reprocessing, future of nuclear energy, European policy etc..). This book analyzes the possible scenarios and the energy challenges at the year 2030 and 2050 vistas. (J.S.)

  17. The use of tracers in the study of the ionic permeability of the nerve; Utilisation des indicateurs nucleaires dans l'etude de la permeabilite ionique du nerf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinnebault, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The use of the radioactive tracers {sup 24}Na and {sup 42}K, and the electrophysiological fine study carried out on the plant Cephalopods nervous cells have made it possible, during ten years, to study the relationships between the electrical phenomena observed during the propagation of the nervous impulse and the ionic movements which occur at the cell membrane between the intra- and extra-cellular media. In the state of rest, the nerve fibres present a certain permeability towards sodium and potassium, a permeability which allows the renewal, from the extra-cellular medium, of the cations contained in the cytoplasm. At the moment of the passage of the nervous impulse, it is possible to demonstrate a temporary increase in the permeability towards the sodium which causes the entry of Na{sup +} ions into the nerve fibre, whilst, a few milliseconds later, the increase in the potassium permeability causes the departure of an equivalent quantity of K{sup +} ions. A recovery phase follows the passage of the nervous impulse, during which the original ionic conditions are re-established. If the potassium movements can be considered as passive, the expulsion of Na{sup +} requires, on the part of the cell, the use of a part of the metabolic energy. (author) [French] L'utilisation des indicateurs radioactifs {sup 24}Na et {sup 42}K, et l'etude electrophysiologique fine realisee sur des cellules nerveuses geantes de Cephalopodes a permis, depuis une dizaine d'annees, d'etudier les rapports entre les phenomenes electriques observes lors de la propagation de l'influx nerveux et les mouvements ioniques qui s'effectuent au niveau de la membrane cellulaire entre milieux intracellulaire et extracellulaire. A l'etat de repos, les fibres nerveuses possedent pour le sodium et le potassium, une permeabilite qui permet le renouvellement, a partir du milieu extracellulaire des cations contenus dans le cytoplasme. Au moment du passage de l'influx nerveux, on peut mettre en evidence une

  18. Evaluating the implementation of the energy consumption labelling ordinance. Executive summary; Evaluierung zur Umsetzung der Energieverbrauchskennzeichnungsverordnung (EnVKV). Kurzfassung des Abschlussberichts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Kling, N.; Mannsbart, W.; Stoeckle, F.

    2001-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine the present degree of compliance with the Energy Consumption Labelling Ordinance for large household appliances in Germany in an empirical inventory. Concrete proposals to improve the degree of compliance with Directive among manufacturers and retailers were to be elaborated based on this inventory and the analysis of possible deficiencies in implementation and and their causes. A further objective of the study was to examine whether there was an increase in the share of appliance sales in the highest efficiency classes, so as to be able to judge the success of the measures provided in the Directive in accordance with the underlying energy and environmental objective of further reducing energy consumption in households. Furthermore, experience of other European countries in implementing the EU Directive was to be considered. (orig./CB) [German] Die wesentliche Zielsetzung der Untersuchung war es, den bisherigen Befolgungsgrad der Energieverbrauchskennzeichnungsverordnung fuer Haushaltsgrossgeraete in Deutschland mittels einer empirischen Bestandsaufnahme zu pruefen. Ausgehend von dieser Bestandsaufnahme und der Analyse moeglicher Umsetzungsdefizite und ihrer Ursachen sollten konkrete Vorschlaege zur Verbesserung des Befolgungsgrades der Verordnung bei Herstellern und im Handel erarbeitet werden. Als weitere Zielsetzung war auch der Aspekt einer Erhoehung des Anteils der verkauften Geraete in den sparsamsten Effizienzklassen zu beruecksichtigen bei der Beurteilung des Erfolgs der Massnahmen im Sinne der energie- und umweltpolitischen Zielsetzung, den Energieverbrauch in Haushalten weiter zu vermindern. Die Erfahrungen anderer europaeischer Laender bei der Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie sollten dabei beruecksichtigt werden. (orig./CB)

  19. 2014. Start-up year for a new energy policy; 2014. Das Jahr des energiepolitischen Neubeginns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Daniel [Welt-Gruppe, Berlin (Germany). Ressort Wirtschaft

    2014-12-15

    In 2014 at last the political leadership succeeded in backing away from the subsidy regime imposed by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). In its amendment to the EEG subsidy law the German federal government has initiated the transition to a tendering and auctioning system which is to help keep the costs of the energy transition under control. The new law also requires investors to observe specific lower and upper limits on the rate of expansion. In the meantime the European and German energy supply faces new uncertainty from the escalating Ukraine crisis.

  20. Promoting exports in the energy technology area; Foerderung des Exports im Bereich der Energietechnologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R.; Oettli, B. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W. [Fraunhofer Institut Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion.

  1. Multidetector system for the identification of and measurement of the energies of heavy ions at intermediate energies; Systeme multidetecteur pour l`identification et la mesure des energies des ions lourds aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samri, M; Beaulieu, L; Djerroud, B [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Physique; and others

    1994-12-31

    A scintillation multidetector system composed (at the present time) of 80 detectors is described and its performance reported. It contains both phoswich and CsI detectors. A number of recent publications have shown that CsI or phoswich detectors do not have an adequately quantitative response to heavy ions in the intermediate energy range, but this difficulty can be avoided by calibrating the detectors for energy. In the present case, the use of the technique of secondary detector clusters is shown to be effective. Detection over a wide solid angle is possible. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry; Sur la mesure et l'analyse des rayonnements de haute energie par detecteurs a activation. Application a la dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklavenitis, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction {sup 11}B (p,n) {sup 11}C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction {sup 34}S (p,2pn) {sup 32}P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [French] Le travail porte sur la possibilite de mesure et d'analyse, a l'aide de detecteurs a activation, des fluences de rayonnements a l'interieur d'un objet de petit volume soumis a un faisceau de protons de tres haute energie. La premiere partie, consacree a la mise au point de la methode d'analyse des fluences, comporte une etude detaillee de la nature des rayonnements et de leurs spectres energetiques ainsi que des differentes methodes de dosimetrie. Pour arriver au choix d'un groupe de

  3. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry; Sur la mesure et l'analyse des rayonnements de haute energie par detecteurs a activation. Application a la dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklavenitis, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction {sup 11}B (p,n) {sup 11}C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction {sup 34}S (p,2pn) {sup 32}P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [French] Le travail porte sur la possibilite de mesure et d'analyse, a l'aide de detecteurs a activation, des fluences de rayonnements a l'interieur d'un objet de petit volume soumis a un faisceau de protons de tres haute energie. La premiere partie, consacree a la mise au point de la methode d'analyse des fluences, comporte une etude detaillee de la nature des rayonnements et de leurs spectres energetiques ainsi que des differentes methodes de dosimetrie. Pour arriver au choix d'un groupe de detecteurs, une etude systematique des

  4. Energy dependence of isotopic spectra from spallation residues; Dependance en energie des spectres isotopiques de residus de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audouin, L

    2003-09-01

    Spallation reactions are collisions between heavy nuclei and light particle with an energy of a few hundreds MeV. The y are considered as a suitable way to create high- flux neutrons sources, which may used for example for the transmutation of nuclear wastes (hybrid reactors). The study of the residues from such reactions is both a way to understand the physics of the spallation and to provide information required for the design of industrial targets. The residues from the spallation of lead by proton at 500 MeV have been measured using the inverse kinematics technique in the FRS (fragments recoil separator). spectrometer from GSI (Barmstadt). This low energy required the use of new technique, for the experimental setup as well as during the analysis. The fragments were identified in-flight, prior to {beta} decay. Complete isotopic distributions are obtained with an accuracy ranging between 10 and 30%. Detailed information on the reaction kinematics are also obtained. Data are in excellent agreement with radio-chemical measurements, and bring new insights about the spallation process. The comparison with data measured on the same system with an incident energy of 1 GeV allows to discuss the influence of the projectile energy on the residues formation. It is concluded that the independence of the shape of the isobaric production cross sections regarding mass and energy of the projectile is preserved at low incident energies. The behaviour of Monte-Carlo codes is discussed with respect to those sets of data. The calculations show an improving agreement with decreasing energy, indicating that high-energy phenomena, for which some common assumptions become questionable, are the main reason for the observed discrepancies. (author)

  5. Study of elementary mechanisms of creep in uranium as a function of temperature (150 deg. to 760 deg. C) by activation energy measurements; Etude des mecanismes elementaires de deformation par fluage de l'uranium en fonction de la temperature (de 150 deg. a 760 deg. C) par la mesure des energies d'activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Creep tests were carried out on single crystals and polycrystalline specimens of uranium in both the {alpha} and {beta} phases over the temperature range 150 - 760 deg. C. The determination of the activation energy for creep and the study of its variation with temperature made it possible to distinguish various temperature ranges in which one or more elementary mechanisms govern deformation. Micrographic observations after creep and the study of the variation of creep-rate with load support the conclusions. The creep behavior of single crystals is identical with that of polycrystalline material below 325 deg. C. From 325 deg. C to one upper limiting temperature whose value depends on the purity and previous history of the metal, the creep deformation of uranium is controlled by cross-slip. From this limiting temperature up to 520 deg. C, the creep of uranium involves two independent mechanisms operating simultaneously, the movement of screw dislocation by cross-slip and the climbing of edge dislocations out of their slip plane. Between 520 deg. C and the {alpha} - {beta} transformation temperature creep in polycrystals is governed by the climb of edge dislocations out of their slip planes, by a pile up mechanism in the case of primary creep and by dipole annihilation in the case of secondary creep. In single crystals creep is dependent on the climb of edge dislocations into pre-existent sub-boundaries and their subsequent rearrangement within these boundaries. In the {beta} phase the creep of polycrystals is governed by the diffusional climb of edge dislocations. Between 450 and 630 deg. C small alloy additions of molybdenum modify the creep characteristics of uranium although the deformation mechanisms involved are analogous to those in the pure metal. (author) [French] Des essais de fluage a diverses temperatures comprises entre 150 et 760 deg. C ont ete effectues sur des polycristaux et des monocristaux d'uranium, en phase {alpha} et en phase {beta}. La

  6. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security; Recueil des interventions. Securite d'approvisionnement energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch

    2000-07-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  7. Measurements of the charge exchange and dissociation cross-sections of the H{sub 2}+ ion in a wide energy range; Mesures des sections efficaces d'echange de charge et de dissociation des ions H{sub 2}{sup +} dans une large gamme d'energie (25 - 250 keV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidini, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The dissociation, ionisation, and charge exchange cross-sections of molecular hydrogen ions H{sub 2}{sup +} passing through various gases, have been measured as a function of the energy of the ions. The energy range studied was from 25 to 250 keV. The reaction products, analysed by a magnetic field according to their e/m ratio, are collected on scintillation detectors. Two methods have made it possible to separate the various reactions leading to the formation of particles having the same e/m ratio. The first separates the particles according to their energy, the other selects those arriving simultaneously on two different detectors. The results show a large variation in the charge exchange cross-section with the energy of the H{sub 2}{sup +} ions. The variations in the dissociation and ionisation cross-sections are less pronounced. For a given energy, the values of the cross-sections increase with the atomic weight of the target particles. These measurements have been extended to the case of H{sub 2}{sup +} ions passing through a target of charged particles. Preliminary results show an increase in the cross-sections as compared to the preceding case. Finally the scattering of the reaction products has been studied; this scattering is due to the fact that the molecules formed during a reaction are in an unstable state and the nuclei or atoms diverge from each other. (author) [French] Les sections efficaces de dissociation, d'ionisation et d'echange de charge d'ions hydrogene moleculaires H{sub 2}{sup +} traversant differents gaz, ont ete mesurees en fonction de l'energie des ions. La gamme d'energie exploree est comprise entre 25 et 250 keV. Les produits de reactions, analyses suivant leur rapport e/m par un champ magnetique, sont recus sur des detecteurs a scintillations. Deux methodes ont permis de separer les diverses reactions conduisant a la formation de particules ayant meme rapport e/m. L'une classe les particules secondaires en energie, l'autre selectionne

  8. Some considerations of the energy spectrum of odd-odd deformed nuclei; Quelqes considerations sur le spectre d'energie des noyaux impair-impair deformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alceanu-G, Pinho de; Picard, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The odd-odd deformed nuclei are described as a rotator plus two odd nucleons moving in orbitals {omega}{sub p} and {omega}{sub n} of the deformed potential. We investigate the energies and wave functions of the various states of the ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) configurations by calculating and numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix (with R.P.C. and residual interactions). The Gallagher-Mosskowski coupling rules ana the abnormal K equals 0 rotational bands are discussed. (authors) [French] Les noyaux impair-impairs deformes sont decrits comme un rotateur plus deux nucleons non apparies dans les orbites {omega}{sub p} et {omega}{sub n} du potentiel deforme. Nous etudions le spectre d'energie et les fonctions d'onde des configurations ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) en tenant compte de l'interaction particule-rotation et de la force residuelle entre les deux nucleons celibataires.

  9. The diffusion coefficient as a function of energy for usual moderators; Le coefficient de diffusion en fonction de l'energie des thermaliseurs usuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadilhac, M; Livolant, M; Pillard, D; Soule, J -L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    After a review of the definition of the energy function to be taken for the diffusion coefficient used in calculations of reactor cells, in the elementary theory of diffusion, various possible approximations of this function are given. These approximations are shown to be accurate enough for practical uses. Methods for the direct calculations of these approximations for the currently used 'normal' models (methods avoiding the calculation of differential cross sections) are described; these methods are applied to several usual moderators at various temperatures according to different models. (authors) [French] On rappelle la definition de la fonction de l'energie que l'on doit prendre pour le coefficient de diffusion dans les calculs de cellule de reacteur en theorie elementaire de la diffusion. Puis on indique diverses approximations possibles de cette fonction. On montre que ces approximations ont en pratique une precision suffisante. Enfin on decrit des methodes de calcul direct de ces approximations pour les modeles 'normaux' couramment employes (methodes qui evitent d'avoir a calculer les sections efficaces differentielles), et on les applique a plusieurs thermaliseurs usuels a differentes temperatures (selon differents modeles). (auteurs)

  10. Hydration of swelling clays: multi-scale sequence of hydration and determination of macroscopic energies from microscopic properties; Hydratation des argiles gonflantes: sequence d'hydratation multi-echelle determination des energies macroscopiques a partir des proprietes microscopiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, F

    2006-10-15

    smectites: it is responsible for the structure of porosity in a dry state and of the evolution of the pore sizes as a function of the RH and it modifies the hydration sequence by its mobility inside the interlayer space. The distinction between various types of water in the smectite structure is also achieved by thermo-poro-metry at different RH: water bound to the cations and surfaces, water structured by porosity and free water. This distinction is important to understand the behaviour of smectite and in particular the diffusion properties in clayey materials. The importance of the cation nature is also highlighted by the energetic model. Electrostatic calculations using the PACHA formalism (Electronegativities Equalization method) show that, for the small cations, the hydration energy of the layers is predominant. To obtain these results, we determine the surface enthalpies for the dry state, which show a coherent evolution as a function of the cation partial charge with the increase of pore sizes and thus with particle sizes. Then, using a theoretical model, we calculated swelling energies, surface hydration energies and cation hydration energies. The behaviour of mixed purified clay displays a behaviour closer to that of a calcic clay for the experiments carried out, in contradiction with the fact that the Na cation is the most abundant. This observation implies results on the clay properties, different from that expected for hydration properties, swelling and interlayer cation mobility within the framework of the radioactive waste. (author)

  11. Groundwater Energy Designer - Review of basic data and modification; Grundlagendatenueberpruefung und Anpassungen des Groundwater Energy Designer (Teilprojekt Programmoptimierung) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppei, J.; Mayer, G.; Schwarz, R.

    2009-12-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the extension and improvement of the Groundwater Energy Designer programme. A survey of selected existing small and medium sized ground-water heat pump systems formed the basis of the review. In this first phase of the project, a concept for measurement technologies to be used and the software changes necessary are discussed. The changes to the existing programme library to enable operation under Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Mac OSX are discussed. Also user dialogues were revised. New features and changes are presented and discussed, as are the functionality and user interface of the new version.

  12. The energy at the time of choices; L'energie a l'heure des choix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papon, P

    2007-09-15

    Starting from a scientific and historical analysis of the place of energy in human societies and of the main events of its history, the author presents a comprehensive overview of the scientific, economic and geopolitical data about the energy question as it can be approached today. He examines the limits and necessary changes considering the climatic change problem, the availability of natural resources (fossil, nuclear and renewable energies), and the ways of demographic and economic development (accommodation, transports, electricity..). In particular, it treats of the technological ruptures that may intervene at a longer term, such as nuclear fusion and/or bio-genetics. In the present day situation, he reports against the danger of economic scenarios only based on economical rationality mechanisms and warns us about the geopolitical crises that may occur during the next 20 years. The book concludes with some practical recommendations aiming at improving the energy efficiency, limiting the use of fossil fuels, and developing the access to electricity for everyone provided the achievement of two conditions: the implementation of an international regulation system and the acceleration of the research effort. (J.S.)

  13. Determinants of the energy storage capacity of electric vehicles; Determinanten des Energiespeicherpotentials von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, S.; Westermann, D. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). FG EEV; Agsten, M. [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Institutsteil Angewandte Systemtechnik (AST)

    2012-07-01

    Future power systems have to meet the challenge of uncontrollable, decentralized generation through increasing renewable. Utilize energy storage to harmonize the load with fluctuating generation is an option. On the other hand in today's markets large scale energy storage systems are hard to find. The reason is assumed in the high costs. Electric vehicle utilization with smart charging could be an alternative solution, due to the secondary use of the electric vehicles battery when not used for driving. This paper will describe the electric vehicle storage capability which determinants influence the storage potential Therefore a model based approach will be provided, which is based on the experiences of a field test (''MINI-E-Berlin powered by Vattenfall''). (orig.)

  14. Energy performance control of local collectivities. Good practices of european towns; Mesure des performances energetiques des collectivites locales. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacassagne, S.; Schilken, P.

    2003-01-01

    Some european towns developed a specific energy and environmental policy, function of many factors. Policies are implemented to favorite the energy consumption and the pollutant emission control. The actions of local collectivities in the domain have been analyzed following three axis: the measure of the energy performance of local collectivities, the territorial energy management tools, the energy integration in sectoral policies. This report takes stock on the first axis analysis. (A.L.B.)

  15. A very high energy imaging for radioactive wastes processing; Une imagerie haute energie pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, V. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (DRT/DSIS/SSBS/LETI), 38 (France); Pettier, J.L. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DTN/SMTM), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    The X imaging occurs at a lot of steps of the radioactive wastes processing: selection for conditioning, physical characterization with a view to radiological characterization, quality control of the product before storage, transport or disposal. Size and volume of the objects considered here necessitate to work with very high energy systems. Here is shown, through some examples, in which conditions this X imaging is carried out as well as the contribution of the obtained images. (O.M.)

  16. Energy policy conference on the regulation of energy industries; Conference de politique energetique sur la regulation des industries energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This document is the report of the conference meeting jointly organized by the French general plan commission and the general direction of energy and raw materials on the regulation of energy industries: 1 - the changes in the regulation of public utilities in competition: harmonization, respect of impartiality and social cohesion, organization of a loyal competition, specialized regulation and regulation of competition, open debates; 2 - towards an homogenous model of regulatory authority?: the US model (collegial and hybrid organizations), the UK model (individual and independent), missions of regulation and institutional 'meccano', theory and practice, draft classification of the institutional approaches of IEA countries (role of ministries and regulatory agencies), independent regulatory authorities or not, significant differences in converging models, dominant types of regulation in the different sectors, situation of the French energy regulatory system (institutional plan, regulation processes, relations of the regulation authority with the government), reasons of the differences between different countries, expected evolution of the regulation systems in the coming years. (J.S.)

  17. Energy policy conference on the regulation of energy industries; Conference de politique energetique sur la regulation des industries energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This document is the report of the conference meeting jointly organized by the French general plan commission and the general direction of energy and raw materials on the regulation of energy industries: 1 - the changes in the regulation of public utilities in competition: harmonization, respect of impartiality and social cohesion, organization of a loyal competition, specialized regulation and regulation of competition, open debates; 2 - towards an homogenous model of regulatory authority?: the US model (collegial and hybrid organizations), the UK model (individual and independent), missions of regulation and institutional 'meccano', theory and practice, draft classification of the institutional approaches of IEA countries (role of ministries and regulatory agencies), independent regulatory authorities or not, significant differences in converging models, dominant types of regulation in the different sectors, situation of the French energy regulatory system (institutional plan, regulation processes, relations of the regulation authority with the government), reasons of the differences between different countries, expected evolution of the regulation systems in the coming years. (J.S.)

  18. L'école des Springboks : le rugby scolaire au Cap, entre ségrégation et déségrégation

    OpenAIRE

    Migozzi , Julien

    2012-01-01

    International audience; — La géographie du sport offre de précieux axes de lecture de l'espace urbain sud-africain. Au Cap, la pratique du rugby scolaire, fortement liée à l'histoire politique de la ville et du pays, témoigne des fractures, des inégalités et des évolutions de la société sud-africaine. À la fois facteur de maintien et de renouvellement de la ségrégation raciale et sociale et vecteur de nouvelles pratiques citadines et d'interactions sociales, le rugby scolaire, par ses spatial...

  19. The globalization of energy activities: what are the issues?; La mondialisation des activites energetiques: quels enjeux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percebois, J. [Montpellier I Univ., (France)

    2001-03-01

    Globalization in many sectors such as information, research and development, finance, technology, etc. led to the implementation of transnational networks to facilitate decision-making. The result is that governments are left to regulation functions. This globalization also led to a larger gap between North and South. Developing countries represent 80 per cent of world population, yet only produce less than 33 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). In the energy sector, developing countries have limited access to energy and use it less efficiently, since they do not master the latest technologies. States must retain their power to regulate this sector to ensure competition takes place in a fair environment within specified guidelines. Licenses must be issued through bidding or auctioned off, but in every case the State must ensure that commitments are met. It must also ensure that pricing is fair. Access for third parties to the power distribution system must be adequate, especially when the company operates in a monopoly environment. The State ends up managing a new category of risks (called major risks) that the private sector is not willing to consider, for example global warming or the management of nuclear waste. Confidence in market mechanisms is limited. Energy exchanges and others represent an economic growth factor and a potential guarantee for world peace. Who is responsible for the social costs associated with economic growth, and what are the solutions? A major issue left to decision-makers is the sharing of wealth within humankind and nations, and the State has a vital role to play. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Wind energy and spatial planning procedures; La programmation spatiale des projects eoliens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Wind turbines projects have been increasing, but some are very conflicted. May be it is a reason why some local authorities have to deal with different point of view, above the only energy question and including local specificity. To give local authorities the possibility to be implicated and to be in control of wind projects in their territory, wind spatial planning should permit to choose suitable areas and to optimize wind power development. In this context this synthesis presents the wind spatial planning in Finistere (France), the french regulation, some international experiences (Danish, Flemish, Walloon region, Dutch) and the different approaches of spatial planning. (A.L.B.)

  1. Study of the radiation around a high energy accelerator. Production and scattering of cascade neutrons; Etude du rayonnement autour d'un accelerateur de haute energie. Production et diffusion des neutrons de cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardy-Joubert, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    The cascade induced in protective screens by a 3 GeV proton beam has been studied using activation detectors; the results have been compared with the cosmic neutron spectrum in the atmosphere. A study of the secondary neutron spectrum has made, it possible to obtain the distribution of the dose and to determine the maximum permissible fluxes expressed in terms of the energy, taking into account all the daughter products present. The dose calculated has been checked experimentally. The proportion of cascade neutrons has been studied using the idea of an imaginary source. The parameters which have to be introduced into the general equations to take into account scattering in the the air have been determined. (author) [French] La cascade induite dans les ecrans de protection par un faisceau de protons de 3 GeV a ete etudiee au moyen de detecteurs a activation et la comparaison a ete faite avec le spectre des neutrons cosmiques dans l'atmosphere. L'etude du spectre des neutrons secondaires a permis de preciser la distribution de la dose et de determiner les flux maximaux admissibles qui sont exprimes en fonction de l'energie, en tenant compte de l'ensemble des descendants presents. La dose calculee a ete verifiee experimentalement. La propagation des neutrons de cascade a ete etudiee en introduisant la notion de source fictive. Les parametres a introduire dans les equations generales pour rendre compte de la diffusion dans l'air ont ete determines. (auteur)

  2. Atomic energy and how it was transformed into a political issue. Die Politisierung des Themas Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overhoff, K

    1984-01-01

    The mass media are the most important source of information and opinion moulding for politically interested citizens. The way in which facts and events relating to the benefits and disadvantages of certain matters are presented exercises an influence on their acceptance or rejection, especially if - as in the case of atomic energy - new unstructured problem complexes turn up on which the public has not yet formed a firm opinion or on which no other sources of information and experience are available. This work therefore aims to answer the following questions: What are the principles according to which the mass media present the atomic energy question to the public. How do the mass media influence the public opinion process during the controversy. It is assumed that the mass media have played an important part in opinion moulding and therefore have influenced the course of the entire controversy. By putting a topic on the agenda they either permit the coordination of divergent opinions or produce a one-sided opinion climate. As broadcasting and television documents were not accessible, this work is restricted to the evaluation of press organs.

  3. Gestion patrimoniale des réseaux d’assainissement : de l’état des réseaux à la planification de leur réhabilitation − Outils, méthodes et perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEREY, Cathy ; LE GAT, Yves ; LE GAUFFRE, Pascal ; ROZAN, Anne ; WITTNER, Christophe ; NIRSIMLOO, Kévin ; LECLERC, Cyril

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En France, la gestion patrimoniale des réseaux d’assainissement est une préoccupation croissante. Certains réseaux commencent en effet à dater et vont nécessiter des renouvellements importants et coûteux pour les décennies à venir. À travers leur mise en œuvre sur les réseaux de Caen et de Bordeaux, cet article présente deux modèles complémentaires, Indigau et GompitZ, permettant de décrire l’état du réseau et de prioriser les tronçons à réhabiliter.

  4. Modèle conceptuel commun pour la supervision des systèmes de sûreté du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hammouti, L

    2000-01-01

    La supervision des systèmes de sûreté des accélérateurs et des zones expérimentales du CERN est gérée spécifiquement d'une machine à l'autre. Chaque programme a été conçu et réalisé au moyen de la technologie de l'époque et sans suivre un modèle conceptuel commun. La situation actuelle risque de poser des problèmes importants pour l'avenir. En effet la disparité des systèmes de supervision et la nécessité de les faire évoluer ou de les renouveler alourdissent sensiblement la charge de travail ainsi que le coût de la maintenance. D'autre part, il est difficile, voire impossible, de les faire communiquer entre eux, or cela constitue une des requêtes principales de l'opération pour une meilleure coordination de l'exploitation. Le but de ce document consiste à présenter les bases d'un modèle conceptuel unique, en cours d'élaboration dans le cadre du LHC, afin de répondre aux problèmes et aux requêtes posés. Ce modèle servira de référence pour le renouvellement et l'évolution ...

  5. Effect of high energy electrons on the skin and on the underlying tissues of the rabbit. A clinical and histological study; Effets des electrons de haute energie sur la peau et les tissus sous-jacents du lapin. Etude clinique et histologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legeay, G; Vialettes, H; Adnet, J J; Court, L; Masse, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The authors consider in this report the effects of high-energy electrons on rabbit teguments and on the underlying tissues after a single high dose irradiation. After briefly considering the mechanism of interaction between the electrons and matter as a function of their energy, the authors describe the dosimetry carried out, as a function of the irradiation device. The animal received surface doses of 5700 to 22100 rads in the thigh; the electron energy varied from 21 to 30 MeV. A clinical study was carried out over a period of nine months with a view to following the evolution of the damage and the functional degradation of the underlying tissues. A histological study of the induced damage was made after a second irradiation using 30 MeV electrons to produce doses of 16400 rads. Interesting observations were made concerning the damage caused to muscular and nerve tissues. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient, dans ce rapport, les effets des electrons de haute energie sur les teguments du lapin et les tissus sous-jacents apres une irradiation unique a dose elevee. Apres un rappel du mecanisme de l'interaction des electrons avec la matiere en fonction de leur energie, la dosimetrie realisee est exposee en fonction du dispositif d'irradiation. Les animaux ont recu, au niveau de la cuisse, des doses en surface de 5700 a 22100 rads; les energies des electrons vont de 21 a 30 MeV. Une etude clinique des lesions, observees pendant 9 mois, decrit leur evolution ainsi que les alterations fonctionnelles des tissus sous-jacents. Une etude histologique des lesions induites a ete realisee au cours d'une seconde experience pour des doses de 16400 rads avec des electrons de 30 MeV. D'interessantes observations ont ete faites concernant les lesions des tissus musculaires et nerveux. (auteurs)

  6. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Calibration of redMaGiC Redshift Distributions in DES and SDSS from Cross-Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawthon, R.; et al.

    2017-12-19

    We present calibrations of the redshift distributions of redMaGiC galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 data. These results determine the priors of the redshift distribution of redMaGiC galaxies, which were used for galaxy clustering measurements and as lenses for galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements in DES Y1 cosmological analyses. We empirically determine the bias in redMaGiC photometric redshift estimates using angular cross-correlations with Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) galaxies. For DES, we calibrate a single parameter redshift bias in three photometric redshift bins: $z \\in[0.15,0.3]$, [0.3,0.45], and [0.45,0.6]. Our best fit results in each bin give photometric redshift biases of $|\\Delta z|<0.01$. To further test the redMaGiC algorithm, we apply our calibration procedure to SDSS redMaGiC galaxies, where the statistical precision of the cross-correlation measurement is much higher due to a greater overlap with BOSS galaxies. For SDSS, we also find best fit results of $|\\Delta z|<0.01$. We compare our results to other analyses of redMaGiC photometric redshifts.

  7. ATES Contribution to the Housing Energy Balance: a Simple Assessment Methodology Contribution du stockage d’énergie thermique en aquifère au bilan énergétique lié à l’habitat : méthodologie d’évaluation rapide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourbiaux B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of Green-House Gas Emissions (GHGE goes through a sum of solutions that need to be tuned to the local context in terms of energy needs and resources, and also to the demand and offer variations with time. The housing heat consumption is particularly concerned as it is seasonal and rarely in phase with the deliverability of alternative or renewable energy sources. This paper studies heat storage in saline untapped aquifers as a solution to overcome the time lag between production and consumption. This process applies to heat networks that supply dense housing complexes. Firstly, a methodology is described to size an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES project as a function of the heat production and consumption characteristics on the one hand, and of the recovery factor of the stored heat on the other hand. The major role played by this recovery factor leads to a review of thermal losses of various origins and to a sensitivity study of influent reservoir parameters such as the aquifer thickness, productivity and heterogeneity, for the purpose of aquifer selection and storage project management. La reduction des Gaz a Effet de Serre (GES passe par un ensemble de solutions qui doivent etre adaptees au contexte local des besoins et ressources en energie, ainsi qu’aux variations de l’offre et la demande au cours du temps. Ce constat concerne en particulier la consommation d’energie calorifique destinee a l’habitat. En effet, cette consommation de chaleur est saisonniere et rarement en phase avec la disponibilite des sources d’energie alternatives ou renouvelables. Cet article etudie le stockage de chaleur dans des aquiferes salins inexploites en tant que solution pour pallier ce dephasage entre production et consommation. Ce procede concerne les reseaux de chaleur desservant un habitat concentre. En premier lieu, une methodologie quantitative est decrite pour dimensionner le projet de stockage d’energie thermique en

  8. The Future of Petroleum As an Energy Resource L'avenir du pétrole comme source d'énergie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdman J. G.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Civilization is based on man's capacity to generate more energy than is necessary to provide for subsistence. The industrial revolution became possible through the developpement of abundant energy based mainly on the production and utilization of fossil fuels. As non-renewable energy resources are exploited, the energy required Io produce and utilize these fuels trends upward. Ultimately for each resource the trade-off point is reached, that is where the energy return no longer exceeds the energy for production and utilization. ln compensation for particularly desirable properties a slightly negative balance may be acceptable provided there is compention by a somewhat less desirable energy source. In this century, petroleum has become a highly favored energy source. Today in the United States 75% of the energy consumed is derived from petroleum. The recent rapid rise in the world price of petroleum is, for the most part, the consequence of political and economic factors. Such factors may well force a trend to altern energy sources in some consumer countries. On a world basis, the future use of petroleum both in time and in extent of depletion of reserves will depend upon the capability of petroleum technologists to slow the closing of the gap between energy outlay and return. To perpetuate past successes, new philosophies and technologies exploration, production and utilization must be developed. La civilisation est basée sur la capacité humaine de créer plus d'énergie qu'il est nécessaire d'en fournir pour subsister. La révolution industrielle a été possible grâce ou développement d'énergie abondante basée principalement sur la production et l'utilisation des combustibles fossiles. Au fur et à mesure que l'on exploite les sources non renouvelables d'énergie, on constate une augmentation de la quantité d'énergie requise pour les produire et les utiliser. A la fin pour chaque matière première, le point limite est atteint lorsque

  9. DES J0454-4448: discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Becker, G. D.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Martini, P.; Ostrovski, F.; Rauch, M.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; da Costa, L. N.; D' Andrea, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J.; Merritt, K.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A.; Romer, K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = -26.5) quasar DES J0454-4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H I near zone size of 4.1+1.1-1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i-z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i-z and z-Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  10. Disposal of the radioactive effluents at the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'. Treatment leading to evacuation into a river; Probleme du rejet des residus radioactifs liquides au CEA. Traitements aboutissant a des rejets en riviere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel,; Menoux,; Candillon, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The problems dealing with the treatment of the radioactive effluents at the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' have been studied in order to allow evacuation into a river - after treatment - with respect for the standards regarding radiation protection. 2) At Saclay where there is no possibility of evacuating the effluents, the liquids are directed towards Fontenay-aux-Roses by means of tank wagons. They are removed temporarily into the sewers and will be evacuated later on into the Seine. 3) ln Le Bouchet, the effluents coming from the Factory where urano-thorianite ore is treated will undergo a two stages treatment. The elimination of radium in the first phase facilitates decontamination in the second phase. 4) In Marcoule: a study of synthetic effluents of the Marcoule type is being carried on in order to perfect a selective elimination method of Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} by coprecipitation. 5) In the general case of the final evacuation into a river, the following problems have been studied: - pre-dilution of treated waters between the storing tanks and the river; - admission in the river; dilution in the river (preliminary study by means of a tracer); - evolution of the activity in the water of the river (adsorption by inert or living elements), contamination of the banks; - locating of the site; - isotopic dilution. 6) Circumstantial study of that last problem. 7) The quantity of a given product in water conditions the isotopic dilution of its radioactive isotopes. When the analysis shows the lack of an element, stable isotopes should be added in order to compensate it. 8) That method led to difficult analysis (specially as far as Sr{sup 90} is concerned), for the percentage of stable isotopes necessary to an important isotopic dilution is very low. 9) The standard regarding the quantity of Sr{sup 90} in drinking water is 8.10{sup -8} c/m{sup 3} or 4.10{sup -10} g/m{sup 3}. So a percentage of 40 {mu}g/litre of Sr is enough which is difficult to find out in

  11. Etude du mecanisme de predissociation de l'ion moleculaire de protoxyde d'azote par la mesure de l'energie cinetique des fragments de l'oxyde nitrique et de l'oxygene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Claude

    La reaction N2 + O+ ↔ NO + + N, laquelle joue un role important dans la physique de la haute atmosphere, a ete le sujet de plusieurs etudes. Bien que cette reaction ait ete l'objet d'une quantite importante de travaux, ces derniers ne permettent toutefois pas de comprendre entierement le mecanisme d'un point de vue quantique, particulierement les niveaux d'energie excites des fragments qui permettent cette reaction. Puisque cette reaction n'est pas tres facile a reproduire en laboratoire, nous avons utilise la spectroscopie laser sur faisceaux d'ions rapides afin d'explorer les limites de dissociation de l'ion moleculaire intermediaire de cette reaction, a savoir l'ion N2O+. Le faisceau d'ions N2O+ rapides, apres excitation de l'ion moleculaire vers un niveau predissocie de l'etat A2Sigma+, se dissocie pour produire les fragments ioniques O+ et NO+. Par la mesure de la variation du nombre de fragments ioniques en fonction de l'energie cinetique des ions N2O+, nous avons enregistre les spectres de predissociation de l'ion N2O+. Lorsque c'etait possible, nous avons procede a l'analyse de ces spectres de dissociation afin d'en tirer les constantes moleculaires. Pour certaines des transitions rotationnelles intenses, nous avons mesure l'energie cinetique acquise par les fragments lors de la predissociation de l'ion N 2O+. Afin d'analyser les distributions en energie cinetique, nous avons developpe une simulation de l'experience en considerant, entre autres choses, la position des niveaux de vibration et de rotation des fragments diatomiques de chacune des limites de dissociation de N2O+. Les resultats de l'analyse sont exprimes en termes de population des niveaux de vibration des fragments diatomiques pour une distribution donnee de la population des niveaux de rotation des fragments. Les resultats ainsi obtenus, montrent que les fragments diatomiques sont produits dans des niveaux de vibration fortement excites. De tels niveaux d'excitation ne correspondent pas aux

  12. Dresses problems arising from hot-plant operation and their solution (1961); Les problemes vestimentaires poses par l'exploitation des installations actives et leurs solutions (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J; Bouzigues, H; Boutot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This article deals with effective methods to struggle radioactive contamination using rationally designed working clothes. The choice of the cloth is important and cotton, because of its absorbent properties constitutes an effective barrier to radioelements failing on its surface. Clothing the personnel of large nuclear industrial concerns is a big problem which can only be solved by carefully studied methods. The decontamination and washing of large amounts of clothes whose flow increases during periods of radio-active incidents have to be treated as are those operations in hospital laundering. Linen washing by the German counter-current method (the Sulzman system) is of great value because of the volume which can be treated and, more important, because of the small amount of liquid waste produced. Dry cleaning is certainly a method of the future and is even more economic than the preceding one. In 'active' laundries, the control of clothing for residual contamination can constitute a serious bottleneck in the production of clean clothing if automatic high-speed machines are not used. The risk to the operating personnel comes solely from contamination of the atmosphere and of the surfaces. Because of this, the plant must be considered as an active zone in which are handled several tens of millicuries of dangerous emitters and several micro- curies of plutonium daily. (authors) [French] Ce memoire traite des moyens efficaces de lutte contre la contamination radioactive que peuvent offrir des vetements de travail de conception rationnelle. Le choix du tissu est un element important et la fibre de coton, par ses proprietes absorbantes, constitue un excellent barrage aux radioelements deposes a sa surface. L'habillement du personnel des grands ensembles industriels de l'energie atomique est un gros probleme qui ne peut etre solutionne qu'avec des moyens soigneusement etudies. La decontamination et le lavage des grandes quantites de vetements renouveles a cadence

  13. Dresses problems arising from hot-plant operation and their solution (1961); Les problemes vestimentaires poses par l'exploitation des installations actives et leurs solutions (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Bouzigues, H.; Boutot, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This article deals with effective methods to struggle radioactive contamination using rationally designed working clothes. The choice of the cloth is important and cotton, because of its absorbent properties constitutes an effective barrier to radioelements failing on its surface. Clothing the personnel of large nuclear industrial concerns is a big problem which can only be solved by carefully studied methods. The decontamination and washing of large amounts of clothes whose flow increases during periods of radio-active incidents have to be treated as are those operations in hospital laundering. Linen washing by the German counter-current method (the Sulzman system) is of great value because of the volume which can be treated and, more important, because of the small amount of liquid waste produced. Dry cleaning is certainly a method of the future and is even more economic than the preceding one. In 'active' laundries, the control of clothing for residual contamination can constitute a serious bottleneck in the production of clean clothing if automatic high-speed machines are not used. The risk to the operating personnel comes solely from contamination of the atmosphere and of the surfaces. Because of this, the plant must be considered as an active zone in which are handled several tens of millicuries of dangerous emitters and several micro- curies of plutonium daily. (authors) [French] Ce memoire traite des moyens efficaces de lutte contre la contamination radioactive que peuvent offrir des vetements de travail de conception rationnelle. Le choix du tissu est un element important et la fibre de coton, par ses proprietes absorbantes, constitue un excellent barrage aux radioelements deposes a sa surface. L'habillement du personnel des grands ensembles industriels de l'energie atomique est un gros probleme qui ne peut etre solutionne qu'avec des moyens soigneusement etudies. La decontamination et le lavage des grandes quantites de vetements

  14. On the reform of the Polish energy law. The 'Energy - Threepack'; Zur Reform des polnischen Energierechts. Das 'Energie-Dreipack'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowitzsch, Jens; Goebel, Katarzyna [Europa-Univ. Viadrina, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany). Kelso-Stiftungprofessur fuer Rechtsvergleichung, Osteuropaeisches Wirtschaftsrecht und Europaeische Rechtspolitik

    2013-02-15

    Due to the strategic importance, the energy industry in Poland was excluded from the privatisation up to the year 1996. In 1996, the deregulation and privatisation of the energy industry in Poland was induced by the outline plan of the implementation of the fundamentals of the energy policy up to the year 2020 as well as by the de-monopolization and privatisation of the electric energy. In October, 2012, the Polish Ministry of Economy finished the draft of a correspondent energy legislation consisting of three single laws - the so-called energy threepack. The authors of the contribution under consideration characterize the development lines of the Polish energy industry and review on the expected new regulations of the energy law.

  15. Commission to review the financing for the phase-out of nuclear energy. Results, evaluation, implementation; Kommission zur Ueberpruefung der Finanzierung des Kernenergieausstiegs (KFK). Ergebnisse, Bewertung, Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandmair, Lothar [Wirtschaftskanzlei Graf von Westphalen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The German Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy (Kommission zur Ueberpruefung der Finanzierung des Kernenergieausstiegs, KFK) has unanimously adopted its report on 27 April 2016. Now the Federal Government is working on the implementation of the recommendations, which are directed to profound changes in the present system of financing and action responsibilities of government and operators. The proposals by KFK on their meaning and scope are described and analyzed. An overview of the tasks to implement the recommendations at the legislative and contractual level is given. The work of KFK is also classified in its social context and assessed as a viable compromise.

  16. The energy sector between the two poles of the free market system and the public service obligations. Potential and limitations of state control, with an emphasis on the act for reform of the energy industry law (ENG) and the EU Internal Market Directive; Der Energiesektor zwischen Marktwirtschaft und oeffentlicher Aufgabe. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen staatlicher Steuerung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Gesetzes zur Neuregelung des Energiewirtschaftsrechts und des Europarechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, F.

    2000-07-01

    In Part A of the book it will be brought out that despite differing conceptual starting points and despite state control's way of working, there is no alternative to legal control. In co-operative models and consensual solutions in those states with private sector service providers, which exist in diverse forms in the energy sector, too, the law operates as a framework or regulatory warning, or it has a reserve function. An end to state control is not linked to that because the state remains responsible for the achievement of the goals the notification ans definition of which it undertakes as a public duty. The results found are discussed and confirmed in Part B of the book in connection with the reform of the legal framework of the energy industry (the German act named ENG). In Part C of the book it will be shown to what extent legal constitutional limitations stand in the way of state control in the energy sector. (orig./CB) [German] Im ersten Teil der Arbeit wird staatliche Steuerung durch Recht an Beispielen des Energiesektors untersucht, wobei insbesondere Fragen des Wirkens und der Erscheinungsformen staatlicher Steuerung sowie die Auswirkungen der Veraenderung staatlicher Steuerung auf die Rolle des Staates und auf das Verhaeltnis von Staat und Gesellschaft im Vordergrund stehen. Im zweiten Teil werden unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der europarechtlichen Regelungen die Moeglichkeiten, rechtliche Grenzen und Maengel staatlicher Steuerung im bisherigen System der Elektrizitaetsversorgung in Deutschland dargestellt, da Reformen, um dem Steuerungsanspruch des Staates gerecht zu werden, diesezu beachten haben. Es wird u.a. untersucht, inwieweit Entstaatlichungsstrategien im Rahmen der Reformen im Energiesektor Anwendung finden. Im dritten Teil werden die verfassungsrechtlichen Restriktionen untersucht. (orig./CB)

  17. Coincidence measurements with the use of detectors measuring the energy of the radiances (proportional meters and scintillation counter); Mesures de coincidences avec utilisation de detecteurs mesurant l'energie des rayonnements (compteurs proportionnels et compteur a scintillations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartory, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    In the setting of the realization of a set of installations permitting of the measures of coincidences between sorted radiances according to their energies, an installation understanding a proportional counter and a scintillation counter has been constructed and optimized. It has been used to do some measures of coincidences between X{sub K} photons and photons {gamma} issued at the time of the radioactive transformation of the selenium 75 (electronic capture). The efficiency of the proportional meter has been determined roughly. Besides, a proportional counter of solid angle neighboring of 4{pi} was able to achieve measures of coincidences while only doing one selection of amplitudes: indeed, the simultaneity of the detection of two radiances appear by an impulse whose amplitude is the sum of the amplitudes of the impulses resulting from each of the studied radiations. This method, applied to the coincidences between X-rays, permitted to bring the information on the diagram of decay of the arsenic 73. Besides, the coefficient of internal conversion of a consecutive transition to this decay has been valued. (author) [French] Dans le cadre de la realisation d'une serie de montages permettant des mesures de coincidences entre rayonnements tries d'apres leurs energies, un montage comprenant un compteur proportionnel et un compteur a scintillations a ete construit et mis au point. Il a ete utilise pour effectuer quelques mesures de coincidences entre photons X{sub K} et photons {gamma} emis lors de la transformation radioactive du selenium 75 (capture electronique). L'efficacite du compteur proportionnel a ete approximativement determinee. De plus, un compteur proportionnel d'angle solide voisin de 4{pi} a pu etre utilise pour realiser des mesures de coincidences en n'effectuant qu'une selection d'amplitudes: en effet, la simultaneite de la detection de deux rayonnements se manifeste par une impulsion dont l'amplitude est la somme des amplitudes des impulsions

  18. The great transformation of global energy supply. Central messages of the world energy congress; Die Grosse Transformation der Weltenergieversorgung. Zentrale Botschaften des World Energy Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2016-12-15

    The 23rd World Energy Congress, held in Istanbul from October 9 to 13, 2016, brought together some 4500 delegates from around the world. It is the world's largest international energy conference held every three years by the World Energy Council in changing world regions. The congress was a unique opportunity to present a comprehensive view of current and long-term global energy issues. [German] Der 23. Weltenergie-Kongress, veranstaltet vom 9. bis 13.10.2016 in Istanbul, brachte etwa 4500 Delegierte aus der ganzen Welt zusammen. Es ist die weltweit groesste internationale Energiekonferenz, die alle drei Jahre vom World Energy Council in wechselnden Weltregionen ausgerichtet wird. Mit dem Kongress wurde die einzigartige Gelegenheit wahrgenommen, einen umfassenden Blick sowohl auf die aktuellen als auch auf die langfristig global relevanten Energiethemen zu richten.

  19. Kohstall Florian et Vairel Frédéric (dir., Fabrique des élections, Égypte. Monde Arabe, n°7, 3e série, 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ben Néfissa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Suite aux soulèvements et révolutions, un vaste chantier électoral attend les pays arabes. La légitimité des « urnes » va progressivement succéder à la légitimité de la « rue », et la sociologie électorale est en bonne voie de réactualisation et de renouvellement de ses paradigmes avec les exemples des pays de la région. Cette étape historique particulière rehausse l’importance de la publication récente du numéro de la revue du CEDEJ, Égypte-Monde arabe, intitulé Fabrique des élections, et di...

  20. The Petit Canal Sea water pumped storage plant in Guadeloupe island: a tool to allow the intermittent renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Pierre; Mahiou, Bernard; Ayoub, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the 2011 call for proposal 'Energy storage' launched by the ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, EDF aims to propose a 50 MW seawater pumped storage project for the island of Guadeloupe. The project, named SEPMERI (in French Stockage d'Energie par Pompage en Mer permettant le developpement des Energies Renouvelables Intermittentes), or SPSIRE (in English Seawater Pumped Storage allowing the development of Intermittent Renewable Energy). This project needs to build an upper reservoir with a capacity of 4.7 Mm 3 storing 0.6 GWh (12 hour time duration service at full load) with embankments and an overall watertightness. The average water-head is 67 m. This innovating scheme, equipped with pumps as turbines hosted in an iron pre-cast powerhouse at the foot of the cliff will be able to store energy and to smooth the intermittent renewable energy generation. Such project will improve the hosting capacity for the intermittent generation upper the legal limit of 30% applied to preserve the safety of power systems in French insular systems. In 2050, the need of storage with seawater pumped power plants could reach some thousand of MW in France and in boundary European countries and ten times more in the rest of the world. The number of sites which could be developed for seawater pumped storage power plants is very important (about several thousand), even taking into account all the constraints. The technological option using an iron pre-cast powerhouse can be deployed in the majority of market cases (low and medium water-head) with equipment either pump as turbines, either reversible turbines/pumps. It has been shown that the learning curve could lead to construction costs lower than 1500 Euros/kW (excluding grid connection) competitive with those of on shore pumped storage projects based on upgrading existing hydro power plants. (authors)

  1. Social costs of energy consumption. External effects of electricity consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany. Soziale Kosten des Energieverbrauchs. Externe Effekte des Elektrizitaetsverbrauchs in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmeyer, O

    1988-01-01

    This study provides a first systematic quantification and conversion into monetary terms of the relevant social costs and benefits, in order to create a basis for corrective measures with respect to the use of wind power and the photovoltaic use of solar energy. Four main areas of social costs of energy systems are looked at in the study: Environmental costs, including the effect on human health. Inadequate consideration of the long-term shortage of resources in present-day market prices. Macroeconomic effects such as changes in the net product or employment. Subsidies via state agencies, which are made partly in the form of direct payments and partly in an indirect way in the form of state services. State subsidies in the area of research and development can be subsumed under the last point. In each of these main fields there is a multiplicity of separate external effects which are dealt with at length in a special chapter. (orig./UA) With 20 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. FAWA - Field-analysis of Heat-pump Installations - Proceedings; Tagungsband zur 11. Tagung des Forschungsprogramms Umgebungswaerme, Waerme-Kraft-Kopplung, Kaelte des Bundesamts fuer Energie (BFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognon, F.

    2004-07-01

    These proceedings of the 11th conference organised by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Research Programme on Ambient Heat, Combined Heat and Power and Refrigeration present 6 papers on heat-pump topics. These include two papers concerning the results obtained from the FAWA project - a unique study of over 230 heat pump installations in operation in the field that was started in 1996 to assess the success of Swiss heat-pump promotion activities. The activities of the Swiss Heat-pump Testing Centre are dealt with and the potential for cost reductions through the optimal choice of system - done according to the motto 'small and simple is beautiful' - is reviewed. A further contribution deals with the question of the heat-pump customer being the 'king'. The role of installers and fitters acting as the instances who choose which system is to be used is looked at in a further contribution. A list of useful addresses completes the proceedings.

  3. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.; Nord, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Gaitsch, S.; Lin, H.; Allam, S.; Odden, C.; Pellico, A.; Tucker, D. L.; Kuropatkin, N.; Soares-Santos, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Collett, T. E. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Furlanetto, C.; Nightingale, J. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gill, M. S. S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); More, A. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Costa, L. N. da; Neto, A. Fausti, E-mail: diehl@fnal.gov [Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia—LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ—20921-400 (Brazil); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification and Year 1 observations. The Science Verification data span approximately 250 sq. deg. with a median i -band limiting magnitude for extended objects (10 σ ) of 23.0. The Year 1 data span approximately 2000 sq. deg. and have an i -band limiting magnitude for extended objects (10 σ ) of 22.9. As these data sets are both wide and deep, they are particularly useful for identifying strong gravitational lens candidates. Potential strong gravitational lens candidate systems were initially identified based on a color and magnitude selection in the DES object catalogs or because the system is at the location of a previously identified galaxy cluster. Cutout images of potential candidates were then visually scanned using an object viewer and numerically ranked according to whether or not we judged them to be likely strong gravitational lens systems. Having scanned nearly 400,000 cutouts, we present 374 candidate strong lens systems, of which 348 are identified for the first time. We provide the R.A. and decl., the magnitudes and photometric properties of the lens and source objects, and the distance (radius) of the source(s) from the lens center for each system.

  4. Lecture, intertextualité et comique: Des Esseintes voyage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Monsegu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ENHuysmans has tried, with À rebours, to put into practice his will of renewal of the novel. In this perspective, he has used the resources of intertextuality in order to distance himself from what he calls “le roman romanesque”. The wish of des Esseintes to visit London is the occasion of an interplay of readings and re-readings that paves the way to an omnipresent intertextuality. The places visited by des Esseintes be¬come an open book and the other characters, in a vertiginous mise en abyme, become a mere scenery for des Esseintes, turned into a reader who revisits the world in the light of the novels of Dickens. Intertextuality thus becomes a diegetic element which creates also the comic dimension of this chapter. It also contributes to question the naturalist novel with the help of derision and parody.>>Huysmans a cherché avec À rebours à mettre en pratique sa volonté renouvellement du roman. Dans cette perspective, il a utilisé les ressources de l’intertextualité pour se distancer de ce qu’il appelle le « roman romanesque ». Le souhait de des Esseintes de visiter Londres est l’occasion d’un jeu de lectures et de relectures qui ouvre la voie à une intertextualité omniprésente. Les lieux visités par des Esseintes deviennent un livre ouvert et les autres personnages, dans une mise en abyme vertigineuse, deviennent un simple décor pour des Esseintes devenu lecteur d’un monde revisité à la lumière des romans de Dickens. L’intertextualité devient ainsi un élément diégétique qui s’inscrit parallèlement dans la création de la tonalité comique du chapitre. Elle contribue aussi à remettre en cause du roman naturaliste par la parodie et la dérision.

  5. Part 1: The detection of criticality accidents in the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. Part 2: The Burst Slug Detection; 1. partie: la detection des accidents de criticite au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. 2. partie.: la detection des ruptures de gaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debrie, G; Lavie, J; Planque, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In all installations where fissionable materials are handled in quantities virtually greater than the critical mass, there exists permanent risk of accidental nuclear excursion entailing a serious irradiation hazard to the personnel, in spite of all the precautions that might be taken. Immediate detection followed by rapid evacuation greatly limits the risks of irradiation due to the fission products or to the sustained nuclear reaction. The necessity for a suitable equipment for the detection of accidents of criticality is imposed by the fact that the physical phenomena accompanying a nuclear, excursion are insufficient to follow the alarm, and may lead to confusion. Taking into account the accidents which have occurred and the role expected from a detector, we choose a dose integration device for the detecting probe proper, and a system based on the coincidence of several information to trigger the alarm. At the demand of the Commission des Masses Critiques, the minimal physical and electronic features required to obtain a very reliable system with minimal risk of false alarm has been established. These features are described in some detail. The equipment constructed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique on the basis of these recommendations has been tested systematically under actual conditions of nuclear excursions at the Health Physics Research Reactor of the National Laboratory at Oak Ridge. These tests have served to determine two types of detection probes which will be described: a photomultiplier and a semiconductor probe. Finally the authors present an example of a complete unit for the detection of criticality accidents in an installation for the processing of fissile material. B - The evolution of the installations for burst slug detection (BSD) in french reactors. The main part of the effort in the field of the Burst Slug Detection has been orientated on the large gas-cooled reactors where the problem of bursts slugs is associated with the economics

  6. Table of charged particle energies versus magnetic field strength x orbit radius (B{rho}) for A = 1 to 7 (100< (B{rho}) < 1200 kG.cm); Table des energies des particules chargees en fonction de la rigidite magnetique (B{rho}) pour A = 1 a 7 (100< (B{rho}) < 1200 kG.cm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A table of charged particle energies versus magnetic field strength x orbit radius (B{sub {rho}}) is presented. Particles p, d, t, {sup 3}He{sup ++}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +}, {sup 6}Li{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 7}Li{sup ++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +++}. Values of B{sub {rho}}: 100 to 1200 kG.cm by steps of 0.5 kG.cm. Values of energies are given in keV. (author) [French] Nous presentons une table des energies de protons, deutons, tritons, {sup 3}He{sup ++}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +}, {sup 6}Li{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 7}Li{sup ++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +++} en fonction de leur rigidite magnetique (B{sub {rho}}). Les valeurs de B{sub {rho}} sont comprises entre 100 et 1200 kG.cm par pas de 0.5 kG.cm. Les valeurs des energies sont donnees en keV. (auteur)

  7. The history of energy industry law in Germany. With particular emphasis on the development of the Energy Act (EnWG) and current proposals for reform under discussion; Zur Entwicklung des Energierechts in Deutschland. Unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes und der aktuellen Reformdiskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeddinck, U.

    1995-11-01

    The paper describes the history and development of the regulatory framework governing the energy industry and the reasons why this legislation has been creating an organisational framework of the power industry in Germany with some strikingly peculiar features. The core structure and the essential aspects of the Energy Act (EnWG) are discussed in detail, followed by a survey of relevant cartel laws and the regime of franchise agreements and franchise duties. The amendments made in response to the oil crisis in the early seventies are mentioned, and current trends and proposals for reform are outlined. The Annex contains material illustrating a number of significant developments and issues in the history of the energy industry law, with brief explanations. The bibliography also lists publications of interest to readers wishing to get more insight into ongoing debates about problems posed by energy industry law, and proposed reforms. [Deutsch] Der Beitrag zeichnet die Entstehung und Veraenderung des rechtlichen Ordnungsrahmens nach, der fuer die derzeitige eigentuemliche Organisation der deutschen Elektrizitaetswirtschaft verantwortlich ist. Im Mittelpunkt steht das EnWG mit seinem Grundmuster. Darueberhinaus werden die einschlaegigen kartellrechtlichen Vorschriften und das Konzessionsabgabenrecht vorgestellt. Weiter wird die Reaktion des Gesetzgebers auf die dramatische Oelkrise zu Beginn der siebziger Jahre deutlich. Schliesslich wird der gegenwaertige Stand der Novellierungsbemuehungen skizziert. Die im Anhang enthaltenen Materialien veranschaulichen einige markante Punkte der energierechtlichen Entwicklung. Sie sind jeweils mit einer kurzen Erlaeuterung versehen. Das Literaturverzeichnis enthaelt auch Veroeffentlichungen zur aktuellen Diskussion, die dem interessierten Leser den vertieften Einstieg in dieses Problemfeld moeglich machen.

  8. Study, with the help of nuclear indicators (HTO, Urea {sup 14}C and {sup 24}Na), of the renewal of water, urea and sodium in different parts of the rat kidney in aqueous diuresis and of the gerbil kidney in osmotic diuresis or in oliguria; Etude, a l'aide d'indicateurs nucleaires (HTO, UREE {sup 14}C et {sup 24}Na), du renouvellement de l'eau, de l'uree et du sodium dans les differentes regions du rein de rat en diurese aqueuse et de merion en diurese osmotique ou en oligurie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechene, C.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    In the kidney of the gerbil in oliguria there exists a cortico-papillary gradient in the concentration of the sodium and of the urea; this gradient disappears in the gerbil kidney in osmotic diuresis or in the rat kidney in aqueous diuresis; in these three states of diuresis there is no significant difference in the potassium concentration between the surface and interior regions of the kidneys. Kinetic studies using tritiated water, urea {sup 14}C and {sup 24}Na show that water and urea in the interior regions of the kidney are only renewed very slowly (1 h) whereas the sodium is rapidly changed (1 mn). These results can be explained using WIRZ's theory concerning the mechanism of the counter-current concentration of urine. Furthermore, the evolution of the specific radioactivity of urea {sup 14}C is favorable for a cortical synthesis of urea. (author) [French] II existe dans le rein de Merions en oligurie un gradient cortico papillaire de la concentration du sodium et de l'uree; ce gradient est aboli dans le rein de Merions en diurese osmotique ou de rats en diurese aqueuse; dans ces 3 etats de diurese il n'y a pas de difference significative de la concentration du potassium entre les regions superficielles et profondes des reins. Des etudes cinetiques a l'aide d'eau tritiee, d'uree {sup 14}C et de {sup 24}Na montrent que l'eau et l'uree des regions profondes des reins ne sont renouveles que tres lentement (1 h), alors que le sodium est tres vite renouvele (1 mn). Ces resultats s'expliquent par la theorie de WIRZ sur le mecanisme de la concentration de l'urine par contre-courant. En outre, l'evolution renale de la radioactivite specifique de l'uree {sup 14}C est en faveur d'une synthese corticale de l'uree. (auteur)

  9. Wind energy report Germany 1999/2000. Annual evaluation of WMEP; Windenergie Report Deutschland 1999/2000. Jahresauswertung des WMEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durstewitz, M.; Ensslin, C.; Hahn, B.; Hoppe-Klipper, M.; Rohrig, K. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The 1999/2000 issue of the annual evaluations of the scientific measurement and evaluation programme (WMEP) is the tenth regular publication of operational results from the wind turbines included in the ''250 MW Wind'' funding programme. Besides depicting the current state of the technology, a reflection on the long-term and successful development of this still young technology is offered. With the approval of a fourth project phase (2000 - 2004) it has been ensured that, also in coming years, particular attention can be paid to long-term behaviour in regard to reliability, life span and operational costs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Jahresauswertung 1999/2000 des ''wissenschaftlichen mess- und evaluierungsprogramms'' (WMEP) stellt bereits die zehnte Ausgabe der regelmaessigen Veroeffentlichung von Betriebsergebnissen der Windenergieanlagen im Foerderprogramm ''250 MW Wind'' dar. Sie bietet damit neben der Darstellung des aktuellen Stands der Technik auch einen Rueckblick auf die langjaehrige und erfolgreiche Entwicklung dieser noch jungen Technologie. Mit dem Auftrag einer vierten Projektphase (zunaechst 2000 bis 2002) ist sichergestellt, dass auch in den kommenden Jahren besonders auf das Langzeitverhalten hinsichtlich Zuverlaessigkeit, Lebensdauer und Betriebskosten eingegangen werden kann. (orig.)

  10. 2516-IJBCS-Article-Pascal Bazongo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    développement au Burkina Faso s'est intéressé au Jatropha curcas L. comme source d'énergie et de durabilité des productions. ... Faso became interested in Jatropha curcas L. as a source of energy and sustainability of production. To assess the influence of ..... Revue des Energies Renouvelables,. 12(2):. 269. -. 278.

  11. Contribution to {pi}{sup +}p inelastic scattering at incoming pion energies near 1 GeV; Contribution a la diffusion inelastique {pi}{sup +}p pour des energies du {pi} incident voisines de 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deler, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    Results on {pi}{sup +}p scattering at 810 and 1300 MeV incoming kinetic energy are presented. In the three-body final states ({pi}{sup +}p {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}p or {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}n) the N{sup *}{sub 33} production is strongly dominant. At 1300 MeV one also observes the {rho}, N{sup *}{sub 1/2} {sub 3/2} and N{sup *}{sub 1/2} {sub 5/2} productions. The difficulty in correctly separating these channels demands trying a more general analysis, taking simultaneously into account several processes (N{sup *}{pi}, {rho}N,...). A generalized isobaric model is discussed. Assuming the interaction of particles by pairs, we can carry out a partial wave analysis of the three body final state reactions. The expansion of the differential cross section in spherical harmonics for data between 600 and 1460 MeV (compilation of data from different laboratories) leads to a simple discussion of the angular effects for different parts of the Dalitz plot. A partial wave analysis has been made below 1 GeV. The reaction p {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} is correctly explained by considering only the N{sup *}{sub 33} production. The different partial waves are in agreement with the elastic phase shift analysis, except for the wave SD1 (corresponding to the elastic wave S31) which is found to be small. Therefore, the S31 resonance appears weakly coupled to the N{sup *}{sub 33}-{pi} channel. (author) [French] Les resultats de la mesure de la diffusion {pi}{sup +}p pour des energies cinetiques du {pi} incident egales a 810 MeV et 1300 MeV sont presentes. Dans les reactions a trois corps, {pi}{sup +}p {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}p ou {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}n, la production de l'isobare 3/2 3/2 est fortement dominante. A 1300 MeV, on observe egalement la production du {rho} et des isobares 1/2 3/2 et 1/2 5/2. L'impossibilite de separer correctement ces differentes productions demande de chercher a effectuer l'analyse des donnees sous une forme plus generale permettant de tenir compte

  12. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Cross-Correlation Redshifts in the DES -- Calibration of the Weak Lensing Source Redshift Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.; et al.

    2017-10-06

    We present the calibration of the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) weak lensing source galaxy redshift distributions from clustering measurements. By cross-correlating the positions of source galaxies with luminous red galaxies selected by the redMaGiC algorithm we measure the redshift distributions of the source galaxies as placed into different tomographic bins. These measurements constrain any such shifts to an accuracy of $\\sim0.02$ and can be computed even when the clustering measurements do not span the full redshift range. The highest-redshift source bin is not constrained by the clustering measurements because of the minimal redshift overlap with the redMaGiC galaxies. We compare our constraints with those obtained from $\\texttt{COSMOS}$ 30-band photometry and find that our two very different methods produce consistent constraints.

  13. Characteristics of the Biological Effects and the RBE of High Energy Protons; Caracteristiques des Effets Biologiques et EBR des Protons de Haute Energie; Osobennosti biologicheskogo dejstviya i obeh protonov vysokikh ehnergii; Caracteristicas de los Efectos Biologicos y de la EBR de los Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' ev, Ju. G.; Darenskaja, N. G.; Domshlak, M. M.; Lebedinskij, A. V.; Nefedov, Ju. G.; Ryzhov, N. I.

    1964-03-15

    The characteristics of the biological effects of high-energy protons (120, 240 and 510 MeV) were studied in experiments on mice, rats and dogs. It was shown that together with a certain resemblance or identity in radiation damage due to the effects of X-rays and protons, there were certain differences in the case of proton irradiation. In the proton irradiation of dogs the haemorrhagic syndrome was more pronounced. Haemorrhage appeared earlier in the animals and was more abundant. A difference was found in proton RBE levels for small animals (rats, mice) and large animals (dogs). This difference is quite large and equals respectively 0.7 and 1.0 * 1.15. Some considerations are presented in the report on the cause of these differences. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie les caracteristiques des effets biologiques des protons de haute energie (120, 240 et 510 MeV) au cours d'experiences sur des souris, des rats et des chiens. Ils montrent que si les dommages causes par les rayons X et les protons presentent une certaine ressemblance ou des caracteres identiques, on observe des differences dans le cas de l'irradiation par les protons. Chez les chiens exposes aux protons, le syndrome hemorragique etait plus prononce. L'hemorragie s'est manifestee plus tot chez ces animaux et etait plus abondante. Les auteurs ont decele une difference dans l*EBRdes protons pour les petits animaux (rats, souris) et pour les grands animaux (chiens). Cette difference etait importante: 0,7 dans le premier cas et de 1,0 a 1,15 dans le second cas. On trouve dans le memoire quelques considerations sur la cause de ces differences. (author) [Spanish] Los autores estudiaron las caracteristicas de los efectos biologicos de los protones de elevada energia (120, 240 y 510 MeV) mediante experimentos con ratones, ratas y perros. Comprobaron que a pesar de ciertas semejanzas en las radiolesiones causadas por los rayos X y los protones, los efectos de estos ultimos acusan algunas diferencias. El

  14. The energy issue in drinking water facilities. Assessment for the reduction of energy consumption and for the use of renewable energy within the Syndicat des eaux d'lle-de-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, A.; Guery, B.; Ferrari, J.P.; HABART, M.

    2013-01-01

    The energy challenges for the Syndicat des eaux d'Ile-de-France (Sedif), the biggest drinking water utility in France, are particularly significant, since its facilities for the production and distribution of drinking water, in particular the pumping station, consume the electrical equivalent of a town of 25,000 inhabitants (ca. 200 GWh per year). This consumption generates 15,700 tonnes in CO 2 equivalent annually. Furthermore, the Sedif area has numerous sites with a strong potential for the production of renewable energy: 21 photovoltaic, 4 wind, 15 geothermal and 10 close to a heating network. In order to meet these challenges, the Sedif wishes to integrate into its energy policy, the EU targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20%, to increase energy efficiency by 20% and to increase the share of renewable energy to 20% of its overall consumption between now and 2020. In order to do this, the public utility has set these targets for the one part, within the scope of its project ownership and for the other part, within that of the operations delegated to Veolia Eau d'Ile-de-France SNC. The energy consumption of 20 sites, which are undergoing renovation work between 2011 and 2015, will be better controlled, through the installation of high-efficiency motors or transformers and the replacement of thermal ozone destructors. Five pilot projects to produce or use renewable energy have been undertaken since 2010: the implementation of photovoltaic installations for power production on the main units' roofs, the installation of photovoltaic panels on the tanks at Chatillon and on the new tank at Villejuif, the erection of a wind turbine on the new tank at Palaiseau, and the replacement of the heating systems in the production plant at Choisy-le-Roi. The remaining improvement levers are those that Sedif is imposing on its delegates, Veolia Eau d'Ile-de-France SNC, within the framework of a new 12-year contract [from 1 January 2011). (authors)

  15. Swiss energy research concept for the period 2004-2007; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2004-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Swiss National Energy Research Commission CORE lists and discusses energy research topics that are to be looked during the period 2004 to 2007. The report discusses the fundamentals, visions and short and long-term targets for Swiss energy research and presents strategies for reaching them. Research areas dealt with include the efficient use of energy, renewable sources of energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economics basics necessary for the implementation of sustainable energy policy. Also, implementation aspects such as pilot and demonstration installations are discussed. The current state of research is noted and strategic targets and the ways and means of reaching them are examined. Main areas of research for the period are listed and financing issues are discussed.

  16. Les agro-solvants pour l’extraction des huiles végétales issues de graines oléagineuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Frederic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Les huiles représentent une part importante du régime alimentaire chez l’homme et contiennent de nombreux nutriments essentiels. Les consommateurs se montrent de plus en plus attentifs aux mentions relatives à l’origine et à la qualité des produits qu’ils achètent. Quant aux industries, elles ont compris qu’il n’est désormais plus possible de produire sans penser à l’environnement. Cet article traite de l’utilisation d’agro-solvants afin de substituer l’hexane, solvant le plus largement utilisé pour l’extraction de graines oléagineuses. En effet, l’hexane présente de nombreux inconvénients, comme par exemple sa grande inflammabilité, sa dangerosité pour la santé et l’environnement et son origine non-renouvelable. Son utilisation dans le domaine de l’extraction est discutée depuis les années 1980, avec une intensité renouvelée depuis les années 2000. Une vue d’ensemble d’agro-solvants alternatifs est présentée.

  17. Some results on the fluorescence of gases excited by high-energy charged particles; Quelques resultats concernant la fluorescence de gaz excites par des particules chargees de grande energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L; Lesureur, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The essential characteristics of rare gases for use as scintillators are as follows: a very brief period of luminescence, generally less than 10{sup -8} s; a linear response as a function of the energy lost by the nuclear particle in the gas, even in the case of strongly ionising particles (fission fragments). In the gaseous or condensed state therefore, they are of great interest in nuclear physics. (author) [French] Les caracteristiques essentielles des gaz rares en tant que scintillateurs sont: une duree de luminescence tres breve, inferieure a 10{sup -8} s en general; une reponse lineaire en fonction de l'energie perdue par la particule nucleaire dans le gaz, meme dans le cas de particules fortement ionisantes (fragments de fission). A l'etat gazeux ou condense, ils presentent donc un grand interet en physique nucleaire. (auteur)

  18. Calculation of the energy of particles emitted by the reactions {sup 3}{sub 1}T (d,n) {sup 4}{sub 2}He, D (d,n) {sup 3}{sub 2}He and D (d,p) T; Calcul de l'energie des particules emises par les reactions {sup 3}{sub 1}T (d,n) {sup 4}{sub 2}He, D (d,n) {sup 3}{sub 2}He et D (d,p) T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oria, M; Sorriaux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    With a view to ease the work of research workers using 150 kV electrostatic accelerators, we have calculated the energy and the emission angle of particles emitted during the reactions {sub 1}{sup 3}T(d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He, {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He and {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,p){sub 1}{sup 3}T. The results are classified in tables and arranged according to the acceleration energy of the deuterons. Since the energies considered are relatively low we have limited our study to the non-relativistic domain; this simplification results in a maximum energy variation with respect to the real energy values of 1 per cent. We give also two curves representing the variations in the total cross-sections for the reactions T (d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He and D (d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He. (authors) [French] De facon a faciliter la tache des experimentateurs utilisant des accelerateurs electrostatiques de 150 kV, nous avons calcule l'energie et l'angle d'emission des particules emises lors des reactions {sub 1}{sup 3}T(d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He, {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He and {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,p){sub 1}{sup 3}T. Les resultats ont ete classes dans des tableaux, et ordonnes en fonction de l'energie d'acceleration des deuterons. Les energies considerees etant relativement peu elevees, nous avons limite notre etude au domaine non relativiste, cette simplification n'entraine qu'une variation maximale de 1 pour cent sur les valeurs reelles des energies. Nous avons joint a ce calcul deux courbes representant la variation des sections efficaces totales des reactions T (d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He et D (d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He. (auteurs)

  19. La lipochimie et le carbone renouvelable : une opportunité pour l’agro-industrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaset Antoine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The willing of the Member States of the European Union to reduce the petrol dependence, associated to the environment quality problems and the search for better life conditions for citizens sets the lipochemistry within the expectations of the sustainable development and within the hopes of our society. The agriculture will thus play a capital role in the coming years. Indeed, the oleaginous will have a more and more privileged position to reply of course to the energy requirements but also mainly to supply specialty and commodity bio-products. In these conditions, the industry of the renewable carbon, and particularly the industry of oleaginous, are going to develop and will come across an expansion in the short and the medium term. In this new context, the synergy between different disciplines will be a provider of success. Also, the “assembling” of different agricultural productions will be a source of innovation and a basis for the creation of new economic activities. In this sense, the reactivity between the lignocellulosic substrates and the fatty derivatives constitutes one of these challenges. We have investigated new activation techniques adapted to two-phase solid/liquid media. These activations employ either technological ways that favour the compatibility between products and substrates, or fatty derivatives that provide a good reactivity after appropriate functionalisation. The examples that are given try to illustrate this approach, to debate around new concepts, and to place emphasis on all the scientific and economic benefits obtained therefrom. From then on, the lipochemistry is situated in the centre of a system where the deductive research and the inductive research nourish each other.

  20. Simulation and analysis of the energy consumption of elevator systems; Simulation und Analyse des Energiebedarfs von Aufzugssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletschen, Ingo; Rohr, Stephan [ThyssenKrupp Aufzugswerke GmbH, Neuhausen a.d.F. (Germany); Kennel, Ralph [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Elevator systems would be in principal a good example for a perpetuum mobile. While lifting loads and persons electrical energy is converted into potential energy and reconverted later. In practice these conversions are however lossy. So the aim for high energy efficiency is to minimize these losses. However, as a travel of an elevator consists in main parts of acceleration and deceleration, the exclusive consideration of the efficiency during constant speed is not sufficient. Thus a simulation environment is introduced which reliably determines the elevators' energy consumption. The simulation is validated at an elevator afterwards the different influences on the energy consumption of elevators are analyzed. (orig.)

  1. Les paradigmes sociologiques à l’épreuve des catégories de sexe : quel renouvellement de l’épistémologie du travail ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hirata

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se realiza el balance de las rupturas teóricas con la tradición de la sociología del trabajo francesa cen- trada en la figura del obrero varón de empresa industrial. Se tratará de analizar dos tipos de rupturas: la provocada por la introducción de las categorías de sexo y la provoca- da por la introducción teórica de las relaciones sociales de sexo, o de género o, incluso, de relación social (de sexo. La periodización y el análisis de las consecuencias episte- mológicas de estas rupturas permitirán que aparezcan: el lugar real y el alcance de esta sexuación de los objetos de la sociología del trabajo; su valor heurístico en el análisis del trabajo; su papel en la renovación de los paradigmas que dominan el campo del trabajo y sus elaboraciones alternativas. A partir de cierta cantidad de ejemplos con- cretos, el texto mostrará las aportaciones de las investiga- ciones que introducen una perspectiva de género para, finalmente, apuntar algunas diferencias nacionales entre las sociologías del trabajo en su manera de integrar las relaciones sociales de sexo.

  2. The role of technical progress in the process of recalculating oil reserves; Le role du progres technique dans le processus de renouvellement des reserves petrolieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulard, J.N. [Total/Fina/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1999-08-01

    Contrary to the concept of resources (which is essentially a geological one), the notion of reserves designates the quantities that are technically and economically recoverable. Beyond the production-related effect, the reserves therefore evolve over time in accordance with numerous technical and economic parameters. Among these parameters, it can be seen that technical progress plays a considerable role throughout the process of converting resources into reserves, including progress in the identification, accessibility and processing of the resources, and improvements in economic viability. After having tackled the problem of measuring the 'technical progress effects' and citing examples, we demonstrate that the evolution in oil reserves is subject to three types of impact. These are a quantitative impact by significantly improving the recovery rates or making it possible to identify hitherto undetectable oil fields, a qualitative impact by widening the resource base thanks to the adoption of new categories of oil (in particular the so-called 'unconventional' oils) and by carrying out the gradual substitution between these resources of differing qualities. There is also a dynamic impact, through the acceleration of resource availability. Through these three approaches, technical progress makes makes it possible to ensure continuity in oil supply and contributes significantly to the recalculation of reserves. It therefore acts as a compensating factor, counterbalancing the progressive depletion of resources. (author)

  3. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment; Potentiel d'economies d'energie par les services energetiques - application au cycle de vie des equipements de conversion de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, M

    2006-12-15

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  4. Symetrie en energie des spectres de l'onde de densite de charge dans le 2-hydrogene seleniure de niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmand, Behnaz

    Les mecanismes qui menent a la supraconductivite dans les supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique sont encore aujourd'hui mal compris contrairement a ceux dans les supraconducteurs conventionnels. Dans les hauts-Tc, certaines modulations de la densite d'etats electroniques coexistant avec la phase supraconductrice ont ete observees, ce qui engendre des questionnements sur leur role dans la supraconductivite. En fait, plusieurs types de modulation de la densite d'etats electroniques existent, comme par exemple l'onde de densite de charge et l'onde de densite de paires. Ces deux modulations, d'origines differentes et mesurables avec la technique de spectroscopie par effet tunnel, peuvent etre differenciees avec une etude de leur symetrie. Ce memoire consistera donc a presenter l'etude de la symetrie de l'onde de densite de charge dans le 2H-NbSe2 qui est presente dans la phase supraconductrice a 300 mK. Par contre, certaines difficultes liees au principe de mesure, soit l'effet de normalisation, nuisent a l'identification de cette symetrie. La methode, pour contourner ce probleme sera alors l'element clef de ce travail.

  5. SIMULATION OF THERMO-ELASTICS PROPERTIES OF THERMAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2011 ... Energies Renouvelables, Faculté des sciences, Département de physique, université de ... proche de celle des verres (de 1 à 2 W.m-1. ..... amélioration et le comportement du revêtement sans traitement thermique sera quasi.

  6. Caractéristiques morphologiques et optiques du silicium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1) Unité de Recherche des Matériaux et des Energies Renouvelables (URMER),. Université .... solution une meilleure mouillabilité, permettant .... l'exposition ou du stockage de SiP diminue sa .... aux microsystèmes thermiques, Thèse. Lyon ...

  7. Modélisation et analyse exergetique d'un système de gazéification des résidus de bois en vue de la production d'électricité

    OpenAIRE

    Razanajatovo , Tahiry Landry; Morau , Dominique; Rakotondramiarana , Hery Tiana

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Cette étude s'est focalisée sur l'opportunité de l'utilisation des ressources renouvelables, comme le bois, dans le domaine énergétique. La modélisation de chaque étape de transformation de l'énergie des résidus bois en électricité est présentée : transformation du bois en gaz de synthèse par le biais d'un gazogène – conversion de l'énergie calorifique du syngaz en énergie mécanique par l'utilisation d'un moteur à combustion interne – conversion de l'énergie mécanique ...

  8. Energy research 2003 - Overview; Energie-Forschung 2003 / Recherche energetique 2003. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter / Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2003. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energies, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, combustion, fuel cells and in the process engineering areas. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small-scale hydro, geothermal energy and wind energy are presented. Work being done on nuclear safety and disposal regulations as well as controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  9. Municipalities and opening up of energy markets; Les municipalites et l'ouverture des marches energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The opening of energy markets in Europe is modifying deeply the general framework of economic activity, modes of organisation and ways of thinking. The energy future in Europe is being determined under the influence of Community directives relating to electricity and to gas. It is also being moulded by national legislation, which is being progressively put into place in different countries of the European Union and in other European countries such as those of central Europe. These will affect the conditions under which policies for energy efficiency, for the development of renewable energy and for combating climate change are to be implemented. The liberalization of energy markets is a new and highly significant element in the European energy scene and municipalities are making a constructive contribution to this process. About 160 representatives of municipalities from 19 different European countries met at the Energie-Cites Seminar in Barcelona in order to become better informed, to exchange opinions and to debate the consequences at their level of the opening of energy markets. As a consequence they have asked themselves questions and exchanged ideas in relation with their respective situations regarding energy planning, production, distribution, and the role of population motivative. The seminar is organized around one round table about the threats and the opportunities of the opening up of energy markets, and three sessions about: what is going to change for the municipality as energy consumer, what is going to change for the municipality as energy producer, distributor and regulator-developer, and what is going to change for the municipality as motivative. (J.S.)

  10. Energy: decentralized production and sustainable development of territories.... Tomorrow: which roles for the local organizations? Proceedings; Energie: production decentralisee et developpement durable des territoires.... Demain: quels roles pour les collectivites locales? Recueil des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrousse, M [Cabinet Explicit, 75 - Paris (France); Magnin, G [Energie-Cites, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2002-07-01

    These 4. national energy sittings were organized around 3 invited talks and 16 workshops dealing with: the technological, economical and territorial stakes of decentralized energy; the small cogeneration experience of Frankfurt city (Germany); the new power supply tariff in Geneva (Switzerland), which choice for the consumer? Which role for the city?. Workshop 1 - knowing about the energy situation of a a territory: why? How? What the energy collective services scheme says; the example of a regional energy observatory. Workshop 2 - the electric power law: consequences for the local organizations; role and point of view of a licence holder with respect to the territory energy supply. Workshop 3 - the new legal dispositions for territory projects and the place of energy; a commonwealth of towns integrates the renewable energies in its competences; the solar ordinance of Barcelona (Spain). Workshop 4 - energy, a development tool inside the regional natural parks; a citizenship action for a wind power project; a district heating network supplied by a wood-fueled boiler plant and a gas-fueled cogeneration plant. Workshop 5 - cogeneration and cogeneration systems: what is the matter in France? In other countries? Which place for local systems?; district heating and cooling in Montpellier city: the tri-generation plant of the town hall. Workshop 6 - the success of biomass in Styria (Austria); geothermal energy and other energy sources, from competition to complementarity, the example of two district heating networks: Chevilly-Larue/l'Hay-les-Roses and Fresnes. Workshop 7 - overview of the French and European situation; a micro-hydroelectric power plant on a drinkable water supply; the Vauban district in Freiburg. Workshop 8 - heat pumps; solar thermal energy; solar photovoltaic power: from birth to full development; conversion, coupling and control technologies for the development of distributed power generation; evolution of biomass valorization files. Workshop 9 - will

  11. Energy: decentralized production and sustainable development of territories.... Tomorrow: which roles for the local organizations? Proceedings; Energie: production decentralisee et developpement durable des territoires.... Demain: quels roles pour les collectivites locales? Recueil des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrousse, M. [Cabinet Explicit, 75 - Paris (France); Magnin, G. [Energie-Cites, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2002-07-01

    These 4. national energy sittings were organized around 3 invited talks and 16 workshops dealing with: the technological, economical and territorial stakes of decentralized energy; the small cogeneration experience of Frankfurt city (Germany); the new power supply tariff in Geneva (Switzerland), which choice for the consumer? Which role for the city?. Workshop 1 - knowing about the energy situation of a a territory: why? How? What the energy collective services scheme says; the example of a regional energy observatory. Workshop 2 - the electric power law: consequences for the local organizations; role and point of view of a licence holder with respect to the territory energy supply. Workshop 3 - the new legal dispositions for territory projects and the place of energy; a commonwealth of towns integrates the renewable energies in its competences; the solar ordinance of Barcelona (Spain). Workshop 4 - energy, a development tool inside the regional natural parks; a citizenship action for a wind power project; a district heating network supplied by a wood-fueled boiler plant and a gas-fueled cogeneration plant. Workshop 5 - cogeneration and cogeneration systems: what is the matter in France? In other countries? Which place for local systems?; district heating and cooling in Montpellier city: the tri-generation plant of the town hall. Workshop 6 - the success of biomass in Styria (Austria); geothermal energy and other energy sources, from competition to complementarity, the example of two district heating networks: Chevilly-Larue/l'Hay-les-Roses and Fresnes. Workshop 7 - overview of the French and European situation; a micro-hydroelectric power plant on a drinkable water supply; the Vauban district in Freiburg. Workshop 8 - heat pumps; solar thermal energy; solar photovoltaic power: from birth to full development; conversion, coupling and control technologies for the development of distributed power generation; evolution of biomass valorization files. Workshop 9

  12. Energy research 1998. The programme leaders` status reports; Energie-Forschung 1998. Recherche energetique 1998. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter. Rapport de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voirol, C. [ed.; Dubal, L. [ed.

    1999-03-01

    This report is a collection of the annual reports written by the 20 energy research programme leaders of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy about their activities in 1998. There is also a report of the Energy Research Coordinator reviewing the progress achieved in 1998. Finally, the organisation of the Swiss energy research is shortly presented, and useful addresses are given

  13. Annual report 2005 General Direction of the Energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2005 Direction Generale de L'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This 2005 annual report of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the raw Materials), takes stock on the energy bill and accounting of the France. The first part presents the electric power, natural gas and raw materials market in France. The second part is devoted to the diversification of the energy resources with a special attention to the renewable energies and the nuclear energy. The third part discusses the energy and raw materials prices and the last part presents the international cooperation in the energy domain. (A.L.B.)

  14. Analysis of agronomical constraints in connection with the utilisation of straw as an energy source. Final report. Analyse des contraintes agronomiques liees a l'utilisation des pailles comme source d'energie. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, P

    1985-01-01

    The main objectives of the researches proposed by several French INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) teams can be outlined in the following manner: Impact evaluations upon the soil properties of a radical modification in the organic stock management (due to the use of by products as energy feedstocks). Definition of an agronomically safe (limited) 'biomass deposit' for energy production and an optimum management of vegetable biomass in terms of both energetic and agricultural purposes. Study of the socio-economic consequences of the introduction of new energy paths within rural areas subject to intensive or extensive farming practices. Development of economic methods for analyzing and forecasting the costs of new energy paths.

  15. Reform of the energy supply law seen from the point of view of industry. Reform des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes aus industrieller Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeke, E; Heller, W [Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie e.V., Koeln (Germany). Abt. Energiepolitik

    1991-12-01

    From the point of view of the industry there are two central tasks for energy policy: 1. The German industry has to be supplied with energy at internationally competitive prices. Of the three aims of energy policies (secure, moderately-priced and low-pollutant) the price aim is in Germany in the international comparison today least achieved. 2. Policy always tends to solve problems in the energy sector with regulating interventions. An example from the recent past is the power supply law of 1990 with which the way to political electricity pricing was opened. But the precept for the Internal European Market has to be deregulation as only in this way the larger market can develop its efficiency to the full. Also for the reform of the economic laws concerning the energy sector these two central aims have to be taken into consideration. (orig./UA).

  16. The Effect of Kinetic Energy on the Reactions of Nucleogenic Carbon Atoms with Hydrocarbons; Effet de l'Energie Cinetique sur les Reactions des Atomes de Carbone Nucleogeniques avec des Hydrocarbures; Ehffekt kineticheskoj ehnergii pri reaktsiyakh atomov yadernogenichesko- go ugleroda s uglevodorodami; Efecto de la Energia Cinetica en las Reacciones de Atomos Nucleogenos de Carbono con Hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrin, J.; Rosenberg, H.; Wolfgang, R. [Sterling Chemistry Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); MacKay, C. [Haverford College, Haverford, PA (United States)

    1965-04-15

    }, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}D, CD{sub 9}CDH{sub 2} and from various mixtures of other labelled alkanes and alkenes indicates that the removal of kinetic energy from, the C atom has little effect on the relative rate of attack at various types of C-H bonds. (author) [French] Le procede fondamental permettant d'etudier l'effet de l'energie cinetique sur les reactions des atomes de carbone produits par transformation nucleaire se fonde sur la methode bien connue du ralentissement 5 l'aide de gaz inertes. Toutefois, il peut etre combine I d'autres procedes: 1. emploi d'agents de balayage pour deceler les processus dans lesquels interviennent des radicaux de longue periode; 2, etudes de degradation qui servent a determiner la position occupee par l'atome actif; 3, etudes a l'aide d'un double indicateur, dans lesquelles un coips en reaction est partiellement marque par le deuterium et la composition isotopique des produits marques est determinee en vue d'etablir l'origine de l'hydrogene que ces produits contiennent. Les auteurs presentent des resultats nouveaux sur les rendements dans les deux systemes neon-ethylene et neon-ethane, et discutent la relation entre ces resultats et ceux d'autres travaux fondes sur des etudes de degradation et des experiences a l'aide d'un double indicateur. Pour ce qui est des resultats relatifs au systeme neon-ethylene, la discussion se fonde sur les deux mecanismes d'insertion anterieurement admis, a savoir insertion de l'atome de carbone dans la double liaison C = C et dans la liaison C-H, de maniere a donner des produits d'addition C-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Lorsque la concentration en neon augmente, on retrouve tous les produits, mais les rendements relatifs varient sensiblement. Des produits tels que l'acetylene proprement dit et le vinyl-acetylene, qui peuvent se former a partir des produits d'addition initiaux C-C{sub 2}H{sub 4} par des processus exigeant une forte energie, perdent de leur importance, tandis que le rendement en produits formes a basse

  17. The energy and the french people opinion barometer in June 2006; Le barometre d'opinion des Francais et l'energie en juin 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This inquiry, constituted by 10 questions about the energy, dealt with three main topics: the nuclear energy, the electric power policy and the energies prices. The choice of the nuclear to produce the electric power is always supported by a relative majority of french people but the craze of 2003-2005 decreases. The radioactive wastes production and storage are the major disadvantage of the nuclear. The major part of the french people is favorable to the following of the electric power (from nuclear energy) exportation, even those who disagree the nuclear. The fears about the energy prices concern all the energies except the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  18. Swiss Federal energy research - project list 2006/2007; Projektliste der Energieforschung des Bundes 2006/2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) lists and classifies the 1,025 energy-relevant research projects carried out in the years 2006 and 2007. Those projects are listed that were supported and/or financed with Swiss or European public funding. Details of the contributions made by private enterprises are noted and discussed. It is also noted that the Swiss Federal Office of Energy operates a data bank with a systematic collection of around 9,200 publications on research projects. Statistics on the classification of the projects are presented, as are details of funding for the years 1990 to 2007. The sources of financing and the distribution of the means over the various areas of research are looked at. The number of persons active in the research work is discussed. A comparison is made with the research programs of other countries. The list of projects is split into four categories - efficient use of energy, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, energy economic basics as well as technology transfer and co-ordination. Finally a comprehensive list of all research projects for the years 2006 and 2007 is presented in tabular form. A list of those responsible for the various areas of research completes the report.

  19. Hortisol - Integration of energy-processes in greenhouses; Hortisol - Integration des processus energetiques dans les cultures sous abris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvin, M.; Morand, G. [Haute Ecole valaisanne, Sion (Switzerland); Reist, A. [Antoine Reist, Vetroz (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at Hortisol - a simulation aid for growers of tomatoes. This simulation aid not only takes various energy aspects such as heat, humidity, carbon dioxide and artificial light into account, but also the agricultural aspects of tomato cultures. The paper describes how planners can use the tool to simulate various situations and their effects on the growing of tomatoes and on the amount of energy used. The models and rules used in the simulation are presented. The structure of the simulation software and its validation are discussed. Appendices present the theoretical basis of the tool and screen-shots.

  20. ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    1Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d'Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 01 BP 526 Cotonou Bénin. Email : cgbemavo@yahoo.fr. 2Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, Centre de Recherches Agricoles d'Agonkanmey (CRA-A),. Laboratoire des Sciences du Sol, Eau et Environnement (LSSEE).

  1. The energy industries reorganization in the economic globalization; La restructuration des industries de l'energie dans la mondialisation economique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouroux, J.M

    2003-07-01

    The author wonders on the energy supply evolution since thirty years and more specially the fossil fuels industries reconstruction. The energy panorama has been completely modified by a serial of processes which stopped the nuclear energy expansion and replaced the fossil fuels in the front of the energy scene. The processes are examined to evaluate the consequences of theses transformations on the model of economic development developed by the capitalism. (A.L.B)

  2. Swiss energy research in 2008; Energie-Forschung 2008 - Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter / Recherche energetique 2008 - Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive document published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on Swiss energy research in the year 2008. The overview reports made by the programme leaders are presented. In the area of efficient energy use, programme reports are presented for the following areas: Energy in buildings, traffic, electricity technologies and their usage, networks, heat-pumps and combined heat and power, combustion technologies, power station 2020 and carbon capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen as well as process engineering. In the renewables sector, work in the following areas is reported on: Solar thermal energy and storage, photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy, biomass and wood energy, hydropower, geothermal energy and wind energy. Research in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear safety is reported on, as is research in the areas of regulatory safety, fusion and nuclear wastes. Finally, a report on energy-economics research is presented. The report is completed with a list of projects and an appendix containing details on the Swiss Energy Research Commission CORE and a list of those responsible for the various research programmes.

  3. Cost analysis of measures in the integrated energy and climate programme (IECP); Wirtschaftliche Bewertung von Massnahmen des integrierten Energie- und Klimaprogramms (IEKP). Wirtschaftlicher Nutzen des Klimaschutzes. Kostenbetrachtung ausgewaehlter Einzelmassnahmen der Meseberger Beschluesse zum Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Fleiter, Tobias [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2008-08-15

    The main objective of the study made by the project team was to analyse the energy and climate programme measures with respect to their ecological and economic effects. The study concentrated on a bundle of particularly important measures within the total package. The savings are estimated from a total cost perspective in which the additional investments for (possibly) more expensive efficiency technologies and technologies for using renewable energies are set against the saved costs for fossil energy (cost-benefit analysis). However, this is not done from a macroeconomic perspective since, e.g. feedback effects via prices and income are not considered; these should be examined in more detail in follow-up research. The overall result is that, with annual investments of 24 billion euro in climate protection, Germany triggers energy savings of 29 billion euro based on the year 2020. These savings are supported by programme costs (transfer costs) of only 2.5 billion euro annually (this sum includes the surcharges from renewables and CHP which constitute the biggest share). It is worth investing in climate protection in Germany. (orig.)

  4. Energy policy in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Short version of the energy concept for 2020; Energiepolitik in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Kurzfassung des Energiekonzepts 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    The realisation of an energy supply that is safe, economically efficient and environmentally friendly presupposes committed, non-judgemental cooperation between the economy, the public at large and the political realm. For this purpose the state government of Baden Wuerttemberg has summarised the key points of what constitutes a sustainable energy policy in its ''Energy concept for Baden-Wuerttemberg until 2020'', which was passed by the state cabinet on 27 July 2009. The present brochure is a short version of this energy concept. Its purpose is to inform the public at large about the principles of Baden-Wuerttemberg's energy policy.

  5. Importance économique du transport dans les contraintes énergétiques internationales. Le cas des hydrocarbures Economic Importance of Transportation in International Energy Constraints. the Case of Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masseron J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les nombreuses prévisions publiées pour tenter d'estimer l'offre et la demande d'énergie d'ici la fin du XX' siècle montrent qu'il est nécessaire d'examiner les conditions de transport à grande distance de l'ensemble des ressources énergétiques. Le présent article tente, à partir des scenarios des besoins énergétiques mondiaux, d'analyser à quelles conditions pratiques seront soumis les échanges. L'auteur passe successivement en revue les différents moyens de transport pour chaque type d'énergie et les problèmes qui s'y rattachent. En particulier, il montre l'interdépendance des diverses formes de transport et souligne l'absence d'une véritable coopération dans les échanges internationaux d'énergie. The numerous published forecosts attempting to estimate the supply and demand for energy between now and the end of the 20th century show that an examination must be made of long-distance transportation conditions thot will govern exchanges. The present article is based on scenarios for worldwide energy needs and attempts to onalyze the practical conditions that will govern exchanges. A review is made of different means of transportation for each type of energy and the problems they entail. In porticular, the article shows the interdependence of different forms of transportation and emphasizes the absence of any veritable coopération in international energy exchanges.

  6. Development and data analysis of a radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays experiment; Developpement et analyse des donnees d'une experience de radiodetection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belletoile, A

    2007-10-15

    The radio-detection of cosmic rays was first attempted in the sixties. Unfortunately at that time, the results suffered from poor reproducibility and the technique was abandoned in favour of direct particle and fluorescence detection. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements the radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays is being reinvestigated. In this document, first, we remind the reader of the global problematic of cosmic rays. Then, the several mechanisms involved in the emission of an electric field associated with extensive air showers are discussed. The CODALEMA (cosmic detection array with logarithmic electro magnetic antenna) experiment that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray radio-detection, is extensively described along with the first experimental results. A radio-detection test experiment implanted at the giant detector Pierre Auger is presented. It should provide inputs to design the future detector using this technique at extreme energies. (author)

  7. Development and data analysis of a radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays experiment; Developpement et analyse des donnees d'une experience de radiodetection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belletoile, A

    2007-10-15

    The radio-detection of cosmic rays was first attempted in the sixties. Unfortunately at that time, the results suffered from poor reproducibility and the technique was abandoned in favour of direct particle and fluorescence detection. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements the radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays is being reinvestigated. In this document, first, we remind the reader of the global problematic of cosmic rays. Then, the several mechanisms involved in the emission of an electric field associated with extensive air showers are discussed. The CODALEMA (cosmic detection array with logarithmic electro magnetic antenna) experiment that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray radio-detection, is extensively described along with the first experimental results. A radio-detection test experiment implanted at the giant detector Pierre Auger is presented. It should provide inputs to design the future detector using this technique at extreme energies. (author)

  8. The Biological Effect of Fast Neutrons and High-Energy Protons; Effets Biologiques des Neutrons Rapides et des Protons de Haute Energie; Biologicheskoe dejstvie bystrykh nejtronov i protonov vysokikh ehnergii; Efectos Biologicos de los Neutrones Rapidos y de los Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalev, Ju. I.; Petrovich, I. K.; Strel' cova, V. N.

    1964-03-15

    tumour of the thyroid gland also appear. With proton irradiation, the minimum tumour dose for haemopoietic tissue and the thyroid gland is in the neighbourhood of 250 rad, for the testicles 300 rad, for the prostate, the pancreas and the subcutaneous tissue 100 rad. After irradiation with fast neutrons the incidence of tumours of the testicles, the large intestine, the kidneys and the liver is increased at doses between 42.5 and 85 rad. The same is true for tumours of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue at a dose of 85 rad. With fast neutron irradiation tumours appeared at approximately three to five times lower radiation doses than with proton irradiation. (author) [French] Le memoire expose les resultats d'experiences visant a comparer l'e ffe t des neutrons rapides et celui des protons de haute energie (500 MeV) sur la duree de vie, le sang peripherique, la frequence et la rapidite d'apparition des tumeurs chez le rat, en tenant compte de la dose efficace et du delai d'observation. Les travaux ont porte sur 573 rats blancs pour les neutrons et sur 490 rats blancs pour les protons. Les animaux etaient exposes a des doses de neutrons rapides de 8,5 a 510 rad et a des doses de protons de 28 a 1008 rad. Pour les neutrons rapides et les protons, les auteurs ont determine les valeurs des doses effectives aiguees, sub-aiguees et chroniques. La DL{sup 30}{sub 50} est de 408 rad pour les neutrons et de 600 rad pour les protons; la DL{sup 120}{sub 50} s'eleve a 380 et 600 rad, respectivement. On a procede a une etude critique des lois qui regissent la mortalite des rats a breve echeance et apres des delais prolonges. D'apres les constatations, la survie moyenne des rats irradies par des neutrons rapides est independante de leur sexe. En ce qui concerne les differents indices du sang peripherique, la forme de la courbe dose/effet depend dans une forte mesure, non seulement de la radiosensibilite des cellules correspondantes du sang, mais aussi de la duree d'observation. Elle

  9. Energy sources consumption: end uses, efficiency and productivity; La consommation des sources d'energie: utilisations finales, efficacite et productivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.M. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie (CNRS- UPMF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the impact of the choices made by all actors, from the energy producers to the process and infrastructure designers and the end users, in the evolution of energy consumptions. Some very little improvements made in the energy efficiency of appliances can become equivalent to the production of several oil fields or power plants at the world scale. More efficient energy uses will not replace the additional productions but they must be considered together to be compared. The energy files are first analyzed as a whole in order to show the hidden field of energy choices. In this framework, users, designers and fitters have to face very different choices because they consider efficiency improvements under different aspects: scientifical, technical, economical and social (public information and habits). These differences in efficiency uses have a time and spatial impact on the growth of energy consumption. The economical and social factors influence the collective way to consume energy and are expressed by the energy intensity of the economic activity. The last part of this document analyzes the influence of this notion on the world energy consumption scenarios at the 2050 prospects. (J.S.)

  10. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security; Recueil des interventions. Securite d'approvisionnement energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch

    2000-07-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  11. Chance to apply energy storage systems in liberalised electricity markets. Chancen des Einsatzes von Energiespeichern im liberalisierten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkner, P. (Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany). Abt. Netzbetrieb); Kuebler, B. (Piller Inc., Middletown, NY (United States))

    1999-05-17

    The liberalisation of the European and German electricity market causes an individual and customer specific evaluation of the various services offered by the single electricity supply company. In this connection energy storage systems are a modern technical device to guarantee extremely high customer demands concerning voltage quality. The following deals with the basic requirements to use energy storage systems and the possibilities that are offered by such systems. The installation of an energy storage system is compared with the classic gridbound measures to improve voltage quality. Furthermore, a non-technical attempt to settle the impact of quality deficiencies with the help of an insurance cover with a claim for compensation is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Glossaire des sigles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABM Anti-ballistic missile = Missile antimissile balistique AGM Air-to-ground missile = Missile air-sol AIEA Agence Internationale de l’Energie Atomique ALCM Air-launched cruise missile = Missile de croisière air-sol ANSEA Association des Nations du Sud-Est asiatique ANT* Arme nucléaire tactique ASAT Anti-satellite = Arme antisatellite ASW Anti-submarine warfare = Guerre anti-sous-marine AWACS Airborne warning and control system = Système aérien de contrôle et d’alerte BMD Ballistic missile d...

  13. IPANEMA 6 Initiative Partenariale Nationale pour l'emergence des Energies Marines (National partnership initiative for the emergence of marine energies). Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IPANEMA initiative is a work group built up by public and private actors. Its objectives are the development of scientific and industrial sector dedicated to marine energies, to set up a coordinated network of French actors involved in marine energies, to develop offshore test sites adapted to different technologies aimed at the exploitation of marine energies, and to facilitate the development of demonstrators. After a presentation of the participants, of the overall project governance and of projects which currently are being developed in France, this report makes and discusses some propositions to reach the above-mentioned objectives. It also outlines necessary transversal actions to anticipate the deployment of marine energies

  14. Influence of consumer behaviour on the energy requirement of private households. Einfluss des Verbraucherverhaltens auf den Energiebedarf privater Haushalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The papers read at the meeting deal with the causes and effects of consumer tendencies towards careful use of energy in private households. The technical, social, and economic marginal conditions are thereby set into relief. Specific statements have only become possible since social scientists and engineers have jointly evolved practicable methods to analyze consumer behaviour.

  15. Nuclear power - a (too) pat solution. An energy picture book. Das faule Ei des Kolumbus. Ein Energiebilderbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vester, F

    1979-01-01

    This popular book in 'window' form attempts to give a picture of the complex economic and social consequences of a further development of nuclear power utilisation. The advantages of nuclear power are listed, and a critical balance is established for the negative consequences of an all-nuclear energy use for economy, environment, and society.

  16. Current algebra; Algebre des courants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( {delta}I = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [French] La premiere partie de ce cours (trois premiers chapitres), traite des generalites concernant l'algebre de courants. Apres une definition rapide des courants faibles et un rappel de leurs proprietes (hypothese V-A, conservation du courant vecteur, regles de selection, courant axial partiellement conserve,...), l'on introduit l'algebre de Gell-Mann SU (3) x SU (3), et discute les proprietes generales de l'Hamiltonien faible non leptonique. Les chapitres IV a IX sont consacres a des applications importantes de l'algebre des courants. En premier lieu l'on demontre la formule de Adler et Weisberger, par deux methodes differentes, celle dite du repere de moment infini et celle des singularites proches. Cette derniere est seule utilisee dans la suite. Puis, l'on traite successivement les problemes suivants: desintegrations semi-leptoniques des mesons K et des hyperons, theoreme de Kroll-Ruderman, desintegrations non leptoniques des mesons

  17. Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, D

    2006-07-15

    In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

  18. Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, D

    2006-07-15

    In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

  19. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2001. Direction generale de l'energie et des matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  20. The opinion barometer of French people and energy in January 2007; Le barometre d'opinion des francais et l'energie en janvier 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    By request of the French Energy Observatory, an inquiry has been carried out by CREDOC on a representative sample of 2009 people aged 18 and above, selected according to the quotas method. The inquiry is made of 10 questions about energy and deals with 4 main topics: nuclear energy, climatic change and greenhouse effect, power generation and energy supplies, and energy prices. The choice of nuclear energy for power generation gains more approvals than 6 months ago but remains divided (47% find advantages while 44% find drawbacks). Research in this domain must focus on the waste management problem (wastes volume and toxicity abatement, and safety improvement of transport and storage). In order to limit the greenhouse effect, a majority of French people agree with the principle of a change of lifestyle in particular in transports, energy choices and industrial activities. Despite the power outage of November 2006, French people are satisfied by the operation of power distribution in France. Opinions are divided concerning the decision power in energy supplies (European, national or market). Finally, fears about prices increase concern in priority the automotive fuels and in a lesser extent natural gas. (J.S.)

  1. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials; Rapport annuel 2001. Direction generale de l'energie et des matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  2. Competence centre for energy and information technology 1999 -2008 - Supervisory report; Betreuung des Kompetenzzentrums Energie und Informationstechnik 1999-2008 - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, B

    2008-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done concerning the supervision of the competence centre for energy and information technology. The potential for increasing the rational use of electrical energy in the ICT domain and in other areas such as consumer electronics are investigated. In the past, Switzerland has played a leading role in investigating and promoting a more rational use of energy in ICT and influenced the design of energy declarations and labels on the global level. The report includes a number of annual reports for the years 1999 to 2008 which also cover not only the electricity consumption of computer centres and communication systems, but also the rational use of electricity in consumer electronics.

  3. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  4. Sorghum. A contribution to the diversification of the portfolio of energy plants; Sorghumhirsen. Ein Beitrag zur Diversifizierung des Energiepflanzenspektrums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Within the joint project 'Cultivation technology sorghum - A contribution to the diversification of the portfolio of energy plants' extensive investigations of the cultivation technology in sorghum were conducted. Within this joint project sorghum will be tested under various conditions according to its suitability as a raw material for the production of biogas. Additionally, the cultivation of sorghum in Germany shall be optimized under cultivation techniques and environmental aspects.

  5. Modelisation des effets physico-techniques pour la conception des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    automatisation dans les installations industrielles a besoin d'une régulation automatique des commandes des processus technologiques pour lesquelles certaines contraintes sont à relever compte tenu des exigences des innovations scientifiques de ...

  6. Assessment of fracking for shale gas production from the viewpoints of energy policy and environmental policy. Opinion of the German Advisory Council on the Environment; Energie- und umweltpolitische Bewertung des Fracking zur Schiefergasgewinnung. Stellungnahme des Sachverstaendigenrates fuer Umweltfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Mechthild; Taeuber, Sabine [Sachverstaendigenrat fuer Umweltfragen, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The proponents of shale gas production in Europe hope that the effects it has occasioned in the USA, namely falling prices and growing competitiveness, will also come about in Germany. However a decrease in gas prices is not to be expected, given Germany's comparatively modest shale gas reserves; these are even only enough to have a slightly moderating effect on the country's decline in domestic natural gas production. While it is true that the improved climate footprint of the USA is attributable to the increasing substitution of natural gas for coal, this is of little benefit to the global climate, since the coal does not remain in the ground but, as a result of the decline in domestic demand, is successfully exported as a cheap energy resource, leading to higher CO{sub 2} emissions elsewhere. For the purposes of the energy turnaround shale gas production is dispensable because it is not available short-term and gas demand will decrease over the medium term. Shale gas production is associated with a real risk of groundwater contamination or an inadvertent release of climatically harmful gases; however these are probably controllable with the aid of continued research as well as stringent environmental regulations and monitoring. Other consequences such as soil sealing and the loss of natural and recreational space cannot be avoided, however. Here the costs and benefit of shale gas production will have to be weighed against each other with great care. There are still major gaps in available knowledge on its environmental effects; these should be closed through representative pilot projects prior to commercial production.

  7. Use of biomass from MSW for energy generation; Nutzung der Potenziale des biogenen Anteils im Abfall zur Energieerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gaston; Wuensch, Christoph; Schnapke, Antje; Schingnitz, Daniel; Baumann, Janett [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Institut fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten; Brunn, Lilly; Guenther, Marko; Wagner, Joerg; Bilitewski, Bernd [Institut fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten, Pirna (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    In Germany the waste management sector makes a significant contribution to energy production. Because waste contains a high part of carbon of biogenic origin, emissions from the treatment have to be considered as climate-neutral. Therewith the energy use from waste treatment processes is an important part of the substitution of fossil fuels linked with savings of CO{sub 2}-emissions. Content of the study is a detailed CO{sub 2}-balance of all waste treatment technologies that can be characterized with climate neutral energy production by using the biogenic carbon in the waste material. The carried out calculations for 2006 show clearly that the CO{sub 2} balance of the waste management sector is influenced significantly by the CO{sub 2}-emissions load from disposal sites. Lower CO{sub 2}-emissions for MBA in comparison to incineration plants result from low amounts of RDF which are mainly disposed in coal-fired power stations and cement works. These plants have a higher electric efficiency in comparison to incineration plants or the fuel energy is used directly in the cement plant, respectively. To quantify the development of the contribution of the waste management sector to energy production and climate protection the calculated results have been compared to a basis scenario in the year 1990. Since 1990 the balanced CO{sub 2,eq}-netto emissions could be reduced from about 34,0 Mio. Mg/a to 3,8 - 7,3 Mio. Mg/a in 2006, depending on the chosen substitution scenario and the corresponding CO{sub 2}-emissions factor for heat and electric power. That means the reduction from 1990 to 2006 is within the range 78 % to 89 %, according to the substitution scenario and the particular emission factor. This degressive development of climate relevant emissions by waste management processes in Germany is mainly caused by the legislative measurements, like the prohibition of disposal of untreated waste streams according to AbfAblV. Furthermore the development of the state of the

  8. In the field of energy cost reduction, what is the potential?; En matiere de reduction des depenses d`energie: quel est le gisement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, B. [Departement Industrie, CEREN (France)

    1996-12-31

    Through a segmentation of the fuel and electric power consumptions in the various industrial sectors and energy consumption process types in France in 1990, the energy conservation potential in the French metalworking and mechanical industry is analyzed and its evolution up to 2005 is assessed. It is shown that the reduction potential amounts to 450 kTep or 20 percent of the metalworking and metallic construction industry energy consumption, with an important part for the out-of-process sector (space heating, compressed air production, lighting). In the process sector, important reductions could be realized in thermal treatments and metal heating prior forming

  9. Integrated energy supply in closed distribution grids. On the legislator's scope in revising Article 110 of the Energy Economy Law with a mind to the third EC energy package; Integrierte Energieversorgung in geschlossenen Verteilernetzen. Zum Gestaltungsspielraum des Gesetzgebers zur Neuregelung des paragraph 110 EnWG im Lichte des Dritten EG-Energiepakets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saecker, Franz Juergen; Wolf, Maik

    2009-07-01

    The general exemption of site networks from the regulatory provisions of the Energy Economy Law stipulated in its Article 110 has led to many distribution grids in Germany not being under the control of the regulatory authorities and therefore not being amenable to access or compensation regulations. The beneficiaries of this exemption have been facilities ranging from modern industrial parks, airports, railway stations to shopping centres and camping sites. However, in a decision on 22 May 2008 the European Court of Justice ruled with binding effect that the exceptions from EC law granted by Article 110 Section 1 No. 1 of the German Energy Economy Law were too far-reaching, and the provision is therefore no longer applicable. In Article 28 of the Electricity Directive and the Gas Directive the third EC energy package stipulates that EC member states may under certain conditions exempt closed distribution grids from the general regulations of ex ante price approval, but that for all other purposes such grids are amenable to the provisions of the regulation regime and to surveillance by the regulatory authorities. Thus site networks, too, will in future have to allow third parties access at reasonable terms (Articles 20, 21 of the Energy Economy Law).

  10. Private financing and market orientation in the renewable energy sector; Private Finanzierung und marktwirtschaftliche Orientierung im Bereich des Regenerativen Energiesektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, M. [WRE AG, Frankfurt (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Private investment in the renewable energy sector should best be encouraged by creating favourable market conditions, not by political regulation. Investment incentives that stem from political decisions offer the investor insufficient security because, as experience shows, political decisions can all too quickly be overturned by shifts in political power. [Deutsch] Um private Investitionen in dem Sektor der Erneuerbaren Energiequellen zu intensivieren, muss man mit Marktbedingungen und nicht mit politischen Regulierungen arbeiten. Durch politische Entscheidungen sanktionierte Investitionen sind fuer einen Investor keine ausreichende Absicherung seiner Investition, da die Erfahrung gelehrt hat, dass solche politischen Entscheidungen durch neue politische Konstellationen schnell umgeworfen werden koennen. (orig.)

  11. Intermediate energies heavy ion collisions : study of the charged particles emission dynamics and emitters characterization; Collisions d`ions lourds aux energies intermediaires: etude de la dynamique d`emission des particules chargees et caracterisation des emetteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauge, E

    1994-07-01

    In heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies, reaction processes are ranging from slow processes where equilibrium is achieved between every emission, up to direct processes where nucleon nucleon scattering and phase space availability are the deciding factors. In order to investigate this transition, both the emission dynamics and the characteristics of the emitter have been studied, both theoretically and experimentally in the AMPHORA detector, for the systems 7, 17, 27 and 34 AMeV, {sup 40}Ar+Al, {sup 40}Ar+Cu and {sup 40}Ar+Ag. First, the linear momentum transfer of the most central collisions has been evaluated for these systems, by measuring the velocity of heavy residues. Then, by measuring azimuthal angle correlations functions, and by comparing them with statistical model predictions, the average angular momentum of the emitter has been evaluated. To study the charged particles emission dynamics, experimental azimuthal angle and relative momentum correlation functions have been compared with simulations based on a classical trajectory model. Finally, predictions of an advanced BUU model have been studied for the system 34 AMeV 40 Ar+Al. (authors). 69 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Technical advances and energy substitutions in the transportation sector; Progres techniques et substitutions energetiques dans le secteur des transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromenschlager-Philippe, F.

    2002-11-01

    Alternative motorization technologies have been proposed in order to achieve energy diversification and a reduction in pollutant emissions. Fuel cell vehicles are, among others, at the centre of research carried out by car manufacturers and oil companies. The use of fuel cell vehicles could contribute, first to a less stringent long-term energy dependence of oil importing countries and, second, to pollutant reduction in the transport sector. First of all, we propose the definition of 'innovation' and its treatment in the frame of mainstream economic theories. Then we proceed to a retrospective analysis of diesel motorization of the car market. In the second part of our work, we conduct a survey among French households aiming to obtain up-to-date information about their degree of acceptance of fuel cell technology. We are concerned about highlighting the determining factors of fuel cell vehicle adoption by consumers. For this, we set up a discrete choice model linking the individual decision to the whole group of technical or socio-economical factors and characteristics. Finally, we develop patterns of fuel cell equipment of passenger cars which differ according to type of vehicle and possible purchase assistance. These patterns lead us to the analysis of long-term fuel cell vehicle development on the French car market. (authors)

  13. Analyse de l'évolution et modélisation des besoins énergétiques français. Application du modèle ABEL à des scénarios contrastés aux horizons 2000 et 2020 Evolutionary Analysis and Modeling of French Energy Needs. Applying the ABEL Model to Contrasting Scenarios for the Horizons 2000 and 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncato J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Devant l'enchérissement du pétrole, les pays industrialisés à faibles ressources énergétiques fossiles nationales devront recourir dans le futur à d'autres formes d'énergie (nucléaire, charbon, solaire. La transformation de ces énergies primaires en vecteurs commercialisables est caractérisée par des coûts d'investissement élevés. Cela impose de rechercher le meilleur taux d'utilisation des équipements face à une demande fortement modulée. L'étude de tels systèmes énergétiques procède en deux étapes : analyse des besoins en énergie, puis optimisation des équipements depuis le niveau de production jusqu'à l'utilisation. L'objet de cette communication est de présenter un modèle d'étude de la consommation (ABEL, qui s'appuie sur une analyse du système socio-économique national expliquant la formation et l'évolution des besoins d'énergie. Cette analyse aboutit à la construction de modèles de simulation des consommations d'énergie par secteur. Cette modélisation rend compte des variations saisonnières des besoins. Un modèle macro-économique de cohérence traduit les relations entre niveaux d'activité des différents secteurs, de façon à éviter des distorsions grossières dans une projection à long terme. Des scénarios permettent de simuler diverses hypothèses de développement économique et social. Faced with increasing oil prices, the industrialized countries with smail national fossil energy resources will have to look to other types of energy in the future (nuclear energy, coal, solar energy. The transformation of such primary energy sources into marketable carriers is characterized by high investment costs. This means that the best utilization factor for equipment will have to be sought after in the face of highly modulated demand. A survey of such energy systems is made in two steps: (a analyzing energy needs, and (b optimizing equipment all the way from initial production to end use. The aim of

  14. Economic Aspects of Air and Gas Cleaning for Nuclear Energy Processes; Aspects Economiques de l'Epuration de l'Air et des Gaz au Cours des Operations Nucleaires; 042d 041a 041e 041d 041e 0414 0; Aspectos Economicos de la Depuracion del Aire y de los Gases en los Procesos de Obtencion de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Leslie [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1960-07-01

    In this paper the basic requirements for control of gaseous and particulate effluents are given as applied to problems of feed material production, isotope separation, fuel element fabrication, fuel recovery and reactor operation. There are also instances where non-radioactive nuclear materials with toxic or nuisance effluents such as from beryllium and zirconium production are of concern and these too must be controlled at reasonable costs. The factors involved in capital and operating costs of gas cleaning equipment and the types of applications in the United States are described in some detail. Gaseous effluent problems have, of course, been attacked and controlled by several types of device but their performance has been measured on a comparable basis. It is thus possible to judge operating characteristics on an economic basis as related to power consumption, adsorbent costs, space charges, corrosion problems and other operational factors. The United States Atomic Energy Commission through its contract with the Harvard University Air Cleaning Laboratory has initiated an evaluation program with cooperation, from the various facilities and contractors to the Commission. In this study the basic factors necessary to obtain quantitative cost delineation and evaluation have been outlined and some preliminary findings will be presented. The paper also presents a review of other economic studies made in the United States on particular process or facility applications. (author) [French] Le memoire definit les regles fondamentales auxquelles doit obeir le controle des effluents gazeux et particulaires dans les domaines suivants : production des matieres destinees a alimenter les reacteurs, separation des isotopes, fabrication des cartouches de combustible, recuperation du combustible et fonctionnement des reacteurs. De plus - et c'est notamment ce qui se passe avec la production de beryllium et de zirconium -- il y a des cas ou des matieres nucleaires non radioactives

  15. The atomic energy course of the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires' at the centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; L'enseignement de genie atomique de l'Institut national des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires au Centre d'Etudes nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissas, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    foreign students. 8- Annexe: list of courses, practical work, pile projects drawn up by the 1957 students. (author)Fren. [French] 1- Les raisons de sa creation. L'electricite de France et l'industrie interessee par le developpement de l'Energie atomique ont demande au Commissariat a l'Energie atomique de former des ingenieurs capables d'etudier des projets de piles et de diriger leur construction. 2- Recrutement et Droits d'inscription. Les demandes d'inscription ont toujours depasse les possibilites. Cette annee, les cours sont suivis par 74 eleves permanents, dont 20 etrangers, et une centaine d'auditeurs libres. Tous les elevont deja ingenieurs ou nantis de grades universitaires eleves. Droit d'inscription: 250 000 F pour les eleves, 125 000 F pour les auditeurs. 3- Organisation de l'Enseignement. II comprend deux options: physique et chimie et dans chaque option: une centaine de conferences, une trentaine de travaux pratiques, des stages dans les services, l'etude d'un projet de reacteur par un groupe de 4 ou 5 eleves. L'ensemble occupe l'annee universitaire du 1 novembre au 14 juillet. 4- Sanction. Un examen final combinant les notes de deux epreuves theoriques, des travaux pratiques, du stage, et du projet conduit a un diplome d'ingenieur en genie atomique. Il n'est pas cree en realite de nouveaux ingenieurs; une mention nouvelle est seulement ajoutee a un diplome deja acquis. Les resultats ont toujours ete excellents. Le pourcentage des echecs est tres faible. 5- Placement des Diplomes. Ils reviennent tous dans leurs industries d'origine qui ont paye leurs salaires et les droits d'inscription en se privant de leurs services pendant les neuf mois de duree des cours. 6- Creations analogues. Un cours analogue a ete cree au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble. Tandis que celui de SACLAY s'adresse plus specialement aux ingenieurs deja en fonctions, celui de Grenoble est, en principe, destine aux jeunes ingenieurs sortant des ecoles. 7- Conclusion. L

  16. Energy balance of the EPFL buildings at Ecublens for the year 2005; Bilan des energies du site de l'EPFL a Ecublens. Annee 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuille, F.

    2006-07-01

    An overview of the energy consumption of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland for the year 2005 is given, together with a detailed description of the heating and cooling system of the buildings. Heating is mainly accomplished by two heat pumps using low-temperature heat from water pumped from the near lake of Geneva. Each heat pump has a thermal power of 4.5 MW delivering heat at 50 {sup o}C. Electric power for the heat pumps is generated on site by two cogeneration units comprising gas turbines fueled by 'green' fuel oil (low in sulfur and nitrogen). Each turbine delivers 3 MW electric and 5 MW thermal power (heating water at 65 {sup o}C). During the last years, 68% of the heating energy delivered to the heat distribution system was renewable energy from the lake, 20% was electric energy for powering the heat pumps, 4% was electrical energy used by the water pumps, and 8% was heat from fuel oil. This results in an overall coefficient of performance COP of the heat pumps of 3.7. Neglecting the power used for pumping lake water the average COP would be 4.5.

  17. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), UMR Innovation,. Montpellier, France. Doubangolo COULIBALY, Email kone_b@yahoo.fr. RESUME. La durabilité des systèmes de production à base de coton dans un contexte de variabilité des prix aux producteurs et de ...

  18. Study of a case of essential hypoproteinaemia using the isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 15}N; Etude a l'aide des isotopes {sup 131}I et {sup 15}N d'un cas d'hypoproteinemie essentielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubert, A; Coursaget, J; Fallot, P; Royer, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hopital des Enfants Malades, 75 - Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    Hypoproteinaemia both human and experimental has been studied with the help of nuclear labelling. A comparative study has been made of the fate of serum proteins labelled by an endogenous path after administration of nitrogen-15 glycine and also of serum albumin labelled by exogenous path using iodine-131. We have determined the biological period of the serum albumin and serum globulins and also the magnitude of the vascular and extravascular pools of serum albumin. In this way it has been possible to measure the speed of replacement of plasma proteins. A presentation of results taken from both clinical observation and experiment leads to a discussion on the pathogenic mechanism of hypoproteinaemia. (author) [French] Les hypoproteinemies humaine et experimentale ont ete explorees a l'aide d'indicateurs nucleaires. Une etude comparative du devenir des proteines seriques marquees par voie endogene, apres administration de glycocolle-{sup 15}N et de l'albumine serique marquee par voie exogene a l'iode-131 a ete realisee. On a determine la periode biologique de la serumalbumine et des globulines seriques ainsi que la grandeur des 'pools' vasculaire et extravasculaire de la serumalbumine. Il a ete ainsi possible d'evaluer la vitesse de renouvellement des proteines plasmatiques. La confrontation des resultats tires de l'observation clinique et de l'experimentation conduit a une discussion sur le mecanisme pathogenique de l'hypoproteinemie. (auteur)

  19. Sociology of the energy turnaround. Renewable energy sources and transition of rural regions; Soziologie der Energiewende. Erneuerbare Energien und die Transition des laendlichen Raums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, Conrad

    2012-11-01

    German politicians, industry and society are working on the 'energy turnaround'. While changes in centralized power generation and transmission are going slow, there is an increasing number of 'test laboratories' in rural regions as communities and villages abandon imported fossil fuels and generate their own power on the basis of solar, wind and geothermal resources. In his study, the author investigates the transition phase using tools of empirical sociology. He shows that local processes reflect the importance of the energy turnaround as a cultural change and as a full-scale transformation of rural regions. The development of local, decentral energy infrastructures is interpreted theoretically as an interdependence between social and technological compolexity. The further geographic diffusion of the model in German-language regions can thus be explained as a consequence of specific social structures.

  20. Perspectives of energy technologies: scenarios and strategies at the 2050 vista; Perspectives des technologies de l'energie: scenarios et strategies a l'horizon 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Every two years, the International Energy Agency (IEA) publishes the 'Energy Technology Perspectives' (ETP) report which analyses the foreseeable energy scenarios and strategies at the 2050 vista and stresses on the best available technologies. For the first time, the IEA describes in this study a scenario allowing to divide by two the CO{sub 2} emissions at the world scale, i.e. compatible with the 'factor 4' scenario of industrialized countries. The study estimates the R and D needs and the necessary additional investments to meet the different tendentious and voluntaristic scenarios proposed by the IEA. This 15. session of the cycle of energy-climate conferences aimed at presenting, from the ETP 2008 study, a thorough examination of the present day situation and perspectives of existing or future 'clean' energy technologies through the analysis of several scenarios. An examination of the interpretation of these scenarios at the France and European levels is made in order to define what should be the trends of public policies and international cooperation. This document gathers the transparencies of the two presentations given during this conference. The first presentation by Pieter Boot, Director of the Office of Sustainable Energy Policy and Technology of IEA, makes a synthesis of the ETP study and presents the recommendations of the agency. The second presentation by Olivier Appert, President of the French institute of petroleum (IFP), gives a counterpoint of the first presentation by considering the financing and acceptance aspects, in particular from the French point of view. Finally a debate with the audience completes the presentations. (J.S.)

  1. Advances in Energy Research in Switzerland in 2000; Energie-Forschung 2000/Recherche energetique. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter/Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2000 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient use of energy in buildings and hot-water systems, accumulators and traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, combustion technologies, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy, small hydropower, nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal, nuclear safety, nuclear fusion and basics for the energy economy. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, an emphasis was placed on environmental issues with an eco-inventory for energy systems. Also, further work done on the use of grass-fibres for insulation is noted, as are passive solar systems and new developments in highly efficient insulation systems. In the building technologies area, thermo-active building components and various ventilation systems are looked at. Fuzzy-logic based neuronal networks for detecting errors in building services are noted. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Traffic topics reported on include the impact of two-wheel concepts on mobility, lightweight body technologies, efficient drive systems, fuel cell drive technologies, accumulators and supercaps as well as various pilot and demonstration projects. Electrical topics include distribution and flywheel energy storage, high-temperature superconductors, as well as power consumption in computer applications and electrical machines. In the ambient heat and heat-pump area, projects concerning refurbishment, scroll compressors, intermediate injection, small ammonia heat-pumps, environment-compatible refrigerants are noted as are developments in the combined heat and power area, including optimisation software

  2. End of the nuclear energy era? From Fukushima to the energy policy turnaround; Ende des Atomzeitalters? Von Fukushima in die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepenbrink, Johannes (comp.)

    2012-07-01

    Due to a violent earthquake and the resulting tsunami, a core melt down resulted at the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Thus, at 30th June, 2011, the Federal Government decided to complete the utilization of the nuclear power in Germany. Is this the end of the atomic age? Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration consists of the following nine contributions: (1) Why is the ''energy policy turnaround'' a social question? (Harald Welzer); (2) Tsunami in the living room: Catastrophes facilitated by the media (Joerg R. Bergmann); (3) Learning from the catastrophe (Manfred Buerger); (4) Perspectives of the nuclear power in Europe and globally (Lutz Mez); (5) Outsider or leader? The 'model Germany' and the European energy policy (Severin Fischer); (6) 'Energy policy turnaround': Quo vadis? (Hardo Bruhns); (7) Energy policy turnarounds in Germany: Motifs and impacts for the European electricity market (Hans-Jochen Luhmann); (8) A short story of the German anti-nuclear movement (Joachim Radkau); (9) Popularity of the apocalypse: Reflections on the cultural history of the fear against nuclear accidents since 1945 (Philipp Gassert).

  3. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2005; Energie-Forschung 2005/Recherche energetique. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter/Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview reports for the year 2005 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient use of energy in buildings, traffic, vehicles and accumulators, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, process engineering, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, nuclear safety and nuclear waste disposal, regulatory nuclear safety research, nuclear fusion and energy economy basics. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, the introduction of energy standards for buildings, labelling, component catalogues, passive dwellings, high-performance insulation systems, sustainable cities, 'Minergie' buildings, the use of solar energy are mentioned. In the building technologies area, electricity consumption, fuel cells and daylighting were looked at, as were airing, ventilation and hot-water preparation. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Traffic-related projects reported on include financial incentives for energy-efficient vehicles, the EU's 'cleaner Drive' project, infrastructures for gas fuels, gas-fuelled buses and various mobility projects. A review of drive systems is presented, including hybrid systems and a hydro-pneumatic recuperation system. Projects on small and lightweight vehicles are reviewed, including projects on bicycles and weather protection. The record-breaking PAC-Car project is noted. Developments concerning trolley-buses and electric cars as well as a driverless cabin-vehicle running on rails are noted. Accumulators and 'Zebra' batteries are noted. Electrical topics include high-temperature superconductors, thermo-electricity, power storage and transmission, energy efficiency in computer

  4. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2005; Energie-Forschung 2005/Recherche energetique. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter/Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview reports for the year 2005 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient use of energy in buildings, traffic, vehicles and accumulators, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, process engineering, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, nuclear safety and nuclear waste disposal, regulatory nuclear safety research, nuclear fusion and energy economy basics. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, the introduction of energy standards for buildings, labelling, component catalogues, passive dwellings, high-performance insulation systems, sustainable cities, 'Minergie' buildings, the use of solar energy are mentioned. In the building technologies area, electricity consumption, fuel cells and daylighting were looked at, as were airing, ventilation and hot-water preparation. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Traffic-related projects reported on include financial incentives for energy-efficient vehicles, the EU's 'cleaner Drive' project, infrastructures for gas fuels, gas-fuelled buses and various mobility projects. A review of drive systems is presented, including hybrid systems and a hydro-pneumatic recuperation system. Projects on small and lightweight vehicles are reviewed, including projects on bicycles and weather protection. The record-breaking PAC-Car project is noted. Developments concerning trolley-buses and electric cars as well as a driverless cabin-vehicle running on rails are noted. Accumulators and 'Zebra' batteries are noted. Electrical topics include high-temperature superconductors, thermo-electricity, power storage and

  5. Administrative memo relative to the delivery of energy conservation certificates; Circulaire relative a la delivrance des certificats d'economies d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    This memo details the principles of the energy conservation certificates, the law texts of application, the part of the Government and the ADEME services, the certificates demand procedure, and the inscription of the certificates on the national registries. (A.L.B.)

  6. Software framework and jet energy scale calibration in the ATLAS experiment; Environnement logiciel et etalonnage de l'echelle en energie des jets dans l'experience ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binet, Sebastien [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Universite Blaise Pascal - CNRS/IN2P3, 63000 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    This thesis presents the work achieved to instrument the ATLAS software framework, ATHENA, with a library of tools and utensils for the physics analysis as well as the extraction of the jet energy scale using physics events (in-situ calibration). The software part presents the various components of the ATHENA framework which handles the simulated and reconstructed data flow as well as the different stages of this process, before and during the data taking. The building of a library of tools easing the reconstruction of physics objects, their association with Monte-Carlo particles and their API is then explained. The need for common language and collaboration-wide utensils is emphasised as it allows to share the workload of validating these tools and to get reproducible physics results. The analysis part deals with the implementation of a light jet energy scale calibration algorithm within the C++ framework. This calibration algorithm makes use of W bosons decaying into light jets within semileptonic t t-bar events. From the processing of fast and full simulation data with this algorithm, it seems possible to reach a percent level knowledge of the light jet energy scale. Finally, the feasibility study of the b-jet energy scale calibration using {gamma}Z{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}b b-bar events is presented. It is shown that a purely sequential approach is not sufficient to extract the signal nor to collect a sufficient amount of Z{sup 0} to calibrate the b-jet energy scale. (author)

  7. DES Science Portal: II- Creating Science-Ready Catalogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausti Neto, Angelo; et al.

    2017-08-18

    We present a novel approach for creating science-ready catalogs through a software infrastructure developed for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We integrate the data products released by the DES Data Management and additional products created by the DES collaboration in an environment known as DES Science Portal. Each step involved in the creation of a science-ready catalog is recorded in a relational database and can be recovered at any time. We describe how the DES Science Portal automates the creation and characterization of lightweight catalogs for DES Year 1 Annual Release, and show its flexibility in creating multiple catalogs with different inputs and configurations. Finally, we discuss the advantages of this infrastructure for large surveys such as DES and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. The capability of creating science-ready catalogs efficiently and with full control of the inputs and configurations used is an important asset for supporting science analysis using data from large astronomical surveys.

  8. The structure of production costs of the different energy channels and the occurred learning for the formation of market prices and the operators strategy; La structure des couts de production des differentes filieres energetiques et les enseignements qui peuvent en etre tires sur la formation des prix de marche et la strategie des operateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    The first part of the report aims to fill the gap of data base describing the primary energies costs and the formation of their prices under geopolitical constraints. The second part describes how the arbitration terms between primary energies are modified by the electric power sector liberalization. The last part presents the complexity of the strategies used by the energy sector operators. Some recommendations on the market regulation are provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. Energy of ions 3{<=}Z{<=}10 in Ilford C2 nuclear emulsions; Parcours - energie des ions 3{<=}Z{<=}10 dans les emulsions nucleaires ilford C2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papineau, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    The relationship between the path and energy of ions with 3{<=}Z{<=}10 in Ilford C2 nuclear emulsions is studied. It determined the average state of charge of ions in each velocity intervals. Results are given in a table for {sub 2}He, {sub 3}Li, {sub 4}Be, {sub 5}B, {sub 6}C, {sub 7}N, {sub 8}O and {sub 10}Ne. For each velocity interval, it is possible to apply the Blackett relation which links, for the same velocity, the path {delta}R of a particle with M (mass) and Z (charge) to the path {delta}R' of a particle with M' and Z'. Results are given in tables and graphics representing the particles energy with the particles path. (M.P.)

  10. Energy crops. Data for planning of energy crop cultivation. KTBL data compilation with internet services; Energiepflanzen. Daten fuer die Planung des Energiepflanzenanbaus. KTBL-Datensammlung mit Internetangebot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckel, H.; Grube, J.; Zimmer, E. (comps.)

    2006-07-01

    Based on the KTBL data compilation ''Betriebsplanung Landwirtschaft'', this data compilation (''Datensammlung Energiepflanzen'') provides comprehensive information on the cultivation of energy crops and production planning. Production techniques are outlined up to the final step of provision to the consumer, so that full-scale cost calculation is possible. Hints for cultivation are presented which take into account the differences between food and fodder crop cultivation. Rare crops are gone into for which little experience is available but which have great potential for utilisation in agriculture. Energetic utilisation is a field for a wider range of crops and with new options for crop rotation. These are discussed in two separate chapters. There is also information on legal aspects of energy crop production, relevant standards, and quality requirements on substrates for energetic use and for secondary harvesting. (orig.)

  11. Energy from whey - comparison of the biogas and bioethanol processes; Energie a partir de petit-lait : comparaison des filieres biogaz et bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau de Laclos, H.; Membrez, Y. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which investigated how energy could be generated from the whey produced in the cheese-making process. The first part of the project aimed to validate a concept for on-site production and use of biogas at a medium-sized cheese factory. The results of the first step, an experimental study carried out using a down-flow fixed-film bio-reactor, are discussed. This allowed the determination of the optimal working parameters as well as providing an estimate of the performance of the process. The second part of the project aimed to compare the bio-ethanol and biogas production processes. It was carried out in collaboration with AlcoSuisse and the Energy Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne. The results of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed, which compared the two processes from an environmental point of view. Here, two impacts were considered: fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse effect. The replacement of fuel-oil with biogas for heat production and the replacement of conventional petrol with mixture including 5% bio-ethanol were examined. The results are presented that show that there was no significant difference between the two processes. According to the authors, the treatment of one cubic meter of cheese-whey allows savings of more than 20 litres of oil equivalent and 60 kg of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  12. VKU statement on the amendment of the law governing the energy sector (Bundestag publications 13/7274, 7425, 5352). Hearing with the Bundestag Committee on economic issues, on 2 June 1997. Annex to the VKU Nachrichtendienst; VKU-Stellungnahme zur Novellierung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes (Bundestags-Drucksachen 13/7274, 7425, 5352). Anhoerung des Wirtschaftsausschusses des Deutschen Bundestages am 2. Juni 1997. Anlage zum VKU-Nachrichtendienst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    The statement of the VKU (association of local-government enterprises) criticises the following aspects of the Government bill: Lack of definite priority provisions or exemption provisions for the environmentally sound cogeneration systems; not enough freedom of action for the public, local utilities and too sharp constraints on the competences of local governments to decide about the best local energy supply infrastructure; the issue of franchise payments; lack of transitional provisions to allow for an appropriate period for introduction of the competition-based market system. The statement further addresses in detail issues relating to the effects the amended regulatory system will have on Germany`s competitiveness, in particular within the EU, also in connection with access to transmission networks and the planned unbundling, as well as the disadvantages likely to result for environmentally sound energy supply systems. (CB) [Deutsch] In seiner Stellungnahme kritisiert der VKU folgende Punkte des Regierungsentwurfs: Fehlen von eindeutigen Vorrangregelungen oder Ausnahmetatbestaenden fuer die umweltfreundliche Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung; zu wenig Handlungsspielraum fuer kommunale Unternehmen im Wettbewerb und Einschraenkung der Regelungskompetenz der Kommunen im Bereich der oertlichen Energieversorgung; Problematik der Konzessionsabgaben; Fehlen angemessener Uebergangsvorschriften fuer die Einfuehrung des Wettbewerbssystems. Ferner werden die Auswirkungen der Energierechtsnovellen auf den Standort Deutschland, die Wettbewerbssituation in der EU im Zusammenhang mit Unbundling und Netzzugang und Nachteile fuer umweltfreundliche Energieversorgungssysteme im Detail angesprochen. (CB)

  13. Formulation of the energetic spectral distribution of in pile neutron flux (energies greater than a few hundred electron volts) (1963); Formulation des repartitions spectrales energetiques de flux neutroniques en pile (energies superieures a quelques centaines d'electrons-volts) (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the present report an expression is deduced for the spectral distribution of flux of over a few hundred electron volts; it is valid for most cases of thermal neutron reactors. This expression is: {psi}(E) = K [{psi}{sub o}(E) + h {psi}{sub e}(E)] {psi}{sub o}(E) is the so-called 'homogeneous' constituent of the flux; it corresponds approximately to the case of an infinite homogeneous medium; it is of the type: Y(V - E) e{sup (b{radical}}{sup E)}/E + Y(E-V) F E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E} The parameters V and F are such that {psi}{sub o}(E) and its derivative are continuous at the junction energy V. {psi}{sub e}(E) is the 'heterogeneous' constituent of the flux; it is of the type: E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E}. The various parameters of {psi}(E) are on the one hand characteristic of the nature of the reactor moderator, and on the other hand determined by a resonant flux measurement and one, or possibly two, measurements using a fast neutron threshold detector. We have been led furthermore to define an expression for the threshold reaction section which is more exact than the conventional transition function. (author) [French] Il est etabli, dans le present rapport, une formulation {psi}(E) des repartitions spectrales de flux au-dessus de quelques centaines d'electron-s volts, valable dans la majeure partie des cas de piles dites a neutrons thermiques. Cette formulation s'exprime: {psi}(E) = K [{psi}{sub o}(E) + h {psi}{sub e}(E)] {psi}{sub o}(E) est la composante dite 'homogene' du flux; elle correspond a peu pres au cas d'un milieu infini homogene; elle est du type: Y(V - E) e{sup (b{radical}}{sup E)}/E + Y(E-V) F E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E} les parametres V et F sont tels que {psi}{sub o}(E) et sa derivee soient continues a l'energie de jonction V. {psi}{sub e} est la composante dite 'heterogene' du flux ; elle est du type: E{sup {upsilon}} e{sup -{beta}}{sup E}. Les differents parametres de {psi}(E) sont, d'une part

  14. Civili, langue des Baloango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavoungou, Paul Achille; Ndinga-Koumba-Binza, Hugues Steve

    , Congo, Angola, etc.) issus de la décolonisation. Il présente de façon succincte quelques phénomènes historiques, phonologiques, morphosyntaxiques, homonymiques et analogiques de la langue. Des faits sémantiques des emprunts linguistiques y sont également décrits dans le cadre des changements...

  15. What is the place of the energy supply security and energy independence in the energy policy?; Quelle est la place des preoccupations de securite d'approvisionnement et d'independance energetique dans la politique de l'energie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    Since the petroleum crisis and the electric power cuts of the 1999 storm, the energy security interest is growing. The author recall the structural risks of the energy systems and the vulnerability of the occidental economies to the supply disruptions. They propose then a long term cooperation between producer and consumer countries, a development of operational tools to face the crisis and a supply security inside the europe. (A.L.B.)

  16. Combustion and environment. The answers from the energy and equipment suppliers; Combustion et environnement. Les reponses des fournisseurs d`energie et d`equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a reprint of an article published in `Energie Plus` magazine which questions the capability of commercial fuels and combustion equipments (central heating plants, burners, turbines and engines) available today of respecting the limit values of pollutant emissions (SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, CO, dusts) of forthcoming regulations. An analysis of the situation is given separately for the fuels (natural gas, coal, heavy fuels) with a stress on the competition aspects, and for the combustion systems (turbines, diesel and gas engines, central heating plants). (J.S.)

  17. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of

  18. Study of heavy ions collision at SIS energies with the detector FOPI; Etude des collisions d'ions lourds aux energies de SIS avec le detecteur FOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastid, N

    1999-09-23

    The present work has been carried out in the framework of experiments performed with the FOPI detector at the SIS/ESR accelerator facility of GSI-Darmstadt. It is devoted to the study of central and semi-central heavy ion collisions at beam energies ranging from 100 MeV to 2 GeV per nucleon. We present first generalities on relativistic heavy ion collisions then the FOPI detector with a special attention to the FOPI Inner Wall constructed by the Clermont-Ferrand group. The main results of the FOPI collaboration obtained with light and intermediate mass fragments and kaons are presented. A systematic study of the different forms of collection motion of nuclear matter, radial flow in very central reactions, sideward flow and squeeze-out in semi-central collisions, is performed. Further exciting possibilities concerning production and propagation of strangeness at SIS energies will be offered soon with the upgrade of the FOPI detector. The FOPI data have introduced constraints on parameters of theoretical models. Important progress concerning the knowledge of the properties of nuclear matter, the dynamics of the collisions and in-medium effects have been achieved. (author)

  19. Subsidisation of renewable energy; Subventionierung von erneuerbarer Energie. Eine industrieoekonomische Analyse des strategischen Weettbewerbs in der Erneuerbaren-Energieindustrie bei unterschiedlichen staatlichen Regulierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, M.

    2006-07-01

    In the current work we analyze formally selected problems in connection with the subsidisation of renewable energy in finance theoretical and industrial economic models. In the first part of the work we deal with the subsidisation of demonstration projects for testing new technologies in the field of renewable energy. The information about the economical performance of a technology, which is disclosed by first tests, is part of the value of such a demonstration project. We describe this value in a finance theoretical model as a real option. A reason for subsidising a demonstration project is given, when it is not exclusively the investor who benefits from the disclosed information. A technology may prove so efficient in a demonstration project that it will lead to a sustained decrease of the price for renewable energy. In this case the investment in a demonstration project has a positive externality in the form of a so -called consumer-surplus on consumers. This consumer surplus legitimises the subsidisation of demonstration projects. It also may be that other producers of renewable energy profit from a technology that is identical or at least similar to the technology - which is tested in a demonstration project. In this case the producers will benefit from the disclosed information since they can use it to estimate the performance of their own technologies. For this reason the investment in a demonstration project causes here a positive externality in form of an information spill-over to other producers with an identical or at least similar technology, which again legitimises the subsidisation. The second part of the current work contributes to answering the question how a good subsidising system to foster renewable energy should be designed. We therefore compare feed-in tariffs, quota obligations and bidding systems, all three common European subsidising schemes. We investigate which of the systems has the capacity to minimize on the one hand the profits of the

  20. Problems presented by the filtration and sampling of aerosols in the atomic energy programme; Problemes poses par la filtration et le prelevement des aerosols dans le cadre de l'energie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochinal, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The maximum permissible limits for radioactive aerosols are much lower than those for aerosols encountered in the non-nuclear industries. These limits depend on numerous factors such as: nature of the radiation, half-life, etc. The radioactive aerosols can be prepared by various methods. The filtering of the air in high activity laboratories or in plutonium treatment factories necessitates an installation consisting of: - aspiration filters, - extraction filters of very high efficiency (those used for {alpha} emitter cells: designed to be replaced without incurring contamination risks; those used for {gamma} emitter cells: designed to be replaced by remote control). The filtering in nuclear reactors is also effectuated by filter papers: - the G1 reactor with open circuit: the air coolant is entirely filtered at the entry and on leaving; - the G2, G3 and EDF1 reactors with closed circuits: filtering under pressure of a small portion of the coolant gas. (author) [French] Les limites maxima permises des aerosols radioactifs sont beaucoup plus faibles que celles des aerosols rencontres dans l'industrie classique. Elles dependent de nombreux facteurs tel que: nature du rayonnement, periode radioactive, etc... La formation des aerosols radioactifs est de nature diverse. La filtration des laboratoires de haute activite, ou d'usines d'elaboration de plutonium conduit a des types d'installations comportant: - des filtres d'aspiration; - des filtres d'extraction a rendement extremement eleve (type pour cellules emettrices {alpha} concu pour etre change sans risque de contamination, type pour cellules emettrices {gamma}: concu pour etre change a distance) La filtration des reacteurs nucleaires sont egalement effectuee par des papiers filtres: - reacteur G1 a circuit ouvert: air de refroidissement totalement filtre a l'aspiration et a l'extraction; - reacteurs G2, G3, EDF1: a circuit ferme: filtration sous pression d'une faible partie du gaz de refroidissement. (auteur)

  1. Status report on the implementation of the integrated energy and climate protection programme of the German government; Statusbericht zur Umsetzung des Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramms der Bundesregierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissler, Diana; Wachsmann, Ulrike

    2011-04-15

    The German government has committed itself to a 40 percent reduction of climate-relevant gases by 2020, as compared to 1990. In 2007, the government presented an integrated energy and climate protection programme (IEKP) with a catalogue of measures to achieve this goal. The IEKP was to be revised from 2010 by monitoring every two years. If the monitoring were to show that the CO2 reduction goal could not be achieved by the measures taken, suggestions will be made on how to improve CO2 reduction technologies. This study, carried out on behalf of the Federal Minister of Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety, presents a data base for this monitoring. It is based on work carried out by the Federal Environmental Office, the BMU, and other institutions. (orig.)

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of a calorimetric technique for measuring energy deposition in materials caused by complex pile irradiation; Etude theorique et experimentale d'une technique calorimetrique de mesure des depots d'energie dans les materiaux dus au rayonnement complexe de pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, P; Sciers, P; Droulers, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1962-07-01

    Calorimetric methods may be used to measure gamma fluxes greater than 10{sup 6} r/h near the cores of swimming pool reactors. The theory, design, and properties of isothermal calorimeters are discussed, and experimental results obtained with two types are presented. Measurement of energy deposition in materials and the long term integration of energy depositions are other uses of these devices. Results of measurements on heat deposition in steel and water are given. Fluxes were also measured. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie traite de la theorie des calorimetres isothermes mis en oeuvre au C.K.N. Grenoble. La puissance deposee dans le calorimetre par les flux de rayonnement echauffe celui-ci. L'echauffement est mesure a l'aide d'un thermocouple. On montre que l'on a ainsi une mesure absolue de cette puissance. Une deuxieme partie traite de l'etude experimentale de: deux types d'appareils utilises: leur construction, les resultats experimentaux, leurs utilisations. Trois de celles-ci sont particulierement interessantes: - la mesure des hauts flux gamma, - la mesure du depot d'energie dans les materiaux, - l'integration pendant une longue duree des depots d'energie (un modele de calorimetre a fonctionne a ce jour 2 500 heures et a integre 9 x 10 puissance 10 rads gamma et 6 x 10 puissance 18 neutrons rapides). La troisieme partie est consacree a l'etude des qualites de l'appareil: robustesse, fidelite, precision, sensibilite, gamme de mesure. Enfin dans la derniere partie sont decrites deux applications de la methode calorimetrique a la mesure du depot d'energie dans un acier special et dans l'eau. (auteurs)

  3. Nuclear energy fur civilian uses given the prospects of a changing climate; L'energie nucleaire civile dans le cadre temporel des changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautray, R. [Academy des Aciences, 75 - Paris (France); Turpin, M. [ERAP, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-01-01

    The worrisome issues resulting from the civilian use of nuclear energy are subjected to a scientific analysis in R. Dautray's report. They include: the risks of accidents and radiation, the question of nuclear wastes (in particular, plutonium and actinides), and the dangers of atomic weapons proliferating or nuclear plants being menaced by terrorists. The nuclear industry will not be able to go on unless it comes up with solutions acceptable to citizens. Even if the decision were made to put an end to nuclear power plants, a solution would have to be found for putting an end to the aftereffects. According to this report, it is indispensable to have a base of knowledge accepted by all if we are to weigh various proposals and make decisions. It contends that the program under way in France since the 1991 Bataille Act should, for the 2006 deadline, set as its main objective to define 'a general criterion of protection and confidence of the concerned workers and populations, a criterion worked out by their elected representatives, thus by public authorities'. The report's author has proposed points for drawing up such a criterion. (author)

  4. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans; Premier forum ''BISE'' pour: l'energie intelligente dans les minicipalites des nouveaux etats membres, des pays candidats et des Balkans occidentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  5. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans; Premier forum ''BISE'' pour: l'energie intelligente dans les minicipalites des nouveaux etats membres, des pays candidats et des Balkans occidentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  6. Decree of June 1, 2016 related to the committee for commitments of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux energies renouvelables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, V.; Bergeonneau, T.; Faure, P.

    2016-01-01

    This decree defines the mission, role and operation of the Committee for commitment within the CEA, a body which is to give a motivated opinion on international agreements and projects when the investment is greater than a given amount (30 million euros as far as projects are concerned, 20 million euros as far as international agreement projects are concerned), and which may affect the strategy, financial balance, organisation and scope of activity of the CEA

  7. Emission of fragments in heavy ion-collisions at Fermi energy; Modes de production des fragments dans les collisions d'ions lourds aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, J

    2001-10-01

    The study of reaction mechanisms in Fermi energy domain has shown the dominant binary character of the process. The two heavy sources produced after the first stage of the interaction (the quasi-projectile QP and the quasi-target QT) can experience various decay modes from evaporation to multifragmentation. However, the presence of light fragments at mid rapidity cannot be explained by the standard decay of the QP and the QT. To understand the mechanisms producing such a contribution, the break-up of the QP has been studied on the following systems: Xe+Sn from 25 to 50 MeV/A, Ta+Au and Ta+U at 33, 39.6 MeV/A and U+U at 24 MeV/A. The experiment has been performed at GANIL with the INDRA multidetector. The particular behaviour of the heaviest fragment and the correlation between the charge and the velocity of the fragments suggest a shape deformation followed by the rupture of a neck formed in between the two partners of the collision. The heaviest fragment could be the reminiscence of the projectile. A method based on the angular distribution of the heaviest fragment has allowed to separate the statistical break-up of the QP and the non equilibrated break-up. The statistical break-up ranges from 30 % to 75 % of the break-ups. The comparison of the statistical component with a statistical model gives information about the charge, the angular momentum and the temperature of the QP. The comparison of the non equilibrated component with dynamical models could give information about the parameters of the nuclear interaction in medium. (author)

  8. Report by the AERES on the unit: Fuel Study Department (DEC) under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA); Rapport de l'AERES sur l'unite: Departement d'Etudes des Combustibles (DEC) sous tutelle des etablissements et organismes: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, the DEC (Departement d'Etudes des Combustibles, Fuel Study Department) which comprises four departments: a department of analysis and characterization of fuel behaviour (SA3C) which comprises four laboratories, a Plutonium, Uranium and Minor Actinides department (SPUA) which comprises four laboratories, a department for the investigation and simulation of fuel behaviour (four laboratories) and the Leca-Star department (3 laboratories and a project group). The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved, risks and recommendations, productions and publications on different themes (fundamental research on fuels, fuel design, fabrications, characterizations and property measurements, experimental irradiations, characterization of irradiated fuels and chemical and radio-chemical analysis, modelling and simulation). A more detailed assessment is presented for each theme in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project

  9. Determination on Mice and other Organisms of the RBE of High-Energy Protons and Electrons; Efficacite Biologique Relative sur la Souris et d'Autres Organismes des Protons et des Electrons De Haute Energie; Opredelenie obeh pri obluchenii myshej i drugikh organizmov protonami i ehlektronami vysokikh ehnergij; Determinacion de la Eficacia Biologica Relativa de los Protones y de los Electrones de Elevada Emergia en el Raton y en Otros Organismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonet-Maury, P.; Baarli, J.; Kahn, T.; Dardenne, G.; Frilley, M.; Deysine, A. [Institut du Radium, Paris (France)

    1964-03-15

    The general effects of 157- and 592-MeV protons and 150- and 950-MeV electrons were observed on mice exposed to lethal doses of whole-body irradiation. The irradiated animals displayed the same general symptoms as those produced by X - or gamma-rays. The biological tests did not bring to light any particular phenomenon which can be considered as characteristic of these high-energy particles. As determined in four tests (LD{sub 50}, average expectation of life and diminution of thymus and testicles), the RBE is close to 1. This corresponds to the mean LET of the particles and, in the case of the protons, does not appear to be increased by the higher local LET of the spallation fragments. (author) [French] Les effets generaux des protons de 157 et 592 MeV et des electrons de 150 et 950 MeV oiit ete observes sur des souris irradiees in toto, a des doses letales. Les animaux irradies presentent les memes symptomes generaux que ceux produits par les rayonnements de reference X ou {gamma}. Aucun phenomene caracteristique de ces particules de haute energie n'a pu etre mis en evidence avec les tests biologiques choisis. Lfefficacite biologique relative determinee sur 4 tests (DL{sub 50}, survie moyenne, reduction du thymus et des testicules) est peu differente de 1; cette EBR correspond au TEL moyen des particules et, pour les protons, ne parait pas augmentee par le TEL local plus eleve des etoiles de spallation. (author) [Spanish] Se han observado los efectos generales de los protones de 157 y 592 MeV y de los electrones de 150 y 950 MeV sobre ratones expuestos in toto, a dosis letales de radiaciones. Los animales irradiados presentan los mismos sintomas generales que los producidos por los rayos X o los rayos gamma adoptados como radiaciones de referencia. Los ensayos biologicos llevados a cabo no han puesto de manifiesto ningun fenomeno caracteristico de la accion de estas particulas de elevada energia. La eficacia biologica relativa determinada en cuatro ensayo (DL

  10. Industrial applications of membrane processes in chemistry and energy generation; Applications industrielles des procedes membranaires en chimie et production d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The French membranes club (CFM), with the sustain of the French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized this meeting which aims to present the most recent industrial realizations in the domain of membrane processes in the chemistry and energy generation sectors. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations: 1 - hydrogen purification and CO{sub 2} extraction: development of polymer matrix and metal nano-particulate hybrid membranes for selective membrane applications; study of silicone-based mixed matrix membranes for hydrogen purification via inverse selectivity principle; CO{sub 2} capture from gaseous effluents for its sequestration: role and limitations of membrane processes; membranes and processes for the abatement of the acid gas content of smokes; new structural model for Nafion{sup R} membranes, the benchmark polymer for low temperature fuel cells; 2 - molecular screen-based membranes: MFI-alumina nano-composite ceramic membranes: preparation and characterization, gaseous transport and separation; characterization and permeation properties of supported MFI membranes; in-situ measurement of butane isomers diffusion in MFI zeolite membranes through transient permeation tests; 3 - vapors separation: stability of silver particulates in PA12-PTMO/AgBF{sub 4} composite membranes and its effect on the easier ethylene transport inside these membranes; 4 - separation of liquid organic mixtures: isomers separation using cyclo-dextrins bearing membranes: application to the extraction and separation of xylene isomers; electrodialysis in organic environment: application to the electro-synthesis; study of polymer materials permeability; 5 - treatment of industrial waters: use of NanoFlux software in the modeling of nano-filtration membrane processes in the chemical industry: elimination of sulfate impurities from 'Chloralkali' brines; ultra-filtration of a wastewater containing partially emulsified oil; efficiency of a hybrid membrane separation

  11. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  12. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  13. Effectiveness of instruments for increasing energy efficiency and promoting the use of renewable forms of energy; Wirksamkeit von Instrumenten zur Steigerung der Energieeffizienz und zur Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien. Studie im Auftrag des Energie Trialog Schweiz und des Bundesamtes fuer Energie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Walker, D.

    2009-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made for the Swiss Energy Trialogue and the SFOE on the effectiveness of instruments for increasing energy efficiency and for the promotion of the use of renewable forms of energy. The results of a literature analysis are presented and discussed. Four basic questions are looked at: Under which conditions are state instruments effective, what influence do concepts and implementation have, which combinations of various instruments are most effective and which recommendations can be made to public authorities for the use of energy-policy instruments. Regulative, financial, persuasive and structural instruments are reviewed. The report is augmented with a comprehensive appendix which lists the literature sources used.

  14. Energy balance of the cathode connection and calculation of the yield of caesium diodes; Bilan des energies dans la connexion de cathode et calcul du rendement dans les diodes a cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merard, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The cathode connection is one of the critical elements in the calculation of the yield of caesium diodes. In particular a study is made of the balance of the losses due to the Joule effect, to radiation and to thermal conduction as a function of the shape and the nature of the cathode connection. The internal voltage drop of the diode is obtained from the expression for the total Joule losses of the metallic conductors. The length of the cathode connection is calculated as a function of the losses and the yield is optimized as a function of the relationship existing between the cathodic losses due to thermal conduction and the Joule losses in the connection. The calculations lead to hyper-elliptic integrals which can only be manipulated by series development. The results obtained are approximate. (author) [French] Dans le calcul du rendement des diodes a cesium, la connexion de cathode est l'un des elements critiques. On etudie specialement le bilan des pertes par effet joule, rayonnement et conduction thermique, en fonction de la forme et de la nature de la connexion de cathode. On obtient la chute de tension interne de la diode a partir de l'expression des pertes joules totales dans les conducteurs metalliques. La longueur de la connexion de cathode est calculee en fonction des pertes et l'on optimise le rendement en fonction du rapport qui existe entre les pertes par conduction thermique de la cathode et les pertes joules dans la connexion. Les calculs conduisent a des integrales hyperelliptiques dont la manipulation n'est possible que par des developpements en serie. Les resultats cherches sont approximatifs. (auteur)

  15. Le tourisme à moto : les géographies renouvelées d'un phénomène marginal

    OpenAIRE

    Scol, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Le tourisme à moto répond souvent à des pratiques marginales et codes particuliers pour lesquels la route, le pilotage et la camaraderie jouent des rôles essentiels. Les concentrations sont un exemple représentatif des spécificités et du caractère marginal de ce tourisme. Le tourisme à moto fut, par ailleurs, longtemps ignoré voire rejeté par les territoires et les professionnels du tourisme qui gardaient de la moto et du motocycliste une image négative. Or, les motards ont changé. Ils sont, ...

  16. Environmental analysis report for the proposed development of a wind turbine array near the town of Thetford Mines and the municipalities of Saint-Jean-de-Brebeuf and Kinnear's Mills by Energie Eolienne Des Moulins S.E.C.; Rapport d'analyse environnementale pour le projet d'amenagement du parc eolien Des Moulins sur le territoire de la ville de Thetford Mines ainsi que des municipalites de Saint-Jean-de-Brebeuf et de Kinnear's Mills par Energie Eolienne Des Moulins S.E.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, C.; Theberge, M.C. [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Direction des evaluations environnementales, Services des projets en milieu terrestre

    2010-10-06

    Energie Eolienne Des Moulins S.E.C. has responded to Hydro-Quebec's call for tenders to construct a wind turbine array in the Chaudiere Appalache area, north of Thetford Mines to meet the future energy needs of the region. This document described the reasons for the project and provided a general description of the project. The company will install 78 wind turbines, of which 75 are 2 MW and 3 are 2.3 MW for a total capacity of 156.9 MW. This project requires a certificate of authorization from the provincial government and must undergo an environmental assessment. As part of the process, public inquiries were held in September and October 2009 to consult with stakeholders, project proponents and those opposed to the project. The main challenges facing the project include concerns by local residents regarding the local economy, visual aesthetics of the project, noise pollution, and hazards for birds and bats. This document also covered other considerations, such as drinking water sources; public security and emergency procedures; telecommunications; electromagnetic interference; shadow effect; eco-tourism; waste management; dust and particulates; forest management; endangered plant species; soil management; wetlands; surface waters; aquatic ecosystems; and deer. Upon review of all these considerations, a follow-up committee at the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks decided that the project is justifiable and acceptable from an environmental point of view and has recommended that the project proceed. 47 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs., 4 appendices.

  17. The core of the energy issue. The responsibility of human beings for the creation; Vom Kern der Energiefrage. Die Verantwortung des Menschen fuer die Schoepfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knizia, K.

    2001-07-01

    The responsibility of human beings for the creation in its ethical dimension can only be made clear against a scientific-technical and economic background since human beings have to act in their natural surroundings in view of the world that is becoming more and more complex and at the same time closer through technology, and in view of the fast growing world population and the possible hazards of the viability of the biotope Earth. After World War I, Max Weber differentiated in his famous essay 'Politics as a Vocation' between the ethics of believe and the ethics of responsibility. It can be discussed whether both streams are according to the opinion of Max Weber 'in abysmal contrast'. (orig.) [German] In dem Wort 'Verantwortung' steckt der Wortstamm 'antworten' -, und zwar zunaechst dem eigenen Gewissen zu antworten. Das aber basiert auf sittlichem Bewusstsein, aber auch auf Wissen und Urteilsfaehigkeit und damit auf der Moeglichkeit, zu werten. Werten zu koennen, das erfordert aber, den Wirkungszusammenhang des Geschehens und die Rolle des Menschen in ihm zu verstehen. Die Verantwortung des Menschen fuer die Schoepfung ist nur vor einem naturwissenschaftlich-technischen und einem volkswirtschaftlichen Hintergrund in ihrem ethischen Bezug zu verdeutlichen. (orig.)

  18. Optimal Energy Management in Hybrid Electric Trucks Using Route Information Optimisation de la gestion de l’énergie dans des véhicules poids lourds électriques hybrides utilisant le guidage d’itinéraire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen T.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To benchmark a hybrid vehicle’s Energy Management Strategy (EMS usually a given, often certified, velocity trajectory is exploited. In this paper it is reasoned that it is also beneficial to optimize the velocity trajectory. Especially optimizing the vehicle braking trajectories, through maximization of energy recuperation, results in considerable fuel savings on the same traveled distance. Given future route (target velocities as function of traveled distance/location, traffic, and possibly weather information, together with the vehicle’s road load parameters, the future power request trajectory can be estimated. Dynamic Programming (DP techniques can then be used to predict the optimal power split trajectory for the upcoming route, such that a desired state-of-charge at the end of the route is reached. The DP solution is re-calculated at a certain rate in order to adapt to changing conditions, e.g., traffic conditions, and used in a lower level real-time EMS to guarantee both battery state-of-charge as well as minimal fuel consumption. Pour évaluer la Stratégie de Gestion de l’Énergie (SGE d’un véhicule hybride, on exploite généralement un cycle de conduite donné, souvent certifié. Dans cet article, l’optimisation de l’itinéraire apparaît aussi comme nécessaire. L’optimisation, en particulier, des conditions de freinage du véhicule, par la maximisation de la récupération d’énergie, permet des économies considérables de combustible sur une même distance parcourue. Pour un itinéraire donné (vitesses cibles en fonction de la distance parcourue et de la position, compte tenu des conditions de circulation, des éventuelles données météorologiques et des paramètres de perte du véhicule, on peut estimer les besoins en puissance nécessaire pour le parcourir. Des techniques de Programmation Dynamique (PD peuvent alors être employées pour prévoir la répartition de puissance optimale pour un parcours donn

  19. Des Connaissances Aux Politiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les synergies ont été mises en commun au fur et à mesure des progrès de la recherche. .... Recherche normative (sur le rôle et la performance des institutions .... Système national d'information sur la gestion environnementale connecté à 19 ...... Un fort contrôle centralisé sur l'élaboration des politiques nationales peut ...

  20. Study of a case of essential hypoproteinaemia using the isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 15}N; Etude a l'aide des isotopes {sup 131}I et {sup 15}N d'un cas d'hypoproteinemie essentielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubert, A.; Coursaget, J.; Fallot, P.; Royer, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hopital des Enfants Malades, 75 - Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    Hypoproteinaemia both human and experimental has been studied with the help of nuclear labelling. A comparative study has been made of the fate of serum proteins labelled by an endogenous path after administration of nitrogen-15 glycine and also of serum albumin labelled by exogenous path using iodine-131. We have determined the biological period of the serum albumin and serum globulins and also the magnitude of the vascular and extravascular pools of serum albumin. In this way it has been possible to measure the speed of replacement of plasma proteins. A presentation of results taken from both clinical observation and experiment leads to a discussion on the pathogenic mechanism of hypoproteinaemia. (author) [French] Les hypoproteinemies humaine et experimentale ont ete explorees a l'aide d'indicateurs nucleaires. Une etude comparative du devenir des proteines seriques marquees par voie endogene, apres administration de glycocolle-{sup 15}N et de l'albumine serique marquee par voie exogene a l'iode-131 a ete realisee. On a determine la periode biologique de la serumalbumine et des globulines seriques ainsi que la grandeur des 'pools' vasculaire et extravasculaire de la serumalbumine. Il a ete ainsi possible d'evaluer la vitesse de renouvellement des proteines plasmatiques. La confrontation des resultats tires de l'observation clinique et de l'experimentation conduit a une discussion sur le mecanisme pathogenique de l'hypoproteinemie. (auteur)

  1. Fiscal policy in energy sector. Synthesis of talks at 22 March 1999 Session of DGEMP/CGP energy policy workshops; Fiscalite energetique. Synthese des interventions. Cycle de conferences de politique energetique DGEMP/CGP - Session du 22 mars 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godard, Olivier [Directeur de Recherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-18

    This document contains the Olivier Godard's synthesis of the discussions and talks given at the Session of 22 March 1999 of the cycle of lectures on energy policy organized by DGEMP/CGP (Direction Generale de l'Energie et des Matieres Premieres/Commissariat General du Plan) and the speech by Dominique Bureau, scientific councilor with the Economic Analysis Council of the Prime Minister. The energy tax policy may play a major role along with other instruments in the actions against the greenhouse effect. It could be an important lever of economic efficiency in the energy implication of the grand objectives. In this context, several extant provisions which have not or no longer economic justification should be re-examined. This is, for instance, the case of the differential taxation of diesel oil relative to the fuels Super, sill operative in France. Also, the lack of taxes on natural gas for domestic use, while the gas for industrial and electricity uses is taxed, or lack of coal taxation, in spite of their CO{sub 2} emissions, are in no way justifiable. As taxation of the FOL and FOD oil products, it should be multiplied at least by 3, to take into account solely the CO{sub 2} aspect and by 8 if the environmental effects are considered. Such tax augmentations could not be introduced in no time and accordingly methods are to be worked out and recommended to public authorities as to be incorporated as tools of their policy. Unfortunately, few of the actors participating in policy making are interested in the economic efficiency per se. Most of them are inclined to accept or reject a reform being guided solely by the capability or lack of capability of such a reform to solve the problems they are confronted with. Pleading for a reform based on only economic efficiency would be hardly attractive. In order to be more successful the reform should be conceived so that the most strategic actors to see in it a chance of improving their approach of their own

  2. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2017 ... ... de Biochimie et Immunologie Appliquée, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Biologiques, Alimentaires et .... l'intoxication des agriculteurs et des consommateurs, ... source d'alimentation en eau et au pouvoir d'achat des.

  3. Evaluation as a function of age of the effective energy absorbed in any gram ({epsilon}/m) of organs except the gastrointestinal tract by the principal radionuclides which are most likely to contaminate food and the environment; Evaluation en fonction de l'age des individus de l'energie effective delivree a l'unite de masse ({epsilon}/m) des organes autres que le tractus gastro-intestinal par les principaux radionuclides susceptibles de contaminer la chaine alimentaire et le milieu ambiant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In order to evaluate internal radiation doses it is necessary to know the effective energy dissipated in any gram of the organ of reference, which depends, for any radionuclide, on the physical energy (E) absorbed in the body organ, on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), on the relative damage factor (n) and on the mass of the organ (m). This effective energy may be evaluated as a function of the size and of the mass of the organs, from birth to adult age. This work is done for the principal radionuclides which are most likely to contaminate the food and the environment, it concerns 44 nuclides from {sup 3}H to {sup 242}Cm. (author) [French] L'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne exige la connaissance de l'energie effective delivree a chaque gramme de l'organe considere, qui depend, pour chaque radionuclide, de l'energie physique (E) absorbee dans l'organe, de l'efficacite biologique relative (EBR), du facteur de dommage relatif (n), de la masse de l'organe (m). Cette energie peut etre evaluee en fonction des dimensions et de la masse des organes, de la naissance a l'age adulte. Ce travail est effectue pour les principaux radionuclides susceptibles de contaminer la chaine alimentaire et le milieu ambiant, 44 isotopes sont traites du tritium au {sup 242}Cm.

  4. Contribution of the renewable energies to the decrease of the greenhouse gases emission for 2010; Contribution des EnR a la reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'horizon 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-03-01

    To illustrate the renewable energies contribution to the decrease of the greenhouse gases emission in 2010 (19 Mt of CO{sub 2} per year, of greenhouse gases emission avoided), this document presents the different renewable energies sources and the international context of their implementation. Today data and estimations for 2010 are provided. (A.L.B.)

  5. Isomers chart; Table des isomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Gautier, P; Chantelot, S; Moisson, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The nuclear isomers are nuclides offering the same mass number and the same atomic number, but different energy levels. In the following chart the zero energy ground states are omitted and the metastable isomers, i.e. of non-zero energy, known and of measurable lifetime, are listed. The lower limit of this lifetime was set here to 0.1 x 10{sup -6} s. The various isomers were classified in increasing lifetimes. (authors) [French] Les isomeres nucleaires sont des nucleides presentant le meme nombre de masse et le meme numero atomique, mais des niveaux energetiques differents. Dans la table suivante, on a neglige les etats fondamentaux d'energie nulle et on a recense les isomeres metastables, c'est-a-dire d'energie non nulle, connus et de periode mesurable. La limite inferieure de cette periode a ete fixee ici a 0,1 x 10{sup -6} s. Les differents isomeres ont ete classes par periodes croissantes. (auteurs)

  6. Isomers chart; Table des isomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Gautier, P.; Chantelot, S.; Moisson, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The nuclear isomers are nuclides offering the same mass number and the same atomic number, but different energy levels. In the following chart the zero energy ground states are omitted and the metastable isomers, i.e. of non-zero energy, known and of measurable lifetime, are listed. The lower limit of this lifetime was set here to 0.1 x 10{sup -6} s. The various isomers were classified in increasing lifetimes. (authors) [French] Les isomeres nucleaires sont des nucleides presentant le meme nombre de masse et le meme numero atomique, mais des niveaux energetiques differents. Dans la table suivante, on a neglige les etats fondamentaux d'energie nulle et on a recense les isomeres metastables, c'est-a-dire d'energie non nulle, connus et de periode mesurable. La limite inferieure de cette periode a ete fixee ici a 0,1 x 10{sup -6} s. Les differents isomeres ont ete classes par periodes croissantes. (auteurs)

  7. Disposal of the radioactive effluents at the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'. Treatment leading to evacuation into a river; Probleme du rejet des residus radioactifs liquides au CEA. Traitements aboutissant a des rejets en riviere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel; Menoux; Candillon [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The problems dealing with the treatment of the radioactive effluents at the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' have been studied in order to allow evacuation into a river - after treatment - with respect for the standards regarding radiation protection. 2) At Saclay where there is no possibility of evacuating the effluents, the liquids are directed towards Fontenay-aux-Roses by means of tank wagons. They are removed temporarily into the sewers and will be evacuated later on into the Seine. 3) ln Le Bouchet, the effluents coming from the Factory where urano-thorianite ore is treated will undergo a two stages treatment. The elimination of radium in the first phase facilitates decontamination in the second phase. 4) In Marcoule: a study of synthetic effluents of the Marcoule type is being carried on in order to perfect a selective elimination method of Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} by coprecipitation. 5) In the general case of the final evacuation into a river, the following problems have been studied: - pre-dilution of treated waters between the storing tanks and the river; - admission in the river; dilution in the river (preliminary study by means of a tracer); - evolution of the activity in the water of the river (adsorption by inert or living elements), contamination of the banks; - locating of the site; - isotopic dilution. 6) Circumstantial study of that last problem. 7) The quantity of a given product in water conditions the isotopic dilution of its radioactive isotopes. When the analysis shows the lack of an element, stable isotopes should be added in order to compensate it. 8) That method led to difficult analysis (specially as far as Sr{sup 90} is concerned), for the percentage of stable isotopes necessary to an important isotopic dilution is very low. 9) The standard regarding the quantity of Sr{sup 90} in drinking water is 8.10{sup -8} c/m{sup 3} or 4.10{sup -10} g/m{sup 3}. So a percentage of 40 {mu}g/litre of Sr is enough which is difficult

  8. For an ambitious policy of mastery of energy consumptions. The 2010 national energy prospects; Pour une politique ambitieuse de maitrise des consommations d'energie. Les perspectives energetiques nationale a 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Thirty years ago, after the first petroleum shock, France started to implement an energy mastery policy. The evolutions established during these three decades with respect to the international context and to the public policies implemented with more or less perseverance, allow to work out a status of the results obtained. This document is shared into 5 parts. Part 1 presents the main energy and environmental data for France since 1970: energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions, energy intensity and carbon, energy savings; and the future prospects of CO{sub 2} emissions, of primary energy market shares, and of power production from renewable energy sources by 2010-2020, according to different scenarios. Parts 2 to 5 make the same analysis for the different sectors: industry, agriculture, residential and tertiary sector, and transportation sector, respectively, and stresses on the actions to be implemented for a better mastery of the energy consumptions in each sector. (J.S.)

  9. A renewable electric power and heat autonomous generator; Un generateur autonome d'electricite et de chaleur renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The society ENERGIESTRO developed an electric power and heat generator allowing the electricity and the renewable heat of a little building, without the electric network. The energy source comes from a thermal engine supplied by biofuels. The document presents the technical characteristics and the advantages of this innovation. (A.L.B.)

  10. Handbook of technology law. General funamentals, environment law, genetic engineering act, energy act, telecommunication act and media act, patent act, computer act. 2. ed.; Handbuch des Technikrechts. Allgemeine Grundlagen Umweltrecht, Gentechnikrecht, Energierecht, Telekommunikations- und Medienrecht, Patentrecht, Computerrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Martin; Schroeder, Rainer (eds.) [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Juristische Fakultaet

    2011-07-01

    On the boundaries between technology sciences, jurisprudence, social sciences and economic science the technology law proves as a cross-sectional area par excellence. The bases of the technology law are presented: individual, particularly important scopes of the technology law (appliance safety regulations, technology law and environment law, genetic engineering act, energy right, telecommunications law and media law, patent law, computer law, data security, legally binding telecooperation) are analyzed in detail. The manual contacts all lawyers who want to provide a first in-depth insight of this new field of law. [German] Im Grenzbereich von Technik-, Rechts-, Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften erweist sich das Technikrecht als Querschnittsmaterie par excellence. Die Grundlagen des Technikrechts werden dargestellt; einzelne, besonders wichtige Bereiche des Technikrechts (Geraetesicherheitsrecht, Technik und Umweltrecht, Gentechnikrecht, Energierecht, Telekommunikations- und Medienrecht, Patentrecht, Computerrecht, Datensicherheit, Rechtsverbindliche Telekooperation) werden eingehend analysiert. Das Handbuch wendet sich an alle in Wissenschaft und Praxis mit dem Technikrecht befassten Juristen, die sich einen ersten vertieften Einblick in dieses neue Rechtsgebiet verschaffen wollen. (orig.)

  11. Public/privé : la (redistribution des rôles dans la production des espaces publics à Paris et à Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Fleury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’évaluer quelles sont les réalités de la privatisation des espaces publics au sein des métropoles européennes, en examinant la distribution des rôles entre acteurs publics et privés, à Paris et Berlin. La confrontation de ces deux cas conduit à relativiser la privatisation des espaces publics dans les métropoles européennes, en tout cas en ce qui concerne l’intervention du secteur privé dans leur production. Alors que le recours au privé demeure limité à quelques morceaux de ville et varie d’une ville à l’autre, l’investissement public global dans le domaine des espaces publics demeure considérable. Les formes et modes de l’action publique ont en outre été profondément renouvelés depuis les années 1980. Pour autant, si les pouvoirs publics gardent une place prépondérante dans ce domaine, c’est de plus en plus en associant les acteurs privés dans toute leur diversité, des acteurs économiques aux résidants et aux acteurs locaux, en passant par les professionnels de la ville. C’est finalement avec cette ouverture aux résidants et aux acteurs locaux que se dessinent plus précisément des tendances à la privatisation au sein des métropoles européennes, les intérêts privés pesant fortement sur les décisions des élus, les enjeux locaux pouvant s’inscrire en contradiction avec ce qui fait la ville dans son ensemble.The present article focuses on the privatisation of public spaces in European metropoles (Paris, Berlin in looking at task distribution between public and private actors. Confronting both cities sheds a new light on privatisation practices in European metropoles, at least as far as the private sector’s intervention in producing public spaces is concerned. Private actors intervene in relatively limited areas, with no general pattern. On the contrary, public investment in public spaces remains considerable. Furthermore, patterns form and modes of public action

  12. Renewable products, towards a new golden age of plants?; Produits renouvelables, vers un nouvel age d'or du vegetal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Our industrial civilization was built on the use of fossil materials. It has only 3 centuries of existence, but the use of these non-renewable resources will necessary come to an end in a near future. However alternate ways already exist through the use of biomass-derived products. These proceedings summarize the main discussions that took place during the different round tables of this colloquium. The first round table makes a status of the shortage of fossil energy reserves and of the new challenges and solutions offered by plants and bio-energies. The second round table presents the reality of the market, products and consumption of todays renewable vegetal resources (environmental advantages, economic aspect and competitiveness of markets). The last round table deals with the role of governments in the political sustain of renewable vegetal products development (genetic research, financial aspects, incentives, competition with food agriculture). (J.S.)

  13. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  14. La gouvernance des risques naturels et la problematique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depuis quelques années, la gouvernance des risques naturels dus aux inondations remet en cause les processus de mise en oeuvre des politiques urbaines et la qualité de la structure des aménagements dans les grandes villes du Golfe de Guinée. La perception de la gouvernance et l'application des politiques de ...

  15. Energie et développement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article introduit le dossier thématique consacré à la relation intime entre énergie et développement. Les auteurs retracent l’importance des énergies fossiles dans la croissance économique du monde occidental dès le XIXe siècle et le rôle central du pétrole au XXe siècle pour s’interroger sur les limites de ce modèle de développement face aux contraintes géologiques et climatiques. Ils examinent le fossé et les malentendus qui séparent les sciences de l’homme  et les sciences de la nature, ainsi que les récentes initiatives de dialogue interdisciplinaire autour de l’économie écologique et de l’écologie industrielle. Ils analysent ensuite les enjeux spécifiques aux pays en développement ainsi que l’inadéquation du système de gouvernance internationale pour faire face aux tensions croissantes liées à la déplétion du pétrole, aux asymétries d’accès et d’exploitation des ressources minérales et aux conséquences environnementales d’une consommation croissante de ressources non renouvelables.

  16. Anthropologie médicale et socio-anthropologie des actions publiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available De même que les politiques de santé sont une forme particulière de politiques publiques, de même l’anthropologie de la santé peut à divers égards être considérée comme relevant de la socio-anthropologie des actions publiques. On y retrouve les mêmes problèmes dans les relations entre décideurs et chercheurs. Le problème de la détermination et de la pertinence des thèmes de recherche peut recevoir diverses solutions : la collaboration avec les responsables des politiques publiques ou les spécialistes de santé publique permet de renouveler les sujets, tout en incluant les commanditaires comme objet de recherche. Le problème des pressions que les commanditaires font peser sur la problématique et la méthodologie exige la reconnaissance par ceux-ci de la spécificité des approches qualitatives. Le problème de l’application des résultats des recherches est le plus complexe : pour que les connaissances produites puissent favoriser des actions réformatrices, il semble nécessaire que la recherche se focalise plus nettement sur les acteurs des politiques publiques eux-mêmes et la mise en œuvre de ces dernières sur le terrain. Encore faudrait-il que les institutions d’intervention acceptent les résultats des recherches afin de réformer leurs propres méthodes d’action. Les connaissances produites par le concept exploratoire de « normes pratiques » pourraient les y aider.Health policies represent a specific kind of public policies. In the same way, anthropology of health can be considered in many respects as falling within socio-anthropology of public policies. It deals with the same issues of relationships between policy-makers and researchers. The issues of choice and relevancy of research themes can be solved in manifold ways: collaboration with policy-makers or public health specialists allows to renew research focus, while including sponsors as research objects. The issue of sponsors pressurizing

  17. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  18. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  19. Improvement of pressure-vessel surveillance of a PWR-power plant of the Societe d'Energie Nucleaire Franco-Belge des Ardennes (S.E.N.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, A.; Lloret, R.; Riehl, R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a new dosimetry, installed inside and outside the Pressure Vessel of CHOOZ Nuclear Power Plant of the Societe d'Energie Nucleaire Franco-Belge des Ardennes (S.E.N.A.), during its 1982-83 operation cycle. The inner dosimetry deals with a simulated capsule located under the reactor plate, and includes copper, nickel, iron, niobium, copper-cobalt, neptunium and uranium dosimeters. Its aim is to qualify the information given by the existing copper dosimetry. The spectrum used with these measurements is obtained by the 1 D ANISN Code and BIP-N 2 library. The outer dosimety is the fluence determination along the outer wall of the vessel. Two tubes, equiped by neutron dosimeters, seven meters long, were fixed along the vessel. On the median plane, the results are compared to a 2 D DOT transport calculation. Preliminary results are given which improve the vessel and specimens neutronic characterisation. (Auth.)

  20. Lead-cooled hybrid reactors and fuel regeneration for energy production and incineration evolution of physical parameters and induced radiotoxicity; Capacites des reacteurs hybrides au plomb pour la production d'energie et l'incineration avec multirecyclage des combustibles evolution des parametres physiques radiotoxicites induites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, S

    1999-07-01

    The concept of accelerator driven subcritical reactors (hybrid reactors), as re-launched in the beginning of the 1990's by C. Rubbia and C.D. Bowman, allows to open new paths in the management of radioactive wastes. This work treats, first, of the study of the neutron multiplication characteristics in a subcritical reactor core and shows the fundamental differences with critical systems and the advantages that follow. This study is based on the series of measurements performed at Cadarache (Muse experiment), the first results of which are presented. The subcritical property of an hybrid reactor makes this system very flexible and allows to foresee different uses, like the energy production or the incineration of wastes. The second part of this work deals with the Monte Carlo simulation of the capacities of fast spectrum and lead-cooled hybrid systems to produce energy by using different fuel cycles (uranium and thorium), and in the same time regenerating the fissile matter and keeping the reactivity up without any external intervention. Different types of fuel multi-recycles are considered. The results allow to quantify the advantages linked with the use of the thorium cycle, in particular in terms of radiotoxicity abatement. The study of the intermediate steps necessary to develop this reactor technology with the present day fuels (plutonium from thermal reactors and enriched uranium) proposes an efficient management of the actinides produced by today's reactors which are used as auxiliary fissile materials. Finally, the incineration of actinides at the end of the cycle (shutdown scenario) is considered and allows to describe the advantage of lead-cooled hybrid systems for the abatement of the radiotoxicity of an inventory at the end of cycle. (J.S.)

  1. An intelligent utilization of the facettes of IT outsourcing - About costs and use of outsourcing in the branch of energy economy; Facetten des IT-Outsourcings intelligent nutzen - Ueber Kosten und Nutzen des Outsourcings in der Engergiewirtschaftsbranche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler-Schute, Christiana (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    The restructuring of the German energy economy is connected with an enormous expenditure of know-how and substantial financial investments. Under this aspect, the book under consideration wants to suggest decision-makers in companies to include options to the outsourcing into their strategic considerations. Additionally, information for their decision preparation is to give to the decision-makers. The book contains the following contributions: (a) Information technology (IT) as business drivers in public utilities of the future (Holger Bonk, Wolfgang Herbers); (b) Smart outsourcing as creation of value factor (Ulrich Czubayko, Anke Schaefer); (c) From the web service to the full outsourcing in the energy market - an overview for decision making Make-or-Buy (Alexander-Ivo Franz); (d) Outsourcing in the energy industry from view of Siemens IT Solutions and services (Josef Kapp); (e) Consumption accounting, energy data management, customer data administration and data exchange from one hand: A standardised ASP solution offers data management from one hand (Mario Strauss, Kristina Seifert); (f) Smart of Metering systems, AMM and reading of the meter successfully outsourcen (Ralf Hoffmann, Simon Loeffler); (g) Contract design with the outsourcing with special consideration of the BPO and IT-outsourcing (Thomas Soebbing).

  2. The use aeroplanes and vehicles for prospecting. The technique of the detection radioactivity. The future opened up by the use of the discrimination of energies; Methodes de prospection autoportee et aeroportee. La technique de la detection des rayonnements. Les perspectives offertes par la discrimination des energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, J; Berbezier, J; Blangy, B; Lallemant, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The idea of installing activity detectors on aeroplanes and vehicles has been widely applied by the CEA since the start of prospecting in the arid and tropical regions of the Communaute Francaise. Three systems of detection have been developed and compared in a systematic manner: a group of 50 G.M. tubes; the sodium iodide scintillator; the plastic scintillator. The sodium iodide scintillator is used as a standard reference; the results are compared by graphical recording. Airborne prospecting is carried out in two stages: the initial flights, which follow a kilometre square network, make possible the discovery of the most likely zones; these likely zones are then examined in greater detail using light aeroplanes or helicopters. The two types of airborne scintillation measuring devices which have been developed by the CEA are described in this article. The practical results obtained during systematic and detailed airborne prospecting campaigns in the Hoggar are described. The difficulty in airborne uranium prospecting is to be able to immediately distinguish while in flight, anomalies caused by uranium from those caused by thorium. (author) [French] L'idee de monter des detecteurs de rayonnements sur des avions ou des vehicules a ete largement appliquee par le CEA des le debut des prospections dans les pays sahariens et tropicaux de la Communaute Fran ise. On a realise et compare d'une maniere systematique trois moyens de detection: groupe de 50 tubes GM; scintillateur d'iodure de sodium, scintillateur plastique. L'appareil de reference sera le scintillateur d'iodure de sodium; les resultats sont compares par enregistrement graphique. La prospection aeroportee se fait en deux etapes; les premiers vols systematiques suivant un quadrillage kilometrique permettent de reperer les zones interessantes; ces dernieres font l'objet d'examens plus detailles effectues en avion leger ou en helicoptere. Dans cet article, on decrit les deux types de scintillometres aeroportes

  3. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  4. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  5. Determining the climate impact of the German government's Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP) and proposing a plan to continuously monitor its climate impact. Work package 3. Description of monitoring tools for the Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP); Ermittlung der Klimaschutzwirkung des Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramms der Bundesregierung IEKP und Vorschlag fuer ein Konzept zur kontinuierlichen Ueberpruefung der Klimaschutzwirkung des IEKP. Arbeitspaket 3. Beschreibung des Monitoringtools fuer das Integrierte Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramm (IEKP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Fleiter, Tobias [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2012-02-15

    The reports on the Work Packages 1 and 2 describe the development of the monitoring concept for the individual measures of the integrated energy and climate program (IEKP). In the third work package, the monitoring concept was developed in an Excel tool presenting the actual output of the third work package The authors of the contribution under consideration describe the functionality of this Excel tool.

  6. Pour un accès renouvelé aux collections : Une ethnographie de la BnF-site Richelieu et de ses publics

    OpenAIRE

    Roustan, Mélanie

    2013-01-01

    Dans le contexte de la rénovation en cours du site Richelieu de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, cette ethnographie conduite de février 2012 à mars 2013, à la demande de la BnF, visait à mieux comprendre les logiques d'usages des collections spécialisées (manuscrits, estampes et photographies, cartes et plans, monnaies et médailles, etc.) et d'en anticiper les évolutions dans les années à venir. Les observations et entretiens approfondis permettent de mieux comprendre le rapport des cherc...

  7. Price increase and credit crunch: a double punishment for the financing of energy projects. Review of the Ifri Energy Breakfast Roundtable, 25 November 2008 in Brussels; Hausse des prix et baisse des credits: double peine pour le financement de l'energie - Compte-rendu du 'Ifri Energy Breakfast Roundtable' du 25 Novembre 2008 a Bruxelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulke, Ch.

    2009-07-01

    The roundtable starts by giving an overview of the consequences of the sharp decrease of the oil price and the credit crunch for the financing of energy projects. Some analysts say that under-investment will be the main result and they hence predict a major supply crunch in some year's time. Others are more optimistic and point to the compensation and mitigating effects of the current situation, e.g. demand destruction and substitution. So a major question for the future is the extent of demand destruction that has happened: will this demand come back once the economic crisis is over? Furthermore, as developing costs decrease, will lower cost pressure allow some important projects to go forward? Finally, will the low oil revenue have an influence on producer countries stance on foreign investment by International Oil Companies? A discussion with the audience follows the presentations

  8. Contribution to the study of the diffusion {alpha}-proton for {alpha} particles of 3,1 and 5,3 MeV; Contribution a l'etude de la diffusion {alpha}-proton pour des particules {alpha} d'energie comprise entre 3,1 et 5,3 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhla, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    The diffusion of the particles has by the light cores that present a weak gate of potential, must permit the survey of the nuclear strengths. Some authors, studying the distribution in energy of the protons given out by a hydrogenated target submitted to a bombardment has variable energy, signal that this distribution has a structure of groups. We tried to reproduce experiences of diffusion {alpha}-proton, in order to verify the existence of the groups of signaled protons in the previous works. However in spite of finer experimental conditions, we had recovered any group structures in the distribution of the protons. This work permits to conclude that there is not a resonance in the {alpha}-proton diffusion for included energies between 3,1 and 5,3 MeV. The absence of resonances confirms the existence of the fundamental level of {sup 5}Li above in the neighborhood of 1,8 MeV {sup 4}He + {sup 1}H. (M.B.) [French] La diffusion des particules a par les noyaux legers qui presentent une faible barriere de potentiel, doit permettre l'etude des forces nucleaires. certains auteurs, etudiant la distribution en energie des protons emis par une cible hydrogenee soumise a un bombardement a d'energie variable, signalent que cette distribution a une structure de groupes. Nous avons essaye de reproduire les experiences du type diffusion {alpha}-proton, afin de verifier l'existence des groupes de protons signales dans les travaux anterieurs. Cependant malgre des conditions experimentales plus fines, nous n'avons retrouve aucunce structure de groupe dans la distribution des protons. Ce travail permet de conclure qu'il n'y a pas de resonance dans la diffusion {alpha}-proton pour des energies comprises entre 3,1 et 5,3 MeV. L'absence de resonances confirme l'existence du niveau fondamental de {sup 5}Li au voisinage de 1,8 MeV au-dessus de {sup 4}He + {sup 1}H. (M.B.)

  9. Characteristic values of energy consumption in buildings. Guideline VDI 3807; Bewertung des Verbrauchsverhaltens von Gebaeuden mit Hilfe von Kennwerten. Die Richtlinie VDI 3807

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muegge, G. [Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI), Essen (Germany).

    2000-07-01

    Characteristic values of energy consumptions are used since several years for a first analysis of the energy consumption in buildings. The application is regulated in the Guideline VDI 3807 'Characteristic values of energy consumption in buildings' which is presented in this lecture. Part 1 of the guideline deals with the fundamentals of the characteristic values of energy consumption, Parts 2 and 3 give empirical values of the heating energy and electricity consumption resp. water consumption. (orig.)

  10. Santé des adolescents et des jeunes au Burkina Faso : état des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'est agi d'une étude évaluative ayant utilisé une revue documentaire associée à une interview des acteurs clés et un atelier de validation et d'identification des interventions pertinentes pour un plan stratégique national. La situation de la santé des adolescents et des jeunes est caractérisée par des grossesses précoces ...

  11. Study of some properties of 's' neutron resonance parameters for target nuclei I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 in function of spin value J = I + 1/2 in the energy range 1 {yields} 5000 eV; Etude de quelques proprietes des parametres de resonances des neutrons ''s'' pour des noyaux cibles I = 1/2 et I = 3/2 en fonction de la valeur du spin J = I + 1/2 dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    Different kinds of experiments and analysis methods allowing to achieve neutron resonances parameters in the low energy range (1 eV {yields} 5000 eV) are described. A great deal of effort to improve experimental conditions and data processing in order to know the spin value J = I {+-} 1/2 has been spent. The time of flight method was used. A few target nuclei I = 3/2 and 1 = 1/2 have been studied. For I = 3/2 (Ga, As, 3r, Au) we find S{sub o} J = 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 and S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 for I = 1/2 (Tm, Pt) but {sup 77}Se. Fluctuations of the total radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} depend on the spin value I = I {+-} 1/2 when E1 transition, are enhanced for one of the both spin states. The magnitude of these fluctuations can be explained of the strength of E1 transitions (E{sub {gamma}} {approx} 7 MeV) is supposed to be proportional to E{sup 5}{sub {gamma}} instead of E{sup 3}{sub {gamma}}. The distribution of levels spacings against spin value J are considered and are compared to theoretical predictions. (author) [French] On decrit les differentes methodes d'analyse permettant d'obtenir les parametres des resonances de neutron dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV. Un effort particulier a ete fait pour connaitre la valeur du spin J = I {+-} 1/2. Les types d'experience et les analyses des donnees, developpes et ameliores pour determiner J sont decrits. Les resultats obtenus ont permis l'etude de differentes proprietes en fonction du spin J. On trouve: S{sub o} J 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 pour les noyaux I = 3/2 etudies (Ga, As, Br, Au) et S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 Pour le Tm et {sup 195}Pt de spin I = 1/2. On constate que les largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} fluctuent si des transitions E1 aux premiers etats excites sont favorisees. Ces fluctuations peuvent etre expliquees si on suppose que les intensites de ces transitions sont proportionnelles a E{sup 5}{sub {gamma

  12. Recapitulative list of the C.E.A. reports published by the French Atomic Energy Commission (n.757-1062, december 1957-december 1958) supplement to C.E.A. reports n. 593 and 756; Liste recapitulative des rapports C.E.A. publies par le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (du n.757 a 1062, decembre 1957-decembre 1958) complement aux rapports C.E.A. n. 593 et 756

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiterlow, C G; Cohen, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Recapitulative list of the C.E.A. reports published by the French Atomic Energy Commission. (number 757-1062, december 1957 - december 1958). Supplement to C.E.A. reports number 593 and 756. (author) [French] Liste recapitulative des rapports C.E.A. publies par le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (du numero 757 au numero 1062, decembre 1957 - decembre 1958). Complement aux rapports C.E.A. numero 593 et 756. (auteur)

  13. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  14. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DES-exposed grandchildren have? Researchers are also studying possible health effects among women and men who are the children ... for unexposed men. In addition, researchers are studying possible health effects on the grandchildren of mothers who were exposed ...

  15. Table des illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tableaux Dates d’inauguration des grands hôtels japonais entre 1860 et 1945… 19 Histoire, tourisme et hôtellerie en Corée depuis les années 1870… 59-60 Dates d’inauguration des grands hôtels chinois depuis 1863… 84 Les hôtels de luxe et leurs capacités d’hébergement en Corée en 2000… 103 Les flux de personnes suscités par les hôtels « super luxe » de Séoul en 2000… 105 L’activité des grands hôtels à Séoul en 1999 (en wons)… 106 Propriété et gestion des grands hôtels à Séoul en 1999…. 110 La c...

  16. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    potential and surface properties of their mixtures were investigated, in an ... suppose that the electrostatic repulsive interactions between the two anion ... concentration, et de la conformation des ..... proteins and polysaccharides in solutions,.

  17. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century; Nachhaltigkeit, Energiewende, Klimawandel, Welternaehrung. Politische und rechtliche Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, Ines (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  18. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  19. Neutron Dosimetry and Irradiation of Solids; Dosimetrie des neutrons et irradiation des solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perriot, G; Schmitt, A P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    Results of work at C.E.A. from 1958 to 1960 are reviewed. The possibilities offered by classical dosimetry methods are discussed. The tests which led to the utilization, for fast neutron dosimetry, of resistivity variations induced in solid W by such neutrons are described. Experimental W irradiation results led to a definition of neutron efficiency which describes the relations between neutron energy and their effects on materials. Possibilities offered by detectors which make use of radiation damage and are sensitive to neutrons at keV energies were explored. In other work, the principal French reactors were classified according to their ability to produce damage in materials such as W. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport on a presente les resultats essentiels de travaux qui ont ete effectues de 1958 a 1980 par des chercheurs du CEA issus de differents services. En meme temps qu'une revue des possibilites offertes a l'epoque par les methodes classiques de dosimetrie (utilisation des detecteurs par activation), on a decrit les essais qui devaient permettre d'utiliser, a la dosimetrie les neutrons rapides, les variations de resistivite qu'ils creent dans un corps solide (tungstene). L'irradiation du tungstene a montre l'importance qu'il y avait a definir 'l'efficacite' des neutrons, c'est-a-dire leur aptitude plus ou moins grande, selon leur energie, a creer des defauts dans les materiaux. L'efficacite d'un emplacement d'irradiation se trouvant liee au spectre neutronique, on a vu les difficultes qu'il y avait a utiliser les detecteurs par activation des qu'on n'avait plus affaire a un spectre en 1/E ou de fission et on a pu entrevoir les possibilites offertes par les detecteurs utilisant la creation des defauts qui repondent a tous les neutrons d'energies, superieures a quelques keV. Enfin, on a classe les principaux types de Piles Francaises selon leur aptitude a creer plus ou moins rapidement des dommages dans des materiaux comme le tungstene. (auteur)

  20. Separation of reaction mechanisms at low energy. Study of the reactions: {sup 27}Al(d,p) {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Mg(d,p) {sup 25}Mg, and {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na; Sur la separation des mecanismes de reaction a basse energie. Etude des reactions: {sup 27}Al(d,p) {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Mg(d,p) {sup 25}Mg, et {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mermaz, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The two sets of angular distributions of (d,p) reactions on Al and Mg, measured between 2 and 6 MeV, have given the possibility to test, in analysing the statistical fluctuations of cross-section, the validity of the separation of their mean values in two parts, one 'direct', another given by the statistical mechanism. With the same method of analysis we have studied excitation functions for several alpha groups of the reaction {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na and given an evidence for an intermediate structure for the alpha channel leading to the 3. excited state of {sup 22}Na. The angular distribution of the wide resonance at 15.9 MeV in {sup 26}Al has been obtained. (author) [French] Les deux ensembles de distributions angulaires des reactions (d,p) sur Al et Mg, mesures entre 2 et 6 MeV, nous ont permis, en analysant les fluctuations statistiques de sections efficaces, de verifier la possibilite de la separation de leurs valeurs moyennes en deux composantes: l'une 'directe', l'autre due au mecanisme statistique. Avec la meme methode d'analyse nous avons etudie les fonctions d'excitation des premiers groupes alpha de la reaction {sup 24}Mg(d,{alpha}) {sup 22}Na et mis en evidence une structure intermediaire pour la voie de reaction aboutissant au 3eme niveau de {sup 22}Na. Nous avons obtenu la distribution angulaire de la resonance large situee a une energie d'excitation de 15,9 MeV dans {sup 26}Al. (auteur)

  1. Separation of reaction mechanisms at low energy. Study of the reactions: {sup 27}Al(d,p) {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Mg(d,p) {sup 25}Mg, and {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na; Sur la separation des mecanismes de reaction a basse energie. Etude des reactions: {sup 27}Al(d,p) {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Mg(d,p) {sup 25}Mg, et {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mermaz, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The two sets of angular distributions of (d,p) reactions on Al and Mg, measured between 2 and 6 MeV, have given the possibility to test, in analysing the statistical fluctuations of cross-section, the validity of the separation of their mean values in two parts, one 'direct', another given by the statistical mechanism. With the same method of analysis we have studied excitation functions for several alpha groups of the reaction {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na and given an evidence for an intermediate structure for the alpha channel leading to the 3. excited state of {sup 22}Na. The angular distribution of the wide resonance at 15.9 MeV in {sup 26}Al has been obtained. (author) [French] Les deux ensembles de distributions angulaires des reactions (d,p) sur Al et Mg, mesures entre 2 et 6 MeV, nous ont permis, en analysant les fluctuations statistiques de sections efficaces, de verifier la possibilite de la separation de leurs valeurs moyennes en deux composantes: l'une 'directe', l'autre due au mecanisme statistique. Avec la meme methode d'analyse nous avons etudie les fonctions d'excitation des premiers groupes alpha de la reaction {sup 24}Mg(d,{alpha}) {sup 22}Na et mis en evidence une structure intermediaire pour la voie de reaction aboutissant au 3eme niveau de {sup 22}Na. Nous avons obtenu la distribution angulaire de la resonance large situee a une energie d'excitation de 15,9 MeV dans {sup 26}Al. (auteur)

  2. Contribution des radios communautaires a l'education des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution des radios communautaires a l'education des populations rurales pour un developpement durable au Benin: etude de cas. ... Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Université de Lomé. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ...

  3. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  4. La convergence des rôles respectifs des relationnistes et des journalistes influence-t-elle la perception qu'ils ont les uns des autres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    la convergence des rôles respectifs des praticiens des relations publiques et des journalistes a un effet favorable sur la perception qu’ils ont les uns des autres. L’effet est plus marqué chez les praticiens des relations publiques, car leur vision de la profession en journalisme correspond à celle...

  5. A decision aiding and action management tool to control the energy demand - from conception to development; Un outil d`aide a la decision et de gestion des actions pour la maitrise de la demande d`energie - de la conception au developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaehler, J W.M.

    1993-07-06

    This work presents a synthesis of three points: the environment, energy and man. The consideration of these aspects allows us to confront the unequal distribution of energy resources, the constraints and political influences which determine the exploitation of these energy resources, and the concentration of the consumption of energy by one fifth of the world`s population and the perspective of future growth of energy use by the remaining four-fifths. It is understanding of the importance and the benefits of reducing energy requirements, combined with the environmental perspectives, that forms the core of the Integrated Resource Planning of Least is proposed. This framework will utilize the knowledge of the engineer for developing a system to aid with decision making and the management of information, and particularly with the notions henceforth referred to as `Demand-Site Management` as applied to the electrical grid. The model of such a Management Information System which demonstrates these theoretical advances is called SIADEME (Systeme Interactif d`Aide a la Decision et de Gestion des Actions de Maitrise de la Demande d`energie). This includes some examples for the management of electricity demand for both the lighting and refrigeration cases in large (> 2500 m{sup 2}) supermarkets for the French environmental and energy management agency (Ademe). (author) 216 refs.

  6. Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet vise à analyser la contribution réelle et potentielle de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif au bien-être des jeunes et des femmes en Côte d'Ivoire, au Burkina Faso et au Kenya. Après un état des lieux de la pratique de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif dans chacun des pays ciblés, l'équipe de recherche étudiera son incidence sur ...

  7. Environmental analysis report for the proposed development of a wind turbine array near the town of Thetford Mines and the municipalities of Saint-Jean-de-Brebeuf and Kinnear's Mills by Energie Eolienne Des Moulins S.E.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, C.; Theberge, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Energie Eolienne Des Moulins S.E.C. has responded to Hydro-Quebec's call for tenders to construct a wind turbine array in the Chaudiere Appalache area, north of Thetford Mines to meet the future energy needs of the region. This document described the reasons for the project and provided a general description of the project. The company will install 78 wind turbines, of which 75 are 2 MW and 3 are 2.3 MW for a total capacity of 156.9 MW. This project requires a certificate of authorization from the provincial government and must undergo an environmental assessment. As part of the process, public inquiries were held in September and October 2009 to consult with stakeholders, project proponents and those opposed to the project. The main challenges facing the project include concerns by local residents regarding the local economy, visual aesthetics of the project, noise pollution, and hazards for birds and bats. This document also covered other considerations, such as drinking water sources; public security and emergency procedures; telecommunications; electromagnetic interference; shadow effect; eco-tourism; waste management; dust and particulates; forest management; endangered plant species; soil management; wetlands; surface waters; aquatic ecosystems; and deer. Upon review of all these considerations, a follow-up committee at the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks decided that the project is justifiable and acceptable from an environmental point of view and has recommended that the project proceed. 47 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs., 4 appendices.

  8. Energy saving advice on site. A financial incentive of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology; Energiesparberatung vor Ort. Ein Foerderprogramm des Bundesministeriums fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    Energy conservation is useful not only from the perspective of energy policy and climate policy. Energy conservation also means a noticeable cost savings. Here, the program 'on-site consultation' comes in: experts assist owners, renters and tenants of residential buildings in the renovation of real estate. The expert advice is funded by the Kreditanstalt fuer Wiederaufbau (Frankfurt (Main), Federal Republic of Germany) if it is recognizable that this is not achievable economically.

  9. Technology transfer in the energy domain in the Canton of Berne. Evaluation 1996. Final Report; Technologievermittlung im Energiebereich des Kantons Bern. Begleitende Evaluation 1996. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, R.; Schaerer, H.U.; Jakob, E.; Kriesi, R.; Spahr, I.; Schaefer, H.; Kuster, J.

    1996-12-01

    The Canton of Bern has promoted the transfer of technology since 1993. Together with the Department of Energy Economy, it began a pilot project in this field in 1995. An energy expert from the private sector was given the task of building up contacts between the energy research and industry. In this report, an independent expert evaluates this pilot project as positive and recommends its continuation. (author) figs., tabs., 10 refs.

  10. La fabrique des sciences des institutions aux pratiques

    CERN Document Server

    Benninghoff, Martin; Crettaz von Roten, Fabienne; Merz, Martina

    2006-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, les façons de produire, d'organiser, d'évaluer et d'utiliser les savoirs sont en profond débat. De plus en plus, l'Etat, la société civile et l'économie tentent d'influencer les activités des universités et des laboratoires de recherche. Ces développements mettent à l'épreuve tout à la fois les fondements des systèmes d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche, l'autonomie des institutions scientifiques, la définition des frontières des savoirs et l'acceptation des sciences. Dans des contextes suisses et européens, cet ouvrage s'intéresse aux manières dont les sciences et les technologies sont fabriquées, en analysant leurs institutions et les pratiques. A partir d'une approche relationnelle, les sciences et les technologies sont conçues comme des phénomènes profondément sociaux, culturels et politiques. Une telle démarche déstabilise les visions parfois idéalisées et stéréotypées de la construction des savoirs. Des études de cas détaillées décrivent des phénomè...

  11. Effets des extraits vegetaux sur la dynamique de populations des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude se propose de trouver une alternative de l'utilisation des pesticides chimiques en testant l'effet insecticide des extraits aqueux des feuilles de Hyptis suaveolens, graines de Ricinus communis et de Azadirachta indica contre les ravageurs du niébé en conditions de champ en utilisant le cyperméthrine ...

  12. The EEG as an instrument of the Federal areal management of renewable energies - also a contribution to the discussion about energy sectoral planning; Das EEG als Instrument des Bundes zur raeumlichen Steuerung der erneuerbaren Energien - zugleich ein Beitrag zur Diskussion um eine Energiefachplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Anna-Maria [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sailer, Frank [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany). Forschungsgebiet Energieanlagen- und Infrastrukturrecht

    2016-05-15

    The areal management of the power generation structure takes place at first glance mainly on the Zoning and Planning Law, less than the energy law. The only sporadically encountered jurisprudential work for controlling effect of the EEG came to the conclusion, the current configuration of the support system in the EEG is in deficit and ''blind'' to the localization and areal distribution of energy generation plants in the Federal territory, although the EEG is representing a ''downright predestined management tool''. On closer inspection, however, shows that individual provisions have entirely certain location preferences or cause areal distribution effects and the EEG thus play a management effect. The contribution is therefore devoted to the question of whether and how the EEG 2014, with the overall network expansion and payment system is able to manage the energy production from renewable energy sources in the area and whether an energy specialist planning is useful and necessary. [German] Die raeumliche Steuerung der Energieerzeugungsstruktur findet auf den ersten Blick vornehmlich ueber das Raumordnungs- und Planungsrecht statt, weniger ueber das Energierecht. Die allenfalls vereinzelt anzutreffenden rechtswissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zur Steuerungsleistung des EEG kommen zu dem Ergebnis, die jetzige Ausgestaltung des Foerdersystems im EEG sei defizitaer und ''blind'' gegenueber der Lokalisierung und raeumlichen Verteilung von EE-Anlagen im Bundesgebiet, obwohl das EEG doch ein ''geradezu praedestiniertes Steuerungsinstrument'' darstelle. Bei naeherer Betrachtung zeigt sich jedoch, dass einzelne Regelungen durchaus bestimmte Standortpraeferenzen aufweisen bzw. raeumliche Verteilungseffekte bewirken und dem EEG damit eine steuernde Wirkung zukommt. Der Beitrag widmet sich daher der Frage, ob und wie das EEG 2014 sowie das allgemeine Netzausbau- und -entgeltsystem die Energieerzeugung

  13. Optimisation énergétique des procédés de séparation en raffinage et en traitement de gaz naturel Optimal Use of Energy in Separation Processes for Refining and Natural Gas Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojey A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une méthode d'optimisation des procédés de séparation basée sur une analyse thermodynamique. Cette analyse s'appuie sur un bilan exergétique qui est établi dans le cas général d'un système quelconque opérant en régime permanent. Les facteurs qui conditionnent le rendement exergétique d'un procédé de séparation sont ensuite examinés. Il en résulte une méthode d'optimisation basée sur une réduction des irréversibilités thermodynamiques. Des exemples concrets d'application en raffinage et en traitement de gaz naturel sont présentés, et on montre comment cette analyse peut déboucher sur la conception de procédés innovants. The optimization of separation units in refining and natural-gas processing must take into consideration new needs and constraints that may seem incompatible. New installations must be designed not only on the basis of energy optimization but also by seeking to minimize investments and to respect new rules concerning environmental protection. The optimization described in this article is based on a thermodynamic analysis of different material and energy exchanges, The energybalance provides a suitable basis for making this analysis. It leads to the defining of an exergy efficiency that is all the higher as the thermodynamic irreversibilities are reduced, and that tends toward one for an ideal reversible system. For a separation process, a separation exergyterm is defined that correspond to the minimum separation work . Distillation is the basic separation operation. The exergy efficiency of this operation is low, and we show that, even in a relatively favorable cas, it is no greater than a value of about 6%. For an atmospheric distillation operation of crude oil, the exergy efficiency is about 4%. This overall exergy efficiency is the product of an external exergy efficiency and an internal exergy efficiency. The external exergy efficiency can be improved by better thermal

  14. L'évolution politique de l'Afrique : les formes se renouvellent, les modèles restent à inventer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.

    2003-01-01

    Cet article s'efforce de souligner des dynamiques en cours en Afrique actuellement et de les replacer sur le long terme, et de remettre en question les mythes (comme le concept européen de "société civile") et explications couramment acceptés sur la causalité de l'histoire récente. Le regain de

  15. L’interaction urbain-rural : une problématique renouvelée Urban-rural interaction revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vandermotten

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La distinction entre l’urbain et le rural était claire sous l’Ancien Régime, dans des sociétés peu mobiles. La révolution industrielle accentue l’identification entre la ville, l’industrie et la modernité. Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le développement du transport routier affranchit l’industrie des localisations urbaines et la périurbanisation progresse. En même temps, l’accroissement des productivités agricoles libère de plus en plus de main-d’œuvre paysanne. Après deux siècles au moins d’exode rural, les campagnes se rurbanisent, mais cette rurbanisation s’inscrit dans un contexte global de mégapolisation. Cette configuration devrait imposer une nouvelle appréciation des rapports entre l’urbain et le rural, en ce compris leurs rapports politiques.The distinction between urban and rural was clear under the Ancien Régime, as societies featured a low level of mobility. The industrial revolution increased the identification between cities, manufacturing and modernity. After the Second World War, growing road traffic freed industries from urban locations and suburbanisation thus increased. Simultaneously, the increase in food productivity required fewer and fewer agricultural workers. After more than two centuries of rural exodus, rurbanisation transformed rural areas, even as this very process of rurbanisation should be seen as part of a global megapolization process. This pattern implies new kinds of relations between the rural and the urban, including from a political point of view.

  16. Use of geothermal energy in the region of Basel at the south-eastern end of the Rheingraben; Die Nutzung der Erdwaerme in der Region Basel am Suedostende des Rheingrabens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauber, L

    1997-12-01

    The idea of using geothermal energy in the Basel region came up during the years 1973-1980, due to the shortages in oil and gas supply. Independency of foreign suppliers, diversification and renewable energies have been demanded. Geothermal energy was one of the possibilities discussed in those years. Today, geothermal energy is also and mainly seen as a environmental clean energy without output of CO{sub 2} and other gases. For these reasons, and because it is well known that the Rheingraben has a good geothermal gradient, the two Cantons of Basel-Stadt and Basel-Land made efforts to develop the use of this energy. The Canton Basel-Stadt together with the Community of Riehen decided to test these possibilities with two wells (1988-1990). The well Riehen 1 (depth 1`547 m) showed in the Upper Muschelkalk a pumping rate of 20,5 l/s with a temperature of 66,4 C and Riehen 2 (depth 1`247 m) made 22 l/s with 52,2 C. The salinity of the water was 17 g/l (Riehen 1) and 14 g/l (Riehen 2), mainly NaCl and CaSO{sub 4}, together with CO{sub 2}. Due to the high salinity, well Riehen 2 is used as a production well, Riehen 2 as a rejection well. Riehen decided to construct a distant heating system and therefore it was possible to add the geothermal energy into this system, avoiding the consumption of 1750 t oil per year (=50%). The power of the whole heating system is 15`200 kW. Production started in April 1994. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den vergangenen Jahren sind in der Region Basel 3 Geothermiebohrungen zur Nutzung der Erdwaerme abgetieft worden: Riehen 1: 1`547 m tief T=66,4 C Salinitaet=17`031,9 mg/l Gradient=4,05 C/100 m Riehen 2: 1`247 m tief T=52,2 C Salinitaet 14`162,7 mg/l Gradient=3,65 C/100 m Reinach 1: 1`793 m tief T=78,0 C Salinitaet=43`896 mg/l Gradient=3,75 C/100 m Riehen 1 und 2 erwiesen sich von der Ergiebigkeit (>20 l/s) her als interesant, waehrend Reinach 1 als Misserfolg bezeichnet werden muss, da keine nutzbare Menge gefoerdert werden konnte und auch die

  17. Energy Equation Derivation of the Oil-Gas Flow in Pipelines Dérivation de l’équation d’énergie de l’écoulement huile-gaz dans des pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J.M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the simulation of oil-gas pipeline multiphase flow, thermodynamic computation is an important process interacting with the hydraulic calculation and it influences the convergence of the program and the accuracy of the results. The form of the energy equation is the key to the thermodynamic computation. Based on the energy equation of oil-gas flow in pipeline, the Explicit Temperature Drop Formula (ETDF is derived for oilgas steady state temperature calculation. This new energy equation has considered many factors, such as Joule-Thomson effect, pressure work, friction work and impact of terrain undulation and heat transfer Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP Energies nouvelles with the surroundings along the line. So it is an overall form of energy equation, which could describe the actual fact of multiphase pipeline accurately. Therefore, some standpoints in literatures on the temperature calculation of oil-gas two-phase flow in pipelines are reviewed. Elimination of temperature iteration loop and integration of the explicit temperature equation, instead of enthalpy energy equation, into the conjugated hydraulic and thermal computation have been found to improve the efficiency of algorithm. The calculation applied to both the component model, also applied to the black-oil model. This model is incorporated into the component model and black-oil model, respectively, and two simulations are carried out with two practical pipeline Yingmai-Yaha and Lufeng multiphase pipeline and the temperature results are compared with the simulation calculated by the OLGA and the measured. It is shown that this model has simulated the temperature distribution very well. Finally, we analyzed the influence of the specific heat capacity of oil and gas on the temperature of the mixture of fluids and the influence of the Joule-Thomson effect on the temperature distribution on the pipeline. It is shown that the Joule-Thomson coefficient is a key factor to

  18. Charte du Conseil des Gouverneurs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    7. favoriser des communications ouvertes et franches entre le personnel, la direction ..... de dresser le procès-verbal des réunions du Conseil et de ses comités et de veiller à ce ... et des résultats qu'il obtient, et non de sa gestion quotidienne.

  19. Study on the energy-efficiency of 'park and ride' systems (French/German version); Efficience energetique des P et R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume-Gentil, S.; Camandona, Ch.; Stucki, M. [Transitec Ingenieurs Conseils, Lausanne (Switzerland); Baumgartner, P.; Lippuner, Ch. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the efficiency of 'park and ride' (P+R) systems from the energy-efficiency point of view. 'Park and ride' means: 'Leave your car on a parking area and travel by public transport services for the second part of your journey'. Five hypotheses are examined: that P+R helps improve the general energy-efficiency of traffic, P+R installations are not an economically advantageous measure for improving the energy-efficiency of traffic, that they are not cost-effective, that they are financed by other public transport services and that their contribution to energy efficiency is dependent on the characteristics of their particular locations. The study looks at the positive and negative effects of P+R on energy efficiency and develops criteria for choosing locations. Three typical P+R installations are looked at - at a main station in a city centre, on the edge of a city and on a main city access road. These locations are analysed with respect to their energy and financial balances and their cost-effectiveness. Also, the use of P+R installations is analysed and the importance of the results of the study for traffic planning is discussed.

  20. Study on the energy-efficiency of 'park and ride' systems (French version); Efficience energetique des P et R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume-Gentil, S.; Camandona, Ch.; Stucki, M. [Transitec Ingenieurs Conseils, Lausanne (Switzerland); Baumgartner, P.; Lippuner, Ch. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the efficiency of 'park and ride' (P+R) systems from the energy-efficiency point of view. 'Park and ride' means: 'Leave your car on a parking area and travel by public transport services for the second part of your journey'. Five hypotheses are examined: that P+R helps improve the general energy-efficiency of traffic, P+R installations are not an economically advantageous measure for improving the energy-efficiency of traffic, that they are not cost-effective, that they are financed by other public transport services and that their contribution to energy efficiency is dependent on the characteristics of their particular locations. The study looks at the positive and negative effects of P+R on energy efficiency and develops criteria for choosing locations. Three typical P+R installations are looked at - at a main station in a city centre, on the edge of a city and on a main city access road. These locations are analysed with respect to their energy and financial balances and their cost-effectiveness. Also, the use of P+R installations is analysed and the importance of the results of the study for traffic planning is discussed.

  1. Impacts of the cultivation of energy crops for generation of biogas on the landscape structure and avifauna; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus zur Biogaserzeugung auf Landschaftsstruktur und Avifauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehmkorf, Hilke

    2011-07-01

    In its effort to implement new climate and energy policies, Germany has been heavily promoting the adoption of renewable energies. This has brought about a dramatic change in the use of arable land during the last years. The primary objective of this study was therefore to assess the effect of energy cropping on existing landscape structures in intensively cultivated regions in the course of the year. According to the available structural parameters an investigation was conducted to ascertain the fallout of energy plant cultivation on both migratory and overwintering birds. The period covered entailed the winter months. Both the advent of the energy crops as well as the associated biogas facilities that sprang up outside built-in areas seem to have reshaped the existing agricultural landscape. Hence, an additional aim of this study was to identify birds that use biogas plants for breeding or as a feeding habitat in winter. In conclusion, it can be asserted that energy crops can definitely contribute to the expansion of structural diversity in the agricultural landscape provided those energy crops were not cultivated on a large scale prior to the advent of the biogas facilities. Hence, there is still room for further energy crop diversification as its potential has not been exhausted. During the winter months mostly common species such as the carrion crow or the wood pigeon consider the maize fields as a viable source of nutrition. Cranes are seen as newcomers, as they probably started resting in the 'Boerde' precisely due to the advent of energy maize cultivation. And more availability of nourishment when the ground is covered by snow is another benefit the avifauna reaps from biogas plants. However, for endangered farmland birds this type of nutrition is a rarely used source, as it runs counter to their escape strategies and food preferences. For these species the habitat function and the food availability depends especially on how the land is managed (e

  2. Energy use and management at large sports facilities. Load projections for the BayArena; Moeglichkeiten des Energieeinsatzes in Grosssportstaetten. Lastprognosen fuer die BayArena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollekamp, H. [Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fussball GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2002-05-21

    The article describes energy management aspects ensuring uninterrupted energy supply during events in the BayArena, one of Germany's most modern sports arenas and a huge soccer stadium. (orig./CB) [German] Die BayArnea in Leverkusen ist eines der modernsten Fussballstadien und erfuellt die hohe Anforderung, einen unterbrechungsfreien Spielbetrieb zu gewaehrleisten. Grosssportstaetten sind heute ein wichtiger Faktor fuer die Freizeitindustrie. Der Spielbetrieb in den Bundesligastadien benoetigt nur kurzzeitig einige MW Energie. Dabei ist allerdings eine sichere Versorgung unabdingbar. Der zu erwartende Energiebedarf sollte mit einer fundierten Lastprognose ermittelt werden. Der Verfasser beschreibt die Energieversorgung und -lastverlaeufe einer multifunktionalen Fussballarena. (orig.)

  3. Le statut vitaminique des individus et des populations…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Comme le souligne un récent rapport du Haut comité de santé publique, le statut vitaminique des individus et des populations demeure une question d’actualité. Si les études ne révèlent plus de signes évocateurs de carence, au plus des problèmes de déficiences pour certains groupes à risque, des interrogations, demeurent malgré le contexte d’abondance, concernant la couverture des besoins, laquelle pourrait s’avérer inférieure aux valeurs considérées comme satisfaisantes.

  4. Les lueurs des sables

    CERN Multimedia

    Les lueurs des sables

    2013-01-01

    Two CERN ladies are getting ready for the “Trophée Roses des Sables” rally adventure: Julie and Laetitia are finalizing the last details before setting off on Monday 7th October 2013. Julie from EN-MEF group and Laetitia from DGS-SEE group, met at the CERN Rugby club. This year, they are participating in the 100 % female rally which will take place in Morocco from 10 to 20 October. They will be carrying along 100 kg of humanitarian donation for children such as some clothes, books and medical material. Do not hesitate to show your support at their farewell party to be held on Monday 7 October, from 4 to 6 pm in front of the St Genis-Pouilly Mairie (city Hall). Follow their exciting adventure on the blog leslueursdessables.trophee-roses-des-sables.org and on their association’s Facebook page Les Lueurs des Sables.

  5. Liste des auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Madeleine Akrich      Ecole des Mines – Centre de Sociologie de l’innovation – Paris Noël Barbe      Association comtoise des Arts et Traditions populaires – Besançon Lucien Bernot      Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) – Paris Anni Borzeix      Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) –     Groupement d’intérêt public (GIP) « Mutations industrielles » – Paris François Boudarias      Laboratoire d’Anthropologie et de sociologie de Tours (LAST) Dominique Boullier ...

  6. The Origin and Nature of Radioactive Wastes in the United States Atomic Energy Programme; Origine et Nature des Dechets Radioactifs de l'Execution des Programmes d'Energie Atomique aux Etats-Unis; 041f 0420 041e 0418 0421 0425 041e 0416 0414 ; Origen y Naturaleza de los Desechos Radiactivos en el Programa de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, F. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1960-07-01

    The composition of nuclear power wastes is determined, firstly, by the treatment employed for fuel reprocessing, and secondly, by the initial fuel composition. In solvent-extraction processing, wastes of high, intermediate and low activity are produced in approximate volumetric ratios of one, five and 100, respectively. The wastes resulting from reprocessing of highly enriched fuels are large in volume because they contain the fuel diluent. Low-enrichment fuels usually consist of a uranium core clad with aluminium, zirconium or stainless steel, and they produce two waste streams: one, an intermediate-activity waste containing about 0.1% of the fission products, results from the chemical dissolution ; the other is a high-activity waste containing the remainder of the fission products in a dilute nitric acid solution. The volume of evaporated waste varies from 0.8 1/kg of uranium for low- enrichment fuels to 500 1/kg of uranium for highly-enriched fuels. The average volume of combined high- and intermediate-level waste from the anticipated United States nuclear power industry is about five 1/kg of uranium. In the United States it is estimated that the nuclear power industry will have produced about 3,000 million curies of radioactivity in 27 million litres of solution by 1970, and 60,000 million curies in 1,100 million litres of solution by 2000. Power reactor, wastes present new storage and disposal problems because of their composition. (author) [French] La composition des dechets nucleaires est determinee, d'abord, par le procede employe pour le traitement du combustible et, ensuite, par la composition du combustible lui-meme. Le procede de l'extraction par solvants produit des dechets ayant une activite elevee, moyenne ou faible dans des proportions volumetriques d'environ 1,5 et 100 respectivement. Les dechets provenant du traitement des combustibles fortement enrichis, representent un volume important parce qu'ils contiennent le diluant du combustible. Les

  7. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 4, side-notes; Die Energieperspektiven 2035 - Band 4: Exkurse. Einzelthemen, wie fossile Energieressourcen, Einfluss der Klimaerwaermung, Flugverkehr, Ueberblick ueber andere Energieperspektiven des Energiesektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a number of side-notes pertaining to the first three volumes of the Energy Perspectives series of reports. Various topics are discussed by the authors of the first three volumes of the perspectives in the meetings held by the Energy Perspectives Working Group. The sixteen side-notes presented here cover the following topics: General conditions, fossil resources, the influence of climate warming, CO{sub 2} emissions trading (Joint Implementation JI and Clean Development Mechanism CDM), definition of potentials, air traffic, imported renewable electricity, hydro power, electricity cost calculation, sensitivity analysis of centralised power production facilities, heat-pumps and their power consumption, cold spells and heat-waves, risk and its perception, the 2000-Watt society and international and national energy perspectives

  8. The liberalization of the Norwegian energy market - consequences for the international exchange of electric power. Die Liberalisierung des norwegischen Energiemarktes. Konsequenzen fuer den internationalen Stromaustausch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedswang, R G [Statnett SF, Oslo (Norway)

    1993-10-01

    The Norwegian electric power market was deregulated according to the resolutions passed by the Norwegian Parliament. A new energy law was passed after the Norwegian power systems had been made accessible to third parties. The Norwegian government was given a share in power plant and main system operation through foundation of the Norwegian Energy Corporation and the Norwegian Power Grid Company. The transmission tariffs were adapted to the competing sales of electric power. The Samkjoringen utilities fused with the Norwegian Power Grid Company. The deregulation coincided with an energy surplus period. The energy export should have been liberalized before or simultaneously with the internal liberalization, and certain interim regulations could have been established to facilitate the process of liberalization. (orig.)

  9. Neutron elastic scattering cross-sections measurement on carbon and fluorine in epithermal energy range using PEREN platform; Mesure des sections efficaces de diffusion elastique des neutrons sur le carbone et le fluor dans le domaine epithermique sur la plate-forme PEREN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiolliere, N

    2005-10-15

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) based on Th/U cycle is one of the new generation concepts for nuclear energy production. A typical MSR is a graphite-moderated core with liquid fuel ({sup 7}LiF +ThF{sub 4} + UF{sub 4}). Many numerical studies based on Monte-Carlo codes are currently carried out but the validity of these numerical result relies on the precise knowledge of neutron cross sections used such as elastic scattering on carbon ({sigma}{sub C}), fluorine ({sigma}{sub F}) and lithium 7 ({sigma}{sub Li}). The goal of this work is to obtain {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} between 1 eV and 100 keV. Such measurements have been performed at the Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC) de Grenoble on the experimental platform PEREN using slowing-down time spectrometers (C and CF{sub 2}) associated to a pulsed neutron generator (GENEPI). Capture rates are obtained for reference materials (Au, Ag, Mo and In) using YAP scintillator coupled to a photo-multiplier. Very precise simulations (MCNP code) of the experimental setup have been performed and comparison with experiments has led to the determination of {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} with accuracies of 1% and 2% respectively. These results show a small discrepancy to evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF). Measures of total cross-sections {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} at higher energy (200 - 600 keV) were also carried out at Centre des Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux using a transmission method. Mono-energetic neutrons were produced by protons accelerated by a Van de Graaff accelerator on a LiF target and transmitted neutrons are counted in a proportional hydrogen gaseous detector. Discrepancies of 5% and 9% for {sigma}{sub C} and {sigma}{sub F} respectively with ENDF have been shown. (author)

  10. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Face à ce constat, le défi de la recherche serait la détermination du niveau actuel de contamination des légumes feuilles et des eaux du barrage et celui de l'État serait l'initiation de programmes de sensibilisation des producteurs par rapport à une gestion plus rigoureuse des pesticides. Mots-clés : pratiques paysannes, ...

  11. LA MAITRISE DE LA DEMANDE EN EAU ET EN ENERGIE EN AGRICULTURE IRRIGUEE : DE L'EVALUATION DES ENJEUX A LA PROPOSITION D'ACTIONS CIBLEES

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens , Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Financement : Bourse ADEME; This work relies on field studies from Morocco, France, Egypt and India. Its purpose is to build an approach with a high capacity for preparation to field action. Food flows of energy, water and commercial energy implied in the irrigated agricultural production and feeding systems are evaluated using and combining constraints, functions and objectives of the studied systems. The approach uses knowledge and data from the nutrition and food fields, irrigated agricult...

  12. Legal concepts to eliminate the bottleneck in energy-saving modernisations for existing buildings; Rechtskonzepte zur Beseitigung des Staus energetischer Sanierungen im Gebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, Stefan [Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Recht (HWR), Berlin (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The research project looked at the following: 1. Whether and to what extent the German tenancy law creates, on the one hand, adequate incentives for energy-saving modernisations of existing buildings, on the one hand, and, on the other, whether it creates legal obstacles. 2. How these obstacles could be eliminated i.e. by changing existing tenancy law and instead creating stimuli for energy-saving modernization of existing rental buildings. The report contents a number of specific recommendations for an energy-related reform of the German tenancy law. Major recommendations are: - to eliminate the current toleration duty for modernisation measures if changes are made to the building that conflict with the duties arising from the energy saving provisions of public law, - to consider energy-saving characteristics in the reference rent customary in the locality, - to create a possibility for imposing a flat-rate surcharge which is linked to the savings in heating costs for energy-saving improvement. (orig.)

  13. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 3, effects on the national economy; Die Energieperspektiven 2035 - Band 3: Volkswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen. Ergebnisse des dynamischen Gleichgewichtsmodells, mit Anhang ueber die externen Kosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voehringer, F.; Mueller, A.

    2007-03-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the effects of the four scenarios concerning future developments in Swiss energy supply policy on the Swiss national economy. The four energy scenarios include variants entitled 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. This report presents and discusses the results of a dynamic balance model and includes an appendix that presents data on the external costs of the energy sector in Switzerland. Swiss energy scenarios are discussed in an international context and five climate-policy scenarios are developed. Effects on CO{sub 2} emissions and energy consumption are discussed, as are socio-economic effects. The results of a so-called cross-impact analysis are discussed and the opinions of Swiss climate experts are reviewed. External costs are reviewed in a comprehensive appendix to the report

  14. Compounds Labelled with Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Emitters for Medical Isotope Scanning; Gammagraphie au Moyen de Composes Marques avec des Emetteurs Gamma de Faible Energie; Soedineniya, ispol'zuemye pri meditsinskom izotopnom skennirovanii, mechennye s pomoshch'yu gamma-izluchatelej nizkoj ehnergii; Compuestos Marcados con Emisores Gamma de Baja Energia para la Exploracion Medica Mediante Isotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, K. E.; Zum Winkel, K.; Georgi, M. [Czerny-Krankenhaus der Universitat Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-10-15

    Low-energy gamma emitters have a special merit for medical scintillation scanning for the following reasons: (1) The lead shielding of the collimators is much more effective. Multiple focusing thin-walled hole collimators can therefore be used, making a higher geometrical resolution possible and, therefore, the detection of smaller lesions. (2) The absorption of the radiation within the body tissue limits the depth of visibility of lesions. In extended organs like the liver, the superposition of radiation originating from the back of the organ is avoided. This allows a better detection of more superficial lesions. The most important low-energy gamma-emitting nuclide is I{sup 125}. For thyroid scanning, it is used in the form of iodide. A suitable compound for liver scanning is I{sup 125}-labelled Rose Bengal. An alternative compound is I{sup 125} -CAI (heat denatured albumin). For kidney scanning I{sup 125}-Hippuran was found to be suitable when injected intramuscularly with hyaluronidase to ensure a uniform level of radioactivity in the kidneys. Another useful low-energy gamma-emitting nuclide for medical scanning is Hg{sup 197} which may be used as chloride for kidney and spleen scanning. Special precautions must be taken to avoid overlying of kidney and spleen. A higher quality scan is obtained with Hg{sup 197}-labelled Neohydrin. This compound is also useful for brain-tumour localization. Typical scans of thyroid, liver, spleen, kidney and brain tumours obtained with low-energy gamma emitters and conventional nuclides and compounds are presented and the merits of the former are discussed. (author) [French] Les emetteurs gamma de faible energie presentent un interet particulier en gammagraphie, pour les raisons suivantes: 1. L'ecran en plomb des collimateurs est beaucoup plus efficace. On peut donc utiliser des collimateurs a focalisation a canaux multiples, et a parois minces, qui permettent d'avoir un excellent pouvoir de resolution et, par consequent, de

  15. Application des TIC à l'atténuation des effets des catastrophes dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Amérique centrale est souvent aux prises avec des inondations et des ... (SIG) et de traitement des images, afin de cartographier les dangers et de modéliser les ... de l'Institut d'étude du développement international de l'Université McGill.

  16. New Quebec renewable energy organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1998-04-01

    The recent formation of the Quebec Association for the Production of Renewable Energy (l`Association quebecoise de la production d`energie renouvelable - AQPER) was announced. The Association is becoming the centre of the Quebec private electricity generation industry. By communicating the industry`s message to the public the organization gives much needed visibility to renewable resources, new forms of energy and sustainable development. The new group is an outgrowth of the former Quebec Association of Private Hydroelectricity Producers. In its new reincarnation, the organization represents all forms of renewables, small and medium hydro, wind, solar, forest and agricultural biomass and urban waste. With deregulation of the electricity market, specifically the creation of the Regie de l`energie` in Quebec, the wider role is a welcome boost for renewable energy development in the province. In one of its first actions the AQPER recommended that all hydroelectric sites up to 50 MW be reserved for development exclusively by the private sector, in conformity with the Quebec energy policy announced in 1996.

  17. Les destins divergents des régionalismes flamands et francophones : une perspective historique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Pion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Les tensions entre francophones et néerlandophones tournant autour d'une régionalisation de compétences fédérales ne sont pas nouvelles et s'inscrivent dans un lent processus de poussée régionaliste émanant aussi bien du sud que du nord du pays depuis près d'un siècle. Nous reviendrons dans cet article sur l'histoire politique et électorale du régionalisme en Belgique. Nous montrerons comment des poussées régionalistes régulières ont transformé l’État belge unitaire en un État décentralisé dans lequel le fédéral a perdu peu à peu ses prérogatives. L’hypothèse principale qui sous-tend cet article est que les partis régionalistes ont connu des succès électoraux temporaires (1919-21, 1936, 1965-77, 2009- ?, suivis de déclins dès que les revendications régionalistes des opinions étaient satisfaites. La vague suivante repose alors sur un approfondissement des revendications régionalistes. Dans ce cadre, nous insisterons en particulier sur le soutien croissant des partis régionalistes au nord du pays contrastant avec l'absence de parti régionaliste wallon depuis le milieu des années 1980. Nous montrons enfin que les vagues régionalistes successives reposent sur des géographies à chaque fois renouvelées, à l’exception notable du rôle d’Anvers au sein du mouvement flamand.The tensions between French-speaking and Dutch-speaking communities in Belgium about the regionalization of federal competences are not new and have to be understood in the long history of regionalism. This article tells the history and the geography of regional waves in Belgium. We will in particular show how these successive regionalist fevers have progressively reshaped the Belgian Central State into a federal State where regions gain in competences over the time. The main hypothesis is that regionalist parties have gone through temporary electoral successes (1919-21, 1936, 1965-77, 2009-?, followed by long period of decline as

  18. Die Entwicklung des Innovationsmanagements an der Universitätsbibliothek Bern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Redmond

    2015-11-01

    management include close links to project management as well as the introduction of product management. La gestion de l’innovation a pour but le développement actif de processus de transformation permettant à une bibliothèque de réagir rapidement aux changements dynamiques de son environnement. Être innovant signifie donc évoluer en permanence, ce qui implique le renouvellement et l’évaluation continus des processus, des structures et des priorités. Pour cette raison, lors de la mise en place d’une gestion de l’innovation à la Bibliothèque universitaire de Berne, la décision a été prise d’effectuer une évaluation après deux ans afin d’ajuster les processus et les missions principales à la situation actuelle. Les résultats ont démontré la nécessité de se concentrer sur des priorités stratégiques et d’encourager une culture interne de l’innovation. Dans ce contexte, une nouvelle priorité a été donnée au développement d’une gestion systématique de la clientèle. Un contact étroit avec la gestion de projets et la mise en place d’une gestion des produits sont également considérés comme des mesures favorisant une gestion réussie de l’innovation.

  19. 11{sup th} and 12{sup th} draft laws amending the Atomic Energy Act; Die Gesetzentwuerfe zur elften und zwoelften Aenderung des Atomgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-11-15

    On September 28, 2010, the German Federal Government adopted the energy concept and, in addition, 2 draft amendments to the Atomic Energy Act to assist the coalition groups in the wording. The coalition groups tabled the 2 drafts in the Federal Parliament the same day. The subject of the 11{sup th} amending law is the extended plant life of nuclear power plants, that of the 12{sup th} amending law, the transposition into national law of the EURATOM Safety Directive of June 2009, the re-introduction of expropriation provisions about final storage, and the duty of operators to enhance the safety of existing nuclear power plants. The Federal Government's energy concept contains this statement about nuclear power: An extension for a limited period of time of the plant life of existing nuclear power plants makes a key contribution to ensuring, for an interim period of time, the three energy policy goals of climate protection, economy, and security of supply in Germany. It eases the way into the era of renewable energies, especially by its controlling effect on the price of electricity and by reducing greenhouse gas emissions related to power production.'' The amendment to the Atomic Energy Act, which does not require the consent of the Federal Council, extends the operating life of nuclear power plants by an average of 12 years. The EURATOM Safety Directive must be transposed into national law by July 22, 2011. The draft of a 12{sup th} amendment to the Atomic Energy Act submitted to this end, which also requires no consent of the Federal Council, bases its reasoning on the fact that most of the important requirements in the Directive had already been taken care of in Germany. Under the 12{sup th} amendment to the Atomic Energy Act, the expropriation regulations deemed to be necessary for repository storage, which had been introduced in the 1998 amendment to the Atomic Energy Act and abolished by the opt-out amendment of 2002, are to be reinstated. (orig.)

  20. Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    A working group driven by Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul and Gaz de France (GdF) companies has been built with the sustain of several building engineering companies in order to clarify the use of the method of calculation of the global energy cost of buildings. This global cost is an economical decision help criterion among others. This press kit presents, first, the content of the method (input data, calculation of annual expenses, calculation of the global energy cost, display of results and limitations of the method). Then it fully describes the method and its appendixes necessary for its implementation: economical and financial context, general data of the project in progress, environmental data, occupation and comfort level, variants, investment cost of energy systems, investment cost for the structure linked with the energy system, investment cost for other invariant elements of the structure, calculation of consumptions (space heating, hot water, ventilation), maintenance costs (energy systems, structure), operation and exploitation costs, tariffs and consumption costs and taxes, actualized global cost, annualized global cost, comparison between variants. The method is applied to a council building of 23 flats taken as an example. (J.S.)

  1. Studies on the elements of optical and thermal energy transport through large components with transparent thermal insulation and shading; Untersuchungen der Grundlagen des optischen und thermischen Energietransportes bei grossflaechigen Komponenten mit transparenter Waermedaemmung und Verschattung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W. [ed.; Apian-Bennewitz, P.; Kuhn, T.; Dill, F.U.; Wirth, H.; Wittwer, V.

    1997-11-28

    The report describes experimental and theoretical studies aiming at the comprehensive light-technical and energetic characterization of large, transparent construction elements including shading.- The two main measuring devices used for this purpose were a solar calorimeter for determining the total rate of energy passage, and a photogoniometer for measuring the bidirectional reflection and transmission properties of transparent construction elements and solar protection devices. The aims envisaged were to enhance measuring accuracy, create internationally comparable measuring conditions, and to integrate the experimental data into computer tools serving to evaluate construction elements in light-technical and energetic terms. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] In dem vorliegenden Sachbericht werden experimentelle und theoretische Arbeiten beschrieben, die auf eine umfassende lichttechnische und energetische Charakterisierung von grossflaechigen transparenten Bauteilen inklusive Sonnenschutz hinzielen. Die beiden wesentlichen Messvorrichtungen dazu sind ein Solarkalorimeter zur Bestimmung des Gesamtenergiedurchlassgrades und ein Photogoniometer zur Vermessung der bidirektionalen Reflexions- und Transmissionseigenschaften von transparenten Bauteilen und Sonnenschutzvorrichtungen. Ziele waren die Erhoehung der Messgenauigkeit, die Schaffung von international vergleichbaren Messbedingungen und die Integration der experimentellen Daten in Computerwerkzeuge, die der lichttechnischen und energetischen Bewertung von Bauteilen im Gebaeude dienen. (orig./GL)

  2. Study of neutron resonances of barium and copper isotopes by the time-of-flight method at low energies (0 to 15 keV); Etude des resonances de neutrons pour les isotopes du baryum et du cuivre par la methode de temps-de-vol a basse energie (0-15 kev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevillon-Pitollat, P L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    Resonance parameters of Cu (0-15 keV) and Ba (0-1000 eV) have been determined, using the time-of-flight method. Spin assignment (J = I{+-}1/2) being not possible with usual capture methods, the 'sum coincident' method was used in Ba study. A careful analysis of transmission curves including interference effects between levels of the same spin afforded to assign the J value to the most of Cu resonances. Strength function values (S{sub 0}) for those nuclei I = 3/2 confirm previous results obtained for other nuclei having the same value of spin I = 3/2, i.e. S{sub 0} (J = 2) {approx_equal} 2 S{sub 0} (J = 1). Another result has to be mentioned: total radiative width exhibits large fluctuation for different isotopes of Cu and Ba. Experimental methods, specially the 'sum coincidence' one are described in detail and results are discussed in view of theoretical predictions. (author) [French] Les parametres des resonances de {sup 63}Cu et {sup 65}Cu ont ete determines dans le domaine d'energie de zero a 15 keV et ceux du baryum dans le domaine de zero a 1000 eV. Les methodes habituelles de capture n'etant pas applicables pour trouver la valeur du spin S = I{+-}1/2, la methode 'somme coincidence' fut appliquee pour l'attribution de J aux resonances du baryum tandis qu'une analyse soigneuse des courbes de transmission, tenant compte en particulier des effets d'interference entre niveaux de meme spin permettait de determiner J pour la plupart des resonances du cuivre. Les resultats trouves pour ces differents noyaux de spin I = 3/2 confirment ceux deja trouves pour d'autres noyaux I = 3/2 c'est-a-dire que la valeur de la fonction densite S{sub 0} pour J 2 est deux fois celle pour J = 1. Un autre resultat interessant est la variation de la largeur radiative totale pour les isotopes du cuivre et du baryum. Les methodes experimentales surtout la methode 'somme coincidence' sont decrites en detail et les resultats compares aux predictions theoriques. (auteur)

  3. Comment calculer le contenu énergétique des produits d'origine pétrolière et de leurs substituts d'origine charbonnière ou végétale How to Calculate the Energy Content of Products of Petroleum Origin and of Their Substitutes from Coal Or Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leprince P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le contenu énergétique des produits pétroliers issus du raffinage, des produits de vapocraquage de naphta et de quelques produits de la pétrochimie, a été calculé en prenant en considération, la dépense énergétique entre coproduits ou sous-produits d'une même transformation, les variantes de procédés et l'effet des divers modes de fourniture d'énergie nécessaire à la transformation considérée. The energy content of petroleum products coming from refining, of naphta steam-cracking products and of various petrochemical products is calculated by taking into consideration the energy expenditure between the coproducts or by products from the same transformation, the different processes and the effect of different ways in which to supply the energy required for the transformation being considered.

  4. Erhöhung der Reproduzierbarkeit des Spritzgießprozesses durch verbesserte Plastifizierkonzepte

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiqing

    2010-01-01

    Aufgrund des stets steigenden Wettbewerbs sind Spritzgießverarbeiter gezwungen, die Reproduzierbarkeit des Spritzgießprozesses kontinuierlich zu erhöhen. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden zwei Ansätze zur Erhöhung der Reproduzierbarkeit des Spritzgießprozesses vorgestellt. Um die Schwankung der in das Plastifiziersystem zuzuführenden Energie zu minimieren, soll die Dissipationsenergie während der Plastifizierphase geregelt werden. Die Schneckenantriebsleistung und die Plastifizier...

  5. Off grid Solar power supply: the real green development; L'alimentation des sites isoles en energie photovoltaique: developper sans polluer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellinger, B.; Mansard, M. [Apex BP Solar, 34 - St Mathieu de Treviers (France)

    2010-04-15

    Solar experience is now 30 years. In spite of the tremendous growth of the developed world grid connect market, quite a number of companies remain seriously involved in the off grid sector. Solar started in the field as the sole solution to give access to energy and water to rural communities. With major actors involved at early stage, a number of reliable technical solutions were developed and implemented. These solutions have gradually drawn the attention of industrial companies investing in emerging countries and needing reliable energy sources. On top of improving standard of living, Off grid solar solutions also create economical opportunity for the local private sector getting involved in maintenance and services around the energy system. As at today, hundreds thousand of sites daily operate on site. However the needs remain extremely high. That is the reasons why off grid solar remains a major tool for sustainable development. (author)

  6. The design and construction of a scintillation pair spectrometer for the detection of {gamma}-rays in the energy range 2-20 MeV; Realisation d'un spectrometre a scintillations et a paires pour la detection des rayonnements {gamma} d'energie comprise entre 2 et 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longequeue, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-15

    The scintillation pair spectrometer is designed to allow the measurement of the energy of {gamma} rays in the range 2 to 20 MeV. Such an instrument is chosen because of its main features: high energy resolution and ease of working. Against this, however, the efficiency is low. It was possible to tolerate this low efficiency because of the facts that the {gamma}-rays studied emanated from (p, {gamma}) reactions and that the two electrostatic acceleration available could provide beams of 500 {mu}A having energy maxima at 300 and 600 keV. We used the {gamma} rays produced by the reactions {sup 23}Na (p, {gamma}) {sup 24}Mg, {sup 19}F (p, {alpha} {gamma}) {sup 16}O and {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be as well as the {gamma} rays emitted by sources of RTh and of {sup 24}Na. Under these conditions the spectrometer attained a resolving power of 6,5 {+-} 0,5 per cent at 6,1 MeV and it was able to separate the 14,8 and 17,6 MeV lines produced by the reaction {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be. As well as this, the efficiency which varied from 2.10{sup -4} to 1,7.10{sup -3} between 2 and 20 MeV was well above the efficiencies already obtained with this type of instrument. (author) [French] Le spectrometre a scintillations et a paires presente dans cette these a pour but de mesurer l'energie des rayonnements {gamma} dans la bande de 2 a 20 MeV. Le choix d'un tel appareil est du a ses caracteristiques essentielles: bonne resolution en energie et maniabilite. Par contre, son efficacite est faible. Nous avons pu tolerer cette faible efficacite car les rayonnements {gamma} que nous avons etudies provenaient de reactions (p, {gamma}) et les deux accelerateurs electrostatiques dont nous disposions pouvaient fournir des faisceaux de 500 {mu}A avec des energies maximum de 300 et 600 keV. Nous avons utilise les rayonnements {gamma} produits par les reactions {sup 23}Na (p, {gamma}) {sup 24}Mg, {sup 19}F (p, {alpha} {gamma}) {sup 16}O et {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be ainsi que les

  7. Deep geothermics in Germany. An energy-economic analysis of the status and possible developments; Tiefe Geothermie in Deutschland. Eine energiewirtschaftliche Analyse des Standes und moeglicher Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janczik, Sebastian

    2015-11-01

    With the aim to supply the energy-intense and highly industrialized economy of the Federal Republic of Germany more climate-friendly and crisis-safely with a larger contribution of homelike energy in the past years by the federal government a manifold of obligatory aims were composed. So for instance the greenhouse-gas emissions of 1990 shall be reduced against 2020 by 40 %. This shall be reached among others by an increased use of the renewable energies. But a transformation of these ambitionized aims seems from the present view only realistic, if in future all in Germany available options for the supply of current and heat from renewable energies are distinctly more intensively used. In front of the background of the geothermic potentials available in Germany the current and heat supply from deep geothermics is a very much promising option. But in 2012 only one facility and in 2013 three facilities have gone to the net. But against this a far-reaching usage of the geothermics in the context of the energy transition and the large heat and current production potentials in Germany is worth to be aspired. In front of the described problematics the aim of this work is to show how the system technics of the facilities for the usage of the deep underground for a current respectively heat production present themselves and how such complete facilities can be evaluated by means of technical, economical, and ecological characteristics. Base on the shown political aim settings it then shall be analyzed, how the calculated characteristics could change in future and whether the deep geothermics can provide an increasing contribution in the energy system of the future. The corresponding potential further developments are thereby analyzed regarding a short-termed (i. e. 2020) and an intermediate-termed (i. e. 2030) time horizon.

  8. SFEN Annual Convention 2012 - The nuclear energy one year after Fukushima. Proceedings; Convention SFEN 2012 - Le nucleaire un an apres Fukushima. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the 2012 edition of the Annual Convention of the French society of nuclear energy (SFEN) on the topic of nuclear energy one year after Fukushima. Twenty four presentations (slides) are compiled in this document: 1 - Presentation and introduction of the Annual Convention (Luc Oursel - SFEN President); 2 - Status of onsite/offsite remedial actions, key lessons learned (Akira Omoto, Tokyo univ., Japan Atomic Energy Commission); 3 - Complementary Safety Assessments (CSA) of the French NPP fleet (Dominique Miniere, EDF); 4 - Speech of M. Francois Fillon - Prime Minister; 5 - CSA of the fuel cycle facilities (Philippe Knoche, Areva); 6 - CSA of the EPR (Bertrand de l'Epinois, Areva; Jean-Luc Foret, EDF CNEN); 7 - The collective responsibility of the operators: the action of WANO (Laurent Stricker, WANO); 8 - Conclusions of French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - Safety measures to be strengthened; 9 - Opinion no. 2012-AV-013 from January 3, 2012 of the French Nuclear Safety Authority - ASN (Sophie Mourlon, ASN; Caroline Lavarenne, IRSN); 10 - Nuclear energy: an energy for the future (Bernard Bigot, CEA); 11 - The nuclear phaseout in Germany from the view of German industry (Eberhard von Rottenburg, BDI); 12 - Prospects in China (Wei Lu, CGNP Europe); 13 - Industry Current Status and its Prospects in the United States (J. Spina, CENG); 14 - Nuclear energy prospects in France: recommendations of the Commission 'Energy 2050' (Jacques Percebois, Creden); 15 - Electrical generation system efficiency and economy (Yves Giraud, EDF); 16 - Electrical generation systems and distribution networks (Herve Mignon, Rte); 17 - Prospects in the UK (Tim Stone, DECC/OND, Senior Adviser to the Secretary of State); 18 - Climatic changes and energy policy (Laura Cozzi, IEA); 19 - The young nuclear professionals network (Boris Supiot, SFEN Young Generation Group); 20 - Socio-economic impacts of the nuclear power

  9. Organisation of energy management. Pt. 2. The visualization and evaluation of consumption data; Organisation des Energiemanagements. T. 2. Die Visualisierung und Auswertung von Verbrauchsdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Michael [CentraLine c/o Honeywell GmbH, Schoenaich (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Energy costs due to heating systems, ventilation systems, air-conditioning systems and lighting systems represent a significant amount of the total costs of operation of a building. Continuously increasing prices for natural gas, petroleum and electricity increase the pressure of cost upon the building operators and building users: Energy efficiency becomes a determining factor for the compatibility of a company. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the visualisation and evaluation of consumption data. The author of this contribution also reports on the discovery and analysis of the potential for optimization.

  10. Study of the behaviour of organic carbon in the soil, and carbon 14 study of podzols; Contribution a l'etude du comportement du carbone organique dans le sol et etude des podzols a l'aide du carbone 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhla Shawki, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Using the penetration into soil of carbon 14 of thermo-nuclear origin, the behaviour and renewal rate were studied on different organic fractions of the soil. It was established that 18% of the total organic matter is renewed in about 400 years. In addition the formation of podzol-type fossil soils in France was dated from the first millenary B.C., i.e. the end of the sub-boreal period and the beginning of the atlantic period. (author) [French] En utilisant la penetration dans le sol du carbone 14 d'origine thermonucleaire, on a etudie le comportement et la vitesse de renouvellement des differentes fractions de la matiere organique du sol. On a pu preciser que 18% de la matiere organique globale se renouvelait en 400 ans environ. Par ailleurs, la formation en France des sols fossiles du type podzol a ete datee du premier millenaire avant J.C. c'est a dire a la fin de la periode subboreale et au debut de la periode atlantique. (auteur)

  11. Costs involved in the expansion of renewable energies. A meta-analysis of scenarios; Kosten des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien. Eine Metaanalyse von Szenarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahle, Michael; Knopf, Brigitte; Tietjen, Oliver; Schmid, Eva [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates current scenarios for a long-term transformation of the energy system towards high shares of renewable energy sources (RES) with a focus the associated costs. The scenarios include different regional scopes (Germany, Europe, and World) and were selected according to the following criteria: a minimum share of 80% RES electricity production in the power sector in 2050 and relevance in the public debate. Total transformation costs consist of a number of components, and scenarios are selective in terms of covered components as well as applied methodologies. For that reason total transformation costs are not comparable across scenarios. This can only be done for specific investment costs of RES technologies, which all scenarios rely on and treat in a consistent manner. Moreover, it can be assumed that specific investment costs are an essential driver of total transition costs. The essential mechanism for the development of future specific investment costs is the ''learning'' inherent to RES technologies. It is most widely used in the form of learning-by-doing, which assumes that specific investment costs decrease with increasing cumulated installed capacity. In fact, all investigated scenarios take account of learning-by-doing, by which the costs of all technologies are reduced until 2050. The largest reductions occur for solar energy (PV), which has abundant worldwide potential and a still relatively low degree of technological maturity. In contrast, the smallest reductions occur for wind energy (onshore), which is already mature and where expected technological progress is thus limited. Regarding capacity deployment, another relevant factor is the economic potential available in the respective region. They give rise to wind energy as the major technology in Germany, whereas solar energy dominates on the global level. For Europe the situation is more ambiguous, but solar energy is always an important option in case imports

  12. REPRISE DES COURS - Yoga

    CERN Multimedia

    Club de Yoga

    2015-01-01

    REPRISE DES COURS – Venez nombreux ! Yoga, Sophrologie, Tai Chi La liste des cours pour le semestre allant du 1er septembre 2015 au 31 janvier 2016 est disponible sur notre site web : http://club-yoga.web.cern.ch Lieu Les cours ont lieu dans la salle des clubs, à l’entresol du restaurant No 2, Bât. 504 (dans la salle no 3 pour la Sophrologie). Prix des cours Le prix pour le semestre (environ 18 leçons) est fixé à 220 CHF plus 10 CHF d’adhésion annuelle au Club. Couple : 200 CHF par personne. 2 cours par semaine : 400 CHF. Inscriptions Les inscriptions aux cours seront prises directement auprès du professeur, lors de la 1ère séance. Avant de s’inscrire pour le semestre, il est possible d’essayer une séance gratuitement. Informations : http://club-yoga.web.cern.ch ----------------------------------------- cern.ch/club-yoga/

  13. Praxis des Klebens

    CERN Document Server

    Theuerkauff, Petra

    1989-01-01

    Bei diesem Buch handelt es sich um einen Leitfaden fur Klebepraktiker. Es werden die verschiedenen Einzelschritte beim kleben beschrieben, als auch die vorbereitenden Massnahmen und anschliessenden Prufverfahren auf Festigkeit behandelt. Das Buch sollte an keinem Arbeitsplatz fehlen, wo man sich mit Problemen der Fugetechnik des Klebens beschaftigt.

  14. Dimensions des stabulations 2018

    OpenAIRE

    Früh, Barbara; Maurer, Veronika; Schneider, Claudia; Schürmann, Stefan; Spengler Neff, Anet; Werne, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Les «Dimensions des stabulations» contiennent toutes les dimensions pour les stabulations et les parcours pour la production animale en agriculture biologique. Cette liste sert d’instrument de planification pour les éleveurs, d’outil de travail pour la vulgarisation et d’ouvrage de référence pour le contrôle bio.

  15. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    économique des services rendus par les écosystèmes marins. La richesse ... croissance plus rapide que la moyenne de l‟économie ...... services and natural capital. Nature. 387, 253-260. .... d‟interactions où l‟humain est partie prenante. In.

  16. La physique des infinis

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardeau, Francis; Laplace, Sandrine; Spiro, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Écrire l'histoire de l'Univers, tel est l'objectif commun des physiciens des particules et des astrophysiciens. Pour y parvenir, deux approches s'épaulent : la voie de l'infiniment petit, que l'on emprunte via de gigantesques accélérateurs de particules, et celle de l'infiniment grand, dont le laboratoire est l'Univers. Un Univers qui est bien loin d'avoir livré tous ses secrets. On connaît à peine 4,8 % de la matière qui le constitue, le reste étant composé de matière noire (25,8 %) et d'énergie noire (69,4 %), toutes deux de nature inconnue. Et si la récente découverte du boson de Higgs valide le Modèle standard de la physique des particules, celui-ci est toujours incomplet et doit être étendu à ou dépassé. Est-on arrivé au bout du jeu de poupées russes de la matière ? Quelles sont les particules manquantes ? Faut-il revoir les lois fondamentales ? Quels instruments faut-il mettre en œuvre pour accéder à cette « nouvelle physique » ? Comment parler de Super Big Science aux citoye...

  17. Le rapport métropolisation – régionalisation : prolégomènes pour un renouvellement paradigmatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Fontan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available L’idée de consacrer une réflexion à l’analyse du lien s’établissant entre des métropoles et leurs régions périphériques émerge des travaux réalisés et présentés au colloque 1998 de l’Association d’économie politique (Fontan, Klein, Tremblay, 1999. Plusieurs conférenciers, dont Veltz et Jalabert, posaient alors un constat de fond : l’analyse de la réalité socio-économique métropolitaine ne peut se limiter au cadre référentiel du paradigme du développement régional. Cet article répond à trois objectifs. Dans un premier temps, j’invoque les motifs qui nous ont guidé dans la réalisation de ce numéro d’Interventions économiques. Dans un deuxième temps, je soulève, à partir de quelques constats empiriques et théoriques, quelques questions sur la nature des liens passés et à venir entre la Grande région de Montréal et les autres régions du Québec. Dans un troisième temps, je présente les contributions des différents auteurs à ce numéro.I am pursuing tree goals in this article. First of all, I present the reasons underlying the production of this first edition of the new electronic format of Interventions Économiques. In second time, from empirical observations and theorithecal new developments, I reconsider the nature of past and present links between the Great Montreal Region and others Quebec’s sub regions. In the last part of the article, I introduce the articles of the others contributors.

  18. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: A Precise H0 Measurement from DES Y1, BAO, and D/H Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2017-11-01

    We combine Dark Energy Survey Year 1 clustering and weak lensing data with Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) experiments to constrain the Hubble constant. Assuming a flat $\\Lambda$CDM model with minimal neutrino mass ($\\sum m_\

  19. Liberalization of energy markets: local policies of public-private contractual relations; Liberalisation des marches energetiques: les politiques locales de relations contractuelles public-prive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahn, M; Schilken, P

    2001-07-01

    This state-of-the-art focusses on the contractual relations between the local authorities and the private sector in the domain of energy. In the past, specialized services were supplied and internally managed by utilities and monopolies, while today the same services are ensured by private companies selected according to their efficiency and competitiveness. In France, country of centralized tradition, such practices are not really developed while they are already in UK and Germany. This study gives an overview of the advantages of these practices using some examples taken in four domains: the helps to the choice of an electricity supplier and of the quality of power, the contracts of concessions of power distribution, the supply of energy advice services by external experts, and the helps for the investment in the domain of mastery of energy demand. Nine case-forms illustrate the experience of nine European countries in these public-private energy partnerships: Basel (CH), Berlin, Hagen and Heidelberg (DE), Brent, Leicester and Waltham Forest (GB), Graz (AT) and Jablonec (CZ). (J.S.)

  20. On open questions of the coalition agreement. EEG levy, national CO{sub 2} levy, electricity tax instead of energy tax?; Zu offenen Fragen des Koalitionsvertrags. EEG-Umlage, nationale CO{sub 2}-Abgabe, Stromsteuer statt Energiesteuer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Peter

    2018-03-15

    The regulations in the coalition agreement on the energy transition and the climate protection is sad: the 2020 climate protection goal is abandoned. At the same time, this makes the German contribution to the Parisian climate change agreement eroded. The goals are only general described, the paths to it must be a commission ''Growth, Structural change and Employment'' as a basis for a law. The statements on the energy revolution disappoint even more. On Proportion of about 65 percent renewable energy (RES) by 2030 is ''desired''. It would be desirable to cover the ''additional Electricity requirements for achieving the climate protection targets in transport, in buildings and in industry''; one senses: they have in fact already dealing with the sector coupling. But that for a sector coupling that allows to achieve the climate protection goals, a doubling of electricity production is necessary, one can do not read anywhere. Although the policy is committed to Power to X; also the deputy Bareiss of the CDU. But that, for example, at Power to gas only reaches about an efficiency of about 30 percent is hardly anyone speaks. An important reason for the non-binding nature of the statements not only the political dissent, but the high complexity of the Material. For example, the connection between the introduction of a CO{sub 2} tax and the electricity or energy taxation not on the hand. Therefore, the attempt should be made, the demands to set up a theses and briefly explain the connections. This post is intended as an invitation to discuss. [German] Die Regelungen im Koalitionsvertrag zur Energiewende und zum Klimaschutz sind traurig: Das Klimaschutzziel 2020 wird aufgegeben. Damit wird zugleich der deutsche Beitrag zum Pariser Klimaschutzabkommen ausgehoehlt. Die Ziele sind nur allgemein beschrieben, die Wege dorthin muss eine Kommission ''Wachstum, Strukturwandel und Beschaeftigung'' erst

  1. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  2. Competitiveness of photovoltaics in the German energy mix. Redefining the grid parity approach; Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit der Photovoltaik im deutschen Energiemix. Neudefinition des Ansatzes der Netzparitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin [EuPD Research, Bonn (Germany); TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umwelt- und Ressourcenmanagement

    2013-09-15

    Photovoltaics are one of the fastest growing energy sources in the world. Despite high costs and a limited energy yield, attractive support schemes particularly the German renewable energy law have paved the way for the strong market growth of this technology within the last decade. Here the question arises as to when photovoltaics will reach a competitive level in Germany without the support of subsidies. The prominent grid parity approach is simple and considered critical in this discussion. It is critical because of the different references regarding the costs of electricity generated by a newly installed PV system and the electricity price of private households, which consists of electricity generation, distribution, sales as well as taxes and duties on the one hand. On the other hand, there are different time references in the calculation of electricity generation costs and electricity prices of private households. Transferring the approach of Levelized Costs of Electricity (LCOE) to all power generation plants within the energy mix means a redefinition of the grid parity of photovoltaics will be carried out. Here the electricity generation costs of photovoltaics as well as the energy mix will be calculated in the same way. The LCOE calculation refers to the whole life cycle of every power generation plant. That is why a balance between the high investment costs of photovoltaics and the increasing operation costs of fossil fuelled power plants is made. It can be shown that the reaching of competitiveness of photovoltaics in Germany depends on structural changes in electricity generation and it is to be realized within the anticipated time frame until the year 2020.

  3. Report by the AERES on the unit: Reactor Study Department (DER) under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA); Rapport de l'AERES sur l'unite: Departement d'Etudes des Reacteurs (DER) sous tutelle des etablissements et organismes: CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, the DER (Departement d'Etudes des Reacteurs, Reactor Study Department) whose activity if focused on four main themes: neutron transport simulation in reactor cores, thermal-hydraulic simulation of reactors, design and safety of innovative reactors, nuclear instrumentation for reactors. The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved, risks and recommendations, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. These same aspects are then discussed and commented for each theme

  4. Screening phytochimique et identification spectroscopique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Origin

    plante, effectuée pour la première fois, a révélé la présence des alcaloïdes, des flavonoïdes, des tanins catéchiques, des terpènes, des coumarines et des composés cyanogénétiques. Quant aux saponines et les quinones libres, ils sont présents chez les fleurs et absents chez les feuilles. La caractérisation des molécules.

  5. La légitimation des journalistes professionnels en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Leteinturier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le statut juridique des journalistes français a été établi par une loi du 29 mars 1935 complétée par un décret du 17 janvier 1936. Ce statut est caractérisé par la mise en place d’une carte de journaliste professionnel et surtout par l’instauration de procédures particulières de rupture de contrat de travail (articles L-7611 & sq. du Code du Travail français. Toutefois l’accès à l’activité de journalistes reste très ouvert car la détention de la carte n’est pas obligatoire pour son exercice. La reconnaissance symbolique du professionnalisme des journalistes français passe donc par l’obtention d’une carte professionnelle, dite carte de presse, délivrée par une Commission - la Commission de la carte d’identité des journalistes professionnels / CCIJP - composée, à parts égales, de représentants des journalistes et de représentants des patrons de médias et renouvelée tous les trois ans. C’est une organisation indépendante qui attribue, en toute autonomie de jugement la carte professionnelle à ceux des journalistes qui en font la demande en prenant en compte la situation personnelle de chaque demandeur, en interprétant l’ensemble des textes réglementaires qui régissent à la fois l’activité des journalistes et celle des entreprises médiatiques. Elle a ainsi construit des règles d’attribution ce qui, à l’inverse, l’amène à définir les conditions de non-attribution, donc de refus de la carte. C’est précisément ce dernier point que nous allons analyser ici, à partir d’un corpus de 585 refus prononcés en 2010. Nous montrons comment la CCIJP fonctionne, quels sont les arguments qu’elle utilise pour refuser la carte et donc comment elle délimite le territoire, les « frontières » du journalisme professionnel légitime. L’existence d’une Commission supérieure d’appel, composée majoritairement de magistrats, ouvre un espace de tension autour des décisions de la CCIJP

  6. Efficacité des néonicotinoïdes et des pyréthrinoïdes utilisés contre le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité des néonicotinoïdes et des pyréthrinoïdes utilisés contre le foreur des tiges du cacaoyer ( Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder : Lepidoptera, Cossidae). Implications dans la stratégie de protection de la cacaoculture en Côte d'Ivoire.

  7. Energy transition and ageing power plants as change process. Challenges and solutions for insurer; Energiewende und alternder Kraftwerksbestand. Die Herausforderung und Loesungsvorschlaege des Versicherers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poesl, Martina; Eckel, Martin; Thumm, Stefan [Allianz Risk Consulting GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Allianz Zentrum fuer Technik

    2016-07-01

    Due to increased pressure of competition in the scope of the energy transition, the profitability of conventional energy production decreases. Maintenance budgets are critically reviewed and time periods between overhauls are being stretched as far as possible. At the same time, technical requirements in terms of flexibility of the plants increase significantly. Affected by that is also a large number of old power plants with high operating hours. This leads to a change of risk exposure of these assets, which has to be reconsidered and newly evaluated by the insurer. The lecture will outline criteria of risk considerations. The influence of the altered and increased requirements and constraints on steam turbines shall be illustrated as example. Focus of the lecture are, furthermore, current trends of maintenance concepts.

  8. Controlled storage for distributed power generation and optimised energy flow in low-voltage mains; Steuerbare Speicher zur Optimierung des Energieflusses in Niederspannungsnetzen mit DEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeckel, M.; Vollenwyder, R. [Berner Fachhochschule, Hochschule fuer Technik und Informatik (BFH-HTI), Biel (Switzerland); Buholzer, M.; Kreyenbuehl, U. [RIPEnergy AG, Zollikon (Switzerland); Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Huenenberg (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines ways to optimise energy flows in mains networks that include distributed generation facilities. Increasing use of decentralised generation, its effects on the operation of low-voltage mains and the efficient use of the 400 V mains is discussed. The principles of operation and construction of controlled storage installations are discussed and concrete examples of their use in both grid-connected and island operation are quoted. Alternatives to storage are looked at from both the technical and economic points of view. The storage technologies used such as flywheels, supercaps, redox-flow batteries and lead-acid accumulators are briefly assessed and the results of simulations are discussed.

  9. Biogas - a contribution to solving the energy supply problem of cheese factories. Biogas - ein Beitrag zur Loesung des Energieversorgungsproblems der gewerblichen Kaesereien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, R

    1984-01-01

    During a 2-years-monitoring period different types of biogas-plants installed in the cheese factories 'Giessen', 'Steinenbrugg', 'Niederstetten' and 'Bodmen' have been investigated. Piggeries with 400 to 700 finishing places were attached to these cheese factories. These four milk processing plants are representative of an average Swiss cheese factory processing 800,000 to 1,500,000 liters of milk a year. The investigations showed that the energy-demand of the cheese-factories is ideal for the use of biogas. The capacities of gas- and hot-water-storage can be planned with a minimum reserve because in most cases cheese fabrication takes place daily. Apart from the fabrication process, the residence of the cheese maker, the cheese cellar, the feed-preparation, the finishing building and the hot-water supply need heat. There are no longtime peak-demands. The swine manure, well qualified for biogas production, is digested during a retention time of 2 to 10 weeks. The plants are heated with biogas excepted the one installed in 'Bodmen'. The gas yield of the mesophilic working flow-plants reaches 0.4 (Nm/sup 3//kgOS), which means the double value of the psychrophilic working storage plant 'Bodmen'. The plants in 'Giessen' and 'Steinenbrugg' need 20 to 40 (%) of the gas-production for their reactor-heating. Therefore the net gas-production of all four plants remained nearly identic. In all cheese-factories the biogas is burned for the heat-supply. The biogas covered of the total energy demand in the average 40 (%) in 'Steinenbrugg', 60 (%) in 'Niederstetten' and 33 (%) in 'Bodmen'. In 'Giessen' the rate was lower due to biogas-tests. An imaginary cheese-factory in the size of 'Giessen' equipped with a total energy-modul (gas-motor, generator, heat-pump) was tested by ENSIM. The result proofed that an energy autarcy is possible due to an enormeous technical installation.

  10. Wholesomeness and Public Health Research in the United States Atomic Energy Commission Food Irradiation Programme; Recherches sur la Comestibilite et la Sante Publique au Titre du Programme d'Irradiation des Produits Alimentaires de la Commission de l'Energie Atomique des Etats-Unis; Issledovaniya bezvrednosti obluchennykh pishchevykh produktov i svyazannykh s nimi problem zdravookhraneniya po programme komissii po atomnoj ehnergii ssha v oblasti oblucheniya pishchevykh produktov; Programa de Irradiacion de Alimentos de la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos: Investigaciones Sobre Comestibilidad u Sanidad Publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehair, L. A. [Division of Biology and Medicine, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1966-11-15

    have indicated that the general outlook for wholesomeness of irradiated foods is favourable. Toxicity evaluations are currently being initiated on bananas, mangoes and papayas. Research efforts on Clostridium botulinum, Types E and F, Salmonellae and other potentially pathogenic organisms will continue. (author) [French] Afin de determiner le degre de securite biologique des produits alimentaires qui presentent un interet pour le programme de la Commission de l'energie atomique relatif aux produits alimentaires irradies, la Division de biologie et medecine de la Commission a organise des recherches depuis 1961. Des etudes ont ete entreprises sur la comestibilite, la microbiologie et la biochimie en vue de completer les donnees fournies par les travaux dans les domaines des realisations, de l'economie et de la technique organises par la Division des isotopes de la Commission. Lorsque les resultats obtenus semblent applicables a des produits alimentaires particuliers irradies a faible dose, des etudes sont entreprises pour fournir les donnees pertinentes requises par le service de controle des produits alimentaires et pharmaceutiques des Etats-Unis avant que des decisions definitives soient prises concernant les demandes visant a autoriser la consommation illimitee d'un produit par le public. Ce programme comprenait des etudes de toxicite sur plusieurs especes d'animaux soumis a des regimes alimentaires comprenant jusqu'a 35% (en matiere solide seche) du produit alimentaire irradie considere. Des recherches d'une duree de deux ans sur des animaux (rats, chiens et poulets) fournissent des donnees sur la consommation alimentaire, la croissance, les enzymes, l'hematologie, la pathologie generale et l'histo- pathologie. Des etudes a court terme, aux fins de confirmation, sur deux especes animales (rats et chiens) sont faites dans certains cas lorsque le produit alimentaire irradie considere a suffisamment de points communs avec des produits qui ont precedemment fait l

  11. DES Science Portal: Computing Photometric Redshifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, Julia [LIneA, Rio de Janeiro

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge facing photometric surveys for cosmological purposes, such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is the need to produce reliable photometric redshifts (photo-z). The choice of adequate algorithms and configurations and the maintenance of an up-to-date spectroscopic database to build training sets, for example, are challenging tasks when dealing with large amounts of data that are regularly updated and constantly growing. In this paper, we present the first of a series of tools developed by DES, provided as part of the DES Science Portal, an integrated web-based data portal developed to facilitate the scientific analysis of the data, while ensuring the reproducibility of the analysis. We present the DES Science Portal photometric redshift tools, starting from the creation of a spectroscopic sample to training the neural network photo-z codes, to the final estimation of photo-zs for a large photometric catalog. We illustrate this operation by calculating well calibrated photo-zs for a galaxy sample extracted from the DES first year (Y1A1) data. The series of processes mentioned above is run entirely within the Portal environment, which automatically produces validation metrics, and maintains the provenance between the different steps. This system allows us to fine tune the many steps involved in the process of calculating photo-zs, making sure that we do not lose the information on the configurations and inputs of the previous processes. By matching the DES Y1A1 photometry to a spectroscopic sample, we define different training sets that we use to feed the photo-z algorithms already installed at the Portal. Finally, we validate the results under several conditions, including the case of a sample limited to i<22.5 with the color properties close to the full DES Y1A1 photometric data. This way we compare the performance of multiple methods and training configurations. The infrastructure presented here is an effcient way to test several methods of

  12. The energy concept of the federal state of Lower Saxony. Reliable, environmentally friendly, climate friendly, and affordable. Energy policy for tomorrow; Das Energiekonzept des Landes Niedersachsen. Verlaesslich, umweltfreundlich, klimavertraeglich und bezahlbar. Energiepolitik fuer morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The present publication shows how the energy concept of the state administration of Lower Saxony contributes to a vision of tomorrow's energy supply and how it can be realised. It sets out by describing the present status of the energy supply and the challenges and situation confronting Germany and Lower Saxony. The ensuing chapters have the following headings: Energy supply in 2020: accelerating the expansion of renewable energies, exploiting potentials sustainably and efficiently; Prospects and instruments for improving energy efficiency; Modern conventional power plants for securing a stable and efficient electricity supply; The expansion of electricity networks and the development of smart grids; Costs of the energy turnaround; Natural gas and crude oil. The final chapter bears the heading: Innovation and energy research - our strengths.

  13. Study 3: Energy, alimentation and competition for soils use: problematic and safety principles; Etude 3: energie, alimentation et concurrence d'usage des sols: problematique et principes de prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monot, C. [Solagral (France)

    2000-07-01

    For long-dated, the development of energies resulting from the biomass should aggravate the risks of soils use competition. On one hand the energy crops increase on fertile soils will limit the surfaces devoted to the alimentation and on the other hand intensive energy crops will risk to degrade the soils (erosion, pollution). The energy policies have to preserve from now onwards, the fossil energies resources, to limit the greenhouse effect and the nuclear wastes proliferation, but also to manage the soils resources to produce the bio-energies. This study tries to answer the following questions: Is there enough soils to produce the bio-energies in substitution to the fossil energies and food the humanity? Which is the policy that will participate to a good soils management, in order to preserve the alimentary potential? (A.L.B.)

  14. La gestion des résultats des entreprises innovantes

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Cette thèse s’intéresse à la gestion des résultats dans le cadre des entreprises innovantes. Elle est constituée de trois articles. Dans le premier, il s’agit d’examiner si les résultats des entreprises innovantes sont gérés et si le stade de développement des innovations influence cette gestion des résultats. Il apparaît que les résultats des entreprises innovantes sont gérés à la hausse. Cette gestion ne semble intervenir qu’au cours de l’activité d’innovation (c’est-à-dire lorsque les entr...

  15. Information report from the Economic Affairs commission on photovoltaic energy; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission des affaires economiques sur l'energie photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Today and for several years to come, photovoltaic energy represents only a minimal part of the world's electric power production. Photovoltaic energy is only at its beginnings, however several countries have already taken opportunities in the business. This report gives a comprehensive information about photovoltaic energy (basic principles, conversion systems, photovoltaic power plants, incentive programs in other developed countries, regulations ...) and arguments for the development of a structured photovoltaic energy policy in France.

  16. Des dispositions responsables à prendre pour la protection des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En considérant l'effet néfaste des maladies, des parasites, du changement climatique et d'autres facteurs environnementaux (les OGM par exemple) sur la survie des abeilles, la baisse de leurs populations dans certaines parties du monde ne saurait être attribuée aux seules pesticides. En plus, l'impact de ces derniers sur ...

  17. Aspects des Onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... biologiques et évolutifs des onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais. Méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive menée de mars 2011 à mars 2014 dans l'unité de dermatologie de l'hôpital général de Douala (HGD), incluant des patients chez lesquels le diagnostic d'onychomycose avait été posé.

  18. Problems of the Renewable Energy Law of 2014 with respect to constitutional and EU law; Verfassungs- und unionsrechtliche Probleme des EEG 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekardt, Felix [Forschungsstelle Nachhaltigkeit und Klimapolitik, Leipzig (Germany); Rostock Univ. (Germany). Oeffentliches Recht und Rechtsphilosophie

    2014-08-15

    The 2014 amendment to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) which is currently in the process of enactment aims to limit the scope of what has been one of the most successful climate protection instruments in the history of German law. In essence this instrument has established an obligation of acceptance of and remuneration for electricity generated from renewable resources. The present article analyses the most important regulatory objects of the 2014 EEG for their compatibility with German constitutional law as well as primary and secondary EU law.

  19. Dosimetry of High-Energy Protons by Measurement of Beryllium-7 Formed in the Tissues; Dosimetrie des Protons de Haute Energie par Mesure de Beryllium-7 Forme dans les Tissus; 041e 0422 041d 041e 0421 0414 ; Dosimetria Relativa Mediante Berillo-7 Despues de Irradiar con Protones de Altas Energias (600 Mev Y 3 Gev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legeay, G. [Service Biologique et Veterinaire des Armees, Detache au D.P.S. (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Court, L.; Prat, L [Service de Sante des Armees, Detaches au D.P.S. (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Jeanmaire, L.; Daburon, M. L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France); Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Centre d' Etudes [France; De Kerviler, H.; Tardy-Joubert, P. [Service de Protection Contre les Radiations, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1965-06-15

    In the course of biological experiments at the CERN cyclotron at Geneva (using 600 MeV protons) and the Saturne synchrotron at the Saclay Nuclear Studies Centre, the radioactivity induced in living beings was investigated by gamma-spectrography. Whereas most of the induced radioisotopes (gamma emitters) are short-lived, the beryllium-7 produced by spallation reactions on, in particular, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen atoms, has an activity peak which stands out abruptly from the spectrum as a whole at the 479-keV level. As its half-life is 54. 5 d, it can be recorded for a sufficiently long time. An experiment carried out with Whitsar rats given whole-body exposures of between 400 and 800 rad with 600-MeV protons and of 200 to 1000 rad with 3-GeV protons, disclosed a linear response of the Be{sup 7} activity in relation to the dose absorbed per gram of tissue. The authors compare their experimental results with the activities calculated in terms of energy on the basis of published cross-sections. The accidental exposure of human beings to proton beams can only be local. Exposure of the heads of Fauve de Bourgogne rabbits weighing approximately 2 kg show that the activity measured on the head, in relation to the rest of the body, is of the order of 1.8 {+-} 5. Be{sup 7} can be detected during the first days in spite of some diffusion. Relative dosimetry, indicating the scale of the accidental exposure received, is therefore possible. (author) [French] Dans le cadre d'experimentations biologiques conduites au synchrocyclotron du CERN a Geneve avec des protons de 600 MeV et au synchrotron Saturne du Centre d*etudes nucleaires de Saclay, une exploration de la radioactivite induite chez des etres vivants a ete faite par spectrographie gamma. Si la plupart des radioelements, emetteurs gamma, induits presentent une periode tres courte, le beryllium-7 resultant de reactions de spoliation sur les atomes d'oxygene, de carbone et d'azote notamment, donne un pic d'activite qui se

  20. Usages des TIC et socialisation professionnelle des enseignants-chercheurs

    OpenAIRE

    Lavielle-Gutnik, Nathalie; Massou, Luc

    2013-01-01

    En prenant appui sur une nouvelle analyse des données recueillies dans l’enquête Tec-Meus (2008-2011, MSH Lorraine) sur la place accordée par des enseignants-chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales aux technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) dans leur activité d’enseignement, nous souhaitons nous focaliser dans cet article sur la compréhension des processus de socialisation professionnelle en jeu dans leur usage déclaré des TIC. Par socialisation professionnelle, nous e...

  1. Utilisation of the energy-independent underground gasification-uvea process for carbamide production; Einsatz des energieautarken Untertagevergasungs-Urea-Prozesses zur Carbamid-Herstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas [Helmholtz Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches GeoForschungszentrum (GFZ) Potsdam (Germany); Schlueter, Ralph [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Essen (Germany). Abt. Geologie und Bohrlochvermessungen; Hamann, Joerg [EPC Industrial Engineering Deutschland GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Islam, Rafiqul [Dhaka Univ. (Bangladesh). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Azzam, Rafig [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieur- und Hydrogeologie

    2011-08-15

    The worldwide coal resources have an energy supply potential of several hundred years. However, great depths, thin seams and tectonic faults may greatly restrict the utilisation of the coal seams by means of conventional conveyor technologies. With the aim of production of a conveyable synthesis gas underground coal gasification (UCG) offers an environmentally friendly and economically viable possibility of utilisation of previously inaccessible coal deposits. The high-calorific UCG synthesis gas can be used, for example, for the generation of electricity in an integrated gas and steam turbine process (GaS) as well as the production of chemical starting materials. One possibility of product recovery from the UCG synthesis gas is the production of the fertiliser carbamide (CH{sub 6}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The aim of this study is the development of a utilisation concept for coal deposits on the basis of a combined and energy-independent UCG-GaS-urea process. To check the utilisation concept based on an independent electricity supply an economic feasibility study for a selected investigation area in the north of Bangladesh was carried out with consideration of the economic viability and potential of the UCG-GaS-urea process. (orig.)

  2. The trilemma of growth. Growth of population, energy consumption and climatic change - three problems, no solution?; Das Trilemma des Wachstums. Bevoelkerungswachstum, Energieverbrauch und Klimawandel - drei Probleme, keine Loesung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingholz, Reiner; Toepfer, Klaus

    2012-03-15

    The world has three big growth problems: The human race has doubled its number in the last 44 years. Their energy consumption has tripled over the same period. And also the emissions of greenhouse gases has grown faster than the number of people. If all the trends continue, they have the potential to disturb the ecological balance on the planet to such an extent that the living conditions of a growing part of humanity will be threatened. In a recent discussion paper by the Berlin Institute for population and development (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany), the authors address the question of how to find a way out of this 'trilemma of growth'. The discussion paper provides concrete proposals for action for the implementation of the global energy turnaround. The education assumes an important role because it affects not only a moderating effect on the population growth. It also enables the handling of promising future technologies and facilitates the adjustment to the impending consequences of climate change.

  3. Characterisation of the energy use of arenas in the province of Quebec : Synthesis report; Caracterisation energetique des arenas du Quebec : Rapport synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussault, F.; Chalifour, A.

    2000-10-24

    Arenas, or skating rinks, represent a type of building with physical characteristics and uses which are relatively homogeneous throughout the country. This study revealed that the time is ripe to improve the energy efficiency of skating rinks in Quebec, and thereby gain environmental benefits through the more efficient use of refrigerants can cause damage to the environment. The aim of the study was to better define the technologies in use and the operating strategies and retrofitting techniques currently applied in the industry in order to provide guidance for an eventual Intervention Program in Refrigeration in Skating Rinks in Quebec. Background information was provided by the authors in section 1, followed by the mandate in section 2. The methodology used to carry out the study was described in section 3. The report examined four broad areas: the market, technical assistance, training, and partnerships. Each of these topics was reviewed in detail in section 4. A synthesis of the interventions was provided in section 5. The authors indicate that this project should be considered while Canada is attempting to meet its environmental commitments in the wake of increases in energy prices. Plans should be focused on measurable results within reasonable financial constraints. 13 figs.

  4. Developpement d'une methode calorimetrique de mesure des pertes ac pour des rubans supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolez, Patricia

    supraconductrice qui restent fixes a l'interface coeur-enveloppe, et le revetement en alliage d'argent. L'interet d'une methode calorimetrique par rapport a la technique electrique, plus rapide, plus sensible et maintenant fiable, reside dans la possibilite de realiser des mesures de pertes ac dans des environnements complexes, reproduisant la situation presente par exemple dans un cable de transport d'energie ou dans un transformateur. En particulier, la superposition d'un courant dc en plus du courant ac habituel nous a permis d'observer experimentalement, pour la premiere fois a notre connaissance, un comportement particulier des pertes ac en fonction de la valeur du courant dc decrit theoriquement par LeBlanc. Nous avons pu en deduire la presence d'un courant d'ecrantage Meissner de 16 A, ce qui nous permet de determiner les conditions dans lesquelles une reduction du niveau de pertes ac pourrait etre obtenue par application d'un courant dc, phenomene denomme "vallee de Clem".

  5. Intelligent networks: evolution or revolution? Source of energy efficiency or economical optimisation? For who's benefit?; Reseaux intelligents: evolution ou revolution? Source d'efficacite energetique et/ou d'optimisation economique? Au benefice de qui?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Christian

    2010-09-15

    The electricity sector has experienced a slow evolution. Renewable production developments and telecommunications and computers usage will bring major changes with hard to predict effects. Computerized management of production and local storage combined to a certain mastering of the allowed consumption by home automation could improve reliability and the final price for consumers. This change offers great opportunities but also risks of failures, both financial and technical. The regulators have a major role to play in order to understand the concrete gains of the technological propositions and to regulate the investment costs involved. [French] Le secteur de l'electricite a connu une evolution lente. Le developpements des productions renouvelables, l'utilisation des telecommunications et de l'informatique provoquera un bouleversement majeur dont il est difficile de prevoir l'ampleur. La gestion automatisee des productions et stockages locaux combinee a une certaine maitrise de la consommation permise par la domotique pourrait ameliorer la fiabilite et le prix final pour les consommateurs. Ce changement presente de grandes opportunites mais aussi des risques d'echecs, tant financiers que techniques. Les regulateurs ont un role majeur a jouer pour comprendre les gains concrets des propositions technologiques et reguler les couts d'investissement qu'elles impliquent.

  6. Mykotische Infektionen des Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayser P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Die häufigste mykotische Infektion des Penis stellt die Balanitis/Balonoposthitis durch Candida albicans dar. Sie weist eine steigende Inzidenz auf und scheint vornehmlich durch Genitalverkehr übertragen zu werden. Penile Infektionen durch Dermatophyten sind sehr selten, obwohl die Tinea inguinalis zu den häufigeren Erkrankungen zählt. Eine Mitbeteiligung des Penis im Rahmen von Systemmykosen kennzeichnet zumeist ein schwer verlaufende Erkrankung. Ursächlich kann beim immunoinkompetenten Patienten nahezu jeder Erreger in Frage kommen. Biopsie sowie Gewebekultur aus den meist ulzerativen Veränderungen können die Diagnose sichern. Die meisten superfiziellen Infektionen sprechen zufriedenstellend auf eine topische antimykotische Behandlung an, insbesondere wenn Provokationsfaktoren und die Möglichkeit der sexuellen Transmission berücksichtigt werden. Ausgedehnte Infektionen durch Dermatophyten, Hefen und natürlich systemische Infektionen erfordern eine systemische antimykotische Therapie.

  7. Chimie des processus biologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Fontecave, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cours : Chimie biologique radicalaire : de l’origine de l’ADN au métabolisme d’aujourd’hui Il est généralement admis que les radicaux libres, espèces chimiques très réactives, sont des poisons pour les systèmes vivants qui ont élaboré des mécanismes efficaces pour s’en protéger et s’en débarrasser lorsqu’ils viennent à se former, par accident. Par exemple ce qu’on appelle communément le stress oxydant est une situation caractérisée par une accumulation de radicaux issus de l’oxygène moléculai...

  8. Research, development and demonstration in the energy area in Switzerland - List of projects 2000/2001; Liste des projets 2000/2001: recherche, developpement et demonstration dans le domaine de l'energie en Suisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report prepared by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews research, development and demonstration projects in the energy area that were partly or wholly supported by the Swiss Federation in the years 2000/2001. A list of over 1,000 projects is presented, whereby many projects supported by the Swiss Cantons and local authorities are not included in the statistics. The report also contains figures on the efforts made by the private economy in these areas. The classification of the projects in the fo