WorldWideScience

Sample records for des complexes applications

  1. Applications biotechnologiques des mycorhizes

    OpenAIRE

    Redecker, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    La symbiose mycorhizienne est une association entre un champignon mycorhizogène et une racine de plante-hôte. La mycorrhize à arbuscules (MA) est extrêmement ancienne puisqu’elle est datée de la même époque que l’apparition des plantes terrestres, il y a 460 millions d’années. Elle s’effectue entre un champignon mycorhizogène à arbuscules (CMA, phylum Glomeromycota) et plus de 80% des plantes terrestres. Les CMA sont des microorganismes ubiquitaires du sol et sont des biotrophes obligatoires ...

  2. Gd(III) complexes with tripodal pyridine carboxylate ligands: application to optimized contrast agents for NMR Imaging; Complexes de Gd(III) avec des ligands tripodes pyridinocarboxylate: vers des agents de contraste optimises pour l'IRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonat, A.; Gateau, Ch.; Mallanti, M.; Fries, P. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee (DRFMC/SCIB/LAI) Lab. de Reconnaissance Ionique, 38 (France)

    2005-07-01

    In order to better understand the influence of the pyridine carboxylate units on the stability and the electronic relaxation time, and with the aim to obtain gadolinium complexes leading to next generation contrast agents having very high relaxivity, the octadente analogous of the tpatcn which has a water molecule bound in the first coordination sphere has been studied. Here is presented the synthesis, the structural studies, the thermodynamic and relaxometric properties of the Ln(III) complexes of this new tripodal compound 1-carboxy-methyl-4,7-bis[(6-carboxy-pyridin-2-yl)methyl] - 1,4,7-tri-aza-cyclo-nonane. (O.M.)

  3. Consolidation des installations ST/CV du complexe PS

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    2001-01-01

    Le PS (Synchrotron à Protons) a été inauguré officiellement le 5 février 1960 et a donné naissance au complexe des machines, lequel a évolué au fil des années. L'augmentation du nombre d'accélérateurs faisant partie du complexe PS, et leurs puissances électriques absorbées, suscite une croissance élevée en besoin de refroidissement. Cette dernière passe de 2 MW en 1960 à 25 MW à la fin des années 70, pour arriver au chiffre de 55 MW en 1998. Durant toutes ces années, les services techniques, hormis la construction des nouvelles installations, maintiennent et exploitent leurs équipements existants malgré les nombreuses contraintes parmi lesquelles sont citées l'âge des installations et leur accessibilité. Pour faire face aux demandes permanentes, afin d'avoir une fiabilité maximum des installations ST/CV, il est nécessaire de les consolider continuellement. Dans le présent document, les travaux de consolidation de ces équipements en vue du futur programme de physique sont présent�...

  4. Étude de la compétitivité de complexation des métaux issus des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les analyses chimiques effectuées sur le phosphate naturel révèlent la présence des métaux lourds. Pour étudier les risques de rétrogradation de ces engrais phosphatés, notre étude s'est portée sur la complexation des substances humiques naturelles extraites des sols sur des ions métalliques tels que le calcium, ...

  5. Administrateur de programme, Application des connaissances ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supervision. Supervision directe : Consultants et personnel temporaire, au besoin. Supervision indirecte : Consultants chargés de préparer des sommaires des résultats de recherche et des communications internes, et personnel temporaire au besoin.

  6. Nitrosyl complexes of technetium; Nitrosylkomplexe des Technetiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Janine

    2016-09-22

    The presented thesis describes syntheses and characterization of novel technetium nitrosyl compounds with various ligand systems. The main focus is the synthesis of low-valent technetium nitrosyl complexes with cyclopentadienyl ligands. [German] Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Synthese und Charakterisierung neuer Technetiumnitrosylverbindungen mit unterschiedlichen Ligandensystemen. Hauptaugenmerk wurde dabei auf die Darstellung niedervalenter Tc(NO)-Verbindungen mit Cyclopentadienyl-Liganden gelegt.

  7. Importance des aires protégées du complexe des Parcs du W, d'Arly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La position géographique des acteurs a été un facteur très déterminant dans la perception que les différents groupes cibles enquêtés ont des aires protégées du complexe WAP. La viande de gibier avec 26 % et le miel avec 25 % venaient en tête des biens et services que les utilisateurs (communautés locales ou acteurs ...

  8. Applications of the complex-mass renormalization scheme in effective field theory; Anwendungen des Komplexe-Masse-Renormierungsschemas in effektiver Feldtheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Torsten

    2012-07-11

    In the first part of the this doctoral thesis the perturbative unitarity in the complex-mass scheme (CMS) is analysed. To that end a procedure for calculating cutting rules for loop integrals containing propagators with finite widths is presented. A toy-model Lagrangian describing the interaction of a heavy vector boson with a light fermion is used to demonstrate that the CMS respects unitarity order by order in perturbation theory provided that the renormalized coupling constant remains real. The second part of the thesis deals with various applications of the CMS to chiral effective field theory (EFT). In particular, mass and width of the delta resonance, elastic electromagnetic form factors of the Roper resonance, form factors of the nucleon-to-Roper transition, pion-nucleon scattering, and pion photo- and electroproduction for center-of-mass energies in the region of the Roper mass are calculated. By choosing appropriate renormalization conditions, a consistent chiral power counting scheme for EFT with resonant degrees of freedom can be established. This allows for a systematic investigation of the above processes in terms of an expansion in small quantities. The obtained results can be applied to the extrapolation of corresponding simulations in the context of lattice QCD to the physical value of the pion mass. Therefore, in addition to the Q{sup 2} dependence of the form factors, also the pion-mass dependence of the magnetic moment and electromagnetic radii of the Roper resonance is explored. Both a partial wave decomposition and a multipole expansion are performed for pion-nucleon scattering and pion photo- and electroproduction, respectively. In this connection the P11 partial wave as well as the M{sub 1-} and S{sub 1-} multipoles are fitted via non-linear regression to empirical data.

  9. COMPLEXES DE CUIVRE D’INTERET BIOINORGANIQUE MODELISANT LES METALLO-ENZYMES : SYNTHESE ET CARACTERISATION DES COMPLEXES DE CUIVRE(II) AVEC DES LIGANDS DERIVES DES IMIDAZOLES

    OpenAIRE

    BELFILALI, Imane

    2010-01-01

    La chimie de coordination est une discipline qui fait l’interface entre la chimie organique et la chimie inorganique. Elle a connue un développement tant dans le domaine de la chimie structurale et analytique que dans celui des applications biologiques.

  10. Administrateur de programme, Application des connaissances (h/f ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le programme découle d'un partenariat conclu entre le Department for International Development du Royaume-Uni, la Fondation William et Flora Hewlett et le CRDI. L'administrateur de programme, Application des connaissances, relevant du chef de programme, travaille à la formulation et au profilage des résultats du ...

  11. Application of a radiant heat transfer model to complex industrial reactive flows: combustion chambers, electric arcs; Application d`un modele de transfert radiatif a des ecoulements reactifs industriels complexes: chambres de combustion, arcs electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechitoua, N.; Dalsecco, S.; Delalondre, C.; Simonin, O. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d`Hydraulique

    1996-12-31

    The direction of studies and researches (DER) of Electricite de France (EdF) has been involved for several years in a research program on turbulent reactive flows. The objectives of this program concern: the reduction of pollutant emissions from existing fossil-fueled power plants, the study of new production means (fluidized beds), and the promotion of electric power applications in the industry. An important part of this program is devoted to the development and validation of 3-D softwares and to the modeling of physical phenomena. This paper presents some industrial applications (furnaces, boilers, electric arcs) for which radiant heat transfers play an important role and the radiation models used. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silicon based complexing materials: extraction of transuranic elements from high level liquid waste; Synthese et caracterisation de gels hybrides de silice a proprietes complexantes: applications a l'extraction des transuraniens des effluents aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    1999-07-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic silica compounds with extractive properties have been developed under an enhanced decontamination program for radioactive aqueous nitric acid waste in nuclear facilities. The materials were obtained by the sol-gel process through hydrolysis and poly-condensation of complexing organo-tri-alkoxy-silanes with the corresponding tetra-alkoxy-silane. Hybrid silica compounds were initially synthesized and characterized from mono- and bis-silyl precursors with malonamide or ethylenediamine patterns. Solids with different specific areas and pore diameters were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, its functionality and its concentration in the tetra-alkoxy-silane. These compounds were then considered and assessed for use in plutonium and americium extraction. Excellent results-partitioning coefficients and capacities have been obtained with malonamide hybrid silica. The comparison with silica compounds impregnated or grafted with the same type of organic group is significant in this respect. Much of the improved performance obtained with hybrid silica may be attributed to the large quantity of complexing groups that can be incorporated in these materials. The effect of the solid texture on the extraction performance was also studied. Although the capacity increased with the specific area, little effect was observed on the distribution coefficients -notably for americium- indicating that the most favorable complexation sites are found on the outer surface. Macroporous malonamide hybrid silica compounds were synthesized to study the effects of the pore diameter, but the results have been inconclusive to date because of the unexpected molecular composition of the materials. (author)

  13. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder: an exploratory investigation of PTSD and DES NOS among Dutch war veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, R. A.; Carlier, I. V.; Schreuder, B. J.; Gersons, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    The recently developed concept Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DES NOS) or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD) is designed to encompass long-standing symptoms not present in PTSD. An exploratory investigation of PTSD and DES NOS was performed with the Structured

  14. Evaluation de l'application des Recommandations 2009 de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : Cette étude suggère que la mise en application des recommandations de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé n'est pas totalement effective dans les formations sanitaires de la région du Littoral au Cameroun. Pour pallier à cela il est recommandé d'assurer une formation continue au bénéfice des ...

  15. L’Utilisation des Equations Fonctionnelles et des Nombres Complexes dans les Recherches Economiques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1933-01-01

    textabstractLes considérations suivantes se rapportent à la théorie des oscillations économiques. Comme résultat idéal de toutes les recherches à ce sujet, on peut,, il me semble, indiquer la découverte des causes et du mécanisme du mouvement cyclique général des affaires. Au point de

  16. Soudage des aciers pour application mécanique

    CERN Document Server

    Deveaux, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Ce guide détermine les bonnes pratiques pour comprendre les risques d’une forme d’assemblage multimatériaux : celui par soudage de nuances à forte teneur en carbone avec des éléments en acier de construction. Dans un premier temps, le rapport passe en revue l’examen des avaries sur des assemblages soudés pour l’application mécanique mettant en cause les aciers. Fissuration par fatigue, rupture fragile, rupture ductile, fissuration à chaud ou à froid sont autant de causes qui seront analysées. Dans un deuxième temps, il se concentre sur la conception des joints soudés. Du choix des nuances à la tenue vis-à-vis de la rupture fragile en passant par l’analyse en fatigue des assemblages soudés, c’est l’ensemble de la problématique qui est pris en compte.

  17. Applications magnétoélectriques des supraconducteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Mangin, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    La supraconductivité est devenue incontournable, par exemple avec l’IRM qui équipe nos hôpitaux. Elle permet de spectaculaires réalisations tels le LHC du CERN qui a mis en évidence le boson de Higgs, le projet de fusion nucléaire ITER, le train à sustentation magnétique, etc. Ces applications dans divers domaines reposent sur l’aptitude des fils supraconducteurs à transporter de très fortes intensités de courant et sur l’énorme champ magnétique que des bobines supraconductrices peuvent créer. Elles sont l’objet du présent ouvrage avec d’abord l’élaboration des fils supraconducteurs, prouesse technologique tant pour les câbles Nb – Ti et Nb$_{3}$Sn que pour les rubans de cuprates. Ensuite, pour chaque application, sont présentés les phénomènes physiques et le fonctionnement des dispositifs technologiques ; le lecteur peut ainsi acquérir une vision globale des apports scientifiques de ces technologies et de leurs enjeux, scientifiques, médicaux et sociétaux. Trois autres o...

  18. Applications magnétoélectriques des supraconducteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Mangin, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    La supraconductivité est devenue incontournable, par exemple avec l’IRM qui équipe nos hôpitaux. Elle permet de spectaculaires réalisations tels le LHC du CERN qui a mis en évidence le boson de Higgs, le projet de fusion nucléaire ITER, le train à sustentation magnétique, etc. Ces applications dans divers domaines reposent sur l’aptitude des fils supraconducteurs à transporter de très fortes intensités de courant et sur l’énorme champ magnétique que des bobines supraconductrices peuvent créer. Elles sont l’objet du présent ouvrage avec d’abord l’élaboration des fils supraconducteurs, prouesse technologique tant pour les câbles Nb – Ti et Nb3Sn que pour les rubans de cuprates. Ensuite, pour chaque application, sont présentés les phénomènes physiques et le fonctionnement des dispositifs technologiques ; le lecteur peut ainsi acquérir une vision globale des apports scientifiques de ces technologies et de leurs enjeux, scientifiques, médicaux et sociétaux. Trois autres ouvrag...

  19. L'alkylidénolyse des oléfines catalysée par les complexes des métaux de transition Alkylidenolysis of Olefins Catalysed by Transition-Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvin Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une grande variété de complexes de métaux de transition, homogènes ou hétérogènes, sont susceptibles de provoquer la scission des doubles et triples liaisons carbone-carbone. Les caractéristiques générales de la réaction de disproportion (x métathèse » des oléfines acycliques et de la polymérisation des oléfines cycliques impliquent l'existence d'intermédiaires de réaction dont les analogues stables sont connus. Les applications de la réaction sont variées : interconversion des oléfines et synthèse de polymères de structures nouvelles. A great variety of homogeneous or heterogeneous transition metal complexes may induce the splitting of the double and triple carbon-carbon bonds. The general characteristics of the disproportionation reaction (x metathesis » of acyclic olefins and cyclic-olefin polymerization imply the existence of reaction intermediates whose stable analogs are known. This reaction has various applications such as olefin interconversion and synthesizing polymers with new structures.

  20. Managing complexity insights, concepts, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Each chapter in Managing Complexity focuses on analyzing real-world complex systems and transferring knowledge from the complex-systems sciences to applications in business, industry and society. The interdisciplinary contributions range from markets and production through logistics, traffic control, and critical infrastructures, up to network design, information systems, social conflicts and building consensus. They serve to raise readers' awareness concerning the often counter-intuitive behavior of complex systems and to help them integrate insights gained in complexity research into everyday planning, decision making, strategic optimization, and policy. Intended for a broad readership, the contributions have been kept largely non-technical and address a general, scientifically literate audience involved in corporate, academic, and public institutions.

  1. La boîte à outil sur l'application des connaissances | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 nov. 2011 ... Gavin Bennett est journaliste, auteur et consultant en communications stratégiques. Nasreen Jessani est conseillère au sein du groupe de l'application des connaissances et des politiques, l'un des deux piliers du groupe de travail chargé des études par pays du Groupe de travail de référence sur ...

  2. Compréhension des émotions dans des contextes scolaires complexes: comparaison entre des étudiants en formation initiale et des enseignants en formation continue

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Nathalie; Doudin, Pierre-André

    2012-01-01

    Actuellement, l’augmentation de la violence à l’école, phénomène qui contribue à accentuer la pénibilité du métier d’enseignant, alimente de nombreux débats. Ceci explique que plusieurs recherches sur les cas de violence et des émotions suscitées par cette dernière en milieu scolaire ont été effectuées ces dernières années. Un grand nombre d’études porte sur les élèves, cependant les chercheurs se sont récemment penchés sur les réactions et les comportements des enseignantes et des ense...

  3. Data processing in gamma spectrometry. Application to the decay schemes study; Traitement des informations en spectrometrie gamma application a l'etude de schemas de desintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement d' electronique generale, service d' instrumentation nucleaire

    1968-06-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the processing of the data issued from a gamma spectrometer, and its applications to the decay schemes study. The mathematical analysis of the full energy peaks, in connection with the very good resolution of semi-conductor detectors, leads to a very accurate determination of the energies. The resolution of complex spectra by the least squares method, completed by a spectra generating process, allows the calculation of branching ratios. Then, the handling of the two dimensional experiments permits the coincidence exam. For each of these methods, the calculation principle, then the systematics tests realized in order to prove their validity and to determine their application ranges as well as some experimental results appropriate to illustrate their possibilities, are presented. The energies of some nuclides, frequently used as standards have been thus measured and the decay schemes of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 110m}Ag determined precisely. (author) [French] Cette these est consacree aux methodes de traitement des informations issues d'un spectrometre {gamma}, et a leur application a l'etude des schemas de desintegration: l'analyse mathematique des pics d'absorption totale, conjuguee avec l'excellent pouvoir de resolution des detecteurs semi-conducteurs, conduit a une determination tres precise des energies. La decomposition des spectres complexes par la methode des moindres carres, completee par un procede de generation de spectres, autorise le calcul des rapports de branchement. Enfin le depouillement des experiences biparametriques permet l'examen des coincidences. Pour chacune de ces methodes, on expose le principe des calculs et les essais systematiques effectues afin d'eprouver leur validite et de definir leurs domaines d'application, ainsi que quelques resultats experimentaux propres a illustrer leurs possibilites. Les energies de quelques isotopes utilises couramment comme etalons ont ainsi ete

  4. Les zéolithes: supports des complexes des métaux de transition Using Zeolites As Supports for Transition-Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Van Mao R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On met en évidence dans cet article les principales caractéristiques structurales et superficielles des zéolithes qui peuvent être avantageusement utilisées comme catalyseurs acides ou bifonctionnels et comme supports présentant une grande dispersion de métal de transition et d'intéressants effets sélectifs. Les résultats plutôt encourageants, obtenus dans l'hétérogénéisation de certains complexes des métaux de transition sur des polymères organiques ou sur la silice, ont servi à mesurer les progrès réalisés dans le domaine de leur introduction dans les zéolithes : l'intérêt scientifique et pratique d'une telle opération augmenterait considérablement si l'on pouvait « encager s directement ces complexes dans les cavités - de dimensions moléculaires - des zéolithes ou des silicates récemment synthétisés et dont la cristallisation est caractérisée par une cinétique très lente. This article describes the leading structural and superficial properties of zeolites which can be advantageously used as acid or bifunctional catalysts and as supports offering a considerable capacity for dispersing transition metal as well as interesting selective effects.The rather encouraging results obtained in heterogenizing various transition-metal complexes on org anic polymers or on silica have been used to measure the advances made in the field of incorporating them in zeolites. The scientific and pratical impor-tance of such an operation would be considerably enhanced if such complexes could be « encaged » in molecular-size cavities in zeolites or in recently-synthetized silicates whose crystallization is characterized by very slow kinetics.

  5. Penerapan Visual Basic for Application (VBA Sebagai Alat Bantu Ajar Enkripsi dan Dekripsi DES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasri Yasri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The DES encryption/decryption algorithm is quite a popular algorithm due to ease in learning. Calculations for DES using binary numbers however are very difficult, including 16 rounds required for a full encode. Teaching DES encryption manually is difficult since it requires a long time. It also requires high accuracy for the 64-bit binary numbers, the possibility of mistakes are very high. Besides, the students cannot perform self-check, whether the given task is done correctly. Application of Excel and VBA is used to facilitate observation, comparison, and understanding the DES algorithm. The result is a teaching model using DES for modern encryption. 

  6. La boîte à outil sur l'application des connaissances | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 nov. 2011 ... La boîte à outils sur l'application des connaissances propose un survol exhaustif de ce en quoi consiste l'application des connaissances et de la manière dont elle peut le mieux servir à combler l'écart entre la théorie et la pratique de façon à jeter des ponts entre la recherche, les politiques, la pratique et ...

  7. Administrateur de programme, Application des connaissances (h/f ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Préparer et coordonner, à des fins de diffusion publique, des documents de même que des contenus destinés au Web et aux médias sociaux, ce qui comporte aussi bien du texte que des éléments graphiques et visuels. Coordonner l'organisation et la tenue de conférences et d'autres activités, en consultation avec le ...

  8. Application of the verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) on a pediatric data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatne, Torun M; Finset, Arnstein; Ørnes, Knut; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2010-09-01

    Adult patients present concerns as defined in the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES), but we do not know how children express their concerns during medical consultations. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of VR-CoDES to pediatric oncology consultations. Twenty-eight pediatric consultations were coded with the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES), and the material was also qualitatively analyzed for descriptive purposes. Five consultations were randomly selected for reliability testing and descriptive statistics were computed. Perfect inter-rater reliability for concerns and moderate reliability for cues were obtained. Cues and/or concerns were present in over half of the consultations. Cues were more frequent than concerns, with the majority of cues being verbal hints to hidden concerns or non-verbal cues. Intensity of expressions, limitations in vocabulary, commonality of statements, and complexity of the setting complicated the use of VR-CoDES. Child-specific cues; use of the imperative, cues about past experiences, and use of onomatopoeia were observed. Children with cancer express concerns during medical consultations. VR-CoDES is a reliable tool for coding concerns in pediatric data sets. For future applications in pediatric settings an appendix should be developed to incorporate the child-specific traits. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling of the radiative field in complex geometries using computerized graphical tools. Application to comfort characterization in environments equipped with important radiative sources; Modelisation du champ radiatif dans des geometries complexes a l`aide d`outils infographiques. Application a la caracterisation du confort dans les ambiances munies de sources radiatives importantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolescu, M.; Sperandio, M.; Allard, F. [La Rochelle Universite, 17 - La Rochelle, LEPTAB (France)

    1996-12-31

    Bibliographic studies in the domain of radiant heat transfers in complex geometries demonstrate the impossibility of resolving such problems using classical analytical methods. The numerical analysis can theoretically be performed successfully but requires enormous computer means. The contribution of this study consists in using computerized graphical techniques to treat general problems of radiant heat transfers in complex geometries. This paper presents the model used, the calculation technique and the optimizations that allow to greatly reduce the computer memory required and the calculation time. The code developed uses evocative images for the synthetic presentation of results which facilitate the searcher`s and conceiver`s choices. Finally, an application to the characterization of thermal comfort in residential environments is developed to illustrate the potentialities of this method. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  10. LA RECHERCHE DES DETERMINANTS DE LA PERFORMANCE : APPLICATION A L'ORGANISATION SPATIALE DES BUREAUX

    OpenAIRE

    Véronique Malleret

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Cette communication examine les liens qui peuvent exister entre l'organisation spatiale des bureaux et la performance des entreprises. Elle propose un cadre d'analyse articulant les différentes variables du problème et l'illustre ensuite par une étude de cas.

  11. Numerical analysis of the bearing capacity of complex rock mechanical underground systems with filigree structures in the presence of imponderables. A contribution to the systematization of the investigative process with application/demonstration using the example of the salt cavern ASSE II/south flank; Numerische Analyse des Tragverhaltens komplexer gebirgsmechanischer untertaegiger Systeme mit filigranen Strukturen bei Anwesenheit von Imponderabilien. Ein Beitrag zur Systematisierung des Untersuchungsprozesses mit Anwendung/Demonstration am Beispiel des Salzbergwerks Schacht ASSE II/Suedflanke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyogtyev, Oleksandr

    2017-03-02

    The thesis dealing with the numerical analysis of the bearing capacity of complex rock mechanical underground systems with filigree structures in the presence of imponderables covers the following issues: status of science and technology, concept for the performance of numerical studies on the bearing capacity of large-volume underground systems, application example salt cavern ASSE II - application of the developed concept/development of numerical tools for the overall system/application of the global model to the given questions/realization of the modification potential.

  12. Plantes tinctoriales des traditions et sociétés du Pacifique : de la sauvegarde des savoirs aux nouvelles perspectives d'application

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, D.; Cabalion, Pierre; Blanc, B.; Boulanger-Penduff, M.; Hnawia, E.; Nowik, W.; Waikedre, Jean; Sam, C.

    2010-01-01

    Les colorants naturels, utilisés depuis les temps préhistoriques, sont principalement extraits du monde végétal. Les applications des plantes tinctoriales ont concerné non seulement textiles et vannerie, mais aussi la peinture ou teinture de la peau et des cuirs, des cheveux et poils, etc. Des exemples de leur importance dans le patrimoine culturel des sociétés du Pacifique sont présentés, en développant celui de recherches interdisciplinaires récentes, d'ordre botanique, chimique et anthropo...

  13. Effects of ionizing radiations on DNA-protein complexes; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur des complexes ADN-proteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, N

    2005-11-15

    The radio-induced destruction of DNA-protein complexes may have serious consequences for systems implicated in important cellular functions. The first system which has been studied is the lactose operon system, that regulates gene expression in Escherichia coli. First of all, the repressor-operator complex is destroyed after irradiation of the complex or of the protein alone. The damaging of the domain of repressor binding to DNA (headpiece) has been demonstrated and studied from the point of view of peptide chain integrity, conformation and amino acids damages. Secondly, dysfunctions of the in vitro induction of an irradiated repressor-unirradiated DNA complex have been observed. These perturbations, due to a decrease of the number of inducer binding sites, are correlated to the damaging of tryptophan residues. Moreover, the inducer protects the repressor when they are irradiated together, both by acting as a scavenger in the bulk, and by the masking of its binding site on the protein. The second studied system is formed by Fpg (for Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase), a DNA repair protein and a DNA with an oxidative lesion. The results show that irradiation disturbs the repair both by decreasing its efficiency of DNA lesion recognition and binding, and by altering its enzymatic activity. (author)

  14. Développement de la mémoire de travail et traitement des phrases complexes : Quelle relation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Hélène; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans

    2012-01-01

    La complexité syntaxique d’une phrase en langage oral peut se caractériser par le nombre et la nature des opérations syntaxiques nécessaires à son élaboration, et notamment par la profondeur de son enchâssement. Cette complexité influence l’âge d’acquisition des différentes structures syntaxiques, les énoncés les plus complexes étant maîtrisés plus tardivement par l’enfant. Certains auteurs attribuent cette acquisition de la syntaxe complexe à des contraintes développementales externes au sys...

  15. Identification des bases d'une synergie entre recycleurs et concepteurs : application au cas des composites

    OpenAIRE

    PRINCAUD, Marion; POMPIDOU, Stéphane; PERRY, Nicolas; MANTAUX, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    L’utilisation des matériaux composites à renfort carbone (CRC) et matrice thermodurcissable tend à se développer fortement dans les industries automobile, aéronautique et aérospatiale, malgré le prix élevé des fibres de carbone. Toutefois, dans une approche globale plus respectueuse de l'environnement, la principale limitation à l’utilisation de ces composites reste leur recyclabilité. Recycler un composite nécessite de disposer simultanément (...

  16. Applicability of RANS, DES and LES in propeller flow noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to study the applicability of different turbulence models in propeller flow noise prediction, taking the DTMB 4119 propeller as the research object, the numerical simulation method is used to calculate the frequency domain noise under the non-uniform flow field.[Methods] First, the hydrodynamic coefficient and surface pressure distribution coefficient are obtained via the RANS method and the accuracy of the flow field simulation is verified by comparing it with the experimental data. Next,the pulsating pressures obtained by RANS, DES and LES are considered as the sound source respectively, and combined with the acoustic boundary element method to predict the radiation noise.[Results] The results show that spectral noise is the main contributor to total noise; when noise on 1 BPF is predicted, the results obtained by the three methods are very similar, so we can use RANS to predict noise quickly; when noise on the high order of BPF needs to be predicted, the calculation results of LES are better.[Conclusions] In noise prediction, the appropriate turbulence simulation method can be selected according to the demand.

  17. Étude des techniques de spectrométrie de plasma pour l'analyse de matériaux à spectres optiques complexes : application aux terres rares et aux matériaux plastiques

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) technique is an elemental analysis technique based on the use of the optical emission spectrum from a sample of laser ablation. Today, LIBS has not emerged as a technique of choice for the majority of applications, as is the case for inductive coupled plasma techniques. One of the main reasons for this is the difficulty in providing accurate quantitative measurements. So there is now a need to better understand and characterize plasmas and pheno...

  18. Élaboration de protocoles facilitant l'application des lois en matière ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Élaboration de protocoles facilitant l'application des lois en matière de violence sexuelle et de violence conjugale. En Inde, les crimes contre les femmes sont à la hausse. Selon des chiffres récents de l'office national de statistiques sur la criminalité (National Crime Records Bureau), un viol est perpétré toutes les 26 ...

  19. La Boîte à Outils Sur L'Application Des Connaissances

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Une bonne application des connaissances par le biais de publications, du web, de conférences, d'annonces à la radio et d'un séminaire a transformé l'image des membres d'une équipe de ...... Le site Web de la United States National Library of Medicine donne 41 exemples de citations utilisant le style Vancouver, ...

  20. Kinetic Modeling of Complex Catalytic Reactions Modélisation cinétique des réactions catalytiques complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froment G. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with hydrocracking on metal-loaded zeolites. A fundamental approach is presented in which the detailed reaction network of the feed components of a complex feedstock is retained to a maximum extent. The kinetics are developed in terms of the elementary steps and single events involved in the reactions. Plausible assumptions and thermodynamic constraints limit the number of kinetic parameters. These do not depend on the chain length of the hydrocarbons and are not affected by the feed composition. Certainly, chemical analysis still imposes a certain degree of lumping of components and reaction networks, but not to the extent reflected by present day models. L'article traite de l'hydrocraquage sur des zéolites chargés en métaux. Dans l'approche fondamentale qui est présentée, le réseau de réaction des composants d'une charge complexe est retenu au maximum. La cinétique est établie en suivant pas à pas le déroulement et les étapes élémentaires des réactions. Des hypothèses plausibles et des contraintes thermodynamiques limitent le nombre de paramètres cinétiques. Ceux-ci ne dépendent pas de la longueur de la chaîne des hydrocarbures et ne sont pas affectés par la composition de la charge. L'analyse chimique impose bien sûr encore un certain agrégat des composants et des réseaux de réaction, mais moins que ne reflètent les modèles actuels.

  1. Convection in complex shaped vessel; Convection dans des enceintes de forme complexe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The 8 november 2000, the SFT (Societe Francaise de Thermique) organized a technical day on the convection in complex shaped vessels. Nine papers have been presented in the domains of the heat transfers, the natural convection, the fluid distribution, the thermosyphon effect, the steam flow in a sterilization cycle and the transformers cooling. Eight papers are analyzed in ETDE and one paper dealing with the natural convection in spent fuels depository is analyzed in INIS. (A.L.B.)

  2. Administrateur de programme (h/f) - Application des connaissances ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... articles de revue spécialisée ou de journal, autres documents devant être publiés ou présentés);; s'assurera qu'il existe une certaine uniformité entre tous les extrants de recherche de l'ITT;; trouvera les fournisseurs de services appropriés pour la production des extrants de recherche (par exemple, préparateurs de textes, ...

  3. Développement de la mémoire de travail et traitement des phrases complexes : Quelle relation ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauenfelder Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La complexité syntaxique d’une phrase en langage oral peut se caractériser par le nombre et la nature des opérations syntaxiques nécessaires à son élaboration, et notamment par la profondeur de son enchâssement. Cette complexité influence l’âge d’acquisition des différentes structures syntaxiques, les énoncés les plus complexes étant maîtrisés plus tardivement par l’enfant. Certains auteurs attribuent cette acquisition de la syntaxe complexe à des contraintes développementales externes au système linguistique lui-même et notamment à des limitations dans les capacités de mémoire de travail (Jakubowicz, 2007. Ainsi, le traitement d’une phrase complexe engendrerait un coût cognitif important et constituerait une surcharge pour des capacités de mémoire de travail davantage limitées chez le jeune enfant. La maturation normale de ce système mnémonique permettrait ensuite à l’enfant de comprendre et de produire des énoncés de plus en plus complexes. La présente recherche a pour objectif d’éclaircir les liens entre le développement de la mémoire de travail et le traitement des phrases complexes chez l’enfant tout-venant âgé de 5 à 12 ans. Suivant le modèle de la mémoire de travail de Baddeley & Hitch (1986 et les travaux de Barrouillet & Camos (2001, 2007, nous avons appréhendé les compétences de la boucle phonologique via des épreuves d’empans simples (empan direct de chiffres, répétition de mots et de pseudo-mots et la mémoire de travail verbale via des tâches d’empans complexes (empan indirect de chiffres, counting span et running span. Les habiletés syntaxiques des enfants ont été évaluées en compréhension et en répétition d’énoncés complexes. Une analyse d’échantillons de langage spontané a enfin permis de récolter les données liées à l’utilisation de la syntaxe complexe en contexte écologique (LME, taux de subordination et taux d’enchâssement profond. Les

  4. Electroencephalographic changes in the lateral septum complex following systemic administration of DES-TYR1 -[alpha]-endorphin, Des-Tyr1-[gamma]-endorphin and haloperidol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, I.J.A.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    The influence of systemically administered Des-Tyr1-α-endorphin (DTαE), Des-Tyr1-γ-endorphin (DTγE) and haloperidol on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of the lateral septum complex (LSC) and the frontal cortex was studied in male rats. DTαE (2 μg) significantly increased whereas DTγE (10 μg)

  5. Characterization of protein/ligand interactions by {sup 1}H/{sup 3}H exchange: application to the hAsf{sup 1}/ histone H{sup 3} complex; Caracterisation des interactions proteine / ligand par echange {sup 1}H/{sup 3}H: application au complexe entre la proteine hAsf{sup 1} et l'histone H{sup 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, G

    2007-05-15

    In the first chapter will be exposed the main current methods of identification to high debit of the interactions protein-protein. Then the methods allowing to characterize the surfaces of interaction or to determine the structures of the complexes will be listed by discussing the main advantages and the inconveniences. Our approach of characterization of the zones of interaction protein-protein is a method of 'foot-printing' 1, based on the identification and radicals' quantification formed on the residues of proteins accessible to the water. The second chapter will so discuss the development of this method of radical identification using the atom of tritium as radioactive label. Our approach will finally be validated in the third chapter by applying it to the characterization of amino acids involved in the interaction enter the human protein anti silencing factor 1 (hAsf11-156) and a fragment of the histone H{sup 3}. (N.C.)

  6. Étude physico-chimique sur les complexes des lanthanides avec quelques dérivés de l'edta

    OpenAIRE

    Voloder, Kata; Simeon, Vl.; Weber, O.A.

    1968-01-01

    Les constantes de stabilité apparentes des complexes des lanthanides avec trois dérivés de l'EDTA sont mésurées par la méthode polarographique utilisant les ions auxiliaires du cadmium et du plomb. Les constantes des complexes cadmiques, plombeux et mercuriques ont été déterminées par une méthode potentiométrique utilisant une électrode au mercure. Les chélateurs étudiés pourraient être utiles pour la décontamination interne des isotopes radioactifs de terres rares.

  7. Geophysical Well Logs Applied to Geothermal Resource Evaluation Application des diagraphies à l'évaluation des ressources géothermiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fertl W. H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Well logging in the petroleum industry has been developed over five decades into a mature industry, whereas geothermal well logging is a relatively new enterprise. Fundamental differences also occur in the geologic environments and key objectives of both logging applications. Geothermal reservoirs are frequently in fractured igneous and metamorphic rocks, which contain hot water or stem at temperature exceeding 150°C. The discussion focuses on present day logging technology, geologic and reservoir engineering objectives, and qualitive and quantitative formation interpretation techniques for geothermal resource evaluation. Specific field case studies illustrate the interpretive state-of-the-art, including examples from the Geysers dry steam field in the Imperial Valley of California, hot water fields in California, Nevada, and Idaho, and the LASL Hot Dry Rock test project in the Valles Caldera of New Mexico. Les diagraphies dans les forages pétroliers ont atteint leur maturité, alors que le contrôle diagraphique des sondages géothermiques est une entreprise relativement nouvelle. Des différences fondamentales apparaissent aussi dans les environnements géologiques et dans les objectifs clés des deux types d'applications des diagraphies. Les réservoirs géothermiques se situent souvent dans les roches ignées ou métamorphiques fracturées qui contiennent de l'eau chaude ou de la vapeur à des températures dépassant 150 °C. L'exposé sera concentré sur les techniques actuelles d'enregistrements, les objectifs géologiques et liés à l'exploitation des réserves et sur les techniques qualitatives et quantitatives d'interprétation des formations pour l'évaluation des ressources géothermiques. Quelques cas particuliers illustrent l'état actuel des techniques d'interprétation avec des exemples pris dans le champ de vapeur sèche des geysers dans Imperial Valley de Californie, des champs d'eau chaude en Californie, Nevada et Idaho et

  8. Sigand : une application SIG sous androïd (tablette de la gestion des chantiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAKIB SAFAR BATI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L’introduction de données terrain pour les études environnementales ou de gestion de l’espace, régionales ou locales est une nécessité incontournable pour la validation des traitements et des interprétations mais aussi pour fournir des compléments d’informations aux divers travaux. Mais ce retour terrain est également de plus en plus demandé pour les gestionnaires de chantiers et de projets qui ont une exigence de contrôle ou de suivi et donc d’une information temps réel sur l’avancement des travaux, autrement pour introduire de nouvelles informations sur la base de données géoréférencées. Les avancées technologiques en matière de manipulation de l’information géographique (GPS, tablette graphique, téléphone portable, réalité augmentée permettent d’espérer la mise à dispositiondes professionnels, voire d’un plus large public, des outils adéquats pour de tels travaux. Actuellement, les outils d’élaboration, de gestion et d’exploitation des bases de données géographiques (solutions SIG ne sont pas encore complètement opérationnels en version « tablette » ; des applications telles que Qgis ou ArcGis sous Androïd attendent encore des développements. Nous présentons ici la première version d’une application SIG sous Androïd (disponible sur tablette pour la gestion en temps réel des chantiers qui permet de charger des couches vectorielles et de les mettre à jour sur le terrain en fonction de l’observation directe ; les couches (préalablement géoréférencées sont projetées sur des fonds cartographiques fournis par un serveur cartographique Google Maps (Route, Satellite, terrain; dans le cas d’absence de connexion internet, le fond cartographique est ramené d’un cache. Nous utilisons SpatialiteAndroïd pour le stockage et la manipulation des données géographiques. Le contrôleur de cartes Google Maps est employé pour afficher en mode cartographique les données stockées dans

  9. Méthode des microhabitats : principes et protocoles d'application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POUILLY M.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette note expose, à la demande d'utilisateurs potentiels, le protocole précis de mise en oeuvre de la méthode des microhabitats développée au CEMAGREF de Lyon depuis 1985 et adaptée de l'IFIM de l'US Fish and Wildlife Service. Les principes des modèles inclus dans la méthode sont présentés. Les protocoles de mesures sont expliqués en fonction du modèle hydraulique et de la méthode de couplage des informations hydrauliques et biologiques. Les limites d'application sont ensuite exposées.

  10. Etablir la qualité des preuves pour les situations de décision complexes et controversées

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, J.P. van der; Petersen, A.C.; Janssen, P.H.M.; Risbey, J.S.; Ravetz, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    L’expertise en matière de risques environnementaux complexes comme le changement climatique, la perte de la biodiversité ou les plantes génétiquement modifiées est souvent contestée (Funtowicz et Ravetz, 1990 ; Funtowicz, 2006). Des décisions doivent être prises avant que des preuves

  11. Optimization strategies for complex engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, M.S.

    1998-02-01

    LDRD research activities have focused on increasing the robustness and efficiency of optimization studies for computationally complex engineering problems. Engineering applications can be characterized by extreme computational expense, lack of gradient information, discrete parameters, non-converging simulations, and nonsmooth, multimodal, and discontinuous response variations. Guided by these challenges, the LDRD research activities have developed application-specific techniques, fundamental optimization algorithms, multilevel hybrid and sequential approximate optimization strategies, parallel processing approaches, and automatic differentiation and adjoint augmentation methods. This report surveys these activities and summarizes the key findings and recommendations.

  12. Synthèse par voie hydrothermale des orthophosphates de lanthanides pour des applications optiques

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido-Hernandez, Aristeo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth (Re) doped lanthanide orthophosphates (LnPO4) are considered like promising phosphors for optical applications. Phosphors are luminescent materials which convert certain types of energy (X-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared) mainly into visible light. In this research Eu3+ (europium), Ce3+ (cerium), Tb3+ (terbium), Er3+ (erbium), Tm3+ (thulium) and/or Yb3+ (ytterbium) doped LuPO4 (lutetium orthophosphate), YPO4 (yttrium orthophosphate), GdPO4 (gadolinium orthophosphate) and/or Gdx...

  13. Elastographie et retournement temporel des ondes de cisaillement : application à l'imagerie des solides mous

    OpenAIRE

    Brum, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between wave and matter has long been studied in Physics. In particular, regarding medical applications, wave propagation through the human body resulted in several imaging modalities, each of which uses a specific type of wave linked to a given physical property. The elasticity of soft biological tissues is directly linked to its shear wave speed. Thus, in Elastography, shear waves are tracked for non-invasive assessment of the mechanical properties of soft tissues. In this c...

  14. Fabrication et applications des reseaux de Bragg ultra-longs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Mathieu

    quality ultra long fiber Bragg gratings. High quality theory matching ultra long fiber Bragg gratings up to 1 meter long are obtained for the first time. The possibility of fabricating high quality ultra long fiber Bragg grating of more than 10 cm (approximately the maximal phase mask length) opens a variety of new applications otherwise impossible with short fiber Bragg grating technology. Ultra long fiber Bragg gratings have unique characteristics such as high reflectivity, high dispersion and ultra narrow bandwidth. Those characteristics can be used to do advanced signal processing, non linear propagation experiments, distributed feedback fiber lasers and dispersion compensator for telecommunication or optical tomography. The second objective of this project is to use these ultra-long fiber Bragg gratings as an optical cavity for fiber lasers. Alot of research in the past years have been concentrated on those lasers, particularly on distributed feedback fiber lasers where the gratings spans all the gain media. A new random fiber laser configuration is presented. It is based on passive or active insertion of phase shifts along the Bragg grating to obtained a phenomenon called light localization which is the optical equivalent of Anderson localization. This complex wave phenomenon has the unique property to mimic the reflection of a uniform photonic crystal with the random diffusion of light among the elements of a random media. Being commonly obtained in fine powders which must respect a certain set of rules, the realization of 1D structures is vastly simplified in optical fibers. Two random fiber laser schemes based on light localization, one using erbium dopant and the other one Raman scattering, are demonstrated for the first time and compared to traditional distributed feedback fiber lasers.

  15. Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...

  16. Metal Complexes for Organic Optoelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang

    Organic optoelectronic devices have drawn extensive attention by over the past two decades. Two major applications for Organic optoelectronic devices are efficient organic photovoltaic devices(OPV) and organic light emitting diodes (OLED). Organic Solar cell has been proven to be compatible with the low cost, large area bulk processing technology and processed high absorption efficiencies compared to inorganic solar cells. Organic light emitting diodes are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. To improve the efficiency, stability, and materials variety for organic optoelectronic devices, several emissive materials, absorber-type materials, and charge transporting materials were developed and employed in various device settings. Optical, electrical, and photophysical studies of the organic materials and their corresponding devices were thoroughly carried out. In this thesis, Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the background knowledge of OPV and OLED research fields presented. Chapter 2 discusses new porphyrin derivatives- azatetrabenzylporphyrins for OPV and near infrared OLED applications. A modified synthetic method is utilized to increase the reaction yield of the azatetrabenzylporphyrin materials and their photophysical properties, electrochemical properties are studied. OPV devices are also fabricated using Zinc azatetrabenzylporphyrin as donor materials. Pt(II) azatetrabenzylporphyrin were also synthesized and used in near infra-red OLED to achieve an emission over 800 nm with reasonable external quantum efficiencies. Chapter 3, discusses the synthesis, characterization, and device evaluation of a series of tetradentate platinum and palladium complexesfor single doped white OLED applications and RGB white OLED applications. Devices employing some of the developed emitters demonstrated impressively high external quantum efficiencies within the range of 22%-27% for various emitter concentrations. And the palladium complex, i

  17. Complex networks principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Latora, Vito; Russo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Networks constitute the backbone of complex systems, from the human brain to computer communications, transport infrastructures to online social systems and metabolic reactions to financial markets. Characterising their structure improves our understanding of the physical, biological, economic and social phenomena that shape our world. Rigorous and thorough, this textbook presents a detailed overview of the new theory and methods of network science. Covering algorithms for graph exploration, node ranking and network generation, among the others, the book allows students to experiment with network models and real-world data sets, providing them with a deep understanding of the basics of network theory and its practical applications. Systems of growing complexity are examined in detail, challenging students to increase their level of skill. An engaging presentation of the important principles of network science makes this the perfect reference for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in physics, ...

  18. Algorithme de recherche de point-selle de lagrangien non strictement convexe. Application a l'optimisation des investissements pour un réseau electrique.

    OpenAIRE

    Balducchi, Jean-François

    1982-01-01

    Étude de l'optimisation des capacités de transport des lignes du réseau électrique national, de façon à minimiser la somme des couts de production électrique et des couts d'investissement des lignes de transport électrique. Formulation du problème d'optimisation stochastique, approches primale et duale, résolution des problèmes de minimax par l'approche duale, recherche de point selle dans le cas d'un lagrangien non strictement convexe, application au problème EDF.; No summary

  19. APPORT DES ANALYSES STATISTIQUES DES DONNEES HYDROCHIMIQUES A L’IDENTIFICATION DE L’ORIGINE DES EAUX SOUTERRAINES APPLICATION AU SYNCLINAL DE TIOUT (NO-ALGERIEN

    OpenAIRE

    KHELOUFI, Lamia; SFERDJLI, Fouzia

    2015-01-01

    Les Monts des Ksour, la partie occidentale de l’Atlas Saharien correspondent aux terrains méso-cénozoïques plissés. Le Barrémo-Apto-Albien du synclinal de Tiout est une formation grèseuse qui renferme la nappe la plus exploitée de la région. L’étude hydrochimique indique une minéralisation assez élevée dû à la dissolution des formations gypseuses, carbonatés et salifères. L’analyse statistique des données chimiques en composantes principales (ACP) regroupe l’origine des eaux en deux familles ...

  20. La province des complexes annulaires alcalins sursaturés de l'adrar des Iforas, Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, H.; Black, R.; Benziane, B.; Diombana, D.; Hascoet-Fender, J.; Bonin, B.; Fabre, J.; Liégeois, J. P.

    The Cambrian silica-saturated alkaline province of the Iforas is composed of about 15 massifs including typical large size ring complexes (20-30 km in diameter). Its originality is that it follows closely a regime of subduction blocked by the Pan-African collision (600 Ma) and that each stage of the transition from calcalkaline to alkaline can be related to structural elements in a geodynamic setting. Several complexes are described in some detail. The Kidal-Tibeljeljeline complex starts with the intrusion of syenite porphyries forming external ring dykes, often polygonal in outline, which are truncated by a central massif 30 km in diameter which is composed of a dozen major phases. It complexity is due to the individualization of several intrusive centres and to the fact that the erosional level coincides with that of the flat roof structures. Djounhane, Takellout and Timedjelalen (20-30 km in diameter) are simpler and composed of concentric intrusions youing inwards. Other occurrences are described briefly. The emplacement of all these intrusions at shallow depth in a rigid environment under a thick rhyolitic cover of fissural origin is contemporary to movement along a tear fault system with intermittent periods of distension as shown by spectacular associated dyke swarms. The study shows the presence of both peralkaline and aluminous trends, an evolution of the minerals (pyroxenes, amphiboles and micas), and geochemical characteristics that are quite comparable to those of anorogenic provinces such as Niger and Nigeria. It is important to note, however, the absence of cassiterite and the predominance of subsovus granites in the aluminous trend of the Iforas. The striking similarity between the provinces leads the authors to envisage a common mantle origin, the difference being due rather to the influence of the country rock.

  1. Complex Macromolecular Architectures for Potential Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hwayoon

    This thesis describes original research aimed at the development of highly efficient synthetic methods towards complex polymer architectures. An explanation of different polymer architectures, their synthesis and applications, in particular as biomaterials, is provided. Dendronized polymers and block copolymers are identified as two classes of polymer architectures that are important for a variety of applications but whose fabrications still pose a challenge. In the macromonomer route for the synthesis of dendronized polymers, the preferred route due to complete and uniform dendron functionalization, high degrees of polymerization are difficult to achieve due to steric crowding. This limitation was overcome by incorporating linkers between the polymerizable group (norbornene) and the poly(amide)-based dendrons. By increasing the length of the linker, the rate of polymerization increased. The synthesis of block copolymers using non-living polymerization methods often requires the copolymerization of monomers by different polymerization mechanisms. This methodology is hampered by non-quantitative conversions of the precursor polymer into the required macroinitiator. This limitation was overcome by using a bifunctional initiator. Poly(norbornene)-block -poly(lactic acid)s were synthesized using a ruthenium initiator for the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and a hydroxy group to initiate the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide. This method opens up new routes for the creation of functional block copolymers that are created by a combination of ROMP and ROP. Finally, potential strategies towards the synthesis of complex polymer architectures for biomaterials using the methodologies developed in this thesis are described. Firstly, the synthesis of orthogonally functionalizable dendronized polymers for targeted drug-delivery is proposed. Second, studies to establish the relationship between architectures and properties for biological applications

  2. 23 Étude de la compétitivité de complexation des métaux issus des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    par les phénomènes de complexation de l'ion métallique par ses groupements fonctionnels. En plus, l'EDTA possède 4 groupements carboxyliques (tétraacide) dont les pKa sont 1,99 pour la premiere acidité et 2,67 pour la deuxième acidité. Ces deux valeurs de pKa montrent que l'EDTA se comporte comme un acide fort.

  3. Special Course on Inverse Methods for Airfoil Design for Aeronautical and Turbomachinery Applications (Methodes Inverses pour la Conception des Profils Porteurs pour des Applications dans les Domaines de l’Aeronautique et des Turbomachines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    des pressions ct des vitesses. en tenant compte des performances souhait~es et du processus des pertes au nivcao de la couche timite. Loptimisation...directe qoi r~sutte du calcul inverse de la couche timite est d&crite, ainsi que Coptimisation itirative obtenue par minimalisation des pertes . Les deux...addition, the several cross numerical tools to be used in the design procedure. 4, .1-14 10. REFERENCES 13. Polito, L., "Un Metodo Esatto per it

  4. Application des innovations liées aux légumineuses pour la sécurité ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Éthiopie présente l'un des taux de prévalence les plus élevés au monde quant à la malnutrition protéinocalorique et aux carences en micronutriments. Ce projet donnera lieu à l'application à grande échelle de nouveaux produits dérivés des légumineuses (les pois chiches et les haricots, par exemple) dans le sud de ...

  5. Comparison des donnees simulees des capteurs de SPOT et landsat-D: Application a une region agricole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Gilbert; Podaire, Alain

    La modélisation de la luminance spectrale des objets observés en télédétection permet d'effectuer des simulations de différents capteurs à partir de données obtenues au moyen d'un scanneur DAEDALUS aéroporté : les qualités radiométrique et géométrique ont pu être évaluées par une comparaison avec des données Landsat réelles. L'analyse sur une zone agricole met surtout en évidence le rôle important de l'accroissement de la résolution.

  6. Safety and Efficacy of New-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents in Women Undergoing Complex Percutaneous Coronary Artery Revascularization: From the WIN-DES Collaborative Patient-Level Pooled Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giustino, Gennaro; Baber, Usman; Aquino, Melissa; Sartori, Samantha; Stone, Gregg W.; Leon, Martin B.; Genereux, Philippe; Dangas, George D.; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Kimura, Takeshi; Salianski, Olga; Stefanini, Giulio G.; Steg, Gabriel; Windecker, Stephan; Wijns, William; Serruys, Patrick W.; Valgimigli, Marco; Morice, Marie-Claude; Camenzind, Edoardo; Weisz, Giora; Smits, Pieter C.; Kandzari, David E.; Galatius, Soren; von Birgelen, Clemens; Saporito, Robert; Jeger, Raban V.; Mikhail, Ghada W.; Itchhaporia, Dipti; Mehta, Laxmi; Ortega, Rebecca; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Kastrati, Adnan; Chieffo, Alaide; Mehran, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) versus early-generation DES in women undergoing complex percutaneous coronary intervention (CPCI). Background Whether the benefits of new-generation DES are preserved in women

  7. The application of radioactive isotopes to the study of motion of silt and pebbles in the rivers and in the sea; Application des isotopes radioactifs a l'etude des mouvements des sediments et des galets dans les cours d'eau et en mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hours, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Jaffry, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d' Hydraulique

    1959-07-01

    The application of radioactive tracers to the study of sediments drift has received considerable attention since 1954 in various countries. A comparative review is made of a number of techniques of labelling, immersing and detecting silts, sands, and pebbles. The influence of the burying of the active material is emphasized. The different experiments which have been so far carried out are described. (author) [French] L'application des traceurs radioactifs a l'etude des deplacements de sediments a fait depuis 1954 l'objet de travaux nombreux dans divers pays. On passe en revue et on compare differentes techniques de marquage, d'immersion et de detection des vases, sables et galets; on insiste sur l'influence de l'enfouissement du materiau actif. On decrit les differentes experiences effectuees jusqu'a ce jour. (auteur)

  8. Thermodynamic Aspects of Supercritical Fluids Processing: Applications of Polymers and Wastes Treatment Aspects thermodynamiques des procédés mettant en oeuvre des fluides supercritiques : applications aux traitements des polymères et des déchets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslin P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid processes are of increasing interest for many fields : in supercritical fluid separation (petroleum-chemistry separation and purification, food industry and supercritical fluid chromatography (analytical and preparative separation, determination of physicochemical properties; as reaction media with continuously adjustable properties from gas to liquid (low-density polyethylene, waste destruction, polymer recycling; in geology and mineralogy (volcanoes, geothermal energy, hydrothermal synthesis; in particle, fibber and substrate formations (pharmaceuticals, explosives, coatings; in drying materials (gels. This paper presents the unusual physicochemical properties of supercritical fluids in relation to their engineering applications. After a short report of fundamental concepts of critical behavior in pure fluids, we develop in more details the tunable physicochemical properties of fluid in the supercritical domain. The second part of this paper describes the engineering applications of supercritical fluids relevant of chemical reactions and polymer processing. Each application presentation is divided in two parts : the first one recalls the basic concepts including general background, physicochemical properties and the second one develops the engineering applications relevant of the advocated domain. La mise en Suvre des fluides supercritiques est d'un intérêt croissant dans de nombreux domaines : pour la séparation (séparation et purification en pétrochimie, industrie alimentaire et la chromatographie par fluides supercritiques (séparation analytique et préparatoire, détermination des propriétés physicochimiques, comme milieux réactifs aux propriétés continûment ajustables allant du gaz au liquide (polyéthylène de faible densité, élimination des déchets, recyclage des polymères, en géologie et en minéralogie (volcanologie, énergie géothermique, synthèse hydrothermique, dans la formation des particules

  9. PREPARATION DES COMPOSITES BENTONITE-DERIVES DE P4VP APPLICATION A LA RETENTION DES COLORANTS TEXTILE

    OpenAIRE

    GADIRI, ANISSA

    2014-01-01

    Les industries du textile rejettent de grandes quantités d‘eaux usées présentant un risque de toxicité. Il existe déjà des traitements tels que l‘adsorption sur charbon actif qui est un processus efficace mais onéreux et qui produit une boue constituant elle même une menace environnementale. Les argiles, les poly (4-vinylpyridine) et ses dérivées pourraient être des matériaux adsorbants alternatifs à la fois économiques et moins polluants. Beaucoup d‘auteurs ont étudié l‘adsorptio...

  10. ÉTUDE DU COMPLEXE ENZYMATIQUE DES SYMBIONTES DU TERMITE RETICULITERMES FLAVIPES (EX. SANTONENSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Tarayre, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Au vu du contexte économique, environnemental et social dans lequel nous nous trouvons actuellement, il est devenu indéniable que l’usage des énergies fossiles n’est pas concevable à long terme. Des alternatives ont donc émergé ces dernières années. Les biocarburants de seconde génération constituent une de ces alternatives et sont basés sur l’exploitation de biomasse végétale, dite lignocellulosique. Cette matière, pour être utilisable, requiert une étape d’hydrolyse réalisable notamment par...

  11. Critical analysis of the data on complexation of lanthanides and actinides by natural organic matter: particular case of humic substances; Analyse critique des donnees de complexation des lanthanides et actinides par la matiere organique naturelle: cas des substances humiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiller, P.

    2010-07-01

    This document proposes a critical analysis of the models that describe the actinides and lanthanides complexation by natural organic matter in general and by humic substances in particular. In order to better delimit the particular properties of these substances the most influent physical and chemical properties on complexation are recalled as a preamble. Models as well as data that has been used are reviewed, compiled, and eventually compared to independent data in order to identify (i) their application domain, (ii) the possible simplifications which permit to obtain operational models, (iii) the conditions in which simplifications cannot be ascertained yet, and (iv) the data or fields of knowledge which are still too uncertain. A comparison between the different models is proposed in order to adapt parameters from one model to another minimising the experimental acquisitions, or at least to focus on missing data. Usually, data on the complexation of free ions M{sup z+} are reliable; as soon as hydrolysis, or competition with another ligand in general, in at stake data are much less reliable. Predictions from models are much more uncertain: formation of mixed complexes with hydroxide or carbonate anions is not univocal whatever the modelling strategy. Hints for transfer functions between models which are believed to be incompatible could be explored in order to justify necessary simplifications for using operational modelling. Influence on the solubility of oxides could be quantified, but it is difficult to clearly separate it from colloidal particles stabilisation. The account of the competition between cations by the models has also been tested. In view of the small number of available experimental data there still lie some uncertainties especially for the media that are close to neutrality and in the case of competition with magnesium, but overall in the case of the competition with aluminium and iron. The influence of redox activity of humic substances is

  12. Technical Evaluation Report on Knowledge Based System Applications for Guidance and Control (Application des Systemes a Base de Connaissances au Guidage-Pilotage),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Sanz-Aranguez SP ProfessorJohn T.Shcpherd UK Dr Elihu Zimet us HOST PAINEL COORDINATOR Mdr Carlos A. Garriga. Lopez SENER Ingenieria y Sistemas SA...on C- Knowledge Based System Applications for Guidance and Control (Application des Syst~mes ’ Base de Connaissances au Guidage-Pilotage) -¢ NORTH...for ’ 3tt’--. f Guidance and Control (Application des Syst~mes a Base de Connaissances DJie au Guidage-Pilotage) Dr Franco Canepa ALENIA Gruppo Aerei

  13. Formulation and applications of complex network theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyong

    In recent years, there has been a great surge of interest among physicists in modeling social, technological, or biological systems as networks. Analyses of large-scale networks such as the Internet have led to discoveries of many unexpected network properties, including power-law degree distributions. These discoveries have prompted physicists to devise novel ways to model networks, both computational and theoretical. In this dissertation, we present several network models and their applications. First, we study the theory of Exponential Random Graphs. We derive it from the principle of maximum entropy, thereby showing that it is the equivalent of the Gibbs ensemble for networks. Using tools of statistical physics, we solve well-known and new examples that include power-law networks and the two-star model. Our solutions confirm the existence of a first-order phase transition for the latter whose exact behavior has not been presented previously. We also study degree correlations and clustering in networks. Degrees of adjacent vertices are positively correlated in social networks, whereas they are negatively correlated in other types of networks. We demonstrate that a negative degree correlation is a more natural state of a network, and therefore that social networks are an exception. We argue that variations in the number of vertices in social groups cause positive degree correlations, and analyze a model that incorporates such a mechanism. The model indeed shows a high level of degree correlation and clustering that is similar in value to those of real networks. Finally, we develop algorithms for ranking vertices in networks that represent pairwise comparisons. The first algorithm is based on the familiar concept of indirect wins and losses. The second algorithm is based on the concept of retrodictive accuracy, which is maximized by positioning as many winners above the losers as possible. We compare the rankings of American college football teams generated by our

  14. Diffraction des neutrons : principe, dispositifs expérimentaux et applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, C.

    2003-02-01

    La diffraction de neutrons, sur monocristal ou sur échantillon polycristallin (ou poudre), est une technique très largement utilisée, en science des matériaux comme en biologie, lorsque l'on souhaite déterminer la structure cristalline d'un composé ou d'une molécule. Toutefois, le degré de précision de la détermination structurale est très corrélé au choix de l'instrument utilisé. Il s'en suit que la question “comment choisir l'instrument le mieux adapté au composé et à la problématique ?" apparaît comme fondamentale. L'objectif de ce cours est de tenter de répondre à cette question en décrivant brièvement les caractéristiques instrumentales de différents diffractomètres, en exposant les avantages spécifiques des expériences de diffraction de neutrons et en donnant quelques exemples d'application.

  15. Rock-Eval 6 Applications in Hydrocarbon Exploration, Production, and Soil Contamination Studies Les applications de Rock-Eval 6 dans l'exploration et la production des hydrocarbures, et dans les études de contamination des sols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafargue E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful petroleum exploration relies on detailed analysis of the petroleum system in a given area. Identification of potential source rocks, their maturity and kinetic parameters, and their regional distribution are best accomplished by rapid screening of rock samples (cores and/or cuttings using the Rock-Eval apparatus. The technique has been routinely used for about fifteen years and has become a standard tool for hydrocarbon exploration. This paper describes how the new functions of the latest version of Rock-Eval (Rock-Eval 6 have expanded applications of the method in petroleum geoscience. Examples of new applications are illustrated for source rock characterization, reservoir geochemistry, and environmental studies, including quantification. Le succès d'une exploration pétrolière repose sur l'analyse détaillée du système pétrolier dans une zone donnée. L'identification des roches mères potentielles, la détermination de leur maturité, de leurs paramètres cinétiques et de leur répartition sont réalisées au mieux à partir d'examens rapides d'échantillons de roches (carottes ou déblais au moyen de la pyrolyse Rock-Eval. Cette technique a été utilisée en routine pendant une quinzaine d'années et elle est devenue un outil standard pour l'exploration des hydrocarbures. Cet article décrit comment les nouvelles fonctionnalités de la dernière version de l'appareil Rock-Eval (Rock-Eval 6 ont permis une expansion des applications de la méthode en géosciences pétrolières. Des exemples d'applications nouvelles sont illustrés dans les domaines de la caractérisation des roches mères, de la géochimie de réservoir et des études environnementales incluant la quantification et la description des hydrocarbures dans des sols contaminés.

  16. Miel, indication géographique et biodiversité: des liens émergents complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Barlagne, Carla; Bérard, Laurence; Garcia, Claude; Marie-Vivien, Delphine

    2009-01-01

    Le miel produit dans le district de Coorg, en Inde du sud, est le produit d'un écosystème caractérisé par une importante biodiversité. Il est lié à deux formes bien particulières d'apiculture. L'une relève de la cueillette en forêt; effectuée essentiellement par les tribus, elle concerne Apis dorsata, abeille géante, et donne lieu au miel de forêt. L'autre repose sur l'élevage d'Apis cerana; pratiquée en majorité par des producteurs de café, elle produit le miel de Coorg qui jouit d'une forte...

  17. Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics Model and Design of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    In, Visarath; Palacios, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This edited book is aimed at interdisciplinary, device-oriented, applications of nonlinear science theory and methods in complex systems. In particular, applications directed to nonlinear phenomena with space and time characteristics. Examples include: complex networks of magnetic sensor systems, coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, nano-detectors, microscale devices, stochastic resonance in multi-dimensional chaotic systems, biosensors, and stochastic signal quantization. "applications of nonlinear dynamics: model and design of complex systems" brings together the work of scientists and engineers that are applying ideas and methods from nonlinear dynamics to design and fabricate complex systems.

  18. How nature works complexity in interdisciplinary research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sanayei, Ali; Zenil, Hector; Rössler, Otto

    2014-01-01

    This book is based on the outcome of the “2012 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held at the island of Kos.  The book consists of 12 selected papers of the symposium starting with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems, continuing by chapters about complexity, its observation, modeling and its applications to solving various problems including real-life applications. More exactly, readers will have an encounter with the structural complexity of vortex flows, the use of chaotic dynamics within evolutionary algorithms, complexity in synthetic biology, types of complexity hidden inside evolutionary dynamics and possible controlling methods, complexity of rugged landscapes, and more. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-art discussions on aspects of complexity.  The book will be useful as instructional material for senior undergraduate and entry-level graduate students in computer science, physics, applied mathemat...

  19. Wave Separation. Part Two: Applications La séparation des ondes. Deuxième partie : applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glangeaud F.

    2006-11-01

    qui doit être de plus grande amplitude. Le filtrage est effectué sans effet de bord et les variations d'amplitude de l'onde sont préservées. Il permet de séparer les données en un espace signal et un espace bruit. Le filtre SMF (matrice spectrale est coûteux en temps de calcul. Il fait l'hypothèse que l'onde est localement stable. Il ne nécessite pas la mise à plat des données. Il permet de séparer des ondes très voisines sans faire appel à des hypothèses a priori fortes. Il donne une mesure des écarts de temps. Il donne une mesure des variations de spectre d'amplitude et de phase lors de la propagation bien supérieure à celle fournie par la méthode de Wiener puisqu'il opère sur l'ensemble des traces. Il permet également de séparer les données en un espace signal et un espace bruit. La méthode paramétrique est la plus coûteuse en temps. Elle est simple à mettre en oeuvre et ne nécessite ni mise à plat ni préparation de données. Elle extrait les ondes en fonction des paramètres retenus, notamment les écarts de temps. Elle est particulièrement recommandée en profil sismique déporté où la lenteur des ondes montantes n'est pas connue. Elle est robuste vis-à-vis de quelques paramètres d'entrée si le bruit est faible par le rapport au signal à extraire. Les multiples applications à des données réelles ont illustré l'efficacité de ces techniques de séparation d'ondes. Par contre, l'application à un nouveau type de données nécessite souvent un contrôle des performances pour choisir la meilleure méthode.

  20. La gouvernance des risques naturels et la problematique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depuis quelques années, la gouvernance des risques naturels dus aux inondations remet en cause les processus de mise en oeuvre des politiques urbaines et la qualité de la structure des aménagements dans les grandes villes du Golfe de Guinée. La perception de la gouvernance et l'application des politiques de ...

  1. Iminoéthers-1 3 cycliques : chimie et applications dans le domaine des additifs pétroliers et des matériaux organiques Cyclic 1,3-Iminoethers: Chemistry and Applications in the Field of Petroleum Additives and Organic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Perchec P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est consacré aux iminoéthers-1,3 cycliques les plus courants : les oxazines-1,3 et oxazolines-1,3. La première partie rappelle les synthèses de ces composés et quelques aspects récents de leur chimie : réactions d'hydrolyse, réactions de déprotonation avec ouverture de cycle, réactions des organométalliques, réactions d'addition des nucléophiles en positions 2 et 5, des sels d'iminoéthers correspondants, propriétés complexantes vis-à-vis des métaux, réactions d'aminolyse et formation de structures tensioactives, enfin polymérisations et copolymérisations cationiques. La seconde partie est consacrée à l'étude des travaux qui traitent des applications. En ce qui concerne le domaine des additifs pétroliers, on s'intéresse à la stabilité du cycle oxazoline et à son caractère polaire. Les dérivés tensioactifs dérivés d'oxazoline portant des chaînes hydrocarbonées ont été revendiqués comme additifs dispersants et multifonctionnels pour les carburants et les lubrifiants. De nombreuses formulations (dispersants, antioxydants antirouilles, antiusures, extrême pressions, réducteurs de frictions. . . ont été proposées. Certains dérivés d'hydroxyméthyl oxazolines présentent des propriétés lubrifiantes et d'autres ont un intérêt dans les formulations de boues de forage. En ce qui concerne le domaine des matériaux, on s'intéresse à la réactivité du cycle oxazoline pour réaliser soit des extensions de chaînes des thermoplastiques, soit des réticulations pour des applications de peintures et revêtements. Les homopolymères d'oxazoline qui ont un caractère polaire très marqué peuvent trouver des applications comme promoteur d'adhésion, ou tensioactifs pour les polymérisations en émulsion. Enfin, l'utilisation d'oxazolines stables a été revendiquée dans des formulations de vernis d'émaillage. This article deals with the most common cyclic 1,3-iminoethers, i. e. 1,3-oxazines and 1

  2. Résolution des équations thermo-électriques 3D couplées par la méthode des éléments finis. Application à un four polyphasé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, J.; Du Terrail Couvat, Y.; Massé, Ph.

    1992-11-01

    The numerical simulation of industrial devices where heat transfer is obtained by electrical conduction, generally leads to the simultaneous resolution of electrical and thermal equations coupled by electrical properties often strongly linked with temperature. After describing physical phenomena equations, a finite element discretization of partial derivative equations is presented. Fifteen different formulations have been generated with the FLUX-EXPERT package allowing the modelization of many industrial systems in 2D, axisymetric or 3D geometries with or without equations coupling. Modelized problems are generally non linear and complicated. Matrices systems are dissymetric and ill-condionned. In order to optimize the resolution a Newton Raphson algorithm is used. Two applications are treated: i) a glass furnace with balanced and unbalanced AC supply; ii) a traveling fluid heated by electrical conduction with DC supply. La simulation numérique de dispositifs industriels de chauffage par conduction électrique conduit à la résolution simultanée des équations électrique et thermique couplées par les propriétés électriques souvent fortement dépendantes de la température. Après une mise en équation des phénomènes physiques, la discrétisation en éléments finis des équations aux dérivées partielles est présentée. Quinze formulations différentes ont été générées à l'aide du logiciel FLUX-EXPERT, permettant ainsi de modéliser de nombreuse configurations industrielles (2D, axisymétriques et 3D) avec ou sans couplage fort entre les équations. Les problèmes modélisés sont généralement non linéaires et complexes. Ils conduisent à des systèmes mal conditionnés dissymétriques. Afin d'en optimiser la résolution un algorithme de Newton Raphson est utilisé. Deux installations industrielles ont été étudiées: i) un four à verre alimenté en tension polyphasée équilibrée et déséquilibrée; ii) un dispositif de chauffage de

  3. Etude des Performances d’une Structure MOS Nanométrique : Application au DGFET

    OpenAIRE

    LARIBI, ASMA

    2010-01-01

    L’évolution des transistors MOSFET qui suit les prédictions de la Loi de Moore depuis plus de 30 ans a permis la réduction des dimensions jusqu’à des dispositifs de longueur de grille de 65 nm. Pour de telles dimensions, les dispositifs conventionnels sur substrat massif souffrent de dégradations notamment en termes de vitesse de commutation des circuits et de consommation en puissance. Jusqu’au noeud 45 nm, l’intégration de transistors sur substrats SOI complètement déplétés permet de réduir...

  4. Mettre en application les leçons des évaluations | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 févr. 2011 ... En Uruguay, l'agriculture intensive, l'industrie, le transport de marchandises, le tourisme et la pêche sont les principales activités économiques de la région côtière du Río de la Plata. Des chercheurs élaborent des stratégies de gestion intégrée des zones côtières propres à garantir la viabilité des activités ...

  5. Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Première partie : Présentation théorique des trois techniques Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part One : Theoretical Description of Three Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les techniques de diffusion, des rayons X, des neutrons et de la lumière, jouent un rôle très important pour la compréhension des milieux colloïdaux. Peu d'articles de la littérature s'attachent à présenter conjointement les trois méthodes. Nous avons, dans la première partie de cet article, détaillé les principes théoriques en insistent tout particulièrement sur les spécificités de chacune. Après les rappels concernant la diffusion par les systèmes dilués, nous nous sommes intéressés aux systèmes concentrés pour lesquels les entités diffusantes sont en interaction. Les milieux dispersés montrent souvent une certaine polydispersité que l'on cherche à mesurer; les techniques de diffusion permettent cette mesure. Nous terminerons cette revue par une description des appareillages utilisés. La deuxième partie de cet article concernera une large illustration des possibilités de ces méthodes d'analyse à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux, sur la base de travaux effectués à I'IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole ou dans de nombreux laboratoires de recherche extérieurs. This article aims to describe X-ray, neutron and light scattering techniques with emphasis on their specific nature and their scope of application. Indeed, whereas light diffusion has been used for a long time in research laboratories, in particular for characterizing polymers in solution, small angle X-ray scattering has been the subject of renewed interest in recent years. Neutron scattering, which is obviously more difficultly accessible, has proven to be extremely useful for studying various systems for which light and X-ray scattering remain relatively powerless. Whereas there is an abundant literature concerning various applications of the three methods, it should be noted that only a few articles have attempted to describe all three techniques at the same time. In this article we have tried to make up for this lack, and as such it was

  6. Advances in real and complex analysis with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Yeol; Agarwal, Praveen; Area, Iván

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses a variety of topics in mathematics and engineering as well as their applications, clearly explaining the mathematical concepts in the simplest possible way and illustrating them with a number of solved examples. The topics include real and complex analysis, special functions and analytic number theory, q-series, Ramanujan’s mathematics, fractional calculus, Clifford and harmonic analysis, graph theory, complex analysis, complex dynamical systems, complex function spaces and operator theory, geometric analysis of complex manifolds, geometric function theory, Riemannian surfaces, Teichmüller spaces and Kleinian groups, engineering applications of complex analytic methods, nonlinear analysis, inequality theory, potential theory, partial differential equations, numerical analysis , fixed-point theory, variational inequality, equilibrium problems, optimization problems, stability of functional equations, and mathematical physics.  It includes papers presented at the 24th International Confe...

  7. Application of Complex Adaptive Systems in Portfolio Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zheyuan

    2017-01-01

    Simulation-based methods are becoming a promising research tool in financial markets. A general Complex Adaptive System can be tailored to different application scenarios. Based on the current research, we built two models that would benefit portfolio management by utilizing Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) in Agent-based Modeling (ABM) approach.…

  8. Détermination des radionucléides dans le repas. Application aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    40 sont des radionucléides naturels présents dans les riz, les tubercules, les bouillons et les friandises. Dans les quatre échantillons des repas du Riz analysés, les activités spécifiques en potassium-40 sont différentes. Cette différence est ...

  9. Modelisation et commande des redresseurs triphases fonctionnant a haut rendement et a faible taux de distorsion harmonique: Application au redresseur triphase de vienne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj Youssef, Nesrine

    Les problemes de la qualite de l'onde electrique constituent l'une des preoccupations majeures des fournisseurs de l'energie et des organismes specialises en qualite d'energie. Ce sujet a gagne davantage d'ampleur avec l'utilisation ascendante des convertisseurs de l'energie electrique dans la majorite des applications industrielles et domestiques. Dans le cadre de cette these, on s'interesse plus particulierement au type des convertisseurs alternatif/continu, dont le fonctionnement adequat implique la parfaite regulation du bus DC de tension, l'attenuation des harmoniques de courants, la compensation de l'energie reactive et la maximisation du rendement energetique. Ces differents criteres doivent etre maintenus pour diverses conditions de fonctionnement, c'est-a-dire independamment des variations parametriques auxquelles le systeme peut etre sujet. Il s'avere donc indispensable d'adopter des techniques de commande efficaces, ce qui passe par une modelisation correcte du convertisseur. L'optimisation du nombre de capteurs dans le circuit est egalement un facteur cle a prendre en consideration.

  10. Complex analysis with applications to flows and fields

    CERN Document Server

    Braga da Costa Campos, Luis Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Complex Analysis with Applications to Flows and Fields presents the theory of functions of a complex variable, from the complex plane to the calculus of residues to power series to conformal mapping. The book explores numerous physical and engineering applications concerning potential flows, the gravity field, electro- and magnetostatics, steady heat conduction, and other problems. It provides the mathematical results to sufficiently justify the solution of these problems, eliminating the need to consult external references.The book is conveniently divided into four parts. In each part, the ma

  11. N-Heterocyclic carbene metal complexes: photoluminescence and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal, Renso; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2014-05-21

    This review covers the advances made in the synthesis of luminescent transition metal complexes containing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands. The presence of a high field strength ligand such as an NHC in the complexes gives rise to high energy emissions, and consequently, to the desired blue colour needed for OLED applications. Furthermore, the great versatility of NHC ligands for structural modifications, together with the use of other ancillary ligands in the complex, provides numerous possibilities for the synthesis of phosphorescent materials, with emission colours over the entire visible spectra and potential future applications in fields such as photochemical water-splitting, chemosensors, dye-sensitised solar cells, oxygen sensors, and medicine.

  12. Mapping the Relevance of Complex Decision Making to Canadian Forces Land Operations (Mappage de la pertinence de la prise de d cisions complexes pour les op rations terrestres des Forces canadiennes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Minister of National Defence, 2011 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2011...s’impo lté de la prise es Forces s complexes s qui posent semble néce s membres d blent être app struction dev t des fonction porated ir. Ce...contexte qui change à la fois de façon autonome et en fonction des mesures que prend le décideur et dont la synchronisation est primordiale. Dans le

  13. Geologic constraints and speleogenesis of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, a complex coastal cave from Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Ginés

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flat areas of eastern and southern Mallorca host a remarkable coastal karst, where Cova des Pas de Vallgornera stands out due to its length (more than 74 km and its special morphological suite. The pattern of the cave is quite heterogeneous showing sharp differences produced by the architecture of the Upper Miocene reef: spongework mazes and collapse chambers dominate in the reef front facies, whereas joint-guided conduits are the rule in the back reef carbonates. Regarding the speleogenesis of the system, a complex situation is envisaged involving three main agents: coastal mixing dissolution, drainage of meteoric diffuse recharge, and hypogene basal recharge related to local geothermal phenomena. The cave system is disposed in two main tiers of passages, of which geomorphologic interpretations are derived from their elevation data. The evolutionary trends as well as the chronology of the different cave sections are difficult to establish owing to the frequent shifting of the coastal base level during the Plio-Quaternary. In this respect, the genesis and evolution of the cave were fully controlled by sea-level fluctuations in the Western Mediterranean basin, with the main phases of cave formation, based on vertebrate paleontological data, going back to mid-Pliocene times.

  14. Complex systems and networks dynamics, controls and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xinghuo; Chen, Guanrong; Yu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This elementary book provides some state-of-the-art research results on broad disciplinary sciences on complex networks. It presents an in-depth study with detailed description of dynamics, controls and applications of complex networks. The contents of this book can be summarized as follows. First, the dynamics of complex networks, for example, the cluster dynamic analysis by using kernel spectral methods, community detection algorithms in bipartite networks, epidemiological modeling with demographics and epidemic spreading on multi-layer networks, are studied. Second, the controls of complex networks are investigated including topics like distributed finite-time cooperative control of multi-agent systems by applying homogenous-degree and Lyapunov methods, composite finite-time containment control for disturbed second-order multi-agent systems, fractional-order observer design of multi-agent systems, chaos control and anticontrol of complex systems via Parrondos game and many more. Third, the applications of ...

  15. Functions of a complex variable and some of their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, B A; Sneddon, I N; Ulam, S

    1961-01-01

    Functions of a Complex Variable and Some of Their Applications, Volume 1, discusses the fundamental ideas of the theory of functions of a complex variable. The book is the result of a complete rewriting and revision of a translation of the second (1957) Russian edition. Numerous changes and additions have been made, both in the text and in the solutions of the Exercises. The book begins with a review of arithmetical operations with complex numbers. Separate chapters discuss the fundamentals of complex analysis; the concept of conformal transformations; the most important of the elementary fun

  16. Complex-valued neural networks advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Presents the latest advances in complex-valued neural networks by demonstrating the theory in a wide range of applications Complex-valued neural networks is a rapidly developing neural network framework that utilizes complex arithmetic, exhibiting specific characteristics in its learning, self-organizing, and processing dynamics. They are highly suitable for processing complex amplitude, composed of amplitude and phase, which is one of the core concepts in physical systems to deal with electromagnetic, light, sonic/ultrasonic waves as well as quantum waves, namely, electron and

  17. Theoretical study of the electronic structure of f-element complexes by quantum chemical methods; Analyse de la structure electronique des complexes contenant des elements F par des methodes de la chimie quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetere, V

    2002-09-15

    This thesis is related to comparative studies of the chemical properties of molecular complexes containing lanthanide or actinide trivalent cations, in the context of the nuclear waste disposal. More precisely, our aim was a quantum chemical analysis of the metal-ligand bonding in such species. Various theoretical approaches were compared, for the inclusion of correlation (density functional theory, multiconfigurational methods) and of relativistic effects (relativistic scalar and 2-component Hamiltonians, relativistic pseudopotentials). The performance of these methods were checked by comparing computed structural properties to published experimental data, on small model systems: lanthanide and actinide tri-halides and on X{sub 3}M-L species (X=F, Cl; M=La, Nd, U; L = NH{sub 3}, acetonitrile, CO). We have thus shown the good performance of density functionals combined with a quasi-relativistic method, as well as of gradient-corrected functionals associated with relativistic pseudopotentials. In contrast, functionals including some part of exact exchange are less reliable to reproduce experimental trends, and we have given a possible explanation for this result . Then, a detailed analysis of the bonding has allowed us to interpret the discrepancies observed in the structural properties of uranium and lanthanides complexes, based on a covalent contribution to the bonding, in the case of uranium(III), which does not exist in the lanthanide(III) homologues. Finally, we have examined more sizeable systems, closer to experimental species, to analyse the influence of the coordination number, of the counter-ions and of the oxidation state of uranium, on the metal-ligand bonding. (author)

  18. Fabrication par injection flexible de pieces coniques pour des applications aerospatiales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebib Loiselle, Vincent

    Les materiaux composites sont presents dans les tuyeres de moteurs spatiaux depuis les annees soixante. Aujourd'hui, l'avenement des tissus tridimensionnels apporte une solution innovatrice au probleme de delamination qui limitait les proprietes mecaniques de ces composites. L'utilisation de ces tissus necessite toutefois la conception de procedes de fabrication mieux adaptes. Une nouvelle methode de fabrication de pieces composites pour des applications aerospatiales a ete etudiee tout au long de ce travail. Celle-ci applique les principes de l'injection flexible (procede Polyflex) a la fabrication de pieces coniques de fortes epaisseurs. La piece de validation a fabriquer represente un modele reduit de piece de tuyere de moteur spatial. Elle est composee d'un renfort tridimensionnel en fibres de carbone et d'une resine phenolique. La reussite du projet est definie par plusieurs criteres sur la compaction et la formation de plis du renfort et sur la formation de porosites de la piece fabriquee. Un grand nombre d'etapes ont ete necessaires avant la fabrication de deux pieces de validation. Premierement, pour repondre au critere sur la compaction du renfort, la conception d'un outil de caracterisation a ete entreprise. L'etude de la compaction a ete effectuee afin d'obtenir les informations necessaires a la comprehension de la deformation d'un renfort 3D axisymetrique. Ensuite, le principe d'injection de la piece a ete defini pour ce nouveau procede. Pour en valider les concepts proposes, la permeabilite du renfort fibreux ainsi que la viscosite de la resine ont du etre caracterisees. A l'aide de ces donnees, une serie de simulations de l'ecoulement pendant l'injection de la piece ont ete realisees et une approximation du temps de remplissage calculee. Apres cette etape, la conception du moule de tuyere a ete entamee et appuyee par une simulation mecanique de la resistance aux conditions de fabrication. Egalement, plusieurs outillages necessaires pour la fabrication

  19. Some applications of semiclassical methods to quantum chaos; Quelques applications des methodes semiclassiques en chaos quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchet, A.

    1996-11-29

    This thesis is made of four chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the description of the band structure, using the semiclassical periodic orbit theory, for a one electron system in a two-dimensional crystal with a high magnetic field perpendicular to the crystal plane. Complex orbits turn out to be fundamental for a proper description of the band structure since they incorporate conduction processes through tunneling mechanisms. In the second part, the author focuses on the role played in semiclassical expansions by complex orbits. They give exponentially small contribution when h is small only in a precise situation. In all other cases, complex orbits give birth to corrections in powers in h but unlike the extreme case they are hidden in the shadow of usual Gutzwiller contributions of real orbits. In the third chapter, a semiclassical expansion of the Berry two-form in terms of finite number of periodic orbits for a discrete chaotic map defined on a compact phase space and governed by external parameters is given. Besides, when dealing with a toroidal geometry, the author gives a similar expansion for the Chern index of any Bloch band of the quasi-energy spectrum and is thus led to a semiclassical interpretation of the Hall effect. In the last chapter, the author sets out a mechanism to explain how symmetries can create Berry phase shifts higher than 2{pi} in a 3D-adiabatic transport. He shows how one can understand in a topological point of view why these shifts are necessarily integer multiple of 2{pi}. An explicit construction of such arbitrary large phase shifts is finally proposed. (N.T.).

  20. « Faire clair et vif avec des éléments complexes »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Reichart

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avec le roman Salammbô et le conte Hérodias, Flaubert se tourne vers l’Antiquité préchrétienne afin de montrer à la modernité, sur le mode « clair et vif », sa complexité, son implication dans des discours de pouvoir religieux et historiographiques. C’est en se penchant sur les sources historiographiques et bibliques que Flaubert décline les stratégies d’exclusion et de surécriture, mettant au jour ce qu’elles refoulent, non pas sous forme de signification alternative, explicite, mais en tant que défiguration, réalisation littérale des corps et des signes.Avec Salammbô, Flaubert écrit une histoire du salut. Carthage, représentée dès le début par la protagoniste Salammbô en tant que pars pro toto, expose les figures cachées de Rome, à laquelle est liée, aussi et surtout, la promesse chrétienne de salut. Dans le nom de Salammbô Flaubert réécrit l’origine de cette figure en fait associée à la Rome chrétienne en s’appuyant sur l’exemple de l’histoire antique de Carthage.Dans Hérodias, Flaubert reprend le thème du triomphe de l’Orient annoncé par Renan et redouté par l’Église catholique. Un danger, pourrait-on dire, qui se réalise dans la figure d’Hérodias et qui est conjuré avec la décapitation de Jean. Dans son rapport inversé avec les textes de référence, Hérodias démasque les ambitions et la volonté hégémonique du modèle de pouvoir propre à l’Église en Orient. La translatio de l’empire romain est radicalisée au moyen de la figure d’Aulus. Aulus peut faire l’objet d’une lecture performative en tant que début et fondement de l’histoire française du salut comme histoire romaine de la perversion.In the novel Salammbô and the short story Hérodias, Flaubert turns to pre-Christian antiquity in order to present modernity its complexity, its entwinement in religious and historiographical discourses of power, in a « clair et vif » manner. In Salammb

  1. Complex Hollow Nanostructures: Synthesis and Energy-Related Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Hu, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-04-01

    Hollow nanostructures offer promising potential for advanced energy storage and conversion applications. In the past decade, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the design and synthesis of hollow nanostructures with high complexity by manipulating their geometric morphology, chemical composition, and building block and interior architecture to boost their electrochemical performance, fulfilling the increasing global demand for renewable and sustainable energy sources. In this Review, we present a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and energy-related applications of complex hollow nanostructures. After a brief classification, the design and synthesis of complex hollow nanostructures are described in detail, which include hierarchical hollow spheres, hierarchical tubular structures, hollow polyhedra, and multi-shelled hollow structures, as well as their hybrids with nanocarbon materials. Thereafter, we discuss their niche applications as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and hybrid supercapacitors, sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries, and electrocatalysts for oxygen- and hydrogen-involving energy conversion reactions. The potential superiorities of complex hollow nanostructures for these applications are particularly highlighted. Finally, we conclude this Review with urgent challenges and further research directions of complex hollow nanostructures for energy-related applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 222-S Laboratory Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLIAMS, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the 222-S Laboratory Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-27). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this 222-S Laboratory Complex permit application documentation is current as of August 2000

  3. Analytical representation of time correlation functions and application to relaxation problems; Representation analytique des fonctions de correlation temporelle et application a des problemes de relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de physico-chimie, services des isotopes stables

    1971-07-01

    Two analytical representations of the Laplace transform of the time autocorrelation of a dynamical variable, namely the moment expansion and Mori's continued fraction expansion, are investigated from the point of view of structure and convergence properties, and the relation between them is established. The general theory is applied first to a dynamical model exactly solvable, the isotopic impurity in a linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators, and then to two stochastic models recently introduced by Gordon for the rotational diffusion of molecules. In the latter case, the continued fraction expansion yields simple analytical expressions for the infrared absorption band shapes, showing that these models contain all the features of observed shapes in compressed gases, liquids and solutions. (author) [French] Deux representations analytiques de la transformee de Laplace de la fonction d'autocorrelation temporelle d'une variable dynamique, le developpement en moments et le developpement en fraction continue recemment introduit par Mori, sont etudiees du point de vue de leurs proprietes de structure et de convergence, en meme temps que la relation qui existe entre elles est etablie. La theorie generale est appliquee, d'une part, a un modele dynamique exactement soluble, celui d'une particule isotopique dans une chaine lineaire d'oscillateurs harmoniques couples, et, d'autre part, a deux modeles stochastiques recemment proposes par Gordon pour la diffusion rotationnelle des molecules. Dans ce dernier cas, la voie de la fraction continue fournit des expressions analytiques simples pour les formes de bande d'absorption infrarouge, montrant que ces modeles possedent les caracteristiques des formes observees dans les gaz comprimes, les liquides ou les solutions. (auteur)

  4. Application of the chemical properties of ruthenium to decontamination processes; L'application des proprietes chimiques du ruthenium a des procedes de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, A.; Berger, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The chemical properties of ruthenium in the form of an aqueous solution of the nitrate and of organic tributylphosphate solution are reviewed. From this data, some known examples are given: they demonstrate the processes of separation or of elimination of ruthenium from radioactive waste. (authors) [French] Les proprietes chimiques du ruthenium en solutions aqueuses nitriques et en solutions organiques de tributylphosphate, sont passees en revue. A partir de ces donnees, quelques exemples connus sont cites: ils exposent des procedes de separation ou d'elimination du ruthenium de dechets radioactifs. (auteurs)

  5. ÉTUDE DU TRAITEMENT DES SILOXANES PAR ADSORPTION SUR MATÉRIAUX POREUX : APPLICATION AU TRAITEMENT DES BIOGAZ

    OpenAIRE

    Ricaurte Ortega, Deyanira

    2009-01-01

    Study of a treatment of siloxane by adsorption process into porous materials: treatment application to biogas Biogases have strong content of methane used in the production of heat or electricity. They contain more or less important quantities of siloxanes, which are forbidden for numerous uses of biogases. The possibility of siloxanes elimination by adsorption process is studied. The study in batch reactors allows us to evaluate the adsorption capacities of different materials as activated c...

  6. Applications des techniques de diffusion de la lumière, des rayons X et des neutrons a l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Troisième partie : caractérisation des microémulsions et des composés solides. Étude de différents systèmes d'intérêt industriel Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part Three: Microemulsions, Solid Materials, Liquids and Miscellaneous Systems with Industrial Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette troisième partie clôt une revue bibliographique concernant la caractérisation des systèmes colloïdaux par les techniques de diffusion (lumière, rayons X, neutrons (Rev. Inst. Franç. du Pétrole, Vol. 45, No 6, novembre-décembre 1990. Nous poursuivrons cette présentation en nous intéressant aux microémulsions. Après la présentation des informations que l'on peut obtenir sur les systèmes polymériques, les solutions micellaires ou les systèmes fractals, qui ont fait l'objet de multiples travaux, nous reviendrons sur les applications plus restreintes à des systèmes colloïdaux parfois moins bien définis et d'origine industrielle, telles les fractions lourdes des pétroles, les asphaltènes ou encore les additifs de lubrification. Les possibilités de la diffusion des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude de matériaux solides seront présentées à travers la caractérisation des solides poreux et en particulier des catalyseurs. Nous terminerons cette présentation par les liquides purs ou les mélanges; les techniques de diffusion ont contribué fortement à la description des structures des phases liquides. This article is the second one (the first one was published in Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole No. 6, November-December 1990 concerning the application of techniques of light scattering, X rays and neutrons to the analysis of colloidal systems and more specifically to the theoretical description of the three methods. The aim of this second part is to make a nonexhaustive description of several fields of applications. A special effort is made to describe the potential of these methods for characterizing colloidal or divided systems encountered in a great many activities involving the petroleum industry. The first part of this article takes up polymer and colloidal solutions. Particular attention is paid to the importance of scattering techniques for characterizing polymers in solution and micellar solutions. A

  7. Des SIG-P pour sauver le complexe forestier de la basse rivière Tana?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'objectif général de ce programme panafricain est de contribuer à rendre disponibles des systèmes d'information de bonne qualité, fiables et accessibles grâce à l'usage de SIG-P en vue d'améliorer la gestion des ressources naturelles (eau, terres, forêts, etc.) et de promouvoir la sécurité alimentaire. Le programme ...

  8. Continuous surveillance of transformers using artificial intelligence methods; Surveillance continue des transformateurs: application des methodes d'intelligence artificielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, A.; Germond, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Boss, P.; Lorin, P. [ABB Secheron SA, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The article describes a new method for the continuous surveillance of power transformers based on the application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. An experimental pilot project on a specially equipped, strategically important power transformer is described. Traditional surveillance methods and the use of mathematical models for the prediction of faults are described. The article describes the monitoring equipment used in the pilot project and the AI principles such as self-organising maps that are applied. The results obtained from the pilot project and methods for their graphical representation are discussed.

  9. Reseau des polygones de bord des indicateurs de performance d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La fonction maintenance hospitalière a des composantes spécifiques qui la rendent de plus en plus complexe et fastidieuse. La politique d'une maintenance biomédicale repose sur des piliers et des leviers propres à une meilleure exploitation des dispositifs médicaux dans un système de santé. Trois niveaux de leviers ...

  10. Impact des fluctuations longitudinales d'une fibre microstructurée sur des applications à haut-débit

    OpenAIRE

    Kibler, Bertrand; Finot, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    National audience; L'impact des fluctuations longitudinales des paramètres géométriques d'une fibre microstructurée est étudié numériquement pour deux techniques de compression d'impulsion à 40 GHz.A

  11. Eco-extraction des huiles essentielles et des arômes alimentaires en vue d'une application comme agents antioxydants et antimicrobiens

    OpenAIRE

    Mnayer, Dima

    2014-01-01

    Les huiles essentielles et les arômes des plantes constituent un réel potentiel pour l’industrie dans le but de substituer aux composés synthétiques ayant des effets néfastes sur la santé et l’environnement. Afin de contribuer aux principes de la chimie verte, cette étude porte sur l’éco-extraction et la valorisation des extraits naturels des plantes et le développement d’une nouvelle technologie «verte» pour l’extraction des composés aromatiques naturels. La première partie de ce manuscrit m...

  12. Complexity of Configurators Relative to Integrations and Field of Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara; Battistello, Loris

    . Moreover, configurators are commonly integrated to various IT systems within companies. The complexity of configurators is an important factor when it comes to performance, development and maintenance of the systems. A direct comparison of the complexity based on the different application...... and IT integrations is not addressed to a great extent in the literature. Thus, this paper aims to analyse the relationship of the complexity of the configurators, which is based on parameters (rules and attributes), in terms of first different applications of configurators (sales and engineering), and second...... integrations to other IT systems. The research method adopted in the paper is based on a survey followed with interviews where the unit of analysis is based on operating configurators within a company....

  13. Complex Time-Delay Systems Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Atay, Fatihcan M

    2010-01-01

    Time delays in dynamical systems arise as an inevitable consequence of finite speeds of information transmission. Realistic models increasingly demand the inclusion of delays in order to properly understand, analyze, design, and control real-life systems. The goal of this book is to present the state-of-the-art in research on time-delay dynamics in the framework of complex systems and networks. While the mathematical theory of delay equations is quite mature, its application to the particular problems of complex systems and complexity is a newly emerging field, and the present volume aims to play a pioneering role in this perspective. The chapters in this volume are authored by renowned experts and cover both theory and applications in a wide range of fields, with examples extending from neuroscience and biology to laser physics and vehicle traffic. Furthermore, all chapters include sufficient introductory material and extensive bibliographies, making the book a self-contained reference for both students and ...

  14. Economic Decision Making: Application of the Theory of Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitt, Robert

    In this chapter the complex systems are discussed in the context of economic and business policy and decision making. It will be showed and motivated that social systems are typically chaotic, non-linear and/or non-equilibrium and therefore complex systems. It is discussed that the rapid change in global consumer behaviour is underway, that further increases the complexity in business and management. For policy making under complexity, following principles are offered: openness and international competition, tolerance and variety of ideas, self-reliability and low dependence on external help. The chapter contains four applications that build on the theoretical motivation of complexity in social systems. The first application demonstrates that small economies have good prospects to gain from the global processes underway, if they can demonstrate production flexibility, reliable business ethics and good risk management. The second application elaborates on and discusses the opportunities and challenges in decision making under complexity from macro and micro economic perspective. In this environment, the challenges for corporate management are being also permanently changed: the balance between short term noise and long term chaos whose attractor includes customers, shareholders and employees must be found. The emergence of chaos in economic relationships is demonstrated by a simple system of differential equations that relate the stakeholders described above. The chapter concludes with two financial applications: about debt and risk management. The non-equilibrium economic establishment leads to additional problems by using excessive borrowing; unexpected downturns in economy can more easily kill companies. Finally, the demand for quantitative improvements in risk management is postulated. Development of the financial markets has triggered non-linearity to spike in prices of various production articles such as agricultural and other commodities that has added market

  15. La PCR quantitative en temps réel : application à la quantification des OGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alary Rémi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Suite à l’obligation d’étiquetage, au seuil de 1 %, des aliments contenant des OGM autorisés, il est nécessaire de disposer de méthodes fiables de quantification. Pour répondre à cette obligation, la technique de PCR quantitative en temps réel semble actuellement la mieux adaptée. Son principe, ses avantages et sa mise en oeuvre pour la détermination de la teneur en OGM de farines de soja sont présentés. Les PCR simplex et duplex sont comparées.

  16. Applications des Systèmes d'Information Géographiques en Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moine, Olivier; Goulletquer, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    L'actuelle demande alimentaire croissante sur les produits de la mer met l'aquaculture en situation de développement; les stratégies de développement mises en place incluent des questions de durabilité économique, sociale et environnementale. Au cœur de celles-ci, l'accès à l'espace (sélection de sites, conflits d'usage, etc…) place cette dimension au premier plan. La planification spatiale du développement des projets aquacoles est donc un élément essentiel, incluse dans une démarche de gest...

  17. Application des méthodes d'analyses statistiques multivariées à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le deuxième mécanisme est le phénomène d'oxydo-réduction, lié à la turbidité, aux teneurs en fer et en manganèse. Ces résultats contribuent à une meilleure connaissance des propriétés hydrogéochimiques des ressources en eaux souterraines du socle cristallin de Côte d'Ivoire. Mots clés: Analyse en Composantes ...

  18. Les filtres plantés de roseaux en assainissement : de la compréhension des mécanismes vers l'optimisation des procédés et la diversification des domaines d'application.

    OpenAIRE

    Molle, P.

    2015-01-01

    / L'usage des végétaux aquatiques dans les filières de traitement des eaux provient de l'observation du rôle des zones humides naturelles dans la préservation de la qualité des milieux aquatiques. En France l'expérience a démarré en 1978. Depuis les premières réalisations jusqu'au début des années 2000 la filière a été évaluée principalement par des bilans 24 h à chaque étape de traitement. Si cette méthode considère les systèmes comme une boîte noire et ne donne pas accès à la quantification...

  19. Application of transducers to the control of temperatures and of alternating and direct voltages (1962); Application des transducteurs a la regulation des temperatures et des tensions alternatives et continues (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoult, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-11-15

    The temperature regulator and the voltage regulators described have been studied with a view to conferring a high degree of safety to the apparatuses in which they are used. They make use almost exclusively of Transducers which are passive elements acting mainly in these apparatuses as amplifiers and which are entirely satisfactory, ensuring that the regulators studied keep their essential qualities i.e accuracy, reliability, stability and sensitivity. (author) [French] Le regulateur de temperature et les regulateurs de tension decrits ont ete etudies pour donner aux ensembles dans lesquels ils sont inseres une grande securite d'exploitation. Ils utilisent presque exclusivement comme constituants des TRANSDUCTEURS qui sont des elements passifs assurant principalement dans ces appareils une fonction d'amplification ou ils donnent entiere satisfaction en conservant aux regulateurs etudies leurs qualites essentielles qui sont: la precision, la fidelite, la stabilite et la sensibilite. (auteur)

  20. Conception d’une application web de gestion de la maintenance des réseaux routiers

    OpenAIRE

    JABRI, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Ce document présente le travail réalisé dans le cadre du projet de fin d’études du cursus d’Ingénieur de l’Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Electronique, Informatique, Télécommunications, Mathématique et Mécanique de Bordeaux. Au sein de l’Ifsttar la mission s’est structurée autour de la mise en place d’une application web de gestion de la maintenance des réseaux routiers, et selon le plan suivant : -Travail de recherche consistant à faire communiquer ...

  1. Application à grande échelle des innovations en gestion après ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    essai sur le terrain de modèles d'exécution en ce qui concerne le niébé et le soja : - meilleures batteuses (machines détachant la graine de la plante); - méthodes d'entreposage des récoltes, y compris les sacs à trois couches Purdue ...

  2. Application de principes cognitivistes et constructivistes à l'enseignement de l'écrit assisté par ordinateur : perceptions des étudiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Caws

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite des apports des théories cognitives et constructivistes à l'enseignement de l'écrit assisté par ordinateur, en milieu universitaire, chez des apprenants de français langue seconde. À partir des premiers résultats d'un projet pilote mené à l'université de Victoria, au Canada, l'auteure cherche à montrer comment, par le biais d'exercices collaboratifs en réseau Internet, l'application de certains principes-clés des recherches récentes en didactique du français langue seconde peuvent contribuer à un renouveau de l'engagement des étudiants, à une hausse notable de leur motivation et à une prise de conscience de leurs stratégies d'apprentissage. Une analyse des réactions des étudiants face à ce nouveau type d'apprentissage nous permet d'analyser, d'une part, les aspects de l'outil que les étudiants perçoivent comme étant utiles pour leur apprentissage et, d'autre part, les éléments qu'ils voudraient voir améliorer dans l'avenir. La prise de conscience même de ces stratégies nous montre à quel point l'apprenant s'engage activement dans la découverte de la L2, répondant ainsi inconsciemment à un des principes-clés de la psychologie cognitive.

  3. Etude morphologique des poudres. Applications au titanate de baryum et à l'alumine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prod'Homme, M.; Chermant, L.; Coster, M.; Chermant, J. L.

    1991-05-01

    In this paper, we specially looked to the study of shape of particles and aggregates of BaTiO3 and AI2O3 powders with very different physico-chemical features in order to characterize morphologically pulverulent media. Although the analysis of the shape may be carried out on two different scales, providing access either to the silhouette or to the roughness of particles or aggregates, only the investigation of the silhouette has been approached as a first step. For that purpose a number of shape factors was selected and correlations were looked for by statistical analysis. Dans cet article, nous nous sommes penchés plus particulièrement sur l'étude de la forme de particules et d'agrégats de poudres BaTiO3 et AI2O3, présentant des caractéristiques physico-chimiques très différentes, dans le but de caractériser morphologiquement des milieux pulvérulents. Bien que l'analyse de la forme puisse s'effectuer à deux échelles différentes permettant d'accéder, soit à la silhouette, soit à la rugosité des particules ou des agrégats, nous n'avons abordé ici, dans un premier temps, que l'étude de la silhouette. Nous avons pour cela sélectionné un certain nombre d'indices de forme et recherché des corrélations par analyse statistique.

  4. Absolute measurement of {beta} activities and application to the determination of neutronic densities; Mesure absolue d'activites {beta} et application a la determination des densites neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1951-01-15

    M. Berthelot, to my entrance to the ''Commissariat a l 'Energie Atomique'', proposed me to study the absolute measurement of neutron densities. Very quickly the problem of the absolute activity of {beta} sources became the central object of this work. In a first part, we will develop the methods of absolute determination for {beta} activities. The use of a 4{pi} counter permits to get the absolute activity of all beta radioactive source, susceptible to be put as thin leaf and of period superior than some minutes. The method is independent of the spectra of the measured radioelement. we will describe in the second part some applications which use neutron densities measurement, neutron sources intensities and ratio of cross sections of capture of thermal neutrons. (M.B.) [French] M. Berthelot, a mon entree au ''Commissariat a l 'Energie Atomique'', m'a propose d'etudier la mesure absolue des densites neutroniques. Tres rapidement le probleme de l'activite absolue des sources beta est devenu l'objet central de ce travail. Dans une premiere partie, on abordera les methodes de determination absolue des activites beta. L'utilisation d'un compteur 4{pi} permet d 'obtenir l'activite absolue de toute source radioactive beta, susceptible d'etre mise sous forme de feuille mince et de periode superieure a quelques minutes. La methode est independante du spectre du radioelement mesure. On decrira dans la seconde partie quelques applications a des mesures de densites neutroniques, d'intensites de sources de neutrons et de rapport de sections efficaces de capture de neutrons thermiques. (M.B.)

  5. NooJ, un outil TAL pour l'enseignement des langues. Application pour l'étude de la morphologie lexicale en FLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Silberztein

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available NooJ est un système de traitement de corpus – reprenant et améliorant les fonctionnalités d'INTEX – conçu pour l'enseignement des langues et de la linguistique. NooJ intègre des outils de traitement automatique du langage qui offrent à l'enseignant des possibilités de traiter un corpus, et des procédures de recherche, de test, et d'entraînement pour l'étudiant. Nous présentons ici un exemple d'application de NooJ à l'enseignement du français langue étrangère, qui reprend quelques activités sur l'étude de la morphologie lexicale.

  6. Aspects théoriques et numériques des phénomènes de propagation d’ondes dans domaines de géométrie complexe et applications à la télédétection

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaciotti Morales , Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about some boundary integral operators defined on the unit disk in a three-dimensional spaces, their relation with the exterior Laplace and Helmholtz problems, and their application to the preconditioning of the systems arising when solving these problems using the boundary element method.We begin by describing the so-called integral method for the solution of the exterior Laplace and Helmholtz problems defined on the exterior of objects with Lipschitz-regular boundaries, or on...

  7. 5th International Workshop on Complex Networks and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gaito, Sabrina; Quattrociocchi, Walter; Sala, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights cutting-edge research in the field of network science, offering scientists, researchers and graduate students a unique opportunity to catch up on the latest advances in theory and a multitude of applications. It presents the peer-reviewed proceedings of the fifth International Workshop on Complex Networks & their Applications (COMPLEX NETWORKS 2016), which took place in Milan during the last week of November 2016. The carefully selected papers are divided into 11 sections reflecting the diversity and richness of research areas in the field. More specifically, the following topics are covered: Network models; Network measures; Community structure; Network dynamics; Diffusion, epidemics and spreading processes; Resilience and control; Network visualization; Social and political networks; Networks in finance and economics; Biological and ecological networks; and Network analysis.

  8. Radiolabelled peptides vs. nanoparticle-peptide complexes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The principle that peptide receptors can be used successfully for in vivo targeting of human cancers has been provided and the peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy for malignant tumors is a real treatment option. Targeted entry into cells is an increasingly important area of research. The diagnoses and treatment of disease by novel methods would be enhanced greatly by the efficient transport of materials to living cell nuclei. Membrane-trans locating peptides complexed to nanoparticles are small enough (30 nm) to cross the nuclear membrane and to enter the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis, emerging as a new type of pharmaceuticals. Pharmacokinetic properties and molecular specificity of iron or gold nanoparticle-peptide complexes that do not induce biological toxicity is a topic of world interest in current and future medical investigations. Some perspectives and achievements on the preparation, pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of radiolabelled peptides versus nanoparticle-peptide complexes for medical applications are presented. (Author)

  9. A complex autoregressive model and application to monthly temperature forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Gu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex autoregressive model was established based on the mathematic derivation of the least squares for the complex number domain which is referred to as the complex least squares. The model is different from the conventional way that the real number and the imaginary number are separately calculated. An application of this new model shows a better forecast than forecasts from other conventional statistical models, in predicting monthly temperature anomalies in July at 160 meteorological stations in mainland China. The conventional statistical models include an autoregressive model, where the real number and the imaginary number are separately disposed, an autoregressive model in the real number domain, and a persistence-forecast model.

  10. New Complexity Scalable MPEG Encoding Techniques for Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Mietens

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexity scalability offers the advantage of one-time design of video applications for a large product family, including mobile devices, without the need of redesigning the applications on the algorithmic level to meet the requirements of the different products. In this paper, we present complexity scalable MPEG encoding having core modules with modifications for scalability. The interdependencies of the scalable modules and the system performance are evaluated. Experimental results show scalability giving a smooth change in complexity and corresponding video quality. Scalability is basically achieved by varying the number of computed DCT coefficients and the number of evaluated motion vectors but other modules are designed such they scale with the previous parameters. In the experiments using the “Stefan” sequence, the elapsed execution time of the scalable encoder, reflecting the computational complexity, can be gradually reduced to roughly 50% of its original execution time. The video quality scales between 20 dB and 48 dB PSNR with unity quantizer setting, and between 21.5 dB and 38.5 dB PSNR for different sequences targeting 1500 kbps. The implemented encoder and the scalability techniques can be successfully applied in mobile systems based on MPEG video compression.

  11. Complex variables a physical approach with applications and Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2007-01-01

    PREFACEBASIC IDEAS Complex ArithmeticAlgebraic and Geometric PropertiesThe Exponential and ApplicationsHOLOMORPHIC AND HARMONIC FUNCTIONS Holomorphic FunctionsHolomorphic and Harmonic Functions Real and Complex Line Integrals Complex DifferentiabilityThe LogarithmTHE CAUCHY THEORY The Cauchy Integral TheoremVariants of the Cauchy Formula The Limitations of the Cauchy FormulaAPPLICATIONS OF THE CAUCHY THEORY The Derivatives of a Holomorphic FunctionThe Zeros of a Holomorphic FunctionISOLATED SINGULARITIES Behavior near an Isolated SingularityExpansion around Singular PointsExamples of Laurent ExpansionsThe Calculus of ResiduesApplications to the Calculation of IntegralsMeromorphic FunctionsTHE ARGUMENT PRINCIPLE Counting Zeros and PolesLocal Geometry of Functions Further Results on Zeros The Maximum PrincipleThe Schwarz LemmaTHE GEOMETRIC THEORY The Idea of a Conformal Mapping Mappings of the DiscLinear Fractional Transformations The Riemann Mapping Theorem Conformal Mappings of AnnuliA Compendium of Useful Co...

  12. Utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excréta et des eaux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les responsables de ce projet piloteront l'application et l'adaptation des principes directeurs relatifs à l'utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excreta et des eaux grises en agriculture et en aquaculture (Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture), que ...

  13. Kinetic Modeling using the Single-Event Methodology: Application to the Isomerization of Light Paraffins Modélisation cinétique basée sur la méthodologie des événements constitutifs : application à l’isomérisation des paraffines légères

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surla K.

    2011-08-01

    described by a limited number of independent kinetic parameters. The behavior of complex feedstocks can therefore be predicted based on studies conducted on model molecules. This method is applied at IFP Energies nouvelles to several refining processes. The purpose of this article is to describe this methodology in a detailed manner and to present its application to the isomerization of C5-C6 paraffins. L’établissement de modèles cinétiques est une étape importante du développement de procédés de raffinage. En effet, ces modèles peuvent être utilisés pour prédire les performances du procédé, pour optimiser l’opération de l’unité et pour concevoir de façon optimale le réacteur et le procédé associé (choix du réacteur, détermination des conditions de marche optimale, utilisation de recyclages, etc.. La demande actuelle de modèles se focalise particulièrement sur la mise au point de modèles détaillés et prédictifs, qui sont capables de prendre en compte des variations importantes dans la conduite du procédé. De ce fait, ils doivent être extrapolables à des conditions opératoires très différentes ou à des charges très diverses. La modélisation cinétique par événements constitutifs satisfait ces critères car elle permet d’obtenir une prédiction détaillée des effluents des réacteurs. La théorie des événements constitutifs a été initialement développée pour la chimie radicalaire [Clymans et Froment (1984 Comput. Chem. Eng. 8, 2, 137-142; Hillewaert et al. (1988 AIChE J. 34, 1, 17-24; Willems et Froment (1988a Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 27, 11, 1959-1966; Willems et Froment (1988b Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 27, 11, 1966-1971] et a été étendue ultérieurement à la catalyse acide [Baltanas et Froment (1985 Comput. Chem. Eng. 9, 1, 71-81; Baltanas et al. (1989 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 28, 899-910; Vynckier et Froment (1991 Modeling of the kinetics of complex processes upon elementary steps, in Kinetic and thermodynamic lumping of

  14. Application de la coalescence à l'extraction des phénols par solvant Application of Coalescence to Phenol Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie l'utilisation d'un dispositif de coalescence spécial (coalesceur à guide pour la résolution des émulsions directes et inverses à rapport élevé .L'application de ce dispositif à l'extraction des phénols permet une coupe pétrolière aromatique (light cyclic ail, essence moyenne solvant, avec un bon rendement d'extraction. L'efficacité de la séparation des phases est étudiée en fonction : de la mouillabilité du matériau coalesceur (sable industriel; de la vitesse de passage de l'émulsion ;du rapport de phase ;de la conception générale du coalesceur. This article examines the use of a special coalescence device (guide coalescer for the resolution of direct and reverse emulsions with a high phase ratio. An aromatic petroleum cut (LCO, middle gosoline can be used as a solvent with this device ta extract phenols with a good extraction yield. The effectiveness of phase separation is examined as a function of : The wettability of the coalescing material (industrial sand, The rate of passage of the emulsion, The phase ratio, The general design of the coalescer .

  15. Partenariat Mexique-Canada en vue de l'application des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Mexique met en oeuvre de plus en plus de réformes de son système de santé en se fondant directement sur des données probantes découlant de recherches. Toutefois, l'Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (INSP) du Mexique a récemment modifié les visées de son programme de recherche sur les systèmes de santé ...

  16. Accroissement de l'efficacité des applications et outils TIC dans la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Selon la Fédération internationale des Sociétés de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge, s'il y a eu moins de morts à Cuba, en République dominicaine et en Jamaïque, c'est parce que ces pays savent mieux gérer les catastrophes et utiliser les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) pour déclencher ...

  17. Fractures of the atlantoaxial complex in the elderly: assessment of radiological spectrum of fractures and factors influencing imaging diagnosis; Frakturen des Atlas und Axis bei aelteren Patienten: Untersuchung des Radiologischen Spektrums der Frakturen und bedeutsamer Faktoren fuer die Bildgebende Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomoschitz, F.M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, AKH Wien, Wien (Germany); Dept. of Radiology, Harborview Medical Center, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Blackmore, C.C.; Linnau, K.F.; Mann, F.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Harborview Medical Center, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Stadler, A. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, AKH Wien, Wien (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    Objective: to describe patterns of atlantoaxial fractures in a population of consecutive elderly patients, including assessment of type, distribution and associated clinical and radiological findings, and to analyze any influence of the causative trauma mechanism on the individual fracture pattern. Materials and methods: the distribution and type of 123 atlantoaxial fractures in 95 subjects older than 65 years (range: 65-102; mean age: 79 years) were retrospectively assessed. For each subject, trauma mechanism and clinical and neurological status were recorded at admission. Initial imaging studies of the cervical spine were reviewed. Preexistent degenerative changes were assessed and the atlantoaxial fractures classified. Data were evaluated for the frequency of different types of fractures of C1 and C2 and for accompanying fractures of cervical vertebrae or the occipital condyles, respectively. Results: the majority of patients with injuries of the atlantoaxial complex had fractures of C2 (90 of 95, 95%). A large proportion of these patients (67 of 90, 74%) had odontoid fractures. An isolated fracture of C1 was present in only 5 (5%) patients. Associated fractures of the occipital condyles or other cervical vertebrae were rare (10 of 95, 11%). The main trauma mechanism for atlantoaxial injuries was a fall (56 of 95, 59%). Elderly patients injured in motor vehicle accidents were more likely to have isolated fractures of C2 and Type III fractures of the odontoid (p < 0.02). Conclusion: in elderly patients, fractures of the atlantoaxial complex are mainly caused by falls and almost always involve C2. The trauma mechanism influences the fracture pattern (orig.) [German] Untersuchung von Frakturen des Atlas (C1) und Axis (C2) in einer konsekutiven Population aelterer Patienten ({>=} 65 Jahre) hinsichtlich Fraktur-Typus, -Haeufigkeit, und -Kombinationen, und Analyse von assoziierter Klinik sowie Einfluss von unfall-ursaechlichen Faktoren auf Frakturen des atlanto

  18. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  19. Spectral Matrix Filtering Applied to Vsp Processing Application du filtrage matriciel au traitement des profils sismiques verticaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glangeaud F.

    2006-11-01

    données et de séparer ces signaux. Nous montrons que les signaux peuvent être automatiquement séparés sans connaissance a priori sur leurs vitesses apparentes, en fonction du produit scalaire (calculé dans le domaine fréquentiel et de l'amplitude relative des signaux. Nous montrons des exemples d'application sur des données de sismique de puits. Le filtrage matriciel est effectué dans le domaine fréquentiel en utilisant la matrice spectrale construite à l'aide des intercorrélations des différents enregistrements constituant les données à traiter. Les méthodes d'estimation de la matrice spectrale sont des méthodes de moyenne : moyenne en fréquence (méthode du périodogramme lissé et/ou moyenne en distance (lissage réalisé le long des diagonales de la matrice spectrale. Le lissage en fréquence est obtenu par l'intermédiaire d'une fonction de pondération (par exemple fenêtre de Hanning élevée à une puissance donnée appliquée à chaque corrélation. Les moyennes sont utilisées pour décorréler les signaux et de ce fait favoriser la séparation. Une fois correctement estimée, la matrice spectrale est diagonalisée sur toutes les fréquences du spectre moyenné, et décomposée selon ses vecteurs propres qui sont orthogonaux entre eux et normalisés. Chaque vecteur propre a une valeur propre associée qui représente la répartition d'énergie en fonction de la fréquence du modèle lié au vecteur propre. Le filtrage est réalisé par projection des données sur les différents vecteurs propres issus de la matrice spectrale. Il est à noter cependant que la séparation des différents signaux (projection sur vecteur propre n'est réalisée en terme d'indicatrice sismique que si les événements sismiques sont naturellement orthogonaux et alignés sur les vecteurs propres. Glangeaud et al (1989 ont étudié l'influence des amplitudes relatives et du produit scalaire de deux ondes. Si la vitesse apparente d'une onde est connue, cette derni

  20. [Applications of metal ions and their complexes in medicine I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, László; Csintalan, Gabriella; Kálmán, Eszter; Sipos, Pál; Szvetnik, Attila

    2003-01-01

    The "inorganic medical chemistry" is a rapidly developing field with enormous potential for applications, which offers new possibilities to the pharmaceutical industry. For example, the titanocene dichloride is already in clinical use, and antimetastatic activity of a range of Ru(III) complexes is also well established. There are ways to minimize the toxicity of Gd(III) complexes and therefore they can be safely injected as MRI contrast agents. The so called "ligand design" allows paramagnetic ions to be targeted to specific organs. Such designed ligands also enable the targeting of radiodiagnostic (99mTc) and radiotherapeutic (186Re) isotopes. There is a significant progress in understanding the coordination chemistry and biochemistry of metal ion(s) containing complexes such as Au antiarthritic and Bi antiulcer drugs. Further, currently developing areas include Mn (SOD mimics), V (insulin mimics), Ru (NO scavengers), Ln-based photosensitizers, metal-targeted organic agents and the Fe overload. The expanding knowledge of the role of metals in biochemistry is expected to provide scope for the design of new drugs in many other areas too, for example neuropharmaceutical and antiaffective agents. Progress in coordination chemistry is strongly dependent on understanding not only the thermodynamics of reactions, but also the kinetics of metal complexes under biologically relevant conditions.

  1. Application des techniques de photogrammétrie par drone à la caractérisation des ressources forestières

    OpenAIRE

    Lisein, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Une gestion raisonnée et multifonctionnelle des forêts n’est possible qu’avec une description à jour de l’état de la ressource naturelle. Les inventaires forestiers traditionnels, réalisés sur le terrain, sont couteux et ne couvrent qu’un échantillonnage de la surface boisée. L’essor des drones civils pour la cartographie a initié une révolution dans le domaine de la télédétection environnementale. La polyvalence et la diversité des systèmes drones sont une aubaine pour la f...

  2. Chimie organométallique des éléments f : vers de nouveaux développements : complexes cyanures des éléments f

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The cyanide ligand is one of the most widely used ligands in coordination chemistry of d-transition metals. The low number of cyanide complexes of lanthanides and actinides incited us to develop this field for reactivity and theoretical aspects, and also for their potentially interesting physicochemical properties. In this Ph.D., we investigated the reactivity of [An(Cot)₂] (An = Th, U ; Cot = C₈H₈²⁻) and [Mf(N*)₃]ʲ˖ (j = 0, 1; Mf = Ce, U ; N* = ⁻N(SiMe₃)₂) precursors toward the cyanide ion. ...

  3. Définition et développement des applications pour smartphones en différentes plateformes (windows8, IOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisicic Lopátegui, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Innovation d’une application d’entreprise, déjà existante et développement de cette application dans une nouvelle plateforme. Gestion et management d’un projet de développement et innovation d’une application pour Smartphones, à travers des études ergonomiques, d’utilisateurs et d’état de l’art.

  4. Application of Mathematical Signal Processing Techniques to Mission Systems. (l’Application des techniques mathematiques du traitement du signal aux systemes de conduite des missions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Acad. Sei. Paris A, 319, (1994), pp. 1317-1322. 6-12 [8] Joel H. Ferziger, Numerical Methods for Engi- neering Application, Wiley and Sons, New...pp. 202-207, June 1991. [37] A. Witkin , "Scale-space filtering," International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Karl- sruhe, pp. 1019

  5. Amélioration des méthodes de protection anticorrosion des structures métalliques : Sous-sujet : Application des systèmes dits de "maintenance" sur préparation de surface UHP

    OpenAIRE

    MAIRE, G; CENTRE D'ETUDES TECHNIQUES DE L'EQUIPEMENT NORMANDIE-CENTRE - CETE NORMANDIE-CENTRE; LABORATOIRE REGIONAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES DE BLOIS - CETE NORMANDIE-CENTRE - LRPC BLOIS

    2005-01-01

    Le problème actuel de l'entretien de la protection anticorrosion des structures métalliques est l'augmentation du coût découlant des contraintes règlementaires récentes sur l'évacuation et le traitement des déchets. Lors d'un chantier d'entretien, le principal poste générateur de déchets est le décapage. Toutes les solutions techniques permettant de diminuer la quantité et/ou la nocivité des déchets de décapage sont donc intéressantes aussi bien du point de vue économique que de celui de la p...

  6. The structure of complex networks theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with the analysis of the structure of complex networks by combining results from graph theory, physics, and pattern recognition. The book is divided into two parts. 11 chapters are dedicated to the development of theoretical tools for the structural analysis of networks, and 7 chapters are illustrating, in a critical way, applications of these tools to real-world scenarios. The first chapters provide detailed coverage of adjacency and metric and topologicalproperties of networks, followed by chapters devoted to the analysis of individual fragments and fragment-based global inva

  7. Measurement and Statistics of Application Business in Complex Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Yang; Li, Yipeng; Wu, Shuhang; Song, Shiji; Ren, Yong

    Owing to independent topologies and autonomic routing mechanism, the logical networks formed by Internet application business behavior cause the significant influence on the physical networks. In this paper, the backbone traffic of TUNET (Tsinghua University Networks) is measured, further more, the two most important application business: HTTP and P2P are analyzed at IP-packet level. It is shown that uplink HTTP and P2P packets behavior presents spatio-temporal power-law characteristics with exponents 1.25 and 1.53 respectively. Downlink HTTP packets behavior also presents power-law characteristics, but has more little exponents γ = 0.82 which differs from traditional complex networks research result. Moreover, downlink P2P packets distribution presents an approximate power-law which means that flow equilibrium profits little from distributed peer-to peer mechanism actually.

  8. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  9. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation (Validation des systemes d’instrumentation a fibres optiques)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    au stade des conditions d’opérations aériennes réalistes. La densité d’intégration de capteurs dans les fibres a été accrue de plusieurs ordres de...grandeur et les progrès réalisés en termes de faisabilité de capteurs continus sont rapides. Les systèmes à fibres optiques vont révolutionner...de recueillir avec les systèmes de capteurs embarqués classiques. Cette AGARDograph expose l’état actuel de la technique et fournit un cadre de

  10. Applications of the automatic meter reading techniques at the Brazilian gas domestic market; Application des techniques de releve automatique des compteurs sur le marche domestique Bresilien du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, J.; Monteiro, F. [Comgas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); D' Oliveira, R.D. [ORBIS, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This article will describe applications of the automation and automatic meter reading techniques at the internal gas pipes installations design, considering residential and commercial buildings, and taking in account the tendency of rapid growth of the activities related to the natural gas industry in Brazil, as well as the recently development of new technologies that can be applied with affordable prices. It will be analysed the application of an automatic meter reading technology in a building of several floors in Sao Paulo, which gas installations design is being carried up, with be purpose of making a comparative cost-effectiveness study with the traditional constructive methods applied in Brazil. As a result, it will be purposed a new commercialization model for the gas in Brazil at the residential and commercial market. (authors)

  11. Propagation du bruit des erreurs expérimentales dans les modèles théoriques gérés par des systèmes linéaires. Deux applications en transfert thermique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depecker, P.; Draoui, A.; Beghein, Cl.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports sensitivity analysis relative to the field of uncertainty of experimental measured parameters used as model imputs. After describing the experimental uncertainty and its consequences, we present the mathematical tool adapted to models based on linear system resolution. Using examples from heat transfer field, we report two of the most common situations arising to the physicist. The former situation comes up to the experimenter who cannot determine directly some characteristics of his physical system. As the direct measurement of these characteristics is impossible, they are calculated from a model representing the experimental set up. The latter occurs to the model builder, who developes a theoretical model. Building such a model requires knowledge of physical basic characteristics, supposed to be previously determined from experimental measurement. In both cases, measurement induces unertainties spreading into the models. The first application of these principles deals with the study of radiant emitters in real scale dwelling cells. The second one refers to the modeling of coupled heat transfer in a semi-transparent medium such as glass. From both examples, the author point out that the stability of model solutions should be checked, such a stability being not a priori detectable. Ce texte introduit la notion de sensibilité des modèles aux incertitudes avec lesquelles on connaît les paramètres mesurés expérimentalement (donc entachés d'erreurs) entrant dans le formalisme de ces modèles. Après avoir exposé une problématique générale de l'erreur expérimentale et de ses conséquences, on décrit l'outillage mathématique permettant de cerner la question dans le cas des modèles fondés sur des systèmes linéaires. On s'intéresse ensuite aux deux situations les plus classiques dans lesquelles peut se trouver le physicien, en s'appuyant sur des exemples empruntés au domaine des transferts thermiques. La première est celle de l

  12. EFFET DU TUNGSTÈNE 0-8wt. % SUR LA MICROSTRUCTURE DES ALLIAGES Co-Cr UTILISES DANS DES APPLICATIONS ODONTOLOGIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KARAALI

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Les éléments d’addition tels que : W, Mo, Mn …, jouent un rôle  important dans la préoxydation des alliages dentaires et par conséquent,  sur la qualité de la liaison céramique /métal. Cette étude porte sur l'effet de l’addition de tungstène sur l'état microstructural des alliages Co-Cr, avant le processus de céramisation. Ces alliages ont été obtenus par solidification dirigée. Leur caractérisation, au moyen essentiellement la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET et la diffraction des rayons X, montre que l’addition du tungstène jusqu'à 8 % en poids implique des transformations structurales, intimement liées au pourcentage de cet élément contenu dans l’alliage.

  13. L’application des connaissances sur l’ostéoporose chez les jeunes adultes : nouvelles orientations pour les programmes de prévention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Holland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : La prévention de l’ostéoporose dépend grandement des programmes d’éducation, qui sont efficaces surtout lorsqu’ils sont adaptés à leurs destinataires. La plupart des programmes d’éducation préventive étant conçus pour les adultes relativement âgés, leur application est plus difficile auprès d’un public adulte plus jeune. Concevoir des programmes à l’intention des jeunes adultes nécessite de tenir compte de leurs pratiques de recherche d’information, de manière à favoriser une application efficace des connaissances sur l’ostéoporose. Méthodologie : Des entrevues individuelles ont été réalisées auprès de 60 hommes et femmes (population multiethnique composée de jeunes adultes canadiens pour connaître leurs sources d’information et les types de renseignements recherchés en matière de nutrition ou de santé des os. Résultats : Les résultats de notre étude portent sur les sources utilisées par les participants, leurs champs d’intérêt et les façons de mobiliser les jeunes adultes. Les programmes de prévention devraient exploiter à la fois les sources d’information traditionnelles, telles que les pairs, les membres de la famille et les professionnels de la santé, et les nouvelles technologies, comme les médias sociaux. Le choix des sources s’est révélé motivé par leur autorité perçue et la confiance qui leur était accordée. L’information devrait rejoindre les champs d’intérêt des jeunes adultes et les thèmes sur lesquels ils s’informent déjà, comme le conditionnement physique et l’alimentation, plutôt qu’être intégrée exclusivement à une documentation de sensibilisation sur l’ostéoporose. On peut susciter l’intérêt des jeunes adultes à l’aide de messages courts auxquels ils peuvent s’identifier et qui les encouragent à effectuer de petits changements dans leurs habitudes. Les intérêts en matière d’information variaient l

  14. Propagation des ondes élastiques dans les matériaux non linéaires Aperçu des résultats de laboratoire obtenus sur les roches et des applications possibles en géophysique Propagation of Elastic Waves in Nonlinear Materials Survey of Laboratory Results on Rock and Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasolofosaon P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Les roches présentent souvent un comportement élastique nettement non linéaire, entraînant des conséquences importantes sur la propagation des ondes. Cette non-linéarité élastique est surtout causée par les microdéfauts mécaniques ubiquistes (microfissures, joints de grains, macles, etc. dont la rigidité varie sous l'effet de la contrainte. Ce sujet fait l'objet d'études de plus en plus nombreuses. Nous nous proposons de présenter très sommairement les bases théoriques et les résultats expérimentaux permettant d'avoir un ordre de grandeur des effets caractéristiques observés dans les roches afin de pouvoir proposer une approche critique des possibilités d'applications en géophysique. Deux disciplines se sont développées en parallèle à partir du même principe physique et avec des formalismes très proches : - L'acousto-élasticité étudie l'effet des précontraintes statiques sur les vitesses de propagation des ondes élastiques. On dispose d'un formalisme mécanique élaboré permettant de relier quantitativement variation de contrainte et variation de vitesse élastique (par exemple pour ce qui concerne l'anisotropie acoustique induite par un état de contrainte et d'une méthode expérimentale de mesure des coefficients de non-linéarité. - L'acoustique non linéaire s'intéresse aux conséquences de la variation des modules élastiques au passage d'une onde qui ne peut plus être considérée comme une petite perturbation, mais qui induit localement des modifications mesurables du milieu de propagation ; modifications entraînant l'apparition de phénomènes inconnus en acoustique linéaire tels que la génération d'harmoniques et l'interaction onde-onde. Les applications à la sismique pétrolière semblent fort lointaines puisque, avec les méthodes classiques de surface ou de puits, il y a peu d'espoir de réussir à faire propager jusqu'aux couches profondes des ondes dont l'amplitude dépasserait le seuil de

  15. Le marché potentiel des tourteaux broyés, leurs propriétés fonctionnelles et applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Aurélie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La demande mondiale en produits bio-sourcés en pleine expansion engendre un intérêt croissant pour la recherche de nouvelles ressources de matières premières. Pour générer une valeur économique accrue dans les filières oléo-protéagineuses, les tourteaux, co-produits de l’extraction de l’huile, présentent des qualités pouvant être exploitées dans des secteurs diversifiés. Ces tourteaux sont principalement commercialisés en alimentation animale, mais restent peu utilisés dans le secteur de la chimie ou encore de l’alimentation humaine. Afin d’en étendre les applications, le prétraitement de la matière par broyage et classification granulométrique offre des perspectives technologiques pour la conception de nouveaux procédés d’extraction de composés d’intérêt. Le présent article a pour objectif : d’examiner la pertinence d’une diversification du marché des tourteaux, hors usage traditionnel et dans le secteur de la chimie; de caractériser la composition chimique des tourteaux ainsi que leurs propriétés techno-fonctionnelles; d’évaluer la faisabilité de valoriser ces tourteaux ainsi que leurs différentes fractions comme substituts ou additifs permettant la réduction de la teneur en produits d’origine fossile, par exemple, dans la production de formulations adhésives pour les panneaux de particules. Pour ce faire, un certain nombre d’actions ont été menées : évaluation du marché potentiel et accessible à partir des cultures métropolitaines; analyse du panorama de la propriété intellectuelle pour les marchés identifiés; caractérisation chimique des tourteaux broyés et de ses fractions solubles et insolubles; applicabilité des différentes fractions obtenues, en termes de pouvoir moussant, émulsifiant et gélifiant; premiers tests d’application à partir de tourteaux de colza et de tournesol dans le domaine des panneaux de bois composite. Les résultats obtenus ont permis : de

  16. Resenha de: Applications de la photographie aérienne aux recherches des Sciences humaines dans le régions tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Simões de Paula

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available JHURAULT (J.. — Applications de la photographie aérienne aux recherches des Sciences humaines dans le régions tropicales. Coleção "Mémoires de photo-interprétation" dirigida por R. Chevalier. Publicação da "École Pratique des Hautes Études" (6e Section . Paris. S.E.V.P.E.N. 1964. 111 páginas de texto, 7 figuras e 19 pranchas fora do texto, 4 cartas coloridas, 8 fotos estereoscópicas.

  17. Application of the pulsed neutron technique on the reactors ALIZE - AQUILON (1963); Application de la methode des neutrons pulses sur les piles ALIZE et AQUILON (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemart, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Different methods of measuring the ratio effective delayed fraction / prompt neutron lifetime, {alpha}{sub c}, are described. According to the classic pulsed neutron technique the negative reactivity due to a localized absorber is given by {rho} / {beta}{sub eff} = {alpha} / {alpha}{sub c} -1 Experiments are reported which show that in this case {alpha}{sub c} can not be considered constant for large reactivities. The absorber element distorts the flux in the system, increasing the importance of the reflector. An application of the pulsed neutron method to the measurement of critical distributed boron concentrations of various absorber elements is described. Less time is required than for the usual super-critical techniques, and the experimental analysis is simplified. It is interesting to note that the results are not influenced by the spectral sensitivity of the control element. A modified pulsed neutron method has been tried out. This procedure was used to determine by measurements at sub-critical the critical water level of uranium-heavy water lattices with a high precision. (author) [French] Differents modes operatoires pour definir la valeur du rapport pourcentage effectif de neutrons retardes / temps de vie, {alpha}{sub c}, sont exposes. La methode classique par neutrons pulses definit l'anti-reactivite d'un element absorbant a partir de la relation: {rho} / {beta}{sub eff} {alpha} / {alpha}{sub c} -1 Les manipulations effectuees montrent qu'on ne peut considerer dans ce cas {alpha}{sub c} constant pour de tres grandes anti-reactivites. L'absorbant introduit dans la pile deforme le flux et augmente l'importance du reflecteur. Une application de la methode des neutrons pulses pour mesurer le titre critique en mg de B/l de divers absorbants est signalee. Les operations sont effectuees en regime sous-critique avec un certain gain de temps et une grande facilite de depouillement. Il est interessant de noter que les resultats ne sont pas

  18. Contribution to the study of physico-chemical properties of surfaces modified by laser treatment. Application to the enhancement of localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes physico-chimiques des surfaces modifiees par traitement laser. Application a l'amelioration de la resistance a la corrosion localisee des aciers inoxydables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacquentin, W.

    2011-11-25

    Metallic materials are more and more used in severe conditions with particularly strong request for improving their behavior in aggressive environment and especially over long periods. The objective of this PhD work is to estimate the potentiality of a laser surface melting treatment on the improvement of the stainless steel 304L corrosion resistance, surface treatments by laser can be revisited on the basis of a recent change in the laser technology. In the frame of this work, a nano-pulsed laser fiber was chosen: it allows the treated surface to be melted for few microns in depth, followed by an ultra-fast solidification occurring with cooling rates up to 1011 K/s. The combination of these processes leads to the elimination of the surface defects, the formation (trapping) of metastable phases, the segregation of chemical elements and the growth of a new oxide layer which properties are governed by the laser parameters. To correlate these latter to the electrochemical reactivity of the surface, the influence of two laser parameters on the physico-chemical properties of the surface was studied: the laser power and the overlap of the laser impacts. To support this approach, the pitting corrosion resistance of the samples was determined by standard electrochemical tests. For specific laser parameters, the pitting potential of a 304L stainless steel was increased by more than 500 mV corresponding to an important enhancement in localized corrosion resistance in chloride environment. The interdependence of the different phenomena resulting from the laser treatment lead to a quite complex prioritization of their role on the sensibility of the 304L. However, it was demonstrated that the nature of the thermal oxide formed during the laser surface melting and the induced defects are first-order parameters for the initiation of pits. (author) [French] Les materiaux metalliques sont utilises dans des conditions de plus en plus severes et doivent presenter une parfaite

  19. Extraction, fractionnement et concentration des huiles marines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les huiles marines représentent des sources potentielles d’acides gras polyinsaturés (AGPI dont les implications au niveau de la nutrition et de la santé sont avérées. Ces molécules sont extraites à partir de poissons, algues ou co-produits de la filière halieutique par des procédés de cuisson-pression, en présence de solvants ou par des techniques enzymatiques beaucoup moins drastiques. Des fractions plus ou moins purifiées en AGPI sont obtenues par cristallisation à froid, en présence de solvants organiques, complexation avec de l’urée, distillation moléculaire ou extraction par fluide supercritique. L’utilisation de lipases stéréospécifiques dans des procédés d’hydrolyse et d’estérification conduit à une diversité de molécules d’acylglycérols riches en AGPI trouvant de nombreuses applications dans le domaine de l’agroalimentaire et de la santé.

  20. Etude de l'endommagement en fatigue thermique des aciers inoxydables F17TNb et R20-12 pour application automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Bucher, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    Les collecteurs d'échappement des véhicules automobiles sont des pièces sollicitées en fatigue thermique de manière prépondérante. Pour la fabrication de ces pièces, les aciers inoxydables viennent aujourd'hui concurrencer la fonte traditionnellement utilisée.Afin de qualifier les différentes nuances de sa gamme vis-à-vis de cette application, la société Ugine & ALZ, fabricant d'aciers inoxydables, a développé un essai original de fatigue thermique. Si cet essai apparaît représentatif des sol...

  1. L'application des normes IAS/IFRS par les entreprises françaises cotées : une décision sous influence institutionnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Barbu, Elena

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Cet article cherche à démontrer le rôle des facteurs institutionnels dans l'application des normes comptables internationales par les entreprises françaises cotées. Pour cela, nous avons analysé les réponses à un questionnaire fondé sur l'approche néo-institutionnelle, envoyé en 2005 aux directeurs financiers des entreprises du CAC 40 et Euronext 100. Les résultats obtenus ont permis de mettre en évidence que la décision d'appliquer les IAS/IFRS est influencée par l'en...

  2. Self-consistent random phase approximation - application to systems of strongly correlated fermions; Approximation des phases aleatoires self-consistante - applications a des systemes de fermions fortement correles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemai, M

    2004-07-01

    In the present thesis we have applied the self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) to the Hubbard model with a small number of sites (a chain of 2, 4, 6,... sites). Earlier SCRPA had produced very good results in other models like the pairing model of Richardson. It was therefore interesting to see what kind of results the method is able to produce in the case of a more complex model like the Hubbard model. To our great satisfaction the case of two sites with two electrons (half-filling) is solved exactly by the SCRPA. This may seem a little trivial but the fact is that other respectable approximations like 'GW' or the approach with the Gutzwiller wave function yield results still far from exact. With this promising starting point, the case of 6 sites at half filling was considered next. For that case, evidently, SCRPA does not any longer give exact results. However, they are still excellent for a wide range of values of the coupling constant U, covering for instance the phase transition region towards a state with non zero magnetisation. We consider this as a good success of the theory. Non the less the case of 4 sites (a plaquette), as indeed all cases with 4n sites at half filling, turned out to have a problem because of degeneracies at the Hartree Fock level. A generalisation of the present method, including in addition to the pairs, quadruples of Fermions operators (called second RPA) is proposed to also include exactly the plaquette case in our approach. This is therefore a very interesting perspective of the present work. (author)

  3. Géochimie des Terres Rares et des éléments traces associés dans les nappes et l'eau des sols hydromorphes. Application au traçage hydrologique.

    OpenAIRE

    Riou , Christine

    1999-01-01

    Mémoires de Géosciences Rennes, n°91, 293 p. ISBN: 2-905532-90-4; Les objectifs de ce travail sont de : (1) mieux comprendre l'hydrochimie des REE dans les eaux douces continentales (2) déterminer le mode de transport des REE dans ces systèmes (dissous/colloïdal) (3) tester les REE comme traceurs des circJlations d'eau dans les bassins versants d'ordre 1 ,en climat océanique tempéré. Le bassin versant de Kervidy (Bretagne) est situé sur un substratum schisteux imperméable. Deux domaines sont ...

  4. 8th conference on Finite Volumes for Complex Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Omnes, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    This first volume of the proceedings of the 8th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Lille, June 2017) covers various topics including convergence and stability analysis, as well as investigations of these methods from the point of view of compatibility with physical principles. It collects together the focused invited papers comparing advanced numerical methods for Stokes and Navier–Stokes equations on a benchmark, as well as reviewed contributions from internationally leading researchers in the field of analysis of finite volume and related methods, offering a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation, and recent decades have brought significant advances in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including m...

  5. The step complexity measure - its meaning and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan; Ha, Jae Joo

    2003-01-01

    According to related studies, it was revealed that the procedural deviation plays a significant role in initiating accidents or incidents. This means that, to maximize safety, it is indispensable to be able to answer the question of 'why the operators deviate from procedures?' In this study, the SC(Step Complexity) measure is introduced to investigate its applicability for studying the procedural deviation, since it was shown that the change of the operators' performance is strongly correlated with the change of SC scores. This means that the SC measure could play an important role for researches related to the procedural deviation, since it is strongly believed that complicated procedures would affect both the operators' performance and the possibility of the procedural deviation. Thus, to ensure this expectation, the meaning of the SC measure is investigated through brief explanations including the necessity, theoretical basis and verification activities of the SC measure. As a result, it is confirmed that the SC measure can be used to explain the change of the operators' performance due to the task complexity implied by procedures. In addition, it seems that the SC measure may be useful for various purposes, particularly for scrutinizing the relationship between the procedural deviation and complicated procedures

  6. Informational analysis involving application of complex information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupak, Clébia; Vanti, Adolfo Alberto; Balloni, Antonio José; Espin, Rafael

    The aim of the present research is performing an informal analysis for internal audit involving the application of complex information system based on fuzzy logic. The same has been applied in internal audit involving the integration of the accounting field into the information systems field. The technological advancements can provide improvements to the work performed by the internal audit. Thus we aim to find, in the complex information systems, priorities for the work of internal audit of a high importance Private Institution of Higher Education. The applied method is quali-quantitative, as from the definition of strategic linguistic variables it was possible to transform them into quantitative with the matrix intersection. By means of a case study, where data were collected via interview with the Administrative Pro-Rector, who takes part at the elaboration of the strategic planning of the institution, it was possible to infer analysis concerning points which must be prioritized at the internal audit work. We emphasize that the priorities were identified when processed in a system (of academic use). From the study we can conclude that, starting from these information systems, audit can identify priorities on its work program. Along with plans and strategic objectives of the enterprise, the internal auditor can define operational procedures to work in favor of the attainment of the objectives of the organization.

  7. Ruthenium(II) Complex Based Photodiode for Organic Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataroglu, A.; Ocaya, R.; Dere, A.; Dayan, O.; Serbetci, Z.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Soylu, M.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the electrical and photoresponse properties of a photovoltaic device with Ruthenium(II) complex interfacial thin film were investigated. Heteroleptic Ru(II) complex including bidentate and tridentate ligands thin film was coated on n-Si substrate by the spin coating technique. From current-voltage ( I- V) measurements of an Au/Ru(II)/n-Si photodiode, it is observed that the reverse bias current under light is higher than that of the current in the dark. This indicates that the photodiode exhibits a photoconducting characteristic. The transient measurements such as photocurrent, photocapacitance and photoconductance were performed under various illumination conditions. These measurements indicate that the photodiode has a high photoresponsivity. The electrical parameters such as barrier height (Φb), ideality factor ( n) and series resistance ( R s) of the photodiode were determined from the analysis of I- V characteristics. Moreover, the capacitance/conductance-voltage characteristics of the photodiode highly depend on both voltage and frequency. Results show that the heterojunction can be used for various optoelectronic applications.

  8. Les métamatériaux, des micro-ondes à l'optique : théorie et applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kante, B.

    2010-04-01

    Cet article constitue une contribution originale et importante à la compréhension à la fois théorique et expérimentale des métamatériaux en micro-ondes et en infrarouge. Nous avons réalisé et caractérisé sur silicium des nano-structures metallo-diélectriques, briques de base des métamatériaux infrarouge et optique. Des caractérisations optiques exhaustives ont été réalisées pour la première fois sur ces structures en amplitude et en phase par interférométrie. Des topologies plus simples de métamatériaux d’un point de vue technologique et des performances optiques ont été introduites, et leur potentiel démontré dans la réalisation de fonctions aussi complexes que la réfraction négative, le couplage de mode plasmoniques, les nano senseurs pour la biologie et l’invisibilité électromagnétique en infrarouge. Les transformations d’espace, et le nouveau paradigme qu’elles offrent à l’optique, rendant possible une ingénierie de l’espace pour les photons ainsi que leur implémentation par métamatériaux ont été présentés par la première démonstration expérimentale d’une cape d’invisibilité non magnétique.

  9. Passer de la connaissance à l'action pour résoudre des problèmes complexes : aperçu de l'examen de neuf cas internationaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Riley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: La résolution de problèmes complexes du type de la prévention des maladies chroniques présente des défis particuliers pour la création et le transfert de connaissances, soit le passage de la connaissance à l'action (PCA. Les approches axées sur le PCA respectant les principes de la pensée systémique sont jugées prometteuses,mais les stratégies pour les mettre en place ne sont pas bien comprises. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats d'une analyse de plusieurs approches systémiques axées sur le PCA dans le but de déterminer comment optimiser leur mise en œuvre et leur efficacité. Méthodologie: Un groupe consultatif de cinq personnes a choisi neuf initiatives représentant une diversité d'enjeux et de formes organisationnelles. Pour chaque cas, l'information a été recueillie à partir de documents et par l'entremise d'entrevues téléphoniques avec des personnes-ressources de chaque organisation. Aprés la vérification des descriptions de cas, une analyse inductive a été effectuée à la fois pour chaque cas et entre les cas. Résultats: Ces cas ont révélé cinq lignes directrices permettant de passer de la conception de systémes de PCA à leur mise en œuvre : établir et entretenir des relations, coproduire et organiser les connaissances, créer des boucles de rétroaction, les encadrer comme des interventions systémiques plutôt que comme des projets et envisager des variations dans le temps et selon les lieux. Conclusion: Les résultats de cette analyse contextuelle constituent un départ modeste pour transformer en résultats concrets les concepts systémiques de PCA. L'utilisation des stratégies mises au jour pourrait améliorer le PCA pour la résolution de problèmes complexes en matière de santé publique. Les stratégies elles-mêmes pourront bénéficier de l'évolution d'une science visant à comprendre l'adaptation et l'apprentissage constant des politiques et des interventions

  10. Complexation of biological ligands with lanthanides(III) for MRI: Structure, thermodynamic and methods; Complexation des cations lanthanides trivalents par des ligands d'origine biologique pour l'IRM: Structure, thermodynamique et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, C

    2006-07-15

    New cyclic ligands derived from sugars and amino-acids form a scaffold carrying a coordination sphere of oxygen atoms suitable to complex Ln(III) ions. In spite of their rather low molecular weights, the complexes display surprisingly high relaxivity values, especially at high field. The ACX and BCX ligands, which are acidic derivatives of modified and cyclo-dextrins, form mono and bimetallic complexes with Ln(III). The LnACX and LnBCX complexes show affinities towards Ln(III) similar to those of tri-acidic ligands. In the bimetallic Lu2ACX complex, the cations are deeply embedded in the cavity of the ligand, as shown by the X-ray structure. In aqueous solution, the number of water molecules coordinated to the cation in the LnACX complex depends on the nature and concentration of the alkali ions of the supporting electrolyte, as shown by luminescence and relaxometric measurements. There is only one water molecule coordinated in the LnBCX complex, which enables us to highlight an important second sphere contribution to relaxivity. The NMR study of the RAFT peptidic ligand shows the complexation of Ln(III), with an affinity similar to those of natural ligands derived from calmodulin. The relaxometric study also shows an important second sphere contribution to relaxivity. To better understand the intricate molecular factors affecting relaxivity, we developed new relaxometric methods based on probe solutes. These methods allow us to determine the charge of the complex, weak affinity constants, trans-metallation constants, and the electronic relaxation rate. (author)

  11. SynthEse, etude physico-chimique et activite biologique des complexes de cuivre et/ou nickel derivés d’Hydrazone et Thiadiazole

    OpenAIRE

    BENMANSOUR Nee BABA AHMED, Yamina

    2015-01-01

    Les composés azotés dérivés d’hydrazones et de thiadiazoles représentent une classe importante de ligands dans la chimie de coordination des métaux de transition. Ils présentent un large spectre d’activités biologiques. Leurs applications dans le domaine de la pharmacologie n’ont pas été suffisamment étudiées. La voltammètrie cyclique a fourni l'évidence pour la stabilisation de l'état d'oxydation élevé pour différents métaux de transition. Le présent travail est consacré à la syn...

  12. Application des fluides supercritiques à la production d'hydrocarbures. Exploitation des gisements par récupération assistée et applications diverses : pétrole, sables, schistes, charbons Application of Supercritical Fluids to Hydrocarbon Production. Enhanced Oi Recovery and Miscellaneous Applications: Oil, Tar Sands, Shales, Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le taux moyen de récupération par drainage naturel des gisements pétroliers atteint à peine 30 %. La récupération assistée désigne l'ensemble des procédés d'exploitation qui permettent d'accroître très sensiblement ce taux. Parmi ces procédés, l'injection de fluides supercritiques joue un rôle prometteur. Les principaux fluides actuellement utilisés sont : le méthane (ou plus généralement les gaz hydrocarbures dits pauvres , l'azote et enfin le gaz carbonique. Les domaines d'application et les mécanismes thermodynamiques mis en jeu sont brièvement exposés, les sources de fluides supercritiques disponibles au voisinage des gisements pétroliers sont rapidement répertoriées et certains problèmes d'exploitation évoqués. Outre leur application en récupération assistée, les fluides supercritiques sont également impliqués dans des procédés de raffinage et d'extraction divers. C'est le procédé de désasphaltage de fractions pétrolières lourdes qui, en 1956, a fait l'objet de la première application industrielle exploitant les fortes variations du pouvoir solvant d'un fluide au voisinage de son point critique. Ce procédé connaît, depuis une dizaine d'années, un regain d'intérêt du fait de l'économie d'énergie qu'il permet de réaliser. D'autre part, les schistes bitumineux, les sables asphaltiques et les charbons, sources d'hydrocarbures considérables pour l'avenir, constituent des domaines d'applications potentielles originales des fluides supercritiques. Les procédés spécifiques, pour la plupart en cours de développement au stade pilote, sont passés en revue. The average recovery by natural drainage from oil fields is barely 30%. Enhanced recovery includes all production processes which appreciably increase this rate. Among such processes, supercritical fluid flooding is quite promising. The main fluids now used are methane (or, more generally, so-called leangaseous hydrocarbons, nitrogen and carbon

  13. Quantum Mechanical Simulations of Complex Nanostructures for Photovoltaic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhigang [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-31

    A quantitative understanding of the electronic excitations in nanostructures, especially complex nanostructures, is crucial for making new-generation photovoltaic (PV) cells based on nanotechnology, which have high efficiency and low cost. Yet current quantum mechanical simulation methods are either computationally too expensive or not accurate and reliable enough, hindering the rational design of the nanoscale PV cells. The PI seeks to develop new methodologies to overcome the challenges in this very difficult and long-lasting problem, pushing the field forward so that electronic excitations can be accurately predicted for systems involving thousands of atoms. The primary objective of this project is to develop new approaches for electronic excitation calculations that are more accurate than traditional density functional theory (DFT) and are applicable to systems larger than what current beyond-DFT methods can treat. In this proposal, the PI will first address the excited-state problem within the DFT framework to obtain quasiparticle energies from both Kohn-Sham (KS) eigenvalues and orbitals; and the electron-hole binding energy will be computed based on screened Coulomb interaction of corresponding DFT orbitals. The accuracy of these approaches will be examined against many-body methods of GW/BSE and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). The PI will also work on improving the accuracy and efficiency of the GW/BSE and QMC methods in electronic excitation computations by using better KS orbitals obtained from orbital-dependent DFT as inputs. Then an extended QMC database of ground- and excited-state properties will be developed, and this will be spot checked and supplemented with data from GW/BSE calculations. The investigation will subsequently focus on the development of an improved exchange-correlation (XC) density functional beyond the current generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level of parameterization, with parameters fitted to the QMC database. This will allow

  14. History Matching of Production and 4D Seismic Data: Application to the Girassol Field, Offshore Angola Calage simultané des données de production et de sismique 4D : application au champ de Girassol, Offshore Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roggero F.

    2012-04-01

    quantitative des données de sismique 4D en modélisation de réservoir. Cette publication propose une méthodologie innovante basée sur des méthodes avancées de calage simultané des modèles 3D de réservoir par les données de production et de sismique 4D. Cette approche intègre dans le même processus de calage d’historique la modélisation géostatistique, les changements d’échelle, la simulation des écoulements et la modélisation pétro-élastique. Les données simulées de production et de sismique 4D sont comparées aux données réelles par l’intermédiaire d’une fonction objectif, qu’un algorithme d’optimisation par ajustement de surface de réponse permet de minimiser. La méthode de déformation graduelle est utilisée pour contraindre globalement ou localement la réalisation en facies du modèle géologique à l’échelle fine. De plus, une nouvelle technique est mise en oeuvre pour mettre à jour les proportions de facies pendant le processus d’optimisation en intégrant les informations de sismique 4D. Une application réalisée avec succès sur le champ de Girassol est présentée. Girassol est un vaste réservoir turbiditique, complexe et faillé, situé dans les grands fonds au large de l’Angola. Un modèle géostatistique détaillé a d’abord été construit pour décrire les hétérogénéités du réservoir à l’échelle géologique fine, en se basant sur les données initiales de sismique 3D. Le modèle a ensuite été contraint par les données de production et de sismique 4D après inversion, en explorant les réalisations géostatistiques par déformation graduelle et en ajustant les proportions de facies. L’intégration des données de sismique 4D a conduit à de meilleures prévisions de production, confirmées par une nouvelle campagne sismique acquise deux ans après la période d’historique initialement considérée. Les données de sismique 4D ont aussi contribué à mieux caractériser la distribution spatiale

  15. A new Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn (VERDI): Application to El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Becerril, L.; Martí, J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the most important issues in modern volcanology is the assessment of volcanic risk, which will depend - among other factors - on both the quantity and quality of the available data and an optimum storage mechanism. This will require the design of purpose-built databases that take into account data format and availability and afford easy data storage and sharing, and will provide for a more complete risk assessment that combines different analyses but avoids any duplication of information. Data contained in any such database should facilitate spatial and temporal analysis that will (1) produce probabilistic hazard models for future vent opening, (2) simulate volcanic hazards and (3) assess their socio-economic impact. We describe the design of a new spatial database structure, VERDI (Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn), which allows different types of data, including geological, volcanological, meteorological, monitoring and socio-economic information, to be manipulated, organized and managed. The root of the question is to ensure that VERDI will serve as a tool for connecting different kinds of data sources, GIS platforms and modeling applications. We present an overview of the database design, its components and the attributes that play an important role in the database model. The potential of the VERDI structure and the possibilities it offers in regard to data organization are here shown through its application on El Hierro (Canary Islands). The VERDI database will provide scientists and decision makers with a useful tool that will assist to conduct volcanic risk assessment and management.

  16. Analyse des contraintes résiduelles et de la texture dans les matériaux : applications industrielles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.

    2003-02-01

    Les contraintes résiduelles s'introduisent lors de l'ingénierie des composants au cours de leur fabrication et également au cours de leur utilisation. Elles sont importantes parce qu'elles peuvent avoir des magnitudes proches de la limite apparente d'élasticité et peuvent par conséquent affecter considérablement la performance et la durée de vie des composants. Les ingénieurs concepteurs doivent être en mesure de calculer et de mesurer les champs de contraintes résiduelles afin de s'assurer de l'intégrité des composants. Cet article décrit les techniques expérimentales utilisées pour déterminer des champs de contraintes résiduelles en faisant référence plus précisément à la diffraction des neutrons et à la diffraction des rayons X obtenus par synchrotrons. On y discute de la théorie et de l'applicabilité de ces techniques. Cet article comprend un certain nombre de cas étudiés à titre d'exemple. Il renvoie aussi à l'évolution des étalons internationaux de mesure de contraintes résiduelles et aux développements à venir.

  17. Is the stoichiometry of the europium nitrate complexes with neutral organophosphorus extractants be anticipated?; Peut-on prevoir la stoechiometrie des complexes du nitrate d'europium avec des extractants organophosphores neutres?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beudaert, Ph.; Lamare, V. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Wipff, G. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Lab. MSM, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2001-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed in water on europium nitrate complexes with three neutral organophosphorus extractants (TBP, TPPO and CMPO) in order to determine on what criteria it is possible to obtain by simulations the experimental 1:3 stoichiometry in organic solution. This stoichiometry was investigated by progressive saturation of the cation coordination sphere. When the nitrate counter-ions are bidentate, the 1:3 stoichiometry corresponds to the degree of saturation where the interaction energy between europium and water becomes repulsive. Beyond this stoichiometry, complexes with TPPO and CMPO are unstable, although a 1:4 complex with TBP may exist but its formation appears to be energetically unfavored. (author)

  18. Thermodynamic study on the complexation of Trivalent actinide and lanthanide cation by N-donor ligands in homogeneous conditions; Etude thermodynamique de la complexation des ions actinide (III) et lanthanide (III) par des ligands polyazotes en milieu homogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguirditchian, M

    2004-07-01

    Polydentate N-donor ligands, alone or combined with a synergic acid, may selectively extract minor actinides(III) from lanthanide(III) ions, allowing to develop separation processes of long-live radioelements. The aim of the researches carried out during this thesis was to better understand the chemical mechanisms of the complexation of f-elements by Adptz, a tridentate N-donor ligand, in homogeneous conditions. A thermodynamic approach was retained in order to estimate, from an energetic point of view, the influence of the different contributions to the reaction, and to acquire a complete set of thermodynamic data on this reaction. First, the influence of the nature of the cation on the thermodynamics was considered. The stability constants of the 1/1 complexes were systematically determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry for every lanthanide ion (except promethium) and for yttrium in a mixed solvent methanol/water in volume proportions 75/25%. The thermodynamic parameters ({delta}H{sup 0} {delta}{sup S}) of complexation were estimated by the van't Hoff method and by micro-calorimetry. The trends of the variations across the lanthanide series are compared with similar studies. The same methods were applied to the study of three actinide(III) cations: plutonium, americium and curium. The comparison of these values with those obtained for the lanthanides highlights the increase of stability of these complexes by a factor of 20 in favor of the actinide cations. This gap is explained by a more exothermic reaction and is associated, in the data interpretation, to a higher covalency of the actinide(III)-nitrogen bond. Then, the influence of the change of solvent composition on the thermodynamic of complexation was studied. The thermodynamic parameters of the complexation of europium(III) by Adptz were determined for several fractions of methanol. The stability of the complex formed increases with the percentage of methanol in the mixed solvent, owing to an

  19. Quantum Google algorithm. Construction and application to complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, G. D.; Müller, M.; Comellas, F.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    We review the main findings on the ranking capabilities of the recently proposed Quantum PageRank algorithm (G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 2, 444 (2012) and G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 2773 (2013)) applied to large complex networks. The algorithm has been shown to identify unambiguously the underlying topology of the network and to be capable of clearly highlighting the structure of secondary hubs of networks. Furthermore, it can resolve the degeneracy in importance of the low-lying part of the list of rankings. Examples of applications include real-world instances from the WWW, which typically display a scale-free network structure and models of hierarchical networks. The quantum algorithm has been shown to display an increased stability with respect to a variation of the damping parameter, present in the Google algorithm, and a more clearly pronounced power-law behaviour in the distribution of importance among the nodes, as compared to the classical algorithm.

  20. Applications of STEM-EELS to complex oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Gázquez, Jaume

    2016-06-26

    In this chapter we will review a few examples of applications of atomic resolution aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to complex oxide materials. These are most challenging systems where subtle changes in structure or chemistry may result in colossal responses in macroscopic physical behavior. Here, we will review how atomic resolution compositional mapping can be achieved in manganite thin films and single crystals, highlighting the importance of considering artifacts during quantification. Besides, minor changes in near edge fine structure may take place when the crystalline environment, and hence nearest neighbor configuration, is modified. These can also be tracked by atomic resolution EELS, as will be shown through the study of binary Fe oxides. Also, examples regarding the study of distributions of point defects such as O vacancies in cobaltite thin films will be discussed. In these materials, a combination of epitaxial strain and defects may promote physical behaviors not present in bulk, such as the stabilization of unexpected spin state superlattices. Last, a study of extended defects such as dislocation lines will be reviewed. In particular, we will show how chemical segregation at dislocation cores in yttria-stabilized zirconia grain boundaries results in the generation of static O vacancies that affect the local electrostatic potential and hence, the macroscopic ionic conduction properties. © 2016.

  1. La recherche en action : des solutions locales, des effets durables ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2010 ... Le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) appuie la production et l'application de connaissances qui améliorent de façon notable la situation des habitants des pays en développement.

  2. Study of radionuclides complexes formation by organic compounds in intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes; Etude de la mobilisation, par des complexants organiques, des radionucleides contenus dans les dechets radioactifs de faible et moyenne activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourbon, X.

    1994-12-01

    In the general framework of the safety of nuclear wastes of low and intermediate activity, we studied the effects of organic compounds on the solubilization of metallic cations. Organic compounds originate from the degradation of cellulose in concrete interstitial waters. Degradation reactions generate a number of products, among which carboxylic acids. These acids are known for their chelating properties. We first analysed the degradation of cellulose in alkaline conditions: we qualitatively and quantitatively determined the degradation products for various reaction progress indices, including a dozen of carboxylic acids. The principal goal of our work was the prediction of the behaviour of metallic cations in such cellulose degradation solutions. Owing the complexity of the system, a priori theoretical calculation are not possible. We have thus decided to choose tetra hydroxy pentanoic acid as a reference compound in order to simulate as accurately as possible the behaviour of more complex acids which contain similar functional groups. We have experimentally determined the complexing properties of this reference acid toward divalent cobalt and copper, and trivalent samarium and europium. Simple and mixed complex (hydroxyl) have been evidenced in alkaline medium. Their stability constants have been determined and extrapolated at zero ionic strength using the SIT theory. These results allowed us to theoretically predict the behaviour of our four reference cations in cellulose degradation products formed in concrete interstitial waters. In parallel, we have measured their solubility in real cellulose degradation solutions. Solubility predictions are correct for transition metals, but not for rare earth cations. In this case the complexes which have been identified with tetra hydroxy pentanoic acid are not stable enough to dissolve metallic hydroxides. In real degradation solutions, other compounds would account for the enhancement of rare earth elements solubility.

  3. Protein complex finding and ranking: An application to Alzheimer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pooja Sharma

    2017-07-07

    Jul 7, 2017 ... Protein complexes are known to play a major role in controlling cellular activity in a living being. .... 2013). A good complex finding method enables identification of overlapped protein complexes with high functional coherence. However, from the literature, we see that the best precision attained on.

  4. Protein complex finding and ranking: An application to Alzheimer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pooja Sharma

    2017-07-07

    Jul 7, 2017 ... Protein complexes are known to play a major role in controlling cellular activity in a living being. Identifying complexes from raw protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an important area of research. Earlier work has been limited mostly to yeast and a few other model organisms. Such protein complex ...

  5. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  6. Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR Methods: Application to Jet Fuels Développement d’un outil d’aide à la formulation des carburants alternatifs utilisant des méthodes QSPR (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship: application aux carburéacteurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldana D.A.

    2013-06-01

    from the literature, from experimental measurements and from molecular simulations for complex molecules. The interest of such models in the selection of molecules can be shown for example by the trade-off between cold flow properties and density of paraffinic compounds. If the carbon chain length is too high, the cold flow properties are compromised. One solution can be to increase branching or incorporate fuel base with good cold flow properties such as naphthenic or aromatic compounds. However, this leads to a decrease in density below the jet fuel specification. Again, using naphthenic of alkyl-aromatic compounds produced from biomass can help. Le développement des carburants alternatifs est en plein essor, notamment dans le domaine aéronautique. Cela se concrétise par la possibilité d’incorporer jusqu’à 50 % de carburants de synthèse de type Fischer- Tropsch (FT ou hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA dans du carburéacteur. De même, ces carburants paraffiniques se développent pour le transport terrestre en parallèle des biocarburants à base d’esters ou d’alcool actuellement disponibles. La formulation de ces carburants alternatifs est actuellement basée sur une sélection des produits via des critères physiques. L’atteinte de ces critères se fait souvent par des formulations empiriques et ce type de fonctionnement ne s’avère pas très efficace et montre ses limites. En effet, les carburants alternatifs présentent des propriétés chimiques qui peuvent être différentes en fonction du procédé (répartition n-paraffines/iso-paraffines, longueur de chaîne, ramification, etc. et donc modulable. Ainsi, une nouvelle voie pourrait être envisagée visant à déterminer par le calcul, la molécule (ou le mélange de molécules la plus à même de répondre au cahier des charges du carburant, puis à étudier ou à optimiser les voies de synthèse permettant d’accéder à ces produits. Le travail présenté a pour objectif le d

  7. Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons x et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Deuxième partie : étude des différents systèmes : polymères en solution à l'état solide, solutions micellaires, systèmes fractals Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part Two: Research on Different Systems: Polymers in Solution in the Solid State, Micellar Solutions, Fractals Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait suite à la première partie (Revue Inst. Franç. du Pétrole, vol. 45, n°6, novembre-décembre 1990 concernant l'application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière, des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux et plus précisément à la présentation théorique des trois méthodes. L'objet de cette deuxième partie est la présentation non exhaustive de quelques domaines d'applications. Nous nous attacherons tout particulièrement à présenter les potentialités des méthodes pour la caractérisation de systèmes colloïdaux ou divisés rencontrés dans de nombreuses branches d'activité de l'industrie pétrolière. Nous aborderons dans une première partie les solutions polymériques et colloïdales. En particulier nous nous attarderons sur l'importance des techniques de diffusion pour la caractérisation des polymères en solution et des solutions micellaires. Nous verrons également quelles informations la diffusion centrale peut apporter sur la macrostructure des polymères cristallisés ou amorphes à l'état solide. De nombreux systèmes présentent une structure de type fractal ; après présentation de quelques exemples, nous montrerons que les méthodes de diffusion peuvent apporter certaines informations sur ces matériaux, notamment la dimension fractale. This article is the second one (the first one was published in Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole No. 6, NovemberDecember 1990 concerning the application of techniques of light scattering, X rays and neutrons to the analysis of colloidal systems and more specifically to the theoretical description of the three methods. The aim of this second part is to make a nonexhaustive description of several fields of applications. A special effort is made to describe the potential of these methods for characterizing colloidal or divided systems encountered in a great many activities involving the petroleum industry. The first part of this

  8. Spray Atomization Models in Engine Applications, from Correlations to Direct Numerical Simulations Modèles de spray dans les applications moteur, des corrélations aux simulations numériques directes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dos Santos F.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sprays are among the very main factors of mixture formation and combustion quality in almost every (IC engine. They are of great importance in pollutant formation and energy efficiency although adequate modeling is still on development. For many applications, validation and calibration of models are still an open question. Therefore, we present an overview of existing models and propose some trends of improvement. Models are classified in zero dimensional and dimensional classes ranging from simple formulations aimed at close-to-real-time applications to complete detailed description of early atomization stages. Les sprays sont parmi les principaux facteurs de qualite, dans la formation du melange et la combustion, dans un grand nombre de moteurs (a combustion interne. Ils sont de toute premiere importance dans la formation de polluants et l’efficacite energetique, bien qu’une modelisation adequate soit encore en developpement. Pour un grand nombre d’applications, la validation et la calibration de ces modeles demeurent une question ouverte. Aussi, presentons-nous un apercu des modeles existants et proposons quelques voies d’amelioration. Les modeles sont classes en nondimensionnels et dimensionnels allant de formules simples dediees a des applications proches du temps reel a des descriptions detaillees des premiers stades de l’atomisation.

  9. Study of the alkaline cations complexation by photo-isomerizable calixarenes; Etude de la complexation de cations alcalins par des calixarenes photoisomerisables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynier, N.

    1996-04-25

    The first step to reduce the volume and the toxicity of radioactive waste coming from the spent fuel reprocessing is to separate long life radioisotopes from others ones with a shorter period. The aim of this study is to show that the control of the two phenomenons, complexation of the cation by the calixarenes and its de-complexation, can be envisaged by the introduction on the molecule of a chromophore group, azo benzene, able to modify the complexing site structure of the calixarenes with an isomerization trans-cis induced by ultraviolet radiation, and isomerization cis-trans thermally induced by a visible radiation. (N.C.). 112 refs., 78 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. Trends in the choice of refrigerants according to the applications; Tendances dans le choix des frigorigenes selon les applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billiard, F.

    2002-07-01

    No general rules exist in the choice of refrigerants but five classical criteria: thermo-physical, technological, economical, safety, environmental, some regulations and local standards, and the 'cultural' criteria linked with the professional habits and with the personnel training. The best approach to present the evolutions and trends in this domain consists in reasoning application by application. In this document, 8 applications are analyzed: domestic, commercial, and industrial refrigeration, terrestrial and maritime refrigerating transport, air conditioning and heat pumps, air conditioning with water cooling groups, and mobile air conditioning. For each application, national and worldwide statistical data are given which allow to characterize the economical importance of the sector of application and the trends in the choice of refrigerants (HFC, ammonia, hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2} etc..). Finally, some future trends are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  11. À propos des occasionnalismes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Georgette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Les occasionnalismes (nonce formations ou contextual formations dans la terminologie anglo-saxonne, qu’on définira provisoirement comme de “new complex word[s] created by a speaker/writer on the spur of the moment to cover some immediate need” (Bauer, 1983 : 45 ont, à notre connaissance, peu retenu l’attention des morphologues du domaine francophone. Pourtant, toutes les conditions sont désormais réunies pour que cet objet, invisible lorsqu’il s’agissait de décrire le système morphologique du français (ou d’autres langues à partir de ressources dictionnairiques, émerge en tant qu’observable dans une morphologie puisant ses données dans le réel langagier des locuteurs. Par définition en effet, on s’attend à ce qu’un occasionalisme soit absent des dictionnaires (nous verrons que, dans les faits, la situation est plus complexe que cela, et que ces contextual formations ne puissent pas être étudiées en dehors du contexte dans lequel elles ont été produites. À cet égard, la Toile et les produits qui en dérivent constituent des ressources de choix. C’est particulièrement vrai des forums, dans lesquels les internautes s’expriment librement, laissant libre cours à leur potentiel créatif (ou ce qu’ils pensent tel. Dans la présente communication, après avoir défini la notion d’occasionalisme, nous utiliserons un corpus constitué au fil d’autres recherches pour dégager des motifs récurrents propices à leur apparition, autrement dit pour établir une grammaire des occasionnalismes.

  12. Evaluation des risques-projet par une approche AHP/WPM: Application à un projet réel BTP

    OpenAIRE

    LMOUSSAOUI , Hafida; JAMOULI , Hicham

    2015-01-01

    International audience; La complexité et l'incertitude de l'environnement sont à l'origine de nouveaux défis auxquels les entreprises du domaine BTP font face quotidiennement. La maîtrise des paramètres des projets devient donc une nécessité pour leur pérennité. L'objectif du management des risques est de maîtriser ces paramètres pendant toutes les phases du projet. Il s'appuie sur un processus continu et itératif permettant successivement d'identifier et analyser les risques encourus, les év...

  13. Etude Des Caractéristiques Structurelles Des Couches Minces De ZnO. Application à une Cellule Photovoltaïque.

    OpenAIRE

    MERABET, Yassamina

    2014-01-01

    De nos jours les cellules solaires à couches minces sont de plus en plus utilisées essentiellement à raison de leur faible coût. Durant ces dernières décennies les performances de ces cellules ont été nettement améliorées. Dans le présent travail, nous avons fait une étude analytique sur les paramètres (caractéristiques) structurels des couches minces d’Oxyde de Zinc (ZnO) réalisées par la pulvérisation cathodique. Nous avons simulé une cellule solaire à l’aide d’un logiciel (SCAPS1-D) afin d...

  14. Thermoluminescence du quartz naturel et artificiel pur ou dopé des ions Fe++ et Fe+++: application à la datation des poteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available La thermoluminescence constatée sur les échantillons de poteries et conduisant à la datation archéologique de celles-ci, est due aux inclusions de quartz initialement contenues dans l'argile. Nous présentons une étude de la thermoluminescence d'échantillons de quartz monocristallin synthétique dans lesquels des impuretés ont été volontairement ajoutées et appliquons les résultats à une nouvelle technique de datation, la méthode DATE (différence d'atténuation temporelle des émissions. La termoluminiscencia constatada en muestras de cerámica permite una datación arqueológica es debida a las inclusiones de cuarzo inicialmente contenidas en la arcilla. Se presenta un estudio de la termoluminiscencia de muestras de cuarzo monocristalino sintético en las cuales han sido colocadas voluntariamente impurezas se han aplicado los resultados de una nueva técnica de fechado, el método DATE (Diferencia de atenuación temporal de emisiones. The thermoluminescence observed on samples of pottery and leading to their archaeological dating is a result of the presence of quartz particles originally enclosed in the clay. We offer a study of the termoluminescence of samples of synthetic mono-crystalline quartz doped in with impurities and apply the results to a new dating technique, the 'DATE' method, based upon difference in time attenuation of the emissions.

  15. Applications analytiques des films minces de mercure protégés par ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical application of fibrinogen-coated mercury film electrodes for the detection of lead and cadmium in water samples. The aim of this study was the development of sensor based on fibrinogen (Fbg) coated mercury film electrodes at carbon paste electrode in the perspective of in-field stripping analysis of heavy metals ...

  16. Determinatin dúne application des betons de balles de riz dans le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obtained concretes are light and have compressive strength between 1 and 8 MPa. An application of these concretes is their use for the manufacture of masonry blocks and interjoists entering in the realization of walls and coffer floor. Key words: Rice husks, lightweight concrete, compressive strength, Masonry blocks, ...

  17. Complexation of actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) cations by tridentate nitrogen ligands; Complexation des cations actinides(III) et lanthanides(III) par des ligands azotes tridentates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, P.Y.; Francois, N.; Guillaneux, D.; Hill, C.; Madic, Ch. [CEA Valrho, (DCC/DRRV/SEMP), 30 - Marcoule (France); Illemassene, M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    2000-07-01

    To understand the properties of some systems able to extract actinides (III) from lanthanides(III) selectively, the solution chemistry of lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) cations with poly-hetero-aromatic nitrogen-containing ligands was studied by Time-Resolved Laser Induced Fluorimetry (TRLIF) and UV-visible spectrophotometry, combined with chemo-metric methods. Three soft donor ligands (L) were selected for the study: 2,2':6;2{sup -}ter-pyridine (Tpy),4,6-tri-(pyridine-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (Tptz) and 2,6-bis-(5,6-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazine-3-yl)-pyridine (MeBtp). Tpy and Tptz exhibit moderate affinity (distribution ratio) and selectivity when used in the synergistic liquid-liquid extraction of americium(III) (with a lipophilic carboxylic acid). MeBtp is also very efficient, and extracts Am(III) with high selectivity; The TRLIF study analyzed the Eu(III) fluorescence emission spectrum. By analyzing the respective changes in the band intensities, and the lifetimes of the Eu(III) excited states, when the ligands were added in homogeneous phase, the following conclusions were drawn: - for Tpy and Tptz, only one EuL{sup 3+} complex species was detected, with a low symmetry in the first coordination sphere, and the Eu(III) hydration number (number of water molecules in the Eu(III) first sphere of coordination) in these complexes was found to be around 5-6; - for MeBtp, two species were detected, one with a low symmetry and a hydration number close to 5-6, the other with a high symmetry and almost completely dehydrated. This is indicative of the formation of the complexes: EuL{sup 3+} for L =Tpy and Tptz, and Eu(MeBtp){sup 3+} and Eu(MeBtp){sub 3}{sup 3+} in the case of MeBtp. The formation of these complexes, as well as the protonated ligands, was quantitatively studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. In each case, the variation in the absorption spectrum of one species was monitored, while the concentration of the other was varied. The complex formation

  18. Light ions radiobiological effects on human tumoral cells: measurements modelling and application to hadron-therapy; Mesures et modelisation des effets radiobiologiques des ions legers sur des cellules tumorales humaines: application a l'hadrontherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalade, P

    2005-11-15

    In classical radiotherapy, the characteristics of photons interactions undergo limits for the treatment of radioresistant and not well located tumours. Pioneering treatments of patients at the Lawrence Laboratory at Berkeley has demonstrated two advantages of hadrons beams: the Relative Biologic Effect (the RBE) and the ballistic of the beams. Since 1994, the clinical centre at Chiba, has demonstrated successfully the applicability of the method. A physics group, managed by G. Kraft, at Darmstadt in Germany, has underlined the advantages of carbon beams. An European pool, called ENGIGHT (European Network for LIGHt ion Therapy) has been created in which the French ETOILE project appeared. The purpose of the thesis concerns measurements and models of 'in vitro' human cells survival. In the first part, the nowadays situation in particles interactions, tracks and cells structures and radiobiology is presented here. The second is devoted to the models based on the beam tracks and localization of the physical dose. Discussion of sensitivity to various parameters of the model has been realized with the help of numerical simulations. Finally the predictions of the improved model has been compared to experimental irradiations of human cells with argon and carbon beams of the GANIL machine. Conclusion of such study shows the performance and limits of a local model for predicting the radiobiological efficiency of light ions in hadron-therapy. (author)

  19. Inclusion complexes of lanthanides (III) with modified cyclo-dextrins; Complexes d'inclusion de lanthanides (III) avec des cyclodextrines modifiees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delangle, P. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, Lab. de Reconnaissance Ionique, UMR E 3 CEA UJF, 38 (France)

    2006-07-01

    Cyclo-dextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides which contain six ({alpha}, seven ({beta}) or eight ({gamma}) glucose units bound by {alpha} bonds. These molecules are bio-compatible, soluble in water and can incorporate organic substrates in their lipophilic cavity. The chemical modification of these natural cyclo-dextrins to give per-3,6-anhydro derived compounds changes radically the structure of the receptor and give a hydrophilic cavity. This inversion of the inclusion properties allows to obtain compounds able to bind the metallic ions. In order to reinforce the affinity of these molecules towards hard metallic cations, the residual hydroxyl groups (position 2) have been substituted by carboxy-methyl groups to obtain ACX ({alpha}) and BCX ({beta}) cyclo-dextrins. The properties of these new compounds will be presented. The ACX and BCX ligands form mono-metallic and bimetallic complexes with lanthanides (III) in aqueous solution. The structure at the solid state of the compound [Lu{sub 2}(ACX)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] represents the first example of lanthanide-cyclo-dextrin inclusion complex. Indeed, each Lu(III) cation is encapsulated in the cavity and interacts both with carboxylate groups and the ether oxygens of the cyclo-dextrin. At last, the nuclear relaxation properties of the gadolinium(III) mono-metallic complexes will be discussed. (O.M.)

  20. Oligomerization of ethylene catalysed by nickel complexes associated with nitrogen ligands in ionic liquids; Oligomerisation de l'ethylene catalysee par des complexes du nickel associes a des ligands azotes dans les liquides ioniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecocq, V.

    2003-09-01

    We report here the use of a new class of catalytic systems based on a nickel active center associated with nitrogen ligands, such as di-imines, or imino-pyridines, for the oligomerization of ethylene in a biphasic medium using ionic liquids as the catalyst solvent. The nickel catalyst is immobilized in the ionic liquid phase in which the olefinic reaction products are poorly miscible. This biphasic system makes possible an easy separation and recycle of the catalyst. Numerous di-imine and imino-pyridine ligands with different steric and electronic properties have been synthesized and their corresponding nickel complexes isolated and characterized. Different ionic liquids, based on chloro-aluminates or non-chloro-aluminates anions, have also been prepared and characterized. The effect of the nature of the ligand, the ionic liquid, the nickel precursor and its mode of activation have been studied and correlated with the selectivity and activity of the transformation of ethylene. (author)

  1. Les lipases sont des hydrolases atypiques : principales caractéristiques et applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fickers P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ipases are atypical hydrolases: principal characteristics and applications. Due to their kinetic and substrate specificities, triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolases or lipases are atypical enzymes. In function of their microenvironment, lipases are able to act as hydrolases in aqueous solution or as biocatalysts in organic synthesis. As hydrolases, they are responsible of the triglycerids catabolism into fatty acids and glycerol. In many organisms, this reaction plays a major role in the fat and lipid metabolism. In addition, lipases are also able to hydrolyse phospholipids and cholesterol esters. In organic solvent, lipases could catalyse reactions such as esterifications, acidolysis or alcoolysis with enantio-, regio- and chimioselectivity. Lipases form a mixed class of enzyme due to their animal, vegetal or microbial origins. All those properties led to the development of many applications in the food and chemical industries but also in the medical and therapeutic field.

  2. Mise en forme de structures à base de carbone pour des applications électrochimique

    OpenAIRE

    Phuakkong, Oranit

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, the design of advanced carbon materials via electrochemical techniques and for electrochemical applications have been studied. In the first part, the concept of bipolar electrochemistry, which allows carrying out electrochemical reactions on a free-standing conductive object in an electric field, was employed to generate Janus-type objects. These objects are modified with a thermoresponsive hydrogel of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) on one side and an electrophoretic dep...

  3. Protein complex finding and ranking: An application to Alzheimer's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Protein complexes are known to play a major role in controlling cellular activity in a living being. Identifying complexesfrom raw protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an important area of research. Earlier work has been limited mostly to yeastand a few other model organisms. Such protein complex identification methods, ...

  4. Characterization of complex networks : Application to robustness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamakovic, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the topological characterization of complex networks. It specifically focuses on those elementary graph measures that are of interest when quantifying topology-related aspects of the robustness of complex networks. This thesis makes the following contributions to the field of

  5. Application of bisphosphomide-palladium (II) pincer complex in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bisphosphomide-based pincer complex [PdBr{2,6-{Ph2PC(O)}2(C6H3)}] (2) has shown very high catalytic activity in Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction under microwave irradiation for a variety of aryl bromides and aryl boronic acids. The complex showed the same efficiency for gram scale reactions.

  6. Dynamic DGT speciation analysis and applicability to natural heterogeneous complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Chakraborty, P.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Owing to their inherent heterogeneity, the thermodynamic stability of metal ion complexes with natural ligands is characterised by a distribution, and thus is a function of metal-to-ligand ratio. The kinetic features of such metal complexes are also distributed and can be probed by dynamic

  7. Protein complex finding and ranking: An application to Alzheimer's

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Protein complexes are known to play a major role in controlling cellular activity in a living being. Identifying complexesfrom raw protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an important area of research. Earlier work has been limited mostly to yeastand a few other model organisms. Such protein complex identification methods, ...

  8. L'evolution thermique de la matière organique des sédiments : applications d'une simulation mathématique. Potentiel pétrolier des bassins sédimentaires de reconstitution de l'histoire thermique des sédiments Thermal Evolution of Organic Matter in Sediments : Application of a Mathematical Simulation. Petrleum Potential of Sedimentary Basins and Reconstructing the Thermal History of Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Au moyen d'un modèle mathématique, on simule la dégradation thermique de la matière organique des sédiments. Les applications possibles de ce modèle concernent la recherche des zones favorables pour la prospection de l'huile ou du gaz, la détermination de l'époque de formation des hydrocarbures pour la comparer avec l'âge des pièges et celui des couvertures, l'évaluation des réserves ultimes d'un bassin, ainsi que la pyrogénation des schistes bitumineux. Le type de matière organique est représenté dans le modèle par un jeu de constantes qui sont déterminées par des essais de laboratoire; on discute en particulier la distribution des énergies d'activation et sa signification en rapport avec la composition du kérogène. Les autres données nécessaires sont la reconstitution géologique de l'enfouissement et le gradient géothermique. La reconstitution de la géothermie ancienne pose un problème particulier. En associant la mesure de la réflectance de la vitrinite et la loi d'enfouissement, on peut, au moyen d'un modèle d'évolution de la vitrinite, rétablir dans la plupart des cas l'histoire thermique de la matière organique. Ce résultat présente certes un grand intérêt pour l'exploration pétrolière, mais son champ d'application dépasse largement ce domaine et s'étend aux problèmes de géologie générale géothermie, diagenèse des sédiments, tectonique globale, etc. A mathematical model is used to simulate the thermal degradation of the organic matter in sediments. The possible applications of this model have to do with the seorch for favorable ail or gas prospection zones, determining the period when hydrocarbons were formed so as to compare it with the age of traps and caprocks, and estimating the ultimate reserves of a basin a well as the pyrogenation of ail shales. The type of organic matter is represented in the model by a set of constants that are determined by laboratory tests. This article in

  9. Modélisation des diodes électroluminescentes organiques multicouches dopées. Application à de nouvelles architectures.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinot , Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The development of OLED devices for display or lighting applications usually needs a long and costly experimental approach to determine the key parameters that influence the performances. An electrical model aims at replacing this complex system with a simple object and reproducing or even predicting its main behaviors (Current-Voltage characteristic, J-V) in order to reduce the number of experiments. A first method has consisted in using a continuum band model, derived from crystalline semicon...

  10. Calorimetric approach of lanthanides (3) complexation and extraction by malonamides; Approche calorimetrique de la complexation et de l'extraction des lanthanides (3) par les malonamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandin, J.L

    2001-07-01

    In the field of long lived radionuclides separation, diamides are interesting extractants because of their ability to co-extract trivalent lanthanides and actinides, which is a preliminary and essential step in high level radioactive waste reprocessing. The research carried out contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms and the aim is the determination of thermodynamics properties ({delta}{sub r}G, {delta}{sub r}H et {delta}{sub r}S) related to the complexation and the extraction of lanthanides(III) by malonamides. The first part of the document deals with the complexation of lanthanides(III) by an hydrosoluble diamide. The experimental results obtained by UV-visible spectrometry, TRLIF, NMR and microcalorimetric titration proved that lanthanides(III)-TEMA interactions in aqueous medium are very weak and that the complexation reaction is endothermic. The TEMA ligand still stays in the second coordination sphere of coordination of the lanthanide ion. The second part of this study focuses on the extraction of neodymium(III) nitrate by a lipophilic diamide which is an exothermic reaction. The influence of the composition of aqueous and organic phases on the thermodynamics properties {delta}{sub r}G et {delta}{sub r}H has been studied by microcalorimetric titration. The most influent parameter is the total concentration in extractant. As a consequence, thermodynamic values are very dependent on the organic phase organisation before and alter extraction. At the same time, this study showed the interest of the calorimetric approach for the analysis of basic reactions like diamide dilution and their organisation as oligomeric aggregates. (author)

  11. Starch-lipid complexes: Interesting material and applications from amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueous slurries of high amylose starch can be steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to generate materials that contain inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes are simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam...

  12. Workshop on the applications of new computer tools to thermal engineering; Applications a la thermique des nouveaux outils informatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on the applications of new computer tools to thermal engineering has been organized by the French society of thermal engineers. Seven papers have been presented, from which two papers dealing with thermal diffusivity measurements in materials and with the optimization of dryers have been selected for ETDE. (J.S.)

  13. APPLICATION DES ENSEMBLES FLOUS A LA REPARTITION OPTIMALE DE LA PUISSANCE DANS LES RESEAUX ELECTRIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guediri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimal power flow calculation (OPF, used to optimize specific aspects of power system operations, usually employ standard mathematical programming techniques. These techniques are not suitable to handle many practical considerations encountered in power systems, including the uncertainty of the operational constraints [1].They can be relaxed temporarily, if necessary, to obtain feasible solutions. For taking well into account this type of constraints, one proposes in this work the application of a method based on fuzzy sets to the OPF problem. The developed method has been tested on standard scale power systems (IEEE30bus.

  14. Where to from here? Future applications of mental models of complex performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.A.; Nelson, W.R.; Blackman, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to raise issues for discussion regarding the applications of mental models in the study of complex performance. Applications for training, expert systems and decision aids, job selection, workstation design, and other complex environments are considered. 1 ref

  15. Applications of Computer Technology in Complex Craniofacial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher M. Day, MD

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion:. Modern 3D technology allows the surgeon to better analyze complex craniofacial deformities, precisely plan surgical correction with computer simulation of results, customize osteotomies, plan distractions, and print 3DPCI, as needed. The use of advanced 3D computer technology can be applied safely and potentially improve aesthetic and functional outcomes after complex craniofacial reconstruction. These techniques warrant further study and may be reproducible in various centers of care.

  16. Energetic lanthanide complexes: coordination chemistry and explosives applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manner, V W; Barker, B J; Sanders, V E; Laintz, K E; Scott, B L; Preston, D N; Sandstrom, M; Reardon, B L

    2014-01-01

    Metals are generally added to organic molecular explosives in a heterogeneous composite to improve overall heat and energy release. In order to avoid creating a mixture that can vary in homogeneity, energetic organic molecules can be directly bonded to high molecular weight metals, forming a single metal complex with Angstrom-scale separation between the metal and the explosive. To probe the relationship between the structural properties of metal complexes and explosive performance, a new series of energetic lanthanide complexes has been prepared using energetic ligands such as NTO (5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-3-one). These are the first examples of lanthanide NTO complexes where no water is coordinated to the metal, demonstrating novel control of the coordination environment. The complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, NMR and IR spectroscopies, photoluminescence, and sensitivity testing. The structural and energetic properties are discussed in the context of enhanced blast effects and detection. Cheetah calculations have been performed to fine-tune physical properties, creating a systematic method for producing explosives with 'tailor made' characteristics. These new complexes will be benchmarks for further study in the field of metalized high explosives.

  17. Terpyridine and Quaterpyridine Complexes as Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Saccone

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Terpyridine and quaterpyridine-based complexes allow wide light harvesting of the solar spectrum. Terpyridines, with respect to bipyridines, allow for achieving metal-complexes with lower band gaps in the metal-to-ligand transition (MLCT, thus providing a better absorption at lower energy wavelengths resulting in an enhancement of the solar light-harvesting ability. Despite the wider absorption of the first tricarboxylate terpyridyl ligand-based complex, Black Dye (BD, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC performances are lower if compared with N719 or other optimized bipyridine-based complexes. To further improve BD performances several modifications have been carried out in recent years affecting each component of the complexes: terpyridines have been replaced by quaterpyridines; other metals were used instead of ruthenium, and thiocyanates have been replaced by different pinchers in order to achieve cyclometalated or heteroleptic complexes. The review provides a summary on design strategies, main synthetic routes, optical and photovoltaic properties of terpyridine and quaterpyridine ligands applied to photovoltaic, and focuses on n-type DSCs.

  18. Light cones in relativity: Real, complex, and virtual, with applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, T. M.; Newman, E. T.

    2011-01-01

    We study geometric structures associated with shear-free null geodesic congruences in Minkowski space-time and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences in asymptotically flat space-times. We show how in both the flat and asymptotically flat settings, complexified future null infinity I C + acts as a ''holographic screen,'' interpolating between two dual descriptions of the null geodesic congruence. One description constructs a complex null geodesic congruence in a complex space-time whose source is a complex worldline, a virtual source as viewed from the holographic screen. This complex null geodesic congruence intersects the real asymptotic boundary when its source lies on a particular open-string type structure in the complex space-time. The other description constructs a real, twisting, shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruence in the real space-time, whose source (at least in Minkowski space) is in general a closed-string structure: the caustic set of the congruence. Finally we show that virtually all of the interior space-time physical quantities that are identified at null infinity I + (center of mass, spin, angular momentum, linear momentum, and force) are given kinematic meaning and dynamical descriptions in terms of the complex worldline.

  19. Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Guodong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the first examples of group 4 metalloporphyrin 1,2-diolato complexes were synthesized through a number of strategies. In general, treatment of imido metalloporphyrin complexes, (TTP)M=NR, (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), with vicinal diols led to the formation of a series of diolato complexes. Alternatively, the chelating pinacolate complexes could be prepared by metathesis of (TTP)MCl2 (M = Ti, Hf) with disodium pinacolate. These complexes were found to undergo C-C cleavage reactions to produce organic carbonyl compounds. For titanium porphyrins, treatment of a titanium(II) alkyne adduct, (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh), with aromatic aldehydes or aryl ketones resulted in reductive coupling of the carbonyl groups to produce the corresponding diolato complexes. Aliphatic aldehydes or ketones were not reactive towards (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh). However, these carbonyl compounds could be incorporated into a diolato complex on reaction with a reactive precursor, (TTP)Ti[O(Ph)2C(Ph)2O] to provide unsymmetrical diolato complexes via cross coupling reactions. In addition, an enediolato complex (TTP)Ti(OCPhCPhO) was obtained from the reaction of (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh) with benzoin. Titanium porphyrin diolato complexes were found to be intermediates in the (TTP)Ti=O-catalyzed cleavage reactions of vicinal diols, in which atmospheric oxygen was the oxidant. Furthermore, (TTP)Ti=O was capable of catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and α-hydroxy ketones to benzaldehyde and α-diketones, respectively. Other high valent metalloporphyrin complexes also can catalyze the oxidative diol cleavage and the benzyl alcohol oxidation reactions with dioxygen. A comparison of Ti(IV) and Sn(IV) porphyrin chemistry was undertaken. While chelated diolato complexes were invariably obtained for titanium porphyrins on treatment with 1,2-diols, the reaction of vicinal diols with tin porphyrins gave a number of products, including mono

  20. Models for the Behavior of Offshore Structure Foundations. Part Two: Applications to Structural Design and Quality Assurance Processes Modèles pour le comportement des fondations d'ouvrages types marins. Deuxième partie : applications au calcul d'ouvrage et processus d'assurance qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meimon Y.

    2006-11-01

    structure. Prospects opened up by the research are discussed. La conception des fondations de grands ouvrages est une tâche complexe qui requiert à la fois l'expérience de l'expert et l'utilisation de modèles numériques adéquats pour assurer la sécurité et optimiser les coûts de dimensionnement. En fait, prévoir le comportement d'une fondation nécessite de bien évaluer les effets combinés de la technique de mise en place, de la variabilité spatiale des propriétés mécaniques, de l'incertitude sur les chargements et des techniques de modélisation du comportement mécanique des géomatériaux. Ceci est particulièrement vrai pour les plates-formes marines, qu'elles soient destinées à l'exploration ou à la production du pétrole, dans la mesure où les chargements non-monotones dus à l'environnement marin, souvent très sévère, peuvent avoir des effets très néfastes sur le comportement de ces structures. On présente, en deux parties, la synthèse d'une dizaine d'années d'activités de recherche, menées par une équipe de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, en collaboration avec plusieurs équipes universitaires et des centres techniques et industriels, pour la mise au point de méthodologies et d'outils adaptés au calcul du comportement des fondations d'ouvrages types marins durant toute la durée de vie de la plate-forme. Cet article concerne la deuxième partie qui est dévolue à l'application des modèles développés au calcul d'ouvrage par la méthode des éléments finis et à l'exposé d'un processus de validation des modèles, étape d'une démarche d'assurance qualité. Méthodes pour le calcul des fondations marines : Le système de programmes FONDOF utilisant la méthode des éléments finis a été développé. Il comprend (fig. 1. 1 des interfaces interactives de mise en données et de dépouillement des résultats ainsi que des modules de calcul, opérationnels comme FONGEO pour les calculs bi et tridimensionnels ou FONDAX pour le

  1. L’IMPACT DE L’APPLICATION DES REFORMES BALE III SUR L’INDUSTRIE BANCAIRE ROUMAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Halep

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le début du XXIème a connu un essor remarquable des marchés financiers, de l’innovation et des processus de déréglementation. L’inflation faible, la liquidité abondante, la confiance dans les marchés efficaces et autorégulateurs ont conduit à une perception généralisée de risque faible, incitant les acteurs à une prise accrue de risque. Face aux crises qui s’enchaînent depuis maintenant cinq ans, des mesures de ré-réglementation du système ont été proposées, communément appelées Reformes de Bâle.L’article analyse l’évolution des recommandations de Bâle en lien avec l’évolution économique et des marchés financiers et évalue l’impact de ces dernières sur le secteur bancaire roumain.

  2. Application of global elements to a reinforced concrete structure; Application des elements globaux a une structure en beton arme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morand, O

    1994-07-01

    The dimensioning of nuclear facilities requires to take into account the possible risk of earthquakes. However such installations are generally complex structures with reinforced concrete poles, walls, beams and porches. In this study, a seismic analysis of such a structure is proposed. The use of the Castem 2000 global element code was attempted to dynamically simulate the behaviour of the reinforced concrete elements. However, no suitable modeling has been found for the storeys, the functioning of which being dominated by carrying walls. Concerning the porch-type storeys, monotonous static loads were simulated and provided information on the local and global behaviour of these structures. Thus, representative global elements could be realized for these structures. Results obtained are satisfactory for these storeys which essentially undergo a bending deformation. (J.S.)

  3. Energetics and Defect Interactions of Complex Oxides for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Jonathan Michael

    The goal of this dissertation is to employ computational methods to gain greater insights into the energetics and defect interactions of complex oxides that are relevant for today's energy challenges. To achieve this goal, the development of novel computational methodologies are required to handle complex systems, including systems containing nearly 650 ions and systems with tens of thousands of possible atomic configurations. The systems that are investigated in this dissertation are aliovalently doped lanthanum orthophosphate (LaPO4) due to its potential application as a proton conducting electrolyte for intermediate temperature fuel cells, and aliovalently doped uranium dioxide (UO2) due to its importance in nuclear fuel performance and disposal. First we undertake density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations on the relative energetics of pyrophosphate defects and protons in LaPO4, including their binding with divalent dopant cations. In particular, for supercell calculations with 1.85 mol% Sr doping, we investigate the dopant-binding energies for pyrophosphate defects to be 0.37 eV, which is comparable to the value of 0.34 eV calculated for proton-dopant binding energies in the same system. These results establish that dopant-defect interactions further stabilize proton incorporation, with the hydration enthalpies when the dopants are nearest and furthest from the protons and pyrophosphate defects being -1.66 eV and -1.37 eV, respectively. Even though our calculations show that dopant binding enhances the enthalpic favorability of proton incorporation, they also suggest that such binding is likely to substantially lower the kinetic rate of hydrolysis of pyrophosphate defects. We then shift our focus to solid solutions of fluorite-structured UO 2 with trivalent rare earth fission product cations (M3+=Y, La) using a combination of ionic pair potential and DFT based methods. Calculated enthalpies of formation with respect to constituent oxides show higher

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure and applications of palladium thiosalicylate complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Moosun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three palladium thiosalicylate complexes [Pd(tb(bipy]·3H2O (1, [Pd2(tb2(bipy2]·(dtdb2 (2 and [Pd2(tb2(phen2]·dtdb·H2O (3 (bipy = bipyridine; phen = phenanthroline were prepared from the reaction of PdCl2(CH3CN2 with dithiosalicylic acid (dtdb which underwent cleavage to form thiobenzoate anion (tb in DMF/MeOH. Square planar geometries of the complexes with a N2SO coordination type were proposed on the basis of single crystal X-ray structural study. The presence of trapped and uncoordinated dtdb was observed in complexes 2 and 3. Complexes 1–3 were evaluated as catalysts for Heck coupling reactions of methyl acrylate with iodobenzene, and showed moderate activities at a very low catalyst loading. Complex 1 was found to inhibit the growth of bacteria and scavenge free radicals efficiently.

  5. Table des tableaux

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Tableau 1 : Production nationale d'alcool avant 1919 68 Tableau 2 : Production nationale d'alcool après 1939 (Source : Martraire, 1955, A.D. 77 : Az 7086) 71 Tableau 3 : Les surfaces agricoles disponibles en France en 2004 123 Tableau 4 : Le régime fiscal des carburants et des biocarburants en 2005 et 2006 (source : ADEME) 175 Tableau 5 : Exemple de coût de production de biocarburants (Source : Stéphane His (IFP), Les biocarburants en Europe, 2004) 176 Tableau 6 : L’application de la directiv...

  6. Developments based on stochastic and determinist methods for studying complex nuclear systems; Developpements utilisant des methodes stochastiques et deterministes pour l'analyse de systemes nucleaires complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffard, F.X

    2000-05-19

    In the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics, particle transport plays and important role. Neutronic design, operation and evaluation calculations of nuclear system make use of large and powerful computer codes. However, current limitations in terms of computer resources make it necessary to introduce simplifications and approximations in order to keep calculation time and cost within reasonable limits. Two different types of methods are available in these codes. The first one is the deterministic method, which is applicable in most practical cases but requires approximations. The other method is the Monte Carlo method, which does not make these approximations but which generally requires exceedingly long running times. The main motivation of this work is to investigate the possibility of a combined use of the two methods in such a way as to retain their advantages while avoiding their drawbacks. Our work has mainly focused on the speed-up of 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations (TRIPOLI-4 code) by means of an optimized biasing scheme derived from importance maps obtained from the deterministic code ERANOS. The application of this method to two different practical shielding-type problems has demonstrated its efficiency: speed-up factors of 100 have been reached. In addition, the method offers the advantage of being easily implemented as it is not very to the choice of the importance mesh grid. It has also been demonstrated that significant speed-ups can be achieved by this method in the case of coupled neutron-gamma transport problems, provided that the interdependence of the neutron and photon importance maps is taken into account. Complementary studies are necessary to tackle a problem brought out by this work, namely undesirable jumps in the Monte Carlo variance estimates. (author)

  7. Olefins hydro-formylation catalysed by rhodium complexes using ionic liquids; Hydroformylation des olefines par les complexes du rhodium dans les liquides ioniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, F.

    2000-10-26

    Biphasic long chain olefins hydro-formylation catalysed by rhodium complexes using ionic liquids allows a selective reaction and an easy separation of the products from the catalyst. This study reports the synthesis of ionic liquids that were used as the catalyst's solvent. Their physical and chemical properties (melting point, solubility of organic substrates) can be varied with the structure of the organic cation (imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolydinium) and with its substituents (nature, length, number). It depends also on the nature of the inorganic anion (hexa-fluoro-phosphate, tetrafluoroborate, tri-fluoro-acetate, triflate, bistriflylamidure...). The use of phosphorus ligands bearing ionic functions proved to be efficient to maintain the onerous rhodium catalyst in the ionic liquid phase. Phosphines, phosphites and phosphinites including anionic (sulfonate, carboxylate) or cationic (imidazolium, pyridinium, guanidinium, phosphonium) groups have been synthesised. Finally, the influences of the ligand and of the ionic liquid on the catalytic system performances are described. Selectivities in aldehydes and reaction rates proved to be highly dependent on the nature of the ligand and of the ionic liquid. The different possibilities of recycling the ionic phase containing the rhodium catalyst have been also studied. (author)

  8. Period mappings with applications to symplectic complex spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kirschner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Extending Griffiths’ classical theory of period mappings for compact Kähler manifolds, this book develops and applies a theory of period mappings of “Hodge-de Rham type” for families of open complex manifolds. The text consists of three parts. The first part develops the theory. The second part investigates the degeneration behavior of the relative Frölicher spectral sequence associated to a submersive morphism of complex manifolds. The third part applies the preceding material to the study of irreducible symplectic complex spaces. The latter notion generalizes the idea of an irreducible symplectic manifold, dubbed an irreducible hyperkähler manifold in differential geometry, to possibly singular spaces. The three parts of the work are of independent interest, but intertwine nicely.

  9. Homogeneous Catalysis with Metal Complexes Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duca, Gheorghe

    2012-01-01

    The book about homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes deals with the description of the reductive-oxidative, metal complexes  in a liquid phase (in polar solvents, mainly in water, and less in nonpolar solvents). The exceptional importance of the redox processes in chemical systems, in the reactions occuring in living organisms, the environmental processes, atmosphere, water, soil, and in industrial technologies (especially in food-processing industries) is discussed. The detailed practical aspects of the established regularities are explained for solving the specific practical tasks in various fields of industrial chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, analytical chemistry and ecological chemistry. The main scope of the book is the survey and systematization of the latest advances in homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes. It gives an overview of the research results and practical experience accumulated by the author during the last decade.

  10. Big and complex data analysis methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume conveys some of the surprises, puzzles and success stories in high-dimensional and complex data analysis and related fields. Its peer-reviewed contributions showcase recent advances in variable selection, estimation and prediction strategies for a host of useful models, as well as essential new developments in the field. The continued and rapid advancement of modern technology now allows scientists to collect data of increasingly unprecedented size and complexity. Examples include epigenomic data, genomic data, proteomic data, high-resolution image data, high-frequency financial data, functional and longitudinal data, and network data. Simultaneous variable selection and estimation is one of the key statistical problems involved in analyzing such big and complex data. The purpose of this book is to stimulate research and foster interaction between researchers in the area of high-dimensional data analysis. More concretely, its goals are to: 1) highlight and expand the breadth of existing methods in...

  11. Development and Application of Agglomerated Multigrid Methods for Complex Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    We report progress in the development of agglomerated multigrid techniques for fully un- structured grids in three dimensions, building upon two previous studies focused on efficiently solving a model diffusion equation. We demonstrate a robust fully-coarsened agglomerated multigrid technique for 3D complex geometries, incorporating the following key developments: consistent and stable coarse-grid discretizations, a hierarchical agglomeration scheme, and line-agglomeration/relaxation using prismatic-cell discretizations in the highly-stretched grid regions. A signi cant speed-up in computer time is demonstrated for a model diffusion problem, the Euler equations, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for 3D realistic complex geometries.

  12. Complexation des acides aminés basiques arginine, histidine et lysine avec l'ADN plasmidique en solution aqueuse : participation à la capture de radicaux sous irradiation X à 1,5 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq Khalil, Talat; Taillefumier, Baptiste; Boulanouar, Omar; Mavon, Christophe; Fromm, Michel

    2016-09-01

    L'environnement chimique de l'ADN en situation biologique est complexe notam-ment en raison de la présence d'histones, protéines nucléaires, associées en quantité approximativement égales à l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Les histones possèdent de nombreux radicaux basiques arginine et lysine chargés positivement et dont la majorité se trouve sur les chaînes émergentes, l'ADN présente quant à lui des charges négatives sur ses groupements phosphates localisés tout au long de la double hélice. Dans cette étude, la complexité de la structure de la chromatine nucléaire est dans un premier temps mimée en solution aqueuse par la formation de complexes entre un ADN plasmidique sonde et les trois acides aminés basiques, Arg, His, Lys, qui, mis à part His, sont protonés au pH physiologique. Ces acides aminés libres en solution sont réputés être des capteurs efficaces de radicaux libres, notamment pour le radical hydroxyle, conférant ainsi un pouvoir protecteur vis-à-vis des effets indirects sur l'ADN en situation d'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants. A concentration fixée, les capacités de capture des acides aminés libres, σ, pour le radical hydroxyle sont typiquement les suivantes σHis ≈σArg > σLys (σLys ≈ 0,1 × σArg). Nous avons mesuré les taux de cassures simple brin par plasmide et par Gray (χ) lors d'expositions de solutions aqueuses de complexes [acide aminé - ADN plasmidique] aux rayons X ultra-mous (1,5 keV). A concentrations égales, les trois acides aminés complexés et présents en large excès ne manifestent pas une capacité de protection de l'ADN proportionnelle à leur capacité de capture libre et en solution ; on trouve en effet des taux de cassures dans l'ordre suivant χHis > χArg > χLys (χLys ≈ 0,01 χArg). Après avoir détaillé le mode opératoire de ces mesures, nous analyserons sur des bases bibliographiques, les modes spécifiques d'interaction des acides aminés basiques avec l'ADN. La sp

  13. Analyste des opérations de TI (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fournir un soutien technique pour le fonctionnement courant des serveurs des systèmes d'information du Centre, de l'infrastructure du réseau (au siège et dans les bureaux régionaux), des appareils des systèmes, des applications hébergées et des logiciels des systèmes d'exploitation afin d'assurer la disponibilité, ...

  14. Simulation des vibrations d'organes moteur complexes `a amortissement non-standard par m´ethodes modales ´etendues

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvage , Olivier; Balmès , Etienne; Lagache , Jean Marie; Quique , Francois

    2009-01-01

    National audience; On pr´esente et utilise une généralisation des méthodes d'analyse modale prenant en compte de manière appropriée des éléments viscoélastiques localisés, dont les propriétés varient en fréquence et température. Ces méthodes modales étendues sont issues d'itérations sur résidus considérant les efforts viscoélastiques comme perturbation non-linéaire d'un modèle élastique approché. Des comparaisons sont réalisées avec des solutions de référence sur plusieurs cas de calcul. On m...

  15. Le management des risques de l'entreprise cadre de référence, techniques d'application

    CERN Document Server

    Committee of sponsoring organizations of the Treadway commission (Etats-Unis)

    2005-01-01

    Traduction en français du second rapport COSO, ce livre est un véritable outil pour les dirigeants confrontés à la complexité opérationnelle du management des risques. Adaptable à toutes les organisations, il constitue un socle méthodologique indispensable pour tous les professionnels de la gestion des risques ainsi que pour les auditeurs et consultants internes et externes. Il est également un manuel incontournable pour les étudiants et les enseignants. Dans un environnement économique fortement concurrentiel et en constante évolution, cet ouvrage ne s'intéresse pas uniquement à la gestion des risques mais contribue aussi à identifier puis exploiter les opportunités nouvelles, source d'avantages concurrentiels.

  16. Synthesis of conjugated polymers with complex architecture for photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiriy, Anton; Krebs, Frederik C

    2017-01-01

    A common approach to bulk heterojunction solar cells involves a “trialand- error” approach in finding optimal kinetically unstable morphologies. An alternative approach assumes the utilization of complex polymer architectures, such as donor–acceptor block copolymers. Because of a covalent...

  17. Topological similarity of random cell complexes and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhart, B.; Mason, J. K.; MacPherson, R. D.

    2016-06-01

    Although random cell complexes occur throughout the physical sciences, there does not appear to be a standard way to quantify their statistical similarities and differences. The various proposals in the literature are usually motivated by the analysis of particular physical systems and do not necessarily apply to general situations. The central concepts in this paper—the swatch and the cloth—provide a description of the local topology of a cell complex that is general (any physical system that can be represented as a cell complex is admissible) and complete (any statistical question about the local topology can be answered from the cloth). Furthermore, this approach allows a distance to be defined that measures the similarity of the local topology of two cell complexes. The distance is used to identify a steady state of a model grain boundary network, quantify the approach to this steady state, and show that the steady state is independent of the initial conditions. The same distance is then employed to show that the long-term properties in simulations of a specific model of a dislocation network do not depend on the implementation of dislocation intersections.

  18. Application of functional derivatives to analysis of complex systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Zdeněk; Čelikovský, Sergej

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 10 (2013), s. 2982-2993 ISSN 0016-0032 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20433S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : complex systems * linear equation * modeling Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.260, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/TR/beran-0398123.pdf

  19. Quelles pistes d’actions pour impulser la consommation des algues en France ? Les algues et leurs applications culinaires

    OpenAIRE

    Comparini , Charline; Le Bras , Quentin; Lesueur , Marie; Lucas , S.; GOUIN , Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Programme Idealg.Phase 3. Les publications du Pôle halieutique AGROCAMPUS OUEST n°43, 46p.; Dans le cadre du projet IDEALG, le Pôle halieutique AGROCAMPUS OUEST s’intéresse en particulier au marché français des algues alimentaires. La consommation directe des algues alimentaires est un phénomène émergent en France et en Europe, notamment grâce à la démocratisation de la restauration japonaise et de la consommation de sushis. Cependant, le fait d’avoir peu d’informations sur la consommation d’...

  20. Analyse dimensionnelle de l'équation de Navier et application à la théorie des plaques minces

    OpenAIRE

    Millet , Olivier; Hamdouni , Aziz; Cimetière , Alain; Elamri , Khalid

    1997-01-01

    L'analyse dimensionnelle de l'équation de Navier fait apparaître de façon naturelle des nombres sans dimension caractéristiques de la nature physique du problème. Ces nombres sans dimension permettent de déterminer le domaine de validité du modèle de Kirchhoff-Love. Cette nouvelle approche ne nécessite aucune hypothèse a priori de changement d'échelle pour mettre en oeuvre la méthode des développements asymptotiques.

  1. AMELIORATION DES PLANTES Biotechnologies et arachide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel Danièle

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches sur les biotechnologies de l’arachide sont principalement conduites aux États-Unis mais également à travers des programmes collaboratifs internationaux où interviennent l’Icrisat et le Cirad. Malgré une forte variation phénotypique, l’arachide cultivée montre peu de variabilité moléculaire. L’arachide étant une culture alimentaire et de rente très importante dans les régions sahéliennes, la sécheresse et la contamination des graines par l’aflatoxine en cours de culture constituent des contraintes majeures. La seule application connue en sélection assistée par marqueurs d’ADN fait intervenir des gènes provenant d’une espèce sauvage compatible en croisement avec l’espèce cultivée. Les principaux résultats publiés jusqu’à présent concernent la mise au point de techniques de régénération et de transfert de gènes. Le marquage moléculaire s’avérant inefficace, les recherches s’orientent aujourd’hui sur la génomique fonctionnelle du fait de la disponibilité des techniques de transformation génétique. L’objectif est de développer de nouveaux outils moléculaires capables d’assister les programmes de sélection pour la résistance à ces deux traits complexes.

  2. Application de la methode des sous-groupes au calcul Monte-Carlo multigroupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas

    This thesis is dedicated to the development of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver based on the subgroup (or multiband) method. In this formalism, cross sections for resonant isotopes are represented in the form of probability tables on the whole energy spectrum. This study is intended in order to test and validate this approach in lattice physics and criticality-safety applications. The probability table method seems promising since it introduces an alternative computational way between the legacy continuous-energy representation and the multigroup method. In the first case, the amount of data invoked in continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations can be very important and tend to slow down the overall computational time. In addition, this model preserves the quality of the physical laws present in the ENDF format. Due to its cheap computational cost, the multigroup Monte Carlo way is usually at the basis of production codes in criticality-safety studies. However, the use of a multigroup representation of the cross sections implies a preliminary calculation to take into account self-shielding effects for resonant isotopes. This is generally performed by deterministic lattice codes relying on the collision probability method. Using cross-section probability tables on the whole energy range permits to directly take into account self-shielding effects and can be employed in both lattice physics and criticality-safety calculations. Several aspects have been thoroughly studied: (1) The consistent computation of probability tables with a energy grid comprising only 295 or 361 groups. The CALENDF moment approach conducted to probability tables suitable for a Monte Carlo code. (2) The combination of the probability table sampling for the energy variable with the delta-tracking rejection technique for the space variable, and its impact on the overall efficiency of the proposed Monte Carlo algorithm. (3) The derivation of a model for taking into account anisotropic

  3. Polymerisation par plasma a pression atmospherique: Caracterisation des depots et leurs applications en biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc

    Nitrogen (N)-containing polymer surfaces are attractive in numerous technological contexts, for example in biomedical applications. Here, we have used an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) apparatus to deposit novel families of N-rich plasma polymers, designated PP:N, using mixtures of three different hydrocarbon precursors (methane, ethylene, and acetylene) in nitrogen at varying respective gas flow ratios, typically parts per thousand. In preparation for subsequent cell-surface interaction studies, the first part of this research focuses on the chemical mapping of those materials, with specific attention to (semi)- quantitative analyses of functional groups. Well-established and some lesser-known analytical techniques have been combined to provide the best possible chemical and structural characterisations of these three families of PP:N thin films; namely, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle goniometry (CAG), and elemental analysis (EA). High, "tunable" total nitrogen content was measured by both XPS and EA (between 6% and 25% by EA, or between 10% and 40% by XPS, which cannot detect hydrogen). Chemical derivatisation with 4-trifluoromethylbenzaldehyde (TFBA) enabled measurements of primary amine concentrations, the functionality of greatest bio-technological interest, which were found to account for 5 % to 20 % of the total bound nitrogen. By combining the above-mentioned complementary methods, we were further able to determine the complete chemical formulae, the degrees of unsaturation, and other major chemical functionalities in PP:N film structures. Several of these features are believed to be without precedents in the literature on hydrocarbon plasma polymers, for example measurements of absolute compositions (including hydrogen), and of unsaturation. It was shown that besides amines, nitriles, isonitriles and imines are

  4. Evaluation de l'abondance des kystes des protozoaires flagellés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les analyses statistiques montrent des corrélations significatives (P ≤ 0,05) entre la densité des kystes des protozoaires flagelles identifiées et les paramètres physico-chimiques tels que les MES, l'oxydabilité et la turbidité. Conclusions et application des resultsts: Les plantes doivent être bien lavées, désinfectées et bien ...

  5. Complex problems in entrepreneurship education: Examining complex problem-solving in the application of opportunity identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, Y.; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Lans, Thomas; Biemans, Harm J A; Niepel, Christoph; Greiff, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE) should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI) and complex problem-solving (CPS). OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of

  6. Complex Problems in Entrepreneurship Education: Examining Complex Problem-Solving in the Application of Opportunity Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, Y.; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Lans, T.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Niepel, Christoph; Greiff, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE) should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI) and complex problem-solving (CPS). OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of

  7. Corrosion in the presence of a complexing agent - application to the continuous determination of hydrofluoric acid in the atmosphere; Corrosion en presence de complexant. - Application a la determination en continu de l'acide fluorhydrique dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapron, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1966-10-01

    After a presentation of the thermodynamics and kinetics involved during corrosion in the presence of a complexing agent, the first part of this report deals with the electrochemical properties of an aluminium electrode in the presence of fluoride solutions. Various physical and chemical parameters have been studied together with their influence on the aforementioned properties. From this first part are deduced the medium and the various parameters which lead to the maximum efficiency for the detection of fluorides by amperometry. The second part is an application of the results of the above work, which has made it possible to develop a cell having an original design. Its performances are described. They show that the cell has a greater sensitivity and a shorter response time than existing equipment. (author) [French] Apres un rappel sur la thermodynamique et la cinetique de la corrosion en presence de complexant, la premiere partie du memoire est consacree a l'etude des proprietes electrochimiques de l'electrode d'aluminium, en presence de solutions de fluorure. Differents parametres physiques et chimiques ont ete etudies ainsi que leurs influences sur les dites proprietes. De cette premiere partie on en a deduit le milieu et les divers parametres a fixer de facon a obtenir un rendement optimum au vue de la detection des fluorures par amperometrie. La deuxieme partie, qui est l'application des renseignements tires du travail deja cite, a permis de mettre au point une cellule de conception nouvelle. Ses performances sont decrites. Elles indiquent une sensibilite plus grande, un temps de reponse plus court que les appareils existants. (auteur)

  8. Photochemical Approaches to Complex Chemotypes: Applications in Natural Product Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The use of photochemical transformations is a powerful strategy that allows for the formation of a high degree of molecular complexity from relatively simple building blocks in a single step. A central feature of all light-promoted transformations is the involvement of electronically excited states, generated upon absorption of photons. This produces transient reactive intermediates and significantly alters the reactivity of a chemical compound. The input of energy provided by light thus offers a means to produce strained and unique target compounds that cannot be assembled using thermal protocols. This review aims at highlighting photochemical transformations as a tool for rapidly accessing structurally and stereochemically diverse scaffolds. Synthetic designs based on photochemical transformations have the potential to afford complex polycyclic carbon skeletons with impressive efficiency, which are of high value in total synthesis. PMID:27120289

  9. Afrique Science: Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modélisation des réactions de pyrolyse des coques de coco, des déchets de bois et de la paille : Application à la prévision de la composition molaire des gaz de gazéification ... SIG et distribution spatiale des infrastructures hydrauliques dans la commune de Zè au Benin · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. Applications of color graphics to complex aerodynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of uses for color graphics in the display of large sets of complex aerodynamic data in two and three dimensions are summarized. These methods improve the ability of a scientific researcher to interactively review three-dimensional displays of aircraft panel geometries for the purposes of eliminating errors, and allow him to rapidly display an assortment of smooth-shaded, color-coded illustrations for his experimental and computational results.

  11. Application of tomographic particle image velocimetry to complex (dusty) plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Jeremiah

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques have been used to obtain detailed measurements of the thermal and transport properties of weakly-coupled dusty plasmas. This paper reports on the application of an extension of these techniques, tomographic PIV (tom-PIV), which provides an instantaneous volumetric measurement of the particle transport.

  12. Epuration des effluents industriels par électroflottation | Merzouk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'application des paramètres optimisés sur les eaux de rejets du complexe industriel ALCOVEL d'Akbou a montré, une réduction de la demande biologique en oxygène (DBO5), la demande chimique en oxygène DCO, la turbidité, les MES et de la couleur de 93.5 %, 90.3 %, 78.7 %, 93.3 % et plus de 93%, respectivement.

  13. Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Première partie : Présentation théorique des trois techniques Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part One : Theoretical Description of Three Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Espinat D.

    2006-01-01

    Les techniques de diffusion, des rayons X, des neutrons et de la lumière, jouent un rôle très important pour la compréhension des milieux colloïdaux. Peu d'articles de la littérature s'attachent à présenter conjointement les trois méthodes. Nous avons, dans la première partie de cet article, détaillé les principes théoriques en insistent tout particulièrement sur les spécificités de chacune. Après les rappels concernant la diffusion par les systèmes dilués, nous nous sommes intéressés aux sys...

  14. Metal complex polymer for second harmonic generation and electroluminescence applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, X. T.; Suzuki, H.; Watanabe, T.; Lee, S. H.; Miyata, S.; Sasabe, H.

    1997-03-01

    We report the second harmonic generation and electroluminescent (EL) properties of a soluble metal complex polyurethane (PU). The PU was prepared by the reaction of a zinc Schiff base with 4,4'-diphenylmethane-diisocyanate. The polymer film has been effectively poled under a corona field and its linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were characterized. The results indicated that the NLO effects of the polymer are mainly originated in the distorted coordination tetragonals formed by the central zinc atoms and coordination atoms. The polymer shows strong photoluminescence under a ultraviolet-lamp illumination and can be used as a luminescent material for EL devices.

  15. Application of atmospheric transport models for complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.S.; Bunker, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques are applied to several diverse situations to study mesoscale transport of effluents in the earth's atmosphere. Simulations of a tracer release in complex terrain are compared with experiments carried out in the Northern California Geysers area during a period when nighttime drainage flow was the dominant feature. In addition, we study two situations, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Savannah River Laboratory, for which the terrain is assumed to not be a factor. These involve large modeling areas and in one case, time periods extending over more than two diurnal cycles. These model simulations indicate that a diagnostic wind model utilizing terrain-following coordinates gives reasonable agreement with observations obtained over simple as well as complex terrain. In order to increase the accuracy in simulations of pollutant concentration distribution, much more refinement in wind measurements in space and time is needed since small differences in wind direction, for example, can produce a large difference in computed and measured concentration sufficiently downwind of a source

  16. Evaluation des dommages des punaisese( Heteroptera ) et des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse statistique des résultats dans les blocs témoins montre que les punaises occasionnent plus de dommages aux boutons floraux et aux capsules vertes immatures que les chenilles. Sur les jeunes capsules, la moyenne des dommages des punaises et des chenilles reste statistiquement identique. Les traitements ...

  17. Contribution au développement et à l'optimisation des machines électriques à courant continu pour des applications Stop-Start

    OpenAIRE

    Demirjian, Razmik

    2013-01-01

    Contribution to the development and optimization of direct-current machines for automotive stop-start applications abstract currently in the automotive market, the demand for hybrid vehicles is booming. These vehicles are meant to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Among various possible technological solutions, this thesis deals with one of the Stop-Start technologies of micro-hybrid vehicles that is based on the use of permanent-magnet brushed DC motors. The present work, performed ...

  18. Simultaneous integration of MOS and bipolar transistors. Application to a fast complex memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackowiak, E.; Montier, M.

    1975-01-01

    A technology allowing for a simultaneous integration of two devices T MOS and T BIP (bipolar T) is presented. The technological results obtained and an application in the field of fast complex memories are given [fr

  19. How we are building a complex Angular 2 application at Inspire

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In this talk, at first we will talk about some basic and advanced Angular 2 concepts, then we will share our experiences with Angular 2 that we had so far while building a complex library and web applications at Inspire.

  20. Developpement et application d'un systeme mobile de laser terrestre pour quantifier le bilan sedimentaire des plages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Wierts, Stefanie

    Au Québec maritime, l'érosion côtière est une problématique d'envergure, notamment sur les côtes de formations meubles. Les plages ont un rôle de zone tampon ayant comme fonction naturelle d'absorber l'énergie des vagues et donc d'assurer l'équilibre de certains écosystèmes et le maintien de l'écoumène en réduisant l'érosion de la côte. Les méthodes d'acquisition conventionnelles ne permettent pas de quantifier convenablement les changements morphosédimentaires d'une plage à l'échelle des cellules hydrosédimentaires. Le manque de méthode d'acquisition fiable et de données quantitatives mène à une surestimation ou à une sous-estimation de la disponibilité sédimentaire d'un système côtier. Pour contrer ces lacunes et afin de minimiser les coûts d'acquisition, un nouveau système mobile de LiDAR terrestre a été mis en place, permettant d'acquérir des données topographiques de l'estran, de la haute plage et des falaises. Le système multicapteurs comprend un LiDAR, un système de navigation à haute précision (IMU et D-GPS) et une caméra. L'ensemble des instruments et capteurs sont montés sur un véhicule de type tout-terrain. Le système a été évalué sur la zone côtière de la péninsule de Manicouagan. La comparaison des données LiDAR avec 1 050 points de référence géopositionnés au D-GPS montre une erreur verticale moyenne de 0,1 m sur les secteurs de plage. Les résultats montrent que le volume sédimentaire moyen des plages devant les zones où la ligne de rivage présente un ouvrage de protection en enrochement (12 m 3/m) est plus de trois fois plus faible que devant les secteurs à l'état naturel (35,5 m3/m). La moyenne des secteurs en transition, constituant les segments où une zone artificielle et une zone naturelle se chevauchent présentent un volume moyen de 28 m3/m. Aussi, les plages devant les secteurs anthropisés sont en moyenne près de 2 fois plus étroites (12,7 m) que devant les secteurs naturels (25

  1. Recent patents on amylose-flavor inclusion complex nano particles preparation and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Zhuang, Hai N; Xiao, Zuo B; Tian, Huai X

    2011-09-01

    Lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds that are solubilized in the form of nano-sized particles, or "nanoparticles", can be used in pharmacology, in the production of food additives, cosmetics, and agriculture, as well as in pet foods and veterinary products, amongst other uses. This review focuses on nanoparticles and methods for the production of soluble nanoparticles and, in particular, inclusion complexes of water-insoluble lipophilic and water-soluble hydrophilic organic materials, especially flavor compounds. The host molecule is namely V-amylose or modified starch molecule, which could form a cavity to fix or secure guest molecules. Thus, the V-amylose molecular properties and the molecular inclusion complex formation mechanism is firstly introduced, then amylose-other ingredients inclusion complex preparation and application are listed, finally amylose-flavor molecular inclusion complex preparations and its application have been overviewed. Through this review, it is concluded that amylose-small chemical molecule inclusion complexes, especially amylose-flavor inclusion complexes have a marvelous application prospect and have great significance to develop the nano-product application field. This paper reviews the recent patents on amylose-flavour inclusion complex nano particles preparation and their application.

  2. Learning Science in a Virtual Reality Application: The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartiko, Iwan; Kavakli, Manolya; Cheng, Ken

    2010-01-01

    As the technology in computer graphics advances, Animated-Virtual Actors (AVAs) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications become increasingly rich and complex. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) suggests that complex visual materials could hinder novice learners from attending to the lesson properly. On the other hand, previous studies have…

  3. Beyond catalysis: N-heterocyclic carbene complexes as components for medicinal, luminescent, and functional materials applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mercs, Laszlo; Albrecht, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial review compiles the advances that have been achieved in using transition metal complexes containing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands as components for materials. Applications of metal carbene complexes in fields different from catalysis are remarkably scarce. During the last few years, promising results have been accomplished in particular by utilizing such complexes as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents, as photoactive sites in luminescent materials, for self-assembly into liquid...

  4. Application of a Complex Lead Compensator for a Laser Guided Missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhila, M. R.; Gopika, S.; Abraham, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a lead compensator with complex pole and complex zero for a missile. It is compared with a lead compensator with real pole and real zero. A typical laser guided missile control system is considered for the performance comparison of both the compensators. Simulation studies carried out with MATLAB brings out the scope of using complex compensator in missile guided systems.

  5. Complex Problems in Entrepreneurship Education: Examining Complex Problem-Solving in the Application of Opportunity Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Baggen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI and complex problem-solving (CPS. OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of entrepreneurship research, whereas CPS is a more domain-general skill. On a conceptual level, there are reasons to believe that CPS skills can help individuals to identify potential opportunities in dynamic and nontransparent environments. Therefore, we empirically investigated whether CPS relates to OI among 113 masters students. Data is analyzed using multiple regressions. The results show that CPS predicts the number of concrete ideas that students generate, suggesting that having CPS skills supports the generation of detailed, potential business ideas of good quality. The results of the current study suggest that training CPS, as a more domain-general skill, could be a valuable part of what should be taught in EE.

  6. The complexity, function and applications of RNA in circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alton eEtheridge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood carries a wide array of biomolecules, including nutrients, hormones and molecules that are secreted by cells for specific biological functions. The recent finding of stable RNA of both endogenous and exogenous origin in the circulation raises a number of questions and opens a broad, new field: exploring the origins, functions and applications of these extracellular RNA molecules. These findings raise many important questions, including: what are the mechanisms of export and cellular uptake, what is the nature and source of their stability, what molecules do they interact with in the blood, and what are the possible biological functions of the circulating RNA. This review summarizes some key recent developments in circulating RNA research and discusses some of the open questions in the field.

  7. Fonctionnalisation de la bentonite traitement et applications à léxtraction des colorants et colorants pour mordants.

    OpenAIRE

    MOULESSEHOUL, Hidayet

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de notre étude est d'améliorer les propriétés de désorption de la bentonite vis à vis les colorants qui sont classés parmi les plus toxiques. La première partie du travail concerne la préparation et la caractérisation des bentonites modifiées avec les sels de diphosphate (porte-parapluie)TPhPMB.

  8. Radio catalysis application in degradation of complex organic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno L, A.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of wastewater is a consequence of human activities, industries to be the generators of a large part of these discharges. These contaminated waters can be processed for their remediation; however the recalcitrant organic compounds are hardly removed through conventional treatments applied, so that new technologies have been developed for disposal such as the advanced oxidation technologies or processes. With the aim of the study is to apply ionizing radiation as a method of remediation in wastewater, in this work were carried out experiments of radiolysis and radio catalysis, which are techniques considered advanced oxidation technologies, that consist in irradiate with 60 Co gamma radiation solutions of 4- chloro phenol and methylene blue, applied at different concentrations and using as process control measurements of the compound not degraded by UV-vis spectrophotometry at 507 and 664 nm for 4-chloro phenol and methylene blue respectively. At doses greater than 2.5 kGy were near-zero degradation. Degradation experiments were also conducted by photo catalysis by irradiation with a UV lamp of 354 nm wavelength. For 4-chloro phenol results showed that degradation is efficient (39%). With those previous results, these techniques were applied to degrade complex mixtures of organic compounds from samples of wastewater from a sewage treatment plant, where was considered as process control measurement of the dissolved organic carbon obtained by a spectrophotometric analysis at 254 nm, and a maximum of 26% degradation was obtained by applying 80 kGy. On the other hand, a series of experiments fractionating the irradiations at intervals of 20 kGy to obtain a cumulative dose of 80 kGy, which was 2.8 times greater with respect to degradation by radio catalysis with continuous irradiation. (Author)

  9. Application of Lattice Boltzmann Methods in Complex Mass Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a novel computational fluid dynamics method that can easily handle complex and dynamic boundaries, couple local or interfacial interactions/reactions, and be easily parallelized allowing for simulation of large systems. While most of the current studies in LBM mainly focus on fluid dynamics, however, the inherent power of this method makes it an ideal candidate for the study of mass transfer systems involving complex/dynamic microstructures and local reactions. In this thesis, LBM is introduced to be an alternative computational method for the study of electrochemical energy storage systems (Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs)) and transdermal drug design on mesoscopic scale. Based on traditional LBM, the following in-depth studies have been carried out: (1) For EDLCs, the simulation of diffuse charge dynamics is carried out for both the charge and the discharge processes on 2D systems of complex random electrode geometries (pure random, random spheres and random fibers). Steric effect of concentrated solutions is considered by using modified Poisson-Nernst-Plank (MPNP) equations and compared with regular Poisson-Nernst-Plank (PNP) systems. The effects of electrode microstructures (electrode density, electrode filler morphology, filler size, etc.) on the net charge distribution and charge/discharge time are studied in detail. The influence of applied potential during discharging process is also discussed. (2) For the study of dendrite formation on the anode of LIBs, it is shown that the Lattice Boltzmann model can capture all the experimentally observed features of microstructure evolution at the anode, from smooth to mossy to dendritic. The mechanism of dendrite formation process in mesoscopic scale is discussed in detail and compared with the traditional Sand's time theories. It shows that dendrite formation is closely related to the inhomogeneous reactively at the electrode-electrolyte interface

  10. Time extrapolation of radiolytic degradation product kinetics: the case of polyurethane; Extrapolation dans le temps des cinetiques de production des produits de degradation radiolytique: application a un polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannoux, A

    2007-02-15

    The prediction of the environmental impact of organic materials in nuclear waste geological storage needs knowledge of radiolytic degradation mechanisms and kinetics in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In this framework, the effect of high doses (> MGy) and the variation of dose rate have to be considered. The material studied is a polyurethane composed of polyether soft segment and aromatic hard segments. Mechanisms were built on the analysis of material submitted to irradiations of simulation (high energy electrons and gamma radiation) by FTIR spectroscopy and gaseous and liquid degradation products by gas mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography. The electron paramagnetic resonance study of radical process and the determination of oxygen consumption and gas formation radiolytic yields allowed us to acquire kinetic data and to estimate dose rate and high doses effects. The polyurethane radio-oxidation mainly concerns soft segments and induced cross-linkings and production by scissions of oxidised compounds (esters, alcohols, carboxylic acids). The kinetic of radical termination is rapid and the dose rate effect is limited. After 10 MGy, branching and scission reactions are in equilibrium and low molecular weight products accumulate. At last, the degradation products release in water is influenced by the oxidation rate and the temperature. After 10 MGy, the soluble fraction is stabilised at 25%. The water soluble products identified by electro-spray ionisation mass spectrometry (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids) potentially formed complexes with radionuclides. (author)

  11. Application de la transformation de Fourier fractionnaire à la restitution numérique des hologrammes des particules éclairées par un faisceau gaussien elliptique astigmate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, F.; Coëtmellec, S.; Brunel, M.; Allano, D.; Lebrun, D.; Janssen, A. J. E. M.

    2006-10-01

    Cette étude concerne la diffraction d'un faisceau gaussien elliptique astigmate par une particule opaque. Nous montrons que la transformation de Fourier fractionnaire bidimensionnelle est un outil mathématique bien adapté à l'analyse des hologrammes des particules enregistrés par un tel faisceau.

  12. Application of complex macromolecular architectures for advanced microelectronic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, James L; Magbitang, Teddie; Connor, Eric F; Glauser, Thierry; Volksen, Willi; Hawker, Craig J; Lee, Victor Y; Miller, Robert D

    2002-08-02

    The distinctive features of well-defined, three-dimensional macromolecules with topologies designed to enhance solubility and amplify end-group functionality facilitated nanophase morphologies in mixtures with organosilicates and ultimately nanoporous organosilicate networks. Novel macromolecular architectures including dendritic and star-shaped polymers and organic nanoparticles were prepared by a modular approach from several libraries of building blocks including various generations of dendritic initiators and dendrons, selectively placed to amplify functionality and/or arm number, coupled with living polymerization techniques. Mixtures of an organosilicate and the macromolecular template were deposited, cured, and the phase separation of the organic component, organized the vitrifying organosilicate into nanostructures. Removal of the sacrificial macromolecular template, also denoted as porogen, by thermolysis, yielded the desired nanoporous organosilicate, and the size scale of phase separation was strongly dependent on the chain topology. These materials were designed for use as interlayer, ultra-low dielectric insulators for on-chip applications with dielectric constant values as low as 1.5. The porogen design, chemistry and role of polymer architecture on hybrid and pore morphology will be emphasized.

  13. Complexity Science Applications to Dynamic Trajectory Management: Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Bruce; Herriot, James; Holmes, Bruce J.; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The promise of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is strongly tied to the concept of trajectory-based operations in the national airspace system. Existing efforts to develop trajectory management concepts are largely focused on individual trajectories, optimized independently, then de-conflicted among each other, and individually re-optimized, as possible. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time are valuable, though perhaps could be greater through alternative strategies. The concept of agent-based trajectories offers a strategy for automation of simultaneous multiple trajectory management. The anticipated result of the strategy would be dynamic management of multiple trajectories with interacting and interdependent outcomes that satisfy multiple, conflicting constraints. These constraints would include the business case for operators, the capacity case for the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), and the environmental case for noise and emissions. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time might be improved over those possible under individual trajectory management approaches. The proposed approach relies on computational agent-based modeling (ABM), combinatorial mathematics, as well as application of "traffic physics" concepts to the challenge, and modeling and simulation capabilities. The proposed strategy could support transforming air traffic control from managing individual aircraft behaviors to managing systemic behavior of air traffic in the NAS. A system built on the approach could provide the ability to know when regions of airspace approach being "full," that is, having non-viable local solution space for optimizing trajectories in advance.

  14. Application of statistical physics approaches to complex organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matia, Kaushik

    The first part of this thesis studies two different kinds of financial markets, namely, the stock market and the commodity market. Stock price fluctuations display certain scale-free statistical features that are not unlike those found in strongly-interacting physical systems. The possibility that new insights can be gained using concepts and methods developed to understand scale-free physical phenomena has stimulated considerable research activity in the physics community. In the first part of this thesis a comparative study of stocks and commodities is performed in terms of probability density function and correlations of stock price fluctuations. It is found that the probability density of the stock price fluctuation has a power law functional form with an exponent 3, which is similar across different markets around the world. We present an autoregressive model to explain the origin of the power law functional form of the probability density function of the price fluctuation. The first part also presents the discovery of unique features of the Indian economy, which we find displays a scale-dependent probability density function. In the second part of this thesis we quantify the statistical properties of fluctuations of complex systems like business firms and world scientific publications. We analyze class size of these systems mentioned above where units agglomerate to form classes. We find that the width of the probability density function of growth rate decays with the class size as a power law with an exponent beta which is universal in the sense that beta is independent of the system studied. We also identify two other scaling exponents, gamma connecting the unit size to the class size and gamma connecting the number of units to the class size, where products are units and firms are classes. Finally we propose a generalized preferential attachment model to describe the class size distribution. This model is successful in explaining the growth rate and class

  15. Nanoparticles containing octreotide peptides and gadolinium complexes for MRI applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Antonella; Morisco, Anna; Gianolio, Eliana; Tesauro, Diego; Mangiapia, Gaetano; Radulescu, Aurel; Brandt, Astrid; Morelli, Giancarlo

    2011-02-01

    New mixed nanoparticles were obtained by self-aggregation of two amphiplic monomers. The first monomer (C18)(2) L5-Oct contains two C18 hydrophobic moieties bound to the N-terminus of the cyclic peptide octreotide, and spaced from the bioactive peptide by five units of dioxoethylene linkers. The second monomer, (C18)(2) DTPAGlu, (C18)(2) DTPA or (C18)(2) DOTA, and the corresponding Gd(III) complexes, contains two C18 hydrophobic moieties bound through a lysine residue to different polyamino-polycarboxy ligands: DTPAGlu, DTPA or DOTA. Mixed aggregates have been obtained and structurally characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques and for their relaxometric behavior. According to a decrease of negative charges in the surfactant head-group, a total or a partial micelle-to-vesicle transition is observed by passing from (C18)(2) DTPAGlu to (C18)(2) DOTA. The thicknesses of the bilayers are substantially constant, around 50 Å, in the analyzed systems. Moreover, the mixed aggregates, in which a small amount of amphiphilic octreotide monomer (C18)(2) L5-Oct (10% mol/mol) was inserted, do not differ significantly from the respective self-assembled systems. Fluorescence emission of tryptophan residue at 340 nm indicates low mobility of water molecules at the peptide surface. The proton relaxivity of mixed aggregates based on (C18)(2) DTPAGlu(Gd), (C18)(2) DTPA(Gd) and (C18)(2) DOTA(Gd) resulted to be 17.6, 15.2 and 10.0 mM(-1) s(-1) (at 20 MHz and 298K), respectively. The decrease in the relaxivity values can be ascribed to the increase in τ(M) (81, 205 and 750 ns). The presence of amphiphilic octreotide monomer exposed on mixed aggregate surface gives the entire nanoparticles a potential binding selectivity toward somatostatin sstr2 receptor subtype, and these systems could act as MRI target-specific contrast agent. Copyright © 2010 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Contribution a la caracterisation des betons endommages par des methodes de l'acoustique non lineaire. Application a la reaction alcalis-silice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjo, Apedovi

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the non-destructive characterization of concrete materials damaged by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). For this purpose, some nonlinear characterization techniques have been developed, as well as a nonlinear resonance test device. In order to optimize the sensitivity of the test device, the excitation module and signal processing have been improved. The nonlinear tests were conducted on seven samples of concrete damaged by ASR, three samples of concrete damaged by heat, three concrete samples damaged mechanically and three sound concrete samples. Since, nonlinear behaviour of the material is often attribute to its micro-defects hysteretic behaviour, it was shown at first that concrete damaged by ASR exhibits an hysteresis behaviour. To conduct this study, an acoustoelastic test was set, and then nonlinear resonance test device was used for characterizing sound concrete and concrete damaged by ASR. It was shown that the nonlinear technique can be used for characterizing the material without knowing its initial state, and also for detecting early damage in the reactive material. Studies were also carried out on the effect of moisture regarding the nonlinear parameters; they allowed understanding the low values of nonlinear parameters measured on concrete samples that were kept in high moisture conditions. In order to find a specific characteristic of damage caused by ASR, the viscosity of ASR gel was used. An approach, based on static creep analysis, performed on the material, while applying the nonlinear resonance technique. The spring-damping model of Maxwell was used for the interpretation of the results. Then, the creep time was analysed on samples damaged by ASR. It appears that the ASR gel increases the creep time. Finally, the limitations of the nonlinear resonance technique for in situ application have been explained and a new applicable nonlinear technique was initiated. This technique use an external source such as a

  17. Actualisation des besoins protéiques des ruminants et application à la détermination des réponses des femelles laitières aux apports de protéines digestibles dans l’intestin (PDI)

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvant, Daniel; Cantalapiedra Hijar, Gonzalo; Noziere, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Dans le cadre de la révision des systèmes d’unités d’alimentati on des ruminants (projet INRA «Systali»), il a été décidé de revisiter les besoins protéiques ainsi que les réponses aux variations des apports protéiques. Depuis 1978, les besoins PDI d’entretien étaient proportionnels au poids vif élevé à la puissance 0,75, et donc indépendants du niveau de production. Il a été décidé de faire évoluer ce calcul vers celui appliqué dans tous les systèmes étrangers, à savoir ...

  18. Beyond catalysis: N-heterocyclic carbene complexes as components for medicinal, luminescent, and functional materials applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercs, Laszlo; Albrecht, Martin

    2010-06-01

    This tutorial review compiles the advances that have been achieved in using transition metal complexes containing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands as components for materials. Applications of metal carbene complexes in fields different from catalysis are remarkably scarce. During the last few years, promising results have been accomplished in particular by utilizing such complexes as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents, as photoactive sites in luminescent materials, for self-assembly into liquid crystalline materials and metallosupramolecular structures, and as synthons for molecular switches and conducting polymeric materials. These initial achievements clearly underline the great potential of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in various fields of materials science.

  19. Etude des potentialités des systèmes d'application contrôlée des gouttes (CDA pour les traitements phytosanitaires en céréaliculture (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouled Taleb Salah, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the potential for the use of controlled droplet application (CDA upon cereal crops. A review. Introduction. Controlled droplet application (CDA has the advantage both of the reduction in the span of droplet size distribution and in the volume of liquid applied, in comparison with conventional hydraulic nozzles. Literature. This review investigates the potential for the use of CDA relative to hydraulic nozzles within the early stages of weed control (2-3 leaves. The studies reviewed examine spray retention, linking the droplet characteristics (size, velocity and direction of spray liquids with the architecture, density and wettability of the foliage. These studies show that the use of droplets of 300 µm, combined with an appropriate adjuvant and applied with a 60° forward-angled spray, led to the enhanced depositing of liquids on upright surfaces. Assessment of the reduced volumes applied by both application techniques was based on the mean, the variation coefficient and the deposition coverage. However, these results cannot be generalized, due to the different operative settings in which the spray application techniques were employed. Regarding the risk of drift to the side, the drift potential of droplets generated horizontally by CDA nozzles is greater than that of the conventional technique with a downward orientation of spray. The drift potential increases as the wind velocity increases and the volume median diameter (DV50 decreases. Conclusions. New settings of CDA nozzles in terms of DV50 and the direction of spray may address the challenge of precision agriculture. Innovative ways to apply pesticides, based on CDA, must be explored in order to avoid the sensitivity to wear of the teeth in spray applicators and to obtain a narrower droplet-size distribution.

  20. Contrôle hormonal des caractéristiques des fibres musculaires après la naissance

    OpenAIRE

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Listrat, Anne; Picard, Brigitte

    1998-01-01

    Après la naissance, la croissance et les propriétés contractiles et métaboliques des fibres musculaires sont soumises à une régulation endocrinienne complexe. A l’exception des glucocorticoïdes, la plupart des hormones présente une action anabolique sur le tissu musculaire. Leur influence sur les caractéristiques des fibres est cependant très différente. Ainsi, les hormones somatotropes affectent peu la composition en fibres des muscles. La GH, comme l’IGF-1, régulerait cependant l’expression...

  1. Administration et gestion des contrats XL

    CERN Document Server

    Senouf, J

    2000-01-01

    Les grands contrats de travaux génèrent un grand nombre de commandes (OSVC) passées par un grand nombre de responsables techniques. Ils sont généralement basés sur des bordereaux de prix associés à un éventail de conditions économiques adaptées aux besoins complexes et variés des multiples utilisateurs du CERN nécessitant des calculs sophistiqués. L'administration des commandes, le suivi des travaux et de la facturation doivent répondre aux besoins de tous les acteurs. Les responsables techniques doivent jouir de la plus large indépendance administrative dans le respect des règlements CERN et des conditions contractuelles. Le contrôle des métrés et décomptes doit être rigoureux et d'une traçabilité complète. L'utilisation des bases de données Oracle a déjà permis l'intégration des données administratives et techniques. Le Web nous invite à une communication totale et transparente entre les utilisateurs, les services techniques et les contractants. De nouveaux types de contrat so...

  2. Synthèse et réactivité de nouveaux complexes des métaux du groupe 13 portés par des ligands carbènes N-hétérocycliques

    OpenAIRE

    Schnee , Gilles

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of this work, few studies had been performed on the complexation of N-heterocyclic carbenes with oxophilic metals, in high oxidation states such as group 13 metals. The synthetic routes optimization has extended the number of complexes-type NHC-MIII (M = aluminum, gallium and indium), and the corresponding cationic complexes. The combination of these precursors with sterically congested NHCs allowed the observation of unprecedented reactivities (abnormal complexes, Frustrated...

  3. Optimization of the scintillation parameters of the lead tungstate crystals for their application in high precision electromagnetic calorimetry; Optimisation des parametres de scintillation des cristaux de tungstate de plomb pour leur application dans la calorimetrie electromagnetique de haute precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobychev, G

    2000-04-12

    In the frame of this dissertation work scintillation properties of the lead tungstate crystals (PWO) and possibilities of their use were studied foreseeing their application for electromagnetic calorimetry in extreme radiation environment conditions of new colliders. The results of this work can be summarized in the following way. 1. A model of the scintillations origin in the lead tungstate crystals which includes processes influencing on the crystals radiation hardness and presence of slow components in scintillations was developed. 2. An analysis of the influences of the PWO scintillation properties changes on the parameters of the electromagnetic calorimeter was done. 3. Methods of the light collection from the large scintillation elements of complex shape made of the birefringent scintillation crystal with high refraction index and low light yield in case of signal registration by a photodetector with sensitive surface small in compare with the output face of scintillator were Studied. 4. Physical principles of the methodology of the scintillation crystals certification during their mass production foreseeing their installation into a calorimeter electromagnetic were developed. Correlations between the results of measurements of the PWO crystals parameters by different methods were found. (author)

  4. Modelisation de l'interception des rayonnements solaires dans une culture en rangs. III. Application a une vigne traditionnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Sinoquet, H.; Valancogne, C.; Lescure, A.; Bonhomme, R.

    1992-01-01

    Un modèle d’interception du rayonnement solaire décrit précédemment est appliqué à un couvert spatialement discontinu : une vigne traditionnelle sur laquelle ont été mesurés les termes classiques du bilan radiatif et la distribution spatiale du rayonnement transmis au sol. La comparaison des mesures au modèle révèle un ajustement satisfaisant pour le rayonnement réfléchi (fig 4), mais assez médiocre pour le rayonnement transmis moyen (fig 5). Ceci est expliqué par l’utilisation de capteurs po...

  5. Rapport annuel 2012 Chapitre VI des Statut et Règlement du Personnel

    CERN Document Server

    Schepens, A

    2013-01-01

    Le rapport annuel 2012 concernant l’application du Chapitre VI (Règlement des différends et discipline) des Statut et Règlement du personnel a pour objet de rendre compte des demandes de réexamen, des recours internes, des recours auprès du Tribunal administratif de l’Organisation internationale du travail (TAOIT) et des cas où une sanction disciplinaire a été prise.

  6. Rapport annuel 2011 Chapitre VI des Statut et Règlement du Personnel

    CERN Document Server

    Schepens, A

    2012-01-01

    Le rapport annuel 2012 concernant l’application du Chapitre VI (Règlement des différends et discipline) des Statut et Règlement du personnel a pour objet de rendre compte des demandes de réexamen, des recours internes, des recours auprès du Tribunal administratif de l’Organisation internationale du travail (TAOIT) et des cas où une sanction disciplinaire a été prise.

  7. Réseau des développeurs - logiciels d'exploitation libre pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un atelier technique réunissant des utilisateurs, des développeurs et des promoteurs des logiciels libres sera organisé pour mettre au point une application prototype - des formulaires électroniques permettant de saisir des données au moyen d'un ANP puis de les transférer dans un ordinateur - pouvant combler les ...

  8. Connaissances et usages traditionnels des plantes médicinales du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les plantes citées pourraient contenir pour la plupart des alcaloïdes, les tanins et les flavonoïdes. Conclusion et Application des résultats : La valorisation de ces plantes et la détermination du profil de santé des populations locales du département du Haut-Nyong nécessite la mise en place des unités de transformations ...

  9. Formalisme rationnel le la méthode de détermination des contraintes résiduelles par diffraction des rayons X: application aux couches minces et multicouches

    OpenAIRE

    Badawi , K.; Kahloun , C.; Grilhé , J.

    1993-01-01

    L'utilisation du formalisme rationnel dans la méthode de détermination des contraintes résiduelles par diffraction des rayons X améliore la rigueur, la précision et l'élégance mathématique de la méthode. Elle permet d'éviter les approximations faites dans le formalisme conventionnel, et apporte des corrections qui dépassent 15 % dans certains cas de couches minces et de multicouches.

  10. Rhenium carbene complexes and their applications; Rhenium-Carben-Komplexe und ihre Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, Claudia Heidi

    2016-01-25

    New pharmaceutically suitable metal complexes play an important role in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. One option concerning new radiopharmaceuticals, is the application of the rhenium isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re. Therefore, water soluble but at the same time stable complexes, which can be synthesized straightforward, are required. In this thesis, several synthetic pathways to such rhenium complexes bearing Nheterocyclic carbenes are presented and applicability tests of literature known complexes conducted. The selected target structures based on monocarbenes turned out to be inappropriate for use in radiopharmaceutical applications, due to their long reaction times and purification issues. Additionally, sterical and electronical effects of the carbene ligands concerning complex formation have been investigated. Possibilities of functionalization at different positions on the heterocycle as well as hydrophilic wingtips - to achieve a better stability in an aqueous media - have been examined to gain information about chemical and physical properties of the resulting complexes. Furthermore, experiments regarding the coordination of various biscarbene ligands, which provides besides the stable chelatisation additionally the possibility of varying the linking bridge, to rhenium(I/V) precursors, have been performed. Dioxo-bis-(1,1{sup '}-methylene-bis(3,3{sup '}-diisopropylimidazolium-2-ylidene)) rhenium(V )-hexafluorophosphate was synthesized via a transmetalation reaction of the corresponding silver carbene with ReOCl{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} and silver hexafluorophosphate. This complex provided the basis for the first radiolabeled {sup 188}Rhenium NHC complex later on. An enhancement of the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of potential rhenium biscarbene complexes based on modifications concerning the length and character of the bridging moiety between the chelating NHC rings as well as the nature of

  11. Complex Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Peternell, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf

    1992-01-01

    The Bayreuth meeting on "Complex Algebraic Varieties" focussed on the classification of algebraic varieties and topics such as vector bundles, Hodge theory and hermitian differential geometry. Most of the articles in this volume are closely related to talks given at the conference: all are original, fully refereed research articles. CONTENTS: A. Beauville: Annulation du H(1) pour les fibres en droites plats.- M. Beltrametti, A.J. Sommese, J.A. Wisniewski: Results on varieties with many lines and their applications to adjunction theory.- G. Bohnhorst, H. Spindler: The stability of certain vector bundles on P(n) .- F. Catanese, F. Tovena: Vector bundles, linear systems and extensions of (1).- O. Debarre: Vers uns stratification de l'espace des modules des varietes abeliennes principalement polarisees.- J.P. Demailly: Singular hermitian metrics on positive line bundles.- T. Fujita: On adjoint bundles of ample vector bundles.- Y. Kawamata: Moderate degenerations of algebraic surfaces.- U. Persson: Genus two fibra...

  12. X-spectrographic method for plutonium detection. Application to contamination measurements in humans; Etude d'une methode de detection du plutonium par spectrographie X. Application a la mesure des contaminations sur l'homme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel Trouble [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After reviewing the radio-toxicology of plutonium 239 and conventional detection methods using its {alpha}-radiation, the author considers the measurement of the X emission spectrum of plutonium 239 using a proportional counter filled with argon under pressure. This preliminary work leads to the third part of this research involving the detailed study of the possibilities of applying thin alkali halide crystal scintillators to the detection of soft plutonium X-rays; there follows a systematic study of all the parameters liable to render the detection as sensitive as possible: movement due to the photomultiplier itself and its accessory electronic equipment, nature and size of the crystal scintillator as well as its mode of preparation, shielding against external parasitic radiation. Examples of some applications to the measurement of contamination in humans give an idea of the sensitivity of this method. (author) [French] Apres un apercu de la radiotoxicologie du plutonium 239 et des methodes classiques de detection par son rayonnement {alpha}, on etudie le spectre d'emission X du plutonium 239 avec un compteur proportionnel rempli avec de l'argon sous pression. Ce travail preliminaire permet d'aborder la troisieme partie de cette etude dans laquelle nous examinons d'une fagon approfondie les possibilites d'application des cristaux scintillateurs minces d'halogenure alcalin a la detection du rayonnement X mou du plutonium; suit une etude systematique de tous les parametres susceptibles de rendre la detection aussi sensible que possible: mouvement propre du photomultiplicateur et de l'electronique associee, nature et dimensions du cristal scintillateur ainsi que son mode de fabrication, blindage contre les rayonnements parasites exterieurs. Quelques applications a la mesure des contaminations sur l'homme permettent d'apprecier la sensibilite de cette methode. (auteur)

  13. Application of Epidemiology Model on Complex Networks in Propagation Dynamics of Airspace Congestion

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Xiaoxu; Hu, Minghua; Tian, Wen; Xie, Daoyi; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a propagation dynamics model for congestion propagation in complex networks of airspace. It investigates the application of an epidemiology model to complex networks by comparing the similarities and differences between congestion propagation and epidemic transmission. The model developed satisfies the constraints of actual motion in airspace, based on the epidemiology model. Exploiting the constraint that the evolution of congestion cluster in the airspace is always dynam...

  14. Le confort thermique des bâtiments en région tropicale : application du modèle de Fanger au cas des laboratoires de l'université d'Abomey Calavi (Cotonou-Bénin).

    OpenAIRE

    Olissan, Aurélien; Kouchade, Clément; Andre, Philippe; Awanou, Cossi Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Fanger dans ses travaux a lié l'indice PMV, vote de confort moyen exprimé par une population d'une ambiance donnée au bilan thermique de l'individu. Ce modèle a été utilisé dans nos travaux précédents, et a permis de déterminer des conditions de confort dans la région côtière du Bénin. Le présent article a pour but de prendre en compte à travers des enquêtes, la sensation réelle thermique des occupants des ambiances étudiées pour faire une adaptation du modèle de Fanger aux conditions climati...

  15. Cinquante ans de différentes applications des géomembranes dans les barrages Fifty years of different applications of geomembranes in dams

    OpenAIRE

    CAZZUFFI, Daniele ; GIROUD, Jean-Pierre ; SCUERO, Alberto ; VASCHETTI, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Les géomembranes, généralement associées à d’autres géosynthétiques, constituent l’étanchéité principale de presque trois cents barrages à travers le monde. Illustré par des exemples d'utilisation dans les différents types de barrages, en construction et en cours de réhabilitation, cet article nous renseigne sur les performances d'étanchéité et la durabilité des géomembranes dans les conditions d’utilisation sévères propres aux barrages.In almost 300 dams worldwide, geomembranes are the main ...

  16. Interaction of curcumin and bixin with β-cyclodextrin: complexation methods, stability, and applications in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolino, Vanessa Aparecida; Zanin, Gisella Maria; Durrant, Lucia Regina; Benassi, Marta De Toledo; Matioli, Graciette

    2011-04-13

    This work aimed to compare methods for the formation of complexes of bixin and curcumin with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and to evaluate the stability of the complexes formed by these methods and their food applications. The stoichiometric relationship between curcumin and β-CD was 1:2 and that between bixin and β-CD was 1:1. Curcumin-β-CD and bixin-β-CD complexes formed by kneading, coprecipitation, and simple mixing were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-H). For both curcumin and bixin, the best method of complexation was coprecipitation. Complexation of colorants with β-CD promoted an intensification of color and increased water solubility; however, stabilization in the presence of light occurred only for bixin. Application of curcumin-β-CD in cheese and yogurt and bixin-β-CD in the curd did not alter the initial characteristics of the products, which were sensorialy well accepted. Therefore, the complexation of these natural colorants with β-CD favors their use in low-fat foods, broadening the field of industrial application.

  17. Mesure de la performance de la chaîne logistique hospitalière en intégrant les dimensions : Coûts, Sécurité et Qualité : Application en cas du regroupement des pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    SERROU, DRISS,; ABOUABDELLAH, Abdellah

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Suite à la multiplicité des services de soins qu'offre un hôpital et suite à des facteurs qui entrent en jeu lors de ses fonctionnements tels que la maitrise des coûts, l'assurance qualité et la garantie de sécurité, sa mission reste complexe et très difficile à gérer. La maîtrise des dépenses hospitalières reste une préoccupation majeure chez la majorité des managers des systèmes hospitaliers, ce qui les conduit toujours vers la recherche d'une solution rationnelle et...

  18. Algebra of Complex Vectors and Applications in Electromagnetic Theory and Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundeti Muralidhar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A complex vector is a sum of a vector and a bivector and forms a natural extension of a vector. The complex vectors have certain special geometric properties and considered as algebraic entities. These represent rotations along with specified orientation and direction in space. It has been shown that the association of complex vector with its conjugate generates complex vector space and the corresponding basis elements defined from the complex vector and its conjugate form a closed complex four dimensional linear space. The complexification process in complex vector space allows the generation of higher n-dimensional geometric algebra from (n — 1-dimensional algebra by considering the unit pseudoscalar identification with square root of minus one. The spacetime algebra can be generated from the geometric algebra by considering a vector equal to square root of plus one. The applications of complex vector algebra are discussed mainly in the electromagnetic theory and in the dynamics of an elementary particle with extended structure. Complex vector formalism simplifies the expressions and elucidates geometrical understanding of the basic concepts. The analysis shows that the existence of spin transforms a classical oscillator into a quantum oscillator. In conclusion the classical mechanics combined with zeropoint field leads to quantum mechanics.

  19. Mathematical study of chemical kinetics schemes. Application to air pollution models; Etude mathematique de schemas de cinetique chimique. Application a des modeles de pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette, E.

    1997-06-23

    Complex chemical kinetics modelling is relevant in numerous fields related to the petroleum industry, for instance engine combustion, petrochemistry and atmospheric pollution. Many numerical difficulties are encountered in the computation of these models, mainly due to the large size, the non-linearity and the stiffness of the associated ordinary differential systems. We first studied systems that have an asymptotic behaviour which may be derived from an algebraic analysis. Then we reviewed different methods that make possible the reduction of size and stiffness for chemical kinetics-related differential systems, and suggest possible improvements for some of those methods. We also studied their application to atmospheric chemistry models. Finally, we started to extend those reduction methods to partial differential systems that include, in addition to chemical kinetics, other phenomena such as species emission, advection or diffusion. (author) 44 refs.

  20. Development and field application of a new combined vaccine against Peste des Petits Ruminants and Sheep Pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fakri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined vaccine against Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR and Sheep/Goat Pox (SGP was developed and applied in the field, using a new association of vaccine strains: PPR Nigeria 75 strain with a titre of 104.1 TCID50 and Sheep Pox Romania strain with a titre of 104.0 TCID50. Safety and efficacy were evaluated on goats and sheep in comparison with monovalent PPR and SGP vaccines. Goats were challenged by PPR virulent strain and sheep by SP virulent strain. The result shows that the combined PPR/SGP vaccine confers a good protection against both PPR and SGP infection with no significant difference with monovalent vaccines. The combined vaccine was used in the field on sheep flocks and good sero-conversion was detected for both diseases as soon as 14 days post vaccination.

  1. Etude des sédiments lacustres. L'impact des activités humaines sur la qualité des ressources naturelles en eau.

    OpenAIRE

    Thevenon F.; Poté J.; Girardclos S.; Adatte T.; de Alencastro L.F.

    2014-01-01

    En Suisse, environ 20% de la consommation d’eau potable est couverte par les eaux des lacs, après plusieurs paliers de traitement et de nettoyage. Les lacs sont des écosystèmes complexes et la qualité de leur eau est directement menacée par les effluents domestiques, agricoles, urbains, industriels et hospitaliers. L’étude des sédiments, qui enregistrent de façon continue l’impact des activités humaines sur la qualité des eaux, permet d’identifier les sources de pollution, d’évaluer leur impa...

  2. Application of 3D Laser Scanning Technology in Complex Rock Foundation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Ma; Dan, Lu; Zhilong, Liu

    2017-12-01

    Taking the complex landform of Tanxi Mountain Landscape Bridge as an example, the application of 3D laser scanning technology in the mapping of complex rock foundations is studied in this paper. A set of 3D laser scanning technologies are formed and several key engineering problems are solved. The first is 3D laser scanning technology of complex landforms. 3D laser scanning technology is used to obtain a complete 3D point cloud data model of the complex landform. The detailed and accurate results of the surveying and mapping decrease the measuring time and supplementary measuring times. The second is 3D collaborative modeling of the complex landform. A 3D model of the complex landform is established based on the 3D point cloud data model. The super-structural foundation model is introduced for 3D collaborative design. The optimal design plan is selected and the construction progress is accelerated. And the last is finite-element analysis technology of the complex landform foundation. A 3D model of the complex landform is introduced into ANSYS for building a finite element model to calculate anti-slide stability of the rock, and provides a basis for the landform foundation design and construction.

  3. Application of NASA management approach to solve complex problems on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potate, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application of NASA management approach to solving complex problems on earth is discussed. The management of the Apollo program is presented as an example of effective management techniques. Four key elements of effective management are analyzed. Photographs of the Cape Kennedy launch sites and supporting equipment are included to support the discussions.

  4. Application of models for exchange of electronic documents in complex administrative services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavev, Victor

    2015-11-01

    The report presents application of models for exchange of electronic documents between different administrations in government and business sectors. It shows the benefits of implementing electronic exchange of documents between different local offices of one administration in government sector such as a municipality and the way it is useful for implementing complex administrative services.

  5. Processing of complex shapes with single-mode resonant frequency microwave applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, L.A.; Delgado, R.; Hawley, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Microwave processing is an alternative to conventional composite processing techniques. Single-mode microwave applicators efficiently couple microwave energy into the composite. The application of the microwave energy is greatly affected by the geometry of the composite. In the single mode microwave applicator, two types of modes are available. These modes are best suited to processing flat planar samples or cylindrical samples with geometries that align with the electric fields. Mode-switching is alternating between different electromagnetic modes with the intelligent selection of the modes to alleviate undesirable temperature profiles. This method has improved the microwave heating profiles of materials with complex shapes that do not align with either type of electric field. Parts with two different complex geometries were fabricated from a vinyl toluene/vinyl ester resin with a continuous glass fiber reinforcement by autoclaving and by microwave techniques. The flexural properties of the microwave processed samples were compared to the flexural properties of autoclaved samples. The trends of the mechanical properties for the complex shapes were consistent with the results of experiments with flat panels. This demonstrated that mode-switching techniques are as applicable for the complex shapes as they are for the simpler flat panel geometry

  6. L'introduction d'espèces allochtones de grenouilles vertes en France, deux problèmes différents : celui de R. Catesbeiana et celui des taxons non présents du complexe Esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVEU A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, la grenouille taureau (Rana catesbeiana est signalée en France dans une zone limitée de gravières près de Bordeaux. Elle est aussi présente depuis peu aux Pays-Bas et, dans les deux cas, la reproduction est effective. Cette espèce existe déjà en Europe depuis les années 30, à la suite d'introductions volontaires en Italie, sans pour cela avoir été signalée dans la partie ouest. La grenouille taureau est la plus grande des espèces nord-américaines et est considérée comme un prédateur éclectique. De ce fait, elle peut présenter un danger pour d'autres animaux, en particulier les grenouilles autochtones. Mais aucune donnée ne permet d'estimer cet éventuel impact en France et les données de la littérature ont souvent surestimé ce dernier. Par précaution, des mesures pourraient être prises pour réduire les populations actuelles présentes dans une aire pour le moment limitée. Les importations de grenouilles vivantes pour la consommation humaine, surtout à partir des pays du sud de l'Europe, sont l'occasion d'introductions de nouveaux taxons. Mais ces grenouilles font partie du même complexe et sont proches sur le plan morphologique, biologique et écologique. Les risques potentiels pour les populations locales sont les introductions de gènes, mais en ce qui concerne un éventuel avantage compétitif aucune donnée ne permet de conclure.

  7. A review on versatile applications of transition metal complexes incorporating Schiff bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abu-Dief

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schiff bases and their complexes are versatile compounds synthesized from the condensation of an amino compound with carbonyl compounds and widely used for industrial purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic properties. Many Schiff base complexes show excellent catalytic activity in various reactions and in the presence of moisture. Over the past few years, there have been many reports on their applications in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The high thermal and moisture stabilities of many Schiff base complexes were useful attributes for their application as catalysts in reactions involving at high temperatures. The activity is usually increased by complexation therefore to understand the properties of both ligands and metal can lead to the synthesis of highly active compounds. The influence of certain metals on the biological activity of these compounds and their intrinsic chemical interest as multidentate ligands has prompted a considerable increase in the study of their coordination behaviour. Development of a new chemotherapeutic Schiff bases and their metal complexes is now attracting the attention of medicinal chemists. This review compiles examples of the most promising applied Schiff bases and their complexes in different areas.

  8. Gestion des risques, valorisation et stratégie : applications aux industries agro-alimentaire et de transport aérien

    OpenAIRE

    Hassane Amadou, Rahila

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail de recherche apporte des éléments de compréhension supplémentaires sur l’impact des stratégies de gestion des risques sur la valeur et sur la stratégie des entreprises. Une première analyse examine un échantillon de 378 observations d’entreprises du secteur agroalimentaire sur 5 ans. Il ressort de cette analyse que l’intensité d’utilisation des produits dérivés pour couvrir les risques de change, taux d’intérêt et prix des matières premières n’influence pas sensiblement la valeur d...

  9. Évaluation des effets des pesticides utilisés en lutte chimique contre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2015 ... réductions numériques des populations des insectes ont été plus fortes dans les deux premiers intervalles après les applications (1-12 jours et 16-24 jours). Par contre, dans le troisième intervalle de temps, c'est-à-dire,. 28-40 jours après les traitements, les effets des différents pesticides sont très faible.

  10. Computational Redox Potential Predictions: Applications to Inorganic and Organic Aqueous Complexes, and Complexes Adsorbed to Mineral Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Arumugam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of redox processes range over a number of scientific fields. This review article summarizes the theory behind the calculation of redox potentials in solution for species such as organic compounds, inorganic complexes, actinides, battery materials, and mineral surface-bound-species. Different computational approaches to predict and determine redox potentials of electron transitions are discussed along with their respective pros and cons for the prediction of redox potentials. Subsequently, recommendations are made for certain necessary computational settings required for accurate calculation of redox potentials. This article reviews the importance of computational parameters, such as basis sets, density functional theory (DFT functionals, and relativistic approaches and the role that physicochemical processes play on the shift of redox potentials, such as hydration or spin orbit coupling, and will aid in finding suitable combinations of approaches for different chemical and geochemical applications. Identifying cost-effective and credible computational approaches is essential to benchmark redox potential calculations against experiments. Once a good theoretical approach is found to model the chemistry and thermodynamics of the redox and electron transfer process, this knowledge can be incorporated into models of more complex reaction mechanisms that include diffusion in the solute, surface diffusion, and dehydration, to name a few. This knowledge is important to fully understand the nature of redox processes be it a geochemical process that dictates natural redox reactions or one that is being used for the optimization of a chemical process in industry. In addition, it will help identify materials that will be useful to design catalytic redox agents, to come up with materials to be used for batteries and photovoltaic processes, and to identify new and improved remediation strategies in environmental engineering, for example the

  11. Application de la spectroscopie de fluorescence a l'étude du pétrole : le défi de la complexité Application of Fluorescence Spectroscopy to the Study of Petroleum: Challenging Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellingsen G.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Grâce à sa sensibilité et à sa sélectivité, la spectroscopie de fluorescence est de plus en plus employée dans l'étude du pétrole. Dans un premier temps, les principes fondamentaux de cette technique sont rappelés, en mettant l'accent sur les difficultés inhérentes à la complexité du milieu et sur les développements récents comme la spectroscopie de fluorescence par excitation synchrone et la détection à distance. Par la suite, les principaux domaines d'application de la fluorescence à la technologie du pétrole sont successivement passés en revue, en particulier la détection de la pollution, la caractérisation rapide des bruts, l'information pour l'exploration et le forage, et enfin l'analyse fine des constituants. Les réactifs fluorogéniques ne sont utilisés qu'après minéralisation de l'échantillon et essentiellement pour détecter les traces de métaux. Due to its sensitivity and selectivity, fluorescence spectroscopy is increasingly used in petroleum technology. Firstly, the fundamentals of fluorescence are briefly presented, emphasizing the many difficulties encountered because of the medium complexity and the recent developments of methods like synchronously excited fluorescence spectroscopy and remote detection. Then, the main application fields are successively reviewed, that is identification of pollutant sources, crude oils fingerprinting, information for drilling and exploration and finally the analysis of petroleum constituents. Fluorogenic reactants are only used for trace metal detection after sample mineralization.

  12. Finance computationnelle et gestion des risques ingénierie financière avec applications Excel (Visual Basic) et Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Racicot, François-Éric

    2006-01-01

    Ce manuel propose un exposé rigoureux de la gestion des risques en finance. Les aspects théoriques de la question sont abordés par des démonstrations claires et des rappels élaborés des bases mathématiques de la finance computationnelle. Le texte est émaillé de nombreux programmes écrits en langages Visual Basic (Excel), Matlab et EViews qui prépareront l'étudiant à sa carrière de spécialiste en ingénierie financière.

  13. Profil des métaux lourds contenus dans les plantes vivrières ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion et application des résultats: Les plantes Manihot esculenta (Sombe); Amaranthus (Lengalenga); et Psidium guajava L. (Mapela) se trouvant aux alentours des zones minières de la province du Katanga, renferment les métaux lourds. Dans la plupart des cas, ces métaux sont au delà des seuils normaux. Ce qui ...

  14. Measurements and Application of Partition Coefficients of Compounds Suitable for Tracing Gas Injected Into Oil Reservoirs Mesures et applications des coefficients de partage de composants utilisables comme gaz traceurs injectés dans des réservoirs de pétrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugstad O.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracing of injection gas in oil reservoirs is a technique used to improve the description of permeability distributions in situ. Results from dynamic laboratory experiments of gas tracers are reported. Gas tracers are delayed when flooding through a reservoir by the partitioning into the oil phase. A knowledge of this effect is important to optimize the interpretation of field tracer tests. The partition is quantified by the partition coefficient K. Two chemical tracers perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP and perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH and the radioactive 14C labelled ethane have been studied here. The two chemical compounds are new as reservoir tracers and no field results with these tracers are reported in the open literature. Our group has, however, recently applied these compound successfully as tracers in a North Sea reservoir. Les traceurs représentent un outil précieux pour améliorer la description des gisements. On les a utilisés pour obtenir des renseignements sur la configuration de l'écoulement des fluides injectés et sur leur vitesse, sur l'instant de percé des venues d'eau et sur leur origine précise, sur les traitements d'amélioration du balayage, sur les hétérogénéités importantes telles que fractures, barrières d'écoulement et stratifications de la perméabilité. Dans les gisements importants comportant plusieurs puits de production et plusieurs puits d'injection, il est donc souhaitable de disposer de plusieurs traceurs afin de pouvoir injecter différents traceurs ou mélanges de traceurs dans les différents puits. L'article présenté ici est une contribution a l'effort fait pour étendre le nombre de gaz traceurs fiables applicables aux gisements. L'article présente les résultats d'essais dynamiques en laboratoires dans lesquels on injecte des traceurs à travers un milieu poreux. Lorsqu'ils traversent un réservoir, les gaz traceurs sont retardés du fait de leur ségrégation dans la phase huile. La

  15. Chemistry of complexing molecules and environment. Report of the working group of the Cea ''mission environment''; Chimie des complexants en environnements. Rapport du groupe de travail de la mission environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J.C

    1998-07-01

    The Working group 'Chemistry of Complexing Molecules and Environment' of the Mission Environment (AG/ENV) identified themes for an original positioning of CEA on important issues of environmental research if a sufficiently strong demand appears. The research of CEA on the environment should be complementary to actions undertaken by other partners (official institutions, research organizations and industrial firms). The themes suggested are: the synthesis of new chelating molecules and new materials having specific properties, with the support of theoretical chemistry and modeling, analytical physical chemistry and speciation of species in relation to their eco-toxicity and their biogeochemical mobility in the natural environment. These themes, illustrated by examples of actions in progress at CEA or likely to be launched quickly, draw largely from recognized competences of the teams, generally developed for finalized nuclear applications: experimental, theoretical and instrumental competences. (author)

  16. Study of the magnetic characteristics of ferrites with a view to their application in a proton synchrotron; Etudes des caracteristiques magnetiques des ferrites en vue de leur application dans un synchrotron a protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, K.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-10-01

    In this report magnetic properties of some Ni Zn ferrites available in France are investigated for the purpose of their use in accelerating cavities of proton synchrotron. An attempt is made to measure permeability and quality factor of ferrite versus various physical parameters such as frequency F, the induction B, the magnetic bias field Hp and the temperature, the investigation ranges being: F {<=} 40 Mc/s; B {<=} 10{sup -2} Tesla; Hp {<=} 5000 AT/m; T {<=} 100 C. The measurements were carried out with the one hand, conventional impedance bridge (Q-meter, RX-meter) and on the other hand, with resonating method using an inductive ferrite loaded cavity in parallel with an external capacity. The latter method is of particular interest for the measurements in function of induction and magnetic bias field. (author) [French] Ce travail consiste a etudier les proprietes magnetiques d'un certain nombre de ferrites de Ni Zn disponibles sur le marche francais en vue de leur utilisation dans les cavites acceleratrices d'un synchrotron a protons. On se propose de mesurer la permeabilite et le facteur de qualite du ferrite en fonction de divers parametres physiques tels que la frequence F, l'induction B, le champ magnetique de polarisation Hp et la temperature T, avec: F {<=} 40 Mc/s; B {<=} 10{sup -2} Tesla; Hp {<=} 5000 AT/m; T {<=} 100 C. On effectue les mesures d'une part a l'aide des ponts d'impedance classiques (Q-metre, RX-metre) et d'autre part par la methode du resonateur qui consiste a mettre en parallele une cavite inductive chargee de ferrite et une capacite exterieure. Cette derniere methode est particulierement interessante pour les mesures en fonction de l'induction et du champ magnetique polarisant. (auteur)

  17. The thin layer technique and its application to electron microscopy; La technique des couches minces et son application a la microscopie electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranc, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-10-15

    This work deals with the technique of thin layers obtained by evaporation under vacuum, in the thickness range extending from a few monoatomic layers to several hundred angstroms. The great theoretical and practical interest of these layers has, it is well known, given rise to many investigations from Faraday onwards. Within the necessarily restricted limits of this study, we shall approach the problem more particularly from the point of view of: - their production; - their use in electron microscopy. A critical appraisal is made, in the light of present-day knowledge, based on our personal experience and on an extensive bibliography which we have collected on the subject. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne la technique des couches minces obtenues par evaporation sous vide, dans le domaine d'epaisseur qui s'etend de quelques couches monoatomiques a plusieurs centaines d'angstroms. L'interet theorique et pratique considerable de ces couches a suscite, comme on sait, de nombreux travaux depuis Faraday. Dans le cadre necessairement restreint de cette these, nous aborderons plus particulierement le point de vue de: - leur obtention; - leur utilisation en microscopie electronique. Il s'agit d'une mise au point critique, a la lumiere des connaissances actuelles, appuyee sur notre experience personnelle et sur une importante bibliographie, qu'il nous a ete donne de reunir a ce sujet. (auteur)

  18. Tubes légers à haute résistance pour des applications pétrolières marines Light High Strength Tubes for Offshore Petroeleum Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corteville J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins nouveaux en tubes à haute résistance, créés par le développement actuel des gisements pétroliers marins, nous ont conduits à étudier des tubes composites particuliers, élaborés par enrouiement hélicoïdal de rubans d'acier minces à haute résistance enrobés d'une résine époxy polymérisable. Un mode de recouvrement adapté des rubans d'acier confère au composite une bonne étanchéité et des caractéristiques mécaniques élevées. Les propriétés physiques et chimiques de la matrice de résine permettent également d'obtenir une faible densité et une résistance convenable à la corrosion par les fluides pétroliers, l'eau de mer ou les boues de forage. Cette étude préliminaire comporte une analyse théorique simplifiée de ce type de structure composite, puis une partie expérimentale destinée a sélectionner les caractéristiques optimales de l'acier et de la résine et à vérifier les propriétés mécaniques et physico-chimiques obtenues sur ces tubes. Enfin, des exemples d'application en mer profonde destinés à comparer ces tubes composites aux tubes en acier sont présentés. Les premières conclusions de cette étude semblent confirmer l'intérêt de ce type de matériau pour ces applications. The new requirements for high-strength tubes created by thé current development of offshore oilfields led thé authors ta study thé development ot spécial composite tubes formed by thé spiral winding of high-strength thin steel strips coated with a polymerïzable epoxy resin. A particular method of overlapping thé steel strips makes the composite leakproof and leads to good mechanical properties: The physical and chemical properties of thé resin matrix also make for a low specific gravity and suitable résistance to corrosion coused by petroleum fluids, seawater or drilling mud. This preliminary article presents a simplified theoretical analysis of this type of composite structure, followed by an exp

  19. Interest of uranium complexes for the mechanism study of the McMurry reaction; Interet des complexes de l`uranium pour l`etude du mecanisme de la reaction de McMurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, O

    1997-07-04

    The reducing coupling reactions of ketones in diols and olefins are generally carried out with titanium or samarium compounds. In this work uranium complexes have been used. They have allowed to study the chemical reaction mechanism. This thesis is divided into three parts: 1) the reduction mechanism of uranium tetrachloride by cyclic voltametry has been studied at first. It has been shown that this reduction is followed by a transfer reaction of chlorides between the reduced specie of the higher electronic density and UCl . 2) In the second part is described: the synthesis, the crystal structure, the reactivity of the chemical agents, the stereochemistry of diols and alkenes formation and the pinacolisation reaction catalysis. 3) In the last part, the limits of the McMurry reaction are given by the study of the aromatic ketones pinacolisation reaction by-products. The obtained results show that the complexes of the metals which present a high reducing and oxo-philic (Ti, Sm, U..) character react in a similar way with the carbonyl compounds. If the uranium compounds are less used than those of the titanium in the field of the organic synthesis applications, they are precious auxiliaries and excellent models for reactions mechanisms study and for the synthesis methods optimization. (O.M.). 284 refs.

  20. Dictionnaire d'analyse et de gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Desroches, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Ce dictionnaire présente les principaux termes utilisés en analyse et gestion des risques, pour tous les secteurs d'activité industrielle ou de service. Il permet de clarifier des terminologies existantes présentant des variations plus ou moins importantes et parfois des contradictions de sens. Il propose : premièrement, la définition des auteurs, définition correspondant à l'usage le plus courant du terme , deuxièmement, les différences avec les terminologies existantes (essentiellement des normes) , troisièmement, des compléments à la définition, lorsque cela semble nécessaire et notamment lorsqu'il est important de préciser le contexte d'utilisation du terme , en dernier lieu, des exemples pratiques d'application, lorsque cela peut apporter un éclairage complémentaire pertinent.

  1. Pour une approche communicationnelle des TIC dans le Monde Arabe

    OpenAIRE

    Hammami, Sadok

    2006-01-01

    Contribution à une approche communicationnelle des TIC dans le monde arabe. La diffusion des TIC dans les sociétés arabes et la formation des usages se révèlent être un phénomène complexe où l'on observe la diversité des discours d'accompagnement et de légitimation (communication publique de l'Etat, discours politiques, promotionnels et identitaire) et des acteurs qui agissent sur le processus de formation de usages (élites techno-administratives, politiques, traditionalistes, etc.). La probl...

  2. Consumption estimation in system design for real time embedded applications; Estimation de la consommation dans la conception systeme des applications embarquees temps reel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, J.

    2002-12-15

    Today, power and energy consumption have become, as time and area, an important constraint when you design a system. Indeed modern applications use more and more processing and memory resources so these lead a significant increase of consumption. Furthermore, embedded software impact is preponderant in real time system so the code optimisation has a great impact onto the consumption constraint. Several research teams have already developed estimation methodologies for processor but almost are at instruction level (ILPA). With this kind of method you have to measure the consumption of each instruction of the instruction set and also the inter-instruction consumption overhead. For complex architecture, this kind of methodology is not adapted due to the prohibitive number of consumption measures. So the characterisation time of this kind of architecture is too important furthermore with this method is very difficult to take into account the external environment. For actual architecture another method is needed to reduce the characterisation time while preserving the accuracy. The reduction of the characterisation time have to be realized by increasing the abstraction level. So, we propose here a new approach based on a functional and architectural analysis of the target in consumption point of view (FLPA). Our methodology has two steps: the first one is a modeling step and the second is estimation step. (author)

  3. Des Connaissances Aux Politiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans beaucoup de pays en développement, la faible capacité du gouvernement est pratiquement la définition des problèmes de développement du pays. ...... Promouvoir l'échange des connaissances émanant des recherches ainsi que des outils et des résultats, et le dialogue entre les pays, institutions et donateurs.

  4. Datamart use for complex data retrieval in an ArcIMS application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherma, S. (Steven); Bolivar, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the use of datamarts and data warehousing concepts to expedite retrieval and display of complex attribute data from multi-million record databases. Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed an Internet application (SMART) using ArcIMS that relies on datamarts to quickly retrieve attribute data, associated with, but not contained within GIS layers. The volume of data and the complex relationships within the transactional database made data display within ArcIMS impractical without the use of datamarts. The technical issues and solutions involved in the development are discussed.

  5. Ruthenium (II) complexes of thiosemicarbazone: Synthesis, biosensor applications and evaluation as antimicrobial agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Hatice [Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Guler, Emine [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Yavuz, Murat, E-mail: myavuz@dicle.edu.tr [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Dicle University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey); Ozturk, Nurdan; Kose Yaman, Pelin [Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Subasi, Elif; Sahin, Elif [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Timur, Suna [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ege University, Institute on Drug Abuse, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science (BATI), 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    A conformationally rigid half-sandwich organoruthenium (II) complex [(η{sup 6}-p-cymene)RuClTSC{sup N–S}]Cl, (1) and carbonyl complex [Ru(CO)Cl(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}TSC{sup N–S}] (2) have been synthesized from the reaction of [{(η"6-p-cymene)RuCl}{sub 2}(μ-Cl){sub 2}] and [Ru(H)(Cl)(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}] with thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazon (TSC) respectively and both novel ruthenium (II) complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The peripheral TSC in the complexes acts as an electrochemical coupling unit providing the ability to carry out electrochemical deposition (ED) and to form an electro-deposited film on a graphite electrode surface. The biosensing applicability of complexes 1 and 2 was investigated by using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model enzyme. Electrochemical measurements at − 0.9 V versus Ag/AgCl electrode by following the ED Ru(II) reduction/oxidation due to from the enzyme activity, in the presence of glucose substrate. The designed biosensor showed a very good linearity for 0.01–0.5 mM glucose. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of complexes 1 and 2 were also investigated against nine bacterial strains and one fungus by the disc diffusion test method. No activity was observed against the Gram-negative strains and fungus, whereas complex 1 showed moderate antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains. - Highlights: • Novel Ru (II) thiosemicarbazone complexes were synthesized and characterized. • Electrochemical depositions were performed. • Rigid half-sandwich Ru (II) complex showed enhanced antibacterial activity.

  6. Variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sont à dominance céréale et coton avec environ 75 % des assolements. Les revenus nets des EAF montrent en moyenne une prédominance des productions végétales (1 394 976 Fcfa) et animales, (1 420 430 Fcfa) sur les activités de diversification (358 449 Fcfa). Mots clés : production, revenu, économie, performance, ...

  7. Study of application technology of ultra-high speed computer to the elucidation of complex phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Tomotsugu

    1996-01-01

    The basic design of numerical information library in the decentralized computer network was explained at the first step of constructing the application technology of ultra-high speed computer to the elucidation of complex phenomena. Establishment of the system makes possible to construct the efficient application environment of ultra-high speed computer system to be scalable with the different computing systems. We named the system Ninf (Network Information Library for High Performance Computing). The summary of application technology of library was described as follows: the application technology of library under the distributed environment, numeric constants, retrieval of value, library of special functions, computing library, Ninf library interface, Ninf remote library and registration. By the system, user is able to use the program concentrating the analyzing technology of numerical value with high precision, reliability and speed. (S.Y.)

  8. Contribution à l'étude des équations différentielles et aux différences dans le champ complexe

    OpenAIRE

    Barkatou, My Abdelfattah

    1989-01-01

    Un logiciel pour les solutions formelles d'équations différentielles linéaires d'ordre 2 au voisinage de points singuliers est présenté. Pour les équations d'ordre quelconque on donne une version modifiée de l'algorithme de newton. Un algorithme permettant d'obtenir une base de solutions asymptotiques d'une équation récurrente linéaire à coefficients polynomiaux est ensuite présenté. Ceci mène à l'étude des systèmes linéaires aux différences à coefficients séries de factorielles...

  9. Virtual Reality: State of Military Research and Applications in Member Countries (La realite virutelle: L’etat actuel des travaux de recherche et des applications militaires dans les pays membres de l’Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    virtual showroom of products. In this showroom the products (cars, busses, airplanes, trams) can be presented to a potential customer in a realistic...SEINE CEDEX, FRANCE RTO TECHNICAL REPORT 18 Virtual Reality: State of Military Research and Applications in Member Countries (La réalité virtuelle...ANCELLE, F-92201 NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE CEDEX, FRANCE RTO TECHNICAL REPORT 18 Virtual Reality: State of Military Research and Applications in Member Countries

  10. Évaluation des paysages de l'Hérault: une approche méthodologique et une application SIG adaptée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cécile FALQUE

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available L’élaboration d’un outil d’évaluation des paysages a été rendue possible grâce à un partenariat entre l’INRA, la DIREN et l’Observatoire du Territoire, avec le souci commun d’intégrer la réflexion sur les paysages dans les problématiques de gestion de l’espace. Les modules d’analyse élaborés à partir des fonctionnalités des Systèmes d’Information Géographique produisent des résultats très prometteurs en vue de la sensibilisation au paysage des partenaires et acteurs et laissent entrevoir d’intéressantes perspectives de valorisation.

  11. High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: II. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Staffelbach, G; Vermorel, O; Duchaine, F; Boussuge, J-F; Poinsot, T

    2009-01-01

    Present regulations in terms of pollutant emissions, noise and economical constraints, require new approaches and designs in the fields of energy supply and transportation. It is now well established that the next breakthrough will come from a better understanding of unsteady flow effects and by considering the entire system and not only isolated components. However, these aspects are still not well taken into account by the numerical approaches or understood whatever the design stage considered. The main challenge is essentially due to the computational requirements inferred by such complex systems if it is to be simulated by use of supercomputers. This paper shows how new challenges can be addressed by using parallel computing platforms for distinct elements of a more complex systems as encountered in aeronautical applications. Based on numerical simulations performed with modern aerodynamic and reactive flow solvers, this work underlines the interest of high-performance computing for solving flow in complex industrial configurations such as aircrafts, combustion chambers and turbomachines. Performance indicators related to parallel computing efficiency are presented, showing that establishing fair criterions is a difficult task for complex industrial applications. Examples of numerical simulations performed in industrial systems are also described with a particular interest for the computational time and the potential design improvements obtained with high-fidelity and multi-physics computing methods. These simulations use either unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods or large eddy simulation and deal with turbulent unsteady flows, such as coupled flow phenomena (thermo-acoustic instabilities, buffet, etc). Some examples of the difficulties with grid generation and data analysis are also presented when dealing with these complex industrial applications.

  12. MULTIENZYME COMPLEX APPLICATION WHEN RECEIVING OF ETHYL ALCOHOL FROM THE PROBLEM OF RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Yakovlev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the complex enzyme preparation of Bruzaime BGX on viscosity of a rye batter was probed. Dynamics of accumulation of a weight fraction of dry and reducing materials in a batter, and also possibility of decrease in a dosage glucoamilase is shown at using of multienzymic complex at a stage of water-thermal processing. It was set that multienzymic complex application on stages of water-thermal processing allows to increase the glucose maintenance in a wort by 34,7 % in comparison with the control that raises an alcohol yield on 1,4 dal/tonn conditional starch, reduces duration of fermentation till 50-52 h and reduces the general screenings content in a fermented wash by 10 %.

  13. Complex Systems Models and Their Applications: Towards a New Science of Verification, Validation & Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trucano, Timothy G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kleban, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naugle, Asmeret Bier [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Curtis M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gabert, Kasimir Georg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Wei [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); DeLaurentis, Daniel [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hubler, Alfred [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Oberkampf, Bill [WLO Consulting, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report contains the written footprint of a Sandia-hosted workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 22-23, 2016 on “Complex Systems Models and Their Applications: Towards a New Science of Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification,” as well as of pre-work that fed into the workshop. The workshop’s intent was to explore and begin articulating research opportunities at the intersection between two important Sandia communities: the complex systems (CS) modeling community, and the verification, validation and uncertainty quantification (VVUQ) community The overarching research opportunity (and challenge) that we ultimately hope to address is: how can we quantify the credibility of knowledge gained from complex systems models, knowledge that is often incomplete and interim, but will nonetheless be used, sometimes in real-time, by decision makers?

  14. RutheniumII Complexes bearing Fused Polycyclic Ligands: From Fundamental Aspects to Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Troian-Gautier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we first discuss the photophysics reported in the literature for mononuclear ruthenium complexes bearing ligands with extended aromaticity such as dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (DPPZ, tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]-phenazine (TPPHZ,  tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]acridine (TPAC, 1,10-phenanthrolino[5,6-b]1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene (PHEHAT 9,11,20,22-tetraaza- tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-l:2''',3'''-n]pentacene (TATPP, etc. Photophysical properties of binuclear and polynuclear complexes based on these extended ligands are then reported. We finally develop the use of binuclear complexes with extended π-systems for applications such as photocatalysis.

  15. Immunocytochimie et diagnostic des leucémies aigües: mise au point d'une technique utilisant le complexe phosphatase alcaline-anticorps anti-phosphatase alcaline.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    1990-01-01

    Le diagnostic des leucémies aigues (LA) bénéficie à l'heure actuelle de différents outils complémentaires. Même si la classification FAB (Franco-Américaine-Britannique) reste la référence, il n'en demeure pas moins vrai que l'introduction des anticorps (Ac) monoclonaux a ouvert des perspectives nouvelles en associant des profils immunologiques aux différents types de leucémies aiguës. Des techniques immunocytochimiques utilisant différents enzymes, phosphatases alcaline et peroxydase, associé...

  16. Application of complex programmable logic devices in memory radiation effects test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonghong; He Chaohui; Yang Hailiang; He Baoping

    2005-01-01

    The application of the complex programmable logic device (CPLD) in electronics is emphatically discussed. The method of using software MAX + plus II and CPLD are introduced. A new test system for memory radiation effects is established by using CPLD devices-EPM7128C84-15. The old test system's function are realized and, moreover, a number of small scale integrated circuits are reduced and the test system's reliability is improved. (authors)

  17. [The application of combined physiotherapeutic methods for the complex treatment of patients with dyscirculatory encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiman, A G; Klocheva, E G; Kaiumov, S F; Shoferova, S D; Zhukova, M V

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of applying basic pharmacotherapy (enalapril, cytoflavin) and its combination with physical factors (transcranial electrostimulation, combined application oftranscranial electrostimulation and low-frequency magnetic therapy) in the complex treatment of patients with stage I-II dyscirculatory encephalopathy. The study has demonstrated that the combined treatment with cytoflavin, enalapril, transcranial electrostimulation and low-frequency magnetic therapy produced the most pronounced therapeutic effect (82.5%), as confirmed by positive dynamics of clinical and functional parameters.

  18. Advances in statistical monitoring of complex multivariate processes with applications in industrial process control

    CERN Document Server

    Kruger, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of multivariate statistical techniques in process monitoring has gained substantial interest over the past two decades in academia and industry alike.  Initially developed for monitoring and fault diagnosis in complex systems, such techniques have been refined and applied in various engineering areas, for example mechanical and manufacturing, chemical, electrical and electronic, and power engineering.  The recipe for the tremendous interest in multivariate statistical techniques lies in its simplicity and adaptability for developing monitoring applica

  19. Complex photonics: Dynamics and applications of delay-coupled semiconductors lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Miguel C.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Mirasso, Claudio R.; Fischer, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Complex phenomena in photonics, in particular, dynamical properties of semiconductor lasers due to delayed coupling, are reviewed. Although considered a nuisance for a long time, these phenomena now open interesting perspectives. Semiconductor laser systems represent excellent test beds for the study of nonlinear delay-coupled systems, which are of fundamental relevance in various areas. At the same time delay-coupled lasers provide opportunities for photonic applications. In this review an i...

  20. Modelisation des effets physico-techniques pour la conception des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    automatisation dans les installations industrielles a besoin d'une régulation automatique des commandes des processus technologiques pour lesquelles certaines contraintes sont à relever compte tenu des exigences des innovations scientifiques de ...

  1. Application of «Sensor signal analysis network» complex for distributed, time synchronized analysis of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Vladimir; Mochalova, Anastasia

    2017-10-01

    The paper considers a developing software-hardware complex «Sensor signal analysis network» for distributed and time synchronized analysis of electromagnetic radiations. The areas of application and the main features of the complex are described. An example of application of the complex to monitor natural electromagnetic radiation sources is considered based on the data recorded in VLF range. A generalized functional scheme of stream analysis of signals by a complex functional node is suggested and its application for stream detection of atmospherics, whistlers and tweaks is considered.

  2. Application of «Sensor signal analysis network» complex for distributed, time synchronized analysis of electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochalov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a developing software-hardware complex «Sensor signal analysis network» for distributed and time synchronized analysis of electromagnetic radiations. The areas of application and the main features of the complex are described. An example of application of the complex to monitor natural electromagnetic radiation sources is considered based on the data recorded in VLF range. A generalized functional scheme of stream analysis of signals by a complex functional node is suggested and its application for stream detection of atmospherics, whistlers and tweaks is considered.

  3. Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome; Proteomique fonctionnelle dediee aux Metalloproteases Matricelles (MMPs): developpement d'une methode extremement sensible permettant la detection des formes actives des MMPs dans des proteomes complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, A

    2007-07-15

    The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows

  4. Survey of Applications of Complex Event Processing (CEP in Health Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Mahmood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is always difficult to manipulate the production of huge amount of data which comes from multiple sources and to extract meaningful information to make appropriate decisions. When data comes from various input resources, to get required streams of events form this complex input network, the one of the strong functionality of Business Intelligence (BI the Complex Event Processing (CEP is the appropriate solution for the above mention problems. Real time processing, pattern matching, stream processing, big data management, sensor data processing and many more are the application areas of CEP. Health domain itself is a multi-dimension domain such as hospital supply chain, OPD management, disease diagnostic, In-patient, out-patient management, and emergency care etc. In this paper, the main focus is to discuss the application areas of Complex Event Processing (CEP in health domain by using sensor device, such that how CEP manipulate health data set events coming from sensor devices such as blood pressure, heart rate, fall detection, sugar level, temperature or any other vital signs and how this systems respond to these events as quickly as possible. Different existing models and application using CEP are discussed and summarized according to different characteristics.

  5. International Conference on Finite or Infinite Dimensional Complex Analysis and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tutschke, W; Yang, C

    2004-01-01

    There is almost no field in Mathematics which does not use Mathe­ matical Analysis. Computer methods in Applied Mathematics, too, are often based on statements and procedures of Mathematical Analysis. An important part of Mathematical Analysis is Complex Analysis because it has many applications in various branches of Mathematics. Since the field of Complex Analysis and its applications is a focal point in the Vietnamese research programme, the Hanoi University of Technology organized an International Conference on Finite or Infinite Dimensional Complex Analysis and Applications which took place in Hanoi from August 8 - 12, 2001. This conference th was the 9 one in a series of conferences which take place alternately in China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam each year. The first one took place th at Pusan University in Korea in 1993. The preceding 8 conference was th held in Shandong in China in August 2000. The 9 conference of the was the first one which took place above mentioned series of conferences in Vietnam....

  6. Parallelization of learning problems by artificial neural networks. Application in external radiotherapy; Parallelisation de problemes d'apprentissage par des reseaux neuronaux artificiels. Application en radiotherapie externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauget, M

    2007-12-15

    This research is about the application of neural networks used in the external radiotherapy domain. The goal is to elaborate a new evaluating system for the radiation dose distributions in heterogeneous environments. The al objective of this work is to build a complete tool kit to evaluate the optimal treatment planning. My st research point is about the conception of an incremental learning algorithm. The interest of my work is to combine different optimizations specialized in the function interpolation and to propose a new algorithm allowing to change the neural network architecture during the learning phase. This algorithm allows to minimise the al size of the neural network while keeping a good accuracy. The second part of my research is to parallelize the previous incremental learning algorithm. The goal of that work is to increase the speed of the learning step as well as the size of the learned dataset needed in a clinical case. For that, our incremental learning algorithm presents an original data decomposition with overlapping, together with a fault tolerance mechanism. My last research point is about a fast and accurate algorithm computing the radiation dose deposit in any heterogeneous environment. At the present time, the existing solutions used are not optimal. The fast solution are not accurate and do not give an optimal treatment planning. On the other hand, the accurate solutions are far too slow to be used in a clinical context. Our algorithm answers to this problem by bringing rapidity and accuracy. The concept is to use a neural network adequately learned together with a mechanism taking into account the environment changes. The advantages of this algorithm is to avoid the use of a complex physical code while keeping a good accuracy and reasonable computation times. (author)

  7. Study of deuterons induced nuclear reactions on light elements (N, Al and Si): Application to containment materials of radioactive wastes; Etude des reactions nucleaires induites par des deuterons sur des elements legers (N, Al, Si): application aux materiaux de confinement des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, St

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear reaction analysis is well adapted to the quantification of light element. Profiles of concentration in order to follow elements migration into materials can be undertaken. This technique is used to study the behavior of the future matrices for nuclear waste containment. This technique is isotopic, characterized by a good signal-to-background ratio and a very low detection limit. The probability of a nuclear reaction is linked to a parameter called 'cross section' we have to know in order to carry out quantitative analysis. We have determined excitation curves for nitrogen, aluminium and silicon. These experiments were done with deuterons from 0.5 to 2 MeV. Two methods for the cross section characterization are presented and are in agreement with each other. The second one reduces uncertainty. Data are incorporated in the simulation software SIMNRA. We have compared the results obtained on different samples when we use data in literature or data of the study. We have noticed a great fit improvement with the data of this study. The new cross sections of this work will be integrated in the general data base SIGMABASE. Applications on materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, nano-metric powders, WCN and nuclear glass YLaMgSiAlON studied for radioactive waste containment are also presented. (author)

  8. Statistical interpretation of uncertainty coefficients in thermal calculations for nuclear reactors. Particular problems in the application of the sigma method. Application to redistribution of the flow; Interpretation statistique des coefficients d'incertitude dans le calcul thermique des reacteurs nucleaires. Problemes particuliers d'application de la methode des {delta}. Application au calcul de la redistribution de debit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrega, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This report begins with a presentation of various statistical methods which make it possible to take into account the uncertainties involved in thermal calculations for nuclear reactors. The use of the variance addition theorem ({sigma} method) for calculating the probability of a thermal accident in a reactor is now very common. This method has still certain fundamental problems however (correlation between the variables, non-linearity) which results in it being abandoned in favour of less elegant methods, which are also less rigorous, e.g. the Monte Carlo method. We have attempted to show in this work how it is possible to generalize the {sigma} method to take into account the difficulties which limits its use. The great advantage of the {sigma} method is that it is relatively fast to apply and is also analytical. It enables one to understand the intricacies of the phenomena and the influence of various conditions which can be imposed in the construction of a reactor. The last part of this work is dedicated to an application of the 3-{sigma} method to the calculation of the safety margin in the case of the phenomenon of flow redistribution. Numerical results are given for the case of a high flux reactor. They show that the improvement in the performance due to the use of the statistical method is quite substantial ; whereas the sum of the uncertainties means that the maximum available power (which would be obtained if there were no uncertainty) should be divided by 1.6 approximately, this power should be divided by 1.25 if the average accident frequency is assumed to be 1 in a thousand. The accident frequency decreases very rapidly if the power is still further diminished; a division by 1.33 lowers the frequency to about 1 in 10,000. It thus appears than in practice the statistical method leads to a decrease by a factor of at least 2 in the loss of performance due to the uncertainties.

  9. Chirurgie des grassmanniennes

    CERN Document Server

    Lafforgue, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Les compactifications diverses de variétés de modules sont un thème important et récurrent des mathématiques modernes, et elles connaissent un grand nombre d'applications. Ce livre traite le cas de cellules de Schubert minces, qui sont de sous-variétés naturelles de grassmanniennes. L'auteur a été amené à traiter ces questions par un cas particulier lié à ses travaux sur le programme de Langlands. Dans cette monographie, il en développe une théorie plus systématique, présentant le fortes similarités avec celle des modules du courbes stables. The various compactifications of moduli spaces are an important recurrent theme of modern mathematics, and they have a large number of applications. This book treats the case of thin Schubert varieties, which are natural subvarieties of Grassmannians. The author was led to these questions by a particular case linked to his work on the Langlands program. In this monograph, he develops the theory in a more systematic way, which exhibits strong similarities...

  10. The study by means of a photomultiplier of the scintillations produced by {alpha} particles striking a zinc sulphide screen; Etude, au photomultiplicateur, des scintillations produites par les particules {alpha} dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Application a la numeration precise des particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The object of the study is the accurate counting of {alpha} particles by p-m. detection of their scintillations upon impact with a zinc sulphide screen. The main advantage of the method is the extreme simplicity of the electronics used: the possibility of obtaining a utilizable pulse from the p-m. (EMI5311) without any amplification, and in linear response, is demonstrated. The scintillation produced by an impact on Zn-S has also been studied experimentally. The decrease of light intensity in relation to time may be interpreted by the exponential relation: I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) whereby {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. The relation between scintillation intensity and remaining trajectory after travel through a given air-space has also been determined. Possible suitable applications of this method of {alpha} counting are those where good stability and low background are necessary. Results stated bear on air contamination studies, isotopic composition variation measurement of uranium, bismuth content measurement in alloys by irradiation of specimens in a thermal neutron flux and {alpha} count on the Po formed. (author) [French] Ce travail est consacre a l'etude de la numeration precise des particules {alpha} par detection au photomultiplicateur des scintillations produites par ces particules dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Le principal avantage de cette methode reside dans l'extreme simplicite de l'appareillage electronique; il est en effet montre qu'il est possible, tout en convoyant une reponse lineaire, d'obtenir du photomultiplicateur (EMI5311) un signal electrique utilisable sans aucune amplification. La scintillation produite par l'impact des particules {alpha} sur un ecran de Zn-S est etudiee experimentalement. La decroissance de l'intensite lumineuse en fonction du temps est interpretable par la relation exponentielle I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) avec {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. La relation entre l

  11. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), UMR Innovation,. Montpellier, France. Doubangolo COULIBALY, Email kone_b@yahoo.fr. RESUME. La durabilité des systèmes de production à base de coton dans un contexte de variabilité des prix aux producteurs et de ...

  12. Extending the theoretical framing for physics education research: An illustrative application of complexity science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Jonas; Moll, Rachel; Linder, Cedric

    2014-12-01

    The viability of using complexity science in physics education research (PER) is exemplified by (1) situating central tenets of student persistence research in complexity science and (2) drawing on the methods that become available from this to illustrate analyzing the structural aspects of students' networked interactions as an important dynamic in student persistence. By drawing on the most cited characterizations of student persistence, we theorize that university environments are made up of social and academic systems, which PER work on student persistence has largely ignored. These systems are interpreted as being constituted from rules of interaction that affect the structural aspects of students' social and academic network interactions from a complexity science perspective. To illustrate this empirically, an exploration of the nature of the social and academic networks of university-level physics students is undertaken. This is done by combining complexity science with social network analysis to characterize structural similarities and differences of the social and academic networks of students in two courses. It is posited that framing a social network analysis within a complexity science perspective offers a new and powerful applicability across a broad range of PER topics.

  13. Preparation and characterization of Schiff base Cu(II) complex and its applications on textile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oylumluoglu, G.; Oner, J.

    2017-10-01

    Schiff base ligands are regarded as an important class of organic compounds on account of the fact that their complexation ability with transition metal ions. A new monomeric Schiff base Cu(II) complex, [Cu(HL)2], 1 [H2L = 2–((E)–(2–hydroxypropylimino)methyl)–4–nitrophenol] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV and IR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence study. While the Schiff base ligand and its Cu(II) complex are excited at λex = 349 nm in UV region, the Schiff base ligand shows a blue emission band at λmax = 480 nm whereas its Cu(II) complex shows a strong green emission band at λmax = 520 nm in the solid state at room temperature. The luminescent properties showed that the Schiff base ligand and its Cu(II) complex can be used as novel potential candidates for applications in textile such as UV-protection, antimicrobial, laundry and functional bleaching treatments.

  14. A primer on complex systems with applications to astrophysical and laboratory plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Raúl

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to illustrate the fundamental concepts of complexity and complex behavior and the best methods to characterize this behavior by means of their applications to some current research topics from within the fields of fusion, earth and solar plasmas. In this sense, it is a departure from the many books already available that discuss general features of complexity. The book is divided in two parts. In the first part the most important properties and features of complex systems are introduced, discussed and illustrated. The second part discusses several instances of possible complex phenomena in magnetized plasmas and some of the analysis tools that were introduced in the first part are used to characterize the dynamics in these systems. A list of problems is proposed at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for graduate and post-graduate students with a solid college background in mathematics and classical physics, who intend to work in the field of plasma physics and, in parti...

  15. Gyrodactylidae et Gyrodactylose des Salmonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALMBERG G.

    1993-01-01

    ées. Une dérive génétique peut résulter de nouvelles formes pathogènes. Ainsi les piscicultures peuvent agir comme des centres de développement et de propagation des Gyrodactylus. La truite Arc en Ciel, O. mikiss est indéniablement l'unique nouvel hôte potentiel pour nombre d'espèces de Gyrodactylus. En conclusion, il est recommandé de poursuivre sur les stocks de Salmonidae, des études concernant leur résistance aux Gyrodactylus pathogènes, d'étudier de manière comparative les blessures causées par différentes espèces de Gyrodactylus, d'étudier leur viviparité si spécifique, ainsi que les interactions complexes des conditions micro et macro environnementales.

  16. La metamorphose des cypris femelles des Rhizocephales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillet, A.

    1964-01-01

    Depuis la découverte de la métamorphose des cypris de Sacculina carcini Thompson par Delage, peu de biologistes se sont intéressés au développement des Rhizocéphales. On admet aujourd'hui que tous les Cirripèdes parasites ont, comme Sacculina carcini, une forme kentrogone qui inocule le parasite au

  17. Automation of ultrasonic testing, instrumentation and rules for application and evaluation. Proceedings; Automatisierung der Ultraschallpruefung, Geraetetechnik und Regeln zur Anwendung und Auswertung. Vortraege des Seminars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuestenberg, H. [comp.

    1997-12-31

    The proceedings volume contains 18 lectures of the seminar addressing the following (selected) aspects: Requirements to be met by PC cards for US testing applications, defined by producers and appliers; digital technology and its impact on multichannel US testing instruments; the ALOK and array systems combined into one very efficient testing system (SAPHIR); a testing system combining US radiation source arrays and the pulsed eddy current method by means of highly integrated microelectronics (ASICs); regulatory standards and specifications for automated US testing; requirements for automated US testing in compliance with nuclear engineering codes; state of the art in standardisation for definition of required properties of US testing systems; critical review of the proposed standard relating to the TOFD method; automated evaluation shown with the example of US testing of pipelines. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Dieser Band enthaelt 18 Vortraege mit folgenden Themen (Auswahl): Anforderungen an Ultraschall-PC-Karten aus der Sicht von Hersteller und Betreiber; Einfluss der Digitaltechnik auf Mehrkanal-Ultraschall-Pruefanlagen; Vereinigung der ALOK- und der Gruppenstrahler-Technik in einem leistungsfaehigen Pruefsystem (SAPHIR); Ein kombiniertes Pruefsystem fuer die Ultraschall-Gruppenstrahler- und Impuls-Wirbelstrom-Technik auf der Basis von hochintegrierter Mikroelektronik (ASICs); Regelwerke und Spezifikationen fuer die automatisierte Ultraschallpruefung; Anforderungen der kerntechnischen Regelwerke an die automatisierte Ultraschallpruefung; Stand der Normung bei der Charakterisierung der Eigenschaften von Ultraschall-Pruefsystemen; Kritische Bewertung des Normungsvorschlages zur Beugungslaufzeittechnik (TOFD); und Automatisierte Auswertung am Beispiel der Ultraschallpruefung von Fernrohrleitungen. (orig.)

  18. Photogrammetric Recording in a Context of Preventive Archaeology : the "Place des Martyrs" Excavation (Algiers, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    SEGUIN, Maxime; Souq, François; Stiti, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The construction of the underground station called Place des Martyrs in Algiers required preventive excavation. The context led us to favour recording methods leading to the rapid and exhaustive acquisition of data. Indeed digital photogrammetry made it possible to measure complex elements simply and rapidly. The originality of the solution implemented resided in the use of a free and open-source applications suite dedicated to scientific usage and making it possible t...

  19. Gestion intégrée des risques dans les projets de construction : application à un projet de construction de centrale solaire thermodynamique

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney, Elodie; BREYSSE, Denys; Ledoux, Yann; Ducq, Yves

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Le risque est une propriété inhérente de chaque projet. Dans de nombreux cas, la gestion de projet et la gestion des risques soient appliquées indépendamment. Les outils traditionnels de gestion de projet ne comprennent pas la notion de risque et les outils de mise au point de la gestion des risques sur la représentation des risques sans représentant explicitement le projet, ce qui conduit à mettre en œuvre le processus de gestion du risque indépendamment du processus ...

  20. Chlorophyll a in cyclodextrin supramolecular complexes as a natural photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Paola; Chimienti, Guglielmina; Altamura, Emiliano; Fini, Paola; Rizzi, Vito; Cosma, Pinalysa

    2018-04-01

    Chlorophyll a (Chl a), an amphipathic porphyrin, was employed as natural photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy applications. Due to its lacking solubility in water and high tendency to aggregate, Chl a was included into different modified cyclodextrins (CDs) to form stable water-soluble supramolecular complexes. To achieve this aim, 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HP-β-CD), 2-Hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (2-HP-γ-CD), Heptakis(2,6-di-o-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) and Heptakis(2,3,6-tri-o-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (TRIMEB) were used. The chemical physical properties of Chl a/CD complexes in cellular medium were studied by means of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Results demonstrated the good aptitude of 2-HP-γ-CD, and more particularly of 2-HP-β-CD, to solubilize the Chl a in cell culture medium in monomeric and photoactive form. Then, Chl a/2-HP-β-CD and Chl a/2-HP-γ-CD complexes were evaluated in vitro on human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line, and cytotoxicity and intracellular localization were respectively assessed. Further tests, such as phototoxicity, ROS generation, intracellular localization and mechanism of cell death were then focused exclusively on Chl a/2-HP-β-CD system. This complex exhibited no dark toxicity and a high phototoxicity toward HT-29 cells inducing cell death via necrotic mechanism. Therefore, it is possible to affirm that Chl a/2-HP-β-CD supramolecular complex could be a promising and potential formulation for applications in photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Etudes des mecanismes de dissolution des phosphates naturels de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans le cadre de la recherche sur la dissolution du phosphate calcique apatitique, une étude du mécanisme de cette dissolution basé sur la complexation des ions métalliques du minerai par deux acides humiques extraits d'un sol (AHS) et d'un compost (AHC) a été réalisée. L'ion calcium (Ca2+), ion majoritaire dans les ...

  2. Modélisation des structures Métal-Oxyde-Semiconducteur (MOS) : Applications aux dispositifs mémoires

    OpenAIRE

    BERNARDINI , Sandrine

    2004-01-01

    Our study concerns the modeling of MOS devices affected by defects which deteriorate their electric properties and consequently those of the memory devices. A great importance is given to the knowledge of the phenomena induced by the miniaturization of the capacity and transistor MOS which compose the memories. Our models, based on various studies of these subjects, represent new analysis tools geared to basic models in order to describe the complex operations of the memory devices. After a r...

  3. Rôle des matériaux-supports sur la mise en place du biofilm : application au démarrage d’un procédé de méthanisation

    OpenAIRE

    Habouzit, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Dans les systèmes anaérobies de traitement d'eaux usées, la biomasse microbienne complexe incluant archées et bactéries peut être maintenue au sein du procédé par l'adhésion aux supports solides sous forme de biofilm. Le but de ce travail est d'évaluer l'impact des propriétés des matériaux supports sur l’adhésion et la colonisation du consortium méthanogène. Différents matériaux (le polyéthylène, le polypropylène, le chlorure de polyvinyle, l’acrylonitrile butadiène styrène, le polycarbonate,...

  4. Contribution à l'étude et à la modélisation numérique des sols cloués : application au calcul en déformation des ouvrages de soutènement

    OpenAIRE

    Unterreiner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    L'interaction entre un renforcement linéaire (clou) et un sol granulaire (sable) est étudiée à plusieurs échelles en vue de réaliser des calculs en déformation de murs en sol cloué. L'interaction entre un clou et un sol à l'échelle des grains est étudiée à l'aide d'un milieu continu généralisé avec microstructure rigide (milieu de Cosserat). Trois lois de comportement du sol : élastique anisotrope, rigide parfaitement plastique et élastoplastique avec écrouissage, ainsi que deux jeux de condi...

  5. Application of a Dual-Arm Robot in Complex Sample Preparation and Measurement Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Heidi; Drews, Robert Ralf; Janson, Jessica; Chinna Patlolla, Bharath Reddy; Chu, Xianghua; Klos, Michael; Thurow, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Automation systems with applied robotics have already been established in industrial applications for many years. In the field of life sciences, a comparable high level of automation can be found in the areas of bioscreening and high-throughput screening. Strong deficits still exist in the development of flexible and universal fully automated systems in the field of analytical measurement. Reasons are the heterogeneous processes with complex structures, which include sample preparation and transport, analytical measurements using complex sensor systems, and suitable data analysis and evaluation. Furthermore, the use of nonstandard sample vessels with various shapes and volumes results in an increased complexity. The direct use of existing automation solutions from bioscreening applications is not possible. A flexible automation system for sample preparation, analysis, and data evaluation is presented in this article. It is applied for the determination of cholesterol in biliary endoprosthesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A dual-arm robot performs both transport and active manipulation tasks to ensure human-like operation. This general robotic concept also enables the use of manual laboratory devices and equipment and is thus suitable in areas with a high standardization grade. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Méthodologie de l'extraction des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques. Application à des sédiments de la lagune de Bizerte (Tunisie)Methodology of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Application to sediment from the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzoughi, Nadia; Hellal, Fayçal; Dachraoui, Mohamed; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, Chantal; de Mora, Stephen J.; El Abed, Amor

    2002-09-01

    The marine environment is very complex, with several important chemical, biological, and sedimentological interactions. Sediments constitute a reservoir for numerous pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are known by their mutagenic and/or carcinogenic effect. This study evaluates contamination levels in Bizerte Lagoon with respect to PAHs. The extraction efficiency of PAHs from sediment has been evaluated using Soxhlet or ultrasonic procedures, based on the recovery of an internal standard (9,10-dihydroanthracene). Several PAHs were found, including sixteen that are reported in the priority list of pollutants of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). PAHs analysis was carried out by GC-FID and GC-MS for 16 samples sampled in two seasons: summer and winter. Results permit an assessment of PAHs pollution in the Bizerte Lagoon. To cite this article: N. Mzoughi et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 893-901.

  7. Methodology of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Application to sediment from the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia); Methodologie de l'extraction des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques. Application a des sediments de la lagune de Bizerte (Tunisie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mzoughi, N.; El Abed, A. [Institut National des Sciences et Technologie de la Mer, Lab. Milieu Marin (Tunisia); Hellal, F. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie, Tunis (Tunisia); Dachraoui, M. [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Lab. de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie (Tunisia); Villeneuve, J.P.; Cattini, Ch.; Mora, St.J. de [Agence Internationale de l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de l' Environnement Matin (Monaco)

    2002-09-01

    The marine environment is very complex, with several important chemical, biological, and sedimentological interactions. Sediments constitute a reservoir for numerous pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are known by their mutagenic and/or carcinogenic effect. This study evaluates contamination levels in Bizerte Lagoon with respect to PAHs. The extraction efficiency of PAHs from sediment has been evaluated using Soxhlet or ultrasonic procedures, based on the recovery of an internal standard (9,10-dihydro-anthracene). Several PAHs were found, including sixteen that are reported in the priority list of pollutants of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). PAHs analysis was carried out by GC-FID and GC-MS for 16 samples sampled in two seasons: summer and winter. Results permit an assessment of PAHs pollution in the Bizerte Lagoon. (authors)

  8. RATING MODELS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATION FOR MANAGEMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2016-12-01

    . At this the control of separate elements is realized by the way of individual mental models construction and application of functioning processes. The procedure for evaluating of the prediction reliability based on multivariate linear extrapolation method was proposed. Practical value. The proposed method of strategic planning of the complex systems’ development based on rating models and developed information technology are representing the complex of automated tools to ensure effective economical and technological control of non-uniform sets of multiparameter objects. The new solutions of typical tasks of strategic planning and development of complex objects management procedure are implemented in the information technology of rating estimation (rating definition, sensitivity analysis, clustering, diagnostics, forecasting, resource allocation, multi-criteria analysis etc.. Application of the proposed information technology can automate the task of analysis and strategic planning of the administrative-territorial complexes. The technology can be used for monitoring, analysis, strategic planning and management of several complex system types simultaneously.

  9. L’application de la Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes en Bolivie

    OpenAIRE

    Rozée, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    La Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes (CEDAW) est un outil international clé pour le progrès de l’égalité de genre et la défense des droits des femmes, nécessaire mais non suffisant pour améliorer la condition et la situation de ces dernières. La Bolivie a ratifié la CEDAW en 1989, s’engageant ainsi à mettre en place des dispositifs sociaux et légaux en faveur de la communauté féminine et à appliquer notamment les droits reproductifs (puis...

  10. Metal complexes containing natural and and artificial radioactive elements and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharissova, Oxana V; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A; Kharisov, Boris I; Méndez, Ubaldo Ortiz; Martínez, Perla Elizondo

    2014-07-24

    Recent advances (during the 2007-2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well π-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described.

  11. Metal Complexes Containing Natural and and Artificial Radioactive Elements and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana V. Kharissova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances (during the 2007–2014 period in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium, are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well π-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m (99mTc for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described.

  12. Mécanique des fluides fondamentale

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour K

    1991-01-01

    Ce cours de mecanique des fluides est avant tout un cours theorique qui repond aux questions fondamentales de ce sujet de recherche. Les quatre premiers chapitres presentent les equations propres a determiner l'ecoulement de fluide considere et diverses solutions. Les chapitres 5 et 6sont consacres aux problemes lies la stabilite, aux bifurcations et aux comportements chaotiques. Le livre donne un vision globale des questions traitees en mecanique des fluides qui sont a la base de toute la recherche, de la modelisation et de toutes les applications dans ce domaine.

  13. A measure of statistical complexity based on predictive information with application to finite spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, Samer A., E-mail: samer.abdallah@eecs.qmul.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Plumbley, Mark D., E-mail: mark.plumbley@eecs.qmul.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-09

    We propose the binding information as an information theoretic measure of complexity between multiple random variables, such as those found in the Ising or Potts models of interacting spins, and compare it with several previously proposed measures of statistical complexity, including excess entropy, Bialek et al.'s predictive information, and the multi-information. We discuss and prove some of the properties of binding information, particularly in relation to multi-information and entropy, and show that, in the case of binary random variables, the processes which maximise binding information are the ‘parity’ processes. The computation of binding information is demonstrated on Ising models of finite spin systems, showing that various upper and lower bounds are respected and also that there is a strong relationship between the introduction of high-order interactions and an increase of binding-information. Finally we discuss some of the implications this has for the use of the binding information as a measure of complexity. -- Highlights: ► We introduce ‘binding information’ as a entropic/statistical measure of complexity. ► Binding information (BI) is related to earlier notions of predictive information. ► We derive upper and lower bounds of BI relation to entropy and multi-information. ► Parity processes found to maximise BI in finite sets of binary random variables. ► Application to spin glasses shows highest BI obtained with high-order interactions.

  14. Computing n-dimensional volumes of complexes: Application to constructive entropy bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.; Makaruk, H.E.

    1997-11-01

    The constructive bounds on the needed number-of-bits (entropy) for solving a dichotomy (i.e., classification of a given data-set into two distinct classes) can be represented by the quotient of two multidimensional solid volumes. Exact methods for the calculation of the volume of the solids lead to a tighter lower bound on the needed number-of-bits--than the ones previously known. Establishing such bounds is very important for engineering applications, as they can improve certain constructive neural learning algorithms, while also reducing the area of future VLSI implementations of neural networks. The paper will present an effective method for the exact calculation of the volume of any n-dimensional complex. The method uses a divide-and-conquer approach by: (i) partitioning (i.e., slicing) a complex into simplices; and (ii) computing the volumes of these simplices. The slicing of any complex into a sum of simplices always exists, but it is not unique. This non-uniqueness gives us the freedom to choose that specific partitioning which is convenient for a particular case. It will be shown that this optimal choice is related to the symmetries of the complex, and can significantly reduce the computations involved.

  15. Approaches to the Implementation of Environment Pollution Prevention Technologies at Military Bases (Approches de l’application des techniques de prevention de la pollution sur les bases militaires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    confinement des dechets contamines ä l’aide de capteurs ont ete presentees par l’Allemagne et les Etats-Unis. La reaction des participants au symposium a...processed and high temperatures are generated. The reacting capacity of cadmium with oxygen at high temperatures results in cadmium oxide. Cadmium...and civil high explosive charges and their various qualification methods. TNT for example presents a very negative oxygen balance (-74%) which

  16. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    37. Taux des lipides et des protéines et composition en acides gras du tissu comestible des crustacés et des mollusques pêchés en Algérie : Effet du halofénozide (RH-0345) sur la composition en acides gras de. Penaeus kerathurus (Crustacé, Décapode). Samira Gheid. 1. , Safia Nadji. 2 et Mohamed El Hadi Khebbeb. 3.

  17. Methoden Des Fremdsprachenunterrichts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Sklizmantaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Beim Unterrichten einer Fremdsprache ist es wichtig, Methoden des Fremdsprachenunterrichts zu kennen, um eine Methode des Unterrichts nach dem Niveau und Bedürfnissen der entsprechenden Gruppe opti-mal zu wählen. Im Artikel wird der Überblick des Fremdsprachenunterrichts im Hinblick auf historische Entwicklung dargeboten sowie die Hauptmerkmale einiger Methoden des Fremdsprachenunterrichts aufgezählt.

  18. Applications des techniques de diffusion de la lumière, des rayons X et des neutrons a l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Troisième partie : caractérisation des microémulsions et des composés solides. Étude de différents systèmes d'intérêt industriel Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part Three: Microemulsions, Solid Materials, Liquids and Miscellaneous Systems with Industrial Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Espinat D.

    2006-01-01

    Cette troisième partie clôt une revue bibliographique concernant la caractérisation des systèmes colloïdaux par les techniques de diffusion (lumière, rayons X, neutrons) (Rev. Inst. Franç. du Pétrole, Vol. 45, No 6, novembre-décembre 1990). Nous poursuivrons cette présentation en nous intéressant aux microémulsions. Après la présentation des informations que l'on peut obtenir sur les systèmes polymériques, les solutions micellaires ou les systèmes fractals, qui ont fait l'objet de multiples t...

  19. Perancangan Enkripsi Pada Citra Bitmap Dengan Algoritma Des, Triple Des, dan Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinna Yosanny

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of Information Technology causes information can access easier without space boundaries. Image is a form of information, which contains many information. Some image contains confidential information that cannot distribute to unauthorized persons. Therefore, image encryption application is create to encrypt part of image that has confidential information. The image encryption application is encrypt image by applying DES, Triple DES, and IDEA algorithms. The research was applying analysis and design methodology. The analysis methodology was undertaken through literature study and algorithm research and testing. The design methodology was undertaken through database, features, system, and screen layout design. Results of the research are image encryption application that can encrypt part of image and or all of image by applying three algorithms such as DES, Triple DES, and IDEA. This application is show comparation of these algorithms. In conclusion, method of encryption can apply to image, so that confidential information of the image can protect from unauthorized person. 

  20. Application des techniques d'aide à la décision à la planification sanitaire régionale

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Regional healthcare planning consists in distributing in the regional space the rare healthcare resources (equipment heavy, personal...) between various existing medical structures, in order to "optimize " the response to the requirements in care for the regional population. This distribution is carried out in a multidimensional decisional context, of which dimensions medical, economic and those relating to the regional planning. Since forty years, the search for rational methods applicable t...

  1. Etude de nano-transistors à faible pente sous le seuil pour des applications très basse consommation

    OpenAIRE

    Villalon , Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Band to band tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) is a PIN-gated architecture able to reach sub 60mV/dec subthreshold slopes at room temperature, which is an advantage over MOSFET in low power applications. The objective of this thesis is to study and characterize TFETs fabricated in CEA-LETI using MOSFET SOI technology. The first generation of devices is realized on planar FDSOI technology, and studies the impact of source/channel heterojunction, channel thickness and annealing temperatu...

  2. Synthèse de microcapsules biosourcées pour des applications cosméto-textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Soares-Latour, Émilie-Marie,

    2012-01-01

    Textile industry has been using microcapsules for many years especially in the design of cosmeto-textiles. Microcapsules used for textile applications are often obtained by in situ polycondensation of formaldehyde and melamine. The crosslinked membrane ensures good thermal and mechanical properties, essential for treatment applied during microcapsules deposit and for their attachment onto textile. The residual presence of formaldehyde, classified as carcinogenic substance of level 3, is probl...

  3. Complex for monitoring visual acuity and its application for evaluation of human psycho-physiological state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokoumov, P. S.; Khabibullin, T. R.; Tolstaya, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The existing psychological theories associate the movement of a human eye with its reactions to external change: what we see, hear and feel. By analyzing the glance, we can compare the external human response (which shows the behavior of a person), and the natural reaction (that they actually feels). This article describes the complex for detection of visual activity and its application for evaluation of the psycho-physiological state of a person. The glasses with a camera capture all the movements of the human eye in real time. The data recorded by the camera are transmitted to the computer for processing implemented with the help of the software developed by the authors. The result is given in an informative and an understandable report, which can be used for further analysis. The complex shows a high efficiency and stable operation and can be used both, for the pedagogic personnel recruitment and for testing students during the educational process.

  4. Complexity of EEG-signal in Time Domain - Possible Biomedical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonowski, Wlodzimierz; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Stepien, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Human brain is a highly complex nonlinear system. So it is not surprising that in analysis of EEG-signal, which represents overall activity of the brain, the methods of Nonlinear Dynamics (or Chaos Theory as it is commonly called) can be used. Even if the signal is not chaotic these methods are a motivating tool to explore changes in brain activity due to different functional activation states, e.g. different sleep stages, or to applied therapy, e.g. exposure to chemical agents (drugs) and physical factors (light, magnetic field). The methods supplied by Nonlinear Dynamics reveal signal characteristics that are not revealed by linear methods like FFT. Better understanding of principles that govern dynamics and complexity of EEG-signal can help to find `the signatures' of different physiological and pathological states of human brain, quantitative characteristics that may find applications in medical diagnostics.

  5. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of

  6. Determination of a PWR key neutron parameters uncertainties and conformity studies applications; Determination des incertitudes liees aux grandeurs neutroniques d'interet des reacteurs a eau pressurisee a plaques combustible et applications aux etudes de conformite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate uncertainties of key neutron parameters of slab reactors. Uncertainties sources have many origins, technologic origin for parameters of fabrication and physical origin for nuclear data. First, each contribution of uncertainties is calculated and finally, a factor of uncertainties is associated to key slab parameter like reactivity, isotherm reactivity coefficient, control rod efficiency, power form factor before irradiation and lifetime. This factors of uncertainties were computed by Generalized Perturbations Theory in case of step 0 and by directs calculations in case of irradiation problems. One of neutronic conformity applications was about fabrication and nuclear data targets precision adjustments. Statistic (uncertainties) and deterministic (deviations) approaches were studied. Then neutronics key slab parameters uncertainties were reduced and so nuclear performances were optimised. (author)

  7. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Salah

    classifier les differentes fissurations en plusieurs categories en se basant sur certains criteres tels que le type de fissures (horizontale, verticale et inclinee), leurs localisations longitudinales (bas, milieu et haut de l'anode) et transversales (gauche, centrale et droite). Les effets de la matiere premiere, les parametres de fabrication des anodes crues ainsi que les conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration ont ete etudies. La fissuration des anodes denses en carbones cause un serieux probleme pour l'industrie d'aluminium primaire. La realisation de ce projet a permis la revelation de differents mecanismes de fissuration, la classification de fissuration par plusieurs criteres (position, types localisation) et l'evaluation de l'impact de differents parametres sur la fissuration. Les etudes effectuees dans le domaine de cuisson ont donne la possibilite d'ameliorer l'operation et reduire la fissuration des anodes. Le travail consiste aussi a identifier des techniques capables d'evaluer la qualite d'anodes (l'ultrason, la tomographie et la distribution de la resistivite electrique). La fissuration des anodes en carbone est consideree comme un probleme complexe, car son apparition depend de plusieurs parametres repartis sur toute la chaine de production. Dans ce projet, plusieurs nouvelles etudes ont ete realisees, et elles permettent de donner de l'originalite aux travaux de recherches faits dans le domaine de la fissuration des anodes de carbone pour l'industrie de l'aluminium primaire. Les etudes realisees dans ce projet permettent d'ajouter d'un cote, une valeur scientifique pour mieux comprendre le probleme de fissuration des anodes et d'un autre cote, d'essayer de proposer des methodes qui peuvent reduire ce probleme a l'echelle industrielle.

  8. De l’oléochimie à la bioraffinerie : continuité de développement pour le secteur des corps gras ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rous Jean-François

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available L’oléochimie est une science très ancienne dont l’objectif est de transformer les corps gras animaux ou les huiles végétales pour produire des molécules chimiques, telles que des alcools gras, des acides gras, des esters plus ou moins complexes, entrant dans de multiples applications telles que les savons, les lubrifiants, les tensio-actifs, les agents de rhéologie, et bien d’autres applications. Depuis le début des années 90, grâce au développement des technologies et notamment à la transposition dans le domaine des huiles et corps gras de technologies préalablement développées pour la pétrochimie (comme la métathèse par exemple (Poels EK, Moulijn JA, Sibeijn MJ. 1994. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71 : 553, cette science évolue pour produire des molécules de plus en plus complexes, et notamment des intermédiaires de synthèse qui entrent dans la préparation de polymères (par exemple des acides dimères, ou des diacides, qui sont modifiés -ou pas- en diols ou diamines ou autres molécules bifonctionnelles de type amino-acides. La bioraffinerie quant à elle, à l’instar de la raffinerie, vise à développer le meilleur usage possible des différentes fractions d’une plante. Le premier exemple (et meilleur à ce jour est l’amidonnerie, qui au-delà du développement des dérivés de l’amidon, fractionne complètement la graine de blé ou de maïs afin d’en tirer le maximum de valeur possible. Bien qu’un certain nombre de développements aient été menés depuis quelques années, les unités de trituration et raffinage des graines oléagineuses sont encore loin de s’apparenter à ce degré de fractionnement. L’objectif de cet article est de montrer que même si les développements successifs des usages faisables à partir des corps gras et des huiles ont suivi des choix parfois politiques, il n’en reste pas moins que ces choix ne peuvent être considérés que comme des « déclencheurs » et qu’à termes c

  9. Civili, langue des Baloango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavoungou, Paul Achille; Ndinga-Koumba-Binza, Hugues Steve

    , Congo, Angola, etc.) issus de la décolonisation. Il présente de façon succincte quelques phénomènes historiques, phonologiques, morphosyntaxiques, homonymiques et analogiques de la langue. Des faits sémantiques des emprunts linguistiques y sont également décrits dans le cadre des changements...

  10. ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    haies vives) et la valorisation des produits forestiers tels que l'utilisation des tourteaux comme engrais organiques (Francis et al.,. 2005). Plusieurs études ont montré que les perceptions paysannes d'une technologie ou d'une innovation sont déterminantes pour son adoption. (Adesina et Baidu-forson, 1996). Les travaux.

  11. Application of the complex cepstrum to the location of acoustic sources near reflective surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. R.; Tavakkoli, S.; Elliott, K. B.; Hurst, C. J.; Obrien, W. F.

    1987-01-01

    The complex cepstrum is used to correct bearing estimations of acoustic sources in the presence of a reflective surface. An automated liftering procedure is used which zeros out a block portion of the cepstrum including the echo information. The problem of the resulting distortion is alleviated by applying a coherence criterion to the recovered direct signals at each microphone. Thus to a large degree the interactive nature of cepstral processing is overcome for this application. For the test signals and geometries considered the cepstrum is shown to accurately correct for bearing errors in acoustic signals contaminated with reflections from nearby surfaces.

  12. The 3of5 web application for complex and comprehensive pattern matching in protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poustka Annemarie

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of patterns in biological sequences is a key challenge in genome analysis and in proteomics. Frequently such patterns are complex and highly variable, especially in protein sequences. They are frequently described using terms of regular expressions (RegEx because of the user-friendly terminology. Limitations arise for queries with the increasing complexity of patterns and are accompanied by requirements for enhanced capabilities. This is especially true for patterns containing ambiguous characters and positions and/or length ambiguities. Results We have implemented the 3of5 web application in order to enable complex pattern matching in protein sequences. 3of5 is named after a special use of its main feature, the novel n-of-m pattern type. This feature allows for an extensive specification of variable patterns where the individual elements may vary in their position, order, and content within a defined stretch of sequence. The number of distinct elements can be constrained by operators, and individual characters may be excluded. The n-of-m pattern type can be combined with common regular expression terms and thus also allows for a comprehensive description of complex patterns. 3of5 increases the fidelity of pattern matching and finds ALL possible solutions in protein sequences in cases of length-ambiguous patterns instead of simply reporting the longest or shortest hits. Grouping and combined search for patterns provides a hierarchical arrangement of larger patterns sets. The algorithm is implemented as internet application and freely accessible. The application is available at http://dkfz.de/mga2/3of5/3of5.html. Conclusion The 3of5 application offers an extended vocabulary for the definition of search patterns and thus allows the user to comprehensively specify and identify peptide patterns with variable elements. The n-of-m pattern type offers an improved accuracy for pattern matching in combination with

  13. Theoretical Study of Copper Complexes: Molecular Structure, Properties, and Its Application to Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Baldenebro-Lopez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical investigation of copper complexes with potential applications as sensitizers for solar cells. The density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT were utilized, using the M06 hybrid meta-GGA functional with the LANL2DZ (D95V on first row and DZVP basis sets. This level of calculation was used to find the optimized molecular structure, the absorption spectra, the molecular orbitals energies, and the chemical reactivity parameters that arise from conceptual DFT. Solvent effects have been taken into account by an implicit approach, namely, the polarizable continuum model (PCM, using the nonequilibrium version of the IEF-PCM model.

  14. Chrono-potentiometry in molten chlorides. Application to the study of the electrochemical properties of uranium and plutonium in the LiCl-KCl eutectic; Chronopotentiometrie dans les chlorures fondus. Application a l'etude des proprietes electrochimiques de l'uranium et du plutonium dans l'eutectique LiCl-KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leseur, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-05-01

    Using solutions of cadmium chloride in the eutectic LiCl-KCl, a chrono-potentiometric method has been developed with a view to its application to the study of molten solutions. Particular attention has been paid to the choice of the indicator electrodes. The method makes it possible to analyze molten solutions quantitatively and to determine diffusion coefficients and their activation energies; it yields furthermore information about the nature and the behaviour of ionic species in solution. The method has been applied to the study of solutions of uranium and plutonium chloride in the eutectic LiCl-KCl. Linear chrono-amperometry has been used for studying these solutions quantitatively, but chrono-potentiometry, of which the theory is better developed, is better suited to a quantitative study. The results obtained have made it possible to determine the diffusion coefficients of the ions Cd{sup 2+}, U{sup 3+}, U{sup 4+} and U(IV) in the presence of F{sup -} and Pu{sup 3+} ions, as well as the activation energy of the diffusion coefficients. (author) [French] La mise au point de la chronopotentiometrie comme moyen d'etude des solutions fondues a ete effectuee avec des solutions de chlorure de cadmium dans l'eutectique LiCl-KCl. Le probleme du choix des electrodes indicatrices a ete particulierement etudie. La methode permet l'analyse quantitative des solutions fondues ainsi que la determination des coefficients de diffusion et de leurs energies d'activation: elle donne en outre des renseignements sur la nature et le comportement des especes ioniques en solution. Elle a ete appliquee a l'etude des solutions des chlorures d'uranium et de plutonium dans l'eutectique LiCl-KCl. La chronoamperometrie lineaire a ete utilisee pour l'etude qualitative de ces solutions, mais la chronopotentiometrie, dont la theorie est plus complete, convient mieux pour l'etude quantitative. Les resultats obtenus ont permis de determiner les

  15. Application of fibrous complexing sorbents for trace elements preconcentration and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhartchenko, E.A.; Myasoedova, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    This article demonstrates the application of the 'filled' fibrous sorbents for preconcentration and separation of platinum metals, as well as heavy metals and radionuclides. The POLYORGS complexing sorbents and ion-exchangers were used as fillers. Dynamic preconcentration conditions should be set for complete sorption of the elements: diameter and mass of the sorbent disk or the column as well as flow rate of the solution. These conditions depend on specific features of materials to be analysed and the requirements of the experimental task or detection method. Extensive alteration of features as well as perfect kinetic properties and high selectivity of the 'filled' sorbents confirm their applicability for trace elements preconcentration and separation in technology and analytical chemistry. (authors)

  16. The application of method supplier’s complex evaluation. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Chytilová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article includes the illustration of selecting bidders evaluation with help Method of complex evaluation of suppliers (MCE. Nowadays the evaluation of suppliers has more importance is in the supply chain management. For SMEs with discontinuous custom manufacturing supplier evaluation at first stage becomes a priority to maintain and enhance the competitiveness of farm output and overall competitiveness. This article presents results of control MCE. The results of this article are results of suppliers’ evaluation conditions and eliminations of MCE application on the base of real enterprise data. MCE is oriented to small and medium-sized enterprises with discontinue manufacturing to order. Research is oriented to selecting procedure of existing suppliers at the first stage of supply chain. Nationality and geographic location haven’t importance to MCE application. Illustrative case study presents the evaluation process to the specific conditions and subsequently demonstrated viability of MCE.

  17. Computer Applications in Counselor Education: Developing Cultural Competencies Through Online Collaboration of Future School Counselors / L’informatique dans l’éducation des orienteurs : le développement du savoir-faire culturel par la collaboration en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessela Ilieva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the applications of computer-mediated student collaboration in a graduate multicultural counseling course. The course work included a reflective cultural competency building assignment that utilized online communication and collaboration using a wiki to extend and improve students’ multicultural counseling and social justice advocacy skills. The online assignment design was aligned with the current call for utilizing technology in the counseling profession. It further considered the needs of the future counselors, the current levels of exposure to and experience with available technology of the class members, and the opportunities for utilization of a variety of online-based tools to extend in-class and out-of-class discussions. Students’ response to this new form of class work and communication confirmed the potential of the online component to other aspects of counselor preparation, and the data analysis showed that the computer-mediated assignment was a valuable addition to developing students’ skills as multiculturally competent professionals. Cette étude a examiné les applications de la collaboration entre étudiants par l’entremise de l’informatique dans le cadre d’un cours d’études supérieures sur l’orientation en contexte multiculturel. Les travaux du cours comprenaient un travail de réflexion pour renforcer le savoir-faire culturel grâce à la communication et à la collaboration en ligne, en utilisant un wiki pour accroître et améliorer les aptitudes des étudiants en orientation en contexte multiculturel et en défense de la justice sociale. La conception du travail en ligne s’alignait sur la tendance actuelle pour une utilisation accrue de la technologie dans le métier de conseiller en orientation. On y tenait également compte des besoins des futurs conseillers, de leur degré d’exposition à la technologie et de leur expérience avec celle-ci, ainsi que des occasions pour l

  18. Heat and mass transfer in multi-scale porous structures: application to Diesel particulate filters modelling; Transferts de chaleur et de masse dans des structures poreuses multi-echelles: application a l'etude des filtres a particules Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxarango, L.

    2004-09-15

    Ceramic filters appear to be the most promising solution to deal with the future emission standard requirements for diesel powered vehicles. Indeed, this type of Diesel Particulate Filters provides suitable characteristics for high efficiency soot collection. However, this filtration process is characterised by a dramatic increase of the pressure drop imposed in the exhaust line. Thus, the filter has to be cleaned periodically to insure the proper engine operating conditions. This regeneration phase is based on the oxidation of the carbon particles within the apparatus. This complex thermal process is critical for the safety working of Diesel Particulate Filters. Indeed, thermal stresses induced by the heat released during soot oxidation are involved in most of the filter breaking scenario. Numerous geometrical parameters defining the complex multi-scale structure of the apparatus could influence its thermal response. Thus, the geometrical optimization of these filters is a major problematic for the development of new products. This study aims at modelling heat and mass transfer phenomenon within Diesel Particulate Filters. The studied geometrical configuration is based on a ceramic honeycomb with porous walls and alternately plugged channel known as wall-flow DPF. In a first part, the gas flow, particles transport and collection are considered. Given the apparatus particular structure, the problem has to be treated considering various spatial length-scales. The filtering walls are characterised by a micrometric porous structure. The flow modelling with the Darcy law requires determining a particular effective permeability. The laminar flow problem in millimetric channels with wall suction (or injection) is studied. The asymptotic solution for flow in two-dimensional channels is used to derive a one-dimensional system preserving mass and momentum balances. This approach is then extended to the square channel configuration using direct numerical simulations. The

  19. Modèle multi-enroulements avec prise en compte des harmoniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modèle multi-enroulements avec prise en compte des harmoniques d\\'espace de la machine asynchrone triphasée à cage en environnement MATLAB : Application à la simulation des moteurs avec défauts.

  20. Decision threshold associated with multiple measurements. Application to the synthesis of the environment monitoring results; Seuil de decision associe a des mesures multiples. Application a la synthese des resultats de surveillance de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivier, A. [CEA, Institut national des sciences et techniques nucleaires, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Manificat, G. [IRSN, Direction de l' environnement et de l' intervention, Service d' etude et de surveillance de la radioactivite dans l' environnement, BP 40035, 78116 Le Vesinet Cedex (France); Picolo, J.L.; Fleury, S. [IRSN, Direction de l' environnement et de l' intervention, Service de traitement des echantillons et de metrologie pour l' environnement, BP 40035, 78116 Le Vesinet Cedex (France); Mokili, M. [Laboratoire SUBATECH - UMR 6457, ecole des Mines de Nantes, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite de Nantes, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, La Chantrerie, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Guo, X. [ORTEC-AMETEK Inc, 801 S. Illinois Ave., Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    When the sample activity is measured for various reasons several times, then with each measurement can be associated an individual decision threshold and limit of detection. Each measurement can be analyzed through its own decision threshold. The whole measurements can sometimes present contradictory results, some measurements being lower than the decision threshold and other higher. The problem then arises to build a decision threshold and a detection limit taking into account all the individual results, and to decide if the radioactivity is finally detected or not. It is interesting to note that it is possible sometimes that the decision threshold taking account all results makes it possible to decide that the radioactivity is present whereas the totality of the individual results are negative in terms of individual decision threshold. The purpose of this article is to show how these thresholds and these coherent limits cumulated can be determined in way according to the experimental conditions. In a general way a rigorous method of cumulating makes it possible to systematically decrease the decision threshold and limit of detection in terms of activity. This approach has interesting applications in gamma spectrometry with multi-emitters, discharge or periodical environmental measurements. On the basis of measurements realized by the IRSN within the framework of the national monitoring of the environment, we will see the potential impact of these methods on the final assessments. (authors)

  1. Distribution power system reliability assessment using Monte Carlo simulation: optimal maintenance strategy application; Evaluation de la surete de fonctionnement des reseaux de distribution par la simulation Monte Carlo: application a des strategies de maintenance optimales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocnasu, A.B.

    2008-10-15

    Today, the electricity sector is confronted with new challenges imposed by the deregulation of the electricity market, the international desire to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions, the development of new technologies. There is an increasing need to assess the reliability of the distribution systems. We can see a migration of methods specially used at transmission level to the distribution level. In a previous PhD, a method based on a sequential Monte Carlo simulation has been developed. The first part of this thesis deals with the study of acceleration methods. Two methods were tested, Antithetic Variates and Stratification. The best acceleration was achieved by a combination of these two methods. Then, we discussed the feasibility study of an optimization method based on reliability criteria. The chosen application was the preventive maintenance strategies optimization. We looked for the optimal number of preventive maintenance and the maximum value of failure rate when maintenance is carried out, minimising the total cost (cost of preventive maintenance, corrective maintenance and the cost of interruptions). In the end, a series of reflections related to the future development of a reliability analysis tool were presented. A modular structure of the tool is proposed to facilitate its use, and the possibility of parallel calculations for a better efficiency. (author)

  2. Prevision des ventes et efficacite des chaines logistiques - Essai de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'application de ces méthodes se fera dans une entreprise algérienne (la laiterie de RIO) spécialisée dans la production du yaourt. On étudiera les caractéristiques de la production et on estimera les ventes hebdomadaires en utilisant la méthode de Box et Jenkins. La modélisation des chaines logistiques se fera grâce à la ...

  3. Olefins transformation catalysis by zirconium and tungsten complexes in organic and non-aqueous ionic media; Catalyse de transformation des olefines par les complexes du zirconium et du tungstene en milieux organique et ionique non aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent-Gerot, P.

    1997-06-30

    Molten salts are suitable solvents for biphasic catalysis: melting butyl-1 methyl-3 imidazolium chloride and aluminium chloride gives a polar and aprotic ionic liquid which is not miscible with hydrocarbons but dissolves organometallic complexes. Two types of complexes have been tested in molten salts with ethyl-aluminium dichloride: zirconium complexes to synthesize light {alpha} olefins from ethene; mono-imido complexes of tungsten VI (Cl{sub 4}W = NAr) to dimerize ethene in but-1 ene and propene in dimethyl-2,3-but-1-ene. For both of these complexes, biphasic catalysis principle is always respected: the active species is present only in the ionic phase and not in the organic phase. The first complexes, biphasic principle is always respected: the active species is present only in the ionic phase and not in the organic phase. The first complexes oligomerize ethene in molten salts with low activity and the {alpha} olefins selectivity is weak. Mono-imido complexes of tungsten VI are proved to be equivalent to the systems composed with WCl{sub 6} and aniline, and they dimerize ethene in but-1 ene and propene in dimethyl-2,3-but-1 ene more efficiently in organic medium than in ionic liquid. The characterization of the active species of the system Cl{sub 4}W=NAr / EtAlCl{sub 2} shows that it is the corresponding mono-imido complex of tungsten 4. (author) 129 refs.

  4. Global dynamics of shaft lines of turbo-machineries coupled to surrounding fluids: application to the case of fluid sheets; Dynamique globale des lignes d'arbres de turbomachines couplees aux fluides environnants: application au cas des lames fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lornage, D.

    2001-12-15

    Shaft lines of turbo-machineries have to stand increasing reliability, efficiency and safety requirements. A precise modeling of the rotating parts with all possible coupling has become necessary. In this context, this work aims to develop a global modeling of rotating wheel/shaft system inside a surrounding fluid in order to foresee its dynamical behaviour. The use and advantage of Eulerian, Lagrangian and mixed (arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian - ALE) formulations is recalled first. A bibliographic synthesis of the classical techniques used in structure mechanics and of coupling techniques for rotating machines is presented. The coupling technique retained is presented. It uses fluid and structure models independently developed and validated. The structure domain is discretized by the finite-element method. The fluid domain is discretized by the finite-difference method taking into consideration the hypotheses linked with thin films. A modal base projection combined with a mesh at the fluid-structure interface allows an efficient, adaptable and evolutive coupling. Finally, the method is applied to 3 test-cases. The first two ones comprise a shaft/disc system coupled to a fluid sheet between the disc and the casing and to an hydrodynamic bearing. Both cases allow a first validation of the coupling method. The third case aims to study a structure closer to a real system made of a shaft and a wheel coupled to a fluid sheet between a flange and a casing. These three applications allow to show the trends linked with the fluid effects and the coupling between the flexible sub-parts of the structure. (J.S.)

  5. Application d’une approche inspirée des colonies de fourmis pour la recommandation des chemins d’apprentissage dans un cours en ligne : modèle et expérience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Dahbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous présentons la mise en œuvre, l’expérimentation et l’évaluation d’une approche pour la recommandation des chemins d’apprentissage dans un cours en ligne. Le processus de recommandation est inspiré de l’intelligence en essaim et plus particulièrement de l’optimisation par colonies de fourmis (OCF (ant colony optimization [ACO]. Dans ce contexte, nous avons considéré une différenciation des chemins d’apprentissage en fonction de l’activité explorée pour l’apprentissage d’un cours. Dans l’objectif de recommander des chemins d’apprentissage considérés optimaux et d’évaluer ainsi leur impact sur l’apprentissage d’un cours en ligne, l’approche proposée est basée à la fois sur la recommandation de chemins pertinents par l’enseignant et sur les résultats stockés au fur et à mesure par les apprenants sur les chemins empruntés. Notre approche a été validée expérimentalement et les résultats obtenus ont montré l’émergence d’un chemin d’apprentissage favorisant la réussite d’un nombre d’apprenants relativement considérable.

  6. Couches minces electrochromiques d'oxyde de tungstene dense et poreux pour des applications de controle energetique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camirand, Hubert

    Nanotechnology has modified the landscape of energy generation, energy storage and energy saving devices. Architectural fenestration can extensively benefit from green nanotechnologies. Amongst them, active fenestration or "smart" windows are able to modify their coloration state upon the application of a small electrical voltage, when based on electrochromic materials. In fact, the amount of visible and near-infrared light that can penetrate through the window can be altered. Therefore, their implementation can allow for a significant reduction in energy consumption in buildings. Furthermore, the capability of optimizing indoor comfort is user-controlled, thus an additional degree of freedom is given by electrochromic-based technology. It is worth mentioning that such devices can be largely advantageous in countries with variable seasons, such as here in Canada. As a matter of fact, the large temperature difference between the hot and cold season influences the requirement of impeding or enabling visible and thermal radiation to pass through. This master's thesis is entirely devoted to tungsten trioxide (WO 3), which is the most widely studied electrochromic material. In the present case, WO3 thin films are synthesized by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering. By varying the deposition pressure and power, the porosity content/packing density of the films is modified. This work's main topic is the characterization of electrochromic samples by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry simultaneously with the application of an electrical voltage in an aqueous electrolytic medium made of sulfuric acid (H2SO 4). The methodology developed here allows for an in-depth study of electro-active materials. To corroborate this, optical properties of WO3 are obtained for a wide range of coloration levels, and these are subsequently used to model the resulting coloration of electrochromic multilayer systems. However, the interface between the dense and porous films affects the coloration

  7. Des (bio)nano-composites utilisés dans le traitement d'eaux contaminées par de l'arsenic/gentamicine ou pour des applications médicales

    OpenAIRE

    HE, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Les composés dits 'bionano' (bionanocomposites) apparaissent comme un nouveau groupe de matériaux hybrides nano-structurés. Ils sont issus de la combinaison de polymères naturels et de solides inorganiques et sont de l'ordre du nanomètre dans au moins une direction. Ces matériaux hybrides conservent les structures et les propriétés fonctionnelles des polymères et matériaux inorganiques dont ils sont composés. Parallèlement, la présence de biopolymères permet de diminuer les risques environnem...

  8. Représentations cartographiques des facteurs de vulnérabilité des populations exposées à une menace volcanique. Application à la région du volcan Cotopaxi (Equateur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Suivant une définition sociale, la vulnérabilité est la propension plus ou moins prononcée à subir des dommages. L’atténuation des risques naturels auxquels les hommes sont confrontés suppose la réduction de la vulnérabilité en matière de vies humaines, de biens et d’activités. Il s’agit au préalable d’identifier les facteurs de vulnérabilité, d’en mesurer la portée, et de localiser dans l’espace les secteurs les plus sensibles. La cartographie de la vulnérabilité et de ses facteurs est une étape indispensable vers une cartographie globale du risque à laquelle de nombreux chercheurs et décideurs aspirent. À partir de l’exemple des régions des provinces du Pichincha et du Cotopaxi exposées aux conséquences de l’activité du volcan Cotopaxi, l’article propose quelques jalons méthodologiques pour une cartographie de la vulnérabilité des populations menacées. Des typologies spatiales de vulnérabilité sont représentées à partir d’une analyse factorielle. La carte intégrée des facteurs de vulnérabilité permet la réalisation de diagnostics locaux, tandis qu’une troisième carte fournit des orientations pour des actions de préparation. Une réflexion est également menée sur l’intérêt et sur les limites d’utilisation de ces cartes. CARTOGRAFÍA DE LOS FACTORES DE VULNERABILIDAD DE LAS POBLACIONES EXPUESTAS A UNA AMENAZA VOLCÁNICA. APLICACIÓN A LA REGIÓN DEL VOLCÁN COTOPAXI (ECUADOR. Según una definición social, la vulnerabilidad es la propensión más o menos pronunciada a sufrir perjuicios cuando ocurre un fenómeno natural destructor. La mitigación de los riesgos naturales que enfrentan los hombres supone la reducción de la vulnerabilidad de éstos, de sus bienes y actividades económicas. Se trata previamente de identificar los factores de vulnerabilidad, medir sus consecuencias y localizar los sectores más sensibles. La cartografía de la vulnerabilidad y sus factores constituye una

  9. Tritium/3He measurements in young groundwater: Progress in applications to complex hydrogeological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Peter; Shapiro, Stephanie D.; Stute, Martin; Plummer, Niel

    2000-01-01

    Tritium/3He dating has been applied to many problems in groundwater hydrology including, for example, determination of circulation patterns, mean residence times, recharge rates, or bank infiltration. Here, we discuss recent progress in the application of the tritium/3He dating method to sites with complex hydrogeological settings. Specifically, we report on tritium/3He dating at sites with (a) river infiltration into the basaltic fractured rock aquifer of the Eastern Snake River Plain, and (b) river infiltration through sinkholes into the karstic limestone Upper Floridian aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia.Tritium/3He dating has been applied to many problems in groundwater hydrology including, for example, determination of circulation patterns, mean residence times, recharge rates, or bank infiltration. Here, we discuss recent progress in the application of the tritium/3He dating method to sites with complex hydrogeological settings. Specifically, we report on tritium/3He dating at sites with (a) river infiltration into the basaltic fractured rock aquifer of the Eastern Snake River Plain, and (b) river infiltration through sinkholes into the karstic limestone Upper Floridian aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia.

  10. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Waste Receiving and Processing Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, and/or disposal (TSD) unites that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford Facility. The Complex includes two units: the WRAP Facility and the Radioactive Mixed Wastes Storage Facility (RMW Storage Facility). This Part B permit application addresses the WRAP Facility. The Facility will be a treatment and storage unit that will provide the capability to examine, sample, characterize, treat, repackage, store, and certify radioactive and/or mixed waste. Waste treated and stored will include both radioactive and/or mixed waste received from onsite and offsite sources. Certification will be designed to ensure and demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria set forth by onsite disposal units and/or offsite facilities that subsequently are to receive waste from the WRAP Facility. This permit application discusses the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characterization; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plant; personnel training; exposure information report; waste minimization plan; closure and postclosure requirements; reporting and recordkeeping; other relevant laws; certification

  11. Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) Engineering Applications. Version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linebarger, John Michael; Maffitt, S. Louise (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Albuquerque, NM); Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2011-10-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex eco-socio-economic-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to highly-saturated interdependencies and allied vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. The Phoenix initiative approaches this high-impact problem space as engineers, devising interventions (problem solutions) that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. CASoS embody the world's biggest problems and greatest opportunities: applications to real world problems are the driving force of our effort. We are developing engineering theory and practice together to create a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave, and allows us to better control those behaviors. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving CASoS Engineering principles while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it.

  12. The medical applications of the discoveries of Marie Sklodowska-Curie; Les applications medicales des decouvertes de Marie Sklodowska-Curie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk, M. [Universite de medecine de Varsovie (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    In this work, the author indicates what have been the applications of the discoveries of Marie Curie in the field of medicine and how these discoveries have contributed in particular to the development of oncologic radiotherapy. (O.M.)

  13. A novel sort of adaptive complex synchronizations of two indistinguishable chaotic complex nonlinear models with uncertain parameters and its applications in secure communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Emad E.; Abood, Fatimah S.

    In this paper, we will demonstrate the adaptive complex anti-lag synchronization (CALS) of two indistinguishable complex chaotic nonlinear systems with the parameters which are uncertain. The significance of CALS is not advised well in the literature yet. The CALS contains or consolidate two sorts of synchronizations (anti-lag synchronization ALS and lag synchronization LS). The state variable of the master system synchronizes with an alternate state variable of the slave system. Depending on the function of Lyapunov, a plan is orchestrated to achieve CALS of chaotic attractors of complex systems with unverifiable parameters. CALS of two indistinguishable complexes of Lü systems is viewed as, for example, an occasion for affirming the likelihood of the plan exhibited. In physics, we can see complex chaotic systems in numerous different applications, for example, applied sciences or engineering. With a specific end goal to affirm the proposed synchronization plan viability and demonstrate the hypothetical outcomes, we can compute the numerical simulation. The above outcomes will give the hypothetical establishment to the secure communication applications. CALS of complex chaotic systems in which a state variable of the master system synchronizes with an alternate state variable of the slave system is an encouraging sort of synchronization as it contributes excellent security in secure communication. Amid this secure communication, the synchronization between transmitter and collector is shut and message signals are recouped. The encryption and restoration of the signals are simulated numerically.

  14. 7th international conference on Nuclear microprobe technology and applications; 7. conference internationale sur la technologie et les applications des microsondes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This colloquium gives an up-to-date report on the continuously advancing applications and development of microbeam technology. It presents abstracts and oral contributions in the following domains: microprobes facilities, analysis techniques, imaging techniques, micro-ion beam modification of materials, microelectronics, applications in Material Sciences in Biology in Medicine in earth and planetary Sciences in environment in art in archaeology, alternative techniques. (A.L.B.)

  15. A Study of Theory U and Its Application to a Complex Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A STUDY OF “THEORY U” AND ITS APPLICATION TO A COMPLEX JAPANESE MARITIME SELF-DEFENSE...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A STUDY OF “THEORY U” AND ITS APPLICATION TO A COMPLEX...solving concept that focuses on the necessary elements of human nature, and attempts to study and transform human nature itself. Theory U, on the other

  16. Application of fluorescent monocytes for probing immune complexes on antigen microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Szittner

    Full Text Available Microarrayed antigens are used for identifying serum antibodies with given specificities and for generating binding profiles. Antibodies bind to these arrayed antigens forming immune complexes and are conventionally identified by secondary labelled antibodies.In the body immune complexes are identified by bone marrow derived phagocytic cells, such as monocytes. In our work we were looking into the possibility of replacing secondary antibodies with monocytoid cells for the generation of antibody profiles. Using the human monocytoid cell line U937, which expresses cell surface receptors for immune complex components, we show that cell adhesion is completely dependent on the interaction of IgG heavy chains and Fcγ receptors, and this recognition is susceptible to differences between heavy chain structures and their glycosylation. We also report data on a possible application of this system in autoimmune diagnostics.Compared to secondary antibodies, fluorescent monocytesas biosensors are superior in reflecting biological functions of microarray-bound antibodies and represent an easy and robust alternative for profiling interactions between serum proteins and antigens.

  17. Molecular electrophosphorescence in (Sm, Gd)-{beta}-diketonate complex blend for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, R., E-mail: fisicaplic@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica y Textil, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, UNI, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima 31, Peru (Peru); Cremona, M. [DIMAT - Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial, INMETRO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, C.P. 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Teotonio, E.E.S. [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, UFPB, C.P. 5093, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 5805-970 (Brazil); Brito, H.F. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, USP, C.P. 26077, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05599-970 (Brazil); Malta, O.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE, CEP 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    In this work the preparation and characterization of the triple-layer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using a mixture of the samarium and gadolinium {beta}-diketonate complexes [Sm{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}(TTA){sub 3}(TPPO){sub 2}] as emitting layer is reported. The OLED's devices contain 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-6-carboxyaldehyde-1, 1'-diphenylhydrazone (MTCD) as hole-transporting layer and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) as electron transporting layer. The electroluminescence spectrum present emission narrow bands from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (where J=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) characteristic of the Sm{sup 3+} ion. These sharp lines are overlapped with a broad band attributed to the electrophosphorescence from the T{sub 1}{yields}S{sub 0} transition in the ligand TTA. The intramolecular energy transfer is discussed and applied on the change of the emission color of the organic LEDs at different bias voltages. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samarium and gadolinium complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OLED with complex blend (Sm,Gd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrophosphorescence emission detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application in OLED changing the color emission.

  18. Synthesis of amino acid rare earth complexes and its application in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, G.-T.; Lian, P.; Hu, Y.H.; Guo, G.-R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The application of rare-earth compounds in agriculture has been widely reported. So far, most rare-earth compounds used in agriculture were inorganic salt and they were difficult to be absorbed by croup. The synthesis method and structure of amino acid rare-earth complexes have been reported. In this paper, we reported the preparation of mixed amino acids rare-earth complexes and their application in agriculture. The mixed amino acids were obtained by hydrolysis of waste natural protein. Rare earth was lanthanum oxide(99%). Mixed amino acids lanthanum complexes(MALa) was prepared according to the previous method. Investigation to the effect of croup by MALa, we have make tests of citrus, rice and mung bean. The results show as follows: 1) When the experiment group citrus was sprinkled twice 400ppm MALa at bouquet stage and young fruit stage, the sugar, morose, sucrose, soluble solid matter and vitamin C of fruit were increased 21%, 20%, 22%, 22% and 6% as compared to the control group, respectively. The area of leaf and foliage branch in Spring were also increased 4.6% and 2.2%. 2) When the rice was sprinkled 300ppm MALa at early tillering stage, the productively of rice was addition to 10-15%, and the relative effect of prevention was 45.61% for sheath and culm blight of rice. 3) In the test of mungbean growth, the low consistency of MALa ( 250ppm) retain from sprouting seed. As the same time, it was similar action to seeding growth. Preliminary results indicated MLAa could used as the plant growth regulation agent on the croup. Investigation to the effect of MALa on other croup and the mechanism of biological effect on the croup are still going on

  19. Synthesis of (R)-BINOL-Derived (Cyclopentadienone)iron Complexes and Their Application in the Catalytic Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajewski, Piotr; Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Facchini, Sofia Vailati; Pignataro, Luca; Lefort, Laurent; de Vries, Johannes G.; Ferraccioli, Raffaella; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare

    A family of chiral (cyclopentadienone)iron complexes, featuring an (R)-BINOL-derived backbone, and their application in the asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones are described. The complexes differ from each other in the substituents at the 3,3-positions of the binaphthyl residue (H, OH, OR, OCOR,

  20. Code des baux 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Vial-Pedroletti, Béatrice; Kendérian, Fabien; Chavance, Emmanuelle; Coutan-Lapalus, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Le code des baux 2018 vous offre un contenu extrêmement pratique, fiable et à jour au 1er août 2017. Cette 16e édition intègre notamment : le décret du 27 juillet 2017 relatif à l’évolution de certains loyers dans le cadre d’une nouvelle location ou d’un renouvellement de bail, pris en application de l’article 18 de la loi n° 89-462 du 6 juillet 1989 ; la loi du 27 janvier 2017 relative à l’égalité et à la citoyenneté ; la loi du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique ; la loi du 18 novembre 2016 de modernisation de la justice du xxie siècle

  1. Sonder l'effet des changements conformationnels dans les complexes de protéines par spectroscopie vibrationnel : bioénergétique et allostery

    OpenAIRE

    Yegres, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of enzyme regulation through conformational changes is a key pattern in governing cell behavior. In this thesis the focus is on three protein complexes that reflect how protein activity can be regulated by different effectors. Different spectroscopic techniques, like IR and Raman spectroscopy, were used is order to follow the secondary and tertiary conformational changes in protein structure to identify their roles. The first protein of interest was PDZ1 from MAGI-1, involved in...

  2. Evaluation of complexing properties of chelating agents for the bismuth-213; Evaluation des proprietes complexantes d`agents chelatants pour le bismuth-213

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A.K.; Gestin, J.F.; Chatal, J.F.; Cherel, M.; Leboterff, J.; Faivre-Chauvet, A. [INSERM U463, Nantes (France)

    1997-12-31

    The bismuth-213 is an alpha- and beta-emitting radioelement of very short physical half-life (45 min) obtained by means of a ({sup 225}Ac-{sup 213}Bi) generator. Given its radiotoxicity, this element presents an interest in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). At present, the DTPA derivatives alone are used in radiolabelling of antibodies for RIT. This study presents the complexing properties of other chelates potentially usable to this goal. Four original chelating agents were synthesized in order to choose the families giving the best results in complexing the {sup 213}Bi: the tri-ethylene-tetra-amino-hexa-carboxylic acid (HETA), the 1, 4, 7, 10-tetra-aza-cyclo-dodecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic- 1- Gly-L-p-nitro Phe-amide (DOTA-pept), the 1, 4, 8, 11-tetrakis [(S)-2 hydroxy-propyl]-1, 4, 8, 11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane (THEOH), and the ethylenediamine di-acetate di-acetamide-bis-thiophenol (EDTA-TH). Given the physical characteristics of {sup 213}Bi and the goal of our research, the studies of complexation were conducted by C.C.M. on silica, in highly diluted solution, with fixed chelates-{sup 213}Bi incubation time (15 min), and variable temperature and concentrations. Analysis of the results have been done by means of a phosphor-imager by measuring the number of pixels associated to every chromatographic spot. The obtained results show that the poly-aza poly-carboxylic derivatives and poly-aza di-thio dicarboxylic derivatives are the only able ones to complex rapidly and quantitatively the {sup 213}Bi

  3. Bringing content understanding into usability testing in complex application domains—a case study in eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Bruntse; Rasmussen, Claire Kirchert; Frøkjær, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue...... the participation of four physiotherapists and four clients in a period of 3.5 months, it was demonstrated how CUT with QU can complement conventional usability testing and provide insight into users’ challenges with understanding of a new complex eHealth application. More experiments in other complex application...... domains involving different kinds of users and evaluators are needed before we can tell whether CUT with QU is an effective usability testing technique of wider applicability. Performing CUT with QU is very demanding by drawing heavily on the evaluators’ ability to respond effectively to openings...

  4. UTILISATION DU MODÈLE ÉCREVISSE COMME ESPÈCE BIOINDICATRICE DE POLLUTION. APPLICATION À L’ÉTUDE DES TRANSFERTS TROPHIQUES DU CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMON O.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available La bioaccumulation des métaux par les organismes aquatiques est directement liée aux modalités d’exposition : contamination directe via le milieu ou contamination trophique via l’ingestion de proies contaminées. Pour appréhender les perturbations des écosystèmes, il apparaît important de déterminer des espèces « bioindicatrices » et de mesurer la part respective de ces deux voies d’exposition. Les travaux présentés concernent le transfert trophique du cadmium entre une proie, le bivalve benthique Corbicula fluminea, et un de ses prédateurs, l’écrevisse Astacus astacus. Afin d’insister sur l’importance des modalités de prédation de ce crustacé, nous avons réalisé 2 approches expérimentales complémentaires. La première concerne la consommation « naturelle » de proies contaminées pendant 30 jours d’exposition, la seconde consiste à introduire directement un bol alimentaire de proies contaminées dans l’estomac des écrevisses par une technique de gavage. Les résultats montrent une différence importante entre ces deux approches expérimentales.

  5. Procédé de nitruration d'un alliage de titane superélastique pour des applications biomédicales Nitriding process of a superelastic titanium alloy for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedouin Yvan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de ce travail, nous avons mis au point un protocole de nitruration appliqué à un alliage Ti-Nb de type beta, biocompatible et qui présente des propriétés de superélasticité. Cet alliage a ainsi subi un traitement de nitruration en phase gazeuse suivi d'un traitement de recristallisation en phase beta et d'une trempe dans l'eau. Avec ce protocole, l'alliage est nitruré en surface et sa caractéristique superélastique est maintenue. Cet ensemble de propriétés mécaniques peut s'avérer très intéressante pour différentes applications biomédicales. Within the framework of this work, we developed a nitriding process on biocompatible Ti-Nb based beta-type alloy which presents superelastic property. This alloy underwent a nitriding treatment, which was followed by a recrystallization in the beta phase domain before quenching in water. With this protocol, the alloy is thus hardened by the presence of the nitride on the surface while its superelastic characteristic is maintained. This whole of mechanical properties can be very interesting for various biomedical applications.

  6. Application of Soluplus to Improve the Flowability and Dissolution of Baicalein Phospholipid Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junting Fan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel ternary complex system (TCS composed of baicalein, phospholipids, and Soluplus was prepared to improve the flowability and dissolution for baicalein phospholipid complex (BPC. TCS was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, infrared spectroscopy (IR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The flowability, solubility, oil–water partition coefficient, in vitro dissolution, and in vivo pharmacokinetics of the system were also evaluated. DSC, IR, PXRD, and SEM data confirmed that the crystal form of baicalein disappeared in BPC and TCS. Furthermore, the angle of repose of TCS of 35° indicated an improvement in flowability, and solubility increased by approximately eight-fold in distilled water when TCS was compared with BPC (41.00 ± 4.89 μg/mL vs. 5.00 ± 0.16 μg/mL. Approximately 91.24% of TCS was released at the end of 60 min in 0.5% SDS (pH = 6.8, which suggested that TCS could improve the dissolution velocity and extent. Moreover, TCS exhibited a considerable enhancement in bioavailability with higher peak plasma concentration (25.55 μg/mL vs. 6.05 μg/mL and increased AUC0–∞ (62.47 μg·h/mL vs. 50.48 μg·h/mL with 123.75% relative bioavailability compared with BPC. Thus, Soluplus achieved the purpose of improving the flowability and solubility of baicalein phospholipid complexes. The application of Soluplus to phospholipid complexes has great potential.

  7. Application de la théorie des graphes au traitement de la carte géologique Applying the Theory of Graphs to the Treatment of Geological Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillé F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La saisie des informations d'une carte géologique par les méthodes classiques (grilles ou relevés aléatoires de courbes ne constitue pas une base de données opérationnelle. Par contre, l'assimilation des limites géologiques à un graphe orienté répond aux critères d'optimalité (encombrement très réduit, temps minimal, fiabilité, et permet une digitalisation rationnelle de la carte, une bonne structuration du fichier, et la réalisation d'applications intéressantes : restitutions graphiques sélectives à toutes échelles, calculs de pendages, surfaces, volumes, études de corrélation. Nous avons donc établi une chaîne de traitement de la carte géologique dont chaque maillon (saisie des informations; contrôle, mise à jour, consultation, application opère sur un ou plusieurs graphes. Obtaining data from geological maps by conventional methods (grids or random curve plotting is not an operational data base. However, the comparison of geological boundaries with a directional graph meets criteria of optimalness (very small bulk, minimum time, reliability and makes it possible to digitize the map rationally, to structure the file properly and to achieve significant applications such as selective graph plotting on all scales, calculating dips, areas and volumes, and making correlotion analyses. Therefore, we worked out a geological map processing sequence in which each element (data acquisition, checking, updating, consulting, applications operates on one or several graphs.

  8. Appropriation des Tic et performance des entreprises

    OpenAIRE

    Lethiais , Virginie; Smati , Wided

    2009-01-01

    Quatre pages Marsouin; L'utilisation des TIC (Technologies de l'information et de la Communication) se développe dans les entreprises pour assurer des tâches de plus en plus nombreuses : la communication, la recherche d'informations, la commercialisation des produits et services, le travail en groupe, la gestion de l'entreprise, la prospection, etc. Les équipements en TIC ainsi que l'usage qui en est fait diffèrent d'une entreprise à une autre selon de nombreux critères. L'objet de ce quatre ...

  9. Augmentation du rendement des producteurs de petits mils par leur ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 juil. 2016 ... La nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais. Une équipe de recherche internationale met au point des applications fondées sur la nanotechnologie d'hexanal, un extrait végétal naturel qui p. Voir davantageLa nanotechnologie prolonge la durée de conservation des fruits frais.

  10. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J' Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated

  11. Evolution de la ressource ligneuse et des stocks de carbone

    OpenAIRE

    Marien, Jean-Noel; Bisiaux, F.; Boulogne, M.; Craps, D.; Diowo, S.; Dubiez, Emilien; Gigaud, M.; Gond, V.; Lavialle, J.; Peltier, Régis; Pennec, A.; Peroches, A.; Procès, Pierre; Rerolles, J.; Schure, J.

    2013-01-01

    Entre 2010 et 2012, une étude complexe a été menée pour apporter des éléments qualitatifs et quantitatifs fiables sur l’évolution de la ressource ligneuse sur le bassin d’approvisionnement en bois énergie de Kinshasa. Cette étude pluridisciplinaire (Figure 1) a mobilisé l’analyse d’images satellites, la cartographie, les inventaires forestiers, la dendrométrie, des études sur la carbonisation traditionnelle et la compréhension des dynamiques sociales et économiques des zones d’étude. En pl...

  12. Étude des impacts écologiques du dynamisme spatio-temporel des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette recherche menée dans le Complexe Zones Humides Mahavavy - Kinkony a pour but d'évaluer les impacts écologiques du changement des habitats naturels sur les espèces menacées de sa faune. Des outils tels que le SIG, la télédétection ainsi que Marxan ont été combinés avec les études bibliographiques et les ...

  13. PROSPECTS FOR APPLICATION OF COMPLEX-MODIFIED SAND ASPHALT CONCRETE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Alexandrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to use sand asphalt concrete as a material for protection of asphalt concrete and cement concrete road pavements against affection of external destructive factors. Advantages and disadvantages of sand asphalt concrete road pavements have been determined in the paper. The paper provides recommendations on improvement of sand asphalt concrete properties and contains an analysis of possible variants for usage of complex-modified sand asphalt concrete in the road construction. It has been noted that according to its potentially possible physical and mechanical properties activated quartz sand being micro-reinforced by dispersive industrial wastes is considered as an efficient component for creation of constructive layers in road asphalt concrete pavements. The paper reveals only specific aspects of the efficient application of quartz sand in road asphalt concrete. The subject of the paper loоks rather interesting for regions where there are no rock deposits for obtaining broken-stone ballast but there is rather significant spreading of local quarts sand. Its successful application is connected with the necessity to develop special equipment for physical and chemical activation of sand grain surface that permits strongly to increase an adhesive strength in the area of phase separation within the “bitumen–SiO2” system. The considered problem is a topical one and its solution will make it possible to local sand in a maximum way and partially to exclude application of broken stone in road construction.

  14. Feature evaluation of complex hysteresis smoothing and its practical applications to noisy SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2013-01-01

    Quality of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image is strongly influenced by noise. This is a fundamental drawback of the SEM instrument. Complex hysteresis smoothing (CHS) has been previously developed for noise removal of SEM images. This noise removal is performed by monitoring and processing properly the amplitude of the SEM signal. As it stands now, CHS may not be so utilized, though it has several advantages for SEM. For example, the resolution of image processed by CHS is basically equal to that of the original image. In order to find wide application of the CHS method in microscopy, the feature of CHS, which has not been so clarified until now is evaluated correctly. As the application of the result obtained by the feature evaluation, cursor width (CW), which is the sole processing parameter of CHS, is determined more properly using standard deviation of noise Nσ. In addition, disadvantage that CHS cannot remove the noise with excessively large amplitude is improved by a certain postprocessing. CHS is successfully applicable to SEM images with various noise amplitudes. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. La modelisation mathematique dans l'enseignement de la chimie des gaz a des eleves de la cinquieme annee du secondaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Diane

    Les problemes d'enseignement de la chimie des gaz parfaits sont donc importants. Si plusieurs etudes ont ete realisees dans le but d'identifier et d'interpreter ces problemes, aucune recherche, a notre connaissance, n'a ete realisee sur l'enseignement des lois sur les gaz parfaits. Notre recherche sur l'enseignement est donc pionniere. Elle a pour objectif general de construire et d'analyser une sequence d'enseignement de la chimie des gaz comportant diverses situations de modelisation mathematique des conduites des gaz. Les principaux objectifs specifiques sont les suivants: (1) identifier et caracteriser les situations qui provoquent une evolution des conceptions naives des eleves, evolution vers des connaissances plus adequate sur les gaz; (2) identifier et caractEriser les situations qui provoquent une evolution des connaissances mathematiques des eleves leur permettant d'interpreter convenablement les resultats des experiences, d'eprouver leurs conceptions, de donner un sens aux notions et aux relations impliquees dans les lois des gaz parfaits, lois de Boyle-Mariotte et Gay-Lussac. Une sequence d'enseignement comportant huit situations est d'eleves de secondaire V. La construction de ces situations est orientee par les recherches sur les conceptions naives des eleves, par les etudes sur l'evolution historique des conceptions sur les gaz et des pratiques scientifiques, ainsi que par les etudes theoriques et empiriques realisees en didactique des sciences et des mathematiques. La methodologie de l'ingenierie didactique (Artigue, 1998) qui constitue une application de la theorie des situations didactiques (Brousseau, 1986) est utilisee dans la construction et l'analyse des situations d'enseignement. Une analyse a priori de chacune des situations d'enseignement est effectuee; elle a pour but dexpliquer les choix des taches qui font partie des situations et de preciser la gestion didactique des situations. Diverses situations d'enseignement de la chimie ont ainsi

  16. Les possibilités des turbines de détente dans les industries gazière et pétrolière Application of Expansion Turbines in the Gas and Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verneau A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Utilisées depuis longtemps dans l'industrie cryogénique, les turbines de détente voient leur intérêt augmenter actuellement en tant que turbines de récupération de l'énergie des laminages. Cette énergie peut servir à l'entraînement de compresseurs, pompes ou générateurs électriques. Il existe surtout des turbines dans la gamme de 200 à 20 000 ch. Deux types principaux sont développés : les turbines axiales et les turbines radiales. Les particularités techniques et les domaines d'emploi de chaque type sont discutés. Ue intérêt particulier est porté au domaine des petites puissances (de 100 kW jusqu'à quelques centaines de watts. L'évolution du rendement en fonction de la puissance est étudiée et quelques types spéciaux bien adaptés à cette gamme, tels que les turbines périphériques, sont présentés. Quelques indications sur la récupération de l'énergie des liquides par turbines sont également données. Ensuite, plusieurs exemples d'applications sont exposés tels que : récupération de fractions condensables du gaz naturel (butane, propane, éthane, récupération de gaz perdu, récupération de l'énergie des laminages lors de la distribution et au niveau des stockages souterrains, turbine hydraulique de lavage de gaz, récupération de l'énergie des fumées de cracking catalytique, entraînement de petits générateurs électriques dans la gamme de quelques kilowatts à quelques centaines de watts. Enfin, nous abordons la technologie et les dispositions constructives particulières en nous attachant plus spécialement aux problèmes de régulation, étanchéité, paliers. Des techniques nouvelles telles que l'emploi de paliers à gaz et leurs avantages sont décrites. Les difficultés dues aux basses températures et à la condensation sont examinées. Nous terminons par quelques considérations d'ordre économique destinées à prévoir la rentabilité d'une installation de récupération d

  17. Nano-systems for medical applications: biological detection, drug delivery, diagnosis and therapy; Applications medicales des nanoparticules: detection biologique, delivrance de medicaments, diagnostic, therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riviere, Ch. [Nano-H SAS, 69 - Lyon (France); Roux, S.; Tillement, O. [Lyon-1 Univ. Claude Bernard, Lab. de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620 CNRS, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Billotey, C. [Lyon-1 Univ. Claude Bernard, Lab. CREATIS-Animage, UMR 5515 CNRS, U630 INSERM, INSA de Lyon, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Perriat, P. [Groupe d' Etudes de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, UMR 5510 CNRS-INSA de Lyon, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2006-05-15

    A review. For a couple of decades, greater and greater connections have been made between nano-technology, biology and medicine. After a rapid description of the particles most often used for biological and medical purposes, the review will detail their potential applications in both domains. In the field of biological detection, a large number of new detection systems is offered by noble metals and semi-conductors, which exhibit very specific nanometer-scale induced properties. In the field of diagnosis and therapeutic applications, particles become more and more sophisticated with an increased possibility of specific targeting, drug delivery triggering and combination of both diagnosis and therapy. (authors)

  18. Structure et stabilité des bancs et agrégations de poissons pélagiques côtiers tropicaux : application halieutique

    OpenAIRE

    Soria, Marc

    1994-01-01

    Afin de cerner le rôle du comportement animal dans les problèmes rencontrés lors de l'estimation des stocks de poissons pélagiques en halieutique par les méthodes d'évaluation directes (acoustique) et indirectes, nous avons entrepris l'étude, en milieu naturel, de la structure et de la stabilité des bancs de petits poissons pélagiques côtiers tropicaux (Clupéidés, Engraulidés). Cette étude est basée sur des observations acoustiques et visuelles (aériennes et sous-marines) simultanées... Nous ...

  19. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  20. Transport aérien longue distance des brûlés graves: revue de la littérature et application pratique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, T.; Hoffmann, C.; Forsans, E.; Cirodde, A.; Boutonnet, M.; Jault, P.; Tourtier, J.-P.; Bargues, L.; Donat, N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les brûlés graves nécessitent une prise en charge multidisciplinaire dans des centres hautement spécialisés. La rareté de ces centres impose souvent le transport aérien médicalisé longue distance. Cependant, il y a peu de données publiées sur ces transferts. Dans cette mise au point, pour optimiser la prise en charge des brûlés dès qu’un transport aérien est décidé ou même seulement envisagé, nous proposons d’extraire de cette littérature limitée des principes simples s’appuyant aussi sur l’expérience pratique du Service de Santé des Armées françaises. Nous décrivons d’abord comment les contraintes aéronautiques peuvent affecter le transport de brûlés graves à bord d’aéronefs. Nous abordons ensuite la régulation de ces missions, en analysant les risques associés au transport aérien des brûlés graves et leurs implications sur les indications, la chronologie et les modalités du transport. Enfin, nous développons la conduite de la mission, comprenant la préparation du matériel et des consommables avant le vol, l’évaluation et la mise en condition du patient avant l’embarquement, et la poursuite de la prise en charge en vol. PMID:26668564

  1. Caractérisation et simulation des mouvements d'atteinte par un opérateur humain en position assise en vue d'applications ergonomiques

    OpenAIRE

    CHEVALOT, N

    2006-01-01

    La simulation de mouvements d'atteinte effectués par un opérateur assis est particulièrement utile pour les constructeurs d'automobiles. Elle permet d'améliorer l'ergonomie de l'habitacle et des commandes, le plus en amont possible dans la conception. Elle consiste à simuler un mouvement et à prédire son inconfort. Cependant, ce type de simulation se heurte à des problèmes pratiques et théoriques. Pour la partie pratique, une méthode de simulation générique et stable pour tout type de mouveme...

  2. Contribution à la conception et à la commande des machines synchrones à double excitation. Application au véhicule hybride.

    OpenAIRE

    AMARA , Yacine

    2001-01-01

    This Thesis concerns the design of hybrid excited synchronous machines used for hybrid and/or electric vehicles traction.; Les travaux présentés dans ce mémoire concernent la conception et la commande des machines synchrones à double excitation. Ce concept apparaît viable et améliore les performances des machines synchrones et plus globalement les systèmes d’entraînement où elles s’intègrent.

  3. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications; Definition automatique des volumes biologiques cibles pour les applications de radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D. [LaTIM, U650 Inserm, 29 - Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C. [Service de medecine nucleaire, 29 - Brest (France); Pradier, O. [Service de radiotherapie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2009-10-15

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ({sup 18}F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  4. Development of the vitrification compositional envelope to support complex-wide application of MAWS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, J.J. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Muller, I.S.; Gan, H.; Buechele, A.C.; Lai, S.T.; Pegg, I.L. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.]|[GTS Duratek, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results from a study of the application of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) approach using vitrification as a treatment technology to a variety of waste streams across the DOE complex. This work has involved both experimental vitrification work using actual mixed wastes and surrogate waste streams from several DOE sites (Hanford, Idaho, and Oak Ridge) as well as the development of a computer-based, integrated glass property-composition database. The long-term objective is that this data base will assist glass formulation studies with single waste streams or combinations of waste streams subject to a variety of user-imposed constraints including waste stream usage priorities, process related constraints (e.g., melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, etc.), and waste form performance related constraints (e.g., TCLP and PCT leaching results). 79 refs., 143 figs., 65 tabs.

  5. Development of the vitrification compositional envelope to support complex-wide application of MAWS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, J.J.; Muller, I.S.; Gan, H.; Buechele, A.C.; Lai, S.T.; Pegg, I.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results from a study of the application of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) approach using vitrification as a treatment technology to a variety of waste streams across the DOE complex. This work has involved both experimental vitrification work using actual mixed wastes and surrogate waste streams from several DOE sites (Hanford, Idaho, and Oak Ridge) as well as the development of a computer-based, integrated glass property-composition database. The long-term objective is that this data base will assist glass formulation studies with single waste streams or combinations of waste streams subject to a variety of user-imposed constraints including waste stream usage priorities, process related constraints (e.g., melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, etc.), and waste form performance related constraints (e.g., TCLP and PCT leaching results). 79 refs., 143 figs., 65 tabs

  6. Nonlinear Dynamics in Complex Systems Theory and Applications for the Life-, Neuro- and Natural Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Armin

    2013-01-01

    With many areas of science reaching across their boundaries and becoming more and more interdisciplinary, students and researchers in these fields are confronted with techniques and tools not covered by their particular education. Especially in the life- and neurosciences quantitative models based on nonlinear dynamics and complex systems are becoming as frequently implemented as traditional statistical analysis. Unfamiliarity with the terminology and rigorous mathematics may discourage many scientists to adopt these methods for their own work, even though such reluctance in most cases is not justified.This book bridges this gap by introducing the procedures and methods used for analyzing nonlinear dynamical systems. In Part I, the concepts of fixed points, phase space, stability and transitions, among others, are discussed in great detail and implemented on the basis of example elementary systems. Part II is devoted to specific, non-trivial applications: coordination of human limb movement (Haken-Kelso-Bunz ...

  7. Application NO TGCH-therapy in complex treatment of postoperative lumbar localization radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salina E.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey of 50 patients to study the application of terahertz therapy of NO in the complex treatment of postoperative lumbar radiculopathy localization. Materials and methods. Using a visual analogue scale assessed the degree of regression of pain, depending on the nature of the therapy. For the diagnosis of intra-articular inflammation in the postoperative motor segment and a local mikrovaskulita determined the level of antibodies in the serum of patients to collagen and myeloperoxidase. The results suggest shortening pain and reducing the content of antibodies to MPO and collagen in patients receiving short-wave therapy. Therefore, we conclude that the use of NO therapy TGCH improves the treatment of postoperative lumbar radiculopathy localization

  8. Optimal sensor configuration for complex systems with application to signal detection in structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Spall, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    sensor outputs. Secondly, we describe an efficient and practical algorithm to achieve the optimization goals, based on simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA). SPSA avoids the need for detailed modeling of the sensor response by simply relying on observed responses as obtained......The paper considers the problem of sensor configuration for complex systems. The contribution of the paper is twofold. Firstly, we define an appropriate criterion that is based on maximizing overall sensor responses while minimizing redundant information as measured by correlations between multiple...... by limited experimentation with test sensor configurations. We illustrate the application of the approach to optimal placement of acoustic sensors for signal detection in structures. This includes both a computer simulation study for an aluminum plate, and real experimentations on a steel I-beam....

  9. Genomic risk prediction of complex human disease and its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Gad; Inouye, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have stimulated interest in the genomic prediction of disease risk, potentially enabling individual-level risk estimates for early intervention and improved diagnostic procedures. Here, we review recent findings and approaches to genomic prediction model construction and performance, then contrast the potential benefits of such models in two complex human diseases, aiding diagnosis in celiac disease and prospective risk prediction for cardiovascular disease. Early indications are that optimal application of genomic risk scores will differ substantially for each disease depending on underlying genetic architecture as well as current clinical and public health practice. As costs decline, genomic profiles become common, and popular understanding of risk and its communication improves, genomic risk will become increasingly useful for the individual and the clinician. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Bringing content understanding into usability testing in complex application domains—a case study in eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Bruntse; Rasmussen, Claire Kirchert; Frøkjær, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue...... of users’ content understanding is sometimes crucial, and thus should be carefully evaluated. Unfortunately, conventional usability evaluation techniques do not address challenges of content understanding. In a case study within eHealth, specifically the setting of a rehabilitation clinic involving...... the participation of four physiotherapists and four clients in a period of 3.5 months, it was demonstrated how CUT with QU can complement conventional usability testing and provide insight into users’ challenges with understanding of a new complex eHealth application. More experiments in other complex application...

  11. Parallelization of applications for networks with homogeneous and heterogeneous processors; Parallelisation d`applications pour des reseaux de processeurs homogenes ou heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombet, L.

    1994-10-07

    The aim of this thesis is to study and develop efficient methods for parallelization of scientific applications on parallel computers with distributed memory. The first part presents two libraries of PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and MPI (Message Passing Interface) communication tools. They allow implementation of programs on most parallel machines, but also on heterogeneous computer networks. This chapter illustrates the problems faced when trying to evaluate performances of networks with heterogeneous processors. To evaluate such performances, the concepts of speed-up and efficiency have been modified and adapted to account for heterogeneity. The second part deals with a study of parallel application libraries such as ScaLAPACK and with the development of communication masking techniques. The general concept is based on communication anticipation, in particular by pipelining message sending operations. Experimental results on Cray T3D and IBM SP1 machines validates the theoretical studies performed on basic algorithms of the libraries discussed above. Two examples of scientific applications are given: the first is a model of young stars for astrophysics and the other is a model of photon trajectories in the Compton effect. (J.S.). 83 refs., 65 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Application of simplified Complexity Theory concepts for healthcare social systems to explain the implementation of evidence into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jacqueline; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Hawkes, Claire; Noyes, Jane

    2016-02-01

    To examine the application of core concepts from Complexity Theory to explain the findings from a process evaluation undertaken in a trial evaluating implementation strategies for recommendations about reducing surgical fasting times. The proliferation of evidence-based guidance requires a greater focus on its implementation. Theory is required to explain the complex processes across the multiple healthcare organizational levels. This social healthcare context involves the interaction between professionals, patients and the organizational systems in care delivery. Complexity Theory may provide an explanatory framework to explain the complexities inherent in implementation in social healthcare contexts. A secondary thematic analysis of qualitative process evaluation data informed by Complexity Theory. Seminal texts applying Complexity Theory to the social context were annotated, key concepts extracted and core Complexity Theory concepts identified. These core concepts were applied as a theoretical lens to provide an explanation of themes from a process evaluation of a trial evaluating the implementation of strategies to reduce surgical fasting times. Sampled substantive texts provided a representative spread of theoretical development and application of Complexity Theory from late 1990's-2013 in social science, healthcare, management and philosophy. Five Complexity Theory core concepts extracted were 'self-organization', 'interaction', 'emergence', 'system history' and 'temporality'. Application of these concepts suggests routine surgical fasting practice is habituated in the social healthcare system and therefore it cannot easily be reversed. A reduction to fasting times requires an incentivised new approach to emerge in the surgical system's priority of completing the operating list. The application of Complexity Theory provides a useful explanation for resistance to change fasting practice. Its utility in implementation research warrants further attention and

  13. A study of the photophysical and photochemical properties of metal complexes using density functional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Matthieu; Daul, Claude; Schläpfer, Carl-Wilhelm; Weber, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    La chimie des complexes des métaux de transition est un domaine qui a considérablement évolué depuis ses débuts. Dans divers domaines de la chimie moderne, les composés de coordination sont sujets à de nombreuses applications et porteurs de nouveaux espoirs. Nombre de ces applications font intervenir une interaction entre la molécule et la lumière: télécommunication, développement de l’optique en informatique, conversion de l’énergie solaire en énergie électrique, … Parallèlement, dans les do...

  14. Cartographie des directions dominantes des vents au Benin : Outil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cartographie des directions dominantes des vents au Benin : Outil de conception et de dimensionnement des ouvrages. ... nous avons, après la collecte des informations météorologiques, procédé : - à l'analyse des données (directions) des six stations météorologiques principales conformément aux méthodes statistiques.

  15. The optical characterization of organometallic complex thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and photovoltaic diode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özaydın, C. [Batman University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Computer Eng., Batman (Turkey); Güllü, Ö., E-mail: omergullu@gmail.com [Batman University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Physics, Batman (Turkey); Pakma, O. [Batman University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Physics, Batman (Turkey); Ilhan, S. [Siirt University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Siirt (Turkey); Akkılıç, K. [Dicle University, Education Faculty, Department of Physics Education, Diyarbakır (Turkey)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Optical properties and thickness of the A novel organometallic complex (OMC) film were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). • Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated • This paper presents the I–V analysis of Au/OMC/n-Si MIS diode. • Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the diode were investigated. - Abstract: In this work, organometallic complex (OMC) films have been deposited onto glass or silicon substrates by spin coating technique and their photovoltaic application potential has been investigated. Optical properties and thickness of the film have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Also, transmittance spectrum has been taken by UV/vis spectrophotometer. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Also, Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated. Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the structure were investigated. The ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φ{sub b}) values of the diode were found to be 2.89 and 0.79 eV, respectively. The device shows photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage of 396 mV and a short circuit current of 33.8 μA under 300 W light.

  16. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-05

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Application of virtual reality in surgical treatment of complex head and neck carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y Q; Li, C; Shui, C Y; Cai, Y C; Sun, R H; Zeng, D F; Wang, W; Li, Q L; Huang, L; Tu, J; Jiang, J

    2018-01-07

    Objective: To investigate the application of virtual reality technology in the preoperative evaluation of complex head and neck carcinoma and he value of virtual reality technology in surgical treatment of head and neck carcinoma. Methods: The image data of eight patients with complex head and neck carcinoma treated from December 2016 to May 2017 was acquired. The data were put into virtual reality system to built the three-dimensional anatomical model of carcinoma and to created the surgical scene. The process of surgery was stimulated by recognizing the relationship between tumor and surrounding important structures. Finally all patients were treated with surgery. And two typical cases were reported. Results: With the help of virtual reality, surgeons could adequately assess the condition of carcinoma and the security of operation and ensured the safety of operations. Conclusions: Virtual reality can provide the surgeons with the sensory experience in virtual surgery scenes and achieve the man-computer cooperation and stereoscopic assessment, which will ensure the safety of surgery. Virtual reality has a huge impact on guiding the traditional surgical procedure of head and neck carcinoma.

  18. The optical characterization of organometallic complex thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and photovoltaic diode application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özaydın, C.; Güllü, Ö.; Pakma, O.; Ilhan, S.; Akkılıç, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optical properties and thickness of the A novel organometallic complex (OMC) film were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). • Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated • This paper presents the I–V analysis of Au/OMC/n-Si MIS diode. • Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the diode were investigated. - Abstract: In this work, organometallic complex (OMC) films have been deposited onto glass or silicon substrates by spin coating technique and their photovoltaic application potential has been investigated. Optical properties and thickness of the film have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Also, transmittance spectrum has been taken by UV/vis spectrophotometer. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Also, Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated. Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the structure were investigated. The ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φ b ) values of the diode were found to be 2.89 and 0.79 eV, respectively. The device shows photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage of 396 mV and a short circuit current of 33.8 μA under 300 W light.

  19. Recombinamers: combining molecular complexity with diverse bioactivities for advanced biomedical and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabello, José Carlos; Pierna, María; Fernández-Colino, Alicia; García-Arévalo, Carmen; Arias, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of polymer science has led to literally thousands of different monomers and an almost endless number of possibilities arising from their combination. The most promising strategy to date has been to consider natural products as macromolecules that provide the best option for obtaining functional materials. Proteins, with their high levels of complexity and functionality, are one of the best examples of this approach. In addition, the development of genetic engineering has permitted the design and highly controlled synthesis of proteinaceous materials with complex and advanced functionalities. Elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs) are presented herein as an example of an extraordinary convergence of different properties that is not found in any other synthetic polymer system. These materials are highly biocompatible, stimuli-responsive, show unusual self-assembly properties, and can incorporate bioactive domains and other functionalities along the polypeptide chain. These attributes are an important factor in the development of biomedical and biotechnological applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, purification of recombinant proteins, biosensors or stimuli-responsive surfaces.

  20. Application of Computer Technologies in Building Design by Example of Original Objects of Increased Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, V. N.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the solution of problems in AutoCAD offered at the All-Russian student Olympiads at the section of “Computer graphics” that are not typical for the students of construction specialties. The students are provided with the opportunity to study the algorithm for solving original tasks of high complexity. The article shows how the unknown parameter underlying the construction can be determined using a parametric drawing with geometric constraints and dimensional dependencies. To optimize the mark-up operation, the use of the command for projecting the points and lines of different types onto bodies and surfaces in different directions is shown. For the construction of a spring with a different pitch of turns, the paper describes the creation of a block from a part of the helix and its scaling when inserted into a model with unequal coefficients along the axes. The advantage of the NURBS surface and the application of the “body-surface-surface-NURBS-body” conversion are reflected to enhance the capabilities of both solid and surface modeling. The article’s material introduces construction students into the method of constructing complex models in AutoCAD that are not similar to typical training assignments.

  1. Application of Epidemiology Model on Complex Networks in Propagation Dynamics of Airspace Congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoxu; Hu, Minghua; Tian, Wen; Xie, Daoyi; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a propagation dynamics model for congestion propagation in complex networks of airspace. It investigates the application of an epidemiology model to complex networks by comparing the similarities and differences between congestion propagation and epidemic transmission. The model developed satisfies the constraints of actual motion in airspace, based on the epidemiology model. Exploiting the constraint that the evolution of congestion cluster in the airspace is always dynamic and heterogeneous, the SIR epidemiology model (one of the classical models in epidemic spreading) with logistic increase is applied to congestion propagation and shown to be more accurate in predicting the evolution of congestion peak than the model based on probability, which is common to predict the congestion propagation. Results from sample data show that the model not only predicts accurately the value and time of congestion peak, but also describes accurately the characteristics of congestion propagation. Then, a numerical study is performed in which it is demonstrated that the structure of the networks have different effects on congestion propagation in airspace. It is shown that in regions with severe congestion, the adjustment of dissipation rate is more significant than propagation rate in controlling the propagation of congestion.

  2. L’incertitude dans l’utilisation des médias géolocalisés : étude de deux applications reliées à la mobilité urbaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Salles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available À partir de la différentiation entre les pratiques stratégiques et tactiques, développée par Michel de Certeau (1990, et du concept de l’espace hybride (De Souza et Silva, 2006 ; Nova, 2009, ce travail distinguera les différents rapports à l’incertitude lors du déplacement en milieu urbain par les utilisateurs des médias géolocalisés, notamment par l’étude de deux applications pour appareils mobiles, Foursquare/Swarm et Walking the Edit.

  3. Effets d'application sur le long terme de fertilisants organiques et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'apport de N minéral exogène entraine une diminution de la macro-agrégation qui résulterait d'une complexation des polyphénols, agents agrégeants dans le processus d'agrégation pour le long terme. Conclusion et application des résultats: Cette étude à long terme confirme nos premiers résultats obtenu sur le cours ...

  4. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

  5. Development and application of the discrete ordinate method in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates; Developpement et application de la methode des ordonnees discretes en coordonnees curvilignes orthogonales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillon, R.; Lallemand, M.; Lemonnier, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The method of discrete ordinates, which is more and more widely used in radiant heat transfer studies, is mainly developed in Cartesian, (r,z) and (r,{Theta}) cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. In this study, the approach of this method is performed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates: determination of the radiant heat transfer equation, treatment of the angular redistribution terms, numerical procedure. Some examples of application are described in 2-D geometry defined in curvilinear coordinates along a curve and at the thermal equilibrium. A comparison is made with the discrete ordinates method in association with the finite-volumes method in non structured mesh. (J.S.) 27 refs.

  6. State of the art of parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters; Etat de l'art des applications de visualisation scientifique paralleles sur grappes de PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliachs, M

    2004-07-01

    In this state of the art on parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters, we deal with both surface and volume rendering approaches. We first analyze available PC cluster configurations and existing parallel rendering software components for parallel graphics rendering. CEA/DIF has been studying cluster visualization since 2001. This report is part of a study to set up a new visualization research platform. This platform consisting of an eight-node PC cluster under Linux and a tiled display was installed in collaboration with Versailles-Saint-Quentin University in August 2003. (author)

  7. An Improved Recurrent Neural Network for Complex-Valued Systems of Linear Equation and Its Application to Robotic Motion Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Xiao, Lin; Liao, Bolin; Lu, Rongbo; Peng, Hua

    2017-01-01

    To obtain the online solution of complex-valued systems of linear equation in complex domain with higher precision and higher convergence rate, a new neural network based on Zhang neural network (ZNN) is investigated in this paper. First, this new neural network for complex-valued systems of linear equation in complex domain is proposed and theoretically proved to be convergent within finite time. Then, the illustrative results show that the new neural network model has the higher precision and the higher convergence rate, as compared with the gradient neural network (GNN) model and the ZNN model. Finally, the application for controlling the robot using the proposed method for the complex-valued systems of linear equation is realized, and the simulation results verify the effectiveness and superiorness of the new neural network for the complex-valued systems of linear equation.

  8. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A

    2007-09-15

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  9. Optimisation des propriétés barrière de matériaux polymères par association avec des composés inorganiques pour des applications biomédicales : influence des approches nanocomposites et dépôts de couches minces siliciées

    OpenAIRE

    Charifou , Romina

    2013-01-01

    Due to their good handling properties, potential transparency and low cost, polymers are key components for the biomedical industry. However, high barrier properties towards gases or vapors are required for packaging applications in order to retain the quality of the product. To achieve the improvements in barrier properties of polymers, two different ways based on the combination of an inorganic phase with the polymer material were studied. The aim was to establish Structure/Morphology/Prope...

  10. L'atelier d'Abuja demande des politiques fondées sur des données ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 oct. 2016 ... Environ 40 représentants du ministère de la Santé fédéral (FMoH) du Nigeria, de l'Organisation ouest-africaine de la santé (OOAS), trois équipes de recherche et des experts en application des connaissances sur la santé des mères et des enfants au Nigeria ont participé à l'atelier organisé par le FMoH et ...

  11. Étude préliminaire des communautés ichtyofauniques de la lagune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2016 ... Conclusion et application : Cette étude a permis de connaitre la communauté ichtyologique de la lagune. Ono. Face à l'eutrophisation ... rares continents pour lesquels nous disposons d'un inventaire des espèces d'eau douce ... (SCB) et des eaux de lessivage des terres agricoles avoisinantes sont source ...

  12. Instructions for the use of the methodological tools applicable to polluted sites and soils; Mode d'emploi des outils methodologiques applicables aux sites et sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The French policy in the domain of polluted sites and soils is based on a limited number of principles which are: the prevention of future pollutions, the identification of all possible potential risks, a well-suited treatment process which depends on the effective environmental impact and on the intended use of the site. This document aims at identifying the main questions raised by a given situation. It proposed useful methodological tools for the construction of answers to the problems encountered: 1 - general approach (main guidelines for the different steps of the management of a polluted site, different possible approaches); 2 - examples of application (industrial site in use, closing down of an industrial site, accidental situation (recent pollution), fortuitous discovery of a pollution on a site, pollutions with limited surface extension, site involved in a land transaction, polluted site with a sensible use, industrial waste lands). (J.S.)

  13. Industrial applications of membrane processes in chemistry and energy generation; Applications industrielles des procedes membranaires en chimie et production d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The French membranes club (CFM), with the sustain of the French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized this meeting which aims to present the most recent industrial realizations in the domain of membrane processes in the chemistry and energy generation sectors. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations: 1 - hydrogen purification and CO{sub 2} extraction: development of polymer matrix and metal nano-particulate hybrid membranes for selective membrane applications; study of silicone-based mixed matrix membranes for hydrogen purification via inverse selectivity principle; CO{sub 2} capture from gaseous effluents for its sequestration: role and limitations of membrane processes; membranes and processes for the abatement of the acid gas content of smokes; new structural model for Nafion{sup R} membranes, the benchmark polymer for low temperature fuel cells; 2 - molecular screen-based membranes: MFI-alumina nano-composite ceramic membranes: preparation and characterization, gaseous transport and separation; characterization and permeation properties of supported MFI membranes; in-situ measurement of butane isomers diffusion in MFI zeolite membranes through transient permeation tests; 3 - vapors separation: stability of silver particulates in PA12-PTMO/AgBF{sub 4} composite membranes and its effect on the easier ethylene transport inside these membranes; 4 - separation of liquid organic mixtures: isomers separation using cyclo-dextrins bearing membranes: application to the extraction and separation of xylene isomers; electrodialysis in organic environment: application to the electro-synthesis; study of polymer materials permeability; 5 - treatment of industrial waters: use of NanoFlux software in the modeling of nano-filtration membrane processes in the chemical industry: elimination of sulfate impurities from 'Chloralkali' brines; ultra-filtration of a wastewater containing partially emulsified oil; efficiency of a hybrid membrane separation

  14. Fusion de données hyperspectrales, polarimétriques et angulaires de diffusion: application au diagnostic optique de milieux denses et complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Ceolato, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Ces travaux de recherche portent sur le développement d'un système original de fusion de données de diffusion électromagnétique et optique par des milieux denses et complexes. La méthode, à la fois théorique, numérique et expérimentale, permet la fusion des signatures de diffusion hyperspectrales, polarimétriques et angulaires d'un milieu d'étude. Un système expérimental multi-capteurs comprenant une source laser supercontinuum est présenté pour mesurer les signatures de diffusion de différen...

  15. The development of ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes and conjugates for in vitro cellular and in vivo applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, Fergus E; Bright, Sandra A; Blasco, Salvador; Williams, D Clive; Kelly, John M; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2017-12-11

    Ruthenium(ii) [Ru(ii)] polypyridyl complexes have been the focus of intense investigations since work began exploring their supramolecular interactions with DNA. In recent years, there have been considerable efforts to translate this solution-based research into a biological environment with the intention of developing new classes of probes, luminescent imaging agents, therapeutics and theranostics. In only 10 years the field has expanded with diverse applications for these complexes as imaging agents and promising candidates for therapeutics. In light of these efforts this review exclusively focuses on the developments of these complexes in biological systems, both in cells and in vivo, and hopes to communicate to readers the diversity of applications within which these complexes have found use, as well as new insights gained along the way and challenges that researchers in this field still face.

  16. Behavior of silicon in nitric media. Application to uranium silicides fuels reprocessing; Comportement du silicium en milieu nitrique. Application au retraitement des combustibles siliciures d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheroux, L

    2001-07-01

    Uranium silicides are used in some research reactors. Reprocessing them is a solution for their cycle end. A list of reprocessing scenarios has been set the most realistic being a nitric dissolution close to the classic spent fuel reprocessing. This uranium silicide fuel contains a lot of silicon and few things are known about polymerization of silicic acid in concentrated nitric acid. The study of this polymerization allows to point out the main parameters: acidity, temperature, silicon concentration. The presence of aluminum seems to speed up heavily the polymerization. It has been impossible to find an analytical technique smart and fast enough to characterize the first steps of silicic acid polymerization. However the action of silicic species on emulsions stabilization formed by mixing them with an organic phase containing TBP has been studied, Silicon slows down the phase separation by means of oligomeric species forming complex with TBP. The existence of these intermediate species is short and heating can avoid any stabilization. When non irradiated uranium silicide fuel is attacked by a nitric solution, aluminum and uranium are quickly dissolved whereas silicon mainly stands in solid state. That builds a gangue of hydrated silica around the uranium silicide particulates without preventing uranium dissolution. A small part of silicon passes into the solution and polymerize towards the highly poly-condensed forms, just 2% of initial silicon is still in molecular form at the end of the dissolution. A thermal treatment of the fuel element, by forming inter-metallic phases U-Al-Si, allows the whole silicon to pass into the solution and next to precipitate. The behavior of silicon in spent fuels should be between these two situations. (author)

  17. Adaptative control of aero-acoustic instabilities. Application to propulsion systems; Controle adaptatif des instabilites aeroacoustiques. Application aux systemes de propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mettenleiter, M.

    2000-02-15

    This work treats active adaptive control of aero-acoustic instabilities. In particular, we are interested in an application to solid propellant rockets. The study is part of the research program ASSM coordinated by CNES and ONERA and the aim is to increase the performance of the P230 segmented solid propellant boosters of the Ariane 5 rocket. The work has been carried out in collaboration with other partners of this program. The main objective of this study is the development of control algorithms, able to diminish low frequency instabilities encountered in propulsion systems. First, the instability phenomenon is analyzed in a simplified experimental setup and similarity is shown with instabilities observed in real propulsion systems. This study enables us to conceive adaptive control strategies, which have been tested on three different levels: - In a simplified dynamical simulation; - During an experimental study; - Using full numerical simulations. The three levels of application made it possible to study the behaviour of the different control strategies. We could show that the actuator signal modifies the behaviour of the system on the acoustic level. But as there is a strong interaction between the pressure fluctuations and the hydrodynamic behaviour, the flow structure is also modified by active control. This behaviour corresponds to the simplified model of the phenomenon, which has been used to define the control algorithms. The control action 'at the noise source' makes it possible to distinguish this kind of algorithms from schemes based on the anti-noise principle. After this first part, where we showed the feasibility of control, we particularly considered algorithms which can act in an unknown environment. The information about the system behaviour. which is necessary for convergence of the controller is now obtained in parallel during control. An identification off-line, used at the beginning of the research, is no longer necessary. Self

  18. Study of the selectivity of poly-nitrogenous extracting molecules in the complexation of actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) in solution in anhydrous pyridine; Etude de la selectivite de molecules extractantes polyazotees dans la complexation des actinides (III) et des lanthanides (III) en solution dans la pyridine anhydre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riviere, Ch

    2000-10-05

    The aim of this work is to better understand the factors which contribute to the separation of lanthanides(III) and actinides(III). Polydentate nitrogenous molecules present an interesting selectivity. A thermodynamic study of the complexation in pyridine of lanthanide and uranium by the bipyridine ligand (bipy) has been carried out. The formation constants and the thermodynamic values of the different complexes have been determined. It has been shown that the bipy complexes formation is controlled by the enthalpy and unfavored by the entropy. The conductometry has revealed too a significant difference in the uranium and lanthanides complexation by the bipyridine ligand. The use of the phenanthroline ligand induces a better complexation of the metallic ions but the selectivity is not improved. On the other hand, the decrease of the basicity and the increase of the ligand denticity (for instance in the case of the use of ter-pyridine) favour the selectivity without improving the complexation. The selectivity difference for the complexation of actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) by the different studied ligands (independent systems) has been confirmed by experiments of inter-metals competition. (O.M.)

  19. Problématique de la valorisation agricole des biodéchets dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2014 ... composition des types de biodéchets a varié en fonction des éléments considérés, tout comme le rapport. C/N qui leurs est associé. Conclusion et application de la recherche : La gestion des déchets urbains constituant un problème majeur dans les pays en développement, l'identification des contraintes à ...

  20. Prospection et Collecte des accessions de sorgho sucré –Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2016 ... contribuent à 80% à la destruction des tiges. Conclusion et application : L'étude permet de révéler une importante diversité génétique gérée par les .... autour des cases sur des termitières ou sur des terres enrichies de matières .... C'est seulement dans quelques rares villages frontaliers avec le Cameroun ...

  1. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts Through Application of Complexity-Based Cost Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Craig E.; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of a rapid cost assessment models for evaluation of exploration missions through the application of complexity based cost indices. In Fall of 2004, NASA began developing 13 documents, known as "strategic roadmaps," intended to outline a strategy for space exploration over the next 30 years. The Third Strategic Roadmap, The Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration, focused on strategy for robotic exploration of the Solar System. Development of the Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration led to the investigation of a large variety of missions. However, the necessity of planning around scientific inquiry and budgetary constraints made it necessary for the roadmap development team to evaluate potential missions not only for scientific return but also cost. Performing detailed cost studies for each of the large number of missions was impractical given the time constraints involved and lack of detailed mission studies; so a method of rapid cost assessment was developed by us to allow preliminary analysis. It has been noted that there is a strong correlation between complexity and cost and schedule of planetary missions. While these correlations were made after missions had been built and flown (successfully or otherwise), it seemed likely that a similar approach could provide at least some relative cost ranking. Cost estimation relationships (CERs) have been developed based on subsystem design choices. These CERs required more detailed information than available, forcing the team to adopt a more high level approach. Costing by analogy has been developed for small satellites, however, planetary exploration missions provide such varying spacecraft requirements that there is a lack of adequately comparable missions that can be used for analogy.

  2. Application of cubane-type structures to hydro-treatment catalysis; Application des structures d'architecture cubane a la catalyse d'hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, K.

    2003-11-01

    [Mo{sub 3}S{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 9}]{sup 4+} has been prepared and supported on zeolites H-USY and NaY. Using this cluster as a precursor for HDT catalysts has many advantages: it is cationic, already in a sulfided form, and a promoter such as a second metal M' such as Cu, Ni or Pd can be incorporated to form Mo{sub 3}M'S{sub 4}{sup 4+}. The cubane structure was found unchanged after loading in the case of NaY (EXAFS, XPS) and although TEM showed that Mo was mainly on the outer surface of the zeolite crystals, DRX confirmed that a modification of the counter ion also occurred, and an isotherm was obtained with NaY zeolite. A thermal stability study was led under N{sub 2} and a mixture of H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S to optimize the pretreatment of the catalysts. Those were subsequently pre-sulfided and tested in toluene hydrogenation and their activities with both types of zeolites turned out to be the same or even better than that of catalysts prepared by the classical route. An application to mixed cubane-type structures is also reported. (author)

  3. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  4. Effect of Ash on Oxygen Carriers for the Application of Chemical Looping Combustion to a High Carbon Char Effet des cendres sur l’activité des porteurs d’oxygène dans la combustion du charbon en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel A.

    2011-02-01

    activity of the OCs and both OCs performed well. The results were promising for the application of CLC directly to solid fuels. L’application de la combustion en boucle chimique (CLC aux combustibles solides est actuellement étudiée à l’Université du Kentucky, au Centre de Recherche de l’Energie Appliquée (CAER dans le but de développer un procédé de gazéification/combustion en boucle chimique pressurisé (PCLC/G afin de générer de l’électricité à partir de charbon. Un des principaux aspects de la combustion en boucle chimique de combustibles solides est la compréhension de l’effet des cendres sur la réactivité des porteurs d’oxygène (OCs. L’effet des cendres sur la capacité de transfert d’oxygène et sur l’aptitude à oxyder le charbon est étudié avec deux porteurs d’oxygène à base d’oxydes de fer. Les cendres utilisées sont des cendres volantes provenant d’une centrale thermique au charbon. Les expériences sont réalisées dans un système composé d’une thermo-balance couplée à un spectrographe de masse (TGMS dans lequel on utilise d’abord 500 mg d’un mélange de cendres/porteurs d’oxygène à différentes concentrations de cendres allant jusqu’à 75 %. Le gaz réducteur est composé de 10 % de H2, 15 % de CO, 20 % de CO2 et de 55 % de Ar; et le gaz oxydant est composé de 20 % de O2 dans Ar. Les réactions d’oxydation/réduction sont quasi totales. D’après ces expériences, les cendres ont une activité propre de porteur d’oxygène, liée à la présence de fer dans les cendres, confirmée par les analyses DRX. Cela génère une augmentation du gain ou de la perte de masse du mélange pendant l’oxydation/réduction. Les vitesses d’oxydation/réduction augmentent avec la concentration des cendres à cause de l’augmentation de la porosité du mélange de porteurs d’oxygène avec les cendres, ce qui permet un meilleur accès des gaz réactifs sur les sites actifs des porteurs d’oxygène. Dans un

  5. Evidence of different stoichiometries for the limiting carbonate complexes of lanthanides(3); Mise en evidence d'un changement de stoechiometrie du complexe carbonate limite au sein de la serie des lanthanides(3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippini, V

    2007-12-15

    Two stoichiometries have been proposed by different laboratories to interpret measurements on the limiting carbonate complexes of An{sup 3+} and Ln{sup 3+} cations. The study of the solubility of double carbonates (AlkLn(CO{sub 3}){sub 2},xH{sub 2}O) in concentrated carbonate solutions at room temperature and high ionic strengths has shown that on the one hand the lightest lanthanides (La and Nd) form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 5-} whereas the heaviest (Eu and Dy) form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-} in the studied chemical conditions, and on the other hand, that the kinetics of precipitation of double carbonates depends on the alkali metal and the lanthanide ions. The existence of two stoichiometries for the limiting carbonate complexes was confirmed by capillary electrophoresis hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (CE-ICP-MS), used to extend the study to the whole series of lanthanides (except Ce, Pm and Yb). Two behaviours have been put forward comparing the electrophoretic mobilities: La to Tb form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 5-} while Dy to Lu form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-}. Measurements by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) on Eu(III) indicate small variations of the geometry of Eu(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-} complex, specially with Cs{sup +}. Although analogies are currently used among the 4f-block trivalent elements, different aqueous speciations are evidenced in concentrated carbonate solutions across the lanthanide series. (author)

  6. Calcul des propriétés élastiques des tissus utilisés dans les matériaux composites Computation of Elastic Properties of Fabrics Used in Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Maso F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Les renforts textiles s'imposent dès qu'il faut réaliser des structures massives ou complexes en matériaux composites, comme certains raccords et jonctions de tubes, des panneaux d'habitation légère, des carters de protection de têtes de puits en fond de mer, etc. Cet article expose les caractéristiques générales d'un renfort textile, puis différentes approches micromécaniques analytiques représentant les tissus à tissage bidimensionnel sont présentées. En partant du plus simple et en allant vers le plus complexe, ces modèles sont l'analogie à un stratifié [0°/90°], la mosaïque en série et en parallèle, les ondulations 1D et les ondulations 2D série-parallèle et parallèle-série. Toutes ces approches sont fondées sur la théorie mécanique des stratifiés. En analysant les résultats d'applications numériques de ces modèles et les résultats expérimentaux, on constate que les modèles des ondulations en 2D procurent les meilleures valeurs estimées des modules élastiques. Les autres modèles n'indiquent que des ordres de grandeurs. Woven fabric reinforcements are irreplaceable from the moment that heavy or complex composite structures should be manufactured, such as some pipe connections or flanges, light panels for housing, subsea well head protection panels, etc. In this paper overall characteristics of woven fabrics are described, followed by the review of different micromechanical analytical approaches. Starting with the simplest and continueing with the more complex, these models are : the analogy with a [0°/90°] laminate, the series and parallel mosaic models, the 1D fiber undulation model, and the 2D series-parallel and parallel-series fiber undulation models. All these approaches are based on the classical laminated plate theory. Analyzing the results of numerical applications of the models and experimental results, one can notice that both 2D fiber undulation models give the best estimated values for

  7. Application of the random phase approximation to complex problems in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimka, L.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the assessment and application of the random phase approximation (RPA) in the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) framework in solid state physics. The first part presents a review of density functional theory (DFT) and the ACFD theorem in the RPA. This includes an introduction to the many-body problem as well as a description of the implementation of the RPA in the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP). In the results part, the quality of the RPA is assessed and its performance compared to three (beyond) DFT functionals. The experimental values are corrected for the effect of phonon zero-point vibrational energies which were calculated at the DFT level from ab-initio. We find that the RPA describes all bonding situations very accurately, making it a promising candidate for more complex problems in solid state physics. In light of these findings, we investigate the carbon-water interaction in two specific cases: the adsorption of water on benzene and the adsorption of water on a graphene layer. We compare our results to a different correlated method: diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC). We find very good agreement and thus believe that our values can serve as a benchmark for the development of other DFT functionals to treat water-carbon interfaces. The highlight of this thesis is the successful application of the RPA to the long-standing and (at DFT level) unsolved CO adsorption puzzle. We show results for CO adsorption on Cu, late 4d metals and Pt. RPA is at present the only ab-initio method that describes adsorption and surface energies accurately at the same time and predicts the correct adsorption site in every single case. (author) [de

  8. Complex layered materials and periodic electromagnetic band-gap structures: Concepts, characterizations, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallaei, Hossein

    The main objective of this dissertation is to characterize and create insight into the electromagnetic performances of two classes of composite structures, namely, complex multi-layered media and periodic Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) structures. The advanced and diversified computational techniques are applied to obtain their unique propagation characteristics and integrate the results into some novel applications. In the first part of this dissertation, the vector wave solution of Maxwell's equations is integrated with the Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization method to provide a powerful technique for characterizing multi-layered materials, and obtaining their optimal designs. The developed method is successfully applied to determine the optimal composite coatings for Radar Cross Section (RCS) reduction of canonical structures. Both monostatic and bistatic scatterings are explored. A GA with hybrid planar/curved surface implementation is also introduced to efficiently obtain the optimal absorbing materials for curved structures. Furthermore, design optimization of the non-uniform Luneburg and 2-shell spherical lens antennas utilizing modal solution/GA-adaptive-cost function is presented. The lens antennas are effectively optimized for both high gain and suppressed grating lobes. The second part demonstrates the development of an advanced computational engine, which accurately computes the broadband characteristics of challenging periodic electromagnetic band-gap structures. This method utilizes the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique with Periodic Boundary Condition/Perfectly Matched Layer (PBC/PML), which is efficiently integrated with the Prony scheme. The computational technique is successfully applied to characterize and present the unique propagation performances of different classes of periodic structures such as Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS), Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) materials, and Left-Handed (LH) composite media. The results are

  9. Classification multisource via la théorie des fonctions de croyance : application à l'estimation du temps de parcours

    OpenAIRE

    BEN-AISSA, A; EL-FAOUZI, NE; LEFEVRE, E

    2009-01-01

    L'estimation du temps de parcours en présence de plusieurs sources de données hétérogènes est abordée comme un problème de fusion de classifieurs. Dans ce travail, la méthodologie de la fusion, opérée par la théorie des fonctions de croyance, est présentée et plusieurs solutions techniques sont abordées. Les résultats de ces différentes propositions sont illustrés dans le cadre de l'estimation des temps de parcours sur un réseau routier. Ces schémas montrent la propension de la fusion de clas...

  10. Evaluation de la qualité de l'Audit interne/Audit externe : Application dans le cadre des relations d'agence internes

    OpenAIRE

    Makram Chemangui

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Les récents constats d'inefficacité des audits interne et externe réconfortent l'idée, aussi bien chez les praticiens que les académiciens, de redéfinir les règles d'évaluation de leurs rôles respectifs. L'approche traditionnelle de la qualité de l'audit débouche sur une incapacité à évaluer la pertinence des travaux d'audit menés. Nous estimons que le contrôle de la qualité de l'audit doit désormais se situer au niveau de sa mise en œuvre. Il s'agit désormais de mesur...

  11. An Overview Of Photosubstitution Reactions Of Ru(II) Imine Complexes And Their Application In Photobiology And Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jessica K; Schmehl, Russell H; Turro, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article is a short review that presents a short review of photosubstitution reactions of Ru(II) imine complexes and illustrates their use in the development of therapeutic agents. The review begins with an overview of the photophysical behavior and common photoreactions of Ru(II) imine complexes, with select examples from the literature since the 1960s. It is followed by a more detailed picture of the application of knowledge gained over the years in the development of Ru(II) complexes for photobiology and photodynamic therapy.

  12. Catalytic polarographic currents of platinum metal complexes and their application to determination of trace concentrations of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezerskaya, N.A.; Kiseleva, I.N.

    1984-01-01

    Several types of catalytic electrode processes with the participation of platinum metal complexes and used for the determination of the element microconcentrations have been considered in the review. It is pointed out that to measure catalytic currents of hydrogen solutions nitroso compounds, which are prepared by heating chloride complexes of Ru(3) and (4) with NaNO 2 are used. The method is applicable for ruthenium determination in commercial nitric acid solutions. Ru determination in solution of ruthenium (4) dimeric chloride complex on graphite electrode, using catalytic currents of hydrogen, surpasses in sensitivity the determination of the element, using the method of inversion voltammetry. Certain other complexes of Ru and determination methods of ruthenium in them are considered. Hydrogen catalytic currents in the complexes solutions with organic ligands are the most perspective for analysis

  13. Outil d'évaluation de l'application des lois sur l'accès à l'information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des essais pilotes de l'IAT ont été réalisés en Afrique du Sud, au Bangladesh et au Mexique, avec l'appui de la Fondation William et Flora Hewlett. Ce financement permettra de réaliser d'autres essais dans jusqu'à sept pays, y compris les trois pays pilotes. Dans les sept pays, on fera appel au commissaire à l'information ...

  14. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  15. La mobilité quotidienne dans les grandes villes du monde : application de la théorie des réseaux bayésiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fusco

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available À la frontière entre statistiques multivariées et intelligence artificielle, les réseaux bayésiens sont un puissant outil de modélisation de connaissance systémique. Une utilisation particulièrement intéressante est celle de la recherche des liens causaux entre variables dans une base de données. Dans cet article, nous analysons une base de données urbaines sur la mobilité quotidienne couvrant plus de cent grandes villes mondiales. À l'aide d'algorithmes de génération de réseaux bayésiens, nous avons produit deux réseaux reliant les variables et traduisant deux hypothèses différentes sur la hiérarchie causale entre elles. Si l’on introduit l’hypothèse que la mobilité détermine la structure urbaine, on crée alors un réseau qui  identifie la motorisation de la population comme étant une variable cruciale. Ce réseau s’avère plus probable que celui résultant de l’hypothèse opposée. En revanche, les deux réseaux concordent sur l’importance de l’offre de voirie rapide urbaine et de la vitesse moyenne du réseau routier dans l’explication du partage modal et des coûts et des externalités des transports urbains.

  16. Driver avec isolation galvanique basé surun ASIC destiné à des convertisseurs depuissance pour les applications photovoltaïques

    OpenAIRE

    Niedermeier, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Die Erzeugung elektrischer Energie durch Photovoltaik spielt angesichts des angestrebtenEnergiewechsels weg von fossilen Brennstoffen und hin zu erneuerbaren Energien eine bedeutendeRolle. Die photovoltaische Energieerzeugung befindet sich seit der Einführung erschwinglicherSolarmodule gepaart mit staatlichen Subventionen besonders im privaten Bereichim Aufschwung. Dies führte dazu, dass es auch im urbanen Bereich zum Aufbau vonPhotovoltaikanlagen kam, wo sich die herkömmlichen Reihenschaltun...

  17. Computational analysis of complex systems: Applications to population dynamics and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Ferenc

    simple, but not a cost-efficient approach. We show, using a novel application of simulated annealing, that a specific, non-trivial shape of spatial distribution can minimize the total cost of successful invasion, i.e., the cost of ecological restoration. Further, our approach can be generalized to essentially any reaction-diffusion model with diffusive spreading. In the second part of the dissertation we conduct an extensive study of minimum dominating sets (MDS) in complex networks; particularly, in scale-free networks. MDS is the smallest subset of nodes in a network that can reach every other node as nearest neighbors, thus it provides a key subset of nodes that play critical role in controllability and observability of social, biological, and technological networks. Continued interest in network control, monitoring and influencing of complex networks motivates our research of understanding the properties and practical application-related issues of the MDS. Our study of the scaling behavior reveals that the size of MDS always scales linearly with network size, as long as the power-law degree exponent gamma of the degree distribution is larger than 2. However, when gamma<2, a domination transition occurs, allowing the MDS size to become O(1), leading to easily dominated networks, under certain structural conditions. Motivated by practical applicability in large networks, we develop a new dominating set selection method, derived from probabilistic node selection techniques, which can select small dominating sets without complete network topology information. We also show that the effectiveness of our method, as well as the effectiveness of other heuristics of dominating set selection, strongly depends on the assortativity of networks. Finally, we conduct a numerical study to analyze the fraction of nodes that remain dominated, after the network is damaged, and some nodes are removed. We find that dominating sets optimized for small size are particularly vulnerable to

  18. Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments--application of the RayMan model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Rutz, Frank; Mayer, Helmut

    2007-03-01

    The most important meteorological parameter affecting the human energy balance during sunny weather conditions is the mean radiant temperature T(mrt). It considers the uniform temperature of a surrounding surface giving off blackbody radiation, which results in the same energy gain of a human body given the prevailing radiation fluxes. This energy gain usually varies considerably in open space conditions. In this paper, the model 'RayMan', used for the calculation of short- and long-wave radiation fluxes on the human body, is presented. The model, which takes complex urban structures into account, is suitable for several applications in urban areas such as urban planning and street design. The final output of the model is, however, the calculated T(mrt), which is required in the human energy balance model, and thus also for the assessment of the urban bioclimate, with the use of thermal indices such as predicted mean vote (PMV), physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and standard effective temperature (SET*). The model has been developed based on the German VDI-Guidelines 3789, Part II (environmental meteorology, interactions between atmosphere and surfaces; calculation of short- and long-wave radiation) and VDI-3787 (environmental meteorology, methods for the human-biometeorological evaluation of climate and air quality for urban and regional planning. Part I: climate). The validation of the results of the RayMan model agrees with similar results obtained from experimental studies.

  19. The Application of Curve Fitting on the Voltammograms of Various Isoforms of Metallothioneins–Metal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Molina-López, Jorge; Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Planells Del Pozo, Elena; Adam, Pavlina; Eckschlager, Tomas; Zitka, Ondrej; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    The translation of metallothioneins (MTs) is one of the defense strategies by which organisms protect themselves from metal-induced toxicity. MTs belong to a family of proteins comprising MT-1, MT-2, MT-3, and MT-4 classes, with multiple isoforms within each class. The main aim of this study was to determine the behavior of MT in dependence on various externally modelled environments, using electrochemistry. In our study, the mass distribution of MTs was characterized using MALDI-TOF. After that, adsorptive transfer stripping technique with differential pulse voltammetry was selected for optimization of electrochemical detection of MTs with regard to accumulation time and pH effects. Our results show that utilization of 0.5 M NaCl, pH 6.4, as the supporting electrolyte provides a highly complicated fingerprint, showing a number of non-resolved voltammograms. Hence, we further resolved the voltammograms exhibiting the broad and overlapping signals using curve fitting. The separated signals were assigned to the electrochemical responses of several MT complexes with zinc(II), cadmium(II), and copper(II), respectively. Our results show that electrochemistry could serve as a great tool for metalloproteomic applications to determine the ratio of metal ion bonds within the target protein structure, however, it provides highly complicated signals, which require further resolution using a proper statistical method, such as curve fitting. PMID:28287470

  20. The Application of Curve Fitting on the Voltammograms of Various Isoforms of Metallothioneins–Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Merlos Rodrigo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The translation of metallothioneins (MTs is one of the defense strategies by which organisms protect themselves from metal-induced toxicity. MTs belong to a family of proteins comprising MT-1, MT-2, MT-3, and MT-4 classes, with multiple isoforms within each class. The main aim of this study was to determine the behavior of MT in dependence on various externally modelled environments, using electrochemistry. In our study, the mass distribution of MTs was characterized using MALDI-TOF. After that, adsorptive transfer stripping technique with differential pulse voltammetry was selected for optimization of electrochemical detection of MTs with regard to accumulation time and pH effects. Our results show that utilization of 0.5 M NaCl, pH 6.4, as the supporting electrolyte provides a highly complicated fingerprint, showing a number of non-resolved voltammograms. Hence, we further resolved the voltammograms exhibiting the broad and overlapping signals using curve fitting. The separated signals were assigned to the electrochemical responses of several MT complexes with zinc(II, cadmium(II, and copper(II, respectively. Our results show that electrochemistry could serve as a great tool for metalloproteomic applications to determine the ratio of metal ion bonds within the target protein structure, however, it provides highly complicated signals, which require further resolution using a proper statistical method, such as curve fitting.