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Sample records for dermatophyte trichophyton mentagrophytes

  1. Enhanced gene replacements in Ku80 disruption mutants of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

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    Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Makimura, Koichi; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Ishihara, Yumiko; Umeda, Yoshiko; Abe, Shigeru

    2009-09-01

    The frequency of targeted gene disruption via homologous recombination is low in the clinically important dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The Ku genes, Ku70 and Ku80, encode key components of the nonhomologous end-joining pathway involved in DNA double-strand break repair. Their deletion increases the homologous recombination frequency, facilitating targeted gene disruption. To improve the homologous recombination frequency in T. mentagrophytes, the Ku80 ortholog was inactivated. The nucleotide sequence of the Ku80 locus containing a 2788-bp ORF encoding a predicted product of 728 amino acids was identified, and designated as TmKu80. The predicted TmKu80 product showed a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity to known fungal Ku80 proteins. Ku80 disruption mutant strains of T. mentagrophytes were constructed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. The average homologous recombination frequency was 73.3 +/- 25.2% for the areA/nit-2-like nitrogen regulatory gene (tnr) in Ku80(-) mutants, about 33-fold higher than that in wild-type controls. A high frequency (c. 67%) was also obtained for the Tri m4 gene encoding a putative serine protease. Ku80(-) mutant strains will be useful for large-scale reverse genetics studies of dermatophytes, including T. mentagrophytes, providing valuable information on the basic mechanisms of host invasion.

  2. Disparate SAR Data of Griseofulvin Analogues for the Dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Raab, Marc S.; Anderhub, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Griseofulvin and 53 analogues of this compound have been tested against the pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as against the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The modifications to griseofulvin include the 4, 5, 6, 2', 3', and 4' positions...... of analogues showed increased activity against the cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, highlighted by 2'-benzyloxy-2'-demethoxy-griseofulvin, which showed low activity against both fungi but was among the most potent compounds against MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Tubulin has been proposed as the target of griseofulvin...

  3. 须癣毛癣菌肉芽肿1例%Dermatophyte granulomas caused by trichophyton mentagrophytes:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文国; 张迪展; 于长平; 王淑芬; 卢宪梅; 张福仁

    2014-01-01

    患者女,39岁。右下肢红斑2个月,全身丘疹伴剧烈瘙痒2周。有动物接触史。真菌培养分离出须癣毛癣菌。皮损组织病理PAS染色在真皮中部毛囊和毛干内见菌丝结构。诊断为须癣毛癣菌所致皮肤癣菌肉芽肿。%A 39-years old woman presented with localized plaques on the right leg for 2 months and pap-ules over the body with severe itching for 2 weeks. There was a history of animal exposure. Trichophyton men-tagrophytes was isolated from the skin lesion. PAS staning showed hyphae. Dermatophyte granulomas caused by trichophyton mentagrophytes was diagnosed.

  4. Exposition of dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes to L-cystine induces expression and activation of cysteine dioxygenase.

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    Kasperova, Alena; Cahlikova, Romana; Kunert, Jiri; Sebela, Marek; Novak, Zdenek; Raska, Milan

    2014-11-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is involved in regulation of intracellular cysteine levels by catabolising the cysteine to sulphite and sulphate. In keratinolytic fungi, sulphite is actively excreted to reduce disulphide bridges in keratin before its enzymatic degradation. The pathogenicity role of CDO was confirmed in cysteine-hypersensitive and growth-defective ΔCdo mutant of Arthroderma benhamiae on hair and nails. We analysed the CDO expression regulation in T. mentagrophytes (anamorph of A. benhamiae) mycelia by determining the Cdo mRNA and CDO protein levels and by analysing the proportion of two molecular forms of CDO in response to l-cystine exposure. Cdo mRNA levels in mycelia lysates were detected by reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and CDO protein by western blot using mouse CDO-specific hyperimmune serum. The Cdo mRNA level increased gradually 2.5-4.5 h after exposure of the mycelium to l-cystine. The CDO protein, detected as two bands of different mobility, appeared earlier in comparison to mRNA (1 h) and culminated after 24 h. More mobile form prevailed after 4.5 h. The comparison of the dynamics in the Cdo mRNA and CDO protein levels indicates that T. mentagrophytes responds to l-cystine by increased transcription and apparently decreased degradation of the CDO and by changing towards higher mobility molecular form, similar to previous reports describing mammalian analogue.

  5. 女童患须癣毛癣菌肉芽肿1例%A Case of Dermatophyte Granulomas Due to Trichophyton Mentagrophytes in a Girl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 陈晶; 吕雪莲; 夏玉坤; 彭琳琳; 崔红艳

    2012-01-01

    患儿女,10岁.面部斑块、丘疹、脓疱3个月,有宠物接触史.皮肤科情况:右额部见一5.0cm×3.0cm红色斑块,闸以丘疹、少许脓疱.实验室检查:血CD4 13.6%(25.8%~41.6%),真菌培养分离出须癣毛癣菌.皮损组织病理:真皮及皮下脂肪内见中性粒细胞为主炎性细胞浸润,伴脓肿形成.诊断:须癣毛癣菌所致皮肤癣菌肉芽肿.%A 10-year-old girl presented with localized plaques on the face for 3 months. There was a history of pets, exposure. Physical examination demonstrated erythematous plaques with some papules and pustules on the right side of right eyebrow. T cell subsets test showed decrease of CD4. Trichophyton mentagrophyles was isolated from the biopsy tissue. Histopathology showed mixed cells' infiltration in the dermis with abscess formation. Dermatophyte granulomas caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes was diagnosed.

  6. In vitro characterization of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms.

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    Costa-Orlandi, C B; Sardi, J C O; Santos, C T; Fusco-Almeida, A M; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi responsible for a disease known as dermatophytosis. Biofilms are sessile microbial communities surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host defenses. This paper describes, for the first time, the characteristics of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms. Biofilm formation was analyzed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as by staining with crystal violet and safranin. Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. Both species were able to form mature biofilms in 72 h. T. rubrum biofilm produced more biomass and EPS and was denser than T. mentagrophytes biofilm. The SEM results demonstrated a coordinated network of hyphae in all directions, embedded within EPS in some areas. Research and characterization of biofilms formed by dermatophytes may contribute to the search of new drugs for the treatment of these mycoses and might inform future revisions with respect to the dose and duration of treatment of currently available antifungals.

  7. Antifungal activities of the combination of tacrolimus and itraconazole against Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hiroko; Okabayashi, Ken; Kano, Rui; Watanabe, Shinichi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2005-06-01

    Tacrolimus was reported to have no antifungal activity against dermatophytes, but it might show a synergistic fungicidal activity with azoles against dermatophytes as in the case of pathogenic yeasts. Therefore, we examined the antifungal activity of tacrolimus combined with itraconazole (ITZ) against five strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes by measuring cell growth and performing MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) testing. The mean colony diameter of T. mentagrophytes on 1/10 diluted Sabouraud dextrose agar (dSDA) with tacrolimus combined with ITZ was significantly shorter than that on dSDA with tacrolimus or ITZ. MICs of tacrolimus, ITZ, and tacrolimus combined with ITZ against T. mentagrophytes were determined, respectively. The results revealed a synergistic activity of tacrolimus in combination with ITZ against T. mentagrophytes.

  8. [The effect of Tween-80 on the differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum strains with FT-IR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergın, Çagri; İlkit, Macit; Gök, Yaşar; Çon, Ahmet Hilmi; Özel, Mustafa Zafer; Kabay, Nilgün; Döğen, Aylin; Baygu, Yasemin

    2014-07-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, are two of the frequently identified dermatophyte species in routine microbiology laboratories. Although newer technologies may assist in species-level identification, direct application of these methods usually require improvement in order to obtain reliable identification of these species. Earlier data have shown that dermatophytes may be identified with FT-IR spectroscopy although there are some limitations. In particular, the organic bond ranges in FT-IR spectra showed more irregularity because of the eucaryotic complexity of the molds. In this study, Tween-80 which is an inorganic molecule, was added to the dermatophyte growth medium in order to investigate its effect on FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of dermatophytes. Nine reference dermatophyte strains [5 T.mentagrophytes complex (T.asteroides CBS 424.63, T.erinacei CBS 344.79, CBS 511.73, CBS 677.86, T.mentagrophytes CBS 110.65) and 4 T.rubrum complex strains with different morphotypes (T.fluviomuniense CBS 592.68, T.kuryangei CBS 422.67, T.raubitschekii CBS 102856, T.rubrum CBS 392.58)] were included in the study. All strains were cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar either with or without 1% Tween-80 for three weeks. After the incubation period, superficial scrapings from each dermatophyte colony were analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy. All measurements were performed in transmission mode between 4400 and 400 cm-1. Numerous spectral window data were analyzed by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering was performed. The second derivations of spectral ranges revealed clear grouping of T.mentagrophytes complex and T.rubrum complex in association over five separate spectral ranges. The findings also showed that while all of the T.mentagrophytes strains contained lipid compounds in their mold structure after Tween-80 incubation (pIR spectroscopy. This effect might be attributed to the possible transfer of lipid compounds from culture to cell

  9. In Vitro Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes Using New Methylene Blue as the Photosensitizer.

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    López-Chicón, P; Gulías, Ò; Nonell, S; Agut, M

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combines the use of a photosensitizing drug with light and oxygen to eradicate pathogens. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a dermatophytic fungus able to invade the skin and keratinized tissues. We have investigated the use of new methylene blue as the photosensitizing agent for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to produce the in vitro inactivation of T mentagrophytes. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the parameters for photoinactivation of the dermatophyte. The parameters studied were new methylene blue concentration, contact time between the photosensitizing agent and the fungus prior to light treatment, and the fluence of red light (wavelength, 620-645nm) applied. The minimum concentration of new methylene blue necessary to induce the death of all T. mentagrophytes cells in the initial suspension (approximate concentration, 10(6) colony forming units per milliliter) was 50μM for a fluence of 81J/cm(2) after a contact time of 10minutes with the photosensitizing-agent. Increasing the concentration to 100μM allowed the fluence to be decreased to 9J/cm(2). Comparison of our data with other published data shows that the susceptibility of T. mentagrophytes to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with new methylene blue is strain-dependent. New methylene blue is a photosensitizing agent that should be considered for the treatment of fungal skin infections caused by this dermatophyte. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro antifungal activities of Actinomyces species isolated from soil samples against Trichophyton mentagrophytes

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    Nasser Keikha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Cutaneous infections arise from a homogeneous group of keratinophilic fungi, known as dermatophytes. Since these pathogenic dermatophytes are eukaryotes in nature, use of chemical antifungal agents for treatment may affect the host tissue cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Actinomyces species against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (abbreviated as T. mentagrophytes. The isolates were obtained from soil samples and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Material and Methods: In total, 100 strains of Actinomyces species were isolated from soil samples in order to determine their antagonistic activities against T. mentagrophytes in Kerman, Iran. The electron microscopic study of these isolates was performed, based on the physiological properties of these antagonists (e.g., lipase, amylase, protease and chitinase, using relevant protocols. The isolates were identified using gene 16S rDNA via PCR technique. Results: Streptomyces flavogriseus, Streptomyces zaomyceticus strain xsd08149 and Streptomyces rochei were isolated and exhibited the most significant antagonistic activities against T. mentagrophytes. Images were obtained by an electron microscope and some spores, mycelia and morphology of spore chains were identified. Molecular, morphological and biochemical characteristics of these isolates were studied, using the internal 16S rDNA gene. Active isolates of Streptomyces sequence were compared to GenBank sequences. According to nucleotide analysis, isolate D5 had maximum similarity to Streptomyces flavogriseus (99%. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that Streptomyces isolates from soil samples could exert antifungal effects on T. mentagrophytes

  11. Control of exocellular proteases in dermatophytes and especially Trichophyton rubrum.

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    Meevootisom, V; Niederpruem, D J

    1979-06-01

    The production of proteases was investigated during growth of dermatophytic fungi with special emphasis on Trichophyton rubrum. Exogenous glucose suppressed elastase production in all dermatophytes examined. The production of protease active guinea pig hair in keratin-salts broth by Microsporum gypseum. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum was also suppressed by glucose. Various carbohydrates added to keratin-salts broth curtailed protease production by T. rubrum as did individual amino acids but ammonium phosphate did not. Enzyme activities against guinea pig hair were compared in twenty-one diverse clinical isolates of T. rubrum cultured in keratin-salts broth. Activity also occurred towards casein, bovine serum albumin, keratin, collagen and elastin after keratin-growth. Studies concerning the properties of enzyme activities in culture filtrates of T. rubrum after keratin-growth suggested that multiple proteases occurred here. Hydrolysis of guinea pig hair and elastin were optimal at pH7 while keratinase was most active at alkaline pH. Divalent cations stimulated protease(s). Ferric ion and mercuric ion stimulated keratinase but were inhibitory to guinea pig hair hydrolysis and elastase. Chelating agents inhibited elastase and the hydrolysis of guinea pig hair more severely than keratinase and all of those effects were reversed by excess calcium. A serine-protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), curtailed keratinase but was less inhibitory to elastase and guinea pig hair hydrolysis. Soybean trypsin inhibitor arrested each protease.

  12. Comparison of a glucose consumption based method with the CLSI M38-A method for testing antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

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    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Jian; Huang, Huai-Qiu; Xi, Li-Yan; Lai, Wei; Xue, Ru-Zeng; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Rong-Zhang

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of dermatophytoses and the development of new antifungal agents has focused interest on susceptibility tests of dermatophytes. The method used universally for susceptibility tests of dermatophytes was published as document (M38-A) in 2002 by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), dealing with the standardization of susceptibility tests in filamentous fungi, though not including dermatophytes especially. However, it is not a very practical method for the clinical laboratory in routine susceptibility testing. In this test, we developed a novel rapid susceptibility assay-glucose consumption method (GCM) for dermatophytes. In this study, we investigated the antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytes to itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VOC), econazole nitrate (ECN) and terbinafine (TBF) by glucose consumption method (GCM), in comparison to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A method. Twenty-eight dermatophyte isolates, including Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) (n = 14) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes) (n = 14), were tested. In the GCM, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined spectrophotometrically at 490 nm after addition of enzyme substrate color mix. For the CLSI method, the MICs were determined visually. Comparison revealed best agreement for TBF against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum, since MIC range, MIC50, and MIC90 were identical from two methods. However, for ITC and VOC, GCM showed wider MIC ranges and higher MICs than CLSI methods in most isolates. For ECN against T. rubrum, high MICs were tested by GCM (0.125-16 microg/ml) but not M38-A method (0.5-1 microg/ml). The overall agreements for all isolates between the two methods within one dilution and two dilutions for ITC, VOC, ECN and TBF was 53.6% and 75.0%, 57.1% and 75.0%, 82.1% and 89.3%, and 85.7 and 85.7%, respectively. Measurement of glucose uptake can predict the susceptibility of T. rubrum and T

  13. Kerion of the vulva caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

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    Bougrine, Amina; Villeneuve-Tang, Catherine; Bouffard, Danielle; Rouleau, Danielle; Chartier, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Deep dermatophytosis of genital skin is a rare clinical manifestation of infection by a common group of pathogens. We emphasize the importance of clinical suspicion and the use of accurate diagnostic methods in the evaluation of deep dermatophytosis. We report a single case of tinea pubis, kerion type, caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in an immunocompetent host. A 54-year-old female presented with a suppurative infection of the vulva and pubis that was unresponsive to empirical antibiotic therapy. T. mentagrophytes was isolated. Oral itraconazole was initiated on the basis of clinical suspicion and continued for a total of 6 weeks. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of deep dermatophytosis of genital skin rests upon proper identification of the pathogen. Prompt initiation of treatment with an oral antifungal agent, such as itraconazole, should be undertaken in order to avoid irreversible scarring alopecia.

  14. Effects of a Thiosemicarbazide Camphene Derivative on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

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    Cleuza Conceição da Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Thiosemicarbazides are compounds known for their biological activity, particularly their antimicrobial properties, which include activity against fungi. The difficulty of treating fungal diseases induced us to assess the antifungal properties of some novel thiosemicarbazide compounds. We selected the natural products limonene and camphene as sources for the preparation of these new thiosemicarbazide derivatives. The compound N(4-[2,2-dimethyl-3-methylnorbornane]-thiosemicarbazide (TIO C showed an antifungal effect on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with values of MIC = 55 mmol L-1 and MFC = 110 mmol L-1. Scanning-electron microscopy showed a decrease in mycelium development and morphological alterations of T. mentagrophytes cultured on nail fragments and treated with TIO C. In an attempt to discover its mode of action, we noted that ergosterol is apparently not a target of TIO C activity. An effect of TIO C on T. mentagrophytes cell walls and dividing cross-walls was shown by observed impairment of the fluorescence of tissues stained with calcofluor white, a specific marker for fungal chitin, suggesting that the compound can affect and damage the cell-wall structure or may interfere with its formation, during cell division, growth, and morphogenesis. This approach to the synthesis of new derivatives might provide interesting compounds with greater biological activity in pharmacological research.

  15. Comparison of a glucose consumption based method with the CLSI M38-A method for testing antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; CHEN Jian; HUANG Huai-qiu; XI Li-yan; LAI Wei; XUE Ru-zeng; ZHANG Xiao-hui; CHEN Rong-zhang

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of dermatophytoses and the development of new antifungal agents has focused interest on susceptibility tests of dermatophytes. The method used universally for susceptibility tests of dermatophytes was published as document (M38-A) in 2002 by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), dealing with the standardization of susceptibility tests in filamentous fungi, though not including dermatophytes especially. However, it is not a very practical method for the clinical laboratory in routine susceptibility testing. In this test, we developed a novel rapid susceptibility assay --glucose consumption method (GCM) for dermatophytes.Methods In this study, we investigated the antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytes to itraconazole (ITC),voriconazole (VOC), econazole nitrate (ECN) and terbinafine (TBF) by glucose consumption method (GCM), in comparison to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A method. Twenty-eight dermatophyte isolates,including Trichophyton rubrum ( T. Rubrum) (n=14) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes ( T. Mentagrophytes) (n=14), were tested. In the GCM, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined spectrophotometrically at 490 nm after addition of enzyme substrate color mix. For the CLSI method, the MICs were determined visually.Results Comparison revealed best agreement for TBF against T. Mentagrophytes and T. Rubrum, since MIC range, MIC50, and MIC90 were identical from two methods. However, for ITC and VOC, GCM showed wider MIC ranges and higher MICs than CLSI methods in most isolates. For ECN against T. Rubrum, high MICs were tested by GCM (0.125-16 μg/ml) but not M38-A method (0.5-1 μg/ml). The overall agreements for all isolates between the two methods within one dilution and two dilutions for ITC, VOC, ECN and TBF was 53.6% and 75.0%, 57.1% and 75.0%, 82.1% and 89.3%, and 85.7 and 85.7%, respectively.Conclusion Measurement of glucose uptake can predict the susceptibility

  16. Multiplication of an ancestral gene encoding secreted fungalysin preceded species differentiation in the dermatophytes Trichophyton and Microsporum.

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    Jousson, Olivier; Léchenne, Barbara; Bontems, Olympia; Capoccia, Sabrina; Mignon, Bernard; Barblan, Jachen; Quadroni, Manfredo; Monod, Michel

    2004-02-01

    Dermatophytes are human and animal pathogenic fungi which cause cutaneous infections and grow exclusively in the stratum corneum, nails and hair. In a culture medium containing soy proteins as sole nitrogen source a substantial proteolytic activity was secreted by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. This proteolytic activity was 55-75 % inhibited by o-phenanthroline, attesting that metalloproteases were secreted by all three species. Using a consensus probe constructed on previously characterized genes encoding metalloproteases (MEP) of the M36 fungalysin family in Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus oryzae and M. canis, a five-member MEP family was isolated from genomic libraries of T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. A phylogenetic analysis of genomic and protein sequences revealed a robust tree consisting of five main clades, each of them including a MEP sequence type from each dermatophyte species. Each MEP type was remarkably conserved across species (72-97 % amino acid sequence identity). The tree topology clearly indicated that the multiplication of MEP genes in dermatophytes occurred prior to species divergence. In culture medium containing soy proteins as a sole nitrogen source secreted Meps accounted for 19-36 % of total secreted protein extracts; characterization of protein bands by proteolysis and mass spectrometry revealed that the three dermatophyte species secreted two Meps (Mep3 and Mep4) encoded by orthologous genes.

  17. [Dermatophytic pseudomycetoma: report of a case caused by Trichophyton tonsurans].

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    Moraes, M A; Machado, A A; Medeiros Filho, P; Reis, C M

    2001-01-01

    A case of dermatophytic pseudomycetoma, in a patient with a history of recurrent lesions in the scalp, for over two years, is reported. Histopathological examination of the affected tissues revealed the mycelial aggregates or pseudogranules characteristic of the disease. Cultures of fresh tissues samples detected a fungus identified as Trichophyton tonsurans. Additional examinations failed to demonstrate lesions of tinea capitis, a probable source of the deep infection. Dermatophytic pseudomycetoma is an extremely rare form of dermatophytosis, and the rarity of such cases is the motive for the present communication.

  18. XML In Vitro Comparison of MIC Crude Extracts of Active Actinomycetes Isolated with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin Ketoconazole and Fluconazole against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum Gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes

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    Keikha, N. (MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Dermatophytes are the fungi that have the ability to attack the keratinized tissues such as the skin, hair and nails. Infections caused by these organisms are named dermatophytosis. We aimed to compare Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Crude extracts of Active Actinomycete Isolates with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole and Fluconazole Drugs against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Material and Methods: In this experimental study, in order to find MIC by actionmycete, 100 isolates were studied and then crude extracts of the active actinomycete isolates were prepared in sterile conditions. Finally, the crude extracts obtained at different concentrations were used to obtain the MIC of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Moreover, various concentrations of the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole in solvent Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO were prepared and their growth inhibitory effect was evaluated and then compared with the results obtained from the crude extract of active actinomycete isolates. Results: the crude extracts obtained from active Actioiomycetes isolates and the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole, in a dose-dependent manner, could inhibit the growth of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes. Conclusion: compared to MIC of Crude extract of active actinomycete isolates, Terbinafine has a significant effect on the growth inhibition in all of the fungal Dermatophytes and then griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are in the next rank, respectively.

  19. Electrophoretic molecular karyotype of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

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    Cervelatti Eliane P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrophoretic karyotype of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum was established using contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF gel electrophoresis. Five chromosomal bands of approximately 3.0 to 5.8 megabase pairs (Mbp each were observed and together indicated that 22.05 Mbp of the total genome are organized as chromosomal macromolecules. In addition to establishing the number and size of T. rubrum chromosomes, these results open perspectives for the construction of chromosome-specific libraries and for the physical mapping of genes of interest, thus permitting future gene linkage studies in this pathogen. A detailed understanding of the karyotype and genomic organization of T. rubrum should contribute to further genetic, taxonomic and epidemiological studies of this dermatophyte.

  20. Tinea incognito due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes: case report

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    Walter Gubelin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Las tiñas son infecciones frecuentes causadas por dermatofitos, capaces de invadir tejido queratinizado, produciendo placas anulares, eritematosas y descamativas. Sin embargo, en la tiña incógnita esta clínica es modificada por el uso inapropiado de corticoides o inhibidores de calcineurina tópicos, dificultando su diagnóstico. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 12 años, con lesiones eritematosas localizadas en la región ciliar derecha. Se interpretó como una dermatitis de contacto y se indicaron corticoides tópicos, pero evolucionó con lesiones más inflamatorias. Se obtuvo un cultivo de hongos positivo para Tricophyton mentagrophytes. De este reporte se concluye que las tiñas pueden imitar otras condiciones dermatológicas. Por ende, se debe tener precaución al indicar corticoides o inhibidores de calcineurina tópicos sin una certeza diagnóstica. Ello, debido a que en el caso de corresponder a una tiña, se alteran las características clínicas, dificultando el diagnóstico y manejo.

  1. Trichophyton mentagrophytes-associated Majocchi’s granuloma treated with cryotherapy Trichophyton mentagrophytes-associated Majocchi’s granuloma treated with cryotherapy

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    Aldona Pietrzak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We here report the case of a woman with dermatophytosis of the thighs due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes
    where an unusual clinical picture posed considerable diagnostic and therapeutic problems. She presented numerous
    skin lesions located on the dorsolateral face of the left thigh and the medial surface of the right calf. The initial lesions
    consisted of small itchy pustules that evolved to exfoliation after scratching. Results of histopathologic examination of
    a skin biopsy were consistent with dermatophytosis, although the negativity of PAS staining did not allow confirmation
    of this diagnosis. Direct microscopic examination with 10% KOH was negative; however, skin cultures on BioMerieux
    media revealed Tr. Mentagrophytes. Following the diagnosis of Trichophyton infection, the patient was treated with
    a combination of isoconazole nitrate and difluocortolone valerate. After therapy, both direct microscopic mycologic
    examination and culture on BioMerieux medium were negative; however, the lesions persisted, assuming a completely
    different aspect. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen was started. This led to a spectacular improvement: the surface of
    the skin became almost normal, merely showing slight discoloration. An unusual clinical presentation and non-responsiveness
    to treatment should prompt revision of the primary diagnosis. A negative result of direct microscopy
    should not exclude the diagnosis of dermatophytosis. Cryotherapy should be considered in cases that do not respond
    to conventional antifungal medication.We here report the case of a woman with dermatophytosis of the thighs due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes
    where an unusual clinical picture posed considerable diagnostic and therapeutic problems. She presented numerous
    skin lesions located on the dorsolateral face of the left thigh and the medial surface of the right calf. The initial lesions
    consisted of

  2. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  3. Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Gräser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response. PMID:22951933

  4. A study on anti dermatophytic potential of selected ethno medicinalplants against Trichophyton rubrum, a common etiologic agent in and around Visakhapatnam region (India)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai deviT; Jyothi padmajaI; Nagendra sastryY; NagamaniA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical patterns and etiology of dermatophytosis and the anti dermatophytic potentiality of some selected medicinal plants used by tribal people in and around Visakhapatnam region, India. Methods: 62 patients with dermatophytosis who attended the dermatology clinic of King George hospital, Visakhapatnam were studied. Isolation and identification was done by direct microscopic observation, cultural characteristics and by using biochemical tests in the microbiology laboratory. Some ethno medicinal plant parts like Albizia lebbeck bark, Annona reticulata leaf and bark, Cassia fistula leaf, Wrightia tinktoria bark and Couroupita guianensis leaf were tested for anti dermatophytic activity by agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) studies were carried out by broth dilution assay. Results: 51 patients out of 62 were positive (82.2%) by direct smear and culture. Tinea corporis was the most common dermatophytosis which was predominantly caused by Trichophyton rubrum in and around Visakhapatnam. Two dermatophyte species were isolated and identified. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequent isolate (58.8%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.6%). Albizia lebbek bark, Annona reticulata bark and leaf extracts showed inhibitory against T. rubrum while Cassia fistula leaf extract did not show significant inhibitory activity. Wrightia tinktoria bark and Couroupita guianensis leaf extracts did not show inhibitory activity. Conclusions: The results showed that tinea corporis was the most common dermatophytosis in and around Visakhapatnam region. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common etiologic agent. Albizia lebbek bark, Annona reticulata leaf and bark extracts showed potential inhibitory activity against Trichophyton rubrum than other tested ethno medicinal plants.

  5. Avaliação in vitro da atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas e óleo de eucalipto sobre Trichophyton mentagrophytes In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of plant extracts and eucalyptus oil on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.R. Frias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ação antifúngica de extratos de plantas medicinais e óleo de eucalipto frente ao dermatófito Trichophyton mentagropytes, visando a utilização da fitoterapia no controle. As plantas utilizadas na obtenção dos extratos foram arruda (Ruta graveolens, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, cravo de defunto (Tagetes minuta, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp, graviola (Annona muricata, fruta do conde (Annona spp, manga (Mangifera indica, romã (Punica granatum, flores e folhas de primavera (Bougainvillea spectabilis. Verificou-se que uso de 0,5% óleo de eucalipto no combate ao T. mentagropytes foi eficaz, já os extratos de citronela (4% eucalipto (5% e romã (8% atuaram como fungistáticos e os restantes não devem ser usados contra este dermatófito porque não causaram nenhum efeito.The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal action of medicinal plant extracts and eucalyptus oil against the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in order to employ phytotherapy for its control. The plants used for extract production were common rue (Ruta graveolens, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, wild marigold (Tagetes minuta, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp, sweetsop (Annona muricata, custard apple (Annona spp, mango (Mangifera indica, pomegranate (Punica granatum, besides flowers and leaves of bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis. The use of 0.5% eucalyptus oil was effective in controlling Trichophyton mentagrophytes; however, citronella (4%, eucalyptus (5% and pomegranate (8% extracts acted as fungistatic, and the remaining extracts should not be used against this dermatophyte since they did not have any effect.

  6. Molecular analysis and mating behaviour of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symoens, Françoise; Jousson, Olivier; Planard, Chantal; Fratti, Marina; Staib, Peter; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel

    2011-03-01

    Isolates of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex vary phenotypically. Whether the closely related zoophilic and anthropophilic anamorphs currently associated with Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii have to be considered as members of the same biological species remains an open question. In order to better delineate species in the T. mentagrophytes complex, we performed a mating analysis of freshly collected isolates from humans and animals with A. benhamiae and A. vanbreuseghemii reference strains, in comparison to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S rDNA sequencing. Mating experiments as well as ITS and 28S sequencing unambiguously allowed the distinction of A. benhamiae and A. vanbreuseghemii. We have also shown that all the isolates from tinea pedis and tinea unguium identified as T. interdigitale based on ITS sequences mated with A. vanbreuseghemii tester strains, but had lost their ability to give fertile cleistothecia. Therefore, T. interdigitale has to be considered as a humanized species derived from the sexual relative A. vanbreuseghemii. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric.

  8. Effects of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of Trichophyton mentagrophytes

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    Fillipe de Oliveira Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a fungus causative agent of dermatophytosis, affecting humans worldwide. This has driven the search for products for the treatment of these infections. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil against T. mentagrophytes. The antifungal tests consisted of antifungal screening, determination of MIC and MFC, analysis of the essential oil's effects on mycelial growth, germination of fungal spores, fungal viability, morphogenesis, cell wall (test with sorbitol and cell membrane (cell leakage test of T. mentagrophytes. Upon screening, the oil inhibited all strains, with zones of growth inhibition of 24-28 mm in diameter. The MIC was 312 μg/mL and CFM was 2500 μg/mL for almost all the strains tested. There were morphological changes in the conidia group, form and pigmentation of hyphae. The antifungal action of the product does not involve the cell wall and its action may involve the fungal plasma membrane. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil constitutes a potential antifungal product, especially for the treatment of dermatophytosis.Trichophyton mentagrophytes é um fungo causador de dermatofitoses, afetando humanos em todo o mundo. Isto direciona a busca de produtos para o tratamento destas infecções. Assim, este estudo teve por objetivo investigar a atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon winterianus contra T. mentagrophytes. Os ensaios antifúngicos foram constituídos do screening antifúngico, da determinação CIM e CFM, da análise dos efeitos do óleo essencial no crescimento micelial, na germinação dos esporos, na viabilidade fúngica, na morfogênese, na parede celular (ensaio com sorbitol e na membrana celular (ensaio de lise celular de T. mentagrophytes. No screening, o óleo inibiu todas as cepas, com zonas de inibição de crescimento de 24-28 mm de diâmetro. A CIM foi de 312 μg/mL e a CFM

  9. Inflammatory tinea capitis: kerion, dermatophytic granuloma, and mycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa-Isa, Rafael; Arenas, Roberto; Isa, Mariel

    2010-03-04

    Inflammatory tinea capitis is the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to a dermatophytic infection. The usual forms are favus, kerion celsi, dermatophytic Majocchi granuloma, and mycetoma. Inflammatory tinea capitis can be caused by Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T tonsurans, T rubrum, and M gypseum. Histopathologic findings include a spectrum from mild suppurative folliculitis to dense granulomatous infiltrates. In mycetoma, grains must be present. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 湖北地区须毛癣菌复合体的分子鉴定%Molecular identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains in Hubei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑶; 董碧麟; 童中胜; 李东升

    2016-01-01

    Objective To profile the intraspecific type of Trichophyton mentagrophytes clinically isolated from different anatomical sites of patients, and to compare the performance of different target sites for the identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains. Methods A total of 48 Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains, which were clinically isolated from Department of Dermatology, Wuhan No. 1 Hospital in the latest 3 years, were included in this study. The phenotypes of these Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolates were primarily determined by morphological observation and the urease test. PCR was performed to amplify the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer(ITS) region and the D1⁃D2 domains of the large⁃subunit ribosomal DNA(28S rDNA)followed by DNA sequencing. Then, Clustal X2 software and MEGA 6.0 software were used to analyze the ITS and D1⁃D2 sequences and to build phylogenetic trees by the maximum⁃likelihood method (bootstrap = 2000). Results As the ITS sequence⁃based phylogenetic tree showed, the probability that the 48 isolates were grouped into the Trichophyton interdigitale clade reached 92%. However, Trichophyton interdigitale could not be effectively differentiated from Trichophyton quinckeanum by the D1⁃D2 sequence⁃based phylogenetic tree. In addition, Trichophyton interdigitale showed various appearances, including woolen type, downy type, cream type, powdery type and granular type. Conclusions Trichophyton mentagrophytes can be identified to the species level based on the sequence of ITS region, which shows higher efficiency in identifying Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex than the D1⁃D2 domains. Morphological characteristics can not serve as the basis for intraspecific typing of Trichophyton mentagrophytes.%目的:对分离自患者不同部位的须毛癣菌临床株进行种内分型研究,比较不同靶位对须毛癣菌复合体的鉴定效能。方法选取武汉市第一医院皮肤科近3

  11. Molecular Characterization of Subunit G of the Vacuolar ATPase in Pathogen Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rezaie

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is an anthropophilic fungus causing up to 90% of chronic cases of dermatophytosis. Several properties of this fungus have been investigated so far. However, a few studies were carried out in the field of molecular biology of this fungus. In the present study, we tried to identify the subunit G of its vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase. Pairs of 21 nt primers were designed from highly conserved regions of the V-ATPase subunit G genes in other fungi. Mentioned primers were utilized in PCR using isolated genomic DNA template as well as cytoplasmic RNA of T.rubrum and the PCR and RT-PCR fragments were then sequenced. About 469 nucleotides were sequenced which encoded a polypeptide with 119 amino acids. Nucleotide sequence comparison in gene data banks (NCBI, NIH for both the DNA and its deduced amino acid sequence revealed significant homology with V-ATPase subunit G genes and proteins of other eukaryotic cells. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein was about 84% identical to the sequence of V-ATPase subunit G from other fungi. In summary, we have cloned the first V-ATPase subunit G of dermatophytes and characterized it as a member of this gene family in other eukaryotic cells.

  12. A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnaini, Linda; Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Leonardi, Michele; Giuliotti, Lorella; Benvenuti, Maria N; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    A number of herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimycotic properties are available for dermatological usage. The successful treatment of 13 sheep affected by ringworm due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a mixture consisting of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serpillum 2%, Origanum vulgare 5% and Rosmarinus officinalis 5% in sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) oil. The effectiveness of EOs and of the major components of the mixture (thymol, carvacrol, 1,8 cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene) against the fungal clinical isolate was evaluated by a microdilution test. Thirteen animals were topically administered with the mixture twice daily for 15 days. The other sheep were administered with a conventional treatment (seven animals) or left untreated (two animals). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 0.1% for T. serpillum, 0.5% for O. vulgare, 2.5% for I. verum and 5% for both R. officinalis and C. limon. Thymol and carvacrol showed MICs of 0.125% and 0.0625%. A clinical and aetiological cure was obtained at the end of each treatment regimen in only the treated animals. Specific antimycotic drugs licenced for food-producing sheep are not available within the European Community. The mixture tested here appeared to be a versatile tool for limiting fungal growth.

  13. Pseudomicetoma dermatofítico: relato de um caso devido a Trichophyton tonsurans Dermatophytic pseudomycetoma: report of a case caused by Trichophyton tonsurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário A.P. Moraes

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um caso de pseudomicetoma dermatofítico, recidivante, em paciente com lesões no couro cabeludo. O exame histopatológico de uma das lesões mostrou, nos tecidos, os agregados micelianos ou pseudogrânulos, característicos da enfermidade. Dos tecidos frescos de outras lesões foi isolado o dermatófito Trichophyton tonsurans. Exames micológicos adicionais falharam em demonstrar a existência de tinea capitis, possível fonte do pseudomicetoma. A raridade dessa forma de dermatofitose profunda justifica a presente publicação.A case of dermatophytic pseudomycetoma, in a patient with a history of recurrent lesions in the scalp, for over two years, is reported. Histopathological examination of the affected tissues revealed the mycelial aggregates or pseudogranules characteristic of the disease. Cultures of fresh tissues samples detected a fungus identified as Trichophyton tonsurans. Additional examinations failed to demonstrate lesions of tinea capitis, a probable source of the deep infection. Dermatophytic pseudomycetoma is an extremely rare form of dermatophytosis, and the rarity of such cases is the motive for the present communication.

  14. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively.

  15. In vitro pharmacodynamic characteristics of griseofulvin against dermatophyte isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans from tinea capitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Williams, Judith V; Zaman, Muhammad; Singh, Jagpal

    2009-12-01

    Tinea capitis is the most commonly observed fungal infection in childhood and is primarily caused by the dermatophyte species Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton violaceum. In North America and the United Kingdom T. tonsurans is responsible for more than 90% of cases. Griseofulvin has been the treatment of choice for tinea capitis for more than 40 years and is the sole oral antifungal agent approved by the FDA for the management of tinea capitis. Some researchers have expressed concern about the possibility of emerging resistance in tinea capitis isolates, especially when there is clinical failure to treatment. A total of 151 isolates of T. tonsurans (142), M. canis (7), and T. violaceum (2) collected from tinea capitis patients were evaluated for their susceptibility to griseofulvin using the CLSI M38-A method. MIC ranges and geometric means in parenthesis were observed for T. tonsurans 0.125-16 microg/ml (1.1 microg/ml), M. canis 0.25-2 microg/ml (0.61 microg/ml), and T. violaceum 2-4 microg/ml (2.82 microg/ml), respectively. In a time kill assay with T. tonsurans UAMH 9334, 50% and 90% reduction was observed in the number of colony forming units with >2x MIC after 6 h and 12 h of exposure to the griseofulvin, respectively. Of 142 T. tonsurans isolates studied, only three could grow on SDA containing 4 times to their griseofulvin MIC, representing resistance frequencies of 1.3 x 10(-6), 6.9 x 10(-7), and 9.7 x 10(-7). Furthermore a two-fold increase in MIC was observed in isolates collected at two time intervals in only one of eight patients. Interestingly, these isolates did not show the same increase in their in vitro resistance as exhibited by the three isolated mentioned above. In light of this data, we could not confirm any correlation between increased MIC and therapy failure.

  16. Morphological changes of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum after photodynamic treatment: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smijs, Threes G M; Mulder, Aat A; Pavel, Stan; Onderwater, Jos J M; Koerten, Henk K; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2008-06-01

    Treatment strategies for superficial mycosis caused by the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum consist of the use of topical or oral antifungal preparations. We have recently discovered that T. rubrum is susceptible to photodynamic treatment (PDT), with 5,10,15-tris(4-methylpyridinium)-20-phenyl-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (Sylsens B) as a photosensitizer. The susceptibility appeared to depend on the fungal growth stage, with PDT efficacy higher with microconidia when compared to mycelia. The aim of this study was to investigate, with the use of scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes caused by a lethal PDT dose to T. rubrum when grown on isolated human stratum corneum. Corresponding dark treatment and light treatment without photosensitizer were used as controls. A sub-lethal PDT dose was also included in this investigation The morphologic changes were followed at various time points after the treatment of different fungal growth stages. Normal fungal growth was characterized by a fiber-like appearance of the surface of the hyphae and microconidia with the exception of the hyphal tips in full mycelia and the microconidia shortly after attachment to the stratum corneum. Here, densely packed globular structures were observed. The light dose (108 J/cm2) in the absence of Sylsens B, or the application of the photosensitizer in the absence of light, caused reversible fungal wall deformations and bulge formation. However, after a lethal PDT, a sequence of severe disruptions and deformations of both microconidia and the mycelium were observed leading to extrusion of cell material and emptied fungal elements. In case of a non-lethal PDT, fungal re-growth started on the remnants of the treated mycelium.

  17. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (molecular type Arthroderma benhamiae ) mimics impetigo : a case report and literature review of cases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Utako; Yokoyama, Kae; Hiruma, Masataro; Kano, Rui; Takamori, Kenji; Suga, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old female elementary schoolteacher presented with aggregated serous papules surrounded by mild erythema, extending from both nasal wings/nostrils down to the upper lip. No improvement was seen following treatment of the lesions with topical antibiotics for impetigo. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) direct microscopy confirmed the presence of mycelia, and the infection was diagnosed as tinea faciei. The isolate was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes using morphological analysis and as Arthroderma benhamiae using genetic analysis. Here we describe that case and summarize the clinical features of other cases of A. benhamiae infection in Japan that have been reported in the literature.

  18. Morphological Effect of the New Antifungal Agent ME1111 on Hyphal Growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Determined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yayoi; Takahata, Sho; Abe, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, on the hyphal morphology and ultrastructure of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Structural changes, such as pit formation and/or depression of the cell surface, and degeneration of intracellular organelles and plasmolysis were observed after treatment with ME1111. Our results suggest that the inhibition of energy production by ME1111 affects the integrity and function of cellular membranes, leading to fungal cell death. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. [Dermatophytes from animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A

    2000-01-01

    Dermatophytes from animal dermatophytoses were investigated, especially for their teleomorphs and molecular characteristics. Microsporum canis, M. equinum, M. gypseum, M. nanum, Trichophyton equinum, T. mentagrophytes complex, T. rubrum and T. verrucosum were isolated as the etiological agents of animal ringworm in Japan. They were morphologically and biochemically identified and their perfect states were examined. The teleomorph of M. canis was first obtained and reported as Nanizzia otae in 1975. The isolates of M. canis of which the teleomorph was confirmed were all "-" excepted two Japanese isolates. Mating experiments indicated that the isolates of M. gypseum were "+" or "-" of A. gypseum and A. incurvatum, respectively. Most of the isolates of T. mentagrophytes complex of which a perfect state was detected were A. vanbreuseghemii. One isolate from a monkey was A. simii and one from a rabbit was A. benhamiae. However, the teleomorph remained unknown in many isolates. Molecular characteristics in random amplification of polymorphic DNA and Southern hybridization analyses were found to be effective to differentiate the species of Microsporum. Nucleotide sequences of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of dermatophytes were also analyzed for their phylogenetic relatedness. The phylogenetic analysis revealed four clusters: the first cluster consisted of A. benhamiae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum and T. violaceum; the second of A. fulvum, A. gypseum and A. incurvatum; the third of A. grubyi and A. otae; and the fourth of Epidermaphyton floccosum, providing useful information for the classification and understanding of their evolution.

  20. A propósito de uma epidemia de tinha no Rio de Janeiro, causada pelo Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Ch. Robin, 1853 Blanchard, 1896

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    Adolpho da Rocha Furtado

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos uma epidemia de tinha surgida, em 1945, no Instituto Nata¬lina Janot, da Fundação Abrigo Cristo Redentor, no Rio de Janeiro. Após rápida descrição do Instituto e breve relato do exame clinico, expomos os resultados do exame dos pelos, do exame macro e microscópico das culturas e das inoculações experimentais. Deante dos resultados obtidos e em face da orientação atual da sistemática dos dermatófitos, consideramos como agente etiológico da referida epidemia o Trichophyton mentagrophytes (CH. ROBIN, 1853 BLANCHARD, 1896, isolado em 16 doentes. Nosso estudo é precedido de uma revisão da literatura nacional sôbre tinhas.An epidemy of tinea capitis observed in 1945 in the Instituto Natalina Janot, Fundação Abrigo Cristo Redentor, Rio de Janeiro, is reported. The etiological agent — Trichophyton mentagrophytes — is described.

  1. [Trichophyton thuringiense H.A. Koch 1969. A rare geophilic dermatophyte--now isolated for the first time from man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Winter, I; Winter, A; Krüger, C; Herrmann, J; Gräser, Y; Rangno, N; Maier, T; Simon, J C

    2014-03-01

    In 1969, Kolipp and Hoffmann isolated Trichophyton (T.) thuringiense spec. nov. Koch when they performed their thesis dealing with the distribution and epidemiology of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi in mice and other small mammals. At that time, T. thuringiense was detected as saprophytic fungus of the skin of different mice species (e.g. Mus musculus) both in rural and urban settings in the area of Thuringia in Germany. There were no further reports on this dermatophyte species until now, neither in animals, nor in man. Currently, we were able to isolate this geophilic fungus for the first time from a human being. A 58 year old patient baker by trade and living in a rural setting (village) suffered from nail changes like hyperkeratosis and thickening of the nail plate of his big toe. From his nail samples grew a dermatophyte with peripheral radiating and flat colonies which were a bit cottony in the centre. On Sabouraud's 4 % dextrose agar the thallus of the fungus was white to purple stained, the reverse side showed a dark red to brown color. In a typical manner, macroconidia were cylindrical to clavate, microconidia obovoidal to short-clavate with broad base. The species identification of T. thuringiense was done and confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. Antifungal treatment has been refused from the patient. In conclusion, this is the second description of the geophilic dermatophyte T. thuringiense, which could be isolated for the first time from a human being, in particular from nail sample of the big toe under the suspicion of onychomycosis. However, it is still uncertain if this fungus should be considered either as secondary colonization of the nail plate, or as causative agent of tinea unguium or onychomycosis.

  2. In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Luilma A; Sidrim, J J C; Martins, Domingos T; Cechinel Filho, V; Rao, Vietla S

    2005-02-28

    Based on ethnobotanical approach, the dragon's blood collected from Croton urucurana Baill. bark (Euphorbiaceae) was tested for antifungal activity against five dermatophytes by paper disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) showing no visible fungal growth was also determined, using tube dilution technique. The test dermatophytes were Tricophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccossum. The dragon's blood (0.175-3.0 mg/ml) exhibited an inhibition zone range of 7.6-26.9 mm against all the tested fungi with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1.25-2.5 mg/ml.

  3. Effects of hydroxyl alkaline compounds on dermatophytic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect of hydroxide compounds on the viability of dermatophytic cells. Methods:Two strains (Trichophyton mentagrophytes andEpidermophytonfloccosum) of dermatophytes were clinical isolated from an old male patient with tinea corporis at AL-Hussein General Hospital of Karbala Province. Skin scales of fungal lesion were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing 0.05 g chloramphenicol. The hydroxide compounds were dissolved in melted fungal media to obtain different percentages (0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%). Then the fungal growth on solid media containing tested compounds was determined by using colony diameter method and different concentrations ofKOH,NaOH,Mg(OH)2 andCa(OH)2 were tested against two species of dermatophytes. Experiments were repeated triplicate for statistical analysis and the data were analyzed for SE of each experiment. Results:KOH andNaOH (down to 1.25%) showed the ability to completely inhibit the growth of both strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes andEpidermophyton floccosum). Other two hydroxide compounds revealed variable effects on dermatophytes cells. Conclusions: The strong hydroxide compounds showed a harmful effect on fungal structures and functions. In addition to diagnosis, pathogenic fungi like dermatophytes were killed after treating with these hydroxide agents.

  4. 石膏样毛癣菌致皮肤癣菌肉芽肿一例%Trichophytic granuloma caused by trichophyton mentagrophytes:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬茶; 魏晓丽; 吕新翔; 张金锁

    2016-01-01

    患者,男,47岁。右手浸润性鳞屑性斑块2年,上覆脓疱、血痂。皮肤病理示感染性肉芽肿,真菌培养见石膏样毛癣菌。诊断为皮肤癣菌肉芽肿。口服伊曲康唑200 mg,每日2次,3周后明显好转。%A 47-years-old male patient presented with infiltrated plaques for 2 years, with the scales and crusts on surface. Biopsy of the lesion showed infectious granulomas. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was iden-tified by fungal culture. The diagnosis of trichophytic granuloma was made. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole capsules 200 mg, twice a day and the lesion was improved after 3 weeks.

  5. 兔须癣毛癣菌新变种的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. sp. from rabbit skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹立扣; 曾博; 王红宁; 李金良; 李旭庭; 龚雪; 张安云; 夏青青; 周英顺

    2010-01-01

    从暴发皮肤病的某家兔场患病兔中分离到1株病原真菌,直接镜检、分离培养及致病性试验后,得到一种致病真菌.通过培养特性、显微观察及分子鉴定,显示该菌培养特性与已报道须癣毛癣菌均不相同,所有培养基上均未见螺旋菌丝,ITS区进化树亦标明其与其他种(变种)均不在同一分支中,据此确定为须癣毛癣菌的新变种(Trichophyton mentagrophytes var.sp.).

  6. Three cases of human tinea corporis transmitted from rabbits caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes%须癣毛癣菌致人兔共患体癣3例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆涛; 桑红; 张敏; 刘芳; 王雪连; 王高峰

    2012-01-01

    报道须癣毛癣菌引起的人兔共患体癣3例.患者皮损均为环状红斑丘疹,上覆鳞屑,炎症明显,伴瘙痒,均与兔子有密切接触史,且兔子均有明显皮损.取患者及兔子的皮屑真菌镜检及培养,鉴定为须癣毛癣菌,经口服及外用抗真菌药物后治愈.%Report three cases of human tinea corporis transmitted from rabbits caused by Trichophyton mentagrophjtes . Three patients all had pruritic annular erythema with squam and a history of close contact with pet rabbits. Direct microscopic examination of scales revealed hyphae. Fungal cultural lead to the identification of T. mentagrophytes . They were all cured by oral and(or) topical antifungal therapy.

  7. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balakumar S; Rajan S; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes,Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200μg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions:Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis.

  8. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples...... was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient...... specimens, seven were T. rubrum positive, two for T. mentagrophytes, one was positive for T. tonsurans and 15 were dermatophyte negative by routine investigation (culture and/or pan-dermatophyte + T. rubrum multiplex PCR). The PCR results with our procedures were in 100% agreement with these results...

  9. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  10. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Perugini BIASI-GARBIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE, Libidibia ferrea (AE, and Persea americana (AcE also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  11. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  12. In vitro activity of aminosterols against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Alhanout, Kamel; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Brunel, Jean-Michel; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Piarroux, Renaud; Ranque, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    We recently reported that aminosterols are fungicidal due to their disrupting the outer membranes of yeasts and that they have a significant in vitro activity against various mould species. Yet, their activity against dermatophytes had never been tested. This study's objective was to evaluate the in vitro activity of squalamine and a synthetic aminosterol derivative (ASD) against various dermatophytes. Susceptibility testing of squalamine, ASD, terbinafine, and griseofulvin was performed, in triplicate, in accord with the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute's M38-A2 procedure, using an 80% growth inhibition endpoint. The studies included the following dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense, Microsporum canis, M. audouinii, M. persicolor; M. cookie and M. gypseum. Squalamine and ASD showed significant in vitro activity against these dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 4-16 mg/l and from 2-8 mg/l for squalamine and ASD, respectively. These findings support further clinical studies of aminosterols activity against superficial dermatophyte infections.

  13. Effect of the aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extract of dried leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca (coca in Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Candida albicans in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medalit Luna-Vílchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of the aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extract of dried leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca (coca in Trichophyton rubrum (TR, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (TM, Microsporum canis (MC and Candida albicans (CA in vitro. Materials and methods: An experimental study which evaluated the presence or absence of fungal growth, and fungal growth rate from the seeding point, compared to fungal growth in Sabouraud Agar (SA using Siegel-Tukey and KruskalWallis tests (p<0.05. Results: The CA group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. aqueous, 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, control vs. aqueous, 0.01M HCl vs. control. The TR group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. aqueous, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, 0.01M HCl vs. control. The TM group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, aqueous vs. acid, aqueous vs. control. The MC group showed a statistical difference (p<0.05 between the following groups: 99.9% ethanol vs. 0.01M HCl, 99.9% ethanol vs. control, aqueous vs. acid, aqueous vs. control. In all the cases, the results of the 0.01M HCl vs. aqueous group were not significant. Conclusions: The aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extracts have no effect on the growth of CA and TM, but the alcoholic extract has effects on the growth of TR and MC. In addition, there were differences in the growth rate of CA, TR and TM in the aqueous, acidic and alcoholic extracts compared to that in SA. However only TR, TM and MC showed differences in their growth rate in the alcoholic extract.

  14. In vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolated in Goiania, Brazil, against five antifungal agents by broth microdilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Crystiane Rodrigues; Miranda, Karla Carvalho; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fatima Lisboa; Soares, Ailton José; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution technique, against 60 dermatophytes isolated from nail or skin specimens from Goiania city patients, Brazil. In this study, the microtiter plates were incubated at 28 masculineC allowing a reading of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) after four days of incubation for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and five days for T. rubrum and Microsporum canis. Most of the dermatophytes had uniform patterns of susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Low MIC values as 0.03 microg/mL were found for 33.3%, 31.6% and 15% of isolates for itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively.

  15. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  16. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  17. Antifungal susceptibility and virulence factors of clinically isolated dermatophytes in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Afshari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Dermatophytes possess a wide array of virulence factors and various antifungal susceptibility patterns which influence their pathogenesis in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate antifungal suscep- tibility and keratinase and proteinase activity of 49 dermatophyte strains from the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton which were isolated from human cases of dermatophytosis.Materials and Methods: Forty-nine dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical samples were cultured on general and spe- cific culture media. Keratinase and proteinase activity was screened on solid mineral media and confirmed in liquid cultures. Drug susceptibility toward azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, griseofulvin and terbinafine was evaluated using disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined using microbroth dilution assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines.Results: Our results indicated that clinically isolated dermatophytes from 7 major species produced keratinase and protein- ase at different extents. The mean keratinase and proteinase activity was reported as 6.69 ± 0.31 (U/ml and 2.10 ± 0.22 (U/ ml respectively. Disk diffusion and microbroth dilution (MIC results of antifungal susceptibility testing showed that ke- toconazole was the most effective drug against Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, itraconazole against T. rubrum and E. floccosum, and griseofulvin and terbinafine against Trichophyton verrucosum. Our results showed that all dermatophyte isolates were resistant to fluconazole. Overall, ketoconazole and itraconazole were the most effective drugs for all dermatophyte species tested.Conclusion: Our results showed that antifungal susceptibility testing is an urgent need to select drugs of choice for treatment of different types of dermatophytosis and

  18. Identification and molecular epidemiology of dermatophyte isolates by repetitive-sequence-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting using the DiversiLab system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, A Nedret; Atalay, Mustafa A; Inci, Melek; Sariguzel, Fatma M; Sav, Hafize

    2017-05-01

    Dermatophyte species, isolation and identification in clinical samples are still difficult and take a long time. The identification and molecular epidemiology of dermatophytes commonly isolated in a clinical laboratory in Turkey by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) were assessed by comparing the results with those of reference identification. A total of 44 dermatophytes isolated from various clinical specimens of 20 patients with superficial mycoses in Kayseri and 24 patients in Hatay were studied. The identification of dermatophyte isolates was based on the reference identification and rep-PCR using the DiversiLab System (BioMerieux). The genotyping of dermatophyte isolates from different patients was determined by rep-PCR. In the identification of dermatophyte isolates, agreement between rep-PCR and conventional methods was 87.8 % ( 36 of 41). The dermatophyte strains belonged to four clones (A -D) which were determined by the use of rep-PCR. The dermatophyte strains in Clone B, D showed identical patterns with respect to the region. In conclusion, rep-PCR appears to be useful for evaluation of the identification and clonal relationships between Trichophyton rubrum species complex and Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex isolates. The similarity and diversity of these isolates may be assessed according to different regions by rep-PCR. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. 须癣毛癣菌的组织工程皮肤感染模型的构建%Construction of a Trichophyton mentagrophytes-infected tissue-engineered skin model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉萍; 沈永年; 吕桂霞; 王乐; 曾荣; 李玲珺; 马鹏程; 刘维达

    2016-01-01

    目的 体外构建须癣毛癣菌的组织工程皮肤感染模型.方法 用牛Ⅰ型胶原溶液复合原代成纤维细胞培养3d后,在其表面利用气液界面培养原代角质形成细胞和黑素细胞12d得到组织工程皮肤,取新鲜的须癣毛癣菌悬液5μl对其进行感染,分别在12、24、48、72 h进行HE染色和PAS染色观察.结果 成纤维细胞复合胶原构建结构致密均匀的组织工程真皮,其上角质形成细胞和黑素细胞形成了层次清晰、结构良好的组织工程表皮.须癣毛癣菌感染该组织工程皮肤后,随时间延长,HE染色和PAS染色显示须癣毛癣菌对组织工程皮肤结构的破坏逐渐加重,至48 h,表皮破坏最明显,至72 h,组织工程皮肤的整体结构被菌丝和孢子所替代.结论 初步建立了须癣毛癣菌的组织工程皮肤感染模型.%Objective To establish a Trichophyton mentagrophytes-infected tissue-engineered skin model in vitro.Methods Primary fibroblasts were cultured with the presence of type Ⅰ bovine collagen for 3 days to form tissueengineered dermis.Then,primary keratinocytes and melanocytes were co-cultured on the surface (namely air-liquid interface) of the artificial dermis for another 12 days to form a tissue-engineered skin model.Five microliters of fresh Trichophyton mentagrophytes suspensions were used to infect the tissue-engineered skin model.Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining were conducted to observe the structure of the cultures at 12,24,48 and 72 hours separately after the infection.Results A tissue-engineered dermal equivalent with a compact and uniform structure was formed by the culture of fibroblasts with the presence of type Ⅰ bovine collagen,and a well-stratified and-structured epidermis was formed by cocultured keratinocytes and melanocytes on the surface of the dermis.After infection with Trichophyton mentagrophytes,the structure of tissue-engineered skin was gradually destroyed

  20. Chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) gene sequences of Microsporum equinum and Trichophyton equinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, R; Aihara, S; Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, S; Hasegawa, A

    2001-01-05

    Chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) genes from Microsporum equinum and Trichophyton equinum were compared with those of the other dermatophytes. The Chs1 nucleotide sequences of these dermatophytes from horses showed more than 80% similarity to those of Arthroderma benhamiae, A. fulvum, A. grubyi, A. gypseum, A. incruvatum, A. otae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii, Epidermophyton floccosum, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (T. interdigitale), T. rubrum and T. violaceum. Especially high degree of nucleotide sequence similarity of more than 99% was noted between the Chs1 gene fragments of M. equinum and A. otae, and those of T. equinum, T. interdigitale and A. vanbreuseghemii, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of their sequences revealed that M. equinum was genetically very close to A. otae and T. equinum to A. vanbreuseghemii. A molecular analysis of Chs1 genes will provide useful information for the genetic relatedness of M. equinum and T. equinum and confirm the value of DNA sequencing in identification of these two dermatophytes.

  1. Identification of Dermatophyte Species after Implementation of the In-House MALDI-TOF MS Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Calderaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS has become a powerful tool in the clinical microbiology setting, few studies have till now focused on MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of dermatophytes. In this study, we analyze dermatophytes strains isolated from clinical samples by MALDI-TOF MS to supplement the reference database available in our laboratory. Twenty four dermatophytes (13 reference strains and 11 field isolated strains, identified by both conventional and molecular standard procedures, were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, and the spectra obtained were used to supplement the available database, limited to a few species. To verify the robustness of the implemented database, 64 clinical isolates other than those used for the implementation were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The implementation allowed the identification of the species not included in the original database, reinforced the identification of the species already present and correctly identified those within the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex previously classified as Trichophyton. tonsurans by MALDI-TOF MS. The dendrogram obtained by analyzing the proteic profiles of the different species of dermatophytes reflected their taxonomy, showing moreover, in some cases, a different clusterization between the spectra already present in the database and those newly added. In this study, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a useful tool suitable for the identification of dermatophytes for diagnostic purpose.

  2. Anti-dermatophytic activity of marine sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (Dendy) on clinically isolated fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NB Dhayanithi; TT Ajith Kumar; M Kalaiselvam; T Balasubramanian; N Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-fungal effects and find out the active metabolites from sponge,Sigmadocia carnosa (S. carnosa) against four dermatophytic fungi. Methods: The methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of marine sponge, S. carnosa was examined against Trichophytonmentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum) and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and qualitative analysed to find out the active molecules. Results: The methanol extract of sponge was expressed significant activity than ethyl acetate and acetone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract of sponge that resulted in complete growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum were found to 125, 250, 250 and 250 μg/mL respectively. But, 100 % inhibition of fungal spore germination was observed in T. mentagrophytes at 500 μg/mL concentration followed by T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum at 1 000 μg/mL concentration. Other two extracts showed weak anti spore germination activity against the tested dermatophytic fungi. Methanol extracts showed presence of terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. Conclusion: Based on the literature, this is the first study which has conducted to inhibit the growth and spore germination of dermatophytic fungi with S. carnosa. Further research also needs to purify and characterize the secondary metabolites from the sponge, S. carnosa for the valuable source of novel substances for future drug discovery.

  3. PCR fingerprint identification of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes using single primers specific to minisatellites and simple repetitive DNA sequence%用微小卫星引物PCR鉴定红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红梅; 廖万清; 戴建新; 李志刚; 吴建华; 温海

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌临床分离株DNAPCR指纹的差异,找出一种区分红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的基因分类方法。方法:采用寡核苷酸重复序列(GACA)4、(GTG)5及M13中心序列(5′-GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT-3′)3种引物,对23株红色毛癣菌和11株须癣毛癣菌临床分离株的DNA进行PCR扩增,观察产物电泳带型的差异。结果:在3种引物的扩增产物中,均可见红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌呈现出不同的DNA指纹,其中,以引物(GACA)4扩增的条带差异最为清晰。结论:红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌可以用PCR方法加以鉴别,以(GACA)4作引物区分这两种菌较为合适。%Objective: To observe the difference between the speciesTrichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.Methods: Three primers, including (GACA)4, (GTG)5 and M13 core sequence (5′-GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT-3′), were used to distinguish variations among 23 clinical isolates of T. rubrum and 11 of T. mentagrophytes. Results: Different PCR-fingerprinting were seen between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes by using 3 different primers, especially amplification with primer (GACA)4 could give more distinct bands. Conclusion: T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes can be distinguished by PCR, (GACA)4 is the most suitable primer.

  4. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent.

  5. Transcriptional profiling reveals the expression of novel genes in response to various stimuli in the human dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino-Ferreira Roseli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous mycoses are common human infections among healthy and immunocompromised hosts, and the anthropophilic fungus Trichophyton rubrum is the most prevalent microorganism isolated from such clinical cases worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the transcriptional profile of T. rubrum exposed to various stimuli in order to obtain insights into the responses of this pathogen to different environmental challenges. Therefore, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST collection by constructing one cDNA library and nine suppression subtractive hybridization libraries. Results The 1388 unigenes identified in this study were functionally classified based on the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS categories. The identified proteins were involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular defense and stress, protein degradation, signaling, transport, and secretion, among other functions. Analysis of these unigenes revealed 575 T. rubrum sequences that had not been previously deposited in public databases. Conclusion In this study, we identified novel T. rubrum genes that will be useful for ORF prediction in genome sequencing and facilitating functional genome analysis. Annotation of these expressed genes revealed metabolic adaptations of T. rubrum to carbon sources, ambient pH shifts, and various antifungal drugs used in medical practice. Furthermore, challenging T. rubrum with cytotoxic drugs and ambient pH shifts extended our understanding of the molecular events possibly involved in the infectious process and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  6. A Microbiological Study of Dermatophyte Infection among Primary School Children in Mowe, Ogun State, Nigeria

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    A.F. Ayorinde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the most prevalent species of Dermatophytes, the age group and sex most affected could form the basis for control and cure. Investigations were carried out on the distribution of Dermatophytes of the scalp (Tinea capitis among primary school children in two primary schools in Mowe-Ofada area of Ogun State, Nigeria. One of the schools (NUD primary school located in an urban area while the other (St David’s primary school is situated in a rural area. A total of seventy-eight children were examined. The samples were collected by scraping and the use of sterile swab. Fungal culturing and microscopy methods were later used to identify the Dermatophytes. Out of 78 children examined 45 (57.7% were positive while 33 (42.3% were negative. The species identified include: Microsporum audouinii 3 (6.7%, Trichophyton tonsurans 8 (17.8%, Trichophyton terrestre 4 (8.9%, Trichophyton mentagrophyte 3 (6.7%, Microsporum gypseum 2(4.4%, Microsporum canis 3 (6.7% and Trichophyton verrucosum 4 (8.9%. The infection was more prevalent in males (94.8% than in females (5.1% with T tonsurans (42.1% have the highest percentage of infection, while M. gypseum (4.9% had the least. There was a significant difference (p>0.005 in Dermatophytes infection from the two schools, St David’s primary school 32(71.1% and NUD primary school, 13(28.9%. T. tonsurans (10.4% was the most prevalent species in both schools, while the least was M. gypseum (2.6%. The highest infection occurred among the 5-7 age bracket (53.3%, (p>0.005 compared with other age brackets. Ages 12-14 (15.6% had the lowest number of infections.

  7. Antimycotic efficacy of Iranian medicinal plants towards dermatophytes obtained from patients with dermatophytosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Khosravi; Hojjatollah Shokri; Zohreh Farahnejat; Reza Chalangari; Martis Katalin

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Nine plant essential oils (EOs),including those from Artemisia sieberi,Cuminum cyminum,Foeniculum vulgare,Heracleum persicum,Menta spicata,Nigella sativa,Rosmarinus officinalis,Zataria multiflora and Ziziphora clinopodioides,were evaluated for their anti-dermatophytic properties.METHODS:The tested dermatophytes included Trichophyton mentagrophytes (No.32),T.rubrum (No.29),Epidermophytonfloccosum (No.19),Microsporum gypseum (No.11) and M.canis (No.42).The susceptibility tests of plant oils in terms of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) were performed by the broth microdilution technique as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute.RESULTS:All EOs studied were active against the dermatophytes.The MICs recorded for the plant oils tested ranged from 0.25 to 4 mg·mL-1.The most significant activity was observed with A.sieberi,showing a lower MIC against dermatophytes than other plant oils (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION:Data from this study indicated that several Iranian medicinal plant oils,mainly A.sieberi,are active in vitro against different dermatophyte species,suggesting their potential use for the topical treatment of dermatophytoses.

  8. Contact-sensing by hyphae of dermatophytic and saprophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, T H; Gregory, D W; Marshall, D; Gow, N A

    1997-01-01

    Contact-sensing or thigmotropism is the directional growth response of cells in relation to topographical guidance cues. Thigmotropism is thought to play a major role in the location of infectable sites on plants by phytopathogenic fungi and has recently been shown to be a property of hyphae in the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Here we show that hyphae of the dermatophytes Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes reorientate their direction of growth in response to grooves and pores of membrane substrata as did hyphae of the saprophytes Mucor mucedo and Neurospora crassa. This suggests that the thigmotropic behaviour of hyphae is not a specific property of pathogens, but rather a general feature of the growth of fungal hyphae that must forage for nutrients on surfaces and within solid materials.

  9. A survey of dermatophytes isolated from human patients in the United States from 1979 to 1981 with chronological listings of worldwide incidence of five dermatophytes often isolated in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinski, J T; Flouras, K

    1984-03-15

    A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1979 to 1981 in the United States. The survey included 54 locations with data from 40 cities and 2 states. Correlations of these data with that of the other localities of the world were made to illustrate the dynamic epidemiology of several common dermatophytes. The most often isolated dermatophyte in this survey was Trichophyton rubrum having 53.66% of the total for these three calendar years. In a chronological listing of ringworm infections caused by this organism, many areas of the world have reported similar increased incidence of this pathogen. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated 27.85% of the total. A dramatic increase of this pathogen as a cause of tinea capitis has been observed in most cities of the United States. It has been isolated in 25 different countries of the world. The percentage of isolation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 8.56%. This percentage may not be near the true incidence of infection by this dermatophyte because the infections are mild and respond to treatment without the individual seeking medical advice. Since the 1950s the percentage of isolations of the total has dropped for T. mentagrophytes in the United States. Epidermophyton floccosum accounted for 4.36% of the total. In a few areas of the world it causes over 30% of the total of dermatophytoses. Microsporum canis was isolated 3.72% of the total in the United States. It has recently been reported to be the dominant agent of tinea capitis in several South American countries, Tucson, Arizona and Kuwait. Once the dominant pathogen of tinea capitis in children in the United States, it was replaced by Microsporum audouinii before 1960. Today in the United States, M. audouinii only accounts for 0.30% of the total. It is considered eliminated as a pathogen in England. In this survey, isolated less than 1.0% of the total were Microsporum gypseum. Microsporum ferrugineum , Microsporum nanum

  10. Interlaboratory Study of Quality Control Isolates for a Broth Microdilution Method (Modified CLSI M38-A) for Testing Susceptibilities of Dermatophytes to Antifungals▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, M. A.; Arthington-Skaggs, B.; Chaturvedi, V.; Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Pfaller, M. A.; Rennie, R.; Rinaldi, M. G.; Walsh, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI; formerly National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, or NCCLS) M38-A standard for the susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi does not specifically address the testing of dermatophytes. In 2003, a multicenter study investigated the reproducibility of the microdilution method developed at the Center for Medical Mycology, Cleveland, Ohio, for testing the susceptibility of dermatophytes. Data from that study supported the introduction of this method for testing dermatophytes in the future version of the CLSI M38-A standard. In order for the method to be accepted by CLSI, appropriate quality control isolates needed to be identified. To that end, an interlaboratory study, involving the original six laboratories plus two additional sites, was conducted to evaluate potential candidates for quality control isolates. These candidate strains included five Trichophyton rubrum strains known to have elevated MICs to terbinafine and five Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains. Antifungal agents tested included ciclopirox, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, posaconazole, terbinafine, and voriconazole. Based on the data generated, two quality control isolates, one T. rubrum isolate and one T. mentagrophytes isolate, were identified and submitted to the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for inclusion as reference strains. Ranges encompassing 95.2 to 97.9% of all data points for all seven drugs were established. PMID:17050812

  11. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of itraconazole, terbinafine and ketoconazole against dermatophyte species by broth microdilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Various antifungal agents both topical and systemic have been introduced into clinical practice for effectively treating dermatophytic conditions. Dermatophytosis is the infection of keratinised tissues caused by fungal species of genera Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum, commonly known as dermatophytes affecting 20–25% of the world's population. The present study aims at determining the susceptibility patterns of dermatophyte species recovered from superficial mycoses of human patients in Himachal Pradesh to antifungal agents; itraconazole, terbinafine and ketoconazole. The study also aims at determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these agents following the recommended protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI (M38-A2. Methodology: A total of 53 isolates of dermatophytes (T. mentagrophyte-34 in no., T. rubrum-18 and M. gypseum-1 recovered from the superficial mycoses were examined. Broth microdilution method M38-A2 approved protocol of CLSI (2008 for filamentous fungi was followed for determining the susceptibility of dermatophyte species. Results: T. mentagrophyte isolates were found more susceptible to both itraconazole and ketoconazole as compared to terbinafine (MIC50: 0.125 µg/ml for itraconazole, 0.0625 µg/ml for ketoconazole and 0.5 µg/ml for terbinafine. Three isolates of T. mentagrophytes (VBS-5, VBSo-3 and VBSo-73 and one isolate of T. rubrum (VBPo-9 had higher MIC values of itraconazole (1 µg/ml. Similarly, the higher MIC values of ketoconazole were observed in case of only three isolates of T. mentagrophyte (VBSo-30 = 2 µg/ml; VBSo-44, VBM-2 = 1 µg/ml. The comparative analysis of the three antifungal drugs based on t-test revealed that 'itraconazole and terbinafine' and 'terbinafine and ketoconazole' were found independent based on the P < 0.005 in case of T. mentagrophyte isolates. In case of T. rubrum, the similarity existed between MIC values of 'itraconazole and

  12. Tinea barbae and tinea corporis in face and neck caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes:a case report%须癣合并面颈部体癣1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芬; 吴卫志; 赵晓婷; 李娜; 徐祥虎; 于长平; 张春梅

    2013-01-01

    A 57-year-old man had a history of erythema plaque, papules in face and neck, pustules with burning pain on upper-lip for more than 2 months. Treatment with different kinds of traditional Chinese medicine proved no effect. Direct microscopic examination of the NaOH (10% ) preparation showed hyphae in the scales and moustache hair. The slide culture showed the clubshaped macroconidia with septate and grape-like crowded microconidia. Both urease test and hair penetration test in vitro were positive. The pathogen was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes . The patient was treated with oral itraconazole capsules and topical use of a butenafine hydrochloride gream. The lesion resolved with negative fungal check after continuous treatment for 2 months.%患者男,57岁.面部红斑、丘疹、唇部脓疱灼痛2个月余.曾口服和外用多种中药治疗无效且呈加重趋势.取皮屑、胡须镜检见大量真菌菌丝,培养见棒状分隔大分生孢子、葡萄串状小分生孢子.尿素酶实验阳性、毛发穿孔实验阳性,鉴定为须癣毛癣菌.经内服伊曲康唑胶囊和外用盐酸布替萘芬乳膏治疗10 d后病情好转,2个月后皮损消退.复查真菌阴性.

  13. Antifungal properties of some pyrazolyl-alkyl-sulfides. Electron microscopic evidence in two dermatophytes and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, G L; Mares, D; Giori, P; Bonora, A

    1981-04-10

    Four 5-amino-4-alkylthio-pyrazoles were synthesized and their antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro in Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum cookei and Candida albicans. The compounds slightly influenced the growth kinetics of the yeast, but at concentrations ranging from 20 to 40 micrograms/ml completely prevented the mycelial growth of the two dermatophytes cultivated on Sabouraud's agar medium. An electron microscopic study, undertaken by using the most active compound, showed that in C. albicans mitochondria were the only cell targets affected whereas in the dermatophytes cell wall, plasmalemma and the main cytoplasmic organelles were damaged in various degrees. Since the most remarkable alterations were connected with membrane abnormalities, the cytological changes observed were tentatively interpreted as a consequence of the compound intrusion into the lipid bilayer of the membranes, since the drug is lipophilic in nature.

  14. Multilaboratory Evaluation of In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes for ME1111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, V.; Diekema, D.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Rennie, R.; Walsh, T.; Wengenack, N.; Fothergill, A.; Wiederhold, N.

    2015-01-01

    ME1111 is a novel small molecule antifungal agent under development for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. Standardization of the susceptibility testing method for this candidate antifungal is needed. Toward this end, 8 independent laboratories determined the interlaboratory reproducibility of ME1111 susceptibility testing. In addition, we subsequently identified 2 strains as quality control (QC) isolates for the method. In the reproducibility study, 5 blinded clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were tested, while the QC study tested 6 blinded T. rubrum or T. mentagrophytes ATCC strains. Testing was performed in frozen microtiter panels according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 methodology. In the reproducibility study, 9 of 15 clinical strains showed interlaboratory agreement of >90% at the 80% inhibition endpoint, with a range of agreement of 76.2% to 100%. In the QC study, 4 of the 6 ATCC strains showed interlaboratory agreement of >90%. ME1111 demonstrated excellent interlaboratory agreement when tested against dermatophytes. Based on this data, the CLSI Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Tests approved the susceptibility testing of ME1111 against dermatophytes according to M38-A2 methodology, which stipulates RPMI 1640 as the test medium, an inoculum size of 1 to 3 × 103 CFU/ml, and an incubation time and temperature of 96 h at 35°C. The MIC endpoint should be 80% inhibition compared with the growth control. T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 28185 were selected as QC isolates, with an acceptable range of 0.12 to 1 μg/ml for the two strains. PMID:26719434

  15. Susceptibility of clinically important dermatophytes against statins and different statin-antifungal combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyilasi, Ildikó; Kocsubé, Sándor; Krizsán, Krisztina; Galgóczy, László; Papp, Tamás; Pesti, Miklós; Nagy, Katalin; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2014-02-01

    The investigation of the antifungal activities of drugs whose primary activities are not related to their antimicrobial potential is in the current forefront of research. Statin compounds, which are routinely used as cholesterol-lowering drugs, may also exert direct antimicrobial effects. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activities of various statins (lovastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and pravastatin) were examined against one isolate each of four dermatophyte species (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum). Basically, statins were effective in inhibiting all dermatophyte studied, but were particularly active against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes. Fluvastatin and simvastatin were active against all of the tested fungi causing a complete inhibition of their growth at very low concentrations (6.25-12.5 μg/ml). Lovastatin and rosuvastatin had inhibitory effects at higher concentrations (25-128 μg/ml), while atorvastatin and pravastatin proved the less effective. The in vitro interactions between statins and different antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, griseofulvin, terbinafine and primycin) were also investigated using a standard chequerboard broth microdilution method. Synergetic interactions were observed in several cases, most of them were noticed when statins were combined with terbinafine and the different azoles. Some combinations were particularly active (ketoconazole-simvastatin or terbinafine-simvastatin), as they were found to exert synergistic effect against all of the investigated isolates. The other antifungals showed synergistic interactions with statins in only certain cases. These results suggest that statins exert substantial antifungal effects against dermatophyte fungi and they should be promising components in a combination therapy as they can act synergistically with a number of clinically used antifungal

  16. Spectrum of dermatophyte infections in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rameshwari Thakur Department of Microbiology, Muzzaffarnagar Medical College, Uttar Pradesh, India Background: Dermatophyte infections are a common cause of superficial fungal infection in different geographical locations of the world. Usually, it involves superficial invasion of keratinized tissue, eg, skin, nails, and hair, but in immunosuppressed individuals, it may cause atypical, extensive and deep lesions, which may pose serious diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Aim: To find out the causative dermatophyte species responsible for the various clinical types of dermatophyte infection. Results: Trichophyton violaceum was found to be the predominant species, being the causative organism responsible for all the clinical types. Conclusion: T. violaceum was found to be the most common species responsible for most of the clinical forms of dermatophytosis (96; 80%. Tinea unguium was found to be the most frequent clinical type of dermatophytosis (33; 27.50%. Keywords: Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton ferrugineum, tinea unguium, tinea corporis

  17. Dermatophytes and saprobe fungi isolated from dogs and cats in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

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    Paixão G.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of saprobe fungi in dermatomycoses, as well as the determination of the incidence of dermatophytes in dogs and cats were studied. During a period of one year, 74 dogs and 18 cats, with cutaneous lesions suggesting mycoses were included in this study. The mycological analyses were conducted by direct microscopy and by fungal culture on Sabouraud agar, chloramphenicol Sabouraud agar and mycosel agar. Of the 92 samples, 21 resulted in positive cultures for dermatophytes. Dermatophyte fungi pure cultures were obtained from 13 samples. A simultaneous growth of dermatophytes plus saprobe fungi was observed in 8 of the samples. Of the remaining 71 samples, no fungal growth was observed in 10 samples, and at minimum the growth of one saprobe fungi in 61. One, two and three genera of saprobe fungi were isolated in 29, 30 and 2 samples, respectively. Microsporum canis was isolated in 6 (28.6 % and 10 samples (47.6 % from cats and dogs, respectively, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2 (9.5 % and 3 samples (14.3 % from cats and dogs, respectively. The following genera of saprobe fungi were also isolated: Alternaria sp (1.9%, Chaetomium sp (1.9%, Rhizopus sp (2.9%, Curvularia sp (3.9%, Candida sp (6.8%, Trichoderma sp (6.8%, Fusarium sp (7.8%, Cladosporium sp (8.7%, Penicillium sp (21.4% and Aspergillus sp (37.9%.

  18. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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    Adelina MEZZARI

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes and, (ii Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes, both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33% followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%. The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992. T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.A prevalência de dermatófitos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RS, foi analisada de modo retrospectivo durante o período de junho de 1981 a junho de 1995. As espécies de dermatófitos foram isoladas de amostras de pele, pêlos e unhas, em duas instituições de Porto Alegre: Serviço de Micologia de Insituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul, que atende predominantemente as classes sociais B e C e Laboratório Weinmann, que atende predominantemente as classes sociais A e B. Observou-se o predomínio do dermatófito Trichophyton rubrum (55.33% seguido pelo Trichophyton mentagrophytes (21.46%. Os dados coletados foram

  19. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare;

    2015-01-01

    -old man. The patient had a history of great toenail infection caused by T. rubrum in 2004 and presented with suspected relapse in 2011 and 2013. Trichophyton onychocola was the only microbial agent isolated at the second visit in 2013 and the identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Direct...

  20. Flippase (FLP) recombinase-mediated marker recycling in the dermatophyte Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yohko; Maeda, Mari; Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Monod, Michel; Staib, Peter; Yamada, Tsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Biological processes can be elucidated by investigating complex networks of relevant factors and genes. However, this is not possible in species for which dominant selectable markers for genetic studies are unavailable. To overcome the limitation in selectable markers for the dermatophyte Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (anamorph: Trichophyton mentagrophytes), we adapted the flippase (FLP) recombinase-recombination target (FRT) site-specific recombination system from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a selectable marker recycling system for this fungus. Taking into account practical applicability, we designed FLP/FRT modules carrying two FRT sequences as well as the flp gene adapted to the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans (caflp) or a synthetic codon-optimized flp (avflp) gene with neomycin resistance (nptII) cassette for one-step marker excision. Both flp genes were under control of the Trichophyton rubrum copper-repressible promoter (PCTR4). Molecular analyses of resultant transformants showed that only the avflp-harbouring module was functional in A. vanbreuseghemii. Applying this system, we successfully produced the Ku80 recessive mutant strain devoid of any selectable markers. This strain was subsequently used as the recipient for sequential multiple disruptions of secreted metalloprotease (fungalysin) (MEP) or serine protease (SUB) genes, producing mutant strains with double MEP or triple SUB gene deletions. These results confirmed the feasibility of this system for broad-scale genetic manipulation of dermatophytes, advancing our understanding of functions and networks of individual genes in these fungi.

  1. MYCOLOGICAL PROFILE OF DERMATOPHYTES ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES IN KIMS HOSPITAL, BANGALORE

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    Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dermatophytoses constitute a group of superficial fungal infections of keratinised tissue - epidermis, hair and nails, caused by a closely related group of filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes. OBJECTIVES: Isolation and speciation of dermatophytes by culture and to determine its prevalence. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted from January 2012 - December 2013 at Kempegowda institute of medical sciences, Bangalore. All clinically suspected cases coming to the microbiology department where subjected to mycological work - up. Specimens like skin scraping, hair, and nail were collected and microscopically examined using 10%, 20% and 40% KOH respectively for fungal filaments. Culture was carried out using Sabouraud dextrose agar medium with and without cycloheximide. The growth in the culture tube was speciated based on the macroscopic and microscopic findings (with Lactophenol cotton blue staining. RESULTS: Total cases in the two year period were 609. The infection was found to be common in adults aged 20 - 30 years, the male to female ratio is 1.2:1. The KOH positives were 491(80%, and culture positives were 471(77%. Of the positive cultures Trichophyton rubrum (35% was the common isolate followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (17%, and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%. CONCLUSION : In the present study the most common clinical presentation is Tinea corporis followed by Tinea unguium and Tinea cruris and the common isolate was T.rubrum. The present study was undertaken to determine the clinical pattern of dermatophytosis and the common species that was prevalent here.

  2. Anti-Dermatophyte and Anti-Malassezia Activity of Extracts Rich in Polymeric Flavan-3-ols Obtained from Vitis vinifera Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Giovanna; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Mulinacci, Nadia; Innocenti, Marzia; Antonacci, Donato; Angiolella, Letizia; Santamaria, Anna Rita; Valletta, Alessio; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several human skin diseases are associated with fungi as dermatophytes and Malassezia. Skin mycoses are increasing and new alternatives to conventional treatments with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. For the first time, the anti-dermatophytes and the anti-Malassezia activities of Vitis vinifera seed extracts obtained from different table and wine cultivars have been evaluated. Geometric minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 20 to 97 µg/mL for dermatophytes and from 32 to 161 µg/mL for Malassezia furfur. Dried grape seed extracts analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS showed different quali-quantitative compositions in terms of monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and for M. furfur were inversely correlated with the amount of the polymeric fraction (r = -0.7639 and r = -0.7228, respectively). Differently, the antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes was not correlated to the content of flavan-3-ol monomers (r = 0.2920) and only weakly correlated for M. furfur (r = -0.53604). These results suggest that extracts rich in polymeric flavan-3-ols, recovered from V.  vinifera seeds, could be used for the treatment of skin fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A survey of dermatophytes from human patients in the United States from 1985 to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinski, J T; Kelley, L M

    1991-05-01

    A survey of dermatophytes isolated from patients seeking medical advice was made from 1985 to 1987 in the United States. The survey included 54 locations with data from 45 cities and one state. Listing of the isolated dermatophytes and the frequency given by percentage of the total follows: Trichophyton rubrum 54.8%, T. tonsurans 31.3%, T. mentagrophytes 6.0%, Microsporum canis 4.0%, Epidermophyton floccosum 2.0%, M. gypseum 0.6%, and T. verrucosum 0.2%. Out of a total of 14,696 isolates M. audouinii was cultured 13 times, T. violaceum 12 times, M. nanum 6 times, T. terrestre 4 times, and T. soudanense twice. Single isolations were made of M. fulvum, M. ferrugineum and T. schoenleinii. Collection of dermatophyte data in Tucson, Arizona, began in 1966. In 1987, the first case of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans was observed. Other isolates of this organism as the cause of tinea capitis were made in this city during that year. These infections were in black children. With the recent growth of Tucson, the percentage of blacks in the population increased and this pathogen was introduced into the general population.

  4. Detection of dermatophytes in human nail and skin dust produced during podiatric treatments in people without typical clinical signs of mycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Danuta; Nawrot, Urszula; Włodarczyk, Katarzyna; Pajączkowska, Magdalena; Patrzałek, Anna; Pęcak, Anna; Mozdyniewicz, Paulina; Fleischer, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Pedicures are the most common cosmetic foot treatment. Many pedicurists and podiatrists suffer from respiratory infections and diseases such as asthma, sinusitis, chronic cough and bronchitis. Skin and nail dust may play an important role in the development of occupational diseases and the transmission of mycosis to other clients. To examine the presence of dermatophytes in nail and skin dust produced during podiatric treatments of people without typical symptoms of mycosis and to assess the epidemiological hazards of tinea pedis for podiatrists as well as other clients. Seventy-seven samples underwent direct microscopy and culture. The results of direct microscopy were positive in 28/77 samples (36.36%) and doubtful in 3/77 (3.9%). Fungi were cultured from 36/77 samples (46.75%), including 8/77 (10.3%) positive for dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum-6 isolates and Trichophyton mentagrophytes-2). Material collected during podiatric treatments is potentially infected by pathogenic fungi; thus, there is a need to protect both workers who perform such treatments, as well as other clients, to prevent the transmission of pathogens in the Salon environment. Exposure to this occupational hazard may increase not only the risk of respiratory infections but also increase asthmatic or allergic reactions to Trichophyton.

  5. 须癣毛癣菌肉芽肿株与体癣株形态学、致病性及比较蛋白质组学的差异性研究%Comparison of morphology, pathogenic ity and proteomics of granuloma- and tinea corporis-derived Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 杨国玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen differentially expressed proteins between granuloma- and tinea corporis-derived Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains,and to explore the pathogenesis of T.mentagrophytes in deep and superficial infection.Methods Four T.mentagrophytes isolates from granuloma and 4 isolates from tinea corporis were cultured in agar plates and small steel rings at 27 ℃ and 37 ℃ respectively, followed by morphologic observation.Eight guinea pigs were immunocompromised by glucocorticoids,and superficially and subcutaneously inoculated with the same amount of fungal suspension to develop an animal model of tinea corporis and granuloma,respectively.Two weeks later,the infection of guinea pigs was confirmed by microscopy,fungal culture and histopathology.Proteins were extracted from a highly toxic granuloma-derived T.mentagrophytes strain and a lowly toxic tinea corporis-derived T.mentagrophytes strain,and subjected to twodimensional electrophoresis,mass spectrometry and identification by using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database.Results The granuloma-derived T.mentagrophytes isolates grew better at 37 ℃ than tinea corporis-derived T.mentagrophytes isolates did,while no significant difference was observed in the morphology of colonies between the two kinds of T.mentagrophytes isolates at 27 ℃.Tinea corporis models were successfully established in guinea pigs with the 8 T.mentagrophytes strains,and the granuloma-derived isolates induced a more intense inflammation than tinea corporis-derived isolates.Granuloma model was constructed only with 3 granuloma-derived strains,which was proved by microscopy,fungal culture and histopathology.A total of 463 ± 20 and 398 ± 17 protein spots were detected,with 62 and 21 upregulated proteins,from granuloma-derived and tinea corporis-derived T.mentagrophytes strains,respectively.Bioinformatics analysis revealed the following meaningful proteins from differentially expressed proteins in granuloma

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of dermatophyte species using DNA sequence polymorphism in calmodulin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Bahram; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Nouripour-Sisakht, Sadegh; Jalalizand, Niloofar

    2016-07-01

    Use of phylogenetic species concepts based on rDNA internal transcribe spacer (ITS) regions have improved the taxonomy of dermatophyte species; however, confirmation and refinement using other genes are needed. Since the calmodulin gene has not been systematically used in dermatophyte taxonomy, we evaluated its intra- and interspecies sequence variation as well as its application in identification, phylogenetic analysis, and taxonomy of 202 strains of 29 dermatophyte species. A set of primers was designed and optimized to amplify the target followed by bilateral sequencing. Using pairwise nucleotide comparisons, a mean similarity of 81% was observed among 29 dermatophyte species, with inter-species diversity ranging from 0 to 200 nucleotides (nt). Intraspecies nt differences were found within strains of Trichophyton interdigitale, Arthroderma simii, T. rubrum and A. vanbreuseghemii, while T. tonsurans, T. violaceum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. audouinii, M. cookei, M. racemosum, M. gypseum, T. mentagrophytes, T schoenleinii, and A. benhamiae were conserved. Strains of E. floccosum/M. racemosum/M. cookei, A. obtosum/A. gertleri, T. tonsurans/T. equinum and a genotype of T. interdigitale had identical calmodulin sequences. For the majority of the species, tree topology obtained for calmodulin gene showed a congruence with coding and non-coding regions including ITS, BT2, and Tef-1α. Compared with the phylogenetic tree derived from ITS, BT2, and Tef-1α genes, some species such as E. floccosum and A. gertleri took relatively remote positions. Here, characterization and obtained dendrogram of calmodulin gene on a broad range of dermatophyte species provide a basis for further discovery of relationships between species. Studies of other loci are necessary to confirm the results.

  7. Presence of keratinophilic fungi with special reference to dermatophytes on the haircoat of dogs and cats in México and Nezahualcoyotl cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Chavez, R E; Segundo-Zaragoza, C; Cervantes-Olivares, R A; Tapia-Perez, G

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the presence of keratinophilic fungi with special reference to dermatophytes on the coat of dogs and cats living in the cities of Mexico and Nezahualcoyotl in the Metropolitan area of Mexico City, two hundred samples were collected from dogs and one hundred from cats by using the MacKenzie's tooth brush technique, they were processed by routine mycological methods for dermatophyte fungi, results were analyzed by means of the statistical packages SAS. There were isolated 67 and 90 keratinophilic strains from cats and dogs samples, respectively. The most commonly fungi isolated in pure culture in this study were Chrysosporium spp (25%), followed by Trichophyton terrestre (22%), Microsporum gypseum (5%), M. canis (4%), as well as mixed cultures like Chrysosporium spp. & M. gypseum (2%) and T. terrestre & T. mentagrophytes (1%). Keratinophilic fungi were found in higher numbers in the cat haircoat (67%) than in the dog's (45%) and the same was true with regard to dermatophytes with 12 isolates out of a 100 samples in cats and 7 Isolates out of 200 samples from dogs. This may represent a health risk for humans in contact with a dermatophyte infected cat or dog.

  8. Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans in a Maltese patient

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Decelis, Stephen; Vella Briffa, Dino; Boffa, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in a 16-year-old male. This appears to be the first documented case of tinea capitis caused by this dermatophyte in a native Maltese patient.

  9. Comparison of in vitro activity of five antifungal agents against dermatophytes, using the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods Comparação da atividade in vitro de cinco agentes antifúngicos para dermatófitos, usando os métodos de diluição em ágar e microdiluição em caldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystiane Rodrigues Araújo Mota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin and terbinafine for 60 dermatophyte samples belonging to the species Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. The percentage agreement between the two methods, for all the isolates with O propósito do presente trabalho foi comparar os métodos de diluição em ágar e diluição em caldo para a determinação de concentração inibitória mínima de fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, griseofulvina e terbinafina para 60 amostras de dermatófitos pertencentes às espécies, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton. mentagrophytes e Microsporum canis. A porcentagem de acordo entre os dois métodos para todos os isolados testados considerando-se valores < 2 diluições, foram de 91,6% para cetoconazol e para griseofulvina, de 88,3% para itraconazol, de 81,6% para terbinafina e de 73,3% para fluconazol. Uma concordância de 100% foi obtido para isolados de Trichophyton mentagrophytes avaliados com cetoconazol e griseofulvina. Desta forma, até que um método de referência seja padronizado para testar a suscetibilidade in vitro para os dermatófitos, os resultados semelhantes encontrados para os dois métodos fazem com que o método de diluição em ágar possa ser útil no teste de suscetibilidade para estes fungos filamentosos.

  10. 我国代表地区须癣毛癣菌复合体的分子鉴定与分型研究%Study on molecular identification and typing of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex from the representative regions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小平; 万喆; 王晓红; 李若瑜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study molecular identification and typing of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex from the representative regions in China. Methods A total of 47 strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes ( T. mentagrophytes) identified by phynotype characteristic from 8 different regions of China were re-identified by sequence analysis of the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) and the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene (LSU D1-D2),and typed by PCR fingerprinting analysis of Trichophyton mentagrophytes using polymorphic subrepeat loci in the rDNA nontranscribed spacer (NTS). The relationship between type and origin of strains was studied. Results Three strains ofTrichophyton tonsurans ,6 strains ofA. benhamiae ,and 38 strains of T. interdigitale were identified. Combining PCR fingerprints from each of the three polymorphic loci produced a total of 28 individual strain profiles. No relationship was observed between profiles and the origin and location of strains. Conclusions Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common species from human beings in China. Sequence analysis of ITS combining LSU D1-D2 are helpful for identification and the typing method using NTS is rapid, reproducible and discriminatory for fragments interpreting. PCR fingerprint analysis of variable tandem repeat loci in the T. mentagrophytes NTS is valuable for future epidemiological investigations.%目的 对我国代表地区的须癣毛癣菌菌株进行分子再鉴定和分型研究.方法 选取我国南北方8个省市地区经表型鉴定的须癣毛癣菌菌株47株,通过再培养形态观察、生理试验;PCR扩增核糖体:DNA(rDNA)的内转录间隔区(ITS)和核糖体大亚基(LSU)D1-D2区,测序后利用数据库进行序列比对,对须癣毛癣菌复合体进行再鉴定;PCR扩增rDNA非转录间隔区(NTIS)的三个串联重复亚单位S0、S1和S2区,进行种内分型,并比较不同部位来源菌株型别的差异性.结果 我国南北方8个省市地区47

  11. Isolation of dermatophytes in wild felids from screening centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Ana Paula N.; da Silva Nascente, Patrícia; Meirelles Leite, Alice T.; Xavier, Melissa O.; Santin, Rosema; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Humberg, Roberta M.P.; Coimbra, Marco Antonio A.; Minello, Luiz Fernando; Meireles, Mario C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was detect the presence of dermatophyte fungi on wild felids from screening centers. Samples were taken from 30 animals, assembled in two groups: “free-ranging” and “transitory captivity”. The dermatophytes (Trichophyton genus), isolated from two felids (6.6%), both of the group “free-ranging”. PMID:24159301

  12. Study on Antifungal Activities of Zhexinmycin against Dermatophytes in vitro%浙新霉素对皮肤癣菌的体外抗真菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美玲; 鲍亚萍; 羊波; 孔繁智

    2014-01-01

    目的::评价浙新霉素体外抗真菌活性。方法:采用CLSI推荐的M-38A方案测定浙新霉素对7种皮肤癣菌最小抑菌浓度(MIC)及最小杀菌浓度(MFC)。结果:浙新霉素对7种皮肤癣菌的MIC范围为0.125~2.000μg·ml-1,MFC范围为0.250~4.000μg·ml-1。结论:浙新霉素具有较强的抗真菌活性,能抑制和杀灭絮状表皮癣菌、红色毛癣菌、紫色毛癣菌、犬小孢子菌、须癣毛癣菌、断发毛癣菌、石膏样小孢子菌等多种皮肤癣菌。%Objective:To evaluate in vitro antifungal activities of zhexinmycin against dermatophytes. Methods: The minimum in-hibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of zhexinmycin against 7 strains of dermatophytes were determined by using broth microdilution method according to CLSI M-38A. Results:The MIC of zhexinmycin against dermatophytes was within the range of 0. 125-2. 000μg·ml-1 . The MFC was within the range of 0. 250-4. 000μg·ml-1 . Conclusion:Zhexinmycin shows strong in vitro antifungal effect on multiple fungi such as Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton violaceum, Mi-crosporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum gypseum.

  13. The emergence of Trichophyton tonsurans in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, Christian P; Dorsainvil, Dulcie; Boncy, Madeleine; Boncy, Jacques; Auguste, Ghislaine

    2009-03-01

    The occurrence of the anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans as a frequent causative agent of tinea capitis in several developed countries has been associated with a global rise in its isolation during recent years. While T. tonsurans was never found in Haiti before 1988, a sharp increase in the number of isolates of this species from scalp lesions began to be observed in 2005 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. A prospective study was conducted in Port-au-Prince from May to November 2006 of 64 children presenting with tinea capitis at the dermatological outpatient clinic of the university hospital. Forty-five (70%) were male and 19 female (30%), with an average age at presentation of 6.1 years (age range 1-16 years). Direct microscopic examination of scalp hair using 10% potassium hydroxide was positive in 93.8% and culture confirmation was established in 55 cases (85.9%). Five species of dermatophytes were identified, with the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. tonsurans, accounting for the majority or 35 (63.6%) of all cases of tinea capitis. Other dermatophyte species identified included T. mentagrophytes (14.5%), Microsporum audouinii (12.7%), T. rubrum (7.3%) and in one case, the geophilic M. gypseum (1.8%). In two cases caused by T. tonsurans skin involvement on other areas of the body was recorded. The most frequent pathogen in tinea capitis is now T. tonsurans in Port-au-Prince. We speculate that the recent emergence of T. tonsurans in Haiti is linked to the dramatically increasing mobility of Haitian Diaspora.

  14. Topical Treatment of Dermatophytic Lesion on Mice (Mus musculus) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bindu; Kumar, Padma; Joshi, Suresh Chandra

    2011-06-01

    Antidermatophytic potential of three weed plants viz. Tridax procumbens L., Capparis decidua (forsk) Edgew and Lantana camara L. were explored and experimentally induced dermatophytic lesion was topically treated in mice. Microbroth dilution method was carried out for determination of MIC and MFC of different extracts of selected plants. In animal studies, mice were experimentally inoculated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes and infected animals were topically treated with 5 mg/g terbinafine and two concentrations, i.e., 5 and 10 mg/g of test extract ointment. Complete recovery from the infection was observed on 12th day of treatment for reference drug terbinafine (5 mg/g) and 10 mg/g concentration of test extract ointment whereas 5 mg/g concentration of test extract ointment showed complete cure on 16th day of treatment. Fungal burden was also calculated by culturing skin scrapings from infected animals of different groups. Test extract ointment successfully treated induced dermatophytosis in mice without any disease recurrence incidences, thereby indicating efficacy of test extract as an excellent topical antifungal agent for the cure of dermatophytosis.

  15. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

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    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis. Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitosSe determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  16. Seasonal 4-year investigation into the role of the alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) as a carrier of zoophilic dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, M G; Lanfranchi, P; Poglayen, G; Calderola, S; Menzano, A; Ferroglio, E; Peano, A

    2005-06-01

    Two hundred and six samples of alpine marmot (Mamota marmota) hair (148 from adults and 58 from young subjects), 102 soil samples from the entrances to the burrows of the above individuals and 20 control specimens (obtained from adjoining areas away from the burrow systems where the rodents are not usually present) were examined from May 1994 to September 1997. Seventy-five isolates belonging to six species of dermatophytes were found in 69 of the 206 hair samples examined (33.5%). Two species were zoophilic, Microsporum canis (7.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (11.2.%), and four geophilic, Microsporum cookei (2%), M. gypseum (5.8%), Trichophyton ajelloi (3.9%) and T. terrestre (5.8%). The prevalence of each species in the hair samples did not change significantly according to year, season (chi-squared test [limit significance: P 0.05] both in year and in season comparison) or age/sex (adult versus juvenile: P=0.1; male versus female: P=0.8) of the marmot. Twenty-three of the 102 soil samples (22.5%) were positive for dermatophytes found in the hair of marmots from the same burrow systems. Five of the 20 control soil samples (25%) were positive for dermatophytes. One isolate of M. gypseum, three of T. terrestre and one of T. mentagrophytes were obtained. Compared with other free-ranging rodent hosts studied in Europe, this mycoflora is characterized by the presence and relatively high prevalence of M. canis, frequently reported in symptomatic and asymptomatic cats, dogs and fur animals. M. canis has not been isolated in other rodents in the wild. However, it has recently been reported in asymptomatic foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from northern Italy. The close link between V vulpes and M. marmota, with the former representing the most important mammal predator of the latter in the Alps (only a fraction of the predator's attacks result in the death of the rodent) may have favoured the adaptation of M. canis to this rodent host. The stable character of the M. canis

  17. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzari, A

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes) and, (ii) Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes), both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33%) followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%). The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992). T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  18. Establishment of identification database of six common dermatophytes using Biolog automatic analyzer for microbes%Biolog微生物自动分析系统建立六种皮肤癣菌的鉴定数据库

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧伊伦; 陈驰宇; 章强强

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application prospect of Biolog automatic analyzer for microbes in the identification of common dermatophytes. Methods Clinical isolates of dermatophyte were identified to species level based on phenotypes and DNA sequence. The strains of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum were inoculated into FF microplates, and the utilization of 95 different carbon sources were recorded.The growth and reaction spectrum of these strains were described and identification database was set up. Results There was a great difference in the utilization of carbon sources among different fungal species. The utilization of raffinose could differentiate Trichophyton mentagrophyte and Trichophyton tonsurans from the other four Trichophyton. Sebacic acid could differentiate Trichophyton mentagrophyte from Trichophyton tonsurans.Meanwhile, Trichophyton rubrum could be differentiated from Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis by utilization of fumarate and succinate. Microsporum gypseum could be identified by use of alanine and phenylalanine. The utilization of dextrin could distinguish Epidermophyton floccosum from Microsporum canis. Conclusion The Biolog automatic analyzer for microbes has the ability to identify common dermatophytes to species level based on their specific phenotype.%目的 探讨Biolog微生物自动分析系统鉴定皮肤癣菌的应用前景.方法 采用表型及DNA测序的方法,将临床收集的菌株鉴定至种;选取红色毛癣菌、须癣毛癣菌、断发毛癣菌、犬小孢子菌、石膏样小孢子菌和絮状表皮癣菌6种常见皮肤癣菌接种于FF微量板,记录皮肤癣菌对95种不同碳源的利用情况,描述其各自的生长反应谱,建立鉴定数据库.结果 6种皮肤癣菌对一些碳源的利用具有明显的差别,通过是否利用棉子糖可以将须癣毛癣

  19. Anti-dermatophyte efficacy and environmental safety of some essential oils commercial and in vitro extracted pure and combined against four keratinophilic pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sahar Yassin; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2015-07-01

    Establish new biocontrol practices with low persistence in the environment against dermatophyte causing mycosis. Antimycotic activity of twenty-six plant-derived commercial essential oils (EOs) was evaluated against four dermatophyte keratinophilic fungi (Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes). Commercial EOs which showed the strongest mycelial growth inhibitions were selected and re-extracted in vitro from fresh plant samples. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and antifungal index (AI) of pure and combined extracted oils and were evaluated. All samples were collected and examined during the year of 2014. The results revealed that commercial EOs of Prunus armeniaca, Prunus dulcis var. amara, Olea europaea and Mentha piperita were the most potent antidermatophyte. The mixture of the extracted four oils was the strongest fungicides followed by the alternative two-oil combined extractions then pure extracted oils. MIC was at 50, 25 and 12.5 μg/disc for pure oils, two-oil combinations and four-oil mixture, respectively. Achieved values of AI were found variable. Using of natural products like plant-derived EOs instead of chemotherapy on pathogens can be regarded as an environmental safety mode of diseases control.

  20. An experience from an outbreak of tinea capitis gladiatorum due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, S; Ergin, C; Erdoğan, B S; Kaleli, I; Evliyaoğlu, D

    2006-03-01

    'Tinea corporis gladiatorum' describes a dermatophytosis transmitted mainly from close skin contact among wrestlers. Although tinea corporis is well recognized, no data are available for tinea capitis infections in wrestlers. After finding tinea capitis infection in a student wrestler, we aimed to search for possible ringworm infections among wrestlers in a wrestling boarding-school. Of the 32 wrestlers, 29, aged 12-18 years, were affected, of whom 22 had scalp involvement. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from 20 of the patients, and T. mentagrophytes from the remaining two. Isolated strains of dermatophytes were susceptible to terbinafine and itraconazole. The patients with tinea capitis received oral terbinafine for 4 weeks, and patients with more than two lesions but without scalp involvement received oral terbinafine for 2 weeks. Overall clinical and mycological cure rate was 72.4% and 70%, respectively, at assessment at week 6. The asymptomatic dermatophyte carrier rate was negative 1 year after control of the epidemic. Terbinafine seems to be an alternative drug for the treatment of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans; however, control of an outbreak may be very difficult and effective preventive measures should be considered.

  1. Dermatophyte agents in the city of São Paulo, from 1992 to 2002 Agentes de dermatofitoses na Cidade de São Paulo no período de 1992 e 2002

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    Patricia Augusta Vianna Chimelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis are superficial mycoses caused by fungi that can invade stratum corneum and keratinized tissues. In order to study the frequency of dermatophytes species and the clinical manifestations caused by these fungi, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, the authors analyzed cultures isolated at the Mycology Laboratory from a selected population (15,300 out-patients of the Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine of University of São Paulo from January 1992 to June 2002. The most prevalent dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (48.7%, followed by Microsporum canis (20.9%, Trichophyton tonsurans (13.8%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (9.7%, Epidermophyton floccosum (4.1%, and Microsporum gypseum (2.5%. These agents determined more than one clinical manifestation, i.e., tinea corporis (31.5%, tinea capitis (27.5%, tinea unguium (14.8%, tinea cruris (13.9%, tinea pedis (9.9%, and tinea manuum (1.9%. Clinical variants of dermatophytosis and their relationship to the etiologic agents were studied and the results were compared to those obtained in previous studies in other regions of Brazil and in other countries.Dermatofitoses são infecções fúngicas superficiais causadas por agentes capazes de produzir lesões em tecidos queratinizados. Com o intuito de avaliar a epidemiologia e etiologia das infecções causadas por dermatófitos, em pacientes de Ambulatório do Departamento de Dermatologia do Hospital das Clínicas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, foram analisados os resultados de culturas realizadas pelo Laboratório de Micologia deste Departamento da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, no período de janeiro de 1992 a junho de 2002. O dermatófito isolado com maior freqüência foi o Trichophyton rubrum (48,7%, seguido por Microsporum canis (20,9%, Trichophyton tonsurans (13,8%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (9,7%, Epidermophyton floccosum (4,1% e Microsporum gypseum (2,5%. Esses agentes foram respons

  2. The effect of sodium chloride on the growth and morphology of dermatophytes and some other keratolytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J; Fischer, J B

    1975-06-01

    A study of the influence of various concentrations of NaC1 on 21 species of dermatophytes and other keratolytic fungi was made. Based on the sensitivity of the species to various concentrations of NaC1, it was possible to divide them into five groups. Microsporum ferrugineum and Trichophyton concentricum and T. tonsurans were the most sensitive to NaC1 and were inhibited by 5%. The greatest number of species were inhibited by 12% NaC1. The fungi most tolerant to NaC1 were M. cookei and M. nanum, and T. mentagrophytes, T. schoenleinii, and T. terrestre. These species were inhibited by 15%. NaC1 prevented any variant change in Epidermophyton floccosum, T. mentagrophytes, and M. gypseum, but promoted a change in phenotype in M. audouinii and M. cookei, and T. gallinae. It is suggested that the word "pleomorphism" be replaced by the term sterile albinism. This term refers to that kind of cultural change when there is no evidence of sporulation and the white fluffy mycelium consists of fine sterile hyphae. Sterile albino strains of E. floccosum were induced to form a macroconidia on Sabouraud cycloheximide chloramphenicol gentamicin agar (SCCGA) containing 3-5% NaC1. Also, M. audouinii formed microconidia and macroconidia in velvety growth cultured on SCCGA containing NaC1.

  3. Ocorrência de dermatófitos em amostras de unhas, pés e mãos coletadas de estudantes universitários Occurrence of dermatophyte, in nails, feet and hands of universitary students

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    Emersom Roberto Siqueira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo, avaliar a presença de dermatófitos, especificamente em unhas, pés e mãos de estudantes universitários com e sem lesões sugestivas de dermatofitose. Foram coletadas 280 amostras dessas regiões, das quais 31 (11,1% apresentaram positividade apenas pelo exame direto, e 20 (7,1% tiveram, além do exame direto positivo, crescimento de dermatófito, mediante cultivo da amostra biológica. T. rubrum foi o dermatófito isolado com maior freqüência (80%, seguido por T. mentagrophytes (20%. Considerando os sítios analisados neste trabalho, a ocorrência de dermatófitos foi observada em 10,4% nas unhas dos pés, 5% nas escamas de pés, 2,5% nas unhas das mãos e apenas 0,4% nas escamas das mãos.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the occurrence of dermatophytes, specifically in the nails, feet and hands of university students with and without lesions. Two hundred and eighty samples were collected; 31 (11.1% were positive by direct examination, while only 20 (7.1% showed dermatophyte growth in culture, as well as direct positive examination. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated (80% dermatophyte followed by T. mentagrophytes (20%. Considering the sites analyzed, dermatophyte occurrence was: 10.4% in toenails, 5% in foot skin, 2.5% in fingernails and 0.4% in hand skin.

  4. Distribution of dermatophytes and other related fungi in Jaipur city, with particular reference to soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Screening of 217 soil samples of different habitats, such as PG study centre, garden, farmhouse, nursery, roadside, hostel, animal habitat, bird habitat, marriage garden, temple, vegetable market and house dust, was carried out for the presence of dermatophytes and related fungi in relation to soil pH. A total of 461 isolates belonging to 26 genera and 34 species were recorded. Soil pH values vary from 3 to 10.5. Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii and M. canis were isolated for the first time in Jaipur from pH range 7.0 to 9.0. Chrysosporium tropicum (46.08%) was the most predominant fungus isolated from pH range 6.5 to 9.5. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (24.88%) was the second most common fungal species isolated from pH 6.5 to 9.5. Most of the keratinophilic fungi were isolated from pH 6.5 to 8.5. Only one isolate of Fusarium moniliforme was reported from a highly acidic site at pH 3. Roadside and garden soils were found to be the most suitable sites for almost all keratinophilic fungi.

  5. Detection and characterization of zoonotic dermatophytes from dogs and cats in and around Kolkata

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    S. Murmu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The ringworms of pet dogs, cats, and stray animals (dogs, cats, and other animals could be a potential source of zoonotic infections causing a serious public health problem in the busy city Kolkata. The pet owners are more susceptible to get this infection from their pets, because of the close contact with them as dermatophytosis is very much prevalent in those pets. So, this study was aimed to check the prevalence of dermatophytosis in dogs, cats, and in pet owners. Materials and Methods: A total of 362 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis from dogs (123 in number, cats (202 in number, and human beings (37 in number were collected and studied from in and around Kolkata to detect the presence of significant dermatophytes. Direct microscopy and cultural examination of the isolates were performed following standard methodology. Identification and characterization of the isolates were done by different biochemical tests. Results: Samples (n=285 having significant dermatophytic fungal infections were found to be of highest number in cats (158, 55.5% than in dogs (108, 37.8% and humans (19, 6.7%, respectively. The incidence of Microsporum canis (60.0% was the highest from affecting dogs, cats, and human beings in comparison to Microsporum gypseum (22.5%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.8% and Trichophyton rubrum (1.7%. Detection of T. rubrum was only from human cases in this study, whereas the presence of rest three were slightly higher in cats than that of the dogs and humans in this present study. The incidences were higher in young animals and in humans of the age group of 21-30 years, during the rainy season (from April to August and also in in-contact human beings. Conclusion: M. canis was the most commonly pathogen among all causing dermatophytosis in animals and also in the pet owners. M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes were other pathogens associated with these infections. These infections were more prevalent in the rainy seasons

  6. Trichophyton tonsurans in a family microepidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salci, Tânia Pereira; Salci, Maria Aparecida; Marcon, Sonia Silva; Salineiro, Paulo Hércules Biagi; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is a highly transmissible anthropophilic dermatophyte fungus, which invades keratinized tissues. This study reports a case of family microepidemic caused by this dermatophyte. Despite their excellent hygiene conditions, it remained active for several years, spreading to all family members. The hypothesis that the fungus was being kept alive in the family home was confirmed after samples collected from it were analyzed. Pure cultures of the fungus were isolated and identified. After diagnosis, the house was disinfected with concomitant oral treatment for all family members.

  7. Antifungal susceptibilities of 44 isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolates evaluated with CLSI M38-A2 scheme%应用CLSI M38-A2方案测定须癣毛癣菌对抗真菌药物敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小平; 万喆; 李若瑜

    2011-01-01

    目的:对我国代表地区须癣毛癣菌临床分离株作抗真菌药物敏感性测定,进一步验证CLSI的M38-A2方案.方法:选取我国南北方8个省市地区经表型和分子生物学鉴定的趾间型毛癣菌38株和苯海姆节皮菌6株,采用M38-A2方案测定氟康唑、伊曲康唑、伏立康唑、特比萘芬、灰黄霉素、联苯苄唑、环吡酮胺和阿莫罗芬等8种常见抗真菌药物的最小抑菌浓度(minimal inhibitory concentration,MIC).结果:氟康唑、伊曲康唑、伏立康唑、特比萘芬、灰黄霉素、联苯苄唑、环吡酮胺和阿莫罗芬对趾间型毛癣菌株的MIC值(μg/mL)范围分别为0.25-32、0.0312-1、0.0156-0.0625、0.000937-0.00781、0.0625-1、0.0312-2、1-2、0.00781-0.0625;对苯海姆节皮菌株的MIC值(μg/mL)范围分别为≥64、2、0.25-0.5、0.000937-0.00381、1、2-4、1-2、0.0312-0.0625.不同抗真菌药物对趾间型毛癣菌及苯海姆节皮菌的药敏有明显差别(P<0.001);趾间型毛癣菌和苯海姆节皮菌对伊曲康唑、灰黄霉素、环吡酮胺、伏立康唑和氟康唑的药敏差异有统计学意义,对特比萘芬、阿莫罗芬和联苯苄唑的药敏差异无统计学意义.结论:趾间型毛癣菌和苯海姆节皮菌之间对伊曲康唑、灰黄霉素、环吡酮胺、伏立康唑和氟康唑的药敏有明显差异.M38-A2方案有较好的重复性和稳定性,适合用来体外测定须癣毛癣菌对抗真菌药物的敏感性.%Objective To determine the susceptibilities of Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains and to evaluate the M38-A2 scheme of CLSI. Methods Thirty-eight isolates of Trichophyton interdigitale ( T. interdigitale ) and 6 isolates of Trichophyton anamorph of A. benhamiae strains from 8 different regions of China were included and the MICs to fluconazol ( FLU ), itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole ( VIR), terbinafine ( TER), griseofulvin (GRI), ciclopiroxolamine ( CIC ), bifonazole (BIF), and amorofine (AMO) were determined by M38-A2

  8. Forty four years of dermatophytes in a Chicago clinic (1944-1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, J W

    1992-07-01

    Data are presented on 39,270 cultures taken over a 44 year span (1944-1988) at the University of Chicago's Dermatology Clinic. In the mid 1940's Microsporum audouinii accounted for 60-80% of isolates. It gradually decreased over the next two decades and disappeared altogether in the 1970's. Trichophyton rubrum, rare in the 1940's accounted for over 60% of isolates in the mid-1960's only to be overtaken by T. tonsurans. This species, not isolated till the mid 1950's, became and remains the dominant dermatophyte at the present time. Both T. mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum increased in the 1970's and decreased later. Unusual circumstances resulted in clusters of T. verrucosum, T. terrestre, and T. schoenleinii isolates. Infections were associated with rural dairy workers, zoo handlers and immigrant families respectively. M. canis and M. gypseum were steady at a low rate throughout the entire period. Rare isolates included M. cookei, M. persicolor, M. racemosum, T. simii, T. soudanense, T. violaceum, and the soil keratinophile, Aphanoascus fulvescens.

  9. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals

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    Singh I

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection ITCC 5266 , A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi GPCK 1137 , Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081 , Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275 , Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270 , C. indicum ITCC 5269 , C. pannicola GPCK 1022 , C. tropicum GPCK 1269 , Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267 , Gymnoascus reessii ITCC 5265 , Malbranchea fulva GPCK 1075 , Malbranchea pulchella ITCC 5268 , Micosporum gypseum GPCK 1038 , Microsporum cookei GPCK 2001, M. fulvum GPCK 2002 , Paecilomyces lilacinum GPCK 1080 , Penicillium expansum GPCK 1082, Trichophyton mentagrophytes GPCK 2003 and T. terrestre GPCK 2004. In hospitals, the minimum frequency was of Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267 while the maximum frequency was of Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275 . In houses, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270 and C. tropicum GPCK 1269 were with minimum and maximum frequencies respectively. This makes the first report of these fungi with keratinolytic ability in the indoor dust of hospitals and houses.

  10. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, I; Mishra, A; Kushwaha, Rks

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266, A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137, Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081, Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270, C. indicum ITCC 5269, C. pannicola GPCK 1022, C. tropicum GPCK 1269, Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267, Gymnoascus reessii ITCC 5265, Malbranchea fulva GPCK 1075, Malbranchea pulchella ITCC 5268, Micosporum gypseum GPCK 1038 , Microsporum cookei GPCK 2001, M. fulvum GPCK 2002, Paecilomyces lilacinum GPCK 1080, Penicillium expansum GPCK 1082, Trichophyton mentagrophytes GPCK 2003 and T. terrestre GPCK 2004. In hospitals, the minimum frequency was of Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267 while the maximum frequency was of Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275. In houses, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270 and C. tropicum GPCK 1269 were with minimum and maximum frequencies respectively. This makes the first report of these fungi with keratinolytic ability in the indoor dust of hospitals and houses.

  11. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton tonsurans Malmsten--report of a patient from Zaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Haustein, U F

    1997-09-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is an anthropophilic dermatophyte that is predominantly responsible in man for tinea capitis. Although this fungus has a world-wide distribution, most reports of the occurrence of Trichophyton tonsurans infections originate from the USA, Latin America and some European countries. A 31-year-old African woman, formerly a resident of Zaire, with tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans infection is described here.

  12. Multilocus Genotyping Identifies Infections by Multiple Strains of Trichophyton tonsurans▿

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.; Preuett, Barry; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Acquisition of multiple genetic strains of a single dermatophyte species should not be unexpected in areas of high endemicity, and yet multistrain infections are infrequently reported. This communication details mixed Trichophyton tonsurans infections and highlights the need to confirm the presence of multiple strains in a clinical single isolate by use of a multilocus approach.

  13. Multilocus genotyping identifies infections by multiple strains of Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Preuett, Barry; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    Acquisition of multiple genetic strains of a single dermatophyte species should not be unexpected in areas of high endemicity, and yet multistrain infections are infrequently reported. This communication details mixed Trichophyton tonsurans infections and highlights the need to confirm the presence of multiple strains in a clinical single isolate by use of a multilocus approach.

  14. In vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolated in Goiania, Brazil, against five antifungal agents by broth microdilution method Teste de suscetibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos isolados em Goiânia, Brasil, contra cinco agentes antifúngicos pelo método de microdiluição em caldo

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    Crystiane Rodrigues Araújo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution technique, against 60 dermatophytes isolated from nail or skin specimens from Goiania city patients, Brazil. In this study, the microtiter plates were incubated at 28 ºC allowing a reading of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC after four days of incubation for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and five days for T. rubrum and Microsporum canis. Most of the dermatophytes had uniform patterns of susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Low MIC values as 0.03 µg/mL were found for 33.3%, 31.6% and 15% of isolates for itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively.Atividades antifúngicas de fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, terbinafina e griseofulvina foram testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo contra 60 isolados de dermatófitos. Os resultados mostraram que todos os isolados produziram crescimento claramente detectável a 28 ºC e a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada após quatro dias de incubação para Trichophyton mentagrophytes e cinco dias para T. rubrum e Microsporum canis. A maioria dos isolados teve um padrão uniforme de suscetibilidade para os agentes antifúngicos testados. Baixos valores de CIM como 0,03 µg/mL foram encontrados para 33,3%, 31,6% e 15% dos isolados para itraconazol, cetoconazol e terbinafina, respectivamente.

  15. [Taxonomic study of clinic isolates of Trichophyton in Rosario, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G

    2013-01-01

    Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae.

  16. In vitro Anti Dermatophyte Activities of Crude Methanol and Aqueous Extracts of Lawsonia inermis

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    C. C. Ekwealor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro anti dermatophyte activities of crude methanol and aqueous extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves. The anti dermatophyte activities was tested against Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum ferrugineum, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton rubrum, recovered from rice farmers with fungal skin infections in Anambra State, Nigeria. From the result obtained, growth of dermatophytes was inhibited at the varied concentrations of crude methanol extract with the diameter zone of inhibition increasing with the increase in concentration. At the lowest concentration of 10 mg/disc, diameter zone of inhibition range of 8.0 mm-16.8 mm was recorded against the different dermatophytes. At 80 mg/disc, T. rubrum showed the highest diameter zone of inhibition (18.8 mm, followed by M. audouinii (18.0 mm while T. megninii was the least inhibited (12.0 mm. Water extract of L. inermis also inhibited all the test dermatophyte. M. audouinii was the most susceptible with diameter inhibition zone of 14.5 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration was recorded at 25 mg/ml for all dermatophytes while fungicidal action was recorded at concentrations of 50 mg/ml for M. audouinii and T. rubrum, 100 mg/ml for M. ferrugineum and 200 mg/ml for T. megninii and T. tonsurans. These results demonstrated that L. inermis has anti dermatophyte activities and could be a good source for the production of plant based antifungal drugs.

  17. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Elmegeed,Al Shimaa M.; S.A. Ouf; Moussa, Tarek A. A.; Eltahlawi,S.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseas...

  18. Discrimination of Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton equinum by PCR-RFLP and by beta-tubulin and Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A.; Makimura, K.; de Hoog, G.S.; Shidfar, M.R.; Satoh, K.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Mirhendi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans and T. equinum are two closely related sister species of dermatophytes, but differ in their preferred hosts, i.e., humans or horses, respectively. Routine procedures for their identification depend on studies of their pheno-typic, physiological and biochemical characteristics,

  19. Dermatophyte susceptibilities to antifungal azole agents tested in vitro by broth macro and microdilution methods Suscetibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos a azóis pelos métodos macro e microdiluição em caldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto Siqueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of dermatophytes to the azole antifungals itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole was evaluated by broth macro and microdilution methods, according to recommendations of the CLSI, with some adaptations. Twenty nail and skin clinical isolates, four of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and 16 of T. rubrum were selected for the tests. Itraconazole minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC varied from Foi avaliada a suscetibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos aos antifúngicos itraconazol, fluconazol e cetoconazol, pelos métodos macro e microdiluição em caldo, de acordo com as recomendações do CLSI, com algumas modificações. Foram estudados 20 isolados clínicos de lesões de unha e pele, sendo quatro Trichophyton mentagrophytes e 16 T. rubrum. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM para itraconazol variou de < 0,03 a 0,25 µg/mL pelo método da macrodiluição, e de < 0,03 a 0,5 µg/mL pela microdiluição em caldo; de 0,5 a 64 µg/mL e de 0,125 a 16 µg/mL para fluconazol, respectivamente, pela macro e microdiluição; e de < 0,03 a 0,5 µg/mL por ambos os métodos para cetoconazol. A concordância entre os dois métodos (considerando ± uma diluição foi de 70% para itraconazol, 45% para fluconazol e 85% para cetoconazol. Conclui-se que os isolados estudados foram inibidos por concentrações relativamente baixas dos antifúngicos testados, e os dois métodos apresentam boa concordância, especialmente para itraconazol e cetoconazol.

  20. Detection of xanthomegnin in epidermal materials infected with Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Ahmad, I; Borst, I; Summerbell, R C

    2000-11-01

    Xanthomegnin, a mutagenic mycotoxin best known as an agent of nephropathy and death in farm animals exposed to food-borne Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi, was first isolated about 35 y ago as a diffusing pigment from cultures of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton megninii. This study investigates the production of xanthomegnin by the most common dermatophytic species, Trichophyton rubrum, both in dermatologic nail specimens and in culture. In view of the labile nature of xanthomegnin, a chromatographic procedure was developed to allow high-performance liquid chromatography analysis within 1 h of sample extraction. In cultures, Tricho- phyton rubrum produced xanthomegnin as a major pigment that appears to give the culture its characteristic red colony reverse. Xanthomegnin was also repeatedly extracted from human nail and skin material infected by Trichophyton rubrum. The level of xanthomegnin present, however, varied among the clinical samples studied. Xanthomegnin was not detected in uninfected nails. These results show that patients with Trichophyton rubrum infections may be exposed to xanthomegnin, although the consequences of such an exposure are not currently known.

  1. Influence Of Chrysosporium Spp. In The Prevalence Of Dermatophytes in Soil

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    Shankar Gokul S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two soil samples were screened for the prevalence of Chrysosporium and dermatophytes. Out of the 75 positive samples 2 were M. gypseum and 73 were Chrysosporium spp.None of the soil samples yielded both Chrysosporium spp. and M. gypseum. The co- inoculation of Chrysosporium spp. with different species of dermatophytes (T. rubrum. T. Mentagrophytes. E. floccosum and M. gypseum in sterilized soil revealed that none of the dermatophytes except M. gypseum could be recovered after the 15th day of co- inoculation. Whereas, these organisms when inoculated alone in sterilized soil, could be recovered even upto 25 days. In the light of the above finding, we suggest that Chrysosporium spp. might pose a definite challenge to dermatophytes in their saprophytic existence in soil.

  2. 18S-rDNA SEQUENCING, ENZYME PATTERNS AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TRICHOPHYTON ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Adriana Mendes do

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes, capable to use keratin of the host for nutrition, belong to one of the major groups of pathogenic fungi. Since dermatophytes are a closely related group they share various common features, and the morphology of isolates of a given species can be atypical, making species identification and differentiation even more difficult. Many methods have been explored in attempts to distinguish dermatophytes, but the combined use of different approaches for the investigation of the intraspecific and interspecific variability of Trichophyton continues to be scarce. Some studies have shown that amplified fragments of the small ribosomal DNA subunit 18S contains variable regions which can be used to discriminate between medically relevant yeast species, indicating that these regions could also be used for differentiation between dermatophytes. In our study, sequence analysis of the 18S-rDNA gene was combined with morphological and biochemical criteria in order to detect genetic differences between seven Trichophyton isolates and estimate their phylogenetic relationships. The results show that the isolates investigated belong to the Trichophyton group, which potentially contains the Trichophyton rubrum cluster.

  3. Clinical Identification of Common Species of Dermatophytes by PCR and PCR-RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁娟; 李家文; 刘志香; 谭志建

    2004-01-01

    To find a fast and efficient way of identifying seven common dermatophytes in clinical practice, we used the techniques of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) targeting Topoisomerase Ⅱ gene. The DNA of 7 dermatophytes, along with Candida albicans, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus flavus were amplified by consensus primer dPsD1. They were then subjected to a second PCR with primers dPsD2 and species-specific primers PsT and PsME separately. 6 of the products generated by dPsD2 were digested with restriction enzyme Hinc Ⅱ. DNA fragments of 3390 bp and 2380 bp was amplified by using consensus primer dPsD1 and dPsD2 from the genomic DNA of each dermatophyte species separately. By combining the results of the two species-specific primer sets (PsT and PsME), all species of dermatophyte yielded unique sizes-set of PCR products expect for T. mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans.From the restriction profiles of Hinc Ⅱ , 6 of the 7 dermatophytoses were diagnosed to species level including T. mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans. By combining the results of the PCR and PCRRFLP, the 7 common dermatophytes can be identified to species level. It is conclude that the multiplex PCR and PCR-RFLP identification targeting the DNA topoisomerase Ⅱ gene is rapid and efficient.

  4. Trichophyton rubrum-induced Majocchi's Granuloma in a heart transplant recipient. A therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Urs C; Trüeb, Ralph M; Schad, Karin; Kamarashev, Jivko; Koch, Simon; French, Lars E; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2012-09-28

    Solid organ transplant recipients are at an increased risk for infections because of long-term immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection. Fungal infections with dermatophytes are a common cause of cutaneous infections seen in organ transplant recipients and cutaneous dermatophyte infections may progress to Majocchi's granuloma. Itraconazole is an anti-fungal compound used for the treatment of infections of the skin, nails and mucous membranes. We report on a heart transplant recipient who developed widespread Trichophyton rubrum infection presenting as Majocchi's granuloma. Itraconazole treatment was complicated by drug interactions. Tricho-phyton rubrum infection progressed, while itraconazole treatment was varied in dose and delivery form. In patients with Trichophyton rubrum infections, refractory to itraconazole treatment, altered drug absorption or drug interactions has to be considered. Careful monitoring and adjustment of itraconazole is of vital importance.

  5. Deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions of dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, F D; Mackenzie, D W; Owen, R J

    1980-06-01

    DNA was extracted and purified from 55 dermatophyte isolates representing 34 species of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. The base compositions of the chromosomal DNA were determined by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and were found to be in the narrow range of 48.7 to 50.3 mol % G + C. A satellite DNA component assumed to be of mitochondrial origin was present in most strains, with a G + C content ranging from 14.7 to 30.8 mol % G + C. Heterogeneity in microscopic and colonial characteristics was not reflected in differences in the mean G + C content of the chromosomal DNAs. Strains varied in the G + C contents of satelite DNA, but these did not correlate with traditional species concepts.

  6. Prevalence of Dermatophytic Infection and the Spectrum of Dermatophytes in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebreabiezgi Teklebirhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud’s dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4% by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4% samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7% cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25–44 and 45–64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed.

  7. TrED: the Trichophyton rubrum Expression Database

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    Liu Tao

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte species and the most frequent cause of fungal skin infections in humans worldwide. It's a major concern because feet and nail infections caused by this organism is extremely difficult to cure. A large set of expression data including expressed sequence tags (ESTs and transcriptional profiles of this important fungal pathogen are now available. Careful analysis of these data can give valuable information about potential virulence factors, antigens and novel metabolic pathways. We intend to create an integrated database TrED to facilitate the study of dermatophytes, and enhance the development of effective diagnostic and treatment strategies. Description All publicly available ESTs and expression profiles of T. rubrum during conidial germination in time-course experiments and challenged with antifungal agents are deposited in the database. In addition, comparative genomics hybridization results of 22 dermatophytic fungi strains from three genera, Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton, are also included. ESTs are clustered and assembled to elongate the sequence length and abate redundancy. TrED provides functional analysis based on GenBank, Pfam, and KOG databases, along with KEGG pathway and GO vocabulary. It is integrated with a suite of custom web-based tools that facilitate querying and retrieving various EST properties, visualization and comparison of transcriptional profiles, and sequence-similarity searching by BLAST. Conclusion TrED is built upon a relational database, with a web interface offering analytic functions, to provide integrated access to various expression data of T. rubrum and comparative results of dermatophytes. It is devoted to be a comprehensive resource and platform to assist functional genomic studies in dermatophytes. TrED is available from URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/TrED/.

  8. Trichophyton tonsurans-Ringworm in an NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, Ann Vivian; Whitehall, John; Engler, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Ringworm is very rarely found in the neonate, especially infants who have been confined from birth to an intensive care unit. We report an infection with the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans, the most common cause of tinea capitis in children but not yet described in a premature baby who has never left the nursery. Our case illustrates the need to consider this diagnosis among the causes of dermatitis in the newborn, especially in at-risk populations such as indigenous Australians. Though our infant's presentation was the classic "ring" shape, a literature review revealed varied presentations. In contrast to the usual need for long-term antifungal medication, our case responded rapidly to a topical azole preparation. Although we did not screen visiting family members, screening would have been appropriate, and those found positive might have benefited from at least antifungal shampoo.

  9. Changes in frequency of agents of tinea capitis in school children from Western China suggest slow migration rates in dermatophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.; Bulmer, G.S.; Summerbell, R.C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Hui, Y.; Gräser, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection of the scalp of children in Western China, with the gray-patch from being the most prevalent. Twenty years ago, the most widespread etiologic agent was reported to be Trichophyton violaceum, which was later succeeded by Microsporum ferrugineum and Tri

  10. Sludy of the Dermatophytes in the Students Houses of Minia University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Maghazy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of dermatophytes and other fungi was carried out in 100 air - dust samples from bedrooms and dinning halls of male and female student resident houses. By hair baiting technique the common dermatophytes were obtained namely Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Trichophyton mtntagrophytes. Also five species of Chrysasporium were isolated in the following order of dominance C. tropicum, C. keratinophilum, C. indicum, C. pannicola and C. quecnslandicum. By dilution plate method, 37 species representing 20 genera of which Aspergilus niger, A. flavus, Rhizopus nigricans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Cladosporium cladosporioides were most frequently isolated.

  11. Antimicrobial effects of aqueous plant extracts on the fungi Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum and on three bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, M; Neeman, I

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of 10 plants were tested for their ability to inhibit Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis, the aetiological agents of dermal fungal infections in humans. These extracts were also evaluated for their activity against some bacteria. Aqueous extracts from the leaves of Inula viscosa produced detectable antifungal activity against these dermatophytes.

  12. Polymorphic exocellular protease expression in clinical isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, S M

    2001-01-01

    Tinea capitis continues to be an overwhelmingly prevalent disease in children. Despite the fact that it was recognized over a century ago, the factors that dictate the divergent clinical presentations seen with tinea capitis (e.g., carrier state, chronic non-inflammatory infection, acute severely-inflammatory infection) remain unknown. Given the pathogenic role of exocellular proteases in dermatophyte infections and their potential immunogenic role, this investigation was designed to characterize strain-specific variability in fungal protease expression and activity in Trichophyton tonsurans isolates identified from children with tinea capitis.

  13. Evaluation of growth conditions and DNA extraction techniques used in the molecular analysis of dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnat, S; Nowakiewicz, A; Ziółkowska, G; Trościańczyk, A; Majer-Dziedzic, B; Zięba, P

    2017-05-01

    Recent molecular methods for diagnosis of superficial mycoses have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. The aim of study was to determine growth conditions and techniques of DNA extraction for Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. Samples were prepared of each of the DNA extraction methods (phenol-chloroform, CTAB and four different kits) for all of the incubation periods (4, 7 and 10 days) of the cultures on the solid and in the liquid medium. The highest DNA concentrations were obtained using the phenol-chloroform method. The concentration of DNA extracted with the CTAB method accounted for 62·21%, for kits it corresponded from 35·53 to 15·41%. The analysis of the DNA weight yield revealed the highest isolation efficiency of the phenol-chloroform method, 1 mg of mycelium yielded 223·8 μg DNA. Lower DNA yield (by 39·32%) was obtained with the CTAB method; in the case of kits by 68·46-85·32%. In most of the techniques, the DNA yield on the solid medium was higher. In summary, the highest DNA yield was noted in the 7-day cultures and extraction with the phenol-chloroform method. Importantly, the type of culture was not relevant for the diagnostic result. Most mycoses are caused by fungi that reside in nature. The severity of the infection depends on the pathogenic attributes, socioeconomic factors and local environmental conditions. Recent diagnosis increasingly relies on not only the clinical features. Molecular identifications have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. Usually two factors have to be considered: maximize the DNA yield and ensure that the extracted DNA is susceptible to enzymatic reactions. These data suggest that phenol-chloroform methods and a 7-day culture period may be useful for validation and constitute the first step of molecular diagnosis of dermatophytes. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Clonal outbreak of Trichophyton tonsurans tinea capitis gladiatorum among wrestlers in Adana, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkit, Macit; Ali Saracli, Mehmet; Kurdak, Hatice; Turac-Bicer, Aygul; Yuksel, Tuba; Karakas, Mehmet; Schuenemann, Eric; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M

    2010-05-01

    Tinea capitis gladiatorum and tinea corporis gladiatorum caused by the anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans are well-known clinical entities in individuals involved in combat sports, e.g., wrestlers and judo practitioners. We present an outbreak of Trichophyton tonsurans tinea capitis gladiatorum among wrestlers at a boarding school in Adana, Turkey. Fourteen of the 29 wrestlers examined (48.3%) harbored the pathogen, including eight asymptomatic scalp carriers, five with tinea capitis superficialis, and one asymptomatic trunk carrier. Dermatophytes were isolated from samples of the neck (1), nape (1), trunk (3) and inguinal area (2) in four of the five tinea capitis cases. A total of five inanimate objects, i.e., two wrestling mats, two pillowcases, and one sheet were also found to be positive for T. tonsurans. Mixed-marker strain typing examining 24 sequence variations in 12 gene loci confirmed that the outbreak was caused by a single strain of T. tonsurans.

  15. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples......; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product...... was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient...

  16. Genetic Manipulations in Dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Yamada, Tsuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that nourish on keratinized materials for their survival. They infect stratum corneum, nails, and hair of human and animals, accounting the largest portion of fungi causing superficial mycoses. Huge populations are suffering from dermatophytoses, though the biology of these fungi is largely unknown yet. Reasons are partially attributed to the poor amenability of dermatophytes to genetic manipulation. However, advancements in this field over the last decade made it possible to conduct genetic studies to satisfying extents. These included genetic transformation methods, indispensable molecular tools, i.e., dominant selectable markers, inducible promoter, and marker recycling system, along with improving homologous recombination frequency and gene silencing. Furthermore, annotated genome sequences of several dermatophytic species have recently been available, ensuring an optimal recruitment of the molecular tools to expand our knowledge on these fungi. In conclusion, the establishment of basic molecular tools and the availability of genomic data will open a new era that might change our understanding on the biology and pathogenicity of this fungal group.

  17. Microepidemia familiar por Trichophyton tonsurans Trichophyton tonsurans in a family microepidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Pereira Salci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton tonsurans é um fungo dermatófito antropofílico de alta transmissibilidade que invade tecidos queratinizados. Relatamos um caso de microepidemia familiar causada por esse dermatófito no qual, apesar das ótimas condições de higiene, o fungo se manteve viável por vários anos, disseminando-se para todos os membros da família. A hipótese de que estivesse sendo mantido na residência da família foi confirmada após análise de amostras do domicílio, em que foram isoladas e identificadas culturas puras do fungo. Após o diagnóstico, a residência foi desinfetada e todos os membros da família receberam tratamento oral concomitantemente.Trichophyton tonsurans is a highly transmissible anthropophilic dermatophyte fungus, which invades keratinized tissues. This study reports a case of family microepidemic caused by this dermato phyte. Despite their excellent hygiene conditions, it remained active for several years, spreading to all family members. The hypothesis that the fungus was being kept alive in the family home was confirmed after samples collected from it were analyzed. Pure cultures of the fungus were isolated and identified. After diagnosis, the house was disinfected with concomitant oral treatment for all family members.

  18. Trichophyton tonsurans scalp carriage among wrestlers in a national competition in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkit, Macit; Gümral, Ramazan; Saraçlı, Mehmet Ali; Burgut, Refik

    2011-09-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans tinea gladiatorum is an emerging epidemic among combat-sport athletes across the globe. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic dermatophytic infections among wrestlers in the National Greco-Roman Championship in Turkey. In total, 194 wrestlers from 32 provinces and 72 clubs were examined for scalp, trunk, groin, and toe web dermatophytic infections. We also administered a questionnaire to obtain information on the participants' lifestyles, wrestling characteristics, and risk factors for dermatophytic infections. The hairbrush method was used for scalp and trunk sampling, whereas a cotton swab was used for groin, toe web, and mat sampling. Three wrestling mats in the gymnasium were surveyed for dermatophytes using the touch preparation method. A total of 17 (8.8%) wrestlers harbored dermatophytes, and 22 strains were isolated: 13 (59.1%) T. tonsurans and 9 (40.9%) T. rubrum. These isolates were found on the scalp (8), trunk (2), forearm (1), hand (1), groin (3), and feet (7). In addition, we recovered 8 dermatophyte strains from the 150 mat samples (5.3%): T. rubrum in 6 samples (75%) and T. tonsurans in two samples (25%). T. tonsurans was only recovered from 11 out of 194 (5.7%) wrestlers. Scalp carriage represents the predominant (72.7%) clinical picture of a T. tonsurans infection in these Greco-Roman wrestlers in Turkey.

  19. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii against dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Bolutari Baptista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of a commercial sample of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker and its antifungal activity against Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 9533, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11480, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. METHODS: Morphological changes in these fungi after treatment with the oil were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The antifungal activity of the oil was determined on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC values. RESULTS: The compound 1,8-cineole was found to be the predominant component (72.2% of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil ranged from 62.5μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1, and the MFC values of the oil ranged from 125μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1. SEM analysis showed physical damage and morphological alterations in the fungi exposed to this oil. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the potential of Eucalyptus smithii essential oil as a natural therapeutic agent for the treatment of dermatophytosis.

  20. Comparative analysis of secreted enzymes between the anthropophilic-zoophilic sister species Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton equinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuett, Barry L; Schuenemann, Eric; Brown, Jacob T; Kovac, Michelle E; Krishnan, Sandeep K; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans (TT) and Trichophyton equinum (TE) are two closely related dermatophytes with very different host preferences. This study was designed to examine the genetic and transcript level variations of secreted enzymes between TT and TE. Thirty-one genes representing 10 gene families were selected for comparison and complete genomic and cDNA sequences were elucidated. Sequence analyses of the selected genes identified 104 polymorphisms between the two dermatophytes, 37 of which are expected to encode changes in their polypeptide sequence. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the differences in levels of transcript between TT and TE grown over 14d in aqueous keratin medium. Differences in transcript expression between TT and TE were gene specific and ranged from 1.1-fold to 33-fold. Intra-specific variability across all genes ranged from 41% to 250%. Despite their overall genetic similarity, TT and TE exhibit a moderate degree of variability in the genomic make-up of their secreted enzymes and the extent to which they are transcribed when grown in an aqueous keratin medium. Such differences may contribute to how these genetically similar organisms have adapted to infect divergent host organisms.

  1. Silicon phthalocyanine 4 phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma D

    2014-06-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm(2) reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis.

  2. Dicarboxylic acids affect the growth of dermatophytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, J; Friege, B

    1994-09-01

    Azelaic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with known antimycotic activity. In this study we have used an agar dilution technique to test the effect of six other dicarboxylic acids (sebacic, undecanedioic, dodecanedioic, tridecanedioic, tetradecanedioic and hexadecanedioic acid, 10(-4)-10(-2) mol/l, pH 5.5) on in vitro growth of Trichophyton (T.) rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum (M.) canis. Furthermore, the fungicidal activity of 10(-2) mol/l undecanedioic and sebacic acid was tested using a T. rubrum growth assay. Undecanedioic acid proved fungistatic at 10(-2) mol/l for all species and fungicidal for T. rubrum. A minor fungistatic effect on T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes was also seen with the other acids at this concentration. M. canis was inhibited only by high concentrations of four acids, whereas low concentrations of all six agents resulted in enlarged thallus diameters. We conclude that among dicarboxylic acids fungistatic activity is not limited to azelaic acid. Undecanedioic acid appears promising for further investigations.

  3. DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DERMATOPHYTES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN MADHYAPRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial mycosis with dermatophytes has a wide geographical distribution and diverse species prevalence. This mycological study comprised of 204 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis. All 204 samples were subjected to direct microscopy by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and isolation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol without cycloheximide. Culture confirmation was done by tease mount, slide culture and various physiological tests like urease test, hair perforation test etc. In the present study an agar based disk diffusion method was performed to determine the susceptibility of dermatophytes. In this study 49% cases were positive for fungus in microscopy, while 24% was culture positive. The most common clinical types observed was T. cruris (40% followed by T. corporis (34.3%. Young adults in the age group of 21 - 30 years were most commonly affected, belonging to lower middle socio - economic status. Among cultures, T. rubrum was the most common isolate (53% followed by T. mentagrophyte (38.7%.

  4. Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

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    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae , conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes , Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partición metanol-hexano a partir de aceite de semillas y hojas verdes maduras. Adicionalmente, se analizaron por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR con el fin de relacionar su perfil químico con el contenido de terpenoides, de conocida actividad antifúngica. Se empleó como control positivo el antimicótico Terbinafina. Los resultados mostraron inhibición total del crecimiento de los aislamientos de dermatofitos a concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias (CMI entre 50 μg/mL y 200 μg/mL para el extracto de hojas y entre 625 μg/mL y 2500 μg/mL para el extracto de aceite de semillas. La CMI encontrada para el control positivo (Terbinafina fluctuó entre 0,0078 μg/mL y 0,0313 μg/mL. Los extractos metanólicos de hojas y aceite de semillas de neem exhibieron diferentes perfiles cromatográficos en CLAR, lo cual podría explicar las diferencias observadas en su actividad antifúngica. Éste análisis químico reveló la posible presencia de compuestos terpenoides en ambos extractos, los cuales se conocen por su actividad biológica. Los resultados de esta investigación son un nuevo aporte sobre el potencial terapéutico del neem para el control de dermatofitosis.

  5. Bioactive constituents of Homalomena aromatica essential oil and its antifungal activity against dermatophytes and yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policegoudra, R S; Goswami, S; Aradhya, S M; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Sivaswamy, R; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L

    2012-03-01

    Homalomena aromatica rhizomes are rich source of essential oils, which have been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, essential oil from H. aromatica rhizomes was isolated and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) analysis. Fifty-five chemical constituents were reported from H. aromatica rhizomes of which T-muurolol (5.32%), viridiflorol (3.69%), α-selinene (2.19%), M-cymene (2.19%) and γ-Muurolene (1.81%) were identified and reported for the first time. Other major components were identified as linalool (62.5%), terpene-4-ol (7.08%), δ-cadinene (5.57%), α-cadinol (3.71%) and spatulenol (1.81%). H. aromatica rhizome essential oil showed high antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichosporon beigelii and Candida albicans.

  6. Tinea faciei on the right eyebrow caused by Trichophyton interdigitale*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kai Wen; Dai, Ya Ling; Ran, Yu Ping; Lama, Jebina; Fan, Yi Ming

    2016-01-01

    Tinea faciei is a relatively uncommon dermatophyte infection entailing atypical clinical symptoms, usually misdiagnosed and treated with corticosteroids. The authors describe a case of tinea faciei on the right eyebrow caused by Trichophyton interdigitale. The patient was an 18-year-old girl, who had an inflammatory plaque with a scaly, pustular surface on the right eyebrow and upper eyelid, which had persisted for over 1 month. She was once misdiagnosed as having eczema and was treated using corticosteroid cream. A diagnosis of tinea faciei was made based on direct microscopy and culture. The sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and β-tubulin gene of the isolate established its T. interdigitale lineage. The patient was cured by treatment with systemic terbinafine in combination with topical application of 1% naftifine-0.25% ketaconazole cream for 2 weeks. PMID:28099612

  7. 家兔皮肤真菌通用引物PCR检测和培养鉴定的比较研究%Comparison of Universal Primer PCR Identification and Its Culture of Rabbit Dermatophyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽娜; 姜文学; 杨丽萍; 牛钟相; 高淑霞

    2011-01-01

    Hie aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of universal primer PCR detection and culture identification of rabbit dennato-phyte. Based on rDNA sequences of fungal skin-specific, the universal primers were used to detect the known dermatophyte and other microorganisms. Specimens were collected from 40 rabbits with dermatomycosis. PCR results indicated the specificity of the method. 33 specimens of 40 were positive in PCR, which were all the Trichophyton mentagrophytes by sequencing. 26 specimens of 40 were positive in culture, and the results were consistent with PCR. The results suggested that the universal primer PCR was more rapid and sensitive than traditional culture in detecting rabbits dermatophyte, and was an efficient method in the detection of dermatomycosis.%本研究比较了家兔皮肤真菌通用引物PCR检测方法与培养鉴定方法的敏感性,探讨了通用引物PCR检测方法的特异性及其在皮肤真菌诊断中的意义.根据皮肤真菌特异性rDNA序列设计通用引物,对已知分离株及不同微生物进行特异性检测,应用该引物对40份兔患部病料进行PCR检测并克隆测序;同时,采用培养鉴定对40份病料进行表型分析.PCR检测结果显示,家兔四种常见病原性皮肤真菌可扩增出400 ~500 bp之间的条带,其它微生物和兔体细胞均为阴性,说明该方法具有特异性;33份临床病料检测为阳性,扩增条带均为460bp,经测序为须癣毛癣菌.培养法的阳性为26份,检测结果与前者一致.与传统的培养鉴定方法相比,本研究建立的通用引物PCR检测方法,操作简便、特异性高,可用于大规模的家兔皮肤真菌病检测和流行病学调查,并具有重要的公共卫生意义.

  8. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M; Ouf, S A; Moussa, Tarek A A; Eltahlawi, S M R

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31-40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis.

  9. 实验动物皮肤病原真菌多重 PCR 检测方法的建立与初步应用%Development and application of a multiplex PCR assay for pathogenic dermatophytes in laboratory animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢进; 冯育芳; 岳秉飞; 贺争鸣

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立石膏样毛癣菌(Tm)、石膏样小孢子菌(Mg)、犬小孢子菌(Mc)和猴类毛癣菌(Am)的多重PCR检测方法,用于实验动物皮肤病原真菌的快速检测。方法根据Genbank公布的四种皮肤病原真菌的18S-28S rRNA序列设计特异性引物,通过引物、dNTP、TaqDNA聚合酶浓度及退火温度和时间的优化,建立四种皮肤病原真菌的多重PCR体系。经特异性和敏感性检验后,对15份人工感染真菌大鼠毛和260份实验动物毛发样本进行检测。结果所建多重PCR方法能够有效区分四种皮肤病原真菌,产生192 bp( Tm)、460 bp( Mg)、290 bp( Mc)和602 bp( As)的目的片段,最低检测限分别为5.9 pg/μL、6.6 pg/μL、9.5 pg/μL和5.1 pg/μL。被检的15份人工感染样本扩增结果准确,260份毛发样本中未检测出四种真菌。结论所建立的多重PCR方法能够同时对实验动物中的四种皮肤病原真菌进行快速的检测,具有较高的应用价值。%Objective To develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction ( mPCR) assay for detection of four pathogenic dermatophytes [Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Tm), Microsporum gypseum (Mg), Microsporum canis (Mc), and Arthroderma simii ( As) ] in laboratory animals, which could be used rapidly and simultaneously for direct detection of those four pathogens.Methods We designed 5 specific primers according to 18S-28S rRNA sequences of the four pathogenic dermatophytes reported in Genbank. The four mPCR assays were established through optimizing the concentration of primers, dNTP, TaqDNA polymerase and the annealing temperature.After verifying the specificity and sensibility, this method was used to detect 15 hair samples with artificial infection and 260 samples taken from laboratory animals.Results This mPCR technique can distinguish the four dermatophytes by producing 192 bp( Tm) ,460 bp( Mg) , 290 bp( Mc) and 602 bp( As) fragments

  10. Cytokine secretion profiles of human keratinocytes during Trichophyton tonsurans and Arthroderma benhamiae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Yumi; Ishibashi, Yoshio; Hiruma, Masataro; Nishikawa, Akemi; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2006-09-01

    Dermatophytes cause intractable superficial infections in humans. Arthroderma benhamiae, a zoophilic dermatophyte, triggers severe inflammatory responses in humans, while Trichophyton tonsurans, an anthropophilic dermatophyte, triggers minimal ones. Cytokines and other factors derived from keratinocytes play important roles in inflammatory and immune responses in the skin. The authors performed an in vitro investigation to determine the human keratinocyte cytokine profiles during dermatophyte infection. The human keratinocyte cell line PHK16-0b was infected with A. benhamiae or T. tonsurans for 24 h, and the cytokines secreted were analysed using a human cytokine antibody array. Marked differences were observed in the cytokine profiles of the cells infected with the two dermatophytes. A. benhamiae infection resulted in the secretion of a broad spectrum of cytokines, including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and immunomodulatory cytokines. In contrast, T. tonsurans-infected keratinocytes secreted only limited cytokines, including eotaxin-2, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-16. cDNA microarray analysis confirmed that A. benhamiae infection upregulated genes encoding IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-gamma, while T. tonsurans infection upregulated only a few genes, such as those encoding IL-1beta and IL-16. RT-PCR demonstrated that infection by both dermatophytes enhanced IL-8 mRNA expression in keratinocytes. These results suggest that A. benhamiae-induced secretion of several cytokines from keratinocytes may be involved in a severe inflammatory response, and that the limited cytokine secretion from keratinocytes in response to T. tonsurans infection may result in a minimal inflammatory response in the skin. These cytokine profiles may aid in proving the clinical features of dermatophytosis.

  11. EAMJ Feb. Dermatophyte.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-02

    Feb 2, 2009 ... DERMATOPHYTE INFECTIONS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN KIBERA SLUMS OF NAIROBI. A. Chepchirchir ... concentration in class as well as representing a potential source ... Sample size: A total of 422 pupils were selected for the study as ..... of basic amenities like electricity, proper sanitation.

  12. Tinea capitis and tinea corporis with a severe inflammatory response due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryncewicz-Gwóźdź, Anita; Beck-Jendroschek, Vera; Brasch, Jochen; Kalinowska, Katarzyna; Jagielski, Tomasz

    2011-10-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is an anthropophilic dermatophyte, with a worldwide distribution, although its prevalence varies considerably between different geographical regions. Whereas in North America infections due to this fungus are exceptionally common, on the European continent they appear relatively seldom. Although T. tonsurans is primarily associated with tinea capitis, it can also be the cause of tinea corporis and tinea unguium. The course of infection is usually only mildly symptomatic. We describe here two cases of urease-positive T. tonsurans infections with atypically extensive cutaneous lesions and severe inflammatory responses. .

  13. Neonatal kerion Celsi: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Margarita; Gomar, Begoña; Boggio, Paula; Abad, María Eugenia; Pagotto, Betina

    2010-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection caused by dermatophytes, frequent in children but uncommon in the neonatal period. Kerion Celsi is the inflammatory manifestation of tinea capitis secondary to host immunologic responses and its occurrence in newborns is extremely infrequent. We describe three neonates with the diagnosis of kerion Celsi. The isolated dermatophytes were Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes in two patients and Trichophyton rubrum in the third. Both patients with T. mentagrophytes referred an indirect contact with rabbits and were successfully treated with systemic antifungal (griseofulvin and fluconazole). The patient with T. rubrum had a father with a tinea manuum and both received just topical antimycotic treatment.

  14. Isolation, Molecular Identification and Evaluation of Antifungal Effects of the Bacilli Isolated from Rhizospheric Soil of Gorgan Region against Tricophyton Mentagrophytes

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    Pordeli, HR. (PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Soil bacteria, particularly Bacillus genus have thepotential of producing a range of bioactive substances with antimicrobial andantifungal properties. They have the ability to produce hundreds of active andeffective biologic compound against microorganisms. Therefore, it seems to be aproper candidate in the biocontrol of fungal pathogenesis.Material and Methods: In this study, soil samples were collected from differentparts of Gorgan in order to isolate Bacillus and to determine their antifungalactivity against T.mentagrophytes. The Isolates that had the highest antifungaleffects were analyzed by PCR and 16s rRNA sequencing.Results: Of 54 strains, 14 have antifungal activity. The Isolates, S4 and S12,identified as B.cereus and B.thuringiensis respectively show the highestantidermatofit effect. These isolates based on 16s rRNA sequence analysis show97% homology with Bacillus cereusstrain KU4 and Bacillus thuringiensisstrainucsc27.Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that the soil Bacilli have biocontrolpotential against dermatophytic agents such as T.mentagrophytes.Keywords: Antifungal effects; Bacillus; Rhizospheric soil; T.mentagrophytes

  15. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of 316 Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Saham; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Badali, Hamid; Rafiei, Abdollah; Ravandeh, Mostafa; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-02-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common mycotic infection of the skin, nail, and hair, associated with major public health concern worldwide. Various species of dermatophytes show significant differences in susceptibility to antifungals. Here, we present the antifungal susceptibility of a large collection of molecularly identified dermatophyte isolates obtained from tropical region of south of Iran. A total of 9485 patients clinically suspected to have cutaneous fungal infections were examined. Dermatophytosis was confirmed in 1502 cases by direct microscopy and culture. Three hundred and sixteen isolates recovered in culture were identified to species level using PCR sequencing of ITS region and RFLP. Tinea corporis was the most prevalent type of clinical manifestation (35.2 %), followed by tinea cruris (17 %), tinea capitis (12.8 %), tinea pedis (11.3 %), tinea manuum (11 %), tinea unguium (6.9 %), and tinea barbae (5.8 %). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common isolate (49.36 %), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (18.98 %), Epidermophyton floccosum (13.29 %), Microsporum canis (9.17 %), Arthroderma benhamiae (T. anamorph of A. benhamiae; 5.38 %), and Trichophyton tonsurans (3.79 %). Overall, irrespective of the geographical region, terbinafine was the most potent antifungal against all isolates, with an MIC range of 0.002-0.25 μg/mL, followed by itraconazole (0.004-0.5 μg/mL), griseofulvin (0.125-8 μg/mL), and fluconazole (4-128 μg/mL). Analysis of our data revealed a significant increase in the frequency of A.benhamiae, which definitely warrants further investigation to explore source of this infection in south of Iran. Moreover, terbinafine was the most effective antifungal against all isolates, in vitro.

  16. Unrecognized dermatophyte infection in ichthyosis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahovac, Maja; Budimcić, Dragomir

    2009-01-01

    A case of unrecognized widespread dermatophyte infection associated with ichthyosis vulgaris and atopy is described. Our patient was a young woman in which the diagnosis of ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis blocked the recognition of widespread dermatophyte infection for more than six months. The case showed some clinical peculiarities in terms of both extent of lesions and their clinical appearance.

  17. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

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    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  18. Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy.

  19. Simple identification of Trichophyton tonsurans by chlamydospore-like structures produced in culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Anzawa, Kazushi; Sakata, Yuichi; Fujihiro, Machiko

    2013-12-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is known to be the causative agent of a worldwide epidemic of dermatophytoses among contact sports practitioners, and is spreading among the general population of Japan. Prompt and simple identification of T. tonsurans in diagnostic laboratories is crucial to control infection. The present study evaluated the availability of observation of chlamydospore-like structures grown in culture media as a characteristic for identification of T. tonsurans. Twenty-five strains of T. tonsurans and five strains each of Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were inoculated on Mycosel agar plates and inoculated Petri dishes were observed by light microscopy from the reverse side. Twenty-three of 25 T. tonsurans strains showed chlamydospore-like structures within 5 days, and all strains at day 8. The numbers of chlamydospore-like structures were very abundant in most strains. The majority of strains of other species showed no chlamydospore-like structures, or very few when present. Positive for chlamydospore-like structures among 15 strains other than T. tonsurans was one strain at day 5 and six strains at day 8. As for the identification of T. tonsurans, presence of chlamydospore-like structures showed 92.0% sensitivity (23/25) and 93.3% specificity (14/15) at day 5, and 100% sensitivity (25/25) and 60.0% specificity (9/15) at day 8. Electron microscopic findings suggest chlamydospore-like structures are not true chlamydospores but are produced by inflation of actively growing hyphae by developing vacuoles in cells. In conclusion, observation of development of chlamydospore-like structures in culture media is the simplest method for identification of T. tonsurans.

  20. Occurrence of keratinolytic fungi and related dermatophytes in soils in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Y A; el-Din, A A; Hassanein, S M

    1992-01-01

    120 soil samples collected from various sites of Cairo were processed for the isolation of keratinophilic fungi by "ToKaVa" hair baiting technique. 22 species belonging to 6 genera were isolated viz.: Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. queenslandicum, C. merdarium, C. anamorph of Arthroderma curreyi, C. pannicola, C. lobatum, C. anamorph of Renispora flavissima, C. pseudomerdarium, Microascus mangini, Malbranchea gypsea, Ml. State of Uncicarpus reesii, Ml. State of Coccidioides immitis, Microsporum gypseum, Mr. distortum Mr. audouinii, Mr. fulvum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. terrestre, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The frequency of occurrence of the isolated fungi was determined. Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium tropicum and Chrysosporium indicum were the most frequent species recovered from soil. Most species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated from university, public garden and zoo garden. The distribution of the isolates are discussed.

  1. Discrimination of Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton equinum by PCR-RFLP and by β-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-α sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Makimura, Koichi; De Hoog, G Sybren; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Satoh, Kazuo; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2012-10-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans and T. equinum are two closely related sister species of dermatophytes, but differ in their preferred hosts, i.e., humans or horses, respectively. Routine procedures for their identification depend on studies of their phenotypic, physiological and biochemical characteristics, which are laborious and may yield ambiguous results. Molecular methods using rDNA ITS also had been judged to be insufficiently discriminatory. In the present study two genetic markers were sequenced in addition to the ITS region, i.e., partial β-tubulin (BT2) and translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1). The TEF1 locus revealed a consistent differences in a 13 bp indel and an additional SNP between the two species, along with a single base substitution in BT2 and one ITS1, enabling unambiguous distinction of the two taxa. RFLP targeting the ITS region was evaluated as a potential tool for routine screening of suspected isolates of T. tonsurans and T. equinum.

  2. A Case of Dermatophytic Blepharitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kulaç

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytoses are the most common fungal infections of the skin. In the clinical practise, tinea pedis is most common clinical form of dermatophytosis. Other clinical forms are tinea cruris, tinea capitis, tinea corporis and tinea faciei. Tinea faciei is a rare form of dermatophytosis of glabrous skin, characterized by a well- circumscribed erythematous patch, and is more commonly misdiagnosed with some dermatologic diseases as seborrheic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, polymorphic light eruption and lymphocytic infiltrations. In addition, it is reported its clinical forms resembling folliculitis, perioral dermatitis, impetigo and sycosis. To date, a few cases of dermatophytosis involving eyelid were presented in the literature. Here, we present a patient who has an erythematous and fine scaly patch on her eyelid and who is diagnosed as dermatophytic blepharitis by helping typical tinea corporis on her wrist.

  3. Purification and characterization of major extracellular proteinases from Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, M; Lindquist, R; Fukuyama, K; Apodaca, G; Epstein, W L; McKerrow, J H

    1985-11-15

    Two extracellular proteinases that probably play a central role in the metabolism and pathogenesis of the most common dermatophyte of man, Trichophyton rubrum, were purified to homogeneity. Size-exclusion chromatography and Chromatofocusing were used to purify the major proteinases 42-fold from crude fungal culture filtrate. The major enzyme has pI 7.8 and subunit Mr 44 000, but forms a dimer of Mr approx. 90 000 in the absence of reducing agents. A second enzyme with pI 6.5 and subunit Mr 36 000, was also purified. It is very similar in substrate specificity to the major enzyme but has lower specific activity, and may be an autoproteolysis product. The major proteinase has pH optimum 8, a Ca2+-dependence maximum of 1 mM, and was inhibited by serine-proteinase inhibitors, especially tetrapeptidyl chloromethane derivatives with hydrophobic residues at the P-1 site. Kinetic studies also showed that tetrapeptides containing aromatic or hydrophobic residues at P-1 were the best substrates. A kcat./Km of 27 000 M-1 X S-1 was calculated for the peptide 3-carboxypropionyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme has significant activity against keratin, elastin and denatured type I collagen (Azocoll).

  4. ITS barcodes for Trichophyton tonsurans and T. equinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerbell, Richard C; Moore, Mary K; Starink-Willemse, Mieke; Van Iperen, Arien

    2007-05-01

    Early molecular biosystematic studies of dermatophytes created considerable confusion about the taxonomic status of the horse-associated Trichophyton equinum vis-à-vis the anthropophilic T. tonsurans. Though this matter has recently been clarified, routine identification of these species based on the commonly used ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence has been impractical. This is because, in the available sequences attributed to the species in GenBank, a clear species-level distinction does not appear to exist. In the present study, resequencing the ITS regions of several anomalous isolates is shown to eliminate this problem, which was mainly based on read errors in older sequences. Newly generated sequences and recent GenBank additions are analysed to show that T. equinum appears to be uniform in ITS sequence worldwide, while T. tonsurans is also uniform, excepting a single-base change found in one otherwise typical strain. Analysis also reveals a distinct, as yet incompletely classified Asian genotype that may belong to one or the other of these species. Standard ITS 'barcode sequences' are proposed for T. tonsurans and T. equinum, and a taxonomic neotype is designated to anchor the latter species. T. equinum var. autotrophicum is further evidenced as very closely related to T. equinum var. equinum, and the anomaly of its plesiomorphous phenotype is discussed in a population genetics context.

  5. [Infection with a rare geophilic dermatophyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, F; Goetze, S; Erhard, M; Burmester, A; Elsner, P; Hipler, U-C

    2010-08-01

    There are 12 dermatologically relevant Microsporum (M.) species. The most frequent species are M. canis, M. audouinii and M. gypseum. We report an infection of the right forearm with the rare dermatophyte M. fulvum. A KOH examination of scales revealed a tinea corporis. The scales were cultured on Dermasel(R) agar with the identification of the geophilic dermatophyte M. gypseum. However, ITS sequencing and mass spectrometry revealed M. fulvum as the correct pathogen.

  6. Surto de Trichophyton equinum var. equinum em eqüinos no sul do Brasil Outbreak of Trichophyton equinum var. equinum in horses in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se, neste trabalho, um surto de dermatofitose eqüina no Sul do Brasil. Cinqüenta e oito animais jovens (55,2% apresentavam lesões clínicas características da enfermidade. O diagnóstico micológico realizado pela presença do fungo nos pêlos, associado às características macro e micromorfológicas das colônias isoladas em meio de cultivo, permitiram a classificação do dermatófito como Trichophyton equinum var. equinum.One outbreak of dermatophytosis in horses is described in south Brazil. Fifty eight young animals (55.2% presented clinical signs of the disease. The mycological diagnosis was realized through the presence of fungus in the hair, associated with the macro and micromorphologic characteristics of the isolated colonies in agar also allowed the dermatophyte´s classification as Trichophyton equinum var. equinum.

  7. Epidemiology of dermatomycoses of humans in central Poland. Part V. Tinea corporis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, J; Lupa, S; Seneczko, F; Głowacka, A; Ochecka-Szymańska, A

    1999-01-01

    The total number of dermatophytoses (7393) included 2204 (29.8%) cases of tinea glabrosa. Etiological factors in descending order were: Microsporum canis (23.5%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. granulosum (21.6%), Trichophyton rubrum (17.8%), Trichophyton tonsurans (10.4%), Epidermophyton floccosum (7.7%), T. mentagrophytes var. quinckeanum (6.0%), Microsporum gypseum (5.3%), Trichophyton violaceum (3.7%), T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (2.3%), Microsporum equinum (0.7%), Trichophyton verrucosum (0.4%), Trichophyton spec. (0.4%), Microsporum cookei (0.14%). At present tinea glabrosa is dominant among all clinical forms of dermatophyte infections of skin and skin appendages in the Lódź region.

  8. Effective Single Photodynamic Treatment of ex Vivo Onychomycosis Using a Multifunctional Porphyrin Photosensitizer and Green Light

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Chelsea; Visser, Jasper; Haas, Ellen; Incrocci, Luca; Smijs, Threes

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is predominantly caused by the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton tonsurans. The main treatment obstacle concerns low nail-plate drug permeability. In vitro antifungal photodynamic treatment (PDT) and nail penetration enhancing effectiveness have been proven for multifunctional photosensitizer 5,10,15-tris(4-N-methylpyridinium)-20-(4-(butyramido-methylcysteinyl)-hydroxyphenyl)-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (PORTHE). This study invest...

  9. Effective Single Photodynamic Treatment of ex Vivo Onychomycosis Using a Multifunctional Porphyrin Photosensitizer and Green Light

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Chelsea; Visser, Jasper; Haas, Ellen; Incrocci, Luca; Smijs, Threes

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is predominantly caused by the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton tonsurans. The main treatment obstacle concerns low nail-plate drug permeability. In vitro antifungal photodynamic treatment (PDT) and nail penetration enhancing effectiveness have been proven for multifunctional photosensitizer 5,10,15-tris(4-N-methylpyridinium)-20-(4-(butyramido-methylcysteinyl)-hydroxyphenyl)-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (PORTHE). This study invest...

  10. Efficacy and Phytochemical Analysis of Aqueous Extract of Calotropis procera against Selected Dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiu Muhammad Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient time, an increased interest had been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing and the treatment of fungal disease worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available fungal drugs. Since ancient time, it has been a known tradition practised in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera (Tumfafiya to treat Tinea capitis (Makero in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to designed to ascertain the above claim scientifically. Latex extract of Calotropis procera was screened for their antifungal and phytochemical properties. Agar incorporation method against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton sp., Microsporum sp. and Epidermophyton sp. shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these three filamentous fungi to varying extents. Statistical analysis of the results shows that Trichophyton sp. is the most susceptible and thus highly inhabited by the latex extract followed by the Microsporum Sp. and Epidermopyton sp. was least inhibited. Undiluted latex (100% of C. procera gave the highest inhibitory impacts on the dermatophytes and corresponding lowest least (20% concentration. The phytochemical analysis of the latex extract indicates the presence alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone and triterpenoids. The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of Tinea capitis (ringworm practiced in the society and therefore, its use in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 314-317

  11. In vitro sensitivity of dermatophytes to urea Sensibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos à uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Costa Martins

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Urea is commonly used as a keratolytic substance in the treatment of onychomycoses to improve the penetration of antifungal drugs in the lesion sites. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory action of urea on samples of dermatophytes in vitro. METHOD: Minimum inhibitory concentration of urea was determined for 31 samples of dermatophytes cultured in Sabouraud-dextrose broth containing different concentrations (7.5% up to 40% of urea. Absence of growth was the criterion adopted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. RESULTS: The majority of samples (87% were sensitive to urea at 12.5%, or less. 2 isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans and 2 of Trichophyton rubrum required 30%, and 40% urea, respectively, to be completely inhibited. CONCLUSION: In vitro results demonstrate inhibitory activity of urea on dermatophytes, suggesting that it could be used as an adjuvant in topical treatments.OBJETIVO: A uréia é comumente usada como substância queratolítica no tratamento das onicomicoses no intuito de melhorar a penetração das drogas antifúngicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ação inibitória in vitro da uréia em amostras de dermatófitos MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima da uréia foi determinada para trinta e uma amostras de dermatófitos semeadas em meio de cultura Sabouraud-dextrose contendo diferentes concentrações (7,5% até 40% de uréia. Ausência de crescimento foi o critério adotado para a determinação da concentração inibitória mínima. RESULTADOS: A maioria das amostras (87% foi sensível à uréia em concentrações de 12,5% ou menos. Apenas dois isolados de Trichophyton tonsurans e dois de Trichophyton rubrum foram inibidos completamente na presença de 30% e 40% de uréia, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados in vitro demonstraram atividade inibitória da uréia sobre os dermatófitos, sugerindo que possa ser usada como um adjuvante em tratamentos tópicos.

  12. Canine dermatophytosis caused by an anthropophilic species: molecular and phenotypical characterization of Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, R S N; Cordeiro, R A; Gomes, J M F; Sidrim, J J C; Rocha, M F G

    2006-11-01

    Microsporum canis is the most common species isolated from canine and feline dermatophytosis in the world. However, this study reports a rare case of canine dermatophytosis caused by the anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The fungal characterization was performed by classical mycological examination and by genotypical analysis using the restriction enzymes Sau3A, RsaI, DdeI and EcoRI. The phenotypical characteristics were compatible with T. tonsurans. The results obtained in the genotypical analysis were similar to the digestion pattern of the ITS sequences for T. tonsurans strains. In addition, an antifungal susceptibility test was performed with griseofulvin, ketoconazole and itraconazole. The MICs were 0.5 microg ml(-1) for griseofulvin, 0.25 microg ml(-1) for ketoconazole and 1 microg ml(-1) for itraconazole. This study emphasizes the adaptability of anthropophilic fungi such as T. tonsurans to animal conditions.

  13. 须癣毛癣菌所致面部难辨认癣%Trichophyton mentagrophytes caused tinea incognita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿庆娜; 任发亮; 张文志; 郭宁如; 吴绍熙

    2011-01-01

    @@ 患者,女,26岁. 主诉:颜面部红斑伴瘙痒2个月. 现病史:患者2个月前无明显诱因右颧部出现钱币大水肿性红斑,瘙痒,至当地医院诊断为"湿疹",给予抗组胺药及糖皮质激素药膏外用,效果差.右颧部红斑面积不断扩大,增多,瘙痒更甚,左下颌亦出现类似皮疹,并离心性扩大.家中养猫,自诉见猫有脱毛等异常表现,但已送别人.

  14. Granuloma caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes :a case report%须癣毛癣菌肉芽肿1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳学苹; 王爱平; 万喆; 李若瑜

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1临床资料 患者男,31岁,因右小腿皮损伴痒痛2年,于1997年6月23日就诊.2年前患者无明显诱因于右小腿屈侧出现一处铜钱大小环形红斑,外用中药治疗无效.皮损逐渐向外扩大,伴剧烈瘙痒.之后皮损表面出现硬结、破溃及化脓,有时疼痛.患者既往病史不详.查体:一般情况可,浅表淋巴结未触及肿大.皮肤科检查:右小腿外侧、屈侧可见隆起的环形红斑,边界清楚,表面有丘疹、脓疱及脱屑;其环形皮损内可见散在数个大小不一的质硬的结节,个别顶端有结痂,未见明显坏死及化脓性损害(见图1).实验室检查:皮损组织病理显示:真皮可见嗜中性粒细胞、组织细胞、淋巴细胞、浆细胞及多核巨细胞浸润,为感染性肉芽肿改变(见图2).同时组织块真菌培养阳性,皮损鳞屑真菌镜检和培养均阳性,菌种鉴定为须癣毛癣菌(见图3).之后组织病理切片PAS染色,在真皮中可见多数红染的孢子样菌丝片段(见图4).最后诊断为须癣毛癣菌肉芽肿.治疗:给予患者口服特比萘芬250 mg,1次/d,疗程1个月,痊愈.

  15. DNA Typing of Trichophyton Mentagrophytes%须癣毛癣菌基因分型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国玲; 李庆祥; 金礼吉; 安利佳

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨ITS区域的探针与DNA印迹杂交法对须癣毛癣菌的基因分型,并分析基因型与来源地区的相关性.方法用溴化十六烷基三甲铵(CTAB)法提取DNA,以皮肤癣菌的特异性引物NS5[5'-AACTTAAAGGAATT-GACGGAAG-3']与ITS4[5'-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3']为引物,以须癣毛癣菌的标准菌株为模板,用PCR法扩增rDNA部分18S区、ITSⅠ区、5.8s区和ITSⅡ区为探针,随机引物法将探针标记,EcoR1酶切基因组DNA,按ECL试剂盒标准流程将酶切的基因组DNA与探针杂交;根据杂交的不同带型而分型.结果所试35株须癣毛癣菌分为14型(A~N型),A,B,C,D四型占62.86%.南方株以A和C型为主,北方株以B和D型为主.结论用ITS区域探针与DNA印迹杂交法对须癣毛癣菌基因组分型敏感性强、分辨力较高;南北方须癣毛癣菌DNA分型存在一定差异;DNA分型对须癣毛癣菌病的流行病学调查和菌学的生物学研究具有重要价值.

  16. Study on the phenotyping of Trichophyton mentagrophytes%须癣毛癣菌表型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆祥; 杨国玲; 安利佳

    2007-01-01

    目的:采用传统方法对须癣毛癣菌进行表型的分型.方法:采用沙氏琼脂试管培养基(SDA)培养.菌株鉴定及分型依据菌落的形态,菌丝及大小分生孢子的特征,尿素酶试验,葡萄糖米粉试验和体外毛发穿孔试验.结果:36株须癣毛癣菌共分为5个表型,羊毛状、紧密状和绒毛状居多,三型占72.22%,颗粒状最少.螺旋菌丝主要见于绒毛状和粉末状;羊毛和紧密状的镜下结构相似,见大量细长菌丝及少量圆形小分生孢子;颗粒状的大分生孢子最多.结论:须癣毛癣菌分为5个表型,各型镜下结构不同.

  17. Isolation of dermatophytes and correlated species from the soil of public gardens and parks in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercantini, R; Marsella, R; Caprilli, F; Dovgiallo, G

    1980-06-01

    Looking for dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in the soil of parks and gardens in large towns is very interesting because of the relationship between the number of people living in the area and the presence of such fungi in the soil. As compared with other cities in Italy, Rome offers prime conditions for this kind of research. It has a high population density (10,000 inhabitants per sq/km2), and many parks and gardens, where it is possible to carry out soil studies. It was noted that in 35 sites the number of the isolated species of keratomycetes was 2.6 times higher than the number of all other species of fungi and that species found most often were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton ajelloi, M. cookei, and Chrysosporium spp. It is of particular interest that Nannizzia cajetani and N. grubya were isolated directly from the soil for the first time in Italy and that Diheterospora spp. were isolated from almost all of the samples. Keratinic matter in soils evidently influences the biological cycle of the dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi, but at present the methods of soil analysis are not yet specific enough to establish a well-defined relationship.

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Real-Time PCR for Pan-Dermatophyte Detection in Nail Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Ran, Menglong; Wang, Xiaowen; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu

    2016-02-01

    An accurate diagnosis of tinea unguium is necessary for the selection of antimycotics and successful treatment. To rapidly and accurately identify the aetiological agents causing tinea unguium, we improved upon the conventional boiling method for DNA extraction and developed a novel real-time PCR detection system that includes two assays. The two assays, based on the amplification of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions and 28S rDNA, were designed to detect pan-dermatophyte and Trichophyton rubrum, respectively. The analytical sensitivities of both assays permitted the detection of ten copies of plasmid DNA template. The analytical specificity of the detection system was confirmed using 11 dermatophyte strains and 25 non-dermatophyte strains. In total, 165 nail specimens were examined by microscopy, culture, conventional PCR, and the novel real-time PCR method. Real-time PCR gave positive results in 47.3 % of the specimens (78), a rate exceeding those obtained using microscopy (72, 43.6 %), conventional PCR (69, 41.8 %), and culture (49, 29.7 %). All conventional PCR-positive specimens were detected by real-time PCR, and real-time PCR detected nine specimens that were missed by conventional PCR. The results from latent class analysis, and further calculations, showed that real-time PCR was the most sensitive method, but the diagnostic specificity of the four approaches was equivalent. In particular, molecular approaches may be more effective than microscopy and culture when the clinical symptoms of tinea unguium are not evident.

  19. Isolation of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from surface sediments of the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks at Basrah, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S K; Hassan, D A

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-five sediment samples were taken from randomly selected sites in the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks and analysed for dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. The results revealed that out of 25 samples only 13 (52%) yielded dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. A total of nine species in four genera were isolated. The most frequent genera isolated in this study were Chrysosporium and its teleomorph Aphanoascus. The species most frequently found were Aphanoascus fulvescens, A. durus, Chrysosporium crassitunicatum, Chr. keratinophilum and Chr. tropicum (each n = 3). Microsporum was represented by two species, namely M. fulvum and M. gypseum. Trichophyton was represented by one species, T. verrucosum. The occurrence of these fungi illustrates that sediments may act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic fungi for human and animals.

  20. Genus Microsporum dermatophytes in Eastern Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorák, J; Otcenásek, M

    1976-01-01

    The authors presented a taxonomic survey of dermatophytes of the genus Microsporum. From the 19 species described so far, they isolated ten species in the region of Eastern Bohemia. Only the species Microsporum cookei and M. gypsem are considered to be endemic species. The remaining are regarded as imported dermatophytes which are not able to maintain their existence permanently in the conditions of the mentioned region. Data on the findings of the individual species were completed by the authors' remarks on their primary hosts and/or substrates of heterotrophy, frequency of occurrence and geographical distribution.

  1. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is corre- lated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins. The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction sys- tem were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration. This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expres- sion, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  2. Biochemical and morphological effects of polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors on Trichophyton and Microsporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, C M; Boyle, S M

    1991-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of three known irreversible inhibitors of polyamine synthesis, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and monofluoromethyldehydroornithine methylester (MFMOme), inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), an inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), were determined for 10 species of dermatophytic fungi. Trichophyton species were generally more sensitive to these inhibitors than Microsporum species. Both genera produced arginase, and treatment of members of either genus with DFMO or DFMA resulted in an inhibition of ODC activity and a depletion of cellular polyamines. However, conversion of labelled DFMA to DFMO, either in vivo or in vitro, could not be demonstrated in spite of both genera producing arginase. The ultrastructure of cells cultured in the presence of either DFMO or DFMA was similar, and revealed disruption of calcium metabolism, an increase in mitochondrial number and alterations to membrane systems. DFMA and DFMO also inhibited sporulation in Microsporum gypseum. Our findings indicate that DFMO limits the growth of dermatophytes by direct inhibition of ODC and lowering of cellular polyamine levels; in contrast, DFMA inhibits polyamine synthesis in an unspecified manner as ADC activity was undetected.

  3. The distribution of geophilic dermatophytes in Kenyan soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, S I; Lalji, N

    1978-07-28

    Two hundred and eighty one soil samples from different provinces of Kenya were examined for dermatophytes by the hair baiting technique. Dermatophytes were recovered from 84 samples. Microsporum gypseum constituted 75.8% of the total isolates while Keratinomyces ajelloi and M. cookei formed 21% and 3.2%, respectively. The distribution of the dermatophytes was influences by soil pH, being more prevalent in acidic than in alkaline soils.

  4. 红色毛癣菌菌株的PCR鉴定%Identification of Trichophyton rubrum by PCR-fingerprinting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红梅; 温海; 廖万清

    2002-01-01

    目的用PCR方法扩增红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌临床分离株的DNA,观察PCR指纹的差异以及基因型与传统表型的关系, 建立一种红色毛癣菌分子生物学鉴定方法.方法采用寡核苷酸重复序列 (GACA)4, (GTG)5及M13中心序列(5'-GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT-3')等3种引物,扩增 20株红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌临床分离株的DNA,观察产物电泳带型的差异.结果在3种引物的扩增中,均可见红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌呈现出具种特异性的DNA指纹,并检出其中2株原据表型鉴定为须癣毛癣菌的红色毛癣菌.结论红色毛癣菌可以用PCR方法加以鉴定,以(GACA)4作引物区分这两种菌最为合适.%Objective To observe the unique DNA profile and the relationship between DNA profile and phenotype of Trichophyton rubrum, and establish an effective molecular method to identify T. rubrum.Methods Three primers, including (GACA)4, (GTG)5 and M13 core sequence (5'-GAGGGTG~GCGGTTCT-3'), were used to distinguish variations among 20 clinical isolates of T. rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.Results Different PCR-fingerprinting was seen between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes using three different primers. 2 stains of T. rubrum were identified among 6 supposed T. mentagrophytes.Conclusions T. rubrum can be distinguished using PCR, and (GACA)4 is the most suitable primer.

  5. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Dermatophyles and other keratinophilic fungi in bottom sediments of rivers and lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Ulfig

    2014-01-01

    Sam pies of bottom sediments from the Rivers Nacyna, Ruda and from an eutrophic reservoir holding cooling waters were examined for dermatophytes and correlated fungi. The species isolated were: Trichophyton terrestre complex, T. ajelloi (and its perfect form Anhroderma uncinatum). pathogenic strains of T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum cookei; also isolated were five species of the genus Chrysosporium.

  6. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Dermatophyles and other keratinophilic fungi in bottom sediments of rivers and lakes

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    Krzysztof Ulfig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sam pies of bottom sediments from the Rivers Nacyna, Ruda and from an eutrophic reservoir holding cooling waters were examined for dermatophytes and correlated fungi. The species isolated were: Trichophyton terrestre complex, T. ajelloi (and its perfect form Anhroderma uncinatum. pathogenic strains of T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum cookei; also isolated were five species of the genus Chrysosporium.

  7. Trichophyton tonsurans tinea capitis and tinea corporis: treatment and follow-up of four affected family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, J; Goodfield, M J; Evans, E G

    2000-01-01

    We report a Caucasian family of two veterinary practitioners and their two children, ages 2 years and 6 months, simultaneously infected with the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans, causing tinea capitis and tinea corporis in the children and tinea corporis in the parents. The parents and older child were successfully treated with oral terbinafine. The infant clinically responded to treatment with topical terbinafine and ketoconazole shampoo but presented with recurrent tinea capitis 12 months later, from which T. tonsurans was cultured. At this time, scalpbrush samples from the other family members failed to culture any fungi, and neither were fungi isolated from the family hairbrushes. The infant then received oral terbinafine, resulting in clinical and mycologic cure. After a further 12 months follow-up, there has been no mycologic evidence of recurrence in any family member.

  8. Inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles mediated by atmospheric pressure air cold plasma jet against dermatophyte fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouf, Salama A; El-Adly, Amira A; Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H

    2015-10-01

    In an in vitro study with five clinical isolates of dermatophytes, the MIC(50) and MIC(100) values of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) ranged from 5 to 16 and from 15 to 32 μg ml(- 1), respectively. The combined treatment of AgNPs with atmospheric pressure-air cold plasma (APACP) induced a drop in the MIC(50) and MIC100 values of AgNPs reaching 3-11 and 12-23 μg ml(- 1), respectively, according to the examined species. Epidermophyton floccosum was the most sensitive fungus to AgNPs, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most tolerant. AgNPs induced significant reduction in keratinase activity and an increase in the mycelium permeability that was greater when applied combined with plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed electroporation of the cell walls and the accumulation of AgNPs on the cell wall and inside the cells, particularly when AgNPs were combined with APACP treatment. An in vivo experiment with dermatophyte-inoculated guinea pigs indicated that the application of AgNPs combined with APACP was more efficacious in healing and suppressing disease symptoms of skin as compared with the application of AgNPs alone. The recovery from the infection reached 91.7 % in the case of Microsporum canis-inoculated guinea pigs treated with 13 μg ml(- 1) AgNPs combined with APACP treatment delivered for 2  min. The emission spectra indicated that the efficacy of APACP was mainly due to generation of NO radicals and excited nitrogen molecules. These reactive species interact and block the activity of the fungal spores in vitro and in the skin lesions of the guinea pigs. The results achieved are promising compared with fluconazole as reference antifungal drug.

  9. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents.

  10. [In vitro activities of antifungal drugs against clinical isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hiroyasu; Nanjoh, Yasuko; Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Makimura, Koichi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2006-01-01

    To determine drug susceptibility of Trichophyton tonsurans endemic in Japan, in vitro MICs of antifungal drugs against a total of 10 clinical isolates of T. tonsurans collected from dermatophytosis patients were measured by the agar dilution method and the broth microdilution method. The agar dilution method was not appropriate as the growth of T. tonsurans on the agar medium was too slow to determine drug activity, while the broth microdilution method was thought to be an appropriate method for this study. The MIC90 values determined by the broth microdilution method for terbinafine, itraconazole, miconazole and ketoconazole were 0.013, 0.1, 0.8 and 0.4 microg/ml, respectively. Meanwhile, the MIC90 values of lanoconazole and luliconazole, known to be antifungal drugs potent against dermatomycosis, were 0.00078 and 0.00039 microg/ ml, respectively. The drug susceptibility of these T. tonsurans isolates to the aforementioned antifungal drugs was found to be on a similar level with that of T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum, major causative agents of dermatomycosis. The results also demonstrated the strong antifungal activity of lanoconazole and luliconazole against T. tonsurans.

  11. Susceptibility of Dermatophytes to Thiabendazole Using CLSI Broth Macrodilution

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    Robledo-Leal, Efrén; Elizondo-Zertuche, Mariana; González, Gloria M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of thiabendazole against strains of dermatophytes using a reference method for filamentous fungi. Materials and Methods. Dermatophytes' susceptibility to thiabendazole (TBZ) and fluconazole (FCZ) was evaluated using macrodilution method of protocol M38-A2 of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results. MIC ranges of TBZ for all strains were narrower and/or smaller than those of FCZ. TBZ showed a significantly greater potency than FCZ (P = 0.05) against all isolates. Discussion. Although there have been approaches to evaluate the antifungal activity of TBZ in human mycoses, no tests had been made with a standardized protocol. Susceptibility data resulted from this study shows that although TBZ is not a particularly strong inhibitor of dermatophytes, it displays a stable and constant effect against all isolates tested. Conclusion. Results show that TBZ is more effective against strains of dermatophytes than FCZ. We acknowledge the antifungal effect of TBZ against dermatophyte isolates. PMID:23008781

  12. In Silico Analog Design for Terbinafine Against Trichophyton rubrum: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuri, Sudha; Singh, Puneet Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2015-09-01

    The diseases caused by dermatophytes are common among several other infections which cause serious threat to human health. It is evident that enzyme squalene epoxidase is responsible for prolonged dermatophyte infection and it is appealing to note that this enzyme is also responsible for fatty acid synthesis in these groups of fungi. In the present study, terbinafine drug which targets enzyme squalene epoxidase has been explored to design its various novel analogues. The present study suggests that many more prominent drug analogues could be constituted which may be crucial towards designing new drug candidates. In the present study, we have designed a series of such analogues viz. [(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)amine, N-[8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]-2-(sulfoamino) acetamide, {[4-(dihydroxyamino)-8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]sulfanyl}methanol and (R)-{[4-({[(2E,6R)-6,7-dimethyloct-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)-5-[(hydroxysulfamoyl)amino]naphthalen-1-yl]amino}sulfinic acid. Moreover, further by molecular docking approach the binding between enzyme and designed analogues was further analysed. The present preliminary report suggested a considerably good docking interaction score of -338.75 kcal/mol between terbinafine and squalene epoxidase from Trichophyton rubrum. This preliminary study implies that few designed candidate ligands can be effectual towards the activity of this enzyme and can play crucial role in pathogenesis control of T. rubrum.

  13. Calcofluor white combination antifungal treatments for Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans.

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    Joanne M Kingsbury

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophyte fungi are among the most common infections worldwide, yet treatment is restricted by limited effective drugs available, drug toxicity, and emergence of drug resistance. The stilbene fluorescent brightener calcofluor white (CFW inhibits fungi by binding chitin in the cell wall, disrupting cell wall integrity, and thus entails a different mechanism of inhibition than currently available antifungal drugs. To identify novel therapeutic options for the treatment of skin infections, we compared the sensitivity of representative strains of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans to CFW and a panel of fluorescent brighteners and phytoalexin compounds. We identified the structurally related stilbene fluorescent brighteners 71, 85, 113 and 134 as fungicidal to both T. rubrum and C. albicans to a similar degree as CFW, and the stilbene phytoalexins pinosylvan monomethyl ether and pterostilbene inhibited to a lesser degree, allowing us to develop a structure-activity relationship for fungal inhibition. Given the abilities of CFW to absorb UV(365 nm and bind specifically to fungal cell walls, we tested whether CFW combined with UV(365 nm irradiation would be synergistic to fungi and provide a novel photodynamic treatment option. However, while both treatments individually were cytocidal, UV(365 nm irradiation reduced sensitivity to CFW, which we attribute to CFW photoinactivation. We also tested combination treatments of CFW with other fungal inhibitors and identified synergistic interactions between CFW and some ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. albicans. Therefore, our studies identify novel fungal inhibitors and drug interactions, offering promise for combination topical treatment regimes for superficial mycoses.

  14. Antifungal activity of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia against Trichophyton equinum: an in vivo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisseri, F; Bertoli, A; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Guidi, G; Mancianti, F

    2009-11-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic and keratinolytic molds, some of which are responsible for ringworm. Among them Trichophyton equinum, which mostly infects equids, can cause extensive outbreaks in stud farms. The conventional treatment of equine trichophytosis is topic, based upon medicated shampoos to reduce the spread of infection among the animals. Nevertheless the popularity of phytotherapy is at an all-time peak, and the interest for natural alternatives or complements to conventional drug therapy is challenging both in human and veterinary field. Among herbal remedia Tea Tree Oil (TTO) shows a wide range of antimicrobial activities. A randomized open clinical trial was carried out on 60 thoroughbred breeding horses affected by equine ringworm. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 subjects. Diagnostic criteria were the presence of clinical signs and positive T. equinum culture. Specificity control using TTO mixture in 5 not dermatophyte affected animals was achieved also. The antimycotic activity against T. equinum of a mixture containing 25% TTO in sweet almond oil, was evaluated in vivo treating 30 subjects, the others were administered enilconazole 2% solution. The animals of both groups were topically treated twice a day for 15 days with a 25% mixture of TTO diluted in sweet almond oil and every 3 days, four times with enilconazole rinses, respectively. The clinical and mycological outcome were evaluated at day 30 from the start of the treatments. Data analysis was performed by chi square test. All the treated animals showed complete clinical and aetiological healing. Part of control subjects also, showed an improvement and none of them exacerbate the lesions. This therapeutic protocol appears to be effective and versatile, being applicable immediately after physical examination, prior to have the laboratory response. It could be an alternative for practitioners interested in herbal medicines, contributing to fulfill the gap

  15. The Enzymatic Activity and Molecular Characterization of a Secreted Subtilisin-Like Protease in Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii

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    H Moallaei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Subtilisin -like proteases are the group of proteases including keratinases found in dermatophytes which de­graded keratin. Determination of the proteases activity of Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii isolates which were obtained from soil and clinical and soil isolates of Microsporum gypseum in Iran and characterization of their genome were aim of present study."nMethods: Ezymatic activity was determined by use of chromogenic substrates. The genes, which coded subtilisin-like pro­teases in above-mentioned dermatophytes, was identified and amplified by using specific primers in PCR."nResults:  The highest yield of enzyme production was observed in only one isolate of T. vanbreuseghemii Ir-84 whereas low enzyme activity was observed in M. gypseum isolates. Homology study of obtained nucleotide as well as amino acid sequences indicated different rates of homology with other subtilisin-like proteases genes in other pathogenic dermato­phytes."nConclusion: Intra-strain differences were observed in production of serine proteinases and molecular characterization of genes encoding such enzymes could be of great interest for studies on pathogenicity and other purposes.  

  16. Huriez syndrome with superadded dermatophyte infection

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    Trupti Surana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmoplantarkeratodermas (PPKs are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders with underlying gene defects, and characterized by hyperkeratosis of palms and soles with or without other ectodermal and systemic abnormalities. Huriez syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant transgradient type of PPK with high frequency of squamous cell carcinoma in the affected skin. We hereby describe a case of a very rare autosomal dominant PPK in a 40-year-old male patient presenting since birth with PPK extending onto the dorsal aspects of hands and feet with peeling of the skin. The complaints were associated with sclerodactyly, hyperhidrosis, and nail abnormalities. Also superadded dermatophyte infection was observed involving abdomen. No history of loss of any digit. No mucosal, dental, or any systemic involvement was present. No sign of malignancy was noted. Baseline investigations, including ultrasonography of abdomen were normal. Histological findings were nonspecific with only orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis. Diagnosis was mainly done on clinical grounds. The patient is better with oral retinoids and topical emollients and keratolytics along with antifungal treatment for dermatophyte infection. He is under follow up.

  17. Known and novel terpenes from Buddleja globosa displaying selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, A Y; Houghton, P J; Bloomfield, S; Vlietinck, A; Vanden Berghe, D

    2000-09-01

    Lipophilic extracts of the stembark of Buddleja globosa were found to have antifungal activity at 125 microg/mL against three dermatophytic fungal species but had no activity at 1000 microg/mL against four other fungal species or two yeast species. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Si gel column eluates using the sensitive fungal species resulted in active fractions from which were isolated five compounds that were characterized by spectroscopic methods as one novel and four known compounds. The known compounds were the diterpene buddlejone (1), the bisditerpene maytenone, and the two sesquiterpenes buddledin A and buddledin B, while the novel compound was characterized as the diterpene deoxybuddlejone (2). The minimum inhibitory concentration of all the compounds was determined against all the microorganisms under test, and buddledins A and B were shown to exhibit the greatest antifungal activity, with values of 43 microM and 51 microM, respectively, against the sensitive fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Tricophyton interdigitale, and Epidermophyton floccosum.

  18. [Keratinophilic fungal flora isolated from small wild mammals and rabbit-warren in France. Discussion on the fungal species found].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Guiguen, C; Couatarmanac'h, A; Launay, H; Reecht, V; de Bièvre, C

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi was investigated in 237 small wild mammals and 125 european rabbit. The purpose of the investigation was to determine what were the species of fungi present in the these animals. Four species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum persicolor. Trichophyton terrestre was the most frequently isolated and it occurred more frequently than its presence could be explained by the contamination from soil. Members of the genus Chrysosporium were found in many animals: Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium multifidum, Chrysosporium pannorum, Chrysosporium georgii, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma curreyi, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma cuniculi, Anixiopsis stercoraria, Chrysosporium parvum. Wild small mammals and european rabbits in France, not only act as carrier of keratinophilic fungi and allied dermatophytes but also provide a suitable habitat for their survival as saprophytes. The recurrence of numerous species present on the coat, isolated fort the first time in France was remarkable.

  19. Trichophyton Schoenleinii-induced widespread tinea corporis mimicking parapsoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, P; Farshi, S; Khosravi, A R; Naraghi, Z S; Chalangari, R

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of extensive tinea corporis in an 80-year-old woman on her forearms, thighs, legs, buttocks and trunk, mimicking parapsoriasis due to Trichophyton schoenleinii, without scalp involvement. Diagnosis of Trichophyton schoenleinii was confirmed by microscopy and mycological culture specimens.

  20. Investigation on mechanism of antifungal activity of eugenol against Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Mendes, Juliana Moura; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2013-07-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a worldwide agent responsible for chronic cases of dermatophytosis which have high rates of resistance to antifungal drugs. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of aromatic compounds because of their promising biological properties. Therefore, we investigated the antifungal activity of eugenol against 14 strains of T. rubrum which involved determining its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and effects on mycelial growth (dry weight), conidial germination and morphogenesis. The effects of eugenol on the cell wall (sorbitol protect effect) and the cell membrane (release of intracellular material, complex with ergosterol, ergosterol synthesis) were investigated. Eugenol inhibited the growth of 50% of T. rubrum strains employed in this study at an MIC = 256 μg/ml, as well as mycelial growth and conidia germination. It also caused abnormalities in the morphology of the dermatophyte in that we found wide, short, twisted hyphae and decreased conidiogenesis. The results of these studies on the mechanisms of action suggested that eugenol exerts antifungal effects on the cell wall and cell membrane of T. rubrum. Eugenol act on cell membrane by a mechanism that seems to involve the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. The lower ergosterol content interferes with the integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. Finally, our studies support the potential use of the eugenol as an antifungal agent against T. rubrum.

  1. Antifungal activity of nanocapsule suspensions containing tea tree oil on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F C; de Lima, J A; Ribeiro, R F; Alves, S H; Rolim, C M B; Beck, R C R; da Silva, Cristiane Bona

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the antifungal efficacy of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil) in an onychomycosis model. The antifungal activity of nanostructured formulations was evaluated against Trichophyton rubrum in two different in vitro models of dermatophyte nail infection. First, nail powder was infected with T. rubrum in a 96-well plate and then treated with the formulations. After 7 and 14 days, cell viability was verified. The plate counts for the samples were 2.37, 1.45 and 1.0 log CFU mL(-1) (emulsion, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil and nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, respectively). A second model employed nails fragments which were infected with the microorganism and treated with the formulations. The diameter of fungal colony was measured. The areas obtained were 2.88 ± 2.08 mm(2), 14.59 ± 2.01 mm(2), 40.98 ± 2.76 mm(2) and 38.72 ± 1.22 mm(2) for the nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil, emulsion and untreated nail, respectively. Nail infection models demonstrated the ability of the formulations to reduce T. rubrum growth, with the inclusion of oil in nanocapsules being most efficient.

  2. Trichophyton tonsurans strains from Brazil: phenotypic heterogeneity, genetic homology, and detection of virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidrim, José Julio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Maranhão, Fernanda Cristina de Albuquerque; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the phenotypical and molecular patterns of clinical isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans circulating in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. For this purpose, 25 T. tonsurans strains isolated from independent cases of tinea capitis in children were phenotypically evaluated regarding their macro- and micro-morphological characteristics, vitamin requirements, urease production, and antifungal susceptibility. The molecular characterization was carried out with random amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers and M13 fingerprinting. The presence of the genes CarbM14, Sub2, CER, URE, ASP, PBL, and LAC, which encode enzymes related to fungal virulence, was also evaluated. Finally, melanin production was assessed through specific staining. The data obtained demonstrated that these T. tonsurans strains have considerable phenotypical variation, although they showed a low degree of genetic polymorphism according to the markers used. The genes CarbM14, Sub2, CER, and URE were detected in all the analyzed strains. The gene LAC was also identified in all the strains, and melanin synthesis was phenotypically confirmed. The strains were susceptible to antifungals, especially itraconazole (GM = 0.06 μg/mL) and ketoconazole (GM = 0.24 μg/mL). Therefore, T. tonsurans strains can present great phenotypical heterogeneity, even in genetically similar isolates. Moreover, the presence of the LAC gene indicates the possible participation of melanin in the pathogenesis of these dermatophytes.

  3. Dermatophytosis Agents in Patients Who Attending to Dermatology Clinic of Fırat University Hospital

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    Nursel Dilek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the types of dermatophytes and dermatophytosis in Elazığ region to provide appropriate information for therapy planning and public health prevention.Methods: A total of 652 patients who attending to outpatient clinic between June 2007 – May 2008 with clinical signs of dermatophytosis were included in this study. All samples, including with negative results on direct microscopy were cultivated in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid, mycobiotic agar (Acumedia and potato dextrose agar (Oxoid. Results: Dermatophytes were isolated in 142 (21.8% out of all samples. Of the isolates 70.4% were Trichophyton rubrum, 15.4% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 4.2% were , 4.2% were Microsporum canis, 2.8% were Epidermophyton floccosum, 2.11% were Trichophyton violaceum, 0.7% were Trichophyton tonsurans.Conclusion: Trichophyton rubrum was most frequently isolated dermatophytosis agent in Elazığ region.

  4. [Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum subvar. perforans in Tinea gladiatorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, J; Rüther, T; Harmsen, D

    1999-05-01

    This is the first report on an isolation of Trichophyton tonsurans var.sulfureum subvar.perforans in Germany. In our patient, the strain had caused typical tinea corporis, which was most likely acquired during a wrestling competition. Based on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology and on the physiologic properties occurring under various growth conditions, the identification of Trichophyton tonsurans and the particular characteristics of its var.sulfureum subvar.perforans are described. Partial 18S and 23S nuclear ribosomal RNA sequences and the internal transcribed spacer region I sequences of our strain were completely identical with those of a Trichophyton tonsurans reference strain. The epidemiology of Trichophyton tonsurans var.sulfureum subvar.perforans and a possible association of this variety with tinea in wrestlers (tinea gladiatorum) have not yet been investigated.

  5. Trichophyton tonsurans infection in a 12 day-old infant

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    Ghorpade Ashok

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton tonsurans infection starting at the age of 12 days is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed by KOH examination and culture. Onset of superficial fungal infections in infancy is unusual.

  6. Tinea faciei in a newborn due to Trichophyton tonsurans

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    Fu, Meihua; Ge, Yiping; Chen, Wei; Feng, Suying; She, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Weida

    2012-01-01

    We report here the first case of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in mainland China. The mother of the infant had tinea corpris and tinea capitis while the father had tinea incongnito. The infections in the parents were mycologically confirmed to be due to Trichophyton tonsurans. Ttinea faciei in the infant was cured after two-week topical use of amorolfine cream. The mother ceased breastfeeding and took oral terbinafine for 4 weeks. No recurrence was observed in the inf...

  7. Epidemiologia e ecologia das dermatofitoses na cidade de Fortaleza: o Trichophyton tonsurans como importante patógeno emergente da Tinea capitis Epidemiology and ecology of dermatophytosis in Fortaleza city: Trichophyton tonsurans as an important emergent pathogen of Tinea capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda SâmiaNogueira Brilhante

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available As dermatofitoses são os distúrbios infecciosos de pele mais comuns do mundo. Na presente pesquisa foram avaliados 2.297 pacientes com lesões clínicas sugestivas de dermatofitoses das quais, 534 (23,2% mostraram-se positivas para dermatófitos. Destes, o T. rubrum foi a espécie mais prevalente (49,6%; p Dermatophytosis is the most common skin infectious disturbance in the world. In this research 2.297 patients were evaluated with suspected clinical lesions of dermatophytosis. It was observed that, 534 (23.2% patients tested positive for dermatophytes. T. rubrum was the most prevalent specie (49.6%; p <= 0.05, followed by T. tonsurans (34.4%, M. canis (7% and T. mentagrophytes (6.2%. When the species isolated was correlated with the respective anatomical localization, it was observed that T. tonsurans was the most frequent isolated in scalp lesions (73,9%; p <= 0.01. On the other hand, T. rubrum was the main specie involved in body lesions (72.8%; p <= 0.05. Therefore, in scalp infections it was observed that, there was an absolute prevalence of T. tonsurans. This evidence is different from the statistical data collected in the southeast and south of Brazil, as well as from other areas of the world, which still show M. canis as the most frequent microorganism isolated in Tinea capiti.

  8. [Treatment of 2 cases of kerions with griseofulvin and oral steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabel, M; Hubert, L; Jacques, C; Fabienne, L; Emmanuelle, L; Gérard, L

    2009-11-01

    We report on 2 cases of kerions in children: one of them was located on the pubis, an exceptional location; the second one was located on the scalp and presented like multiple abscess of the scalp, for which surgical drainage was performed. In both cases, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was involved. This dermatophyte is zoophilic, contrary to the dermatophytes usually involved in tinea capitis, which could explain the poor adaptation of the dermatophyte to the human host, who would therefore react by generating a severe inflammatory reaction. Antifungal drugs are recommended for the treatment of kerions, especially griseofuline for 6 to 8 weeks. The value of oral steroids and surgery continues to be debated.

  9. Continuous increase of Trichophyton tonsurans as a cause of tinea capitis in the urban area of Paris, France: a 5-year-long study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gits-Muselli, Maud; Benderdouche, Mazouz; Hamane, Samia; Mingui, Anselme; Feuilhade de Chauvin, Martine; Guigue, Nicolas; Picat, Marie-Quitterie; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Petit, Antoine; Bagot, Martine; Alanio, Alexandre; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-10-14

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a highly contagious fungal infection of the scalp due to dermatophytes in children. To obtain information on the epidemiology of TC in the urban area of Paris, we analysed the microbiological results of 3090 patients seen with suspected TC from October 2010 to September 2015 at Saint Louis hospital, Paris, France. A peak of TC was observed in 3-6 year-old children, followed by a progressive decrease until 16 years of age. Of the 1311 positive cultures, 95% (1246) yielded one of the three anthropophilic species [Trichophyton tonsurans (33.5%), Trichophyton soudanense (38.3%), or Microsporum audouinii (28.2%)]. When considering one TC case per family, we observed a significant increase of T. tonsurans (P = .018) during these 5 years. The increase was more pronounced (P = .0047) in patients of West-African descent (n = 666), and was at the expense of M. audouinii and T. soudanense On the other hand, the Caribbean patients (n = 85) remained predominantly (72.9%) infected by T. tonsurans Our results show a better virulence of T. tonsurans over other species as already reported. Since T. tonsurans has not been reported in Africa, the infection of patients of West-African descent probably took place in the Paris area by exchanges with Caribbean patients. This increase of TC due to T. tonsurans was observed in the context of griseofulvin being the only licensed paediatric treatment for TC in France, which should deserve reappraisal because terbinafine may be more efficacious.

  10. In vitro activity of certain antibiotics against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro effect of antibiotics i.e. Hamycin, Griseofulvin and Mycostatin against Microsporum gypseum and M. fulvum showed that hamycin was comparatively less inhibitory to M. fulvum. Complete inhibition in mycelial growth and sporulation of these two dermatophytes was observed by Mycostatin at its 1000 micrograms/ml conc. after 8 days. M. fulvum did not sporulate at higher concentration of griseofulvin. However, griseofulvin completely inhibited the sporulation in M. gypseum at all the concentration of this drug, but mycelial growth of M. fulvum and M. gypseum were significantly inhibited. Mycostatin was found more inhibitory to these dermatophytes in comparison to hamycin and griseofulvin.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes in Rabbits%兔须癣毛癣菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦威; 刘娜; 柳焕章; 刘建钗; 刘利强; 张永英; 王绥华

    2013-01-01

    利用rDNA ITS序列分析结合真菌形态学和生理学对兔的病原菌进行鉴定.提取菌株DNA,利用引物ITS1和ITS4进行PCR扩增,扩增产物测序后在GenBank核酸数据库中进行同源性比对.结果显示,分离株的菌落形态为白色粉末状,背面有色素沉着,培养可见大量葡萄状小分生孢子,螺旋菌丝及棒状大分生孢子;尿素酶和毛发穿孔试验阳性;rDNA序列比对结果显示,该分离菌株与须癣毛癣菌复合体中的万博节皮菌有99.8%同源性;从形态学和生理学试验符合须癣毛癣菌的特点,结合分子生物学试验将该菌株鉴定为万博节皮菌.

  12. Tinea Faciei Caused by Trichophyton Mentagrophytes and Microsporum Canis%须癣毛癣菌和犬小孢子菌共同致面癣1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓辉; 张静; 薛汝增; 黄怀球; 朱国兴; 李美荣; 尹颂超

    2009-01-01

    报道罕见由须癣毛癣菌和犬小孢子菌共同感染引起的面癣1例.患者女性,70岁,反复左面部红斑伴瘙痒1年.取皮损鳞屑直接真菌镜检可见菌丝,培养分离鉴定为须癣毛癣菌和犬小孢子菌.给予口服特比萘芬及外用抗真菌软膏3周后治愈.随访3月无复发.

  13. A Case of Adults Kerion with Tinea Corporis Caused by Trichophyton Mentagrophytes%须癣毛癣菌致成人脓癣及体癣1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冼苡

    2003-01-01

    患者女,41岁.头顶部直径约6 cm大圆形斑块,由毛囊性丘疹、丘疱疹、脓疱融合而成,可挤出脓汁,其上毛发易拔除.左前臂儿掌大环形脱屑性红斑,边缘呈堤状.皮疹真菌直接镜检(+),真菌培养鉴定为须癣毛癣菌.诊断为脓癣、体癣.伊曲康唑口服配合剃除病发及外用药治疗效果好.

  14. Morphology and molecular biological identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes%须癣毛癣菌的形态学及分子生物学鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏叡; 孙毅; 胡小平; 万喆; 李若瑜

    2010-01-01

    目的 对临床上分离自人(36株)及狐狸(5株)的须癣毛癣菌菌株进行新的分类系统鉴定,并检测传统的分类方法是否能满足临床鉴定需要.方法 ①观察原鉴定为须癣毛癣菌菌株在沙氏培养基、1%蛋白胨培养基、溴甲酚紫乳固体葡萄糖琼脂培养基(BCP-MSG)和显微镜下形态学及尿素酶、毛发穿孔等生理学试验表现.②通过ITS区段和LSU区段分子生物学序列分析进行新的分类系统的菌种分型,并对传统形态学和生理学鉴定方法进行检测.结果 ①41株须癣毛癣菌形态学及生理学试验符合须癣毛癣菌(38株)和红色毛癣菌(3株)菌落的特点.②ITS区段序列分析发现ITS区段能将须癣毛癣菌和红色毛癣菌准确的鉴定到种,但无法明确其种内分型;而LSU区段序列分析可对36株(36/38)须癣毛癣菌有性型做出明确的鉴定.结论 传统实验室鉴定方法仍具有其有效性及可靠性.通过分子生物学鉴定,临床分离的须癣毛癣菌皆为指(趾)间毛癣菌(38/38),而LSU区段的序列分析鉴定狐狸源性菌株皆属于本海姆节皮菌,有别于大多数人源性菌株有性型为万博节皮菌,对于须癣毛癣菌的菌种鉴定更优于ITS区段,但分子生物学试验还需结合形态学的观察,才能够对菌种做出正确的鉴定.

  15. Identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and its antifungal susceptibility tests%致脓癣的须癣毛癣菌鉴定及体外药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 黄怀球; 薛汝增; 张晓辉; 朱国兴; 陈荣章; 李美荣

    2009-01-01

    须癣毛癣菌是皮肤癣菌病中常见的致病真菌之一,其分型复杂,具有多个变种和有性型,引起脓癣的常为亲动物性分离菌。从形态学角度难以明确区分不同种型,需要从分子生物学角度加以鉴定。rDNA序列测定是目前最常用于真菌鉴定的一种方法。我们从一脓癣患儿头部分离出一株须癣毛癣菌,对其形态学、rDNA序列和体外对抗真菌药物的敏感性进行了研究。

  16. Identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes by ITS gene sequencing%ITS基因测序对须癣毛癣菌的鉴定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈富; 张伟铮; 屈平华; 李松; 秦笙; 罗燕芬

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨ITS基因测序对须癣毛癣菌进行分子生物学鉴定的可行性,以确定致病菌株的种属.方法 从病人头皮及头发分离出一株真菌,采用直接涂片镜检和培养的方法,观察其镜下形态和菌落特征,同时取纯培养物进行普通PCR,PCR产物经1%琼脂糖凝胶电泳分析,Tanon-3500凝胶成像系统进行鉴定,收集目的片段进行ITS基因测序.结果 本菌的镜下形态和培养特征与其他毛癣菌属极其相似,难以直接鉴定分离菌为须癣毛癣菌,将其纯培养后用真菌通用引物ITS4、ITS5进行PCR扩增,所得的扩增片段大小约700 bp,将目的片段送至公司进行双向测序,测序结果经Blast比对,须癣毛癣菌与之相符率达99.5%.结论 ITS基因测序可以准确鉴定从临床分离的须癣毛癣菌.

  17. Genetic Heterogeneity in the rRNA Gene Locus of Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaedigk, Andrea; Gaedigk, Roger; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M

    2003-12-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is the major pediatric pathogen in tinea capitis, causing disparate disease presentations. Little is known about genetic variation, which may ultimately be linked to divergent disease status. This investigation was aimed at identifying genetic variants of T. tonsurans by methods that can facilitate strain discrimination in population-based studies. Ninety-two isolates were acquired from six U.S. microbiology laboratories, and genomic DNA was isolated from mature colonies. The nontranscribed spacer (NTS) was amplified by PCR, and products from isolates with various amplicon sizes were fully sequenced. Nested amplification, targeting a variable internal repeat (VIR) region, allowed assignment of variant type by fragment size. Subvariant type was assigned by a combination of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based assays. Five variants differing in size (348 to 700 bp) and sequence were identified within the VIR region comprised of several large repeats (104, 140, and 194 bp) arranged in tandem. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected across the NTS, with five occurring in the constant regions flanking the VIR region and two occurring in the VIR region. Additionally, a 10-bp insertion and a 14-bp deletion were identified upstream of the VIR region. The combination of SNPs revealed seven haplotype patterns which were stable upon serial passage over 1 year. No sequence variations were identified within the internal transcribed spacer regions. Unique NTS sequences were utilized to develop a duplex PCR assay that discriminated T. tonsurans from other dermatophytes. Of the 92 isolates evaluated, this genotyping scheme distinguished 12 distinct strains, providing evidence of genetic heterogeneity in T. tonsurans.

  18. Taxonomic study of keratinophilic fungi isolated from soil and some mammals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D

    1988-03-01

    In France, most of the researches have showed the distribution of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in the soil and in the coat of wild mammals. During these last years, we have also practiced numerous investigations about the distribution of such fungi. The isolated species are: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton ajelloï, Trichophyton simii, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum cookei, Microsporum nanum, Microsporum persicolor, Anixiopsis stercoraria, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma curreyi, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma cuniculi, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum, Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma multifidum, Ctenomycès serratus, Chrysosporium parvum, Chrysosporium indicum, Chrysosporium georgii, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium asperatum, Chrysosporium pannorum. A key to these species is proposed: it attempts to provide an aid in identifying geophilic dermatophytes and related fungi (belonging to the Chrysosporium genus).

  19. Mycological pattern of dermatophytosis in and around Shimla hills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Bhagra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermatophytosis is defined as the fungal infection of the skin, hair and nails by a group of keratinophillic fungi known as dermatophytes. Aims and Objectives: This study is an attempt to find out various species of dermatophytes in clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples were subjected to direct microscopy by potassium hydroxide wet mount (KOH and isolation on culture with Sabourauds dextrose agar. Results: Out of these 80 (80% samples were KOH positive while 20 (20% were KOH negative. Overall culture positivity rate was 68%. Dermatophytosis was more common in males, the M:F ratio was 4:1. Conclusion: Total seven species were isolated on culture. Trichophyton rubrum (66.17% was the commonest isolate followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.11%, Trichophyton violaceum (7.35%, Trichophyton tonsurans (2.94% and one isolate each of Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum (1.47%.

  20. Common cutaneous dermatophyte infections of the skin and nails

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structures including the keratinized layers of the skin, hair and nails. Subcutaneous ... pre-pubertal children, whereas adolescents and adults are more likely to develop ... Atypical, generalized, or invasive dermatophyte infections are routinely .... Systemic therapy with griseofulvin was the drug of choice in treating Tinea ...

  1. Identification of Common Species of Dermatophytes by PCR-RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ganlin; LI Jiawen; DING Juan; TAN Zhijan

    2005-01-01

    To establish a simple, sensitive and effective technique for the identification of six common dermatophytes, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) targeting Topoisomerase Ⅱ gene were used. The DNA of 6 common dermatophytes was amplified by primer dPsD1 and then primers dPsD2. The products generated by dPsD2were digested with restriction enzyme Hinc Ⅱ and Hinf Ⅰ separately. A DNA fragment of about 3390 bp was amplified by using primer dPsD1 from the genomic DNA of each dermatophyte species. The product of dPsD2 was 2380 bp and the restriction profiles of Hinc Ⅱ and Hinf Ⅰ were between 58- 1670 bp. By using PCR-RFLP, all of the 6 dermatophytoses were diagnosed to species level and no obvious difference identification between Hinc Ⅱ and Hinf Ⅰ. It is concluded that the PCR-RFLP identification of dermatophytes by Hinc Ⅱ or Hinf Ⅰ is efficient and rapid in clinical practice.

  2. 巢式PCR诊断甲真菌病中红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌%Nested PCR in the diagnosis of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes infections in onychomycosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 童中胜; 万喆; 陈伟; 胡志敏; 李若瑜

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价巢式PCR诊断甲真菌病中红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的敏感性和特异性.方法:液氮冷冻甲标本,微量法提取DNA,应用特异性引物,巢式PCR方法扩增DNA.结果:36例直接镜检和培养均为阳性的甲标本,培养显示24例为红色毛癣菌,12例为须癣毛癣菌.巢式PCR中First PCR 34例阳性,34例标本均产生了650 bp目的片段;Nest PCR 32例阳性,32例中有22例标本产生了137 bp的片段,为红色毛癣菌;10例标本产生了102 bp的片段,为须癣毛癣菌.PCR敏感性为88.9%,特异性为100%.结论:巢式PCR是一种快速、特异和敏感的诊断甲真菌病中红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的方法.

  3. Growing Incidence of Non-Dermatophyte Onychomycosis in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Marjan; Ghasemi, Zeinab; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinpour, Leila; Khodadadi, Hossein; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-dermatophyte onychomycosis (NDO) is caused by a wide range of mold fungi other than dermatophytes, and has been reported at various rates in different countries worldwide. Studies on the incidence of NDO in the community are essential for understanding its epidemiology and control, as well as for the appropriate treatment of these infections. Objectives In this study, the incidence of NDO in Tehran, Iran, was compared to the incidence of onychomycoses due to dermatophytes and yeasts. Methods From 2014 through 2015, samples from a total of 1,069 patients with suspected fungal nail diseases, who were referred to three medical mycology laboratories in Tehran, were collected and subjected to direct examination (all samples) and culture (788 samples). Differentiation of the causative agents of onychomycosis was based on microscopic observation of characteristic fungal elements in the nail samples and growth of a significant number of identical colonies on the culture plate. Results Based on only direct microscopy, onychomycosis was diagnosed in 424 (39.6%) cases, among which 35.8% were caused by dermatophytes, 32.7% by yeasts, and 29.3% by non-dermatophyte molds (NDMs), while 2.2% were mixed infections. Direct exam was significantly more sensitive than culture for the diagnosis. The most commonly isolated NDMs were Aspergillus spp. (69.3%, n = 52), followed by Fusarium spp. (n = 7). The other isolated species were Paecilomyces spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Acremonium spp., Cladosporium spp., and Chrysosporium spp., with only one case of each. Conclusions An increasing frequency of NDO compared to onychomycosis due to other causative agents has been noticeable over the past few years in Iran. This epidemiological data may be useful in the development of preventive and educational strategies. PMID:27800138

  4. Tinea faciei in a newborn due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meihua; Ge, Yiping; Chen, Wei; Feng, Suying; She, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Weida

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first case of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in mainland China. The mother of the infant had tinea corpris and tinea capitis while the father had tinea incongnito. The infections in the parents were mycologically confirmed to be due to Trichophyton tonsurans. Ttinea faciei in the infant was cured after two-week topical use of amorolfine cream. The mother ceased breastfeeding and took oral terbinafine for 4 weeks. No recurrence was observed in the infant during 12 months of follow-up.

  5. Detection and identification of Trichophyton tonsurans from clinical isolates and hairbrush samples by loop-mediated isothermal amplification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yo, Ayaka; Yamamoto, Mikachi; Nakayama, Takako; Ishikawa, Jun; Makimura, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1990s, there have been reports of the spread of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans among contact sports athletes in several countries, including Japan. This study was performed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system for rapid and accurate detection and identification of T. tonsurans from clinical isolates or hairbrush samples for diagnosis and to prevent the spread of infection. A specific primer set was prepared by comparing the whole genome sequence of T. tonsurans with those of six other closely related dermatophytes. After confirming the sensitivity and specificity of this system, LAMP assay was performed using 37 clinical samples obtained from three healthy volunteers and 24 judo athletes. A total of 155 fungal isolates (56 strains of various standard fungi, 96 identified T. tonsurans isolates, three hairbrush-cultured isolates from judo athletes) and 37 hairbrush samples (34 samples from 24 judo athletes, and three samples from three healthy volunteers) were used for culture and LAMP assay, respectively. The assay showed no cross-reactivity to standard strains other than T. tonsurans. The detection limit was 100 copies of DNA template per tube. All of the 96 T. tonsurans isolates were amplified, and all samples from healthy volunteers showed negative results. Four of the 34 hairbrush samples obtained from judo athletes showed positive results in LAMP assay, and two of the four were positive in both culture and LAMP assay. We developed a rapid LAMP system with high specificity and sensitivity for diagnosis of T. tonsurans infection.

  6. Development and Application of a High-Throughput Screening Method to Evaluate Antifungal Activity against Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuett, Barry; Leeder, J Steven; Abdel-Rahman, Susan

    2015-10-01

    There exist relatively few drug classes on the market to treat dermatophyte infections. This investigation was designed to develop and validate high-throughput methodology for screening and confirmation of chemicals for activity against Trichophyton tonsurans. Growth characteristics were examined on two platforms (96- and 384-well) in three media at eight spore concentrations over a period of up to 120 h. Microspectrophotometry was used to automate plate reads. The 384-well platform was used to screen more than 7000 compounds from six chemical libraries. Z-scores for optical density relative to positive growth controls were used to flag compounds of interest and activity confirmed in separate assays. The final conditions selected for both screening and confirmation with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination were growth for 48 h at 32 °C in SabDex with 1 × 10(4) spores per reaction. Sensitivity and specificity averaged 99.2% (range, 95.2%-100%) and 99.8% (range, 99.1%-100%), respectively. MICs for known antifungals were similar to those reported by others using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. Several novel compound classes were identified to have activity against T. tonsurans with potency comparable to known antifungals. A robust, reproducible assay is described that permits high-throughput screening in T. tonsurans.

  7. Microepidemia familiar por Trichophyton tonsurans Trichophyton tonsurans in a family microepidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Pereira Salci; Maria Aparecida Salci; Sonia Silva Marcon; Paulo Hércules Biagi Salineiro; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans é um fungo dermatófito antropofílico de alta transmissibilidade que invade tecidos queratinizados. Relatamos um caso de microepidemia familiar causada por esse dermatófito no qual, apesar das ótimas condições de higiene, o fungo se manteve viável por vários anos, disseminando-se para todos os membros da família. A hipótese de que estivesse sendo mantido na residência da família foi confirmada após análise de amostras do domicílio, em que foram isoladas e identificadas c...

  8. Dermatophytosis in Karaj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakshir Keyvan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytosis is an infection of skin, hair and nails of the human and animals which is caused by a large group of the fungi named dermatophytes. Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and causative agents of dermatophytosis in Karaj city. Materials and Methods: During five years, a total of 3475 patients clinically suspected to dermatomycoses referred to Ebnesina Diagnostic Medical Laboratory in Karaj city entered our study and samples were taken from the infected area of the skin and appendages. Results: 887 cases of dermatophytosis (806 culture proved were diagnosed among the suspected cases. The species of dermatophytes were identified as Epidermophyton floccosum 311 (38.6%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 197 (24.5%, Trichophyton verrucosum 125 (15.5%, Trichophyton rubrum 48 (5.9%, Trichophyton violaceum 34 (4.2%, Microsporum canis 29 (3.6%, Microsporum gypseum 26 (3.2%, Trichophyton tonsurans 20 (2.5%, Trichophyton schoenleinii 3 (0.4% and unknown dermatophytes 13 (1.6%. Epidermophyton floccosum and tinea cruris were the most common etiological agents and clinical types of dermatophytosis, respectively. Conclusion: Dermatophyte species could transmit to human by direct or indirect contact with infected human and animals and their subjects. Promotion of public health care and self-hygiene may play an important role to control this disease.

  9. The Study of Etiologic Causes of Dermatophyte in the Location of Foot And Groin, and the Possibility of Association of Dermatophytoses of These Two Locations Together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Farivar Sadri

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Superficial mycosis of the skin is one of the most prevalent human infections. Within these infections, tinea pedis and tinea cruris have been studied. Different aetiologic causes play role in these infections which the most important of them are Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton Mentagrophyte and Epidermophyton floccosum. Prevalence arrangement of these causes are defferent in societies. This study is a case series study which in the course of this period 42 affected patients 0 tinea pedis and 40 affected patients to tinea cruris have been studied. From patients with doubtfull clinical lesion, whom have reffered to Razi Hospital within the first six months of the year 77, smear and culture were provided and in the meanwhile for consideration of possible association of Dermatophytoses in these two location in cases of clinical doubt to tinea pedis among the affected patients to tinea cruris, smear and culture wase made and it wase observed that 40 of affected patients to tinea cruris, 4 patients simultaneously have tinea pedis (10%. In this study also, risk factors of tinea pedis and tinea cruris have been studied. Etiologic causes in tinea pedis in this study with respect to arrangment are: T.Ment, T.rubrum and then Epid.floccosum and the causes of thinea cruris with respect to arrangment are: Epid.floccosum, T.rubrum and then T.Ment. In this study foot and groin Etiologic factors have been considered, it was observed that the pattern of their etiologic causes in Iran with respect to other countries are different.

  10. Trichophyton species susceptibility to green and red propolis from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, A B S; Gomes, B S; Cambuim, I; Maia, R; Abreu, S; Souza-Motta, C M; de Queiroz, L A; Porto, A L F

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of Brazilian green and red propolis was tested against different species of Trichophyton. The antifungal activity of the Brazilian aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the green propolis and the alcoholic extract of red propolis was observed against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton mentagrohytes samples, using as controls itraconazole and terbinafine. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined following the microdilution method indicated by the 'Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute'. The minimal fungicide concentration was determined by the absence of growth in liquid sabouraud culture medium. The data obtained showed that the green propolis alcoholic extract's antifungal activity was from 64 to 1024 microg ml(-1), whereas the red propolis alcoholic extract was from 8 to 1024 microg ml(-1). The antifungal activity of the red propolis alcoholic extract was more efficient than the green propolis alcoholic extract for all three species studied. The T. rubrum samples were shown to be more sensitive to the antifungal activity of the alcoholic extracts of the propolis. The antifungal potential of the alcoholic extracts of green and red propolis demonstrated suggest an applicable potential as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis caused by these species.

  11. Establishment of a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton verrucosum%疣状毛癣菌感染豚鼠模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 尤德渊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton verrucosum.Methods Thirty-two guinea pigs were randomly and equally divided into four groups to remain untreated (group 1 ),receive depilation and skin abrasion in the back (group 2 and 4),or only depilation (group 3).The back was smeared with a suspension (100 μl) of Trichophyton verrucosum in group 1,2 and 3,and with that of Trichophyton mentagrophytes in group 4.Direct microscopy,fungal culture and histopathology were performed to validate the infection of guinea pigs by Trichophyton.Results Direct microscopy was persistently negative in group 1,turned to be positive from the 7th to 9th day in group 2,3,and 4.Colonies began to appear 7 days after the inoculation of scrapings onto Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) in group 2 and 3,and were observed at all the inoculated sites 2 weeks after the inoculation,with a morphological similarity to Trichophyton verrucosum before inoculation into guinea pigs.Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed strongly refractive hyphae and spores in stratum corneum epidermidis and infundibular regions of some hair follicles in group 2 and 3.Conclusion A guinea pig model of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton verrucosum is successfully constructed.%目的 构建疣状毛癣菌感染豚鼠的动物模型.方法 选择健康豚鼠32只,随机分为4组.第1组未给任何处置,第2、4组豚鼠刮毛并摩擦其背部皮肤,第3组豚鼠背部给予刮毛处理.第1、2、3组为实验观察组,分别涂抹疣状毛癣菌菌悬液100 μl;第4组涂抹须毛癣菌菌悬液100μl.采用直接镜检、真菌培养和组织病理方法验证感染结果.结果 第1组直接镜检持续阴性;第2、3、4组豚鼠背部鳞屑直接镜检至第7~9天时均为阳性;将鳞屑接种于沙氏葡萄糖琼脂(SDA)平板上培养,7d后可见真菌生长,2周后各平板接种点均有菌落生长,且与接种前菌落形态基本相同.第2、3、4组取皮

  12. Susceptibility of Dermatophytes to Thiabendazole Using CLSI Broth Macrodilution

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of thiabendazole against strains of dermatophytes using a reference method for filamentous fungi. Materials and Methods. Dermatophytes’ susceptibility to thiabendazole (TBZ) and fluconazole (FCZ) was evaluated using macrodilution method of protocol M38-A2 of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results. MIC ranges of TBZ for all strains were narrower and/or smaller than those of FCZ. TBZ showed a significantly greater pote...

  13. Cutaneous blastomycosis and dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in a Persian cat from Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangkaew, Lerpen; Larsuprom, Lawan; Kasondorkbua, Chaiyan; Chen, Charles; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2017-03-01

    This is a case report of concurrent of blastomycosis and pseudomycetoma in a 3 year-old Persian cat from Bangkok, Thailand. Histopathology from antemortem and postmortem samples revealed blastomycosis and dermatophyte pseudomycetoma. The PCR analysis of the formalin-embedded tissue of antemortem sample confirmed that blastomycosis was caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. Dermatophyte infection was caused by Microsporum canis. According to the author's knowledge, this is the first case of Blastomyces dermatitidis and dermatophyte pseudomycetoma in South-East Asia.

  14. Deep dermatophyte infection with chronic draining nodules in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidovich, C W; Kornfeld, B W; Gentry, R H; Fitzpatrick, J E

    1995-04-01

    Chronic superficial dermatophyte infection may predispose the immunocompromised patient to invasive or disseminated involvement. We report a case of deep dermatophyte infection in a patient treated with long-term corticosteroid therapy for lung disease. The patient responded well to oral griseofulvin. Previously reported cases are reviewed along with recent investigative findings in the pathogenesis of chronic dermatophyte infections. Recommendations are made for diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Anti dermatophytic therapy: prospects for the discovery of new drugs from natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Arantes Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people and animals suffer from superficial infections caused by a group of highly specialized filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes, which only infect keratinized structures. With the appearance of AIDS, the incidence of dermatophytosis has increased. Current drug therapy used for these infections is often toxic, long-term, and expensive and has limited effectiveness; therefore, the discovery of new anti dermatophytic compounds is a necessity. Natural products have been the most productive source for new drug development. This paper provides a brief review of the current literature regarding the presence of dermatophytes in immunocompromised patients, drug resistance to conventional treatments and new anti dermatophytic treatments.

  16. Antifungal activity ofOcimum sanctum Linn. (Lamiaceae) on clinically isolated dermatophytic fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balakumar S; Rajan S; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess antifungal activity ofOcimum sanctum leaves against dermatophytic fungi. Methods: Antifungal activity ofOcimum sanctum leaves was measured by38 A NCCLS method. Minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration(MFC) of various extracts and fractions ofOcimum sanctum leaves were also determined.Results:Ocimum sanctum leaves possessed antifungal activity against clinically isolated dermatophytes at the concentration of200μg/mL.MICandMFC were high with water fraction (200 μg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi used.Conclusions:Ocimum sanctum has antifungal activity, and the leaf extracts may be a useful source for dermatophytic infections.

  17. Anti dermatophytic therapy--prospects for the discovery of new drugs from natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luciana Arantes; de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Janaína; Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; de Souza Pitangui, Nayla; Scorzoni, Liliana; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; Giannini, Maria José Soares Mendes; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco

    2013-12-01

    Millions of people and animals suffer from superficial infections caused by a group of highly specialized filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes, which only infect keratinized structures. With the appearance of AIDS, the incidence of dermatophytosis has increased. Current drug therapy used for these infections is often toxic, long-term, and expensive and has limited effectiveness; therefore, the discovery of new anti dermatophytic compounds is a necessity. Natural products have been the most productive source for new drug development. This paper provides a brief review of the current literature regarding the presence of dermatophytes in immunocompromised patients, drug resistance to conventional treatments and new anti dermatophytic treatments.

  18. Trichophyton tonsurans infection manifesting as multiple concentric annular erythemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Takeshi; Nagao, Keisuke; Hata, Yasuki; Otuka, Tomoko; Inazumi, Toyoko

    2005-07-01

    We report a case of dermatophytosis in a Judo wrestler caused by Trichophyton tonsurans (T. tonsurans) with clinical features that mimicked the concentric rings of tinea imbricata. Tinea imbricata is a unique dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton concentricum (T. concentricum), observed endemically in subtropical to torrid zones and characterized by impressive concentric rings. We found three similar cases of the dermatophytosis in the literature that were reported as tinea pseudoimbricata or tinea indecisiva. All of these cases were associated with systemic or local immunosuppression, perhaps simulating the mechanism of tinea imbricata, which is known to involve the lack of delayed type hypersensitivity to T. concentricum. These cases imply that iatrogenic immunosuppression may perhaps play an important role in the development of the unique clinical features mimicking tinea imbricata. Furthermore, three of the four cases, including the presented case, were caused by T. tonsurans. It may be necessary to consider T. tonsurans infection when multiple concentric erythemas are encountered.

  19. Trichophyton tonsurans induced recurrent onychomadesis in a very young infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Deepshikha; Goel, Alka; Kedar, Ashwini; Manchanda, Vikas; Agarwal, Swastika

    2013-01-01

    Onychomadesis, or nail shedding, is rarely seen in children and can be due to stress, systemic illnesses, trauma, and drug therapy or may be idiopathic. Fungal infection of the nail is only rarely reported as a cause of onychomadesis. We present here a case of Trichophyton tonsurans-induced onychomycosis and resultant onychomadesis in a 9-month-old boy with onset of lesions at 2 weeks of life.

  20. In vitro fungistatic effects of natural coniferous resin from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Lohi, J; Lounatmaa, K; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Laitinen, K

    2012-08-01

    Resins (rosin, pitch) are natural products of the coniferous trees and are antimicrobial against a wide range of microbes. The antifungal effectiveness of resin, purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied against human pathogenic fungi and yeasts with the agar plate diffusion tests and electron microscopy (EM). The fungistatic effect of these resin mixtures (resin salves) was tested against a set of Candida yeasts, dermatophytes, and opportunistic fungi. Transmission and scanning EM was done from samples of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes). In agar diffusion tests, the resin was strongly antifungal against all dermatophytes tested, e.g., against all fungi of the genus Trichophyton, but it was not antifungal against the Candida yeasts or against the opportunistic fungi tested. According to EM, resin caused damages in the cell hyphae and cell wall structures. We conclude that, in the agar plate diffusion test, coniferous resins are strongly fungistatic against the dermatophytic fungi only.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of dermatophyte species using DNA sequence polymorphism in calmodulin gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, Bahram; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Nouripour-Sisakht, Sadegh; Jalalizand, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Use of phylogenetic species concepts based on rDNA internal transcribe spacer (ITS) regions have improved the taxonomy of dermatophyte species; however, confirmation and refinement using other genes are needed. Since the calmodulin gene has not been systematically used in dermatophyte taxonomy, we e

  2. [Epidemiology of Tinea capitis in the suburbs of Tipasa, Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjaballah-Laliam, A; Djazer, H

    2014-06-01

    Tinea capitis represent a public health problem in Algeria, despite improvement of living conditions. We conducted a retrospective study of cases diagnosed in the hospital Hadjout (Tipasa), Algeria, during 3 years (January 2010-January 2013). Among a total of 213 hair samples, 133 were positive (direct examination or culture). Incidence average was 44 cases per year. Patients were under 12 years of age in 91%. Three species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton violaceum (66%), Microsporum canis (32.5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (1.5%). No favus was diagnosed during the study period. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis.

  4. Kerion Celsi: A report of two cases due to Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton tonsurans

    OpenAIRE

    Edoardo Torres-Guerrero; Erick Martínez-Herrera; Stefanie Arroyo-Camarena; Carlos Porras; Roberto Arenas

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a scalp fungal infection involving the hair. Inflammatory cases are usually caused by zoophilic and geophilic species of the genus Microsporum and Trichophyton, and are almost always seen in children. The most effective treatments are with Griseofulvin, itraconazole and terbinafine. We report two cases in children 5 and 7 years old, in which Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton tonsurans were isolated.

  5. Dermatofitoses humanas no interior do Rio Grande do Sul no período 1988-1992 Human dermatophytoscs in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil: 1988-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O. Lopes

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O espectro dos dermatófitos na região central do Rio Grande do Sul demonstrou importante variação na frequência das espécies no período 1988-1992. As espécies antropofilicas Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale e Epidermophyton floccosum diminuíram em frequência, enquanto as espécies zoofílicas Microsporum canis e T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes apresentaram sensível aumento. São comentadas as alterações na relação parasita/hospedeiro em função das alterações na morfología dos agentes e a dificuldade do isolamento destes agentes em cultivo.The relative frequency of the dermatophytes in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, have changed during a survey carried out from 1988-1992. The frequency of the antropophilic species T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and E.floccosum have decreased in comparison with the zoophilic species M. canis and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes. The relationship host/parasite and the low rate growth of dermatophytes in culture are discussed.

  6. A Multi-Target Approach toward the Development of Novel Candidates for Antidermatophytic Activity: Ultrastructural Evidence on α-Bisabolol-Treated Microsporum gypseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Romagnoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-target strategies are directed toward targets that are unrelated (or distantly related and can create opportunities to address different pathologies. The antidermatophytic activities of nine natural skin lighteners: α-bisabolol, kojic acid, β-arbutin, azelaic acid, hydroquinone, nicotinamide, glycine, glutathione and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate, were evaluated, in comparison with the known antifungal drug fluconazole, on nine dermatophytes responsible for the most common dermatomycoses: Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Nannizzia cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Arthroderma gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. α-Bisabolol showed the best antifungal activity against all fungi and in particular; against M. gypseum. Further investigations were conducted on this fungus to evaluate the inhibition of spore germination and morphological changes induced by α-bisabolol by TEM.

  7. Effects of Fatty Acid Salts against Trichophyton Violaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Era Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic fungus. Dermatophytosis (Tinea is fungal infection that can infect the scalp, glabrous skin, and nails. In general, Tinea can be spread by skin-to-skin contact or bathroom or floor materials. The treatments of Tinea need antifungal medication and good hygiene environment. The effective antifungal medication and infection prevention, and the creation of antifungal medication with high safety are required. In this study was focused on the antifungal effect of fatty acids potassium salts. The antifungal activity of nine fatty acid salts (butyrate, caproate, caprylate, caprate, laurate, myristate, oleate, linoleate, and linolenate was tested on the spores of Trichophyton violaceum NBRC 31064. The results show that C6K, C8K, C10K, C12K, C18:2K, C18:3K was the most inhibit 4-log unit (99.99 % of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 10 min. It was observed that C12K and C18:3K was most high antifungal activity MIC. Commercially soap was lowest antifungal activity. This is because of the oleic acid is a major component of soap. Although further investigation is necessary to make clear antifungal mechanisms, our results suggest that fatty acid potassium will use to the development of a coating agent such as furniture.

  8. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L. Correa (Rutaceae leaf extract on dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Balakumar

    2011-08-01

    Conclusions: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis.

  9. MYCOLOGICAL STUDY OF TINEA CAPITIS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection of the hair follicle of scalp. The causative dermatophytes vary with social status and geographical distribution. The incidence is high in developing countries due to factors like poverty compounded by overcrowding, improper hygiene and illiteracy. Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophytes infection of childhood, especially in school going children. It is self-limiting disease of childhood and seldom extends beyond puberty. India being a tropical developing country with high temperature and humidity favours superficial cutaneous mycotic infections. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the dermatophytes causing tinea capitis. METHOD A prospective study was conducted from July 2013 to August 2015. The study included 90 clinically suspected cases of tinea capitis. Among the 90 clinically suspected cases, 51 cases showed mycological evidence of fungal infection. The confirmed positive cases were then speciated based on their cultural morphology and microscopy. RESULTS Among the 51 culture positive cases - 20(39.21% Trichophyton rubrum, 14(27.45% Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 06(11.76% Trichophyton tonsurans, 05(9.8% Microsporum gypseum, 03(5.8% Microsporum canis, 02(3.92% Microsporum audouinii and 01(1.96% Trichophyton violaceum species were obtained. CONCLUSION Trichophyton species were found to be the major causative agents for tinea capitis

  10. [A case of Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Shoko; Shirai, Shigeko; Suzuki, Yoko; Sugaya, Keiko; Takigawa, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A 10-year-old Peruvian girl, living in Japan since 1996, visited our hospital in August 2000 complaining of alopecia which had been present on her scalp for one year. The bald areas appeared as multiple small, scattered, angular patches with indistinct margins. Follicular pustules, erythemic nodules and lymphadenopathy were also seen. In the culture of the affected hair, a tan surface with wiry undulations grew on Sabouraud's media. The colony reverse had reddish-brown central pigmentation. Slide cultured fungi produced great numbers of round and short club-shaped microconidia, hyphae and intercalary chlamydospores. These fungi showed the following characteristics: positive urease test, no pigment production on cornmeal agar and positive thiamine dependency. The restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern and the nucleotide sequences of ribosomal-DNA internal transcribed spacer region of the causative fungus was compatible with Trichophyton tonsurans. Daily administration of 125 mg of terbinafine resulted in a satisfactory response and the lesion healed almost completely.

  11. Tinea capitis among children at one suburban primary school in the City of Maputo, Mozambique Tinea capitis entre as crianças de uma escola primária suburbana na Cidade Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin M. Sidat

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of Tinea capitis among schoolchildren at one primary school and also identified the causative agents. Scalp flakes were collected from children presenting clinical signs suggestive of Tinea capitis. Dermatophytes were identified by following standard mycological procedures. This study found a clinical prevalence of Tinea capitis of 9.6% (110/1149. The dermatophytes isolated were Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton violaceum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most prevalent causative agent in this study was Microsporum audouinii, thus confirming the findings from previous cross-sectional studies carried out in the city of Maputo.O estudo avaliou a prevalência da Tinea capitis na população estudantil duma Escola Primária e também identificou os agentes causais responsáveis. Escamas do couro cabeludo foram recolhidas das crianças apresentando sinais clínicos sugestivos de Tinea capitis. Dermatófitos foram identificados seguindo procedimentos micológicos padronizados. Este estudo encontrou uma prevalência clínica de Tinea capitis de 9,6% (110/1149. Os dermatófitos isolados foram Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton violaceum e Trichophyton mentagrophytes. O agente causal mais prevalente neste estudo foi Microsporum audouinii confirmando os achados dos estudos transversais anteriores levados a cabo na Cidade de Maputo.

  12. Kerion Celsi: A report of two cases due to Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton tonsurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Torres-Guerrero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tinea capitis is a scalp fungal infection involving the hair. Inflammatory cases are usually caused by zoophilic and geophilic species of the genus Microsporum and Trichophyton, and are almost always seen in children. The most effective treatments are with Griseofulvin, itraconazole and terbinafine. We report two cases in children 5 and 7 years old, in which Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton tonsurans were isolated.

  13. Experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis: a simple and useful tool for the evaluation of new diagnostics and antifungals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunte, D.M.; Hasselby, J.P.; Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.

    2008-01-01

    or Trichophyton mentagrophytes test strains as etiologic agents, differences in inoculum concentrations, and inoculation with and without occlusion. The course of infection was evaluated clinically by redness and lesion scores and mycologically by microscopy, culture, and histopathology. The applicability...... stripping. Inoculation under occlusion showed no advantage in the establishment of experimental infections. Infection severity showed some association with the inoculum concentration and subtype of T. mentagrophytes but not in studies involving M. canis. The establishment of dermatophytosis was confirmed...... by histopathology. Surprisingly, microscopy was found to be less sensitive than culture and the latter was as sensitive as pan-dermatophyte PCR. Itraconazole significantly reduced lesion and redness score, with M. canis infections responding better to itraconazole treatment than those caused by T. mentagrophytes...

  14. Effect of Inula viscosa extract on chitin synthesis in dermatophytes and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, M; Neeman, I

    2000-08-01

    An antimycotic effect of an extract from Inula viscosa leaves was demonstrated affecting chitin synthesis in dermatophytes and Candida albicans. The antimycotic effect was compared to the effect caused by miconazole nitrate--an antifungal drug. The inhibition effect on chitin synthesis was not correlated to the extent of growth inhibition caused by the antifungal agents: both miconazole nitrate and the I. viscosa extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes and C. albicans. Miconazole nitrate did not affect chitin synthesis--except for M. canis--whereas I. viscosa extract caused a significant decline in chitin content.

  15. Characterization of the ALP1 gene locus of Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathena, Anahita; Gaedigk, Roger; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M

    2005-11-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is the primary etiologic agent of fungal infections in the pediatric population. Establishing techniques that facilitate strain discrimination offer the opportunity to investigate the relationship between fungal genotype, biochemical phenotype and disease presentation in the host. In the process of expanding efforts to elucidate intra-specific genetic variability in T. tonsurans, we have identified 2 genetic polymorphisms in the ALP1 gene: a fragment length polymorphism in the 5'UTR and a single SNP (G-->A) within the 3'UTR. Full sequence data revealed that the length polymorphism was constituted by a 16 bp repeat element, present in tandem from 3 to 6 times depending on the strain. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated a clear association between the length polymorphism and ALP1 mRNA transcript levels. Not only do the sequence variations identified in this study increase our ability to discriminate T. tonsurans strains, but they also reveal the presence of a genetic variation with functional consequences at the transcript level that may play a role in regulating disease severity.

  16. PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR KERATINASE BY CHRYSOSPORIUM TROPICUM AND TRICHOPHYTON AJELLOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kačinová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Keratinous wastes constitute a troublesome environmental contaminant that is produced in large quantities in companies processing of poultry and their further use has ecological significance. We can use for degradation of keratinous wastes enzymes or strains, which produce these enzymes. The aim of this study was isolation of keratinophilic fungi from the soil samples and optimalization of culture conditions of keratinase producing strains in vitro. For the isolation of our strains, we used hair - baiting method. From the all isolated strains, we used for other screening Chrysosporium tropicum (JK39 and Trichophyton ajelloi (JK82. Production of keratinase we monitored with different time of cultivation (7th, 14th, 21th days, sources of carbon (glucose, fructose, mannitol, sucrose, concentration of carbon sources (1%, 2% and cultivation temperature (20, 25, 30, 37ºC. Keratinase production was studied in a liquid medium containing chicken feathers as a source of keratin. We recorded the maximum production of keratinase (10.51 KU/ml by Chrysosporium tropicum on 21th day of incubation with 1% glucose at 25ºC.

  17. Trichophyton onychocola sp. nov. isolated from human nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Vit; Cmokova, Adela; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mikula, Peter; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-04-01

    A previously undescribed Trichophyton species was isolated from the nail of a 33-year-old man with a history of probable distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (without confirmation by mycological examination). The infection occurred for the first time five years earlier (in 2006) and affected the right great toenail, with complete clinical remission after treatment with ciclopirox olamine. This undescribed species was isolated during probable relapse in 2011, but its etiological significance was not confirmed, that is, direct microscopy was negative and additional clinical samples were not collected. The species is probably geophilic based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] rDNA) and is most closely related to the anamorphic T. thuringiense, homothallic Arthroderma ciferrii (anamorph T. georgiae), and heterothallic A. melis. The new species is characterized by yellowish colonies, red reverse on several media, positive urease test, negative hair-perforation test, absence of growth at 34°C, absence of macroconidia, formation of one-celled clavate microconidia, and spiral hyphae. The species grows well on sterilized human hairs placed on agar medium without any additional nutrients and forms gymnothecium-like structures covered by peridial hyphae. The combination of unique micro- and macromorphological features and physiological and sequence data from four unlinked loci (ITS, benA, RPB2, and act1 gene) justified the proposal of a new species T. onychocola sp. nov.

  18. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  19. Tinea corporis with acute inflammation caused by Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sayoko; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Masako; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2008-09-01

    A 13-year-old Japanese boy presented with acute skin inflammation on the extremities. He belonged to a judo club of a junior high school in which club tinea capitis and tinea corporis seemed to be prevalent. Vesicles and pustules appeared on his right forearm and right leg. They increased in numbers and formed annular lesions. Pruritic erythema appeared surrounding these lesions. Direct microscopic examination of the lesions detected hyphae, and culture for the fungi yielded yellowish colonies. The result of culture from pustules revealed Staphylococcus aureus. At first, a topical antifungal drug and systemic antibiotics seemed to cure annular lesions, but pustules arose again. A large surrounding erythema was cured by topical treatment with a steroid agent. A biopsy specimen from a pustule showed hyphae of fungi within a hair shaft and in the bulb. The restriction fragment length polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal gene (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism) revealed a banding pattern compatible with Trichophyton tonsurans. Treatment with systemic itraconazole was begun and lesions disappeared immediately. Systemic antifungal therapy was needed in our case. Tinea corporis with inflammation necessitates systemic antifungal therapy.

  20. Divergence among an international population of Trichophyton tonsurans isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Sugita, Takashi; González, Gloria M; Ellis, David; Arabatzis, Michalis; Vella-Zahra, Loranne; Viguié-Vallanet, Calude; Hiruma, Masataro; Leeder, J Steven; Preuett, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is a widely distributed pathogen that demonstrates a significant degree of genetic and phenetic heterogeneity. To date, the degree of genetic relatedness among geographically segregated isolates has not been explored. This investigation evaluates the extent of genetic variation among an international population of T. tonsurans isolates and examines the relatedness of isolates within and between countries. Molecular strain typing was performed on 198 isolates obtained from 14 countries. A mixed-marker strategy utilizing 27 sequence variations in 13 gene loci was applied to all isolates and cluster analysis was performed to examine the relationship between strains. Phylogenetic analysis was used to corroborate the findings of the cluster analysis with T. equinum strains serving as an out-group. In total, 47 distinct strain types were identified represented by seven clusters and one singleton. There appeared to be a moderate degree of clustering among isolates obtained from North America, Asia and Australia, although European isolates were uniformly distributed among the majority of clusters. The degree of genetic variation observed in this study coupled with the geographic localization would support the argument for allopatric divergence within this species.

  1. Analysis of part of the Trichophyton rubrum ESTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lingling; JIN Qi; MA Li; LENG Wenchuan; YANG Jian; ZHU Junping; DONG Jie; XUE Ying; WAN Zhe; LI Ruoyu

    2004-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum(7.Rubrum)is the most common of the superficial fungi.In an effort to better understand the genetic and biochemical makeup of T.Rubrum,we generated Cdna libraries from 3 growth stages and used these to isolate 4002 unique expressed sequence tags(ESTs).Sequence comparisons with the Genbank database allowed 1226 of the ESTs to be assigned putative functions or matched with homologs from other organisms.Of the remaining ESTs,989 were only weakly similar to known sequences and 1787 had no identifiable functions,suggesting that they represent novel genes.We further analyzed the presence of several important genes involved in the growth,metabolism,signal transduction,pathogenesis and drug resistance in 7.Rubrum.This information was used to newly elucidate important metabolic pathways in T.Rubrum.Taken together,our results should form the molecular basis for continued research on the physiological processes and pathogenic mechanisms of T.Rubrum,and may lead to a better understanding of fungal drug resistance and identification of new drug targets.

  2. Antidermatophytic Action of Resorcinol Derivatives: Ultrastructural Evidence of the Activity of Phenylethyl Resorcinol against Microsporum gypseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Romagnoli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the antidermatophytic activities of three resorcinol derivatives that have a history of use in dermo-cosmetic applications to discover molecules with multiple dermatological activities (i.e., multi-target drugs, thereby reducing the cost and time necessary for new drug development. The antidermatophytic activities of the three skin lighteners were evaluated relative to the known antifungal drug fluconazole on nine dermatophytes responsible for the most common dermatomycoses: Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Arthroderma cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Nannizzia gypsea, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. Among the three tested resorcinols, only two showed promising properties, with the ability to inhibit the growth of all tested dermatophytes; additionally, the IC50 values of these two resorcinols against the nine dermatophytes confirmed their good antifungal activity, particularly for phenylethyl resorcinol against M. gypseum. Ultrastructural alterations exhibited by the fungus were observed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and reflected a dose-dependent response to treatment with the activation of defence and self-preservation strategies.

  3. Antidermatophytic Action of Resorcinol Derivatives: Ultrastructural Evidence of the Activity of Phenylethyl Resorcinol against Microsporum gypseum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Baldisserotto, Anna; Vicentini, Chiara B; Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Vertuani, Silvia; Manfredini, Stefano

    2016-09-30

    In this work, we evaluated the antidermatophytic activities of three resorcinol derivatives that have a history of use in dermo-cosmetic applications to discover molecules with multiple dermatological activities (i.e., multi-target drugs), thereby reducing the cost and time necessary for new drug development. The antidermatophytic activities of the three skin lighteners were evaluated relative to the known antifungal drug fluconazole on nine dermatophytes responsible for the most common dermatomycoses: Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Arthroderma cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Nannizzia gypsea, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. Among the three tested resorcinols, only two showed promising properties, with the ability to inhibit the growth of all tested dermatophytes; additionally, the IC50 values of these two resorcinols against the nine dermatophytes confirmed their good antifungal activity, particularly for phenylethyl resorcinol against M. gypseum. Ultrastructural alterations exhibited by the fungus were observed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and reflected a dose-dependent response to treatment with the activation of defence and self-preservation strategies.

  4. QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CARICA PAPAYA LEAF EXTRACT AGAINST HUMAN AND PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Khan Sherwani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been explored extensively all over the globe in quest of a novel bioactive compound that could a good therapeutic candidate treating infectious diseases especially against drug resistant microbes. Qualitative phytochemical analyses of Carica papaya leaf extract reveal that except steroids and tannins all the possible phytochemical constituents including carbohydrates, proteins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids were present. Two ways of Carica papaya leaf extract preparations i.e crushed and boiled were tested for their antifungal activity against 6 saprophytic fungi Penicillium sp, Aspergilus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp, Rhizopus and Helminthosporum, 5 dermatophytic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans and 6 yeasts including Candida albicans, Candida albicans ATCC 0383, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida galbrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida kruzei. The activity was found against majority of fungi but was much better in case of crushed leaf extract.

  5. Clinicomicrobiological aspects of tinea cruris in madras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Mahendra

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 242 patients with clinically diagnosed tinea cruris were screened and 181 (74.7 % were found to be positive in culture for dermatophytes. 93.9% of infections were caused by Trichophyton spp., of which 58.4% were Trichophyton rubrum, 5.5% were Epidermophyton floccosum, 3.8% were Trichophyton tonsurans and we had a single isolate of Microsporum gypseum complex. Incidence of tinea cruris was higher in males (95.6% than in females (4.4%. 45% of the cases were recurrent and 38% of cases were chronic tinea cruris. Three patients had granulomatous lesion. Zoophilic T mentagrophytes was the major aetiologic agent isolated from all the 3 cases of granulomatous tinea cruris.

  6. Superficial Mycoses In Pregnant Women Consulting At University Hospital Center Of Yaounde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petmy Lohoue J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women may contaminate new borns and babies with vaginal candidiasis and ringworms, thus the choice of this group for our study. Cases were recruited at the UHC Yaounde from June 2001 to September 2002. Four hundred and thirty (29.3% out of 1467 examined presented at least one mycosis. The principal lesions were vaginal thrush 44% and athlete’s foot 22%. The causal fungi were essentially yeasts with the predominance of candida albicans (72% and for the dermatophytes, Trichophyton rubrum (71.84%. The other species were Candida tropicalis, Candida Krusei, Candida parapsilosis, candida glabrata, Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon sp., Trichophyton soundanense, Trichophyton interdigitale, Thrichophyton mentagrophytes and scytalidium dimidiatum. Because these infections affect up to 30% of pregnant women, they should be taken into consideration during prenatal care.

  7. Microsporum mirabile and its teleomorph Arthroderma mirabile, a new dermatophyte species in the M. cookei clade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, J.S.; Gräser, Y.; Walther, G.; Peano, A.; Symoens, F.; de Hoog, S.

    2012-01-01

    A novel dermatophyte species is described in the Microsporum cookei clade. It differs significantly from known taxa in the two molecular markers analyzed, i.e., ITS and partial β-tubulin (BT2). Morphologically the species was characterized by smooth- or only slightly rough-walled conidia, but isolat

  8. Microsporum mirabile and its teleomorph Arthroderma mirabile, a new dermatophyte species in the M. cookei clade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, J.S.; Graeser, Y.; Walther, G.; Peano, A.; Symoens, F.; de Hoog, S.

    2012-01-01

    A novel dermatophyte species is described in the Microsporum cookei clade. It differs significantly from known taxa in the two molecular markers analyzed, i.e., ITS and partial beta-tubulin (BT2). Morphologically the species was characterized by smooth-or only slightly rough-walled conidia, but isol

  9. [Frequency of dermatophytes in a sample of cats in the urban area of Gran Mendoza, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María Florencia; Grilli, Diego; Degarbo, Stella; Arenas, Graciela; Telechea, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The cat, considered the main reservoir of Microsporum canis, lives in urban areas, and also plays an important role in the emergence of dermatomycoses. To determine and analyse the frequency of zoonotic dermatophytes in a sample of cats in an urban area of the Gran Mendoza region. The animals selected were household cats and cats less than one year old that came from shelters and kennels from urban areas in the Gran Mendoza region. A total of 45 samples from cats with and without dermatological lesions were analysed. These samples were collected through skin scraping, hair removal and Mackenzie brush, respectively. Direct observation was made with KOH and glycerol after heat exposure. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud and Lactrimel agar slants with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide for 30 days. The frequency of dermatophytes isolated in this preliminary study was 13.3%. There were not statistically significant differences by source, age, sex, race or dermatological condition. Zoonotic dermatophytes were found in 2 household cats out of the 21 that had direct contact with children or the elderly. M. canis was isolated in 83.3% cases. The frequency of isolation of zoonotic dermatophytes in the sample of cats in an urban area of the Gran Mendoza region was 13.3%, a value higher than expected. M. canis was the most isolated species. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of Dermatophytes in a Tertiary Care Center of Solapur, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasira Khalid Shaikh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin infection due to dermatophytes has become a significant health problem in tropical and sub tropical countries including India. Aim & Objectives: The present study was undertaken with an aim to study the distribution and frequency of dermatophyte species according to the site of infection. Also, Dermatophyte Test Medium (DTM and Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA were compared as screening medium. Material and Methods: A total 162 specimen were collected from 150 clinically diagnosed cases during the period of December 2012 to July 2014. The identification of isolate was done by microscopy, culture and other physiological tests such as urease test, hair perforation test and rice grain test. Results: Commonest age group affected was 21-30 years. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical type. Out of 162 specimens, 90 (55.56% specimen were positive on direct microscopy and 84 specimens showed dermatophytic growth on culture media. T.rubrum was the commonest isolate. As compared to DTM, SDA proved to be a slightly better isolation media. Conclusion: Dermatophytosis is very common in our region having favorable climate which in association with poor hygienic conditions plays an important role in the growth of these fungi. Laboratory diagnosis using conventional methods like direct microscopy and culture both are necessary as they are easy to perform but require skill and expertise for identification

  11. A retrospective study of the management of pediatric kerion in Trichophyton tonsurans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Laura E; Higgins, Elisabeth M; Morris-Jones, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    Kerion celsi is the inflammatory extreme of tinea capitis, representing a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the causative dermatophyte. Some authors have advocated the use of oral corticosteroids in patients with kerion formation to inhibit the host inflammatory response and minimize the risk of scarring. This retrospective study analyzed the management and outcome of all children younger than 10 years old presenting to our pediatric dermatology service with tinea capitis resulting in kerion formation between 2003 and 2009. We propose that kerion treatment be directed toward the underlying dermatophyte. Oral and intralesional corticosteroids are an unnecessary adjunct to oral antifungal therapy for children with tinea capitis presenting with kerion in urban areas.

  12. Sensibilidad al fluconazol de aislamientos de Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma T Gross-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Trichophyton rubrum es el dermatofito más frecuentemente aislado a nivel mundial y afecta principalmente: piel glabra, uñas de las manos y de los pies. El fluconazol es utilizado con frecuencia para el tratamiento de las onicomicosis en nuestra población, por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue estudiar la sensibilidad a este antifúngico, de aislamientos costarricenses de T. rubrum. Métodos: se investigó la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol de 80 aislamientos de T. rubrum, obtenidos de muestras de piel y sus anexos. El método utilizado fue el de microdilución M-38A, descrito por el “National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards”. Las diluciones finales del fluconazol fueron de 0,25 a 128 μg/ml. Resultados: la mayoría de los aislamientos fueron obtenidos de uñas de los pies (68,75%. El 86,25% de los aislamientos analizados presentaron una concentración mínima inhibitoria entre 0,25-8 μg/ml, el 8,75% entre 16-32 μg/ml y un 5% > 64 μg/ml. De estos aislamientos resistentes, dos fueron de uñas de los pies y dos de plantas de pie. Conclusión: debido a que la mayoría de los aislamientos de T. rubrum demostraron ser sensibles al fluconazol, solo se recomienda realizar la prueba de sensibilidad a este antifúngico en casos de falla terapéutica, especialmente en pacientes con onicomicosis en la cual el tratamiento es prolongado.

  13. Global transcriptional profiles of Trichophyton rubrum in response to Flucytosine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is one of the most common human fungal pathogens that cause chronic infections of the skin and nails. To identify antifungal responsive genes, cDNA microarray analysis was performed for T. rubrum to reveal global transcriptional profiles of drug-specific responses to 5-Flucytosine (5-FC). cDNA microarray was constructed from the T. rubrum expressed sequence tag (ESTs) database, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5-FC was determined, and microarray hybridization and data analysis were applied. The expression pattern of 7 genes observed by microarray was confirmed by the quantitative real-time reverser transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data analysis indicated that a total of 474 genes were found differentially expressed, 196 showed an increase in expression and 278 showed a decrease in expression. Marked down-regulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism (such as CDC21), transcription (such as E2F1), and RNA processing (such as SGN1, RIM4 and NOP1) was observed. Other genes involved in signal transduction, chaperones, inorganic ion transport, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, amino acid transport, lipid transport and potential drug resistance mechanism were also affected by 5-FC. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR of the selected genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray results. This is the first analysis of transcriptional profiles in response to 5-FC for T. rubrum. The findings may be valuable for the identification of genes involved in mechanisms of action and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance of 5-FC.

  14. Dermatophytic blepharitis due to Microsporum gypseum. An adult variety of tinea faciei with dermatophytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Torres – Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea faciei, is a facial superficial mycosis. The most frequent etiological agents are Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and T. tonsurans. We report a 40 year-old woman, with an eight days history of an erythematous plaque on her superior right eyelid. Hyphae and dermatophytoma were easily visualized in KOH examination, and Microsporum gypseum was isolated.

  15. An epidemic of tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans among children (wrestlers) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Fari, M; Gräser, Y; Presber, W; Tietz, H J

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of tinea corporis due to Trichophyton tonsurans among 46 children (aged 7-17 years) was investigated. Most of them were wrestlers. Thirty-one strains were identified by conventional methods, but proved to be problematic in 15 isolates due to colony variation and reduced sporulation. They were identified as Trichophyton tonsurans by the use of molecular methods, for example, sequence comparison of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting. No DNA polymorphisms were detected with any of the techniques used, suggesting clonal reproduction of the populations of the species and providing evidence for spatial and temporal stability of the lineage.

  16. Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton spp. in a Tenerife Lizard (Gallotia galloti): an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orós, J; Hernández, J D; Gallardo, J; Lupiola, P; Jensen, H E

    2013-01-01

    Reports of dermatophytosis in reptiles are rare. This report describes the microscopical and immunohistochemical findings in a case of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton spp. in a 2-year-old Tenerife lizard (Gallotia galloti) with ulcerative and pustular skin lesions. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by superficial epidermal pustules containing heterophils with numerous fungal hyphae that stained by periodic acid-Schiff and Grocott's stain. Fungal culture was not performed, but a panel of polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera was applied to tissue sections. These immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactivity of the hyphae only with antiserum specific for Trichophyton spp.

  17. In vitro model of infected stratum corneum for the efficacy evaluation of poloxamer 407-based formulations of ciclopirox olamine against Trichophyton rubrum as well as differential scanning calorimetry and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-10-15

    Superficial fungal skin infections are a common disease and concern 20-25% of the world's population with the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum being the main trigger. Due to autoinoculation, fungal skin infections of the feet (tinea pedis) often occur simultaneously with fungal nail infections (onychomycosis). Therefore, the overall objective was the development and characterisation of poloxamer 407-based formulations with the antimycotic active ingredient ciclopirox olamine (CPX) for simultaneous antifungal therapy. The formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, water, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. The in vitro antifungal efficacy against T. rubrum was tested in a novel in vitro model of infected stratum corneum in comparison to a marketed semi-solid formulation containing 1% (w/w) ciclopirox olamine and a marketed nail lacquer containing 8% ciclopirox. Several liquid poloxamer 407-based formulations with only 1% CPX completely inhibited fungal growth after 6 days of incubation, whereas the marketed semi-solid formulation did not inhibit fungal growth. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealing the interaction between the formulations and the SC showed that increasing isopropyl alcohol/propylene glycol concentrations as well as increasing CPX concentrations caused increasing endothermic transition shifts. Moreover, stability studies at 30 °C exhibited only a slight decrease of the CPX amount after 12 months of storage. Each formulation contained >90% of the initial CPX concentration after termination of the stability studies.

  18. Establishment of a method for rapid diagnosis of Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in rabbits%家兔须癣毛癣菌感染快速诊断方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦威; 刘娜; 张永英; 王会真; 王绥华; 赵兵令; 曾川

    2013-01-01

    为探讨兔须癣毛癣菌感染快速诊断方法,对55例临床病例样品分别通过KOH显微检查、体外分离培养和巢式PCR技术检查,比较其阳性率.结果发现单纯KOH显微检查阳性率为52.7%(29/55),改良KOH显微镜检阳性率为72.7%(40/55),体外分离培养阳性率为80.0%(44/55),第1轮PCR检测阳性率为50.9%(28/55),巢式PCR检测的阳性率为85.5%(47/55).KOH镜检简单快速(20~30 min),但缺乏特异性和敏感性,有假阴性结果.体外分离培养虽具有特异性,但确诊所需时间长(4~6周).巢式PCR技术速度快(6~8 h)、特异性强、敏感性高,不受人为因素和培养条件的影响,是较理想的须癣毛癣菌感染快速诊断方法.

  19. 麻类织物对须癣毛癣菌生长抑制作用的研究%Study on hemp,flax and ramie fibers against Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党育平; 杨雪琴; 万哲

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过分析汉麻、亚麻和苎麻对须癣毛癣菌生长的影响,探讨麻类织物对浅部真菌的抑制作用.方法 实验采用振荡法.将3种麻类织物分别与须癣毛癣菌混合培养,对照组为棉布组,3 d后分别取堵养液稀释5倍后涂布培养皿,计算各自的菌落数和抑菌率并进行统计分析.结果 麻类织物组菌落数明显少于对照组棉布组(P<0.01),3种麻类织物对须癣毛癣菌的抑菌率均高于60%,但3种麻类织物的抑菌率之间无明显差异(P<0.01).结论 3种麻类织物均可显著抑制须癣毛癣菌的生长,麻类织物有可能用来预防由须癣毛癣菌引起的足癣、股癣等浅部真菌病.

  20. 家兔须癣毛癣菌对8种抗真菌药物敏感性研究%Study on Susceptibility of Eight Kind of Antifungal Medicines to Trichophyton Mentagrophytes Of Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林毅; 谢晶; 李兴玉; 魏甬; 王文贵; 张先惠; 于吉锋; 罗丹丹

    2011-01-01

    采用丹麦ROSCO药敏纸片扩散法,检测12株家兔须癣毛癣菌对伊曲康唑、酮康唑、氟康唑、特比萘酚、克霉唑、氟胞嘧啶、沃尔康唑和制霉菌素等8种抗真菌药物的敏感性.结果:特比萘酚对须癣毛癣菌的抑菌圈直径最大(平均73 mm),而且12株菌100%对其敏感,抗菌效果最好;其后依次是沃尔康唑、克霉唑和伊曲康唑,按ROSCO严格判读标准12株菌对其敏感率分别为83.3%、83.3%和8.3%:抑菌效果最差的是氟胞嘧啶和氟康唑,按ROSCO基本判读标准其耐药(不敏感)率分别为100%和83.3%.

  1. Deep localized cutaneous infection with Trichophyton mentagrophytes in skin eye: a case report%须癣毛癣菌致皮肤、眼部深在感染 1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐鸿珊; 胡白; 高银花; 卫广英; 赵政龙; 朱一元

    2001-01-01

    患者女性, 63岁,因左面部上下眼睑肿胀伴低热 10天入院。体检:左上下眼睑、左颧上部明显红肿有压痛,中央有小片黑色坏死,用抗生素治疗无效,红肿、坏死性黑痂扩大至直径 6cm,皮损组织涂片真菌检查发现大量分隔菌丝,培养为须癣毛癣菌,诊断皮肤深部真菌感染,服伊曲康唑 0.2,每日 2次, 52天基本痊愈。

  2. 家兔须癣毛癣菌皮屑涂片染色方法的比较研究%Comparison of scurf smear staining method for detection of Trichophyton mentagrophyte in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦威; 沈洁; 闫金坤; 刘建钗; 刘月; 刘娜; 黄小龙; 马邯生; 史瑞雅

    2016-01-01

    为了建立须癣毛癣菌快速诊断方法,采集疑似患真菌病的家兔皮屑样品96份,制作涂片,分别进行直接镜检、Grocott六胺银染色、过碘酸雪夫氏染色、Calcofluor White荧光染色和定量PCR检测.结果显示,4种常规方法的阳性率依次为69.78%、71.19%、72.92%和84.38%,特异性和阳性预测值没有显著差异,而荧光染色检查的敏感性和阴性预测值明显高于其他3常规种方法(P<0.01).定量PCR的阳性率略高于荧光染色,但没有显著差异.与其他3种常规方法相比,Calcofluor White荧光染色方法相对简单、快捷、敏感、阳性率高,其阳性率与定量PCR相当,但费用低.由此可见,Calcofluor White荧光染色方法是须癣毛癣菌感染可选择的检测方法.

  3. 须毛癣菌和犬小孢子菌在体外对毛发的破坏作用%In vitro damage to hairs by Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 朱敬先; 高顺强; 林元珠; 胡沙沙

    2006-01-01

    目的光镜和电镜下观察须毛癣菌和犬小孢子菌对毛发破坏的程度,比较须毛癣菌和犬小孢子菌对不同年龄组毛发感染时间的差异.方法临床采集不同年龄组的健康人毛发,分别对须毛癣菌和犬小孢子菌进行改良毛发穿孔试验及扫描电镜观察.结果须毛癣菌和犬小孢子菌均可致毛发破坏.在各个年龄组中,须毛癣菌对毛发的感染时间明显短于犬小孢子菌(P<0.01).无论是须毛癣菌还是犬小孢子菌,对毛发的感染时间均随着年龄的增长而延长(P<0.01).结论须毛癣菌较犬小孢子菌对毛发的破坏早且严重.年龄越小,毛发越易受破坏.

  4. 角蛋白与毛发诱导须癣毛癣菌产生角蛋白酶的比较%Comparasion of keratinase production in Trichophyton mentagrophytes induced by human keratins or hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小东; 付萌; 王冬青; 孙林潮; 张海龙; 刘红娟; 刘玉峰

    2004-01-01

    目的:比较纯化人角蛋白与毛发诱导须癣毛癣菌产生角蛋白酶的能力,寻找诱导角蛋白酶产生的改良底物.方法:以纯化人角蛋白和毛发为底物诱导须癣毛癣菌产生角蛋白酶,紫外分光光度法检测须癣毛癣菌的产酶曲线和角蛋白酶的比活性.结果:纯化人角蛋白诱导须癣毛癣菌产生角蛋白酶的能力高于毛发,以角蛋白为底物检测人角蛋白诱导角蛋白酶和毛发诱导的角蛋白酶的比活性分别为1 020U/mg、910U/mg,以毛发为底物检测人角蛋白诱导角蛋白酶和毛发诱导的角蛋白酶的比活性分别为850U/mg、790U/mg.结论:纯化人角蛋白是诱导角蛋白酶产生的良好底物,纯化人角蛋白诱导角蛋白酶比活性高于毛发诱导的角蛋白酶.

  5. 须癣毛癣菌烯醇化酶基因的克隆、原核表达与纯化%Cloning, Prokaryootic Expression and Purification of Trichophyton Mentagrophyte Enolase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳芳; 刘金鹏; 鄢秋龙; 戴安安; 杨国玲

    2016-01-01

    目的 克隆须癣毛癣菌烯醇化酶(Enolase)基因全长cDNA,制备具有高免疫原性的须癣毛癣菌烯醇化酶重组蛋白.方法 选用须癣毛癣菌肉芽肿株(774),提取总RNA,采用eDNA快速末端扩增法(RACE)克隆Enolase基因的全长序列,并对该片段进行序列测定和分析.同时对该片段进行了克隆、原核表达及纯化.结果 获得须癣毛癣菌Enolase基因全长序列1 491bp,拥有一个1 317bp的开放阅读框,编码438个氨基酸,5'非编码区为106bp,3 '非编码区为68bp;同源比对与断发毛癣菌Enolase同源性达100%,与红色毛癣菌同源性达98%.构建了pET-16b-Enolase表达质粒,重组质粒都经过测序鉴定正确,pET-16b-Enolase诱导表达后能抑制宿主菌生长,但经过条件优化后表达质粒能在BL21(DE3)菌中经异丙基-β-D-硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导大量表达和纯化,Western blot证实了表达的结果.结论 克隆出须癣毛癣菌Enolase基因cDNA全长序列,原核表达和纯化成功,为进一步研究重组须癣毛癣菌Enolase的作用奠定了基础.

  6. 基于几丁质酶基因序列分析鉴定兔源须癣毛癣菌%Identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes in Rabbit based on the Chitinase Gene Sequence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月; 刘彦威; 白福娟; 刘娜; 刘伯

    2015-01-01

    利用几丁质酶基因(CHS1)序列分析和形态学方法对兔源须癣毛癣菌分离株(31株)进行鉴定和分型.从患兔采集病料,在沙保弱培养基进行分离培养,观察菌落和菌丝、孢子的形态及尿素酶、毛发穿孔等生理试验表现;提取病料和分离株DNA,扩增目的基因,通过序列分析,结合形态学方法对分离株进行鉴定,根据分离株序列同源性差异进行基因分型.结果显示,分离株的菌落多数为颗粒型和粉末型,占87.09%(27/31),背面有黄褐色素沉着,有大量葡萄状小分生孢子、螺旋菌丝、梳状菌丝及棒状大分生孢子,尿素酶试验和毛发穿孔试验阳性;CHS1序列比对显示分离菌株与须癣毛癣菌复合体的指间须癣毛癣菌有99.2%~95.4%相似性.根据CHS1序列比对结果,结合分离株的形态学特征,将该菌株鉴定为亲动物指间须癣毛癣菌.基于CHS1序列同源性差异,将分离株分成5种基因类型,其中Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型是优势菌株,占54.84%(17/31),提示CHS1序列分析可以用于须癣毛癣菌的鉴定和基因分型.

  7. Evaluation of antidermatophytic activity of Ranunculus sceleratus and Pongamia pinnata available in North Eastern Region of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharma KK; Kotoky J; Kalita JC; Barthakur R

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of Ranunculus sceleratus (R. sceleratus) and Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata), collected from North East India. Chloroform, Methanol and Water extracts of the plants were evaluated for anti-ringworm activity against five strains of dermatophytes viz., Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton tonsurans (T. tonsurans), Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and Microsporum fulvum (M. fulvum). Methods: Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the inhibition zone of the different extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts were determined by broth macro dilution method. Results: When compared, the chloroform extracts of both the plants were found to be highly active against all the tested fungi followed by the methanol extract. The water extract showed the least activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was ranging from 1.25-10.00 mg/mL for chloroform and methanol extracts and greater that 10 mg/mL for the water extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the experiments suggest the anti-dermatophytic nature of the plants.

  8. Incidence of dermatophytosis in canine cases presented at Apollo Veterinary College, Rajashtan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Gangil

    Full Text Available Aim: Ring worm are fungal infection relevant to animal and human health. The study was aimed to assess the frequency of dermatophytes infection of the skin of dogs in and around the Jaipur city. Materials and methods: One twenty canine samples were obtained during three years (2008-2011 from dogs suffering from different dermatological disorders and were invitro processed for dermatophytes detection at the Department of Microbiology, Apollo College of veterinary medicine Agra Road, Jaipur. Result: Out of these, eighty nine samples were positive respectively for Microsporum gypseum 55.83%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18.3% and other fungal isolate Alternaria spp. sporadic in 15 samples (0.12%. Retrospective studies of dermatophytosis due to Microsporum and Trichophyton were performed with the sole consideration of public health consequence of the canine ringworm. Conclusion: In the present study samples were found positive for Microsporum gypseum 55.83%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18.3% and other fungal isolate Alternaria spp. Considering the veterinary and public health importance of canine ringworm it would be necessary to assess the prevalence of the dermatophytosis in Rajasthan. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 682-684

  9. Prevalência de dermatófitos na rotina de micologia em hospital particular de médio porte na cidade de Chapecó, estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Ana Schoeler

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo, avaliar a prevalência no diagnóstico de dermatófitos durante o período de janeiro de 2007 à junho de 2008 no setor de micologia em hospital particular de médio porte, na cidade de Chapecó, oeste do estado de Santa Catarina. Foram coletadas 111 amostras, das quais 66 (59% apresentaram positividade pelo exame direto e cultivo da amostra biológica. Trichophyton mentagrophytes foi o fungo isolado com maior freqüência (52%, seguido pelo dermatófito T. rubrum (17%, em contrapartida dos dados literários no sul do Brasil, que preconizam T. rubrum, seguido de Microsporum canis e do T. mentagrophytes como agentes mais comumente isolados. Considerando os sítios anatômicos analisados neste trabalho, a ocorrência foi observada em 47% em amostras de unha, 43% de pele, 7% outros e 3% mistos (pele/unha. Esse estudo evidencia a importância da recorrente análise do perfil epidemiológico dos dermatófitos nas diferentes regiões do Brasil, possibilitando uma correta conduta epidemiológica de prevenção, baseada na freqüência regional das espécies causadoras das dermatomicoses. Palavras-chave: Dermatófitos. Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Santa Catarina. ABSTRACT Prevalence of dermatophyte species in routine mycological tests at a private medium-sized hospital in Chapecó city, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dermatophytes diagnosed, from January 2007 to June 2008, at the clinical mycology section of a private medium-sized hospital, in Chapecó city (Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Out of the 111 samples collected, 66 (59% gave positive results in the direct examination and culture of the biological sample. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the most frequently isolated species (52%, followed by T. rubrum (17%, contradicting the published data on southern Brazil, which identify T. rubrum as the commonest agent in clinical specimens, followed by Microsporum canis

  10. Effects of laser irradiation on Trichophyton rubrum growth and ultrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhi-li; XU Jing; ZHUO Feng-lin; WANG Li; XU Wei; XU Ying; ZHANG Xiao-yan; ZHAO Jun-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is the most common causative agent of dermatophytosis worldwide.In this study,we examined the effect of laser irradiation on the growth and morphology of T.rubrum.Methods Colonies of T.rubrum were isolated (one colony per plate),and randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups:Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment,long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser treatment,intense pulsed light (IPL)treatment,308 nm excimer laser treatment and the blank control group without treatment.Standardized photographs were obtained from grown-up fungal plates prior to treatment.Colonies were then exposed to various wavelengths and fluences of laser light.To compare the growth of colonies,they were re-photographed under identical conditions three and six days post-treatment.To investigate the morphology of T.rubrum,scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from specimens exposed to 24 hours of laser treatment.Results Growth of T.rubrum colonies was significantly inhibited following irradiation by 694 nm Q-switched and 1064nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG lasers.Other treatments exerted little or no effect.Q-switched laser irradiation exerted a stronger growth inhibitory effect than long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation.Following treatment by the Q-switched ruby laser system,T.rubrum hyphae became shrunken and deflated,and SEM images revealed rough,fractured hyphal surfaces,punctured with small destructive holes.TEM images showed that the hyphae were degenerating,as evidenced by the irregular shape of hyphae,rough and loose cell wall,and obscure cytoplasmic texture.Initially high elect(io)n density structure was visible in the cell; later,low-density structure appeared as a result of cytoplasmic dissolution.In contrast,the blank control group showed no obvious changes in morphology.Conclusion The Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment significantly inhibits the growth and changes the morphology of T.rubrum.

  11. Rapid response of Trichophyton tonsurans-induced onychomycosis after treatment with terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Raza; Hafeez, Zeba Hasan; Rodwell, Carmen; Frieden, Ilona J; Abrams, Beatrice

    2002-06-01

    We describe an 8-year-old Hispanic female who presented with distal subungual onychomycosis and tinea capitis. Both foci of infection yielded Trichophyton tonsurans upon culture, and were clinically and mycologically cured with terbinafine 125 mg, once daily for 1 week [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED]. This aspect of treatment with terbinafine has not previously been reported.

  12. [The present state of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan and measures to combat it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since Trichophyton tonsurans infection first began to increase in Japan. Initially the infection was confined to high school and university students participating in combat sports clubs, but it has now spread among the athletes' family members and friends. In a recent survey, 10% of Judo athletes tested positive for Trichophyton tonsurans; most were asymptomatic carriers. T.tonsurans infection usually causes tinea corporis or tinea capitis, but lesions can occur on other sites, causing tinea unguim, tinea manus, etc . The course of infection is usually only mildly symptomatic, and individuals with long-term infection can become asymptomatic carriers. It is likely that many individuals are unaware that they have Trichophyton tonsurans infection. The number of individuals infected with clear without repeating is difficult to assess due to the complexity of the fungal culture process. Diagnosis is made by direct examination in KOH and culture, and treatment consists of topical and / or oral antifungals. Prevention of Trichophyton tonsurans infection through increased awareness of the disease and careful hygiene is important.

  13. Trichophyton violaceum : A rare isolate in 18-day-old neonate

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    Surpam R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton violaceum , a less common and geographically restricted infection is reported in a 18-day-old neonate. The diagnosis was made by potassium hydroxide of skin scraping examination and confirmed by culture. The patient was treated successfully with miconazole nitrate application. A large family with crowded living was considered the main predisposing factor.

  14. Comparison of the In Vitro Activities of Newer Triazoles and Established Antifungal Agents against Trichophyton rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.; Zhang, C.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zhu, S.; Tan, X.; Wen, Y.; Huang, X.; Lei, W.; Zhou, Z.; Fang, W.; Shen, S.; Deng, D.; Pan, W.; Liao, W.

    2015-01-01

    One hundred eleven clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates were tested against 7 antifungal agents. The geometric mean MICs of all isolates were, in increasing order: terbinafine, 0.03 mg/liter; voriconazole, 0.05 mg/liter; posaconazole, 0.11 mg/liter; isavuconazole, 0.13 mg/liter; itraconazole, 0.26

  15. Evaluation of cats (Felis catus) as possible asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes in extreme south of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tony Silveira; Renata de Faria; Mariana Remio; Camila Graeff; Fabiana Poetsch; Guilherme Azevedo; Juliane Guimares; Rafaela Bellora; Tassiane Moraes; Pedro Quevedo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of Microsporum canis in pelage of asymptomatic cats for dermatophytosis, in south region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and evaluate its importance in epidemiology of dermatophytosis in the study area. Methods: A total of 60 domestic cats were evaluated for the presence of Microsporum canis. The animals were divided into three groups of 20 felines. Each group consisted of exclusively domiciled, semi-domiciled and rural animals. Samples were collected following the carpet-square technique. The microorganisms were cultivated under laminar flow in mycosel agar and grown in a greenhouse. Results: All the cats of the three groups analysed had negative cultures for dermatophytes. In 85% of the dishes, there was a growth of environmental saprophytic fungi such as Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. and Penicillium sp. Conclusions: Thus, asymptomatic cats for dermatophytes did not show importance in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  16. Microsporum mirabile and its teleomorph Arthroderma mirabile, a new dermatophyte species in the M. cookei clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Soo; Gräser, Yvonne; Walther, Grit; Peano, Andrea; Symoens, Francoise; de Hoog, Sybren

    2012-02-01

    A novel dermatophyte species is described in the Microsporum cookei clade. It differs significantly from known taxa in the two molecular markers analyzed, i.e., ITS and partial β-tubulin (BT2). Morphologically the species was characterized by smooth- or only slightly rough-walled conidia, but isolates rapidly became pleomorphic with sparse, smooth- and thick-walled macroconidia in addition to microconidia. A teleomorph was found after mating.

  17. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Singh I; Mishra A; Kushwaha RKS

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266 , A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137 , Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081 , ...

  18. In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against dermatophytes and other filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    2002-08-01

    The in vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against dermatophytes (n = 106) and filamentous fungi (n = 78) was determined. Tea tree oil MICs for all fungi ranged from 0.004% to 0.25% and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) ranged from tea tree oil of germinated and non-germinated Aspergillus niger conidia showed germinated conidia to be more susceptible than non-germinated conidia. These data demonstrate that tea tree oil has both inhibitory and fungicidal activity.

  19. NON DERMATOPHYTIC FUNGAL INFECTIONS AMONGST THE DERMATOPHYTOSIS - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

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    Balram Ji Omar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytosis is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Methods: 100 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were subjected to mycological examination with microscopy and culture using 10% KOH and Sabouraud’s dextrose Agar(SDAand Dermatophyte test medium(DTM. Results: Direct microscopy revealed fungal elements in 49% cases and 55% were positive on culture and included all cases positive by KOH. Commonest age group affected was between 21-40 years and males outnumbered females 2.2:1. Among 55% positive cases; 65.5% were non dermatophytic molds (NDMs or fungi and 34.5% were dermatophytes. Among the NDMs the isolated species were Aspergillus niger (14.5% , Aspergillus flavus (18.2%, Candida albicans (12.7%, Candida tropicalis (5.5%, Fusarium spp (7.3% , Mucor spp. (5.5% and Acremonium spp. (1.8%. Conclusion:: The isolated NDMs are to be evaluated as primary pathogen causing dermatophytosis in absence of any underlying predisposing factor and need to be considered important for treatment as to reduce the morbidity and psychological stress among such patients

  20. Onicomicosis: epidemiología, agentes causales y evaluación de los métodos diagnósticos de laboratorio Onychomycoses: epidemiology, causative agents and assessment of diagnostic laboratory methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier R Nazar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Desde marzo de 2007 hasta marzo de 2011 se estudiaron prospectivamente 414 pacientes con onicodistrofias en un laboratorio privado de Esquel. La prevalencia de onicomicosis de pie fue del 78 %; la de mano, del 58 %. Los principales agentes etiológicos fueron Trichophyton rubrum, Candida spp. y Trichophyton mentagrophytes. El desarrollo de dermatofitos prevaleció en las onicopatías de pie y el de Candida spp. en las de uñas de mano (ambos, p Since March 2007 to March 2011, 414 patients with onychopathies were prospectively analyzed. Prevalence of the toenail and fingernail mycoses was 78 % and 58 %, respectively. The major etiological agents were Trichophyton rubrum, Candida spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Dermatophytes were more frequently cultured from toenails, whereas Candida spp. from fingernails (both, p < 0.05. In candidal onychomycosis, species different from C. albicans were prevalent. A higher prevalence of toenail and fingernail mycoses, a predominance of T. rubrum in toenails (p < 0.05, and greater positivity in the direct examination (DE and in culture (both, p < 0.05 were more frequently observed in men than in women. The correlation between DE and culture was 68 %. DE and culture yields were associated with a greater size lesion. DE was more effective in onycodystrophies with duration of more than 5 years. Culture positivity was independent of nail affection chronicity.

  1. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria

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    Magdalene N. Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6% of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n=5 and Trichophyton (n=5 genera. T. verrucosum (n=4 was the most predominant species isolated followed by M. equinum (n=3, T. vanbreuseghemii (n=2, M. gypseum (n=2, and M. canis (n=2. Others include M. fulvum (n=2, T. mentagrophytes (n=1, T. equinum (n=1, T. soudanense (n=1, and M. gallinae (n=1. The present study reveals the occurrence of dermatophytes in cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In addition for the first time in this environment the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. soudanense was isolated from horses. These findings have great economic, veterinary, and public health significance as they relate to the cost of treatment and dissemination of zoonotic dermatophytes.

  2. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Magdalene N; Kazeem, Haruna M; Kwanashie, Clara N; Maurice, Nanven A; Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Adamu, Helen N; Mshelia, Wayuta P; Edeh, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6%) of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n = 5) and Trichophyton (n = 5) genera. T. verrucosum (n = 4) was the most predominant species isolated followed by M. equinum (n = 3), T. vanbreuseghemii (n = 2), M. gypseum (n = 2), and M. canis (n = 2). Others include M. fulvum (n = 2), T. mentagrophytes (n = 1), T. equinum (n = 1), T. soudanense (n = 1), and M. gallinae (n = 1). The present study reveals the occurrence of dermatophytes in cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In addition for the first time in this environment the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. soudanense was isolated from horses. These findings have great economic, veterinary, and public health significance as they relate to the cost of treatment and dissemination of zoonotic dermatophytes.

  3. Clinico-epidemiological profile of dermatophytosis in district Samba: a cross sectional study from the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipender Kaur Najotra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Fungi are ubiquitous in nature, single celled or very complex multicellular organisms. Its distribution and their etiological agents varies with geographical location. The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical pattern of dermatophytosis and species of dermatophyte prevalent in district Samba, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Methods The present study was conducted in different hospitals of Jammu for the period of two years. All suspected patients with dermatophytoses, were included and specimens collected from them. The presence of fungal filaments by direct microscopy in KOH mount and culture was undertaken to isolate the fungal pathogen in each case. Results Among the 140 clinically suspected patients of dermatophytoses, 80% were positive for fungus in direct microscopy and 47.86% were culture positive. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical presentation followed by Tinea cruris. The commonest age group affected was 21–30 years (34.29% and the male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The predominant pathogen were Trichophyton rubrum (41.8% and Trichophyton tonsurans (22.4% followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (10.5%. Conclusion Anthropophilic species of genus Trichophyton dominated this study area. Trichophyton ruburm was the most common isolate followed by Trichophyton tonsurans. Direct microscopy and culture both should be done to increase the chances of definitive diagnosis in fungal infections

  4. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and compounds from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora

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    Sopa Kummee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora was tested against human pathogens,including bacteria, yeast and dermatophyte fungi, using the agar disc diffusion. The ethanol extract exhibited strong antifungalactivity against dermatophytes with clear zone values from 10.7-19.8 mm at concentration of 2 mg/disc. However,ethanol extract showed no activities against all bacteria and yeast tested. The ethanol extract and seven compounds of K.parviflora were further studied using agar dilution method against dermatophytes. It was found that the ethanol extract of K.parviflora exhibited strong anti-fungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporumgypseum with MIC values of 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/ml, respectively. Only compound 6 (3, 5, 7-trimethoxyflavone present inthis extract showed appreciable anti-fungal activity with MIC values of 250 mg/ml against these three dermatophytes.According to the obtained results, compound 6 could be responsible only in part of the antifungal effect of theEtOH extract. The antifungal activity of the EtOH extract of K. parviflora supports its traditional use for the treatment ofdermatophyte infections

  5. Susceptibility of Microsporum and Trichophyton species to suicide inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, S M; Sriranganathan, N; Cordes, D

    1988-01-01

    DFMO (difluoromethylornithine) and DFMA (difluoromethylarginine), irreversible suicide inhibitors of ornithine and arginine decarboxylase activities (ODC and ADC) respectively, inhibit the growth of six species of Microsporum and six species of Trichophyton. Trichophyton species in general, are more sensitive than Microsporum species. DFMA inhibits growth as effectively as DFMO but at a 10-fold lower concentration. Inhibition is specific, as a number of substrates and end products of ODC and ADC activities antagonize DFMA and DFMO (i.e. ornithine greater than putrescine = spermidine greater than agmatine). The methylester analogue of ornithine, MFMOme (monofluormethyldehydroornithine methylester) is at least a 25-fold more effective inhibitor than DFMO; the inhibition is specific as it is reversed by ornithine.

  6. [DNA extraction and identification of Trichophyton rubrum by real-time polymerase chain reaction from direct nail scraping specimens of patients with onycomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Elife; Kuştimur, Semra; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Oztaş, O Murat

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most frequently encountered dermatophyte species causing onichomycosis. The routine diagnosis of dermatophytes depends on the direct microscopic examination (DME) and culture methods, however due to the phenotypic identification problems related to those agents, the molecular methods come into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the identification of T.rubrum by comparing to DME and culture methods, from nail samples of patients with the complaints of onychomycosis. A total of 90 patients of whom 58 were male who were admitted to the dermatology outpatients clinics of our hospital with the complaints of color/shape changes in the nails and thickening of the nail, were included in the study, together with the 20 healthy volunteer subjects as controls. The nail scraping samples obtained from the patients and controls were examined with direct microscopy using 15% potassium hydroxide, dimethyl sulphoxide and chlorazole black mixture and cultivated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. For DNA isolation, after the disruption of nail samples with a steel tool, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol purification method were used. The amplification and demonstration of the T.rubrum DNA have been performed by using specific primers and probes following TaqMan protocol of RT-PCR (LightCycler-Roche, USA) method. Seventy-two of the patients yielded positive and 18 yielded negative results with DME. Growth of molds was detected in the cultures of 20 (27.8%) of the 72 DME positive patients and all of the isolates were identified as T.rubrum. No fungal growth was seen in the samples of 18 patients who were DME negative. In DME positive group, 67 (93%) patients were found to be positive in RT-PCR, while 8 (44.4%) patients were RT-PCR positive in DME negative group. All of the culture positive samples (n= 20) were also found positive in RT

  7. Synthesis, characterisation and antifungal activity of chemically and fungal-produced silver nanoparticles against Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Leonel; Dias, Nicolina; Carvalho,Juliana de; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Aims To characterise and explore the potential in extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus oryzae and to investigate the antifungal effect of chemically vs. biologically synthesised AgNPs comparing with conventional antifungal drugs against Trichophyton rubrum. Methods and Results Chemically synthesised AgNPs (Chem-AgNPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesised by chemical reduction method with glucose in PV...

  8. Skin Infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans Still Occurs in People in Korea but not as Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Weon Ju; Sim, Hyun Bo; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Jun, Jae Bok; Bang, Yong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Since 1995, Trichophyton tonsurans has been one of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. Herein we evaluate 77 patients infected with T. tonsurans who visited an outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2014. Infections due to T. tonsurans were diagnosed by mycological examination, which included direct microscopic examination using 15% KOH and culture in potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. The annual prevalence of infection due to T. tonsurans was the highest i...

  9. 三种锦纶织物对红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的生长抑制效应观察%Experimental study on antifungal activity of three polyamide textiles against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠让松; 杨雪琴; 万哲

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究三种抗真菌处理后的锦纶织物对红色毛癣菌,须癣毛癣菌生长的抑制效应,以及洗涤次数对其抗真菌作用的影响.方法 制备红色毛癣菌、须癣毛癣菌的菌悬液,分别接种于洗涤1、15、30、50次的空白锦纶织物、载银1.8%锦纶织物、载银纳米氧化锌1.9%锦纶织物以及作为对照的纯棉织物,并紧贴在马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂培养基表面培养,每12h观察并记录菌落形态及大小.结果 洗涤1、15、30、50次的空白锦纶织物布样上红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌菌落生长情况与棉布对照组相近.载银1.8%锦纶织物洗涤1次及15次布样上菌落直径在120h内均明显小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),洗涤30及50次布样上须癣毛癣菌菌落直径在:120h内与棉布对照组相近,洗涤30次布样上红色毛癣菌菌落直径在96h内小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),此后与棉布对照组相近(P>0.05).载银纳米氧化锌1.9%锦纶织物洗涤1次的布样对两种癣菌生长的抑制作用最为明显,洗涤15次后有所降低,但两种癣菌在120h内菌落直径均小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),洗涤30次布样上红色毛癣菌菌落直径在84h内小于棉布对照组(P<0.05),之后与棉布对照组相近(P>0.05),洗涤30及50次布样上须癣毛癣菌的生长与棉布对照组相近.结论 载银1.8%锦纶织物、载银纳米氧化锌1.9%锦纶织物均可显著抑制红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌的生长,且具有一定的耐洗涤性,洗涤15次后仍有明显抑菌作用.

  10. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    MEZZARI Adelina

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low an...

  11. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    MEZZARI Adelina

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i) the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low an...

  12. Keratinophilic and saprophytic fungi isolated from students' nails in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium.

  13. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, L T; Plattner, J; Chanda, S; Coronado, D; Merchant, T; Alley, M R K; Gupta, A K

    2015-10-01

    Tavaborole topical solution, 5% (tavaborole) is a novel, boron-based, antifungal pharmaceutical agent indicated for treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In preclinical studies, tavaborole effectively penetrated through full-thickness, non-diseased cadaver fingernails, including those with up to four layers of nail polish. Limited systemic absorption was observed following topical application of tavaborole. In phase III clinical trials involving patients with distal subungual onychomycosis affecting 20-60% of a target great toenail, significantly more patients treated with tavaborole versus vehicle achieved completely clear nail with negative mycology following daily application for 48 weeks. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by at least 1% of patients treated with tavaborole and at a greater frequency versus vehicle included ingrown toenail, exfoliation, erythema and dermatitis. Treatment discontinuations were uncommon. Results from preclinical studies and phase III clinical trials establish tavaborole as a safe and efficacious treatment for toenail onychomycosis.

  14. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D. Enriz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether extract of Baccharis darwinii showed activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Baccharis darwinii has resulted in the isolation of three coumarins: 5’-hydroxy aurapten (anisocoumarin H, 1, aurapten (7-geranyloxycoumarin, 2 and 5’-oxoaurapten (diversinin, 3. The structures of these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobialactivity against a panel of each, bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the best activities against Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MICs = 15.6 µg/mL, followed by compound 1 whose MICs against the same fungi were 62.5 µg/mL. In addition they showed fungicidal rather than fungistatic activity. Both compounds showed moderate activity (MICs = 125 µg/mL against Cryptococcus neoformans. This is the first report of the presence of compound 1 in B. darwinii.

  15. Successful resolution of dermatophyte mycetoma following terbinafine treatment in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, T J; German, A J; Holden, S L; Hopkinson, C; McEwan, N A

    2008-12-01

    Microsporum canis sensitive to itraconazole and terbinafine was isolated from two cats presented with generalized dermatophytosis and dermatophyte mycetoma. Itraconazole therapy was withdrawn through lack of efficacy in one cat (a Persian) and unacceptable adverse effects in the other (a Maine Coon). Both cats achieved clinical and mycological cure after 12-14 weeks therapy with 26-31 mg kg(-1) terbinafine every 24 h per os (PO). Clinical signs in the Maine Coon resolved completely after 7 weeks treatment. Four weeks of therapy with additional weekly washes with a 2% chlorhexidine/2% miconazole shampoo following clipping produced a 98% reduction in the Persian cat's mycetoma, which was then surgically excised. Recurrent generalized dermatophytosis in the Persian cat has been managed with pulse therapy with 26 mg kg(-1) terbinafine every 24 h PO for 1 week in every month. No underlying conditions predisposing to dermatophytosis were found in either cat despite extensive investigation. Terbinafine administration was associated with mild to moderate lethargy in the Persian cat, but no other adverse effects or changes in blood parameters were seen. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a dermatophyte mycetoma in a Maine Coon and of successful resolution of this condition in cats following terbinafine therapy.

  16. Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugénia Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil (EO of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae, isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant’s aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5% and methyleugenol (35.9%, were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The EO, limonene and methyleugenol displayed low MIC and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration values against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus spp. Regarding Candida species, an inhibition of yeast–mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO (MIC/128; 0.01 μL/mL and their major compounds in Candida albicans. Fluconazole does not show this activity, and the combination with low concentrations of EO could associate a supplementary target for the antifungal activity. The association of fluconazole with T. villosa oil does not show antagonism, but the combination limonene/fluconazole displays synergism. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities revealed by T. villosa EO and its main compounds, associated with their low haemolytic activity, confirm their potential antimicrobial interest against fungal species often associated with human mycoses.

  17. Evaluation of Inhibitory Effect of the Plant Phyllanthus amarus Against Dermatophytic Fungi Microsporum gypseum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANURAG AGRAWAL; SHALINI SRIVASTAVA; J. N. SRIVASTAVA; M. M. SRIVASAVA

    2004-01-01

    The antifungal activity of various solvent extracts (such as ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol) of the plant Phyllanthus amarus against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum was observed. Method Antifungal bioassay in terms of reduction in weight, colony diameter and sporulation of the target fungal colony was carried out using Broth Dilution method. Results Root part of the plant, extracted in various organic solvents did not show any noticeable antifungal activity. The percentage inhibition observed in different solvent extracts of aerial part was found as reduction in weight: chloroform [50.3%], ethyl acetate [27.7%] and ethyl alcohol [12.1%], reduction in colony diameter: chloroform [53.4%], ethyl acetate [31.4%] and ethyl alcohol [15.0%] and reduction in sporulation: maximum inhibition in chloroform extract, at test concentration of 4000 ppm at incubation period of 8 days. Conclusion Chloroform fraction of the aerial part of the plant P. amarus shows significant inhibitory effect against dermatophytic fungi M. gypseum and requires chemical characterization for its bioactive principle.

  18. Isolation of dermatophytes and related species from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Sano, Ayako; Hiruma, Midori; Murata, Michiko; Kaneshima, Takashi; Murata, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Touyama, Hidemi; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Nakazato, Yasutomo; Uehara, You; Hirakawa, Morihiko; Imura, Yoshimi; Terashima, Yoshie; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Keji; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Hiruma, Masataro; Murakami, Masaru; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated 793 bird combs [645 chickens and 148 fighting cocks (Shamo)] to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and their related fungal species. The targeted fungal species were recovered from 195 of the 793 examined birds (24.6 %). Prevalence ratios were compared in temperate (the mainland) and subtropical (Nansei Islands) areas, genders, strains, breeding scale (individual and farm), and housing system (in cage and free ranging). The frequency of the fungal species in the mainland, males, fighting cocks, breeding scale by individual nursing, and free-range housing system exhibited significantly higher positive ratios than that in the other groups. A total of 224 dermatophytes and related species were isolated, including 101 Arthroderma (Ar.) multifidum, 83 Aphanoascus (Ap.) terreus, five Uncinocarpus queenslandicus, two U. reesii, two Ap. pinarensis, one Amauroascus kuehnii, one Ar. simii, one Gymnoascus petalosporus, one Microsporum gallinae, and 28 Chrysosporium-like (Chrysosporium spp.) isolates, which were identified using internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The predominant fungal species in the mainland was Ap. terreus and that in the Nansei Islands was Ar. multifidum. Pathogenic fungal species to humans and animals were limited to M. gallinae and Ar. simii, which corresponded to 0.025 % of the isolates in this study.

  19. Clinico-etiologic correlates of onychomycosis in Sikkim

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    Adhikari Luna

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The etiological spectrum of any superficial mycosis is largely dependent on the flora in the immediate environment of the individual. It is influenced by the geographic, climatic and occupational factors. The study is basically to formulate baseline data for the species prevalence of various dermatophytes in patients with onychomycosis attending the Central Referral Hospital, Gangtok, Sikkim. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four clinically suspected cases of onychomycosis were subjected to mycological studies. Results: Thirty-two (94.12% cases were positive for fungal elements by direct microscopy and 28 (82.35% by culture. Young adults in the age group of 21-30 years were mainly affected. The male:female ratio was 1.125:1. Dermatophytes were isolated in 18 cases (64.29%. Trichophyton tonsurans (44.44% was the most common isolate followed by T. mentagrophytes (22.22%, T. rubrum (11.11%, T. verrucosum (11.11% and Microsporum audouinii (11.11%. Apart from dermatophytes, Aspergillus niger (21.43% and Penicillium marneffei (14.28% were also isolated. Conclusion: Dermatophytes, mainly T. tonsurans, as well as moulds other than dermatophytes were isolated from onychomycosis patients in Gangtok, Sikkim.

  20. Outbreak of Tinea capitis by Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis in Niterói, RJ, Brazil Microepidemia de tinha do couro cabeludo por Trichophyton tonsurans e Microsporum canis em Niterói, RJ, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Loan Towersey; Roderick James Hay; Maria Helena Monteiro; Márcio Brito Lago; Eunice de Castro Soares Martins; Rogério Ribeiro Estrella

    1992-01-01

    18 girls from an orphanage (Orfanato Santo Antônio) in Niterói presented tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans (15 cases - 83.3%) and Microsporum canis (3 cases - 26.7%). Comments are made about clinical, mycological and therapeutic aspects of this microepidemy18 meninas internas do Orfanato Santo Antônio em Niterói apresentaram tinha do couro cabeludo causada por Trichophyton tonsurans (15 casos - 83,3%) e Microsporum canis (3 casos - 26,7%). São discutidos aspectos clínicos e terapêut...

  1. Outbreak of Tinea capitis by Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis in Niterói, RJ, Brazil Microepidemia de tinha do couro cabeludo por Trichophyton tonsurans e Microsporum canis em Niterói, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Towersey

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available 18 girls from an orphanage (Orfanato Santo Antônio in Niterói presented tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans (15 cases - 83.3% and Microsporum canis (3 cases - 26.7%. Comments are made about clinical, mycological and therapeutic aspects of this microepidemy18 meninas internas do Orfanato Santo Antônio em Niterói apresentaram tinha do couro cabeludo causada por Trichophyton tonsurans (15 casos - 83,3% e Microsporum canis (3 casos - 26,7%. São discutidos aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos desta microepidemia

  2. Development a diagnostic pan-dermatophyte TaqMan probe real-time PCR assay based on beta tubulin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Motamedi, Marjan; Makimura, Koichi; Satoh, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    Early differentiation of dermatophytosis from other cutaneous mycoses is essential to avoid inaccurate therapy. DNA-based techniques including real-time PCR have increasingly been considered for detection of fungal elements in clinical specimens. In this study, after partial sequence analysis of beta tubulin (BT2) gene in 13 common and rare pathogenic dermatophyte species, a pan-dermatophyte primer and probe set was designed in a TaqMan probe-based PCR format. The sensitivity and specificity of the system was tested with 22 reference strains of dermatophytes, 234 positive clinical specimens, 32 DNA samples extracted from normal nails, several fungi other than dermatophytes and human DNAs. Analytical detection limit of the designed PCR on serially diluted DNAs of prepared recombinant plasmid indicated that only five molecules per sample are the minimum number for reliable detection by the assay. A total of 226 out of 234 (96.5%) DNAs extracted from clinical samples, but none of the 32 nail samples, from healthy volunteers were positive in PCR. The real-time PCR targeted beta tubulin gene established in this study could be a sensitive diagnostic tool which is significantly faster than the conventional culture method and should be useful in the clinical settings, in large-scale epidemiological studies and in clinical trials of antifungal therapy.

  3. Inhibitory effect of nicotinamide on enzymatic activity of selected fungal strains causing skin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciebiada-Adamiec, Anna; Małafiej, Eugeniusz; Ciebiada, Ireneusz

    2010-05-01

    Pathogenicity of fungi is connected with their ability to easily penetrate the host tissues, survive in the infected host organism and use the elements of the host tissues as nutrients. Hence, the co-occurrence of pathogenic properties with the high enzymatic activity, which is manifested through the production of various enzymes including extracellular enzymes, was observed. It can be expected that it is possible to decrease fungal pathogenicity by lowering their enzymatic activity. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of nicotinamide on enzymatic activity of the fungi, which are most frequently isolated in cases of skin infection. Enzymatic activity was analysed using 15 Candida albicans, 15 Trichophyton rubrum and 15 Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains. The strains used for the study were collected from the current diagnostic material. API ZYM tests were used in diagnostic analysis. MICs of nicotinamide were determined by the macrodilution method in liquid medium. In the case of Candida strains, the presence of nicotinamide in the broth had a significant effect on the decrease of enzymatic activity (P nicotinamide was observed in the case of dermatophytes (P nicotinamide exhibited biological activity towards C. albicans, T. rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which resulted in a decrease in the activity of enzymes produced by the fungi.

  4. [Survey of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan. Molecular epidemiology and factors affecting adequate hairbrush sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Wakasa, Asako; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    At the 48th Annual Meeting of The Society for Japanese Medical Mycology, held in October, 2004, we reported our findings from a survey on Trichophyton tonsurans infections in the Hokuriku and Kinki regions of Japan. The survey revealed that a few epidemics had occurred across these regions. In this article, we introduce our subsequent studies relating to 1) molecular epidemiology of isolates taken from people in many parts of Japan and 2) factors affecting adequate sampling of the scalp with hairbrushes, essential for surveying and monitoring the infection. In total, 198 isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the non-transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA genes. The restriction enzyme Mva I indicated two molecular types of strains, implying that the causative agents of the epidemic had different origins. None of the isolates obtained from the epidemic showed the same restriction profile as that of isolates from aged and sporadic cases. The published hairbrush method suitable for obtaining samples from the scalp of Judo trainees was reevaluated by changing several factors. We found that sampling should not be done soon after the students' physical training because other fungal elements may give a false positive, samples should not be obtained from students who have recently applied topical antimycotics, and samples should be taken under the guidance of qualified instructors familiar with the sampling method.

  5. Inhibitory effect of the plant Boerhavia diffusa l. against the dermatophytic fungus Microsporum fulvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag; Srivastava, Shalini; Srivastava, J N; Srivastava, M M

    2004-07-01

    Antifungal activity (reduction in colony diameter) of various extracts (pt. ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and aqueous) of aerial and root parts of Boerhavia diffusa (Nictaginaceae) was screened against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum fulvum. Statistically significant increase has been recorded in the % inhibition of the target fungal species with increasing test concentrations (1000-5000 ppm) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol extracts of the root. The maximum % inhibition observed in various solvent extracts of root was about 26% (chloroform), 46% (ethyl alcohol) and 57% (ethyl acetate) at 5000 ppm concentration with time exposure of 10 days. The colony diameter of the target mycelial colony decreased with increasing supplementation of the phytoextract, showing the presence of significant amount of some antifungal phytochemical moiety.

  6. Antifungal activity of Boerhavia diffusa against some dermatophytic species of Microsporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag; Srivastava, Shalini; Srivastava, M M

    Various extracts petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol) of aerial and root parts of Boerhavia diffusa was sereened for Antitungal activity (Inhibition in sporulation) against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum, M. fulvum and M. canis by using broth dilution method. Extracts of aerial part not show any noticeable antifungal activity. Ethyl acetate extract of root part of the plant was found to be most effective of against target fungal species. The maximum inhibition of mycelial growth was observed for M. gypseum (78.83%) followed by M. fulvum (62.33%) and M. canis (42.30%) of ethyl acetate in the test concentration of 1000 microg/ml 24 hours of incubation. The sporulation of target fungal species decreases with increasing supplementation of phytoextract, confirms the presence of some antifungal phytochemical moiety in roots of the plant.

  7. Epidemiological and mycological data of onychomycosis in Goiania, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L K H; Fernandes, O F L; Passos, X S; Costa, C R; Lemos, J A; Silva, M R R

    2010-01-01

    Onychomycosis defined as fungal infection of the nail represents more than 50% of all onychopathies. Epidemiological studies have shown that this mycosis is worldwide in occurrence, but with geographical variation in distribution. The direct microscopy and culture of the nail samples were performed to identify the causative agent. Out of 2273 patients with nail infection examined between January 2000 and December 2004 in Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil, diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed in 1282 cases, with dermatophytes and Candida species being the most common aetiological agents isolated. Dermatophyte onychomycosis was more common in toenails than in fingernails, while onychomycosis caused by yeast had a similar frequency in both toenails and fingernails. Among the species identified, Candida albicans was responsible for 492 cases (38.4%) of onychomycosis, Trichophyton rubrum was found in 327 cases (25.6%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 258 cases (20.1%). Other fungi isolated from nail infections included Aspergillus sp., Trichosporon sp., Geotrichum sp. and Fusarium sp. In our study, yeast of the genus Candida were the dominant cause of onychomycosis in women and dermatophytes were the principal cause of this condition in men.

  8. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol.

  9. Real-time PCR TaqMan assay for detecting Trichophyton tonsurans, a causative agent of tinea capitis, from hairbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, T; Shiraki, Y; Hiruma, M

    2006-09-01

    Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans is currently an epidemic in the United States, Europe, and Japan, and the cultivation of this microorganism is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. We recently developed a real-time PCR TaqMan assay as a culture-independent method for the rapid detection of T. tonsurans from hairbrushes.

  10. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  11. Extra-scalp black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans among contact sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Kojima, Kiyoto; Hatta, Junko; Tababe, Hiroshi; Higaki, Shuichi; Fujita, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    We describe here two patients with tinea corporis exhibiting black dot ringworm (BDR). A cluster of black dots was observed on the extensor surfaces of the extremities of two rather hairy male patients, a 15-year-old judo practitioner and a 26-year-old combined martial arts fighter, during treatment of tinea corporis with topical antimycotics. Direct KOH examination showed that the black dots were composed of degenerated hair with numerous arthroconidia and were indistinguishable from BDR of tinea capitis. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from the dots of both patients. Although they were diagnosed with tinea corporis, they required 2-3 months of treatment with oral terbinafine. Dermatologists should be aware that BDR can appear on areas of the skin other than the scalp.

  12. A Case of Tinea Corporis due to Trichophyton tonsurans that Manifested as Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Harunari; Nakashima, Chikako; Hase, Midori; Sei, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year-old man visited our dermatology clinic because an eruption, which was resistant to steroid ointment treatment, had appeared on his right forearm. An oval, soybean-sized erythematous infiltrated lesion with scales and crusts was located in the central part of the extensor surface of the right forearm and showed partial erosion with attached yellow crusts. The lesion had an impetigo-like appearance. Fungal elements were confirmed from the scales by KOH examination and the fungus was identified as Trichophyton tonsurans by fungal culture and molecular method. Clinical features of T. tonsurans infection vary, wherein some patients have strong inflammatory manifestations, while others remain as asymptomatic carriers. Especially at the early stage of the infection, diagnosis is difficult because it is often misdiagnosed as eczema. We report a case of T. tonsurans infection that had impetigo-like appearance. We also studied the mechanism of the disease.

  13. [A case of black dot ringworm on the right forearm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of black dot ringworm on the right forearm caused by Trichophyton (T.) tonsurans. A 16-year-old male high school Judo-wrestler visited our clinic on September 30, 2005, complaining of a round erythematosquamous eruption with a distinct margin on the right forearm. Black dots were observed in the lesion. KOH-Parker ink prepared direct microscopy revealed abundant large endotrix arthroconidia in the hair shaft. Culture yielded yellowish-brown colonies. The isolate produced numerous round, short club-shaped microconidia along the hyphae unstained with lactophenol cotton blue (resembling matchsticks) and chlamydospores. PCR-RFLP analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA revealed a banding pattern compatible with T. tonsurans. The lesion was cured by daily administration of 125 mg of terbinafine for 13 weeks.

  14. [Survey of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in the Hokuriku and Kinki regions of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, information was gathered on Trichophyton tonsurans infections, both past and current, in the Hokuriku and Kinki regions of central-western Honshu island, Japan, by questionnaires sent to 185 dermatologists who were members of the local medical mycologist associations Hokuriku Shinkin Kondan-kai and Kansai Shinkin Kondan-kai. Of the 111 (59.4%) who returned the completed questionnaire, 32 (28.8%) had seen patients infected with T. tonsurans including suspicious cases. The earliest recorded cases were linked to an endemic that occurred in 1994 or 1995 among a high school wrestling team in Toyama. The majority of the dermatologists saw their first case between 2001 and 2003. When the patients were grouped according to contact sports, judo players formed the largest group, followed by wrestlers. When grouped according to age, high school students formed the largest group, but the endemic had also expanded among junior high school students and adults, and there was one nursery school child who was a member of a judo club. Seventy-four of the dermatologists were sent sterilized hairbrushes to collect samples from patients suspected as having tinea capitis during July and September 2004. Trichophyton tonsurans was detected in samples from 6 patients. To investigate the molecular epidemiology, 71 of the clinical strains of T. tonsurans isolated from the Hokuriku and Kinki regions were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the non-transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA genes. With the restriction enzyme Mva I, two molecular types were detected among the strains, indicating that the causative agents of the endemic were derived from different origins.

  15. 法国梧桐树叶提取物体外抗癣菌作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何刚; 陈辉芳; 曹华; 易建华

    2012-01-01

      目的观察法国梧桐树叶提取物对红色毛癣菌等皮肤癣菌的抗菌作用.红色毛癣菌和须癣毛癣菌是皮肤浅部真菌感染常见菌[1].方法采用体外抑菌、杀菌试验法对红色毛癣菌等皮肤癣菌测定了最小抑菌浓度和最小杀菌浓度;并采用豚鼠止痒试验观察了法国梧桐树叶提取物对豚鼠磷酸组胺致痒反应的影响.结果法国梧桐树叶提取物对红色毛癣菌、须癣毛癣菌、絮状表皮癣菌、石膏样毛癣菌等皮肤癣菌均有较强的抑菌和杀菌效果.仅50%原药浓度的药液在1小时内将上述癣菌全部杀死.法国梧桐树叶提取物对豚鼠有明显的止痒作用,给药组与对照组相比有非常显著的差异(P<0.01).%  Objective: To observe the French phoenix tree's leaves extract of Trichophyton rubrum and other dermatophytes’s antibacterial effect Methods :using the in vitro bacteriostatic, bactericidal test method of Trichophyton rubrum and other dermatophytes to get determination of minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration; and the use of the guinea pig antipruritic experimental observation on Platanus leaves extracts of guinea pig histamine induced itch responses. The results : the French phoenix tree's leaf extract against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and other dermatophytes have strong bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect. Only 50% of drug concentration in the liquid in the 1 hours of the dermatophytes kil al. French phoenix tree's leaves extracts has antipruritic effect on guinea pig , there was very significant difference drug treatment group compared with the control group. (P < 0.01)

  16. Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalec, Ivan; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kustrak, Danica

    2005-12-01

    Antifungal activities of fluid extract and essential oil obtained from anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro on clinical isolates of seven species of yeasts and four species of dermatophytes. Diffusion method with cylinders and the broth dilution method were used for antifungal activity testing. Anise fluid extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis and C. krusei with MIC values between 17 and 20% (v/v). No activity was noticed against C. glabrata, and anis fruits extracts showed growth promotion activity on Geotrichum spp. Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V). Anise essential oil showed strong antifungal activity against yeasts with MIC lower than 1.56% (V/V) and dermatophytes with MIC lower than 0.78% (V/V). Significant differences in antifungal activities were found between anise fluid extract and anise essential oil (p<0.01). Anise essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56% (V/V), respectively.

  17. Trichophyton tonsurans associated tinea corporis infection with the development of Majocchi's granuloma in a renal transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpara, Vidya; Frankel, Stacy; Rogers, Cindy; Nouri, Keyvan

    2005-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is an uncommon cause of tinea corporis, and an even more uncommon cause of Majocchi's granuloma. We report a patient who developed tinea corporis with Majocchi's granuloma from T. tonsurans infection. Immunocompromised hosts are predisposed to develop cutaneous fungal infections, as was the case with this patient. Majocchi's granuloma is a rare complication with immunosuppression, but is significant to consider when a fungal infection is suspected because it may require more aggressive therapy.

  18. Discrimination between Pseudogymnoascus destructans, other dermatophytes of cave-dwelling bats, and related innocuous keratinophilic fungi based on electronic-nose/GC signatures of VOC-metabolites produced in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus Dan Wilson; Lisa Beth Forse

    2017-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal dermatophyte (Pseudogymnoascus destructans), is considered the most important disease affecting hibernating bats in North America. The identification of dermatophytic fungi, isolated from the skins of cave-dwelling bat species, is necessary to distinguish pathogenic (disease-causing) microbes from those that are innocuous...

  19. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis-Episkin(R)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan-Pan Liang; Xin-Zhu Huang; Jin-Ling Yi; Zhi-Rui Chen; Han Ma; Cong-Xiu Ye; Xian-Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood.An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T.rubrum.In this study, we intended to develop a new T.rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis-EpiSkin(R), and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T.rubrum infection.Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia) and high-dose (4000 conidia) T.rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose.During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation.Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis.The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T.rubrum.SEM observations further exhibited the process of T.rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way.Conclusions: We established the T.rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully.It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T.rubrum infection.

  20. Trichophyton tonsurans exocellular protease expression: correlation with clinical presentation in tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, S M

    2002-06-01

    Tinea capitis remains an overwhelmingly prevalent disease in children. Despite the fact that it was described over a century ago, disease pathogenesis remains incompletely characterized. This investigation was designed to evaluate whether inter-strain variability in fungal protease expression for clinical Trichophyton tonsurans isolates correlates with disease severity. Children with tinea capitis were enrolled and a clinical severity score (CSS) determined for all subjects by grading eight symptoms on a 4-point scale. Fungal specimens were collected by brush culture, placed in aqueous medium and incubated at 32 degrees C for 5 days. The culture supernatant was lyophilized and aliquots used to characterize protease activity. Enzyme activity, normalized to total soluble protein, varied 550-fold, 150-fold and 6-fold for collagenase, elastase and keratinase, respectively. A significant decrease in elastase and collagenase activity was observed with increasing duration of infection. In one-half of the children, CSS increased in direct response to collagenase and elastase production, while CSS was independent of enzyme activity in the remaining children. The relationship between enzyme activity and time course of disease are consistent with theories on enzyme regulation in dermatophytoses; however, the finding that two potential subsets of children exist with varied response to fungal antigens has yet to be described.

  1. [Screening Examination and Management of Dermatophytosis by Trichophyton tonsurans in the Judo Club of a University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Yumi; Soda, Naomi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one members of the Judo Club of a certain university (age: 18~23) underwent a screening examination for dermatophytosis by Trichophyton tonsurans. Test items were: age, sex, height, weight, living mode, exercise duration, number of judo contestants, presence of foreign contestants, occurrence, if any, of dermatophytosis past or present according to a subject's answers to a questionnaire, medical examinations and mycological examinations (KOH, cellophane tape culture, and hairbrush culture). Twenty-four subjects (77%) replied that they had suffered from dermatophytosis in the past, and 8 subjects (26%) had had head eruption in the past. Eleven subjects (35%) had suspicious dermatophytosis at the time of screening; 3 of them were found positive by direct microscopy, 2 of them were positive by cellophane tape culture. Eleven subjects (35%) were found positive by the hairbrush culture, but only 2 had eruption-like folliculitis. The remaining 9 subjects were free from clinical symptoms and were judged to be asymptomatic carriers. As countermeasures, we recommended cleaning and the use of shampoo containing miconazole nitrate. Subjects with suspicious tinea corporis were treated with antimycotic ointment. The 7 subjects who showed more than 5 colonies by the hairbrush culture were treated with 1-week pulse therapy of 400 mg itraconazole, and 3 of these who took a total dose of a pulse became negative through one pulse therapy.

  2. Mating Type Gene (MAT) and Itraconazole Susceptibility of Trichophyton tonsurans Strains Isolated in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Okubo, Miki; Kano, Rui; Kumagawa, Mai; Hiruma, Masataro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2016-06-01

    Infection by Trichophyton tonsurans is an emerging fungal epidemic in Japan. Itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine have been used for the treatment of this infection for 15 years. However, patients with T. tonsurans infections have been shown to remain uncured or to become reinfected, suggesting that subclinical infection or polyphyletic strains and/or antifungal drug-resistant strains might be occurring in Japan. In this study, PCR analysis was performed to confirm the presence of the mating type locus MAT in genomic DNA from 60 Japanese clinical isolates of T. tonsurans, and to assess the previously postulated clonal origin of clinical isolates of this species. Antifungal susceptibility testing on isolates also was performed to confirm the absence of strains resistant to ITZ. PCR analysis proved that all 60 strains contained the MAT1-1 allele, while none contained the MAT1-2 allele. As determined by E-test, the mean MIC of ITZ in the 60 strains was 0.023 mg/L (range 0.002-0.125 mg/L). All strains of T. tonsurans isolated in Japan were clonal and were not resistant to ITZ. Therefore, dermatophytosis due to T. tonsurans is expected to respond to ITZ, since clinical isolates of T. tonsurans tested to date have been susceptible to this antifungal. This infection is proliferating as a subclinical infection in Japan.

  3. Investigating Effects of Nano- to Micro-Ampere Alternating Current Stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong Rak; Kwon, Hyunjung; Lee, Woo Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms including yeast and molds. Many studies have focused on modifying bacterial growth, but few on fungal growth. Microcurrent electricity may stimulate fungal growth. Objective This study aims to investigate effects of microcurrent electric stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum growth. Methods Standard-sized inoculums of T. rubrum derived from a spore suspension were applied to potato dextrose cornmeal agar (PDACC) plates, gently withdrawn with a sterile pipette, and were applied to twelve PDACC plates with a sterile spreader. Twelve Petri dishes were divided into four groups. The given amperage of electric current was 500 nA, 2 µA, and 4 µA in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No electric current was given in group D. Results In the first 48 hours, colonies only appeared in groups A and B (500 nA and 2 µA exposure). Colonies in group A (500 nA) were denser. Group C (4 µA) plates showed a barely visible film of fungus after 96 hours of incubation. Fungal growth became visible after 144 hours in the control group. Conclusion Lower intensities of electric current caused faster fungal growth within the amperage range used in this study. Based on these results, further studies with a larger sample size, various fungal species, and various intensities of electric stimulation should be conducted. PMID:27746636

  4. Expression dynamics of secreted protease genes in Trichophyton rubrum induced by key host's proteinaceous components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Wang, Jin; Li, Ruoyu; Jin, Qi

    2009-11-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of dermatophytosis, a disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Its molecular pathogenicity mechanisms are still not completely elucidated. It has been widely recognized that proteases secreted by T. rubrum are the key virulence factors during host infection. However, our knowledge about the expression of its secreted proteases in host infection is still obscure. This investigation provides the expression patterns and dynamics of secreted protease genes belonging to the subtilisins (SUB) and metalloproteases (MEP) gene families in T. rubrum. The data was obtained under simulated host infection conditions through relative quantification of real time PCR. Keratin, collagen, and elastin induced the expression of similar protease genes, and the expression patterns and dynamics of these protease genes in media containing human skin sections were different from those in media containing individual protein substrates. According to the expression dynamics of these protease genes, we conclude that Sub3, Sub4, and Mep4 may be the dominant proteases secreted by T. rubrum during host infection, and that these proteases could be good targets for new antifungal chemotherapy and molecular diagnostic markers. This work presents useful molecular details to further our understanding of the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis.

  5. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. PMID:26257814

  6. Trichophyton Rubrum with the 'raubitschekii' morphotype: the first report from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkit, Macit; Saraclı, Mehmet Ali; Yuksel, Tuba

    2011-02-01

    In modern taxonomy, Trichophyton rubrum with the 'raubitschekii' morphotype differs from the common strains of T. rubrum morphologically, physiologically, and clinically, despite genetic homogeneity. In this paper, we report the first autochthonous Turkish cases in a 24-year-old woman and her 26-year-old fiancé with tinea cruris and tinea manuum, respectively. The isolates were proven to be T. rubrum with the 'raubitschekii' morphotype by their morphological and physiological characteristics including the following: (1) granular colony surface, (2) profuse macroconidia and microconidia, (3) strongly positive urease activity after 3 days, (4) non-perforating hair, (5) restricted growth and producing no alkaline reaction on bromocresol purple-milk solids-glucose agar, and (6) restricted growth and producing no conidia on 3-9% NaCl-supplemented Sabouraud agar. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of both isolates were sequenced, and the assembled DNA sequences were examined using the Basic BLAST (nucleotide-nucleotide) software of the National Center for Biotechnology Information web database. Actually, the lack of epidemiological data on this variety is notable, and the actual prevalence is unknown. Otherwise, routine methods misidentified the strains as T. rubrum or unrecognized cases were underreported.

  7. Management and follow-up survey of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in a university judo club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio; Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2008-05-01

    The prevalence of Trichophyton tonsurans infection of the scalp in members of a university judo club (combat sport) was investigated over a 3.5-year period using a questionnaire survey and an assay based on fungal culture by the hairbrush method. In November 2002, 11 (35%) of 31 athletes were found to be positive for T. tonsurans infection by the hairbrush method and provided treatment with oral and topical antifungal agents according to a prescribed protocol. All the infected subjects became culture-negative following this treatment. We continued to conduct screening examinations every year in the month of April, when new university enrolment occurs. During three-and-a-half years of follow-up, there have been no outbreaks of the infection among the members of the university judo club. There were some positive culture results among the newly enrolled students, but these cases also became culture-negative with treatment. No re-infection has been noted after graduation among the club members who had been educated about and treated for the infection. Our findings indicate that the spread of T. tonsurans infection in sports clubs can be controlled by regular mass screening examination, therapy and measures at regular intervals to prevent the infection.

  8. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis - Episkin®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood. An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. In this study, we intended to develop a new T. rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis - EpiSkin ®, and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia and high-dose (4000 conidia T. rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose. During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation. Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. SEM observations further exhibited the process of T. rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way. Conclusions: We established the T. rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully. It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection.

  9. [The part of a hospital dermatologist. Prevention of Trichophyton tonsurans infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihiro, Machiko

    2008-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans infection was found first in autumn 2000 in Gifu prefecture and spread rapidly in the Tokai region. Not only direct KOH examination but also culture is necessary to diagnose this disease. In order to collect a specimen, I recommend cellophane adhesive tape. During the past 5 years, dermatologists in the Tokai area have sent me specimens in an envelope for mycological examination. Hyphae were found in all 75 cases in the scales examined. Fungal culture revealed 61 cases to be T. tonsurans infection; the male : female ratio was 54 : 7. By age distribution, high school students accounted for 46 (75%), elderly patients 9 (15%) and lower age 6 (10%). Judo players accounted for 32 (52%), wrestlers for 24 (39%) and others for 5 (8%). Most had lesions on the face, neck, head or arm. One wrestler had a nail involvement. In some specimens from tinea corporis, hyphae in the hair shaft were observed. This sort of tinea epidemic probably occurs more often than is reported. Therefore we have begun to cooperate with a medical department member of the Gifu Judo Society to prevent of T. tonsurans infection.

  10. Commonly affected body sites in 92 Japanese combat sports participants with Trichophyton tonsurans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2009-07-01

    Outbreaks of Trichophyton tonsurans infection constitute one of the serious problems among combat sports practitioners in Japan. To facilitate the diagnosis of individuals at risk, we undertook a study to determine which body sites are most commonly infected. We reviewed medical data, hairbrush culture results and questionnaire information from patients with T. tonsurans infection who were admitted to the dermatology clinic of Juntendo University hospital from 2000 to 2004. The study included 92 patients (87 males), aged 6-38 years (mean age: 18.4 years old). Eighty-nine patients were judo practitioners and three were wrestlers. Twenty-eight patients (30.4%) were asymptomatic carriers. In 64 patients, 51 patients (55.4%) with tinea corporis, 27 patients (29.3%) with tinea capitis, and/or one patient (1.1%) with tinea manuum were seen. Tinea corporis was observed on the forehead, auricles, nape of the neck, bilateral shoulders, left side of the upper chest, both elbows, back of the left hand to the wrist and both knees. Tinea capitis was most common in the occipitonuchal region at the hairline and in the temporal and frontal regions, at both auricles. Initial screening of these sites might facilitate the identification of the infection especially in judo practitioners.

  11. Examining Trichophyton tonsurans genotype and biochemical phenotype as determinants of disease severity in tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Talib, Nasreen; Solidar, Ada; Nopper, Amy Jo; Wyckoff, Gerald J

    2008-05-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans infections occur in various host populations, on various body sites and with varying degrees of inflammation. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether fungal factors could explain the degree of severity in clinical symptomatology among infected children. Otherwise healthy children (n=54) presenting with tinea capitis were enrolled in this study. A thorough history was performed, the extent and severity of infection graded and a fungal specimen collected from each child. Strain type was determined by genotyping for 11 sequence variations in the rDNA and ALP1 loci. Secreted protease activity was quantitated after 5 days of growth in aqueous medium. Forty participants were evaluable. Infection duration ranged from 1 day to 3 years and clinical severity score (CSS) from 4-19. Seventeen unique fungal genotypes were present. Keratinase, collagenase and elastase activity varied 32.7-fold, 64.9-fold and 303.3-fold, respectively. A significant association was observed between genotype and disease severity with the rDNA sequence variations accounting for over 50% of the variation observed in CSS (r2=0.539; P<0.001). Phylogenetic analyses appear to suggest that the ancestral strain types of T. tonsurans cause more severe disease. These observations are consistent with reports that recently diverge anthropophilies are associated with diminished inflammatory involvement.

  12. Skin Infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans Still Occurs in People in Korea but not as Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Weon Ju; Sim, Hyun Bo; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Jun, Jae Bok; Bang, Yong Jun

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995, Trichophyton tonsurans has been one of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. Herein we evaluate 77 patients infected with T. tonsurans who visited an outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2014. Infections due to T. tonsurans were diagnosed by mycological examination, which included direct microscopic examination using 15% KOH and culture in potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. The annual prevalence of infection due to T. tonsurans was the highest in 2014 (15 cases) but remained constant in non-gladiators between 2004 and 2014. The ratio of male to female patients was 1:0.3. The spring season presented the highest incidence compared with other seasons, with 27 cases. The incidence of infections due to T. tonsurans among gladiators was highest in spring compared with the other seasons whereas the incidence in non-gladiators was the highest in the winter. The body site most commonly affected was the face. Tinea corporis was the most common subtype of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans. Herein, we demonstrate that the prevalence of infection with T. tonsurans remain constant throughout the study period in Korea.

  13. Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Ogawa, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we summarize the status of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan in terms of epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control. Since approximately 2000, outbreaks of T. tonsurans infections among combat sports club members have been reported frequently, with the infection then spreading to their friends and family members. The most common clinical features of T. tonsurans infection are tinea corporis, which is difficult to differentiate from eczema, and tinea capitis. Tinea capitis is classified as the seborrheic form, kerion celsi form or "black dot" form, although 90% or more of patients are asymptomatic carriers. The diagnosis of symptomatic T. tonsurans infection is established by potassium hydroxide examination and fungal culture. However, because there are many asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans infection, tests using the hairbrush culture method are necessary. An increase in asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans makes assessment of the current prevalence of the infection challenging and underscores the importance of educational efforts and public awareness campaigns to prevent T. tonsurans epidemics.

  14. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Takahasi Komoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.. Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets.

  15. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chien Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL. Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

  16. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

  17. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  18. Study of diseases of the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy. First isolation of the dermatophyte Microsporum cookei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffara, M; Scagliarini, A

    1999-02-01

    The ecological risks connected with the introduction of the North American grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy are many. Of particular importance is the conservation of the native red squirrel (S. vulgaris) population, since the experience from the British Isles showed that where the grey squirrel was introduced, the autochthonous red squirrel became extinct. To determine the health status of grey squirrels trapped and euthanasized during an eradication campaign in the Piedmont region, various analyses were carried out. This paper describes a preliminary mycological investigation. Microsporum cookei, a geophilic dermatophyte, was isolated for the first time from grey squirrels.

  19. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, José Cláudio Faria; Soares, Betania Maria; Alves, Orley Araújo; Ferreira, Marcus Vinícius Lucas; Sousa, Gerdal Roberto; Silveira, Lívio de Barros; Piancastelli, André Costa Cruz; Pinotti, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of superficial mycosis of the skin and nails causing long lasting infections and high recurrence rates. Current treatment drawbacks involve topical medications not being able to reach the nail bed at therapeutic concentrations, systemic antifungal drugs failing to eradicate the fungus before the nails are renewed, severe side effects and selection of resistant fungal isolates. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been a promising alternative to conventional treatments. This study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of toluidine blue O (TBO) irradiated by Light emitting diode (LED) in the reduction of T. rubrum viability. The fungal inoculums' was prepared and exposed to different TBO concentrations and energy densities of Light emitting diode for evaluate the T. rubrum sensibility to PDT and production effect fungicidal after photodynamic treatment. In addition, the profiles of the area and volume of the irradiated fungal suspensions were also investigated. A small reduction, in vitro, of fungal cells was observed after exposition to 100 µM toluidine blue O irradiated by 18 J/cm² Light emitting diode. Fungicidal effect occurred after 25 µM toluidine blue O irradiation by Light emitting diode with energy density of 72 J/cm². The analysis showed that the area and volume irradiated by the Light emitting diode were 52.2 mm² and 413.70 mm³, respectively. The results allowed to conclude that Photodynamic therapy using Light emitting diode under these experimental conditions is a possible alternative approach to inhibit in vitro T. rubrum and may be a promising new treatment for dermatophytosis caused by this fungus.

  20. [A case of black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in Chiba Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Komori, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2005-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman visited a clinic in Kisarazu, Chiba Prefecture in December 2002 complaining of itching, scale and alopecia. She had been diagnosed as having tinea capitis by a direct microscopic examination of scales, and been treated with an antifungal cream and steroid lotion since 1999. The bald area spread from frontal to occipital in which multiple black dots and red papules were scattered. Abundant endothrix spores were observed in the hair shaft. A mycelial colony was isolated from the black dots. A giant colony on Sabouraud's agar was white, powdery and flattened with cottony elevation at the center in the obverse, and a reddish-brown pigmentation in the reverse. The isolate produced abundant microconidia that were round to club-and balloon-shaped with extreme swelling, while macroconidia and spiral bodies were few. Hair perforation test was negative and urease activity test was positive. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequencing revealed 100% homology with T. tonsurans isolated from two old women in Niigata Prefecture. On the other hand, 3 bases were different from those of the outbreak isolates from judo and wrestling players infected through international matches. T. tonsurans has polymorphism and the present isolate might be an autochthonous genotype in Japan. This is the first time T. tonsurans was isolated in Chiba Prefecture. But this prefecture had been known as an endemic area of Trichophyton coccineum, which was very similar in morphological and physiological characteristics to those of T. tonsurans before World War II. These facts raise the question of whether T. tonsurans has existed in this prefecture before.

  1. [Epidemiological survey of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Tohoku district and its clinical problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    To research the current status of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Tohoku District, I sent out a questionnaire to the main dermatology clinics in the Tohoku district. The results showed this infection was found first in spring, 2001 in Miyagi prefecture, and gradually spread from southern to northern districts; the total number of patients is now 162. The number in each prefecture is as follows: Yamagata; 88, Miyagi; 68, Akita; 4, Aomori; 2. In Iwate and Fukushima, however, no cases were reported. By age distribution high school students accounted for 117 (75%), elder patients for 29 (19%), lower age children only 10, and 6 cases were uncertain. Judo players accounted for 113 (70%) and wrestlers for 39 (24%). Family infections were found in two cases. Latent infections were found in several cases, and in one case the infection continued for 2.5 years without clinical symptoms. In my clinic 30 cases were observed beginning in 2001: high school boys accounted for 11, students of a professional school 14, college student 1, adults 3, and those involved in judo 27, wrestling 2 and mixed grappling sports 2. A family infection between a father and his daughter was found. According to the observations in our cases, this fungus easily invaded the hair roots from the early stage of infection, but was not noticed by common external clinical observations. Thus, microscopic examinations are necessary throughout the therapeutic process and to make certain of a complete cure. I think also necessary is the systemic administration of terbinafine or itraconazole for 4 or 6 weeks or more even for tinea corporis. Additionally, I emphasize that culture study is indispensable to confirm the infection by this fungi.

  2. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187 and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156 as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 µg/mL. A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

  3. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

  4. Management of a Trichophyton tonsurans outbreak in a day-care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert M; Champagne, Caroline; Waghorn, David; Ong, Eugene; Grabczynska, Sophie A; Morris, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is the leading cause of tinea capitis in the United Kingdom (UK) as well as causing tinea corporis. This organism has been linked to several outbreaks in the UK and abroad, and such outbreaks may be prolonged since T. tonsurans can be difficult to control. There remains an incomplete consensus in the literature on the optimal management of such outbreaks of this infection. Following notification that a child with T. tonsurans was identified at a day-care center in the UK, initial investigations identified nine cases of fungal infection involving children and staff over the previous 7 months. We report on the management of an outbreak of T. tonsurans tinea capitis and tinea corporis among children and staff in a day-care center. An outbreak control team with representatives from dermatology, microbiology, day-care center management, and the Health Protection Agency initiated case ascertainment by scalp inspection and brushing of all children and staff at the nursery. Two complete rounds of screening were required before the outbreak was declared over. Infection control measures included antifungal shampoo use, exclusion of identified cases for a short period, removal of shared items from the center, and enhanced decontamination of fomites. The outbreak, which lasted longer than 12 months, involved 12 children and 7 staff members. Of these, 12 cases were confirmed by positive fungal culture. T. tonsurans is difficult to manage, especially in childcare settings, but case ascertainment, appropriate treatment with oral agents, and sustained infection control measures can be effective in controlling such outbreaks.

  5. Eficacia de medios de cultivo con infusiones de variedades de papa en la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Flor Urcia A; Miriam Guevara R

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la eficacia de los extractos de diferentes variedades de papa como ingredientes del medio de cultivo para la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum y proponer su empleo en el diagnóstico de dermatomicosis. Se utilizaron las infusiones naturales de las variedades Solanum tuberosum (papa blanca), Solanum chaucha (papa huayro) y Solanum goniocalyx (papa amarilla), para preparar los medios de cultivo análogos al estándar de formulación comercial Agar...

  6. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdu, Lilioara; Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Nicula, Gheorghe; Iordache, Ovidiu; Dinca, Laurentiu Christian; Berechet, Mariana-Daniela; Vamesu, Mariana; Gurau, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes.

  7. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Nicula, Gheorghe; Iordache, Ovidiu; Dinca, Laurentiu Christian; Berechet, Mariana-Daniela; Vamesu, Mariana; Gurau, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes. PMID:25276112

  8. High throughput multiplex-PCR for direct detection and diagnosis of dermatophyte species, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis in clinical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Ali; Bekers, Wouter; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-06-01

    We have developed and validated a multiplex-PCR method for detection of dermatophyte spp., Candida albicans and parapsilosis for routine diagnostics. Our m-PCR showed excellent concordance with culture results in 475 clinical samples. Through the rapid diagnosis by our m-PCR, clinicians are able to initiate adequate antimycotic therapy much earlier.

  9. Tinea capitis among rural school children of the district of Magude, in Maputo province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidat, Mohsin M; Correia, Della; Buene, Titos P

    2006-11-01

    The study was carried out in two rural primary schools of the District of Magude, the largest district of Maputo Province in 2001. The prevalence of tinea capitis in each school was 11.6% (49/422) and 6.8% (18/263) and affected predominantly male children. The most common dermatophytes isolated from both schools were Microsporum audouinii. However, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was also found to be an important causal agent of tinea capitis in the District of Magude. Although the prevalence of tinea capitis found in our study is relatively high compared to previous cross-sectional studies carried out in Mozambique, it is still closely related to the prevalence rates reported for African countries. Tinea capitis continues to be an important public health issue in Mozambique, particularly in primary school setting.

  10. In vitro and in vivo studies of ambruticin (W7783): new class of antifungal antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, S M

    1978-05-01

    Ambruticin is a cyclopropyl-pyran acid, representing a new class of antibiotics. It has a relatively broad antifungal spectrum in vitro and is highly active against dimorphic as well as filamentous organisms. Of 24 strains of dermatophytic fungi tested, the majority were susceptible to ambruticin at 0.049 mug/ml or less. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the systemic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis was 0.049 to 0.39 mug/ml. Ambruticin is fungicidal for metabolizing cells of Microsporum fulvum and does not cause cell leakage of 260-nm absorbing material. The antibiotic is effective orally as well as topically in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In mice, a single oral dose of 75 mg/kg produced peak serum levels of 45 mug/ml in 1 h with a serum half-life of 3.1 h. Excretion of the antibiotic is principally by the biliary route.

  11. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), α-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 μL/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 μL/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. 大连、沈阳两地须癣毛癣菌复合体的分子鉴定及DNA分型%Study on Molecular Identification and DNA Typing of Trichophyton Mentagrophyes Complex in Dalian and Shenyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 张芙蓉; 杨国玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨大连和沈阳两地须癣毛癣菌复合体的主要组成菌种及主要组成菌种肉芽肿株和体癣株DNA分型有无差异.方法 选取大连和沈阳地区已行表型鉴定的须癣毛癣菌16株(12株体癣株,4株肉芽肿株),通过PCR扩增核糖体DNA(rDNA)的内转录间隔区(ITS),测序后利用数据库进行序列比对,对须癣毛癣菌复合体进行鉴定;PCR扩增rDNA非转录间隔区(NTS)的3个串联重复亚单位S0,S1和S2区,进行种内分型,比较菌株间型别的差异性.结果 大连、沈阳两地的16株须癣毛癣菌中,2株鉴定为断发毛癣菌,1株鉴定为苯海姆节皮菌,13株鉴定为万博节皮菌;3对不同引物扩增13株万博节皮菌NTS区,共产生8种特征性带型;万博节皮菌的体癣株和肉芽肿株的带型除S2区外,在S0,S1区及总区间均有差异.结论 大连、沈阳两地须癣毛癣菌复合体的主要组成菌种为万博节皮菌;万博节皮菌肉芽肿株和体癣株NTS区的带型有差异.%Objective To investigate the main constituent stains of T. mentagrophyes complex and whether the differences exist between the granuloma and tinea strains of Trichophyton mentagrophyes ( T. mentagrophyes). Methods Sixteen strains of T. mentagrophyes ( i. e. 12 strains from tinea and 4 from granuloma strains) from Dalian and Shenyang were chosen to take phenotype identification. The rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of these strains were amplified by PCR, then the database was used to take sequence a-lignment in order to identify T. mentagrophyes complex. Three novel tandem repeat subelements (TRSs) of the rDNA nontranscribed spacer regions ( NTS) ,S0,S1 and S2,were also amplified by PCR,then intraspecif-ic typing was taken in order to observe the differences among these strains. Results Among these 16 strains of T. mentagrophyes, two strains were identified as T. tonsurans, one strain was identified as A. benhamiac, and the other strains were

  13. Epidemiological survey of dermatophytosis in meat rabbits with alopecia in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological dermatophytosis survey was carried out in farmed rabbits with alopecia in Northern and Central Portugal.  Between August and October 2008, samples from suspected clinical cases of alopecia in meat rabbits on industrial farms were collected and cultured by conventional methods.  Effects on the prevalence of several variables, such as breed, age, month of sample collection, configuration of the lesions and presence of concomitant infections in the rabbitries were evaluated using a logistic regression model.  The overall prevalence of dermatophytes species was 82.7% (95% CI: 80.1-85.3%. Two dermatophytes species were isolated: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (91.9% and Microsporum canis (8.1%.  Five variables were associated with dermatophyte isolation in univariate analysis.  The multivariate logistic regression model identified configuration of lesions (OR=3.15; 95% CI: 1.39-7.15% and the presence of concomitant infections on the farms (OR=2.71; 95% CI: 1.03-7.12% as risk factors.  Considering the paucity of epidemiological reports in this country, these results could make a useful contribution towards the diagnosis and prevention of rabbit dermatophytosis.

  14. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs.

  15. Electron microscopic evidence of Phosfon D-induced alterations in the membranes of the dermatophytic fungus Microsporum cookei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, G L; Fasulo, M P; Dall'Olio, G

    1979-01-01

    The dermatophytic fungus Microsporum cookei was cultivated for 24 h in the presence of subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations (50 and 100 micrograms/ml) of Phosfon D, a growth retardant for higher plants also affecting fungal development, and its toxic effects were examined at the ultrastructural level. In both treatments, Phosfon D attacked the membranes, whose structural integrity was clearly compromised with damage of particular severity to mitochondria, nuclei and endoplasmic reticulum. In the instance of fungal growth suppression, the compound also caused plasmolytic and autolytic phenomena, sometimes accompanied by plasma membrane breakages. The submicroscopic effects observed confirm that Prosfon D is an antifungal compound which displays its toxic effects in the area of lipid metabolism, probably preventing the synthesis of fundamental components of the cellular membranes, such as unsaturated fatty acids and sterols.

  16. IN VITRO AND IN SILICO APPROACH TO EVALUATE THE ANTI-DERMATOPHYTIC ACTIVITY OF ENICOSTEMMA LITTORALE BLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusami Jeyam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are the causative agents of superficial skin infections, dermatophytoses, which are capable of invading and digesting keratin. The current usage of synthetic drugs leads to either side effects in human or resistant fungal varieties due to prolonged use. Hence the present study aims at finding leads from phytocompounds to target the enzymes involved in maintaining fungal cell wall integrity, namely, 1, 3 β-D glucan synthase and chitinase, important enzyme having a role in morphogenesis. Docking analysis was carried out for the above targets with already reported phytocompounds of Enicostemma axillare (syn. littorale Blume and compared with the specific synthetic drugs to evaluate their efficacy as fungal inhibitors using Glide software. The in vitro study was carried out for E. littorale extract against Microsporum gypseum. The significant results were observed with the petroleum ether extract of the aerial parts of E. littorale at a concentration of 3000 µg/ml.

  17. Genotype analysis of the variable internal repeat region in the rRNA gene of Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from Japanese Judo practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2006-01-01

    Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans is currently epidemic among Japanese Judo practitioners. T. tonsurans has seven genotypes in a variable internal repeat (VIR) region of the rRNA gene. All 101 isolates obtained from Japanese Judo practitioners had the identical genotype. This suggests that a specific genotype strain occurs throughout Japan.

  18. Research Progress of Dog Dermatophyte Infectious Skin Diseases%犬皮肤真菌病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟胜; 李朝明; 魏学良

    2011-01-01

    Dog dermatophyte infectious skin diseases is a common dog infectious skin diseases, which account for about 16. 86% in clinical cases, of which the main manifestations include desquamation and hair shedding locally or even over all thebody. If it is accompanied with secondary bacterial infection, which may leads to Pus-tinea. This disease can transmit among animals, humans and between animals and humans, to some degree, it is a big public health threat. This disease usually happens to young, weak and old animals, which may also lead to epidemic in dog farm or pet shelter. This article mainly focuses on the fundamental analysis of dog dermatophyte infectious skin diseases from the aspect of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.%犬皮肤真菌病是犬的常见传染性皮肤病,在临床皮肤病例中占16.86%.该病表现为局部或全身脱毛,脱屑,继发细菌感染可形成脓癣.此病可在动物之间,人与人之间,人与动物之间互相传播,造成一定程度的公共卫生问题.此病多发生于幼龄犬以及体质衰弱、机体抵抗力降低和老龄的犬,也易在犬场和宠物庇护所流行.文章从流行病学、发病机理、临床症状、诊断方法、治疗和预防等方面进行了初步分析.

  19. Experimental and clinical research on the two fox breeders' tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes%狐狸饲养者母女共患须癣毛癣菌所致体癣的临床与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任强强; 万力; 张虹; 鲁巧云; 万喆; 林元珠

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨狐狸饲养者母女先后出现同形皮疹的病因及病原菌的实验研究.方法 刮取两名患者皮屑直接镜检;皮屑与其饲养的狐狸被毛同时做真菌培养,并对病原菌行PCR扩增测序.结果 三株菌在沙堡氏葡萄糖琼脂培养基(SDA)上生长为白色颗粒状菌落;尿素酶试验均阳性;扫描电镜可见分隔菌丝及大分生孢子;菌落PCR扩增测序结果与须癣毛癣菌100%同源.结论 两患者体癣病原菌与狐狸被毛所携带的须癣毛癣菌为同一来源.

  20. 家兔须癣毛癣菌SYBR Green Ⅰ荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立及初步应用%Development and application of SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time PCR for detecting Trichophyton mentagrophytes in rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月; 刘利强; 刘娜; 刘彦威; 刘建钗; 张永英; 朱美霞; 刘贵巧; 杜鹃

    2015-01-01

    为建立家兔须癣毛癣菌快速检测方法,根据GenBank上已发表的须癣毛癣菌rDNA内转录间隔区核苷酸序列设计了1对特异性引物,建立了检测须癣毛癣菌SYBR GreenⅠ实时荧光定量PCR方法,并用该方法对临床分离的须癣毛癣菌和病料进行检测.结果显示,该方法灵敏度高,对须癣毛癣菌的最低检出量为10 copies/μL;特异性强,与犬小孢子菌、絮状表皮癣、红毛癣菌、白色念珠菌、烟曲霉等病原真菌没有交叉反应.该方法操作简单,耗时短,只需2h即可完成整个试验过程.提示该方法可用于须癣毛癣菌的检测.

  1. 汉防己甲素对益康唑抗须癣毛癣菌活性增效作用的体内实验研究%An in vivo study on tetrandrine as a synergist to econazole against Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丁; 张宏; 李海瑞; 李水秀; 石建萍

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨体内汉防己甲素(tetrandrine,TET)对益康唑(econazole,ECZ )抗须癣毛癣菌活性的增效作用.方法 以须癣毛癣菌构建豚鼠皮肤癣菌病模型,将造模成功的40只豚鼠随机分为4组,分别涂用1%ECZ+1%TET(ECZ+TET组)、1%ECZ(ECZ组)、1%TET(TET组)和霜剂基质(基质组)每d 1次,连续14d,从皮损一般情况、病原学、病理学三方面观察TET对ECZ抗须癣毛癣菌的增效活性.结果 ECZ+TET组从用药第4d起,皮损评分开始呈持续下降趋势;用药第14d的皮损评分降至0.75分.ECZ组皮损评分与之类似,但总体下降趋势小于ECZ+TET组,用药第14d的皮损评分为2.00分.两组皮损评分差异有统计学意义(P=0.037).ECZ+TET组皮损组织真菌培养阳性率、病理组织中真菌菌丝和孢子、炎症反应和组织破坏程度明显轻于其它3组.结论 TET在须癣毛癣菌所致豚鼠皮肤癣菌病模型中能增加ECZ抗须癣毛癣菌活性.

  2. 瑞香狼毒对石膏样毛癣菌的抑制作用及对其超微结构的影响%Fungistasis activity of Stellera chamaejasme L.and influence on the ultrastructure of Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳秋; 黄晓; 陶科; 侯太平

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究瑞香狼毒对石膏样毛癣菌的抑制作用及对其超微结构的影响,推测可能的抑制机理.方法 采用抑制菌丝生长速率法测定瑞香狼毒对石膏样毛癣菌的抑制活性,测定最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最低杀菌浓度(MFC),电镜观察药物作用后菌丝超微结构的变化.结果 瑞香狼毒对石膏样毛癣菌有明显的抑制作用,EC50=0.3021 mg·ml-1,MIC=0.3125 mg·ml-1,MFC=0.6250 mg·ml-1.透射电镜观察到药物作用后,菌丝细胞有明显的形态变化.结论 瑞香狼毒对石膏样毛癣菌有较强的抑制作用,有治疗皮肤癣症的应用潜力.

  3. 兔须癣毛癣菌感染样本常规诊断与定量PCR诊断的比较研究%Comparison of real-time PCR with conventional methods to diagnose Trichophyton mentagrophytes in clinical specimens from rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洁; 刘月; 刘利强; 刘娜; 刘建钗; 刘彦威; 邢鑫

    2016-01-01

    目的 为探讨须癣毛癣菌快速、敏感、特异的诊断方法.方法 采集患兔临床样本63例,分别进行培养法、镜检法和定量PCR法诊断,比较这些方法的敏感性、特异性、阳性预测值和阴性预测值.结果 显示样本培养法、镜检法和定量PCR法的阳性率分别为65%、73%和86%;与常规方法(培养法和镜检法)相比,定量PCR法敏感性和阴性预测值均为100%,高于培养法(77.35%和45.45%)和镜检法(86.79%和64.17%),而特异性(90.90%对100%~100%)和阳性预测值(90.90%对100%~100%)两种方法无明显差异.结论 培养法特异,但敏感性差、耗时长,有假阴性;镜检快速,但不特异,敏感性低;而定量PCR快速、敏感、又特异,可以替代镜检用于临床样品的诊断,但不能替代培养法.

  4. Experiment on Tetrandrine as A Synergist to Bifonazole Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vivo%汉防己甲素对联苯苄唑抗须癣毛癣菌活性增效作用的体内实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝红; 张宏; 向守宝; 张丁; 苏映竹

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究汉防己甲素(tetrandrine,TET)对联苯苄唑(bifonazole,BFZ)治疗须癣毛癣菌所致豚鼠皮肤癣菌病是否有增效作用.方法 以须癣毛癣菌构建豚鼠皮肤癣菌病模型,将造模成功的20只豚鼠按随机数字表法等分为4组,进行双盲实验,分别涂用复方BFZ(含1%BFZ和1% TET)、1%BFZ、1%TET和基质,1次/d,共14天,进行皮损评分、病原学和病理学检查,分析4组药物间疗效差异.结果 用药期间,4组皮损评分差异有统计学意义(F=93.49,P=0.000);从用药第3天起,复方BFZ组和1%BFZ组皮损评分逐日下降,前者皮损评分持续低于后者,差异有统计学意义(P=0.000);1%TET组和基质组皮损评分差异无统计学意义(P=1.000).复方BFZ组皮损真菌学检查比1%BFZ组转阴早2天,炎症反应轻于其他3组.结论 TET对BFZ治疗须癣毛癣菌所致豚鼠皮肤癣菌病有增效作用.

  5. 体外观察特比萘芬联合伊曲康唑对须癣毛癣菌甲侵袭的抑制作用%Inhibitive effects of terbinafine combined with itraconazole on invasion of nails by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓莉; 杨森; 张书梅; 杨春俊; 杜文辉; 林达; 朱一元

    2005-01-01

    目的:体外观察特比萘芬联合伊曲康唑对须癣毛癣菌甲侵袭的抑制作用.为临床联合用药提供参考依据.方法:用浸泡过不同浓度的特比萘芬、伊曲康唑及两者混合药液的健康甲片,接种须癣毛癣菌作为甲模型,27℃孵育观察不同时间甲模型真菌生长抑制现象及超微结构变化,确定各药的MIC.结果:特比萘芬和伊曲康唑联合药液MIC较伊曲康唑为低;联合用药部分抑菌浓度指数(FICI)>1但<2.结论:特比萘芬联合伊曲康唑对须癣毛癣菌有一定抑制相加作用.

  6. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations.

  7. Onychomycosis: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis is a common nail ailment associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Increased prevalence in the recent years is attributed to enhanced longevity, comorbid conditions such as diabetes, avid sports participation, and emergence of HIV. Dermatophytes are the most commonly implicated etiologic agents, particularly Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, followed by Candida species and non dermatophytic molds (NDMs. Several clinical variants have been recognized. Candida onychomycosis affects fingernails more often and is accompanied by paronychia. NDM molds should be suspected in patients with history of trauma and associated periungual inflammation. Diagnosis is primarily based upon KOH examination, culture and histopathological examinations of nail clippings and nail biopsy. Adequate and appropriate sample collection is vital to pinpoint the exact etiological fungus. Various improvisations have been adopted to improve the fungal isolation. Culture is the gold standard, while histopathology is often performed to diagnose and differentiate onychomycosis from other nail disorders such as psoriasis and lichen planus. Though rarely used, DNA-based methods are effective for identifying mixed infections and quantification of fungal load. Various treatment modalities including topical, systemic and surgical have been used.Topically, drugs (ciclopirox and amorolfine nail lacquers are delivered through specialized transungual drug delivery systems ensuring high concentration and prolonged contact. Commonly used oral therapeutic agents include terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole. Terbinafine and itraconazole are given as continuous as well as intermittent regimes. Continuous terbinafine appears to be the most effective regime for dermatophyte onychomycosis. Despite good therapeutic response to newer modalities, long-term outcome is unsatisfactory due to therapeutic failure, relapse

  8. 甲真菌病400例致病真菌分析%Analysis of pathogenic fungal strains in 400 patients of onychomycosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马越娥; 李秀丽; 顾俊瑛; 刘至昱; 高飞; 王茠茠

    2014-01-01

    目的:确定上海地区甲真菌病的致病菌种。方法:对本院皮肤科门诊就诊的直接镜检阳性的400例甲真菌病患者的甲标本做真菌分离培养和分析。结果:分离出致病真菌233株,其中皮肤癣菌120株(红色毛癣菌104株,须癣毛癣菌10株,犬小孢子菌3株,絮状表皮癣菌3株),酵母菌68株,非皮肤癣菌11株(曲霉6株,青霉5株),其余为丝状真菌。结论:上海地区甲真菌病的致病真菌以皮肤癣菌为主,酵母菌中非白念珠菌占有一定比例。%Objective:To determine the pathogenic fungal strains isolated from onychomycosis in Shanghai. Methods:Fungal culture was performed on 400 patients of onychomycosis with positive results by direct mi-croscopic examination. Results:A total of 233 strains of fungi was isolated,of which 120 strains were derma-tophytes ( Trichophyton rubrum in 104 isolates, Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 10, Microsporum canis in 3 and Epidermophyton floccosum in 3), 68 were Saccharomycetes, 11 were non-dermatophytes ( Aspergillus 6 and Mould 5) and the rest were filamentous fungi. Conclusion:In Shanghai,the dominated pathogenic fungus of onychomycosis is Trichophyton rubrum, and the non-Candida albicans accounts for a proportion of the yeast.

  9. [Superficial mycoses: casuistry of the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel", Caracas, Venezuela (2001-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Ana María; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Panizo, María Mercedes; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Reviakina, Vera; Dolande, Maribel

    2016-03-01

    The superficial mycoses are very common infectious diseases and therefore are a frequent reason for medical consultation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic frequency of superficial mycoses in the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" during 14 years (2001-2014). A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to review the mycological records of patients with presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycosis. Nails, hairs and epidermal scales were the processed samples. The identification of fungi was performed by macro and microscopic observation of colonies and biochemical and physiological tests, as required of the isolated agent. For the investigation of Malassezia spp. only direct examination was performed. Of the 3 228 samples processed, 1 098 (34%) were positive and their distribution according to the etiological agent was: dermatophytes 79.5%; 10.9% yeasts; non-dermatophytes fungi 5.1% and 4.5% Malassezia spp. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum Complex (70.1%), followed by T mentagrophytes complex (15.1%), Microsporum canis (9.4%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (4%). The most frequent ringworms Were: Tinea unguium (66.8%), followed by Tineapedis (16.4%) and Tinea capitis (8.1%). Candida parapsilosis complex (37.5%) was the most frequently isolated yeast and Fusarium spp. (53.6%) was the most isolated among non-dermatophyte fungi, followed by Aspergillus spp. (19.6%) and Acremonium spp. (10.7%). The identification of the etiological agent is essential to guide appropriate treatment. This study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in our country.

  10. Caracterização da microbiota por fungos filamentosos no tegumento hígido de bovinos de corte Characterization of filamentous fungal flora from the integument of healthy cattle

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    Christiane Duarte Pombo do Amaral

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O tegumento de bovinos pode albergar uma grande diversidade de fungos filamentosos, potencialmente capazes de causar dermatoses, incluindo fungos do grupo dos dermatófitos. O presente estudo teve por objetivos caracterizar a microbiota de fungos filamentosos do tegumento hígido de bovinos de corte, verificar a presença de dermatófitos como parte integrante da microbiota, assim como avaliar a ocorrência de dermatófitos no solo dos estabelecimentos estudados. Durante o período de um ano, 56 bovinos sadios de quatro propriedades da fronteira Oeste do RS foram submetidos a coletas mensais de pelos e raspado cutâneo. No mesmo período, foram obtidas amostras de solo para pesquisa de dermatófitos. As análises dos resultados indicaram uma microbiota de fungos filamentosos classificada em 30 gêneros, dos quais os mais frequentes foram (nesta ordem: Nigrospora, Fusarium, Curvularia, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Paecilomyces e Trichoderma. Nas amostras de pelame, obteve-se o isolamento de Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0,4%, Microsporum gypseum (0,3% e Trichophyton verrucosum (0,1%. M. gypseum foi o dermatófito mais frequentemente isolado do solo. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a microbiota fúngica do tegumento hígido de bovinos de corte comporta-se de maneira transitória e que bovinos sadios não atuam como portadores assintomáticos de T. verrucosum, sugerindo que esta espécie de dermatófito é não residente no tegumento dos animais.The tegument of cattle may harbor a great diversity of filamentous fungi that can potentially cause skin diseases, including fungi belonging to the dermatophyte group. This study aimed to characterize the population of filamentous fungi from a healthy coat of cattle, checking for dermatophytes as part of the microbiota, as well as evaluating the presence of dermatophytes in the soil occupied by the animals. During the period of one year, 56 healthy cattle in four properties in the western boundary of the

  11. Tinea capitis in schoolchildren in southern Ivory Coast.

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    Fulgence, Kassi Kondo; Abibatou, Konate; Vincent, Djohan; Henriette, Vanga; Etienne, Angora Kpongbo; Kiki-Barro, Pulchérie Christiane; Yavo, William; Koné, Moussa; Hervé Menan, Eby Ignace

    2013-04-01

    Fungal infections of the scalp commonly affect the pediatric population. These infections are caused by dermatophytes that are able to invade the keratinized structures of skin, hair, and nails. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of fungal scalp infections in southern Ivory Coast during 2008-2009. From October 2008 to July 2009, 17,745 children ranging in age from 4-16 years, attending urban and rural primary schools in seven towns in Ivory Coast, were examined clinically for tinea capitis. Hair stumps and scales were collected from children who showed symptoms suggestive of scalp ringworm. Samples were exposed to direct microscopic examination using 30% potassium hydroxide solution and cultivation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with or without actidione. Of the 17,745 children who were clinically examined, a total of 2645 exhibited symptoms suggestive of scalp ringworm. Positive cultures for fungi were found in 2458, yielding an overall prevalence of tinea capitis of 13.9%. The majority of infections occurred in males (74.0%). The most commonly affected age group involved children ranging from 9-12 years (n = 1335, 54.3%), followed by those in the range of 4-8 years (n = 936, 38.1%). Trichophyton soudanense, Microsporum langeronii, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the most prevalent etiologic agents (56.7%, 21.4% and 19.7%, respectively). Other species were occasionally isolated, including Trichophyton violaceum (1.4%) and Trichophyton rubrum (0.8%). Epidemiological surveys are an essential tool for developing strategies for infection control. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Argentinean Andean propolis associated with the medicinal plant Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae). HPLC-MS and GC-MS characterization and antifungal activity.

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    Agüero, María Belén; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Luna, Lorena; Lima, Beatriz; López, María Liza; Zacchino, Susana; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Alejandro

    2011-09-01

    The chemical profile and botanical origin of Andean Argentinian propolis were studied by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques as well as the antifungal activity according to CLSI protocols. Dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by propolis extracts (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg/mL). The main antifungal compounds were: 3'methyl-nordihydroguaiaretic acid (MNDGA) 1, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) 2 and a NDGA derivative 3, showing strong activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Microsporum gypseum (MICs between 15.6 and 31.25 μg/mL). The lignans 1 and 2 showed activities against clinical isolates of Candidas spp., Cryptococcus spp., T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 31.25 and 62.5 μg/mL). The lignan and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles from propolis matched with those of exudates of Larrea nitida providing strong evidences on its botanical origin. These results support that Argentinian Andean propolis are a valuable natural product with potential to improve human health. Six compounds (1-6) were isolated from propolis for the first time, while compounds 1 and 3-6 were reported for first time as constituents of L. nitida Cav. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract and fractions from Sarcochlamys pulcherrima

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    Afjal Hussain Mazumder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial evaluation of methanol extract of Sarcochlamys pulcherrima leaf and its hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions against 31 strains of microorganisms, using agar well, agar disc diffusion, and broth microdilution methods, revealed the activity of methanol extract against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escheracia coli (zone of inhibition: 21-40 mm, 200 mg/mL, and MIC: 6.25-50 mg/mL. All fractions also displayed antimicrobial activity (5-20 mg/mL, indeed ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed better activity (MIC: 0.156 to 2.5 mg/mL. C. albicans was most sensitive to n-butanol fraction (15 mm, 2.5 mg/mL. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were more active against T. mentagrophytes (12 mm at 1.25 mg/mL and S. aureus (ethyl acetate-16 mm, n-butanol-14 mm at 0.625 mg/mL. E. coli was inhibited by n-butanol fraction (13 mm at 2.5 mg/mL. Further, n-butanol fraction (400 µg/disc exhibited promising activity against 14 bacteria, 2 dermatophytes and 2 yeasts strains.

  14. Outbreak of tinea corporis gladiatorum, a fungal skin infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans, in a French high level judo team.

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    Poisson, D M; Rousseau, D; Defo, Defo; Estève, E

    2005-09-01

    An outbreak of 49 cases of tinea corporis gladiatorum due to Trichophyton tonsurans infection occurred in a high level judo team of 131 members in Orleans, central France, between October 2004 and April 2005. The team was divided into 5 groups: cadet-junior boys (n=44), cadet-junior girls (n=33), male university students (n= 15), female university students (n=21), and a group called 'pole technique' made up of high level judokas who have finished academic study (n=18). The outbreak involved 86% of the cadet-junior boys, but only 6 men in the 'pole technique' (33%) and only 5 of the 69 other team members (7%) (cadet-junior girls and university students). We describe the outbreak and the results of a survey that found a known risk factor for the 'pole technique': sharing an electric hair shaver. Personal hygiene practices were found to be very good among the cadet-junior boys. The high attack rate in this group may be linked to the poor shower facilities in the gymnasium where they practiced that led them to have their showers several hours after the end of daily practice.

  15. Eficacia de Medios de Cultivo con Infusiones de Variedades de Papa en la Identificación del Trichophyton rubrum

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    Flor Urcia A

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la eficacia de los extractos de diferentes variedades de papa como ingredientes del medio de cultivo para la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum y proponer su empleo en el diagnóstico de dermatomicosis. Se utilizaron las infusiones naturales de las variedades Solanum tuberosum (papa blanca, Solanum chaucha (papa huayro y Solanum goniocalyx (papa amarilla, para preparar los medios de cultivo análogos al estándar de formulación comercial Agar Papa Dextrosa (APDc. Las cepas de T. rubrum fueron inoculadas en los diferentes medios de cultivo, incubados a 2°C durante 10 días. Para la evaluación consideramos características culturales y microscópicas. Los resultados muestran que el medio de cultivo Agar Papa Huayro Dextrosa (APHD fue más eficiente en la producción del pigmento rojo vino, pero se obtuvo mayor esporulación en los medios de cultivo Agar Papa Blanca Dextrosa (APBD y Agar Papa Amarilla Dextrosa (APAD.

  16. Carbohydrate profiling of fungal cell wall surface glycoconjugates of Trichophyton tonsurans and other keratinophilic filamentous fungi using lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, André Ferraz Goiana; de Lima Neto, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2011-11-01

    Various researchers have concluded that lectins are useful reagents for the study of fungal cell wall surface glycoconjugates. In this study, we evaluated the expression of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, L-fucose, D-galactose and glucose/mannose on the cell wall surface of Trichophyton tonsurans and other keratinophilic filamentous fungi, using a simple lectin-binding protocol. The fungal cultures used were isolated from soils obtained from public parks by the hair-bait technique. The lectin assays used concanavalin A (Con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) and peanut agglutinin (PNA), all conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Adhesive tape was placed sticky-side down over the fungal colony, gently pressed and then removed. The fungal-tape samples were incubated with the lectin for 1 h at 4 °C. Lectin binding was visualised using 3,3-diaminobendizine (DAB) and hydrogen peroxidase. There was a high expression of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine on the cell wall surface of all fungi species tested, whereas the expression of L-fucose, D-galactose and glucose/mannose demonstrated inter-specific variations. The lectin-binding assay presented in this article eliminates many of the laborious steps involved in other protocols. The amount and quality of the mycelium and spores immobilised by the adhesive tapes were suitable for obtaining the carbohydrate profile in glycoconjugates of the cell wall surface of filamentous fungi.

  17. Screening examination and treatment of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in judo athletes affiliated with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo.

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    Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio; Ogawa, Yumi Shiraki; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, Trichophyton tonsurans infection has become an increasing problem among combat sports participants. We investigated the prevalence of T. tonsurans infection in athletes affiliated to judo clubs in the 21 First Division universities that were registered with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo in 2008. Study procedures performed by the subjects included (i) completion of a questionnaire concerning lifestyle, risk factors for tinea corporis and medical history; (ii) scrubbing the scalp with a circular hairbrush to obtain samples for fungal culture; (iii) anti-fungal treatment as recommended by a dermatologist, based on the number of fungal colonies isolated from the hairbrush; and (iv) repeat testing using the hairbrush method 3 months after treatment recommendations were received. Of 902 study subjects, 102 (11.3%) yielded positive hairbrush culture results. Of these, 14 individuals (13.7%) had tinea corporis; the remainder were asymptomatic. Conversion to negative fungal culture was observed in 85 of 96 culture-positive individuals who performed the second hairbrush culture test following treatment. Control of T. tonsurans infection among judo athletes could be achieved by educating athletes, trainers and coaches in judo clubs concerning detection, prevention, and treatment of T. tonsurans infection.

  18. [Clinical study of 57 cases of infection with Trichophyton tonsurans examined at a dermatology clinic in Saga Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Hidekazu; Nishimoto, Katsutaro

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a clinical study of 57 cases of infection with Trichophyton tonsurans (T. tonsurans) examined in our clinic between January 2004 and July 2006. The patients were 31 high school students, 19 junior high school students, 2 primary school students, 1 kindergartener, and 4 sports instructors. The male:female ratio was 51:6. Most patients were male Judo practitioners. Patients were clinically categorized as follows: 13 cases of tinea capitis {10 containing black dot ringworms (BDR), 2 scaled, and 1 with inflammation}, 41 cases of tinea corporis, 1 case of tinea manum, and 7 carriers. Five patients displayed both tinea capitis and tinea corporis. Among tinea corporis patients, 21 displayed annular erythemas, whereas 19 displayed small circular eythemas characterized by a lightly inflamed non-typical rush. In 3 tinea corporis cases, we sampled T. tonsurans from hair grown inside the skin rash. Eleven of the tinea corporis patients displayed multiple lesions. Compared to patients with singular lesions, these 11 cases had a larger degree of comorbidity with BDR or HB positivity. A 6-8 week treatment with griseofulvin was efficient in 90% of the tinea capitis cases. Tinea corporis patients were healed following a 4-9 week treatment with topical antifungals and griseofulvin. When examining T. tonsurans infections, patients with BDR or lightly inflamed tinea corporis as well as asymptomatic carriers can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. Therefore, we suggest that mycological examination, including careful observation of the rash and KOH mount, is essential in these cases.

  19. Isolation of flavonoids from Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza and their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum

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    Camila Di Giovane Costanzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza belongs to the family Bignoniaceae, and is popularly known as catuaba. To evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of A. arvense, fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (rutin and flavonoid 2 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranoside were isolated from the leaves of this plant. Fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 and 2 exhibited no antibacterial activity. Furthermore, no cytotoxic activity of fraction 3 or flavonoids 1 and 2 was observed against the tumor cells tested. However, analysis of the antifungal activity of flavonoids 1 and 2 revealed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively, against the Trichophyton rubrum strains tested (wild type and mutant. This study demonstrates for the first time the antifungal activity of isolated flavonoids, validating the same activity for A. arvense.

  20. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

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    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  1. Treatment of onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes--an opinion proposed by Committee for Standardization of the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohri, Shinobu; Watanabe, Shinichi; Toshio, Kusunoki; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Abe, Michiko; Uno, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Maeasaki, Shigefumi; Ikeda, Reiko; Abe, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    After the rapid progress in therapeutic pharmaceutics against onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes in the 1990s, an optimal therapeutic strategy for individual patients with the onychomycosis has become possible for clinical dermatologists. In this review, we discuss on clinical problems concerning this disease and propose recommendable treatments for each patient with topical and/or systemic use of antifungal agents. Finally, with consideration of already published therapeutic guidelines, we stress the necessity of "order-made" therapy for each patient with his/her medical status and wishes taking into account.

  2. Evaluation of the Bruker Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) System for the Identification of Clinically Important Dermatophyte Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabıçak, Nilgün; Karatuna, Onur; İlkit, Macit; Akyar, Işın

    2015-10-01

    Dermatophytes can invade the stratum corneum of the skin and other keratinized tissues and are responsible for a broad diversity of diseases of skin, nails and hair. Although the standard identification of dermatophytoses depends on macroscopic and microscopic characterization of the colonies grown on special media, there are a number of limitations owing to intraspecies morphological variability, atypical morphology or interspecies morphological similarity which entails improvement in the identification methods. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a novel method which proved to be effective for rapid and reliable identification of dermatophytes grown in cultures when compared to conventional methods. We evaluated the performance of Bruker MALDI-TOF MS System (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) for identification of clinically relevant dermatophytes. In order to increase the identification capacity of the system, we created supplemental spectral database entries using ten reference dermatophyte strains (ten species in two genera). The utility of the generated database was then challenged using a total of 126 dermatophytes (115 clinical isolates and 11 additional reference strains). The results were evaluated by both manufacturer-recommended and lowered cutoff scores. MALDI-TOF MS provided correct identification in 122 (96.8 %) and 113 (89.7 %) of the isolates with the lowered scores and using the supplemented database, respectively, versus 65 (51.6 %) and 17 (13.5 %) correct identifications obtained by the unmodified database and recommended scores at the genus and species levels, respectively. Our results support the potential utility of MALDI-TOF MS as a routine tool for accurate and reliable identification of dermatophytes.

  3. TINEA CORPORIS AND TINEA CRURIS IN QINGDAO: AN AETIOLOGICAL INSPECTION%青岛地区体癣和股癣的病原学检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高琳琳; 王桂芝; 葛红芬; 韩莎莎; 王莹莹; 苏磊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the structure of pathogenic fungi that cause tinea corporis and tinea cruris in Qingdao. Methods From August 2010 to August 2011, 354 patients with tinea corporis or tinea cruris were seen in our hospital, the scurf from afflicted parts was collected and investigated microscopically, the pathomycetes were isolated and cultured, and the strains identified. Results A total of seven kinds of pathogenic fungus, 222 strains, were isolated, of which, Trichophyton rubrum 153 strains (68,9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 42 (18. 9%), Candida 17 (7. 7%), Microsporum canis five (2.3%), Microsporum gyseum two (0. 9%), Trichophyton tonsurans two (0. 9%) and Trichophyton soudanense one (0. 4%), Conclusion At present, the pathogenic bacteria responsible for tinea corporis and tinea cruris in Qingdao is mainly Dermatophytes, followed by Candida, Trichophyton rubrum is the most commonly seen dermatophyte.%目的 了解青岛地区体癣、股癣病原菌菌种构成.方法 对2010年8月-2011年8月来我院就诊的354例体癣、股癣病人患处皮损的皮屑进行直接镜检、致病真菌分离培养及菌种鉴定.结果 共分离致病菌株7种222株,其中红色毛癣菌153株(68.9%),须癣毛癣菌42株(18.9%),念珠菌17株(7.7%),犬小孢子菌5株(2.3%),石膏小孢子菌2株(0.9%),断发毛癣菌2株(0.9%),苏丹毛癣菌1株(0.4%).结论 目前青岛地区体癣、股癣致病菌以皮肤癣菌为主,其次为念珠菌.红色毛癣菌是最常见的皮肤癣菌.

  4. [Fungistatic activity of a sesquiterpene lactone (tomentosin) isolated from fresh Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) flowers from the Puglia region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, C; De Laurentis, N; Milillo, M A; Losacco, V; Puccini, V

    2001-09-01

    A sesquiterpene lactone, tomentosin, has been isolated and identified form Inula viscosá Ait (Asteraceae) flowers. The molecule, at 1 mg/ml concentration, showed to be active in vitro against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  5. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (api) from an estuarine fungus, Microdochium nivale (Fr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, S H; Patil, K B; Parameswaran, P S; Naik, C G; Jagtap, T G

    2011-09-01

    Various marine habitats sustain variety of bio-sources of ecological and biotech potentials. Pharmaceutical potential compound Cyclosporine A was reported from marine fungus Microdochium nivale associated with Porteresia coarctata, a marine salt marsh grass from mangrove environment distributed along the Central West Coast (CWC) of India. This study involves association of M. nivale with P. coarctata plant, fermentation conditions, purification of Cyclosporine A, chemical characterization etc. Its antifungal inhibition and MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) against Aspergillus strains (A. niger, A. japonicus, A. fresenii), yeasts and dermatophytes (Candida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. violaceum, Microsporium gypsum and Fusarium sp.) were evaluated. However, the MIC against A. japonicus, C. neoformans, Candida sp. and T. tonsurans were confirmed to be as low as 12.5-25 mg disc(-1). The antifungal properties of Cyclosporine A against Aspergillus species, yeast and dermatophytes revealed that CyclosporineAwould be a potential compound for life threatening diseases caused by above fungi in both human and animals. Furthermore, we have reported herewith another source of Cyclosporin Aderived from filamentous fungus, M. nivale. occurring in marine environment.

  6. The frequency of superficial mycoses according to agents isolated during a ten-year period (1999-2008) in Zagreb area, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklić, Paola; Skerlev, Mihael; Budimcić, Dragomir; Lipozencić, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Fungal infections involving the skin, hair and nails represent one of the most common mucocutaneous infections. Significant changes in the epidemiology, etiology and clinical pattern of mycotic infections have been observed during the last years. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence and the etiologic factors of superficial fungal infections in Zagreb area, Croatia, over a 10-year period (1999-2008). A total of 75828 samples obtained from 67 983 patients were analyzed. Dermatomycosis was verified by culture in 17410 (23%) samples obtained from 16086 patients. Female patients were more commonly affected than male (59% vs. 41%). Dermatophytes were responsible for 63% of all superficial fungal infections, followed by yeasts (36%) and molds (1%). Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes (both var. interdigitalis and var. granulosa) was the most frequent dermatophyte isolated in 58% of all samples, followed by Microsporum (M). canis (29%) and T. rubrum (10%). The most common clinical forms of dermatomycosis were onychomycosis (41%), tinea corporis (17%) and tinea pedis (12%). Candida spp. was mainly isolated from fingernail debris.

  7. [Mycoses frequency in three communities in the North mountain of the State of Puebla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; Lemini-López, Alicia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Blancas-Espinosa, Roberto; López-Martínez, Rubén

    2003-01-01

    In order to know mycosis frequency in the North of the State of Puebla, Mexico, in habitants from the communities of Ayotoxco, Mazatepec and Zacatipan were studied. Previous medical study biological samples were submitted to direct examination, smear and culture. Histoplasmin and sporotrichin skin test were applied to 57 individual from Zacatipan. From 110 patients 146 mycological studies were performed. Eighty six cases (59%) of mycosis were detected: 43 finger or toenails onychomycosis, 25 tinea pedis, seven tinea capitis, four cases of tinea manum and, finally, five cases of seborrhoeic dermatitis and two of pitiriasis versicolor. We isolated: 18 streins of dermatophytes, mainly Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (11 and 5 strains respectively); 12 cultures of non-dermatophytes filamentous fungi; six cases of mycelia sterile; six yeast strains, most of them Candida spp but none C. albicans. From 57 patients to whom skin tests were applied, five of them (8.8%) were positive to both antigens; ten positive (17.6%) only to histoplasmin and eight (14%) to sporotrichin. This study showed that rural population from Puebla present a high frequency of superficial mycosis (61% of mycological studies). Considering the percentage of positive skin test we suppose that there are many not diagnosed sporotrichosis and histoplasmosis cases.

  8. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon martini and Chenopodium ambrosioides and their synergism against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Chandra Shekhar; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

    2010-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of essential oils (EO) of Cymbopogon martini, Chenopodium ambrosioides and of their combination against dermatophytes and some filamentous fungi in vitro as well as in vivo using a guinea pig model. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of EOs and of their combination were found between 150 and 500 ppm, while those of known antifungal drugs ranged from 1000 to 5500 ppm. EO ointments were prepared and applied against induced ringworm in guinea pig model and disease removal was observed in 7-21 days, and the hair samples showed negative results for fungal culture in a time-dependent manner after the application of EO ointments. Chemical constituents of EOs were determined by GC-MS. Both the EOs and their combination displayed strong antifungal effects. The results provide a scientific validation for the use of these EOs in the treatment of dermatophyte infections and may be recommended as an alternative to synthetic drug for topical application.

  9. In vitro efficacy of shampoos containing miconazole, ketoconazole, climbazole or accelerated hydrogen peroxide against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Karen A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of shampoo formulations of ketoconazole, miconazole or climbazole and accelerated hydrogen peroxide wash/rinse against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton species spores. Methods Lime sulfur (1:16)-treated control, enilconazole (1:100)-treated control, accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP 7%) 1:20 and a 1:10 dilution of shampoo formulations of miconazole 2%, miconazole 2%/chlorhexidine gluconate 2-2.3%, ketoconazole 1%/chlorhexidine 2%, climbazole 0.5%/chlorhexidine 3% and sterile water-untreated control were tested in three experiments. In the first, a suspension of infective spores and hair/scale fragments was incubated with a 1:10, 1:5 and 1:1 dilution of spores to test solutions for 10 mins. In the second, toothbrushes containing infected cat hair in the bristles were soaked and agitated in test solutions for 10 mins, rinsed, dried and then fungal cultured (n = 12×). In the third, a 3 min contact time combined with an AHP rinse was tested (n = 10×). Good efficacy was defined as no growth. Results Water controls grew >300 colony-forming units/plate and all toothbrushes were culture-positive prior to testing. For the suspension tests, all test products showed good efficacy. Miconazole 2%, ketoconazole 1% and AHP showed good efficacy after a 10 min contact time. Good efficacy was achieved with a shorter contact time (3 mins) only if combined with an AHP rinse. Conclusions and relevance Lime sulfur and enilconazole continued to show good efficacy. In countries or situations where these products cannot be used, shampoos containing ketoconazole, miconazole or climbazole are alternative haircoat disinfectants, with a 10 min contact time or 3 mins if combined with an AHP rinse.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of Trichophyton tonsurans strains isolated in Japan between 2006 and 2010 and their susceptibility to oral antimycotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishibu, Akiko; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Yoko; Fujihiro, Machiko; Shinoda, Hidekazu

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans has been isolated among judo practitioners, wrestlers, and sumo wrestlers during an epidemic of tinea corporis and tinea capitis in Japan. A previous study using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene revealed that different sources for the causative fungus in epidemics among judo practitioners and among wrestlers. Many different fungal strains have since been isolated from practitioners of these sports. The present study evaluated fungal characteristics of strains newly isolated between July 2006 and December 2010 using this molecular method. PCR-RFLP analysis using MvaI and AvaI was performed on 263 strains, composed of 186 isolates from judo practitioners, 32 from wrestlers, 30 from sumo wrestlers, 5 from other sports, 7 from family members or friends of the sports practitioner patients, and 3 from sporadic (non-epidemic) cases. Four molecular types, NTS I, II, III, and VII were detected. Of these, NTS I was the most predominant, occurring in 243 of 263 strains (92.4%). All of the 30 strains isolated from sumo wrestlers were classified as NTS I, suggesting that the epidemic among sumo wrestlers originated from an earlier epidemic among judo practitioners. Thirteen strains were classified as NTS II; all were related to wrestling and were isolated mainly from Chubu and Kansai areas in the central part of Honshu island. NTS III was detected in 6 strains, and one strain classified as NTS VII was isolated from a sporadic case of tinea capitis in a Peruvian immigrant. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of terbinafine, itraconazole, fluconazole, and griseofulvin on 10 strains of NTS I and NTS II and 4 strains of NTS III were examined; there were no differences in MIC between these molecular types.

  11. [Screening examination of Trichophyton tonsurans among Judo practitioners at the All Japan Inter High School Championships, Saga 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Hidekazu; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an examination for Trichophyton tonsurans(T. tonsurans)performed by the hairbrush (HB; 90 bristles)method at the All Japan Inter High School Championships, Saga 2007. Samples were taken from 487 Judo practitioners (265 males and 222 females) out of a total of 951. The areas with the highest positive rates were: Kyushu 21%(15 participants out of 73 sampled), Tohoku 17% (13 out of 77), Kinki 16% (14 out of 89), and Chubu 13% (12 out of 89). Four participants from Kyushu, four from Tohoku, two from Kinki, and two from Chubu were strongly positive carriers, their samples developing more than 30 colonies per dish. This finding is in concordance with the high HB-positive rates in these areas. The results of a questionnaire distributed during sampling showed that 90% of the examinees had heard of T. tonsurans infection, 11% had been sampled by the HB method previously, and 37% declined to receive the results of the medical examination. The low percentage of participants who had experienced a HB sampling before could be explained by the insufficient penetration of this test among dermatologists, as well as by the fact that team trainers are reluctant to expose their athletes to sampling. Although trainers' education concerning T. tonsurans is also an important factor, we strongly recommend that dermatologists take the initiative to perform medical examinations such as HB sampling in schools or at other public organizations. As for the reason why so many practitioners refused to be informed about the diagnosis, many of them mentioned being afraid that it might be overheard by trainers or fellow practitioners. It can be easily inferred that this type of concern leads Judo practitioners to avoid participation in sampling. Therefore, we concluded that substantial care to protect personal information is essential when communicating the results of the examination.

  12. Interdigital infections caused by non-dermatophytic fungi Infecciones interdigitales por hongos no dermatofíticos

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    Herta Vélez

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Between 1983 and 1989 twelve cases of interdigital lesions of the feet due to non-dermatophytic fungi (NDF were diagnosed at the Medical Mycology Laboratory, University of Antioquia, School of Medicine, Medellín,

    Colombia; the agents responsible for these infections were: Fusarium spp. (4 cases; Hendersonula toruloidea (7 cases and Scedosporium apiospermum (1 case; clinical appearance of the lesions resembled that of chronic dermatophytosis and in 3 cases there was pigment. Strains were sensitive to imidazoles and resistant to fluorocytosine. The presence of NDF In both skin and nail lesions needs to be demonstrated repeteadly before these fungi are accepted as the etiologic agents.

    Las infecciones interdigitales de los pies causadas por hongos no dermatofíticos (HND, usualmente saprofitos, son infrecuentes; en este artículo se informa la comprobación de dichos agentes como únicos responsables de la entidad en 12 pacientes remitidos para estudio al Laboratorio de Micología de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia, entre 1983 V 1989. Los agentes aislados fueron: Fusarium spp. (4 casos, Hendersonula toruloidea (7 casos V Scedosporium apiospermum (1 caso. Las lesiones se asemejaban a las de una dermatofitosis crónica V, en tres casos, había pigmento. Es bien conocida la resistencia de las lesiones por hongos saprofitos a los antifúngicos tradicionales; por ello se hace énfasis en la conveniencia de comprobar por medio de exámenes repetidos el papel patógeno de estos agentes con el fin de que el médico pueda plantear enfoques terapéuticos diferentes.

  13. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum Ação fototóxica do diodo emissor de luz na viabilidade de Trichophyton rubrum in vitro

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    José Cláudio Faria Amorim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of superficial mycosis of the skin and nails causing long lasting infections and high recurrence rates. Current treatment drawbacks involve topical medications not being able to reach the nail bed at therapeutic concentrations, systemic antifungal drugs failing to eradicate the fungus before the nails are renewed, severe side effects and selection of resistant fungal isolates. Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been a promising alternative to conventional treatments. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of toluidine blue O (TBO irradiated by Light emitting diode (LED in the reduction of T. rubrum viability. METHODS: The fungal inoculums' was prepared and exposed to different TBO concentrations and energy densities of Light emitting diode for evaluate the T. rubrum sensibility to PDT and production effect fungicidal after photodynamic treatment. In addition, the profiles of the area and volume of the irradiated fungal suspensions were also investigated. RESULTS: A small reduction, in vitro, of fungal cells was observed after exposition to 100 µM toluidine blue O irradiated by 18 J/cm² Light emitting diode. Fungicidal effect occurred after 25 µM toluidine blue O irradiation by Light emitting diode with energy density of 72 J/cm². The analysis showed that the area and volume irradiated by the Light emitting diode were 52.2 mm² and 413.70 mm³, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results allowed to conclude that Photodynamic therapy using Light emitting diode under these experimental conditions is a possible alternative approach to inhibit in vitro T. rubrum and may be a promising new treatment for dermatophytosis caused by this fungus.FUNDAMENTOS: Trichophyton rubrum é o agente mais comum das micoses superficiais de pele e unhas causando infecções de longa duração e altas taxas de recidiva. As desvantagens do tratamento atual envolvem medicações tópicas as quais n

  14. Identification of fungi species in the onychomycosis of institutionalized elderly Identificação de espécies fúngicas nas onicomicoses do idoso institucionalizado

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    Cidia Vasconcellos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections are caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or filamentous fungi. They are correlated to the etiologic agent, the level of integrity of the host immune response, the site of the lesion and also the injured tissue. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to isolate and to identify onychomycosis agents in institutionalized elderly (60 years old +. METHODS: The identification of the fungi relied upon the combined results of mycological examination, culture isolation and micro cultures observation under light microscopy from nail and interdigital scales, which were collected from 35 elderly with a clinical suspicion of onychomycosis and a control group (9 elderly with healthy interdigital space and nails. Both groups were institutionalized in two nursing homes in Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil. RESULTS: The nail scrapings showed 51.40% positivity. Of these, dermatophytes were found in 44.40% isolates, 27.78% identified as Trichophyton rubrum and 5.56% each as Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. The second more conspicuous group showed 38.89% yeasts: 16.67% Candida guilliermondii, 11.11% Candida parapsilosis, 5.56% Candida glabrata, and 5.56% Trichosporon asahii. A third group displayed 16.70% filamentous fungi, like Fusarium sp, Aspergillus sp and Neoscytalidium sp (5.56% each. The interdigital scrapings presented a positivity rate of 14.29%. The agents were coincident with the fungi that caused the onychomycosis. In the control group, Candida guilliermondii was found at interdigital space in one person. CONCLUSION: Employing a combination of those identification methods, we found no difference between the etiology of the institutionalized elderly onychomycosis from that reported in the literature for the general population. FUNDAMENTOS: As infecções fúngicas superficiais se correlacionam com o agente etiológico, a resposta imune do hospedeiro, o local da lesão e o

  15. Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools, Ahwaz, South-west of Iran

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    A Rafiei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Using public swimming pools during different seasons and poor health behavior could be responsible in transmis­sion of fungal disease through pool water and its environment. Therefore, this research was conducted to investi­gate fungal agents of indoor public swimming pools of Ahwaz, capital city of Khouzestan Province, south-west of Iran."nMethods: Ten indoor swimming pools of Ahwaz were investigated during two seasons for 6 months. Water specimens were col­lected by pump and environment samples including shower-bath area, margin of pool walls, dressing rooms, and slip­pers, by sterile carpet pieces. All specimens were cultured in SC and SCC culture media and fungal agents identification were based on macroscopic, microscopic characteristic and complement tests when it was necessary. Data analyzing was per­formed using SPSS version 13 for descriptive analyzing."nResults: A total of 593 samples were collected from different parts of pools. Interestingly in 13 samples from environ­mental places, dermatophytes were isolated as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum and Epidermo­phyton floccosum 5, 4, 3 and 1 cases respectively. Ten cases of dermatophytes were isolated from floor of dressing area. Three hundred seventy two saprophytic fungi species and 32 yeasts were recovered from water and environment sur­faces samples. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor were the most common isolated saprophytic fungi."nConclusion: Existence of saprophytic fungi and yeast in pools water seems to be an indicator of their resistance to detergent agents. In addition, yeast water contamination could be from swimmers. Dermatophytes isolation from pools environment ar­eas and foot washing sink, reveals the importance of public swimming pools in disease transmission. Because dressing places are being used by all of the swimmers, take care of hygienic discipline in these places should be noted by health pol­icy markers.

  16. Epidemiologia, etiologia e formas clínicas das dermatofitoses em Pernambuco, 1995-2005 Epidemiology, etiology and clinical presentation of dermatophytosis in Pernambuco, 1995-2005

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    Paula Maria Rodrigues de Barros Corrêa Damázio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Num total de 1.238 casos de dermatofitoses, ocorridas na Cidade de Recife /PE, observou-se predomínio das tinhas de couro cabeludo (33,7% e Trichophyton tonsurans (25,5%, entre 1995 e 1999, enquanto as tinhas de pele glabra (35,5% e Trichophyton rubrum (34% foram mais freqüentes entre 2000 e 2005. Detectou-se importante redução do Trichophyton mentagrophytes, no último período.Out of a total of 1,238 cases of dermatophytosis in the city of Recife (Pernambuco, lesions of the scalp (33.7% and Trichophyton tonsurans (25.5% predominated between 1995 and 2000, while lesions of the hairless skin (35.5% and Trichophyton rubrum (34% were the most frequent between 2000 and 2005. A significant reduction in Trichophyton mentagrophytes was detected in the second of these periods.

  17. 脓癣201例病原菌分布及流行病学分析%Analysis of the Pathogenic Fungi and Prevalence of Kerion:Study of 201 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志敏; 江萍; 童中胜; 曾志良; 徐续玲; 董碧麟; 曹永艳; 马玲; 胡枫

    2013-01-01

    mentagrophytes(43,21.39%).Pathogens included Anthropophilic dermatophytes (95,47.26%),Zoophilic dermatophytes(89,44.28%) and Geophilic dermatophytes(17,8.46%).Distribution of Trichophyton violaceum between 2006-2011 was significantly higher than that in 2000-2005,and Microsporum gypseum was significantly lower than that in 2000-2005.The anthropophilic dermatophytes proportion of adult groups(>18 years)were significantly higher than that in children groups,and the zoophilic dermatophytes proportion of children under the age of 10 groups were significantly higher than that in adults groups.Totally 552 cases summarized in literatures were reported.The most frequent pathogens were Microsporum canis(38.95%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (29.71%) and Trichophyton rubrum (14.49%).Conclusion The pathogenic distribution of kerion has a significant characteristic of the age.From the comparison of the pathogenic fungi between Wuhan district and the mainland of China,concluded the anthropophilic dermatophytes proportion of Wuhan district was significantly rising and zoophilic dermatophytes was significantly decreasing.Trichophyton violaceum was remaining the dominant pathogen in Wuhan district.

  18. A case of adult black?dot ringworm due to Trichophyton tonsurans%断发毛癣菌所致成人黑点癣1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 刘涵; 景东云; 彭琳琳; 王玲; 夏玉坤; 杨蓉娅; 吕雪莲

    2015-01-01

    A 68?year old female farmer presented with hair loss for 3 months. Physical examination showed irregularly dark red patch with a little amount of scales.The hairs in the red lesion broke off from the scalp presented with black dotted like,while the hair follicles showed swollen with mild fluctuation. Direct fungal microscopic examination presented a large amount of chain?like spores distribution along the inside of hair shaft. Fungal culture isolated yellow?white woolly colony presented with short rod?like or pear?shaped microconidiain by slide culture and positive urease test. Molecular identification by BLAST based on rDNA ITS sequencing confirmed as Trichophyton tonsurans.The diagnosis was confirmed as black?dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans.Therapeu?tic drugs included oral itraconazole, 0. 2?0. 4 per day, external ketoconazole lotion, triamcinolone acetonide and econazole nitrate cream,and ketoconazole cream.After 2 months treatment,skin lesions completely faded and broken hair grew back without scarring al?opecia.No recurrence after treatment was observed in 6?month follow?up.%患者女,68岁,福建农民,头顶部片状脱发3个月. 体检:头顶部形状不规则暗红斑片,少量脱屑. 红斑区毛发根部紧贴头皮脱落,呈黑点状,脱发区毛囊轻度红肿,皮损区头皮局部有轻度波动感. 直接镜检可见断发内大量孢子集聚沿发干呈链状分布,真菌培养分离黄白色绒毛状菌落,小培养镜下可见棒形,梨形小分生孢子,尿素酶试验阳性. 临床分离株进行rDNA ITS扩增测序,BLAST比对与GenBank中断发毛癣菌序列同源性100%. 诊断:断发毛癣菌所致黑点癣. 治疗采用伊曲康唑0.2~0.4/d口服及酮康唑洗剂、曲安奈德益康唑乳膏及酮康唑乳膏等外用,总疗程2个月,皮损完全消退,断发重新长出,无瘢痕秃发形成. 停药后随访半年无复发.

  19. A clinical and mycological study of onychomycosis in HIV infection

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    Surjushe Amar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is one of the early manifestations of HIV infection with a prevalence of 15-40%. Multiple nail involvement, isolation of both common and rare species, and resistance to treatment are the characteristics of onychomycosis in HIV. Aim: To study the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of onychomycosis in HIV-infected individuals and to identify the various causative fungi microbiologically. Methods: A total of 250 HIV infected patients, diagnosed by ELISA, were screened for nail involvement; of which 60 patients i.e., 40 males and 20 females, who had clinically suspected untreated fungal infection were included in this study. Results: Of the 60 respondents, 34 (56.66% were from the 31-40 years age group. Amongst the 40 males, there were 20 manual laborers and 14 farmers; while 18 of 20 females were housewives. Toenail involvement was seen in 38 patients (63.33%, fingernail in 12 patients (20% while 10 (16.66% patients had involvement of both. Twenty eight (46.66% patients gave history of some trauma, 6 (10% had diabetes mellitus, and only 1 patient (1.66% had history of peripheral vascular disease. Nineteen (31.66% patients had associated tinea pedis, 5 (8.33% had tinea manuum, 10 (16.66% had tinea corporis and 7 (11.66% had tinea cruris. Twenty one (35% respondents had distal and lateral superficial onychomycosis (DLSO, 5 (8.33% had proximal subungual onychomycosis (PSO, 1 (1.66% had superficial white onychomycosis (SWO, while 33 (55% had total dystrophic onychomycosis (TDO. Fungal elements were demonstrated by KOH mount in 49 patients (81.66% and growth was seen in 32 (53.33% cultures. Dermatophytes were isolated in 13 (21.66% and nondermatophytic molds (NDM in 19 (31.66%. Out of the 13 positive dermatophyte cultures, Trichophyton rubrum was isolated on 11 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes on 2 cultures. Of the 19 non-dermatophytic cultures, Aspergillus niger was isolated on 3 and Candida spp. on 12 while Cladosporium spp

  20. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Magdalene N.; Haruna M. Kazeem; Clara N Kwanashie; Nanven A. Maurice; Emmanuel O. Ngbede; Adamu, Helen N.; MSHELIA, Wayuta P.; Edeh, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6%) of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n = 5) and Trichophyton (n =...

  1. [Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum. Ten-year period (1996-2006) data collection in a Dermatology Department in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Carbajal-Pruneda, Patricia; Fernández Martínez, Ramón; Arenas, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    Dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis in the world up to 80% caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical characteristics of the dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum in a dermatological outpatient clinic during a ten years period, from 1996 to 2005. We collected the data from patients with a dermatophytosis from which we have isolated T. rubrum. A total of 776 patients with dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum were found. A slight predominance of female patients (56.2%) was observed. The most commonly affected age group was those in the third to the fifth decade of life, and house working women (33.5%) were predominant. Onychomycosis was found in 63% of the cases, tinea pedis in 22.7%, tinea corporis in 5.2% and tinea cruris in 2.8%. In onychomycosis, the first toe nail was the most commonly affected (58.9%) and the dystrophic type was seen in 50.7% of them.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of trichophyton tonsurans isolated in Japan using RFLP analysis of non-transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Choi, Jong Soo

    2007-07-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans has been reported to be the causative agent of an epidemic of tinea corporis and tinea capitis among Japanese judoists and wrestlers. A molecular method using restriction enzyme analysis of PCR-amplified fragments targeting the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of ribosomal RNA genes in fungal nuclei was applied to a total of 232 strains of T. tonsurans isolated in Japan. Six molecular types, i.e., NTS types I, II, III, IV, V, and VI, were clearly detected in restriction analysis of fragments digested with MvaI and AvaI together. Of the 232 strains, 199 were classified as NTS I, 21 as NTS II, 7 as NTS III, 3 as NTS IV, 1 as type V, and 1 as type VI. Whereas the NTS I strains were found nationwide, most of the NTS II and NTS III strains were limited to central Japan. Of 164 strains isolated from judoists, 160 were classified as NTS I, which suggests that the majority of the cases were caused by a clonal lineage. On the other hand, the 48 strains isolated from wrestlers showed more variety, with 27 strains classified as NTS I, 17 as NTS II, and 4 as NTS III. We concluded that the epidemic was caused by at least three lineages of T. tonsurans. NTS VI strains, the major molecular type among sporadically isolated strains, were not observed among the epidemic strains, and strains of this type did not contribute to the present epidemic.

  3. The use of global transcriptional analysis to reveal the biological and cellular events involved in distinct development phases of Trichophyton rubrum conidial germination

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    Ding Guohui

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conidia are considered to be the primary cause of infections by Trichophyton rubrum. Results We have developed a cDNA microarray containing 10250 ESTs to monitor the transcriptional strategy of conidial germination. A total of 1561 genes that had their expression levels specially altered in the process were obtained and hierarchically clustered with respect to their expression profiles. By functional analysis, we provided a global view of an important biological system related to conidial germination, including characterization of the pattern of gene expression at sequential developmental phases, and changes of gene expression profiles corresponding to morphological transitions. We matched the EST sequences to GO terms in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD. A number of homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes related to signalling pathways and some important cellular processes were found to be involved in T. rubrum germination. These genes and signalling pathways may play roles in distinct steps, such as activating conidial germination, maintenance of isotropic growth, establishment of cell polarity and morphological transitions. Conclusion Our results may provide insights into molecular mechanisms of conidial germination at the cell level, and may enhance our understanding of regulation of gene expression related to the morphological construction of T. rubrum.

  4. Prevalence of Tinea capitis infection among primary school children in a rural setting in south-west Nigeria

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    Olusola Ayanlowo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophyte infection is a common skin disorder. Tinea capitis, infection of the scalp and hair shaft, is the most common dermatophytosis in children aged between six months and pre-pubertal age. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, causative agents and to identify predisposing factors among primary school children in a rural community in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional study. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Following a physical examination, children with a clinical diagnosis of tinea capitis had scalp and hair scrapings for microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was confirmed in 15.4%. Trichophyton mentagrophyte (51.7% and Microsporum aoudouinii (20.7% were the most prevalent organisms in this study. The most common predisposing factors were carrying of objects on the scalp; sharing of hair clippers, scissors, combs, towels and fomites. Low socioeconomic status coupled with overcrowding and poor hygiene was the major determinant of tinea capitis among the children. Tinea capitis remains a common infection among Nigerian school children. Health promotion and health education interventions are recommended to promote good hygiene, better living conditions, early identification and treatment.

  5. Antimycobacterial and Antifungal Activities of Selected Four Salvia Species

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    Nur Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of essential oils of endemic Salvia cilicica was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Spathulenol (23.8 %, caryophyllene oxide (14.9 % and hexadecanoic acid (10.3 % were identified as the major components in the oil of Salvia cilicica. Additionally, in this study ethanol extracts of the aerial parts and essential oils of four Salvia species ( S. cilicica, S. officinalis, S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa , as well as the roots of S. cilicica were investigated their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities including infectious diseases. The antimycobacterial activity was analyzed against three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (sensitive-, resistant-standard strains and multidrug resistance clinical isolate strains and the antifungal activity was compared with two dermotophytes (Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei and three Candida species by the broth microdilution method. The essentials oils of the four tested Salvia species showed high antimycobacterial and antifungal activity (MIC between 0.2-12.5 mcg/mL in comparison to the aerial parts and root extracts . The antifungal and antimycobacterial potential of the ethanol extracts and essential oils were introduced to determine whether, Salvia species can be used in phytotherapy against the yeasts, dermatophytes and M. tuberculosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of S. cilicica about their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities and chemical composition of its essential oils.

  6. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation.

  7. Essential oils of medicinal plants from the central andes of Argentina: chemical composition, and antifungal, antibacterial, and insect-repellent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Beatriz; López, Sandra; Luna, Lorena; Agüero, María B; Aragón, Liliana; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; López, María L; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela E

    2011-05-01

    The antifungal, antibacterial, and insect-repellent activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Acantholippia seriphioides, Artemisia mendozana, Gymnophyton polycephalum, Satureja parvifolia, Tagetes mendocina, and Lippia integrifolia, collected in the Central Andes area, province of San Juan, Argentina, were investigated. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum were inhibited by the EOs of G. polycephalum, L. integrifolia, and S. parvifolia, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 31.2 and 1000 μg/ml. Moreover, all EOs presented moderate activity against the bacteria tested, and the L. integrifolia and G. polycephalum EOs showed excellent repellent properties against Triatoma infestans, the Chagas disease vector, with repellency values between 60 and 100%. The A. seriphioides, G. polycephalum, and L. integrifolia EOs, obtained by hydrodistillation, were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The highest number of components (40) was identified in L. integrifolia EO, which, along with that of A. seriphioides, contained important amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (44.35 and 29.72%, resp.). Thymol (27.61%) and carvacrol (13.24%) were the main components of A. seriphioides EO, and borneol, lippifoli-1(6)-en-5-one, and terpinen-4-ol (>8.5%) were the principal compounds of L. integrifolia EO. These results support the idea that oxygenated monoterpenes are the bioactive fractions of the EOs. Finally, the study shows that these Andean species might be used to treat superficial fungal infections and to improve the local Chagas disease situation by vector-control.

  8. Treatment of dermatophytosis by a new antifungal agent 'apigenin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Padma; Joshi, Suresh Chandra

    2014-08-01

    Dermatophytes are the most common causative agents of cutaneous mycosis and remain a major public health problem in spite of the availability of an increasing number of antifungal drugs. It was, therefore considered necessary to pursue the screening of different extracts (compounds) of selected traditional medicinal plants reportedly having antidermatophyte potential. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify specific compound from the most active extract (free flavonoid) of stem of Terminalia chebula of the selected plants to treat dermatophytosis induced on experimental mice. Mice which were experimentally induced with Trichophyton mentagrophytes were grouped in six of five animals each. To treat the lesions on infected mice, two concentrations of isolated apigenin ointment, i.e. 2.5 mg g(-1) (Api I) and 5 mg g(-1) (Api II), and terbinafine (standard) of concentration 5 mg g(-1) were used. Complete recovery from the infection was recorded on 12th day of treatment for reference drug Terbinafine and Api II (5 mg g(-1) ) concentration of ointment, whereas Api I (2.5 mg g(-1) ) ointment showed complete cure on 16th day of treatment. Fungal burden was also calculated by culturing skin scraping from infected mice's of different groups. Apigenin has shown potency as the infected animals recover completely by Api II comparable to the standard drug in 12th day. So Apigenin can be explored as an antifungal agent in the clinical treatment of dermatophytosis in future.

  9. Clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Hein, J; Heusinger, A; Mueller, R S

    2013-03-01

    Systematic studies about pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis. Questionnaires from both owners (n = 74) of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis and their veterinarians (n = 101) were analysed regarding clinical signs, therapy and data pertinent to zoonotic potential. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was found in 97% of cases. In the weeks preceding the onset of the clinical signs, a new guinea pig joined the household in 43% of cases. One third of the affected guinea pigs had lived in the household for less than 3 months. Predominant clinical signs were alopecia (83%), scaling (73%) and crusting (70%). The most commonly affected body site was the head (75%). In approximately one quarter of the cases humans showed clinical signs of dermatophytosis, in half the households, only children were affected. Skin lesions were seen most often on the face, the neck and the arms. Pet guinea pigs carrying dermatophytes must be considered a serious zoonotic risk for their owners, especially for children. A major risk factor for dermatophytosis seems to be a recent acquisition of a new guinea pig.

  10. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products

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    Emeline Houël

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis. To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8. The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis.

  11. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Gentianella multicaulis collected on the Andean Slopes of San Juan Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Beatriz; Sánchez, Marianela; Luna, Lorena; Agüero, María B; Zacchino, Susana; Filippa, Eva; Palermo, Jorge A; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela E

    2012-01-01

    The infusion of the aerial parts of Gentianella multicaulis (Gillies ex Griseb.) Fabris (Gentianaceae), locally known as 'nencia', is used in San Juan Province, Argentina, as stomachic and as a bitter tonic against digestive and liver problems. The bioassay-guided isolation of G. multicaulis extracts and structural elucidation of the main compounds responsible for the antifungal and free radical scavenging activities were performed. The extracts had strong free radical scavenging effects in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (45-93% at 10 microg/mL) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay at 200 microg/mL. Demethylbellidifolin (4) had high antioxidant activity in the DPPH and FRAP assay. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum were moderately inhibited by the different extracts (MIC values of 125-250 microg/mL). Demethylbellidifolin (4), bellidifolin (5), and isobellidifolin (6) showed an antifungal effect (MIC values of 50 microg/mL), while swerchirin (3) was less active with a MIC value of 100 microg/mL. In addition, oleanolic acid (1) and ursolic acid (2) were also isolated. These findings demonstrate that Gentianella multicaulis collected in the mountains of the Province of San Juan, Argentina, is an important source of compounds with antifungal and antioxidant activities.

  12. Clinico-microbiological study of dermatophytosis in a tertiary-care hospital in North Karnataka

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    Tonita M Noronha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The dermatophytoses constitute a group of superficial fungal infections of keratinized tissues, namely, the epidermis, hair, and nails. The distribution and frequency of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents vary according to the geographic region studied, the socio-economic level of the population, the time of study, the climatic variations, the presence of domestic animals, and age. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the clinical profile of dermatophytic infections and to identify the causative fungal species in the various clinical presentations. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based observational study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. History was taken, general physical and cutaneous examination was done and details of skin lesions noted. Direct microscopy in 10% KOH (40% KOH for nail and fungal culture on SDA with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide was done in every case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Chi-square test and contingency coefficient test were used as significant tests for analysis. Results: Out of 150 patients studied, majority belonged to the age group of 21–30 years (22.7%. Male-to-female ratio was 1.63:1. Tinea corporis (24.7% was the most common clinical type observed. The overall positivity by culture was 40% and by direct microscopy was 59.3%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the predominant species isolated (48.3%. Conclusions: The present study reveals the changing trend in the prevalence of dermatophyte species in this part of Karnataka.

  13. Antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeasts and filamentous fungi isolated from nail infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataides, F S; Chaul, M H; El Essal, F E; Costa, C R; Souza, L K H; Fernandes, O F L; Silva, M R R

    2012-12-01

    Onychomycosis is the nail infection caused by a wide spectrum of fungi species, including yeasts, dermatophytes and filamentous fungi non-dermatophytes (FFND). This fungal infection represents an important medical problem because it involves the patient's life quality. The aim was to isolate and identify the fungal agents of onychomycosis, and to determine the in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents. During the period of March 2008 to March 2009, 114 patients clinically suspected of having onychomycosis were examined. Demographic data, mainly age and gender were obtained from each patient. The nail samples collected (136) were submitted to direct examination with potassium hydroxide 20% and grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the method of broth microdilution, recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Onychomycosis was observed in 95 (83.3%) patients, including 16 men (16.8%) and 79 women (83.2%), with mean age of 48.1 years. Candida parapsilosis, Trichophyton rubrum and Fusarium spp were the fungi most frequently isolated. The most of the isolated yeasts showed susceptibility to antifungal agents studied. Among filamentous fungi, high MIC values to itraconazole were found for T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, while Fusarium spp showed decreased susceptibility to itraconazole and voriconazole. C. parapsilosis was the most common fungal species isolated from patients with onychomycosis. The different response obtained by in vitro susceptibility testing to drugs shows the importance of these methods to assist clinicians in choosing the best therapeutic option. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. [Trichophyton tonsurans infection among judo practitioners who attended the National Junior High School Judo Tournament in Japan (2005): incidence and therapeutic response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganami, Morio; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2006-01-01

    The spread of Trichophyton tonsurans infection among high school students and university undergraduates who practice Judo is an emerging problem in Japan and other countries. However, the extent of infection among Judo practitioners in junior high school in Japan is unknown. We conducted an epidemiological study of T. tonsurans infection among students who participated in the national junior high school Judo tournament in 2005. Of the 1,039 tournament participants invited to undergo screening, 496 (218 boys and 278 girls) consented, and 45 participants (9.1%) were found to be positive by hairbrush culture. We found the following to be relative risk factors for T. tonsurans infection: 1) male gender, 2) frequent judo practice in groups at either a high school or a dojo, 3) presence of tinea corporis in practice partners, 4) history of tinea corporis, 5) classification in lower-weight categories. 45 culture positive subjects were offered treatment and re-examined by hairbrush culture 3 months later. All twelve of them had negative cultures after miconazole shampoo treatment. A half of 12 subjects who had systemic antifungal therapy with itraconazole had positive culture. These observations suggest that T. tonsurans infection is rapidly spreading among junior high school Judo players in Japan. We speculate that the outbreak is caused, at least in part, by ignorance of the disease among Judo students, coaches and officials due to the high incidence of carriers and the mild or asymptomatic form of disease seen in infected individuals. Appropriate measures should be taken immediately to prevent more severe outbreak of this disease.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of onychomycosis in primary school children living in rural and urban areas in Central Anatolia of Turkey

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    Mustafa Gulgun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a world-wide public health concern in children, requiring epidemiological data for different regions for control and prevention. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predominant pathogens and risk factors for onychomycosis in school children living in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: This study included 8122 school children, aged 5-16 years, living in the rural and urban areas around Kayseri. Onychomycosis was clinically classified as distal and lateral subungual (DLSO, proximal subungual, superficial white, endonyx and totally dystrophic onychomycosis. Nail samples from children with clinically diagnosed onychomycosis were collected, examined by direct microscopy and inoculated for culture study. The demographic features and possible risk factors were recorded and assessed by logistic regression models. Results: We clinically diagnosed onychomycosis in 152 out of 8,122 (0.18% school children. DLSO was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (120/152, 78.9%. Culture-positive onychomycosis was detected in 27/152 (17.7% children. The prevalence of culture-positive onychomycosis was determined as 0.33%. All culture-positive samples were only from toenails. The onychomycosis causative agents were dermatophytes in 17/27 cases (62.9%, including Trichophyton rubrum 12 (44.4%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 1 (3.7%, Trichophyton tonsurans 1 (3.7% and Trichophyton spp. 3 (11.1% and yeasts in 10/27 cases (37.1%, including Candida glabrata 4 (14.8%, Candida parapsilosis 1 (3.7%, Trichosporon 2 (7.4% and Rhodotorula 3 (11.1%. Age, father′s occupation, number of siblings and rooms were statistically associated with the frequency of onychomycosis. Conclusions: Although to be prevalence of onychomycosis in school children in central Anatolia of Turkey seems very low degree, pediatric onychomycosis is a growing public health concern all over the world. Children having more siblings or unemployed fathers and children living in small

  16. Misdiagnosed zoophile tinea faciei and tinea corporis effectively treated with isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaika, Viktor A

    2013-05-01

    There have been few published reports on the human transmission of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a zoophilic fungus frequently occurring in pets. Here we report on 2 girls, living with a pet dwarf rabbit, who presented with inflammatory skin lesions positive for T. mentagrophytes and subsequently diagnosed as zoophile tinea faciei and tinea corporis. The patients were successfully treated with systemic terbinafine and 2-week therapy with Travocort cream containing isoconazole nitrate 1% and diflucortolone valerate 0.1%.

  17. Freqüência das dermatofitoses em exames micológicos em Hospital Geral de Porto Alegre, Brasil Frequency of dermatophytosis in mycological examinations at a general hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Valério Rodrigues Aquino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS- As espécies de dermatófitos podem variar de uma região para outra, tendo esse fato importância epidemiológica e terapêutica. OBJETIVO- Descrever a freqüência dos dermatófitos nos exames micológicos em pacientes ambulatoriais do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA. MÉTODOS - Foi realizada análise retrospectiva dos exames micológicos realizados em pacientes ambulatoriais do Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA durante o período de agosto de 1998 a fevereiro de 2006. Os dados foram comparados com os de trabalhos anteriores locais e de outras cidades do Brasil utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS - Das 5.077 amostras coletadas, 2.033 (40,0% foram positivas para dermatófitos, sendo entre os dermatófitos o Trichophyton rubrum a espécie mais isolada (62,4%, seguido de T. mentagrophytes (18,2%, Microsporum canis (5,7%, Epidermophyton floccosum (2,0%, M. gypseum (1,4% e T.tonsurans (0,3%. CONCLUSÕES - Não houve variação significativa na epidemiologia dos dermatófitos nos últimos sete anos na cidade de Porto Alegre (p>0,05. Entretanto, o estudo evidencia diferenças na microbiota de Porto Alegre, comparada à de alguns outros centros urbanos do país (pBACKGROUND - Dermatophyte species vary in different regions and this fact has therapeutical and epidemiological importance. OBJECTIVE - To determine the frequency and the species of dermato phytes in mycological examinations of patients seen at the outpatients' clinic, Department of Dermatology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. METHODS - A retrospective analysis of mycological examinations performed in outpatients from August 1998 to February 2006. The data were compared to the results of previous studies conducted locally and in other Brazilian cities by means of chi-square test. RESULTS - Out of 5077 samples collected, 2033 (40.0% were positive for dermathophytes. Trichophyton rubrum species more frequently

  18. Some aspects of dermatophytoses seen at University Hospital in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Jairo Ivo dos SANTOS

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytoses comprise mycoses which are very frequently diagnosed in the routine of clinical laboratories of Florianópolis, like any other Brazilian cities. However, no clinical or epidemiological studies data have been published for that city so far. To partially clarify these questions, we carried out a study on this subject on patients who sought the mycology services of Hospital of Federal University of Santa Catarina, from January 1995 to November 1996. The most prevalent dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (58.6%, followed by T. mentagrophytes (25.3%, Epidermophyton floccosum (7.2%, Microsporum canis (4.8%, T. tonsurans (1.6% T. violaceum (1.6% and M. gypseum (0.8%. The prevalence of T. mentagrophytes was significantly higher for females than for males, with a frequency of 37.3% and 16.0% respectively, which could be explained by higher infection of T. mentagrophytes in feet and nails, which were percentually more affected in females than in males. These results suggest that, in general, the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of dermatophytoses of our study have similar patterns of those occurring in other southern and southeastern Brazilian citiesAspectos clínico-epidemiológicos das dermatofitoses diagnosticadas no Hospital Universitário de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. As dermatofitoses constituem uma das micoses mais freqüentemente diagnosticadas nos laboratórios clínicos. Tendo em vista que o perfil clínico-epidemiológico das dermatofitoses em Florianópolis não é conhecido, procuramos avaliar informações a respeito desse assunto, por meio de um estudo em pacientes que procuraram o serviço de micologia do laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Hospital da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (HU, no período de janeiro de 1995 a novembro de 1996. A espécie diagnosticada com maior prevalência foi o T. rubrum (58,6%, seguida pelo T. mentagrophytes (25,3%, E. floccosum (7,2%, M. canis (4,8%, T

  19. Dermatophytosis in donkeys (Equus asinus due to Microsporum racemosum, an unusual geophilic agent

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    Simona Nardoni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports about ringworm in donkeys are scanty and refer to zoonotic agents such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton verrucosum. Seventeen Asino Amiatina donkeys semi-extensively farmed in paddocks showed alopecic nummular, scaling areas mainly on head and neck. Microsporum racemosum cultivated from the lesions was identified by morphology and PCR. Affected animals healed spontaneously. The present record reports for the first time the occurrence of ringworm due to M. racemosum in naturally infected animals.

  20. Synthesis of new 4-methyl-2-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines as potent antifungal compounds

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    Mendez, Leonor Y. Vargas [Universidad Santo Tomas, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales; Zacchino, Susana A. [Universidad Nacional del Rosario, (Argentina). Lab. de Farmacognosia; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Lab. de Quimica Organica y Biomolecular

    2010-07-01

    Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological results of new series of 2-(4-pyridyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines and their closer precursors, -N-aryl-N-[1-(4-pyridyl)but-3-enyl] amines are reported. It was found that both g-pyridyl substituted precursors and final products, tetrahydroquinolines, showed very good antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseun, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (author)

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for superficial fungal infections among Italian Navy Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingordo, Vito; Naldi, Luigi; Fracchiolla, Stefania; Colecchia, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Limited studies on the prevalence and risk factors for superficial mycoses are available. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for superficial mycoses (dermatophytes and Candida spp.) in a sample of young Italian people resident at a military school. A total of 1,024 young cadets from the Italian Navy Petty Officers School in Taranto, including 975 (95.21%) males and 49 (4.79%) females, mean age 22.5 +/- 3.0 years (range 18-30), were consecutively examined by the same observer. A complete dermatological examination was performed on all the subjects, and skin scrapings for microscopy and fungal culture were obtained from suspected lesions. All the subjects completed a questionnaire providing information on sports practice, swimming-pool attendance, marching, wearing shower sandals, frequent use of 'gummed' shoes, history of severe traumas to the nails, presence of hyperhidrosis and history of superficial mycoses. The affected subjects were also asked if they were aware of their condition. Data were analysed by the Statistical Analysis System, version 8.0. The Fisher exact test and odds ratios were calculated. A total of 33 subjects (3.2%) were found to suffer from a mycologically confirmed fungal infection (3% by dermatophytes and 0.2% by Candida albicans): tinea pedis/Candida intertrigo of the feet was suspected in 126 (12.1%) subjects and confirmed in 30 (2.9%), including 28 cases of tinea pedis and 2 cases of Candida intertrigo; tinea cruris/Candida intertrigo of the groin was suspected in 28 (2.7%) subjects, but confirmed in only 1 case (0.1%); onychomycosis was suspected in 64 (6.1%) subjects and confirmed in 2 cases (0.2%). The organism most frequently responsible in tinea pedis was Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (82.1%). The same species (50%) and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (50%) were associated with tinea unguium, Epidermophyton floccosum was the only species detected in tinea cruris. Non-dermatophytic

  2. AÇÃO DO LASER DE BAIXA INTENSIDADE NA PRODUÇÃO DE METABÓLITOS SECUNDÁRIOS DO DERMATÓFITO TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM

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    Idália Aparecida Waltrick de Brito Siqueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ação do laser arseneto de gálio alumínio (GaAlAs nos comprimentos de onda 685nm e 830nm em cultura de Trichophyton rubrum, foi estudada visando obter  os metabólitos secundários e avaliar  a citotoxicidade dos mesmos em cultura de células. Foram utilizadas cepas do dermatófito T. rubrum provenientes do laboratório de Microbiologia da Universidade do Vale do Paraíba. O cultivo foi realizado em meio de cultura sólido de ágar Sabouraud (Merck, Alemanha em placa de Petri. A colônia de T. rubrum foi irradiada com o laser (GaAlAs a uma distância de 1cm da placa e incubadas em estufa 26ºC. Para o ensaio de citotoxicidade foi utilizada a linhagem ce-lular L929 (tecido conjuntivo de camundongo proveniente do laboratório Adolf Lutz em São Paulo. As células foram plaqueadas e incubadas com o extrato fúngico em diferentes concentrações, por 1 h. Após esta incubação foi reali-zado o teste de Metil tiazol tetrazólio (MTT para avaliação da citotoxicidade. Obteve-se uma diferença no cresci-mento das colônias controle e irradiadas a 685 nm estatisticamente significante (p<0,05. Na análise estatística com-parativa da citotoxicidade causada pelos extratos nas concentrações 2,5 mg/ml e 25x10-6 mg/ml, foi obtido p<0,05, o mesmo ocorreu entre as concentrações 25x10-2 mg/ml e 25x10-6 mg/ml. Na concentração de 25x10-2 mg/ml, observa-se uma elevação considerável (78,55% na atividade mitocondrial dos grupos com tratamento em relação ao controle. O laser GaAlAs, nas condições metodológicas deste estudo, apresentou efeitos no metabolismo celular, alteração de morfologia e da taxa de crescimento da colônia in vitro. O extrato fúngico das colônias irradiadas apre-sentou efeito bioestimulador quando comparado ao extrato obtido do grupo controle e sem tratamento com laser.

  3. In vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolated from pediatric cases in Nigeria against five antifungals Teste de susceptibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos isolados de casos pediátricos na Nigéria contra cinco antifúngicos

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    E.I. Nweze

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activities of itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution methods against 71 isolates of dermatophytes isolated from Nigerian children. Most drugs were very active against all the dermatophytes and the MIC 90 ranged from 0.03 to 8.0 µg/mL. This appears to be the first documented data on the antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates of dermatophytes from Nigerian children.Atividades antifúngicas de itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, terbinafine e griseofulvina foram testadas por métodos de microdiluição em caldo contra 71 isolados de dermatófitos de crianças nigerianas. A maioria das drogas foi muito ativa contra todos os dermatófitos e o MIC 90 variou de 0,03 a 8,0 µg/mL. Estes parecem ser os primeiros dados documentados sobre os testes de susceptibilidade antifúngica de isolados de dermatófitos de crianças nigerianas.

  4. Tinea capitis in the form of concentric rings in an HIV positive adult on antiretroviral treatment

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    Kirti Narang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophyte infection may present in the form of concentric rings caused by Trichophyton concentricum, known as Tinea Imbricata. In immunosuppressed patients, there are reports of lesions in the form of concentric rings caused by dermatophytes other than Trichophyton concentricum too, mostly by Trichophyton tonsurans, known as Tinea indesiciva or Tinea pseudoimbricata. We report a case of tinea capitis in a HIV-positive adult woman on antiretroviral therapy, who presented with concentric rings of papules and pustules with slight scaling on the scalp along with diffuse thinning of hair. Both Potassium hydroxide mount and culture showed the presence of Dermatophytes. Tinea capitis is considered rare in adults, but new cases are being reported in immunocompromised as well as in immunocompetent patients. The pertinent features of this case are: HIV-positive adult female on antiretroviral therapy, presenting with tinea capitis in the form of concentric rings; culture from the lesion grew Microsporum audouinii; responding to oral Terbinafine.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Johann; Vetúria Lopes de Oliveira; Pizzolatti,Moacir G.; Jan Schripsema; Raimundo Braz-Filho; Alexsandro Branco; Artur Smânia Jr

    2007-01-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from pe...

  6. 红色毛癣菌致慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病的临床分析%Clinical analysis on chronically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆涛; 邓琳; 李宗辉; 胡治丽; 梅寰; 桑红; 刘维达

    2015-01-01

    目的:慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病患者较少见。文中探讨红色毛癣菌所致的慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病的原因及诊疗方法。方法收集南京军区南京总医院2012年6月至2014年6月就诊的5例红色毛癣菌所致的慢性复发性泛发型体癣患者,取患者皮损进行真菌镜检及培养,对其中1例典型患者(病程7年,趾甲严重累及、皮疹全身泛发)的皮损进行组织病理学检查,对其不同部位皮损处分离的4株菌株行微生物学及分子生物学研究,并根据体外药敏试验进行药物选择。结果患者皮损处真菌学检查见大量有隔分枝的菌丝,培养及分子生物学鉴定为红色毛癣菌。不同皮损处菌株基因型鉴定为同一菌株。组织病理示鳞状上皮轻度增生,表面角化过度,真皮浅层血管周围少量淋巴细胞浸润。 PAS染色表皮见少量有隔菌丝。确诊后给予口服伊曲康唑,外用特比萘芬乳膏,酮康唑洗剂洗浴等综合治疗取得良好效果。结论慢性复发性泛发型浅部真菌病,对病原菌的分离鉴定尤为重要,且应注意患者有无指/趾甲的累及,治疗不能仅针对体癣治疗,而应结合药敏试验采取综合治疗。%Objective There have been a few reports on chronically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum.This article was to investigate the cause, diagnosis and therapy of the mycosis. Methods 5 patients with chron-ically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum were collected from June 2012 to June 2014 in our hospital.Bacterioscopic examination and cultivation were made on skin lesions of the patients.A typical patient who had 7-year course of desease with toenails seriously infected and widespread skin eruption was selected for histopathology examination on skin lesions, mi-crobiology and molecular biology study on 4 bacterial strains isolated

  7. Black-dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans and analysis of its extracellular enzymatic activity%断发毛癣菌致黑点癣一例及菌体胞外酶活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞峰; 冉玉平; 代亚玲

    2010-01-01

    目的 报道1例发生在3岁女孩的由断发毛癣菌所致黑点癣.方法 取病发标本作真菌直接镜检和培养,对培养菌株进行形态学鉴定、生化鉴定、分子生物学鉴定.分析本菌株胞外酶活性.结果 KOH涂片可见发干内充满孢子,典型菌落呈灰白绒毛样质地,小培养见蜈蚣样侧生棒状小分生孢子,尿素酶实验阳性.扩增真菌rDNA的ITS区得到687 bp的片段,测序后比对与基因库中多株断发毛癣菌同源性100%.胞外酶活性分析见碱性磷酸酶、酸性磷酸酶、酯酶、β-葡萄糖苷酶、白氨酸芳胺酶、N-乙酰-葡萄糖胺酶、α-甘露糖苷酶活性较高.结论 根据真菌形态学特征、生化特性及DNA序列分析,鉴定本致病菌株为断发毛癣菌.诊断为黑点癣.%Objective To report a case of black-dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in a 3-year-old girl. Methods Lesional hair was obtained from the patient and subjected to direct microscopic examination as well as culture. Subsequently, the isolate underwent morphological, biochemical and molecular biology identification. The extracellular enzymatic activity of the isolate was analyzed. Results Microscopy revealed that the hair shaft was filled with fungal spores. Typical colony of the isolate was grayish-white with downy appearance. Slide culture showed centipede-like, lateral, rod-shaped microconidia. Urease test was positive. The amplification of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) ITS domains by PCR produced a 687 bp-sized fragment which had a 100% homology with the sequences of several Trichophyton tonsurans strains in the GenBank database. The extracellular enzymatic activity analysis showed an increase in the activity of alkaline phos-phatase, acid phosphatase, esterase (C4), β-glucosidase, leucine arylamidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and a-mannosidase. Conclusions The pathogenic fungus is identified as Trichophyton tonsurans based on morphological and biochemical features as well as

  8. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

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    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  9. Evaluation of the Drug Treatment and Persistence of Onychomycosis

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    Andrew W. Campbell

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis is a common nail disease responsible for approximately 50% of diseases of the nail. It occurs more in the elderly, though several cases have been reported among children. Several factors influence, such as climate, geography, and migration. The two dermatophytes most commonly implicated in onychomycosis are Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, accounting for more than 90% of onychomycoses. Nonetheless, several other toxigenic molds have been implicated. For convenience, onychomycosis is divided into four major clinical presentations: distal subungal, which is the most common form of the disease; proximal subungal, which is the most common form found in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; superficial; and total dystrophic onychomycosis. Epidemiology of onychomycosis in adults and children is evaluated and the most common clinical symptoms addressed. Although the risk factors are discussed, the multifactorial nature of onychomycosis makes this inexhaustible. The diagnosis and treatments are difficult and the choice of appropriate antifungal drugs complex and require the knowledge of the chemical structures of the metabolites of the molds that cause onychomycosis and their interaction with the antifungal drugs. This is true because most of the antifungal drugs are derived from mold/fungal metabolism. Treatment with griseofulvin and amphotericin is displaced by the use of newer drugs from azole compounds, pyrimidines, and allylamines derivatives. Amorolfine, itraconazole, and ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8 have gained support globally, but the side effects, drug resistance, and persistence of the disease are still a serious concern to the patients, just as economics and quality of life. Hence, the search for safer and more efficacious drug treatments are continuing.

  10. Traditional medicine in Oman: Its role in ophthalmology

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    Al Barwani Badar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To present three patients with ocular disease who developed a range of complications following use of traditional medications. Settings and Design: Case series Methods: Three patients who were examined in the Ophthalmic department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Sultanate of Oman between 2003 and 2004, seeking care following use of traditional medicines and or healing practices for various ophthalmic problems described below. Results: The first patient was a computer professional with a chalazion; the patient used a plant extract from ′Calotropis procera′ as a part of the treatment. He developed corneal edema with decrease in vision in his left eye following application of the plant extract. Treatment with topical steroids and antibiotics resulted in a complete clinical and visual recovery. The second patient developed a fungal corneal ulcer (dermatophyte - Trichophyton mentagrophyte after sustaining injury with an animal tail to the right eye and used honey for pain relief prior to presentation. She responded poorly to anti-fungal treatment, underwent a penetrating keratoplasty with recurrence of infection in the graft that resulted in a vascularized corneal scar. The third patient was a five-year-old child who was treated with ′wasam′ on the occiput for intraocular inflammation following bilateral uncomplicated cataract extraction. Following this treatment the topical steroid was discontinued. The "Wasam" treatment indirectly resulted in exacerbation of the intraocular inflammation and secondary glaucoma and poor vision as well as ′Wasam ulcers′ on the occiput. Despite treatment of the intraocular inflammation, the visual outcome was poor. Conclusion: Traditional medicine in Oman is sought by many for variable reasons. Lack of evidence-based scientific data on its safety or efficacy does not deter the Omanis from flocking the traditional healers. However, when applied in the treatment of ocular diseases

  11. El medio de Kaminski adicionado con nistatina para el aislamiento de dermatofitos y otros hongos patógenos Modified Kaminski agar for the isolation of dermatophytes and some other pathogenic fungi

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    Fernando Montoya

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluaron 3 medios de cultivo de composición diferente (Mycobiotic agar, agar de Kaminski y agar de Kaminski adicionado con nistatina para el aislamiento de dermatofitos y el reaislamiento de S. schenckii y hongos negros, agentes de cromomicosis. Con el objeto de puntualizar diferencias entre dichos medios se determinaron, para cada uno, la frecuencia de aislamiento de los hongos, sus características morfológicas y su tiempo de crecimiento, así como la rapidez e Intensidad de la contaminación bacteriana y/o micótica. Se estudiaron 150 muestras de pacientes con sospecha clínica de dermatofitosis y se hicieron 30 reaislamientos de S. schenckiiy 10 de agentes de cromomicosis. Se demostró la utilidad del agar de Kaminski modificado, tanto para el aislamiento como para el reaislamiento de los agentes señalados, a pesar de su mayor índice de contaminación microbiana. Fue, además, útil para el aislamiento de levaduras del género Candida.

    Three culture media with different composition (Mycobiotic agar, Kaminski agarand Kaminski agar modified with nystatin were evaluated for isolation of dermatophytes and reisolation of S. schenckiiand dematiaceous fungi. One hundred and fifty specimens of cases suspicious of dermatophytosis, as well as 30 strains of S. schenckiiand 10 of chromoblatomycosis agents were studied. The modified Kaminski agar was efficient for the isolation and reisolation of the tested agents, in spite of Its greater contamination rate; It was equally adequate for isolation of Candida species.

  12. Epidemiology of sporadic (non-epidemic) cases of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan based on PCR-RFLP analysis of non-transcribed spacer region of ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Fujita, Jun; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Kiminobu; Sano, Ayako; Takahashi, Yoko; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2008-05-01

    A number of cases of Trichophyton tonsurans infection have been reported among sportsmen and women participating in wrestling, judo, and sumo wrestling in Japan, but there have also been sporadic reports of cases with no history of contact with these sports. A molecular method using restriction enzyme analysis of PCR-amplified fragments targeting the non-transcribed spacer region (NTS) of ribosomal RNA gene in fungal nuclei was applied to T. tonsurans strains isolated from sporadic cases in Japan. Five of 6 molecular types recorded in Japan, i.e., NTS types I, II, IV, V, and VI, and two new types, designated NTS VII and NTS VIII, were observed among 10 strains isolated from sporadic cases. The NTS IV strains, considered not to be related to the present epidemic, were found to be the most prevalent molecular type accounting for 4 of the 10 strains isolated. NTS I was the most prevalent type in the current epidemic in Japan, but it was cultured from only one patient who was later noted to be the daughter of a retired judo practitioner. Four subjects had histories of living abroad and were considered to have been infected outside Japan. The strains in these cases were NTS II, V, VI, and VII. The results of this study suggested that the NTS IV strains were originally present in Japan at a low incidence, but that there has been a recent influx of NTS I, II, V, VI, and VII from abroad, which has been accompanied by the secondary spread of strains from wrestlers and practitioners of martial arts to the general community.

  13. Fungi isolated from house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on penned cattle in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musca domestica L. were collected from cattle diagnosed with bovine ringworm to evaluate the potential of the house fly to disseminate Trichophyton verrucosum E. Bodin, a fungal dermatophyte that is the causative agent for ringworm in cattle. Fungal isolates were cultured from 45 individual flies on...

  14. Tinea capitis in Botswana

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    Thakur R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rameshwari ThakurDepartment of Microbiology, Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar, IndiaBackground: Tinea capitis (TC is a common dermatophyte infection of the scalp that can also involve the eyebrows and eyelashes.Aim: This study aimed to find the causative fungus responsible for TC in Botswana and determine its association with the clinical types of TC.Methods: Samples for potassium hydroxide 10% mounts and fungal cultures were collected in a microbiology laboratory at the National Health Laboratory, Gaborone, Botswana. Dermasel agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar were inoculated with the samples. Lactophenol cotton blue mounts were prepared from the culture-positive samples to study the morphological characteristics.Results: Trichophyton violaceum was found to be the predominant causative organism of TC. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from one patient. Both are anthropophilic species.Conclusion: TC was found to be most common in those aged 1–15 years (81%. Of 17 patients in this age group, 16 were younger than 10 years old and one was 14 years old. T. violaceum was the most common dermatophyte species isolated.Keywords: Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton violaceum white variant, Trichophyton tonsurans, dermatophyte

  15. 血根碱酊剂体外抗真菌初步研究%Preliminary Investigation in the Antifungal Function of Sanguinarine Tincture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 范家佑; 郁建平; 李佳宝; 胡小娟

    2011-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of the sanguinarine tincture and total alkaloids, which were extracted from Macleaya cordata, on several psoriasis fungi including Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rosaceum, Trichophyton schoenleini and Trichophyton rubrum were preliminarily investigated in the present work. The results indicated that the MIC of sanguinarine tincture for Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleini, and Trichophyton rosaceum, were 16 μg/mL, 128 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL, respectively. With same concentration , effectiveness of sanguinarine tincture was better than that of total alkaloids. Therefore, the sanguinarine demonstrated significant effects on antimycotic, and may be used to treat dermatophytosis on foot.%通过分析博落回(Macleaya cordata (wild)R.Br.)提取物—血根碱(制成血根碱酊剂)、总生物碱对须癣毛癣菌(Trichophyton mentagrophytes)、玫瑰色毛癣菌(Trichophyton rosaceum)、许兰黄癣菌(Trichophyton schoenleini)、红色毛癣菌(Trichophyton rubrum)几种皮癣真菌的抑菌试验,以探讨血根碱酊剂和总生物碱对皮癣致病真菌的抑制作用.结果表明:血根碱酊剂对须癣毛癣菌、许兰黄癣菌的最小抑菌浓度为16μg/nL,对玫瑰色毛癣菌的最小抑菌浓度为128μg/mL,对红色毛癣菌的最小抑菌浓度为64μg/mL;在含等量血根碱的条件下,血根碱酊剂的抗皮癣真菌效果比博落回总生物碱好.血根碱酊剂具有良好的抗真菌效果,可用于治疗脚癣.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Johann

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp., two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis, and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from peel extracts, which presented antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin from C. limon.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Vetúria Lopes de; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Schripsema, Jan; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Branco, Alexsandro; Smânia Jr, Artur

    2007-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from peel extracts, which presented antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon.

  18. [Research of keratinophiles in the soil and their effects on human cutaneous pathology in the Lyons area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, J; Michel-Brun, J; Mojon, M; Pichot, J

    1979-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1977, the systematic research of keratinophiles of the ground in a radius of 30--50 km around Lyon, has shown the ubiquitarian predominance of Microsporum nanum, which is probably the most ancient occupant of the ground. The most intensive areas of human and animal occupation in the Rhodanian tract show the predominance of Microsporum gypseum, which is scarcely found in man. Sporadic localizations, tightly limites, bound to cirulcation axes and international gathering, let us detect Microsporum cookei, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, and Keratinomyces ajelloi. However, in the last years, a progressive extension of recently imported kinds and a decrease in native kinds appears to have occurred.

  19. 红色毛癣菌感染 BalB/C 小鼠肉芽肿模型的构建%Establishment of a model of granuloma infected by Trichophyton rubrum in BalB/C mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄苏扬; 孔庆涛; 沈永年; 杜雪; 杨瑞; 桑红; 刘维达

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trichophyton rubrum strains can cause superficial infection and also deep tissue infection, but relevant animal model has not been reported yet.The aim of this study was to construct an animal model of granuloma infected by T.rubrum. Methods Three T.rubrum strains isolated from clinical granuloma tissues, 2 T.rubrum strains isolated from tinea infection and a standard strain of ATCCMYA4438 were selected.Corticosteroids were given to the Balb/C mice before and after the injection of the T. rubrum and mucin suspension and the mice model of granuloma was established.Direct microcopy, culture and histopathologic method were adopt to verify the infection effects. Results The mice inoculated with the T.rubrum granuloma strains with mucin suspension were examined after 21 days in the condition of applying appropriate dose of glucocorticoids.Direct microscopic examination showed the slender mycelium, fungal culture showed the growth of colony and histopathology showed excessive keratinization of foot tissue, formation of granuloma in the dermis with inflammatory cell infiltration of neutro-philic granulocyte and lymphocytes.However, the mice inoculated with the T.Rubrum tinea strains with mucin suspension showed the negative result. Conclusion The rubrum granuloma mice model can be es-tablished using the clinical isolates of T.rubrum granuloma strains with the mucin and glucocorticoids interventions.%目的:红色毛癣菌不仅引起皮肤浅部感染还可引起深部感染,但相关动物模型研究报道较少。文中拟构建红色毛癣菌感染的癣菌性肉芽肿模型。方法选取临床培养分离出的3株红色毛癣菌肉芽肿菌株、2株体癣株和标准菌株ATCCMYA4438,经糖皮质激素预处理Balb/c鼠,接种红色毛癣菌与黏液素混悬液后追加应用糖皮质激素,构建小鼠红色毛癣菌肉芽肿模型;采用直接镜检、真菌培养和组织病理方法验证感染结果。结果在应用适当剂

  20. A new cadmium(II) complex with bridging dithiolate ligand: Synthesis, crystal structure and antifungal activity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahesh Kumar; Sutradhar, Sanjit; Paul, Bijaya; Adhikari, Suman; Laskar, Folguni; Butcher, Raymond J.; Acharya, Sandeep; Das, Arijit

    2017-07-01

    A new polymeric complex of Cd(II) with 1,1-dicyanoethylene- 2,2-dithiolate [ i-MNT2- = {S2C:C(CN)2}2- ] as a bridging ligand has been synthesized and characterized on the basis of spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Cadmium (II) complex is six coordinated 1D polymeric in nature. Biological screening effects in vitro of the synthesized polymeric complex has been tested against five fungi Synchitrium endobioticum, Pyricularia oryzae, Helminthosporium oryzae, Candida albicans(ATCC10231), Trichophyton mentagrophytes by the disc diffusion method. In vitro antifungal screening indicates that the complex exhibits fungistatic and fungicidal antifungal activity whereas K2i-MNT.H2O became silent on Synchitrium endobioticum, Pyricularia oryzae, Helminthosporium oryzae, Candida albicans (ATCC10231), Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  1. Tinea capitis: epidemiologia e ecologia dos casos observados entre 1983 e 2003 na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Tinea capitis: epidemiological and ecological aspects of cases observed from 1983 to 2003 in the Botucatu Medical School, state of São Paulo-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alencar Marques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Tinea capitis é importante infecção fúngica de interesse dermatológico e pediátrico. No Brasil sua prevalência é desconhecida, e os agentes causais principais são o Trichophyton tonsurans nas regiões Norte-Nordeste e o Microsporum canis no Sul-Sudeste do país. Conhecimento sobre gênero e espécies mais prevalentes tem importância sanitária e terapêutica. OBJETIVOS: Identificar espécies de dermatófitos, causa de Tinea capitis, em serviço universitário que atende clientela do Sistema Único de Saúde, de procedência urbana e rural, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Amostras de casos clínicos suspeitos de Tinea capitis, procedentes da área de abrangência da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-Unesp, foram investigadas por exame direto e cultivo visando ao diagnóstico e isolamento do agente causal. RESULTADOS: De 1.055 suspeitas, 594 foram confirmadas por exame direto, em 364 (61,1% isolou-se o agente: M. canis em 88,2%, seguindo-se T. tonsurans (4,7%, T. rubrum (3,3%, M. gypseum (1,9%, T. mentagrophytes (1,6%. O sexo masculino correspondeu a 55,7% dos casos, e a faixa etária entre 0-5 anos predominou com 62,6% (p BACKGROUND: Tinea capitis is an important fungal infection of both pediatrical and dermatological interest. In Brazil, its prevalence is unknown, and main causal agents are Trichophyton tonsurans n northern and northeastern regions and Microsporum canis in southern and southeastern regions of the country. Knowledge on the most prevalent geni and species has sanitary and therapeutical importance. OBJECTIVE: To identify dermatophyte species causing Tinea capitis, in a University Hospital that sees patients of the Public Health System (SUS, coming from both urban and rural areas in the interior of State of São Paulo. METHODS: Samples of clinical cases with suspicion of Tinea capitis, coming from the area under Boucatu Medical School - Unesp’s responsibility, were investigated by means of

  2. Investigation of keratinophilic fungi from soils in western Australia a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, R

    1980-11-28

    In order to determine which species of geophilic dermatophytes were present in Western Australian soils 299 samples were investigated. These samples were collected from a range of locations, 208 towns throughout the state and 91 samples from the Perth Metropolitan area. Most samples were collected from areas frequented by people and animals, such as home gardens, parks and animal yards. Of the total 299 soils, 271 (90.6%) yielded keratinophilic fungi. A total of 181 dermatophytes were isolated, and there were 205 isolations of other keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum (30.7%) was the most prevalent dermatophyte recovered from soil followed by Microsporum cookei (21.7%) and then Trichophyton ajelloi (8.0%). No other dermatophytes were recovered. Chrysosporium indicum was the most common of all the keratinophilic fungi and was isolated from 50.1% of the samples. Mixed growth was obtained from 33.5% of the soil samples.

  3. Fungal diversity in soil samples from a Mexican region with endemic dermatomycoses

    OpenAIRE

    R. Munguía-Pérez; E. Díaz-Cabrera; N. Martínez-Montiel; J. Muñoz-Rojas; R. Martínez-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Forty soil samples were collected from four rural communities in the Municipality of Huauchinango (Puebla, Mexico), a region with endemic dermatomycoses. Classical and molecular approaches allowed the identification of 30 different species, including several agents of superficial, subcutaneous and opportunistic mycoses. The most prevalent pathogenic agents identified by micro-morphological characteristics were: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.5%), T. rubrum (7.5%), and Aspergillus flavus (7.5...

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  5. Keratinophilic fungi from Nigerian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonna, C I; Pugh, G J

    1987-08-01

    During a survey of keratinophilic fungi in Nigerian soil samples, twelve species of fungi were isolated. These included Chrysosporium keratinophilum, C. tropicum, Curvularia lunata, Microsporum audouinii, M. canis, M. fulvum, M. gypseum, M. vanbreuseghemii, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense and T. yaoundei. These keratinophilic fungi had a higher incidence by occurrence of individual species during the rainy season (May-October) than the dry season (November-April).

  6. FLAVONOIDES DE Piper glandulosissimum Yuncker (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Pereira Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Three flavanones, two chalcones and one dihydrochalcone were isolated from the branches of Piper glandulosissimum. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, UV, 1H and 13C NMR, including 2D NMR analyses (HMQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY and comparison with the literature. The compound 7-hydroxy-5,8-dimethoxyflavanone displayed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis.

  7. Antimicrobial terpenoids from Pterocarpus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y; De Luna, Roderick D; Hofilena, Joy G

    2005-06-01

    A mixture of loliolide 1 (> 85%) and paniculatadiol 2 (Pterocarpus indicus by silica gel chromatography, while the air-dried flowers afforded lupeol 3 and phytol esters 4. The structures of 1-4 were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial tests on a mixture of 1 and 2 indicated that it has moderate activity against Candida albicans and low activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger. It was found inactive against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  8. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogo, Josephine; Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5-10 years (42.6%) than that of 11-15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2-4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended.

  9. 面癣118例的真菌学和临床因素分析%Pathogenic fungi and clinical analysis of 118 cases with tinea faciei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虹; 高志琴; 李民; 戴鹤骏; 杨连娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the age distribution of the tinea faciei patients, the most common causative dermatophytes and clinical presentation of tinea faciei. Methods The patients with tinea facie treated in Dermatological Clinic during the period Jan 2012-Jun 2012 were evaluated. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic examination of skin specimens and culture on Sabouraud 's medium with added chloramphenicol. Data of basic information, medicine histories and clinical characteristics from the 118 cases of tinea faciei were analyzed. Results Tinea faciei could occur in any age groups, however, could often been observed between 51 to 70 year old . Most frequently isolated dermatophytes are Trichophyton rubrum ( 68. 0% ) , Microsporum canis (20. 4% ) , Trichophyton mentagrophytes (9.7%) , Microsporum gypseum ( 1. 9% ) . Autoinoculation, contacting with infected pets and immoderate using of corticosteroid cream were the significant risk factors of tinea faciei. Using medical swab can enhance fungal smear and culture quality on the obvious inflammatory sites. Conclusion As tinea faciei was easily misdiagnosed; more attention should be given on mycological examination of skin specimens.%目的 探讨面癣的致病菌、临床特点、易感年龄等相关因素.方法 分析本院门诊2012年1~6月的真菌直接涂片镜检发现菌丝或孢子的面癣患者.记录患者的一般资料、有无动物接触史、有无并发其他部位浅部真菌病、用药史.取皮屑直接镜检的同时进行真菌培养鉴定.结果 面癣见于各年龄段,在51~ 70岁之间有一个年龄高峰.分离皮肤癣菌103株,包括红色毛癣菌70株(68.0%)、犬小孢子菌21株(20.4%)、须癣毛癣菌10株(9.7%)、石膏样小孢子菌2株(1.9%).合并其他浅部真菌病、使用激素类药物、动物接触史是面癣发病的重要因素.部分炎症明显的面癣使用医用拭子取材,可以提高真菌涂片和培养的质量.结论 不典型的面癣容

  10. Anti-fungal Activity of Seed Oil from Caragana korshinskii Kom.and Mechanism%柠条锦鸡儿籽油体外抗真菌作用及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强伟; 胡娜; 韩丽娟; 王洪伦; 周昌范; 索有瑞

    2012-01-01

    参照美国临床实验室标准化委员会(NCCLS)推荐的《产孢丝状真菌的液基稀释法抗真菌药物敏感性试验方案》(M38-A),测定超临界CO2萃取的柠条锦鸡儿籽油对3种(每种15株)临床常见的皮肤癣菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC);高效液相色谱法研究柠条锦鸡儿籽油对真菌细胞膜麦角甾醇生物合成的影响以探讨其作用机制.结果表明柠条锦鸡儿籽油对犬小孢子菌、须癣毛癣菌、红色毛癣菌的MIC范围分别为64~512 μg/mL、32~512μg/mL、64~1024 μg/mL;高效液相色谱法检测显示,与其生长对照菌相比,籽油作用的皮肤癣菌细胞膜上麦角甾醇含量明显降低,且具有剂量依赖性.柠条锦鸡儿籽油主要是通过影响真菌细胞膜上麦角甾醇的合成而发挥抗真菌作用.%The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Caragana korshinskii Kom.seed oil against 3 kinds (each kind 15 strains) of common clinical dermatophytes were determined in vitro using the standard protocol approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS).The seed oil from C.korshinskii was extracted by supercritical CO2 fluid.The MIC range of seed oil against Microsporum canis,Trichophyton mentagrophytes,Trichophyton rubrum was 64-512 μg/mL,32-512 μg/mL and 64-1024 μg/mL,respectively.In addition,the possible inhibitory mechanism of C.korshinskii seed oil on the biosynthesis of ergosterol in cell membrane was investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.The HPLC analysis results showed that C.korshinskii seed oil inhibited the ergosterol biosynthesis in cell membrane of dermatophytes in a dose dependent manner.Hence,it was deduced that the seed oil mainly influenced the ergosterol biosynthesis to achieve the anti-fungal activity.

  11. 沿海地区甲真菌病原菌构成分析%The analysis of causative pathogens of onychomycosis in coastal area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾丽娟; 朱雪飞; 喻长法; 王成军

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To get the message of causative pathogens and constitution of onychomycosis in coastal are-a. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the fungal culture results of 382 cases of onychomycosis patients in nearly 3 years. Results: 382 strains of pathogenic fungi were isolated,the most frequently isolated fungus was dermatophytes (267 cases 69.9% ) , Trichophyton rubrum 186 cases (48.7% )ranked first,followed by Tricho-phyton mentagrophytes 39 cases ( 10. 2%). There were 91 yeast cases (23. 8%), Candida albicans 43 cases (11.3%) ranked first, followed by Candida glabrata 20 cases ( 5. 2 % ). There were 24 mould cases (6.3%), distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis( DLSO, 58. 9% ) were the most frequently clinical types, followed by TDO ( 23.0% ) , PSO (11.3%) and SWO (6.8%). Conclusion: The most frequently pathogenic fungus of onychomycosis were dermatophytes, yeasts and mould,the most frequently clinical types of onychomycosis were DLSO,TDO,PSO and SWO.%目的:了解沿海地区甲真菌病病原菌的种类和构成情况.方法:对近3年来我院皮肤科医治的382例甲屑培养阳性病例病原菌进行回顾性统计分析.结果:382株甲真菌病病原菌中皮肤癣菌267株,占69.9%,其中前二位分别为红色毛癣菌186株(48.7%)和须癣毛癣菌39株(1O.2%);酵母菌91株,占23.8%,其中前二位分别为白色假丝酵母菌43株(11.3%)和光滑假丝酵母菌20株(5.2%);霉菌24株,占6.3%.临床分型:远端甲下型(DLSO)占58.9%,全甲营养不良型(TDO)占23.0%,近端甲下型(PSO)占11.3%,浅表白色型(SWO)占6.8%.发病年龄以15岁~45岁居多,占74.9%.结论:甲真菌病病原菌以皮肤癣菌为主,其次为酵母菌和霉菌,临床分型以DLSO型为主,依次为TDO、PSO和SWO,发病年龄以15岁~ 45岁居多.

  12. In vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents against dermatophyte isolates from patients with tinea pedis Atividade in vitro de antifúngicos e anti-sépticos frente a dermatófitos isolados de pacientes com tinea pedis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magali Stelato Rocha Soares

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents were evaluated against dermatophytes isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The antifungals studied were: ciclopirox olamine, cetoconazole, tolciclate and terbinafine, and the antiseptics were: povidine iodine (PVPI, propolis, Fungol®, Andriodermol®, and boric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC or the minimal dilution concentration (MDC was determined by an agar dilution method using modified yeast nitrogen agar base, and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC or minimum fungicidal dilution (MFD was determined with subcultures on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All drugs studied were active against the dermatophytes at lower concentrations than those used in products and/or pharmaceutical preparations for topical use. Some antifungal agents, mainly terbinafine and tolciclate, presented higher efficacy than the other drugs, with lower MICs and MFCs values. It was concluded that the use of these antiseptic drugs represent an excellent alternative for the topical treatment of tinea pedis. For the treatment of severe cases these are the antifungal agents of choice.A atividade in vitro de antifúngicos e anti-sépticos foram avaliadas frente a dermatófitos isolados de pacientes com tinea pedis. Os antifúngicos estudados foram: ciclopirox olamine, cetoconazol, tolciclato e terbinafina, e os anti-sépticos foram: iodo povidine (PVPI, própolis, Fungol®, Andriodermol®e ácido bórico. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM ou a diluição inibitória mínima (DIM foi determinada pelo método de diluição em ágar utilizando "yeast nitrogen" base modificado, e a concentração fungicida mínima (CFM ou diluição fungicida mínima (DFM foi determinada por subcultura em Saboraud dextrose ágar. Todas as drogas estudadas foram ativas frente aos dermatófitos em concentrações menores do que as utilizadas em produtos e/ou preparações farmacêuticas para uso tópico. Alguns

  13. An unusual lipid in the human pathogenic fungus Epidermophyton floccosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T A; Nozawa, Y

    1979-09-28

    The dermatophyte Epidermophyton floccosum contains an unusual lipid characterized as 1(3),2-diacylglyceryl-3(1)-O-4'-(N,N,N-trimethyl)homoserine. Its concentration in E. floccosum is approx. 15% of the polar lipids. The role of this lipid in the biosynthesis of polar lipids and fatty acids is not yet known. However, it is interesting from a chemotaxonomic viewpoint that the lipids from two other genera of dermatophyte, Microsporum cookei and Trichophyton rubrum do not contain this novel lipid.

  14. Tinea barbae (tinea sycosis): experience with nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ramírez-Tamayo, Teresa; Saúl, Amado

    2003-12-01

    Tinea barbae is a rare dermatophytosis that affects the hair and hair follicles of the beard and mustache. This paper presents 9 cases of tinea barbae observed over an 18-year period of time and classified as follows: 1 was superficial and 8 were deep (6 folliculitis-like and 2 kerion-like). Most of the cases (4) were associated with topical steroid therapy, others with pet contact (3 cases) and one with diabetes. The causal agents isolated were: Trichophyton rubrum in 3; Microsporum canis in 3; Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2; and Trichophyton tonsurans in one. The involvement of the hair was observed and classified in all cases. The trichophytin skin reaction was positive in all 9 patients. All the patients were treated with systemic antimycotics, 3 cases with griseofulvin, 1 with ketoconazole, 3 with itraconazole, and 2 with terbinafine. Clinical and mycologic cures were achieved at 6 to 8 weeks of treatment at the usual doses.

  15. 1998 William J. Stickel Bronze Award. Antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree) oil against various pathogenic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, J M; Moore, L S; Holloway, W J

    1998-10-01

    Tea-tree oil (oil of Melaleuca alternifolia) has recently received much attention as a natural remedy for bacterial and fungal infections of the skin and mucosa. As with most naturally occurring agents, claims of effectiveness have been only anecdotal; however, several published studies have recently demonstrated tea-tree oil's antibacterial activity. This study was conducted to determine the activity of tea-tree oil against 58 clinical isolates: Candida albicans (n = 10), Trichophyton rubrum (n = 8), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 9), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 10), Aspergillus niger (n = 9), Penicillium species (n = 9), Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 2), and Microsporum gypsum (n = 1). Tea-tree oil showed inhibitory activity against all isolates tested except one strain of E floccosum. These in vitro results suggest that tea-tree oil may be useful in the treatment of yeast and fungal mucosal and skin infections.

  16. Tinea capitis in adults in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebazaa, Amel; Oumari, Kamel E L; Ghariani, Najet; Mili, Akila Fathallah; Belajouza, Colandane; Nouira, Rafiaa; Denguezli, Mohamed; Ben Said, Moncef

    2010-05-01

    To determine the pattern of infectious agents causing tinea capitis (TC) in adult patients in the center of Tunisia. From January 1990 to December 2005, we have retrospectively collected all cases of adult TC, confirmed by the mycological examination. Sixty patients (18 male, 42 female) with a mean age of 34.5 years were diagnosed as having adult TC among a total number of 1137 cases of TC (5.27%). Clinical features were polymorphic and diagnosis was made on mycological examination. Culture identified Trichophyton violaceum in 36 cases (60%), Microsporum canis in 12 cases (20%), Trichophyton schoenleini in 7 cases (12%), Trichophyton verrucosum in two cases (3.5%), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum in one case (each 1.77%). Culture was negative in one case (1.77%). Treatment consisted of administration of Griseofulvin(20–25 mg/kg/d) during 6–8 weeks associated with antifungal topics. A complete recovery was noted in 55 cases (92%) and a relapse occurred in two patients (3.5%). A scary alopecia was observed in one patient (1.77%) and two patients were lost to follow-up. Trichophyton violaceum remains the most common etiological agent of adult TC in Tunisia. Microsporum canis is rising rapidly most notably due to the high frequency of asymptomatic carriage by domestic animals [corrected].

  17. Tinha do couro cabeludo em crianças de Goiânia, Brasil Tinea capitis in children from Goiânia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período de janeiro de 1999 a julho de 2002 um total de 164 casos de tinha do couro cabeludo foram diagnosticados através de exames micológicos, realizados no Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública da Universidade Federal de Goiás. Destes pacientes, 94 (57,3% pertenciam ao sexo masculino, com idades variando de 3 meses a 13 anos. O diagnóstico e identificação dos agentes de dermatofitoses do couro cabeludo foram feitos utilizando-se exame direto com KOH a 20% e cultivo em ágar Mycobiotic e em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. As seguintes espécies foram identificadas: Microsporum canis (71,3%, Trichophyton tonsurans (11%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (7,9%, Trichophyton rubrum (6,7% and Microsporum gypseum (3%. Nossos estudos mostraram que o fungo de habitat natural no animal (zoofílico, Microsporum canis foi o agente mais comum de lesões no couro cabeludo em humanos.During the period January 1999 to July 2002 a total de 164 cases of Tinea capitis were diagnosed by mycological examination in Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública of the Universidade Federal de Goiás. Of the 164 patients 94 (57.3% were males, with an age of 3 months to 13 years. Laboratory studies were performed by direct examination with 20% KOH and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar medium and Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. The following species were identified: Microsporum canis (71.3%, Trichophyton tonsurans (11%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (7.9%, Trichophyton rubrum (6.7%, and Microsporum gypseum (3%. Our study showed that the most frequent riseof scalp infection was a zoophylic fungi, called Microsporum canis.

  18. Antidermatophytic Activites Of Azadirachta Indica : An In Vitro And In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf and seed extracts of Azadirachta indicia were tested for antifungl activity against dermatophytes by in vitro and vivo tests. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of neem seed extract was found to be lower than that neem leaf when tested against different species of Trichophyton and Epidermophyton floccosum. Experimental lesion in guinea pigs healed better after treatment with neem seed extract when compared to untreated control animals.

  19. Survey of keratinophilic fungi isolated from city park soils of Pisa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, R; Mancianti, F; Grassotti, G; Cardini, G

    1998-01-01

    A survey of geophilic dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi isolated from city park soils of Pisa is reported. Twenty-three (48%) soil samples out of 48 were positive by hair baiting. The following species were isolated: Microsporum gypseum (39%), Trichophyton ajelloi (31%), Chrysosporium keratinophilum (14%), T. terrestre (8%), M. fulvum, Ch. luteum, Ch. indicum (5% each) and M. cookei (2%). The presence of the different species is discussed in relation to the risk of fungal skin infections.

  20. CLINICO - MYCOLOGICAL STUDY OF ONYCHOMYCOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Onychomycosis is defined as the fungal infection of the nail by any fungus including non - dermatophy tes and yeasts . Tinea unguium is clinically defined as a dermatophytic infection of the nail plate. OBJECTIVES : To assess the prevalence of fungal infections in nail disorders and to find out incidence of dermatophytes , candida and other non - dermatophytic moulds. METHODOLOGY : History of patient was noted. The material was collected from lesions which were inoculated to the media. Slants were incubated and examined. If there was growth of dermatophytes , they were subjected to lactophenol cotton blue staining . RESULTS : Incidence was 100 ( out of 260 nail cases. Male: female ratio was 1.3:1.69% presented with subungual hyperkeratosis. Distal subungual onychomycosis was most common ( 51% , proximal ( 46% and superficial white ( 3%. Predisposing factor - occupation associated with wet work ( 48% . Commonly isolated species were dermatophytes ( 31% in which more common was trichophyton rubrum ( 27% , Non dermatophytes ( 48% , Aspergillus species ( 41% , and candida albicans ( 4% . INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION : Finger nai ls were commonly affected . A ssociated diseases were Tinea pedis , Tinea manum , diabetes mellitus and anemia. It is a significant and important disease which can generate physical , psychological and occupational problems.

  1. [Majocchi's granuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Ponce, Rosa María

    2008-01-01

    Majocchi's granuloma or dermatophytic granuloma is a mycosis observed among immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients caused by dermatophytes, particularly Trichophyton rubrum, which may be responsible for 50% of cases. The mechanism by which it occurs is yet unknown although reports suggest it may occur after localized trauma that alters the hair follicle and enables the entrance of the microorganism. Diabetes and the use of topical steroids are among some of the predispEl cuadro 1 no está acotado. Favor de hacerloEl cuadro 1 no está acotado. Favor de hacerloosing factors. Majocchi's granuloma has two clinical presentations, among immunocompetent patients it displays follicular papules and among immunocom-promised patients a subcutaneous nodular type is observed. Diagnosis is confirmed through histopathology, where granulomas and dermatophytes in the form of filaments or spores are observed in the mid and deep dermis. Treatment includes systemic antimycotics. We reviewed the etiopathogenic, clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects of Majocchi's granuloma.

  2. [Etiological agents of dermatomycoses isolated in a hospital of Santa Fe City, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, M E; Pelegri, D G; Manias, V G; Méndez, E de los A

    2006-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are limited to skin, hair, nails and mucous membranes. The most common etiological agents are dermatophytes and yeasts of Candida genus. The aim of this work was to know the etiological agents of dermatomycoses and their clinical presentation. Were analized 2073 samples of skin, hair, nails, and oral mucous membranes obtained from 1817 patients who attended the Microbiology Branch of the Central Laboratory at Dr. J. M. Cullen Hospital, since September 1999 to September 2003. The samples were examined and identified according to the localization and type of lesion. Out of the total samples 55.67% were positive; 63% were recovered from females, and 37% from males. The most common localization was the skin. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequent dermatophyte, and among yeasts, Candida albicans was the prevalent species. Fourteen non-dermatophytic fungi (Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp.) were isolated, and considered emergent pathogens from superficial mycoses.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Desmos chinensis leaf and Maclura cochinchinensis wood extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Kummee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of Desmos chinensis leaves and Maclura cochinchinensis wood were tested against human pathogens, including bacteria, yeast and dermatophytic fungi, using the agar disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. The crude chloroform extract of D. chinensis was active against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values ranging from 500-1000 μg/ml. The crude hexane and chloroform extracts of D. chinensis exhibited the strongest activity against all dermatophytes tested (Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytesand Microsporum gypseum, with MIC values ranging from 31.25-62.50 μg/ml. However, methanol and water extracts of D. chinensis showed no activities against all of the microorganisms tested. The crude chloroform extract of M. cochinchinensis exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S.epidermidis and B. subtilis with MIC value ranging from 125-250 μg/ml. and showed inhibition against all the dermatophytes, with MIC of 250 μg/ml. Hexane extract of M. cochinchinensis was not active against all microorganisms. None of the crude extracts were active against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei and Candida albicans. These findings indicated that D. chinensis and M. cochinchinensis had antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteia and anti-dermatophytic activity.

  4. 浅部真菌感染和变态反应性皮肤病相关性研究%Superficial fungal infection and allergic dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 桑红; 胡文星; 孔庆涛; 王雪连; 王高峰; 张敏; 邓德权; 谢其美

    2011-01-01

    ( n =173) and the contra! Group without superficial fungal infection ( n - 180). Skin prick tests were performed in all subjects, but fungal culture were administered only in the patients with superficial fungal infection. Results Positive rates to Trichophyton,Specific Penicillium,Curvularia lunata and Aspergillus fumigatus in experiment group were higher than those in control group ( P < 0. 05). Positive rate to Trichophyton in experiment group was higher than that in control group ( P <0.001). There were no statistically significant differences among other fungal allergens and unfungal allergens ( P >0.05). T. rubrum (52. 86% ) , T. mentagrophytes (14.18% ) , Epidermophyton floccosum (5. 22% ) and Candida (6. 72% ) were cultured in 134 cases of skin allergic diseases with superficial fungal infection. The positive rates were not statistically significant between Trichophyton and dermatophytes ( P >0.05). Conclusions Patients with chronic urticaria or eczema who present immediate hypersensitivity to Trichophyton always have dermatophyte infection. Superficial fungal infections seem to be an important factort in the subjects with chronic urticaria or eczema.

  5. Antifungal property of quaternized chitosan and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajomsang, Warayuth; Gonil, Pattarapond; Saesoo, Somsak; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai

    2012-01-01

    Five water-soluble chitosan derivatives were carried out by quaternizing either iodomethane or N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (Quat188) as a quaternizing agent under basic condition. The degree of quaternization (DQ) ranged between 28±2% and 90±2%. The antifungal activity was evaluated by using disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) methods against Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Trichophyton mentagrophyte (T. mentagrophyte), and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) at pH 7.2. All quaternized chitosans and its derivatives showed more effective against T. rubrum than M. gypseum and T. mentagrophyte. The MIC and MFC values were found to range between 125-1000 μg/mL and 500-4000 μg/mL, respectively against all fungi. Our results indicated that the quaternized N-(4-N,N-dimethylaminocinnamyl) chitosan chloride showed highest antifungal activity against T. rubrum and M. gypseum compared to other quaternized chitosan derivatives. The antifungal activity tended to increase with an increase in molecular weight, degree of quaternization and hydrophobic moiety against T. rubrum. However, the antifungal activity was depended on type of fungal as well as chemical structure of the quaternized chitosan derivatives.

  6. Contribución al estudio botánico y clínico de las, Tiñas en el Perú

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    Polinéstor Aguilar Celi

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available 1.- Se. ha. estudiado 152 casos de Tiña del cuero cabelludo, han sido identificadas y pertenecen a las siguientes especies: Genera Species N° human de cases Trichophyton T. tonsurans 120 T. mentagrophytes 7 T. violaceum 1 Microsporum M. canis 24 2.- El contagio se hace de preferencia en las escuelas, especialmente las tricofitias que dan pequeñas placas que son fácilmente disimuladas por el peinado, pasando inadvertidas. 3.- El mayor porcentaje de Tiñas lo hemos encontrado entre los 7 y 12 años de edad, predominando el género Trichophyton, como, se puede apreciar en la gráfica 1. 4.- En casi todos los casos en que hemos aislado Trichophyton metagrophytes los niños han vivido en el campo o estado en contacto con perros,gatos o caballos. Lo mismo sucede con las microsporias. 5.- En dos cultivos de Trichophyton tonsurans hemos observado, variaciones en la forma de la colonia. En todas las variaciones se hizo el estudio micológico no encontrándose diferencias. Actualmente no se toma el aspecto de la colonia gigante como signo fundamental para establecer variedades. 6.- No hemos encontrado el Microsporum Audouini, como en otras partes; en su lugar se encuentra el M. canis. 7.- Hemos encontrado 8 casos de Kerion causado por el Trichophyton tonsurans.

  7. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halijah Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%, camphene (16.6% and 10.2%, β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%, and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%, respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9% and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0% were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits.

  8. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg.

  9. Antifungal compounds from the rhizome and roots of Ferula hermonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ja'fari, Abdel-Hadi; Vila, Roser; Freixa, Blanca; Costa, Joan; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2013-06-01

    The antifungal activity of hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts from the rhizome and root of Ferula hermonis was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against a panel of human opportunistic and pathogenic fungi. Among them, the hexane and dichloromethane extracts showed the highest activity particularly against the dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum and Tricophyton mentagrophytes as well as the yeast Candida lactis-condensi. Activity-guided fractionation of both extracts using an agar overlay bioautographic method led to the isolation of two antifungal compounds which were identified as the daucane aryl esters jaeschkeanadiol p-hydroxybenzoate (ferutinin) and jaeschkeanadiol benzoate (teferidin). Determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of both compounds evidenced a stronger antifungal activity for ferutinin than for teferidin. Particularly, T. mentagrophytes was the most sensitive strain with MIC and MFC values ranging from 8 to 256 µg/mL.

  10. Antifungal properties of halofumarate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L

    1978-04-01

    Alkyl esters (C1--C4) of the four halofumaric acids were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes at pH 5.6 and 7.0 in the absence and presence of 10% beef serum in Sabouraud dextrose agar. The most toxic compound to each organism was: C. albicans, ethyl iodofumarate (0.054 mmole/liter); A. niger, methyl bromofumarate (0.090 mmole/liter); M. mucedo, methyl fluorofumarate (0.037 mmole/liter); and T. mentagrophytes, ethyl iodofumarate (0.020 mmole/liter). The order of overall activity of the six most toxic compounds was: ethyl iodofumarate greater than ethyl chlorofumarate greater than methyl iodofumarate = methyl bromofumarate greater than methyl chlorofumarate greater than bromofumarate.

  11. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  12. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Dogo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4% than that among boys (41.5% but not significantly different (p=0.402. The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6% than that of 11–15 years (50% but was not significantly different (p=0.524. Trichophyton rubrum (28.8% and Microsporum canis (22.7% were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5% and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%. There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p=0.02 and sharing of the same bed (p=0.002. This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended.

  13. [Update on the diagnosis of dermatomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampieri, M P

    2004-06-01

    Dermatomycosis are mycotic diseases of skin caused by a few mycetes: dermatophytes, and some opportunistic fungi as Malassezia, Candida (not C. albicans), Trichosporon, Rhodutorula, Cryptococcus or Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Alternaria, etc. Dermatophytes are a group of closely related filamentous fungi that invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, nails) of humans and other animals and produce infection called dermatophytosis or ringworm or "tinea". The etiological agents of dermatophytosis are classified in three genera: Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton (Deuteromycetes). On the basis of their primary habitat dermatophytes are divided in Anthropophilic dermatophytes (parasitic organisms that infect humans), Zoophilic dermatophytes (parasitic organisms that infect animals, but also humans: agents of zoonosis) and Geophilic dermatophytes (saprobic fungi associated with keratinous materials in soil). In the soil there are also structure associated with contagion, ("spore", "arthroconidium", or "clamydospore") of anthropophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes that may persist for years, in the environment, in hair or skin scales. Since on the skin of animals there are many saprobic organisms (Malassezia) and many fungi may infect the fur, it is important to make an accurate diagnosis. Dermatophytosis are communicable diseases acquired from infected animals or from fomites. Infections caused by dermatophytes is a ringworm. These infections may range from mild and superficial, almost subclinical, to a few areas of scaling to a highly inflammatory reaction with extensive areas of scarring and alopecia. Granuloma formations (mycetoma-like) may occur especially in cats. Dermatophytes, as filamentous fungi, undergo radial fungi: collection of skin material is best made by collecting the scales near the edges of the rings. Hairs are best sampled by plucking; a scalpel may be used to scrape scales; brushes have also been used. Sample materials are best transported in dry

  14. Dermatomycosis: Conditions that contribute to the disease development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Igor M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions caused by dermatophytes are classified depending on the infected skin structure: surface layer of cutis, fur layer, clutches or nails. Surface mycoses are caused by dermatophytes: Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton species (also important are Malassezia spp., Candida spp., and Trichosporon. Skin is the target tissue for fungal infections if the epithelial layer is damaged and immune system cannot cope with the infection, or if the conditions are favorable for dermatophytes, which spread in the cutis due to the enzyme activities. Dermatophytes can be found on skin surface if they contaminate or colonize epidermis or hair follicles. However, clinical symptoms of lesion on the skin are sometimes absent. According to the literature data 6-9% of skin lesions are caused by dermatophyte in human medicine. Similar situation is in veterinary medicine. Fungus that cause dermatomycosis are widespread in the nature and could be divided into: zoophilic, geophilic and anthrophilic. The goal of this paper is to present the latest knowledge in pathogenesis on dermatomycosis, predisposing factors important for the outcome of the disease, and immunological reaction of organism to the fungal infection. Our intention is to summarize the subject and present the facts related to specific problems in dermatomycosis.

  15. Dermatophyte Infections in Children: A Prospective Study from Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    informal settlements on healthy seeking behaviors and hygiene in order to ... irritation which hampers pupil's concentration in class as well as representing a ... focus of intensive study nor of active control programmes in Nigeria. This has ...

  16. Establishment of an animal model of dermatophytosis and evaluation of the antifungal efficacy on dermatophytosis with this model%皮肤癣菌感染动物模型的建立及抗真菌治疗的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金星姬; 王爱平; 乔建军; 刘伟; 万喆; 王晓红; 武玲慎; 李若瑜

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish an animal model of dermatophytosis and to evaluate antifungal efficacy on dermatophytosis with this model. Methods Animal models of dermatophytosis were established by inoculating dermatophyte suspension onto abraded skin on the back of guinea pigs. Thirty- eight healthy guinea pigs were randomly and equally divided into 2 groups, namely, Trichophyton mentagrophytes group (infected with T. mentagrophytes), and Microsporum canis group (infected with M. canis), and each group was classified into three subgroups, i.e., itraconazole group treated with oral itraconazole of 4 mg per kilogram body weight per day from day 0 to day 14 after infection, terbinafine group treated with oral terbinafine of 5 mg per kilogram body weight per day from day 0 to day 14 after infection, and untreated group receiving no therapy. The therapeutic effect was evaluated according to skin lesion score and fungal examination results on day 8, 11 and 14 after infection. Results Obvious lesions were observed and fungal examination was positive in untreated, infected pigs on day 8 after infection. In T. mentagrophytes-infecyted pigs, the skin lesion score on day 8, 11, 14 was 9, 1 and 0 in itraconazole group, 8, 5, and 1 in terbinafine group, 48, 52, 40 in untreated group, respectively, and there was significant difference between treated and untreated groups on the three time points (all P0.05) but statistical difference between untreated and treated groups (all P0.05). Conclusion Itraconazol and terbinafine exhibit similar excellent antifungal activity in routine model of T. mentagrophytes-and M. canis-dermatophytosis.%目的 建立皮肤癣菌感染动物模型并评价抗真菌药物对该模型的体内疗效.方法 选择38只健康豚鼠,随机分为须癣毛癣菌感染组和犬小孢子菌感染组,用磨砂法建立皮肤癣菌感染的动物模型,每组各有1只为阴性对照.每组18只感染动物再随机分为伊曲康唑治疗组、特比萘芬治疗组

  17. Bilogical and toxicological properties of econazole, a broad-spectrum antimycotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienpont, D; Van Cutsem, J; Van Nueten, J M; Niemegeers, C J; Marsboom, R

    1975-02-01

    The spectrum of activity of 1-(2,4-dichloro-beta-[(p-chlorobenzoyl)oxy]phenethyl)imidazole-nitrate (econazole, R 14827) was tested in vitro on various pathogenic fungi and bacteria, and also in vivo in guinea-pigs and rats experimentally infected with dermatophytes and C. albicans. The in vitro activity spectrum is very broad: the dermatophytes, the yeasts, the dimorphic fungi, the aspergilli, the mycetoma causing agents and the Gram-positive bacteria being most sensitive. Guinea-pigs infected with T. mentagrophytes, M. canis or C. albicans and treated topically or orally with econazole, were cured. In each of these tests the activity of econazole was compared with that of different reference drugs. Vaginal candidiasis in rats was cured after oral administration of econazole. Toxicity and teratogenicity studies in different laboratory animals indicate that econazole is well tolerated.

  18. Biological Assays and Chemical Composition of Volatile Oils of Bupleurum fruticosum L. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maxia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of supercritical CO 2 extracts and essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Bupleurum fruticosum L., growing spontaneously in Italy and Portugal, and its antifungal activity is reported. The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus.

  19. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. and thymol on experimentally induced dermatomycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soković, M; Glamoclija, J; Cirić, A; Kataranovski, D; Marin, P D; Vukojević, J; Brkić, D

    2008-12-01

    The in vivo evaluation of the toxicological and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. and its main component thymol was made on 2-month-old male Wistar rats. We examined the therapeutic potency against experimentally induced dermatomycoses in rats, using the most frequent dermatomycetes, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and T. tonsurans. The therapeutic efficacy of a 1% solution of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris and thymol as well as the commercial preparation bifonazole was evaluated. During the 37-day observation period the oil-treated animals were cured.

  20. Amino acid analogs IV:4-fluoroisoleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L; Clarke, D D

    1978-05-01

    4-Fluoroisoleucine was produced by ammonolysis of 2-bromo-4-fluoro-3-methylpentanoic acid, which resulted from the bromofluorination of 4-methyl-2-pentenoic acid. It did not inhibit Plasmodium berghei in mice at 640 mg/kg and was not toxic to the animals. The fluoroamino acid inhibited Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Mucor mucedo in Czapek solution agar at a concentration between 10(4) and 10(3) microgram/ml. Growth of Escherichia coli was inhibited 25% at 900 microgram/ml in a defined medium.